WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil shallow shelf

  1. CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, R.J.; Cole, R.; Kovar, M.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1999-02-24

    The application cyclic CO2, often referred to as the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in capital-intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. and the US Department of Energy have teamed up in a attempt to develop the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations which are light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs that exist throughout the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir.

  2. New Jersey shallow shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Expedition 313 Scientists; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 313 to the New Jersey Shallow Shelf off the east coast of the United States is the third IODP expedition to use a mission-specific platform. It was conducted by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) Science Operator (ESO...... to sea level change. We drilled at three locations in 35 m of water 45–67 km offshore, targeting the topsets, foresets, and toesets of several clinoforms at 180–750 m core depth below seafloor (CSF-A). Seismic correlations to previously drilled holes on the continental slope and extrapolations of depths...... successions to as many as 16 surfaces and/or sequence-bounding unconformities mapped in the regional seismic grid. Eight lithologic units are recognized that contain important physical and biofacies indicators of paleobathymetry. Reliable zonations of multiple fossil groups, Sr isotopic ages measured...

  3. CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Annual report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, S.C.; Boomer, R.J.; Cole, R.; Preiditus, J.; Vogt, J.

    1996-09-01

    The application of cyclic CO{sub 2}, often referred to as the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg/San Andres formation; a light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoir within the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir. A significant amount of oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs. Specifically, the carbonates deposited in shallow shelf (SSC) environments make up the largest percentage of known reservoirs within the Permian Basin of North America. Many of these known resources have been under waterflooding operations for decades and are at risk of abandonment if crude oil recoveries cannot be economically enhanced. The selected site for this demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico.

  4. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laura L.

    2001-04-19

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (40-80 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvania (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performances, and report associated validation activities.

  5. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laural L.

    2001-11-26

    The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities.

  6. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-07-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone

  7. Sedimentary hydrocarbons and sterols in a South Atlantic estuarine/shallow continental shelf transitional environment under oil terminal and grain port influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bet, Rafael; Bícego, Marcia C; Martins, César C

    2015-06-15

    Sterols and hydrocarbons were determined in the surface sediments from the transitional environment between Paranaguá Bay and the shallow continental shelf in the South Atlantic to assess the sources of organic matter (OM) and the contamination status of an area exposed to multiple anthropogenic inputs. Total aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations were less than 10μgg(-1), which is typical of unpolluted sediments, and related to recent inputs from higher terrestrial plants. Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ranged fromSterols typically related to marine sources predominated in the analysed sediments. Hence, the study area was protected from human activity. The relative absence of anthropogenic input and OM preservation clearly indicate that the organic markers analysed can be used to investigate the biogenic input of sedimentary OM in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-12-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing, vertical, field wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the third project year (April 6 through October 5, 2002). This work included capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pore casting on selected samples from Cherokee and Bug fields, Utah. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found at these fields are indicators of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for enhanced oil recovery via horizontal drilling. The reservoir quality of Cherokee and Bug fields has been affected by multiple generations of dissolution, anhydrite

  9. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-10-05

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the fourth project year (April 6 through October 5, 2003). The work included (1) analysis of well-test data and oil production from Cherokee and Bug fields, San Juan County, Utah, and (2) diagenetic evaluation of stable isotopes from the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Production ''sweet spots'' and potential horizontal drilling candidates were identified for Cherokee and Bug fields. In Cherokee field, the most productive wells are located in the

  10. Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics by month and summarized annually. Outer Continental Shelf consists of Gulf of Mexico, Pacific and...

  11. The Vertical Structure of Shallow Water Flow in the Surf Zone and Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    E. Richardson, 2008, Field verification of a CFD model for wave transformation and breaking in the surf zone, J. Waterw. Port Coastal Engrg., 134(2...The Vertical Structure of Shallow Water Flow in the Surf Zone and Inner Shelf Dr. Thomas C. Lippmann Center for Coastal...wave- and tidally-driven shallow water flows in the shallow depths of the inner shelf and surf zone. OBJECTIVES 1. Theoretical investigations of

  12. Hydrocarbon production forecast for committed assets in the shallow water Outer Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Energy Coast and Environment Building, Nicholson Extension Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    In 2007, the federal waters of the Gulf of Mexico averaged daily production of 1.3 million barrels of oil and 7.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas. The majority of oil is produced from deepwater fields in water depth greater than 1000 ft, while most gas production is extracted from the shelf. The Outer Continental Shelf is a mature province with over 3800 fixed structures and 6500 producing wells connected into an integrated pipeline network more than 30,000 miles in length. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to forecast oil and gas production in the shallow water Gulf of Mexico. Structures are categorized according to age and production characteristics, and forecast procedures for each asset class are described and illustrated. The methodology is implemented using the inventory of committed assets circa December 2006. The expected amount of hydrocarbon production arising from the inventory of committed assets under stable reservoir and investment conditions is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas valued between $85 and 150 billion. The results of generalized regression models are presented with a discussion of the limitations of analysis. (author)

  13. Acoustic masking due to gases in shallow seismic profiling on the shelf off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Rao, D.G.; Veerayya, M.; Wagle, B.G.

    Shallow seismic profiling on the inner shelf off Bombay indicates 25-35 m thick acoustically transparent clays covering the seabed. At depth of 22 to 30 m and 50 m the profiles and echograms are marked by turbidity resembling inverted U or mushroom...

  14. Testing sequence stratigraphic models by drilling Miocene foresets on the New Jersey shallow shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Kenneth G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, James V.

    2013-01-01

    continental shelf (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 313, Sites M27-M29). We recognize stratal surfaces and systems tracts by integrating seismic stratigraphy, litho-facies successions, gamma logs, and foraminiferal paleodepth trends. Our interpretations of systems tracts, particularly......) and coarsening- and shallowing-upward highstand systems tracts (HST). Drilling through the foresets yields thin (

  15. Hot, deep origin of petroleum: shelf and shallow basin evidence and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    1978-01-01

    Oil and gas pools in shallow basins or on the shallow, stable shelves of deeper sedimentary basins may not be exceptions to the model of a hot deep origin of petroleum. The oil in shallow basins is directly associated with faulting extending out of the deepest parts of the basin. Evidence exists that some of these shallow basins have been much hotter in the past either from igneous activity or from a higher geothermal gradient. Uplift and erosion may also have removed substantial thicknesses of sediments in some of these basins. Oil on the stable shallow shelves of deep basins may have originated in the deeper part of the basin and undergone long lateral migration to the traps where it is now found. Conduits for such migration have been sandstones in delta-distributary systems (eastern Oklahoma and Kansas), reef trends (Alberta, Canada), or regional porosity and permeability in sheet carbonates (Anadarko basin, western Oklahoma and Kansas).

  16. Numerical simulations of groundwater flow at New Jersey Shallow Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Annick; Patterson, Fabian; Lofi, Johanna; Reiche, Sönke

    2016-04-01

    During IODP Expedition 313, three boreholes were drilled in the so-called New Jersey transect. Hydrochemical studies revealed the groundwater situation as more complex than expected, characterized by several sharp boundaries between fresh and saline groundwater. Two conflicting hypotheses regarding the nature of these freshwater reservoirs are currently debated. One hypothesis is that these reservoirs are connected with onshore aquifers and continuously recharged by seaward-flowing groundwater. The second hypothesis is that fresh groundwater was emplaced during the last glacial period. In addition to the petrophysical properties measured during IODP 313 expedition, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements were performed on samples from boreholes M0027, M0028 and M0029 in order to deduce porosities and permeabilities. These results are compared with data from alternative laboratory measurements and with petrophysical properties inferred from downhole logging data. We incorporate these results into a 2D numerical model that reflects the shelf architecture as known from drillings and seismic data to perform submarine groundwater flow simulations. In order to account for uncertainties related to the spatial distribution of physical properties, such as porosity and permeability, systematic variation of input parameters was performed during simulation runs. The target is to test the two conflicting hypotheses of fresh groundwater emplacements offshore New Jersey and to improve the understanding of fluid flow processes at marine passive margins.

  17. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Alan P.; Bhattacharya, Saibal; Victorine, John; Stalder, Ken

    2007-09-30

    Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on

  18. Constraints on Methane Distribution from Acoustic Profiles of Shallow Sediments Across the Alaska Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W. T.; Hart, P. E.; Greinert, J.; de Batist, M. A.; Rose, K.; Coffin, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    In September of 2009 the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, U. S. Dept of Energy, and Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research conducted piston coring, acoustic profiling, and water sampling on the Alaskan Arctic shelf from the U. S. Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea, as part of the MITAS (Methane In The Arctic Shelf) project. The overall project objective is to determine the role of methane in arctic shelf processes by determining the source, distribution, and concentration of shallow (0-30m methane accumulations as well as active and potential methane seeps along selected transects across and along the Alaskan Beaufort Sea shelf. The specific objective of the acoustic program is to delineate gas (methane) by mapping bubble release into the water column (flare detection), and free gas indications as acoustic blanking and gas fronts in the sediment. The data consist of 3.5 kHz, 12 kHz profiles acquired using hull-mounted transducers on the Polar Sea, in conjunction with 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler and 180 kHz multi-beam data acquired from the Polar Sea's ASB (Arctic Service Boat). Acoustic profiles and images, as well as preliminary interpretations are discussed in the presentation.

  19. Schaben field, Kansas: Improving performance in a Mississippian shallow-shelf carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Franseen, E.K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Gerlach, P.; Byrnes, A.; Guy, W.; Carr, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Schaben field (Kansas), located along the northeastern shelf of the Hugoton embayment, produces from Mississippian carbonates in erosional highs immediately beneath a regional unconformity. Production comes from depths of around 4400 ft (1342 m) in partially dolomitized shelf deposits. A detailed reservoir characterization/simulation study, recently performed as part of a Department of Energy Reservoir Class Oil Field Demonstration Project, has led to important revision in explanations for observed patterns of production. Cores recovered from three new data wells identify three main facies: Spicule-rich wackestone-packstone, echinoderm wackestone/packstone/grainstone, and dolomitic mudstone-wackestone. Reservoir quality is highest in spicule-rich wackestone/packstones but is subject to a very high degree of vertical heterogeneity due to facies interbedding, silification, and variable natural fracturing. The oil reservoir is underlain by an active aquifer, which helps maintain reservoir pressure but supports significant water production. Reservoir simulation, using public-domain, PC-based software, suggests that infill drilling is an efficient approach to enhanced recovery. Recent drilling directed by simulation results has shown considerable success in improving field production rates. Results from the Schaben field demonstration project are likely to have wide application for independent oil and exploration companies in western Kansas.Schaben field (Kansas), located along the northeastern shelf of the Hugoton embayment, produces from Mississippian carbonates in erosional highs immediately beneath a regional unconformity. Production comes from depths of around 4400 ft (1342 m) in partially dolomitized shelf deposits. A detailed reservoir characterization/simulation study, recently performed as part of a Department of Energy Reservoir Class Oil Field Demonstration Project, has led to important revision in explanations for observed patterns of production. Cores

  20. Recent climate tendencies on an East Antarctic ice shelf inferred from a shallow firn core network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, E; Anschütz, H; Divine, D; Martma, T; Sinisalo, A; Altnau, S; Isaksson, E

    2014-01-01

    Nearly three decades of stable isotope ratios and surface mass balance (SMB) data from eight shallow firn cores retrieved at Fimbul Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, in the Austral summers 2009–2011 have been investigated. An additional longer core drilled in 2000/2001 extends the series back to the early eighteenth century. Isotope ratios and SMB from the stacked record of all cores were also related to instrumental temperature data from Neumayer Station on Ekström Ice Shelf. Since the second half of the twentieth century, the SMB shows a statistically significant negative trend, whereas the δ18O of the cores shows a significant positive trend. No trend is found in air temperature at the nearest suitable weather station, Neumayer (available since 1981). This does not correspond to the statistically significant positive trend in Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index, which is usually associated with a cooling of East Antarctica. SAM index and SMB are negatively correlated, which might be explained by a decrease in meridional exchange of energy and moisture leading to lower precipitation amounts. Future monitoring of climate change on the sensitive Antarctic ice shelves is necessary to assess its consequences for sea level change. Key Points Mass balance and stable oxygen isotope ratios from shallow firn cores Decreasing trend in surface mass balance, no trend in stable isotopes Negative correlation between SAM and SMB PMID:25821663

  1. Oxidative stability and shelf-life evaluation of selected culinary oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, S Parkash; Henry, C Jeya K

    2009-01-01

    Four out of eight 'healthier' oils-namely, almond oil, avocado oil, hazelnut oil and macadamia nut oil-studied were rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids like olive oil. Grape seed oil, rice barn oil (marketed recently), toasted sesame oil and walnut oil contained high levels of essential fatty acids. The order of oxidative stability determined by Rancimat measuring of the induction period at four temperatures (90 degrees C, 100 degrees C, 110 degrees C, and 120 degrees C) was found to be macadamia oil > rice bran oil approximately toasted sesame oil > avocado oil > almond oil > hazelnut oil > grape seed oil > walnut oil. High-level monounsaturated fatty acid oils gave a linear relationship between 100 times the reciprocal of the induction period against the total unsaturated fatty acid content obtained as %C18:2 + 0.08 x C18:1 + 2.08 x %C18:3, while the polyunsaturated fatty acid oils gave an exponential relationship. In the case of rice bran and hazelnut oils, shelf-life prediction from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots and the Q(10) factors was compared well with that of storage time given by the oil producers. In the cases of the other oils (with an exception of macadamia nut oil), the predicted shelf-lives were significantly lower than that of the storage times; especially, walnut oil (very prone to oxidation) gave 15-20 times lower shelf-life than the best-before storage life.

  2. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Alan P.; Bhattacharya, Saibal; Victorine, John; Stalder, Ken

    2007-09-30

    Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on

  3. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD 27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This polyline data set contains the locations of oil and gas pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf federal waters that are associated with the oil...

  4. 76 FR 28449 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Oil and Gas Lease Sales AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement... with any entity in any other of the following groups at Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease...

  5. Application of the Three-Dimensional Shallow Sea and Continental Shelf Mode for Inversion of Undercurrent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Due to the incapability of high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) to detect undercurrent parameters, a new algorithm is proposed to apply a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear barotropic shallow sea and continental shelf model in coordinate system to the inversion of undercurrent. The calculation domain of this model is the area detected by HFSWR. Considering the benthal topography of the detected area and the ocean dynamic parameters, such as surface current, wind and wave detected by HFSWR, the relation between surface current and undercurrent is established in this model. Accordingly, the undercurrent parameters of corresponding area are obtained. The inversion results agree with the law of ocean dynamics and reproduce the movement of undercurrent.

  6. Recent climate tendencies on an East Antarctic ice shelf inferred from a shallow firn core network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, E; Anschütz, H; Divine, D; Martma, T; Sinisalo, A; Altnau, S; Isaksson, E

    2014-06-16

    Nearly three decades of stable isotope ratios and surface mass balance (SMB) data from eight shallow firn cores retrieved at Fimbul Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, in the Austral summers 2009-2011 have been investigated. An additional longer core drilled in 2000/2001 extends the series back to the early eighteenth century. Isotope ratios and SMB from the stacked record of all cores were also related to instrumental temperature data from Neumayer Station on Ekström Ice Shelf. Since the second half of the twentieth century, the SMB shows a statistically significant negative trend, whereas the δ(18)O of the cores shows a significant positive trend. No trend is found in air temperature at the nearest suitable weather station, Neumayer (available since 1981). This does not correspond to the statistically significant positive trend in Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index, which is usually associated with a cooling of East Antarctica. SAM index and SMB are negatively correlated, which might be explained by a decrease in meridional exchange of energy and moisture leading to lower precipitation amounts. Future monitoring of climate change on the sensitive Antarctic ice shelves is necessary to assess its consequences for sea level change.

  7. 75 FR 24966 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales AGENCY: Minerals... in any other of the following groups at Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease sales to be...

  8. 77 FR 64826 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales AGENCY... with any entity in any of the other following groups at Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease...

  9. Bottom currents and sediment waves on a shallow carbonate shelf, Northern Carnarvon Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belde, Johannes; Reuning, Lars; Back, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The modern seafloor of the Australian Northwest Shelf between Exmouth and Dampier was analyzed for large scale sedimentary bedforms on 3D seismic reflection data. The Carnarvon MegaSurvey of Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS), a merged dataset of multiple industrial 3D seismic reflection surveys with a total size of 49,717 km2, offers an extensive view of the continental shelf, slope and rise of the Northern Carnarvon Basin. Over the shelf two fields of large scale sediment waves were observed in water depths between 55-130 m, where the seafloor may be influenced by different processes including internal waves, tides and storms. Based on the dimensions and orientations of the sediment waves the dominant direction and approximate strength of local bottom currents could be estimated. Information on local sediment grain-size distribution was provided by the auSEABED database allowing a classification of the observed sediment waves into sand- or mudwaves. The first sediment wave field is positioned northwest of the Montebello Islands where the shelf is comparatively narrow and local sediment is mainly sand-sized. It most likely formed by increased bottom currents induced by the diversion of tidal flows around the islands. The second sediment wave field is located north of the Serrurier and Bessieres Islands within a local seafloor depression. Local sediments are poorly sorted, containing significant amounts of mud and gravel in addition to the mainly sand-sized grains. The coarser sediment fraction could have been reworked to sandwaves by cyclone-induced bottom currents. Alternatively, the finer sediment fraction could form mudwaves shaped by less energetic along-slope oriented currents in the topographic depression. The sediment waves consist partially of carbonate grains such as ooids and peloids that formed in shallow water during initial stages of the post glacial sea-level rise. These stranded carbonate grains thus formed in a different environment than the sediment

  10. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  11. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Egg

    2002-09-30

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  12. Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats focuses on food stability and shelf life, both important factors in the improvement and development of food products. This book, relevant for professionals in the food and pet food industries, presents an evaluation of methods f...

  13. 76 FR 4129 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Gas Lease Sales AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, Interior... any entity in any other of the following groups at Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease sales...

  14. 78 FR 59632 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... proposed rulemaking on production safety systems on August 22, 2013 (78 FR 52240). The proposed rule would... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement 30 CFR Part 250 RIN 1014-AA10 Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf--Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems AGENCY: Bureau of Safety...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF SHALLOW VISCOUS OIL RESERVES IN NORTH SLOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-12-01

    North Slope of Alaska has huge oil deposits in heavy oil reservoirs such as Ugnu, West Sak and Shrader Bluff etc. The viscosity of the last two reservoir oils vary from {approx}30 cp to {approx}3000 cp and the amount in the range of 10-20 billion barrels. High oil viscosity and low formation strength impose problems to high recovery and well productivity. Water-alternate-gas injection processes can be effective for the lower viscosity end of these deposits in West Sak and Shrader Bluff. Several gas streams are available in the North Slope containing NGL and CO{sub 2} (a greenhouse gas). The goal of this research is to develop tools to find optimum solvent, injection schedule and well-architecture for a WAG process in North Slope shallow sand viscous oil reservoirs. Coreflood, quarter 5-spot study, compositional simulation, wettability, relative permeability study and streamline-based simulation were conducted in this project. 1D compositional simulation results agree reasonably well with those of the slim tube experiments. Injection of CO{sub 2}-NGL is preferable over that of PBG-NGL. MME is sensitive to pressure (in the range of 1300-1800 psi) for the injection of PBG-NGL, but not for CO{sub 2}-NGL. Three hydrocarbon phases form in this pressure range. As the mean thickness of the adsorbed organic layer on minerals increases, the oil-water contact angle increases. The adsorbed organic films left behind after extraction of oil by common aromatic solvents used in core studies, such as toluene and decalin, are thinner than those left behind by non-aromatic solvents, such as cyclohexane. The force of adhesion for minerals aged with just the asphaltene fraction is similar to that of the whole oil implying that asphaltenes are responsible for the mixed-wettability in this reservoir. A new relative permeability model for a four-phase, mixed-wet system has been proposed. A streamline module is developed which can be incorporated in an existing finite-difference based

  16. Deep Sediment-Sourced Methane Contribution to Shallow Sediment Organic Carbon: Atwater Valley, Texas-Louisiana Shelf, Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Coffin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal methane hydrate deposits are globally abundant. There is a need to understand the deep sediment sourced methane energy contribution to shallow sediment carbon relative to terrestrial sources and phytoplankton. Shallow sediment and porewater samples were collected from Atwater Valley, Texas-Louisiana Shelf, Gulf of Mexico near a seafloor mound feature identified in geophysical surveys as an elevated bottom seismic reflection. Geochemical data revealed off-mound methane diffusion and active fluid advection on-mound. Gas composition (average methane/ethane ratio ~11,000 and isotope ratios of methane on the mound (average δ13CCH4(g = −71.2‰; D14CCH4(g = −961‰ indicate a deep sediment, microbial source. Depleted sediment organic carbon values on mound (δ13CSOC = −25.8‰; D14CSOC = −930‰ relative to off-mound (δ13CSOC = −22.5‰; D14CSOC = −629‰ suggest deep sourced ancient carbon is incorporated into shallow sediment organic matter. Porewater and sediment data indicate inorganic carbon fixed during anaerobic oxidation of methane is a dominant contributor to on-mound shallow sediment organic carbon cycling. A simple stable carbon isotope mass balance suggests carbon fixation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC associated with anaerobic oxidation of hydrate-sourced CH4 contributes up to 85% of shallow sediment organic carbon.

  17. Continental Shelf Freshwater Water Resources and Enhanced Oil Recovery By Low Salinity Water Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M. A.; Morrow, N.; Wilson, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the prospects of utilizing offshore freshwater in continental shelf oil production. Petroleum engineers have recently shown that tertiary water floods using freshwater can enhance oil recovery by as much as 18% (Morrow and Buckley, 2011). Hydrogeologists recently estimated that up to 5x105 km3of fresh to brackish water are sequestered in shallow ( world (Post et al., 2013). Most of the offshore freshwater was emplaced during the Pleistocene during periods of sea level low stands and when ice sheets over ran passive margins at high latitudes. We have analyzed a series of continental shelf cross sections from around the world estimating the average freshwater volume emplaced with distance offshore. We compare the distribution of fresh-brackish water with distance from the coastline to oil platform locations in order to assess the economic viability of this energy-water nexus. We also discuss a project that is currently underway within the North Sea (Clair Ridge) to field validate this concept. We present a series of variable-density groundwater flow and solute transport simulations that are intended to assess how long freshwater resources could be produced in an offshore environment using horizontal drilling technologies before seawater invades the well. We considered a 100m thick freshwater reservoir sandwiched between two 200-300m thick confining units. We pumped the horizontal well at a rate of 5.4 m3/day (1 gpm per meter of well). The resulting drawdown was less than 5 m at the well head (r=0.15 m). For a 1000 m long horizontal well, this resulted in the production of 5455 m3/day of fresh water (over 34,000 barrels per day). Concentrations increased at the wellhead by about 5000 mg/l after 20 years of continuous pumping using a reservoir permeability of 10-13 m2. This simulation demonstrates that where freshwater is available it is likely that it can be produced in commercially viable quantities to support tertiary water floods.

  18. Aeolian to shallow-marine shelf architecture off a major desert since the Late Pleistocene (northern Mauritania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, T. J. J.; Mersmeyer, H.; Kudrass, H. R.; Westphal, H.

    2013-12-01

    Continental shelves off major desert regions are not expected to host substantial amounts of sediments due to long-lasting and unfocused material supply and a high re-mobilization potential of aeolian material. This study, in contrast, demonstrates that significant volumes of sediments have accumulated on the northern Mauritanian shelf under the arid climate conditions and prevail over consecutive climatic cycles. Eight late Pleistocene to Holocene depositional units, each formed under contrasting depositional conditions, are identified in high-resolution seismo-acoustic data and dated sediment cores. These are: (1) a highly differentiated Pleistocene paleo-landscape older than the past climatic cycle, (2) a continental dune complex (MIS-4), (3) a thick regressive shallow-water clinoform (late MIS-3), (4) a regressive to lowstand shore deposit (latest MIS-3), and (5) a local transgressive cover (LGM to deglacial). Additionally, (6) an open-shelf highstand cover, (7) an outer-shelf highstand wedge and (8) mid-shelf mud depocenters have formed during the Holocene sea-level highstand. The common local offshore formation and preservation of confined stratigraphic units, in particular from during MIS-3, mark the interplay of: a) episodes of pronounced arid climatic conditions resulting in enhanced aeolian and coastal sediment input, b) shelf current patterns focusing sediment deposition locally, and c) early post-depositional sediment stabilization providing protection against erosion. Prominent internal surfaces at 63 and 115 m modern water depths indicate widespread and intense erosional activity during late MIS-3 regression and MIS-2 lowstand to post-LGM transgression, hosting coarse shell sands and gravels from beach and shoreface paleo-environments. The reasons for the high preservation potential of confined stratigraphic units are: a) carbonaceous cementation, b) sediment composition (massive widespread shore-related gravel and shell beds with subtle minor

  19. 76 FR 7230 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement,...

  20. 78 FR 27430 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales AGENCY... gas lease sales to be held during the bidding period May 1, 2013, through October 31, 2013. This...

  1. 77 FR 24980 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales AGENCY... gas lease sales to be held during the bidding period May 1, 2012, through October 31, 2012. The...

  2. 76 FR 67759 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales AGENCY... gas lease sales to be held during the bidding period November 1, 2011, through April 30, 2012....

  3. 78 FR 64243 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales AGENCY... gas lease sales to be held during the bidding period November 1, 2013, through April 30, 2014....

  4. 76 FR 13205 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement,...

  5. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Recent trends in the abundance of plaice Pleuronectes platessa and cod Gadus morhua in shallow coastal waters of the Northeastern Atlantic continental shelf – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Stenberg, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Shallow, near-shore water habitats on the continental shelf of the Northeast Atlantic have been productive fishing areas in the past. Here, we review the present knowledge about (i) recent trends in the abundance of plaice and cod in these habitats and (ii) hypotheses regarding the factors respon...

  7. Shallow sequence stratigraphy of the inner shelf deposits off the southeastern coast of Korea (Korea Strait)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong-Geun; Sunwoo, Don [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-09-01

    High-resolution seismic profiles on the inner shelf off the southeastern coast of Korea reveal that late Quaternary deposits consist of three sedimentary units (A upper, B middle and C lower) accumulated after the last glacial period. The upper unit (A) above the maximum flooding surface is the highstand systems tract formed during the recent highstand of sea level. The middle and lower units (B and C) represent the transgressive systems tract related to shoreface retreat during the post-glacial transgression. The middle unit (B) above the ravinement surface forms a thin veneer of transgressive sands, while lower unit (C) overlying the sequence boundary represents the transgressive estuarine deposits accumulated in the late stage of Holocene transgression. (author). 19 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Pennsylvanian carbonate buildups, Paradox basin: Increasing reserves in heterogeneous, shallow-shelf reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Chidsey, T.C.; Eby, D.E.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer precipitous declines. An important new study focused on the detailed characterization of five separate reservoirs has resulted in significant information relevant to their future redevelopment. Completed assessment of Anasazi field suggests that phylloid algal mounds, the major productive buildup type in this area, consist of ten separate lithotypes and can be described in terms of a two-level reservoir system with an underlying high-permeability mound-core interval overlain by a lower permeability but volumetrically larger supramound (mound capping) interval. Reservoir simulations and related performance predictions indicate that CO2 flooding of these reservoirs should have considerable success in recovering remaining oil reserves.Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer

  9. Multiple Suppression and Imaging of Marine Seismic Data from The Shallow Water Area in Southern East China Sea Shelf Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Luan, X.; Yang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Neither surface-related multiple elimination(SRME) nor predictive de-convolution method is effective to suppress the multiple of marine seismic data from the shallow water area. The former method needs the accurate reflection of seafloor, which is mixed with the direct wave in the near offset range. The other one could probably lose the primary wave when applied to the shallow water seismic data. We introduced the new method: deterministic water-layer de-multiple method (DWD) which is capable for the poor extrapolate result of near-offset traces. Firstly, the data shifts as downward continuation in tau-p domain with a water-layer period and the multiple model will be obtained. Then, the original seismic subtracts adaptively with the multiple model. Finally, we would get the de-multiple data after inverse tau-p transform. Marine seismic real data is from southern part of East China Sea Shelf Basin. This area has become the potential target for marine hydrocarbon exploration, it is located in the junction of the Eurasian plate pacific plate and Indian plate. Because the average water depth is less than 100 meters, seismic data contains abundant of multiple, especially the surface-related multiple. As a result it is difficult to distinguish the strata structure clearly. We used DWD approach to remove the water-layer multiple, cut off the seafloor reflection events and then suppressed the residual surface-related multiple by the traditional SRME. At last , the radon transform was applied to eliminate the multiple with long period . With these steps, we suppressed the multiple of marine seismic data from this area effectively. After multiple is removed , we acquired more accurate velocity to build the velocity model of migration. With the pre-stack migration technique, reflections from each geological period are shown clearly in the seismic section. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China(grant no. 41476053).

  10. Fish assemblages associated with oil industry structures on the continental shelf of north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradella, N; Fowler, A M; Booth, D J; Macreadie, P I

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first assessment of fish associations with oil and gas structures located in deep water (85-175 m) on Australia's north-west continental shelf, using rare oil industry video footage obtained from remotely operated vehicles. A diverse range of taxa were observed associating with the structures, including reef-dependent species and transient pelagic species. Ten commercially fished species were observed, the most abundant of which was Lutjanus argentimaculatus, with an estimated biomass for the two deepest structures (Goodwyn and Echo) of 109 kg.

  11. Improved oil recovery (IOR). Possibility and challenges on the Norwegian continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    Recently, estimates of the oil reserves on the Norwegian continental shelf have been substantially adjusted upwards due to technological development. In this report, the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate presents the current status. Based on current technology and recovery plans, an average of 41% of the oil that was originally in place in Norwegian fields will be recovered. Of these reserves, totaling just over 3 billion Sm{sup 3} of oil, about half have been produced. The potential for improved oil recovery is estimated at 1 billion Sm{sup 3} and it is anticipated that this potential can be realised. The objective is to attain an average recovery factor of at least 50%. Among the great technological advances that have taken place are developments within drilling and well technology and better techniques for reservoir management and reservoir monitoring. Technology using chemicals is available that will counteract increased water production and unwanted breakthrough of gas in oil producing wells. A significant part of the development of improved oil recovery technology is made jointly by the oil companies, often with the authorities as active providers. FORCE (FOrum for Reservoir Characterisation and reservoir Engineering) has been established in this context as a central forum for exchange of experience. Gas injection will be an efficient way of achieving high recovery factors for a number of fields. The foremost objective in projects for improved oil recovery is to be capable of achieving a total value creation while also ensuring that environmental considerations are taken into account. 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Late-Pleistocene evolution of the East Mediterranean shallow continental shelf of north-central Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtienberg, Gilad; Dix, Justin; Waldmann, Nicolas; Makovsky, Yizhaq; Bookman, Revital; Roskin, Joel; Bialik, Or; Golan, Arik; Sivan, Dorit

    2016-04-01

    . This approach allowed us to investigate the relationship between the lithological units and sea-level change and thus enable the reconstruction of the coastal evolution over the last ˜130 ka. This reconstruction suggests that the stratigraphy is dominated by a sea level lowstand during which aeolian, fluvial and paleosol sediments were deposited in a terrestrial environment. The coastal-terrestrial landscape was flooded by the early to middle Holocene transgression. The results of this study provide a valuable framework for future national strategic shallow-water infrastructure construction and also for the possible locations of past human settlements in relation to coastal evolution through time.

  13. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.; Egg, Rebecca

    2001-08-07

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.

  14. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  15. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2002-01-09

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  16. Compositional analyses and shelf-life modeling of njangsa (ricinodendron heudelotii)seed oil using the weibull hazard method

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the compositional characteristics and shelf-life of Njangsa seed oil (NSO). Oil from Njangsa had a high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of which alpha eleosteric acid (alpha-ESA), an unusual conjugated linoleic acid was the most prevalent (about 52%). Linoleic acid...

  17. 75 FR 16833 - Preliminary Revised 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2007-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Minerals Management Service Preliminary Revised 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing... Revised 5-Year OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2007- 2012. This is the Preliminary Revised Program... relative environmental sensitivity analysis and the Secretary's revisions to the leasing schedule...

  18. 78 FR 64242 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sales 238, 246, and 248 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... proposed OCS oil and gas Lease Sales 238, 246, and 248, which are tentatively scheduled to be held...

  19. The Origin(s) of the Methane Excess in the Shallow East Siberian Arctic Shelf Unraveled with Triple Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapart, C. J.; Shakhova, N. E.; Semiletov, I. P.; Jansen, J.; Kosmach, D.; Dudarev, O.; Szidat, S.; van der Veen, C.; Sergienko, V.; Salyuk, A.; Tumskoy, V.; Tison, J. L.; Egger, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a strong greenhouse gas emitted by both human activity and natural processes. Its emissions from vast marine and terrestrial carbon pools in Arctic shallow reservoirs could create a strong positive feedback to climate change as permafrost is thawing. The East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) overlays large areas of subsea permafrost that is degrading and causing the release of large amount of CH4 originally stored or formed there towards the water column. Large scale CH4 super-saturation has been observed in the ESAS waters, pointing out to leakages of CH4 through the sea floor and possibly to the atmosphere but the origin(s) of this gas is still debated. Here we present CH4 concentration and isotope data analyzed on gas extracted from sediment and water sampled over the shallow ESAS from 2007-2013. We find the presence of large amount (up to 500μM) of CH4 within the partially thawed subsea permafrost of this region. For all sediment cores, both hydrogen and carbon CH4 isotope data show the presence of highly depleted (in comparison with the atmospheric CH4 isotope signature) CH4, indicative of a microbial origin. Radiocarbon data demonstrates that in most cases the CH4 present in the ESAS sediment is of Pleistocene age or older. These results reveal the presence of CH4 that is not from thermogenic/natural gas (isotopically enriched CH4) origin as it has long been thought, but the results of microbial CH4 formation using as primary substrate old organic matter in the deep subsea permafrost or below. Our observations show that this CH4 accumulates under the Holocene marine sediment layer (when present) and slowly diffuses towards the sediment surface where it undergoes anaerobic methane oxidation. However, at locations where deep and/or open taliks develop in subsea permafrost, CH4 escapes to the water column as bubble plumes. In that case ebullition processes prevent CH4 anaerobic oxidation to occur in the surface sediment. CH4 will thus migrate

  20. Rare Earth Elements of the Permian-Triassic Conodonts from Shelf Basin to Shallow Platform: Implications for Oceanic Redox Conditions immediately After the End-Permian Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z.; Chen, J.; Chen, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) can provide information regarding the influence of weathering fluxes and hydrothermal inputs on seawater chemistry as well as processes that fractionate REEs between solid and aqueous phases. Of these, cerium (Ce) distributions may provide information about variations in dissolved oxygen in seawater, and thus assess the redox conditions. The short residence times of REEs in seawater (~300-1,000 yr) can result in unique REE signatures in local watermasses. REE patterns preserved in biogenic apatite such as conodonts are ideal proxies for revealing original seawater chemistry. Here, we measured the REE content of in-situ, single albid crowns using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in combination with an ArF (λ=193 nm) excimer laser (Lambda Physiks GeoLas 2005) and quadrupole ICP-MS (Agilent 7500a). LA-ICP-MS is ideally suited for analyzing conodonts due to its ability to measure compositional variation within single conodont elements. It has the capability to determine, with high spatial resolution, continuous compositional depth profiles through the concentric layered structure of component histologies. To evaluate paleoceanographic conditions immediately after the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) mass extinction in various depositional settings, we sampled a nearly contemporaneous strata unit, the P-Tr boundary bed, just above the extinction horizon from six sections in South China. They represent various depositional settings from shelf basin (Chaohu and Daxiakou sections), lower part of ramp (Meishan section), normal shallow platform (Yangou section), and platform microbialite (Chongyang and Xiushui sections). The sampled unit is constrained by conodonts Hindeodus changxingensis, H. parvus, and H. staeschei Zones in Meishan. REE results obtained from conodont albid crowns show that the seawater in lower ramp and shelf basin settings contains much higher REE concentrations than that in shallow platform. Ce

  1. Oxidative stability and estimate of the shelf life of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sacha inchi oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids that may rust, limiting their shel flife. The Rancimat method is official, for evaluations of oxidative stability accelerated in oils. Industrially conventional techniques based on physical and chemical indicators are used; there are no studies of correlation between them and Rancimat. This work has for objective correlate the oxidative stability index (OSI Sacha inchi oil obtained by Rancimat at temperatures of 80°, 90°, 100° and 110 °C under an air flow of 15 L/h, with the values of physic-chemical indicators such as Index peroxide, p-anisidine, totox and density. Also estimated by mathematical extrapolation, the shelf life of sacha inchi oil to usual storage temperatures. OSI values were: 0.493 ± 0.01 h at 110 ºC, 1.590 ± 0.06 h at 100 ºC, 4.645 ± 0.1 h at 90 ºC and 20.512 ± 0.02 h at 80 ºC. High correlation has been established between values of OSI vs physicochemical quality indices (0.9322 < r < 0.9965. The activation energy was found 137.90 kJ/mol, which explains the high oxidative stability for the oil, estimating a lifetime of 3.29, 1.79 and 0.79 years at 20, 25 and 30 °C respectively.

  2. Offshore oil resurgent in Gulf of Mexico, U.K. Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    A resurgence of deep water activity in the US Gulf of Mexico and the ushering in of Great Britain`s west-of-Shetlands area as the next major hydrocarbon development on the UK continental shelf are notable trends unfolding in the oil and gas sector. In late 1994, Shell Oil and partners Amoco and Exxon ventured into an accord to commercially develop the US Gulf`s deepest water reserves. The project, tagged {open_quotes}Ram-Powell,{close_quotes} has been studied for years but is now moving to the forefront with major contracts to be awarded in the next six months or so. A tension-leg platform (TLP) tethered to the seafloor in some 3,220-feet waters will be used to develop the prospect. Ram-Powell`s price tag exceeds $1 billion.

  3. Sedimentary process control on carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter in an ancient shallow-water shelf succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S. J.; Leng, M. J.; Macquaker, J. H. S.; Hawkins, K.

    2012-11-01

    Source and delivery mechanisms of organic matter are rarely considered when interpreting changing δ13C through sedimentary successions even though isotope excursions are widely used to identify and correlate global perturbations in the carbon cycle. Combining detailed sedimentology and geochemistry we demonstrate how organic carbon abundance and δ13C values from sedimentary organic matter from Carboniferous-aged mudstones are influenced by the proportion of terrestrial versus water column-derived organic matter. Silt-bearing clay-rich shelf mudstones that were deposited by erosive density flows are characterized by 1.8-2.4% organic carbon and highδ13C values (averaging -22.9 ± 0.3‰, n = 12). Typically these mudstones contain significant volumes of terrestrial plant-derived material. In contrast, clay-rich lenticular mudstones, with a marine macrofauna, are the products of the transport of mud fragments, eroded from pre-existing water-rich shelfal muds, when shorelines were distant and biological productivity in the water column was high. Higher organic carbon (2.1-5.2%) and lowerδ13C values (averaging -24.3 ± 0.5‰, n = 11) characterize these mudstones and are interpreted to reflect a greater contribution by (isotopically more negative) amorphous organic matter derived from marine algae. Differences in δ13C between terrestrial and marine organic matter allow the changing proportions from different sources to be tracked through this succession. Combining δ13C values with zirconium (measured from whole rock), here used as a proxy for detrital silt input, provides a novel approach to distinguishing mudstone provenance and ultimately using δ13C to identify oil-prone organic matter in potential source rocks. These results have important implications for using bulk organic matter to identify and characterize global C-isotope excursions.

  4. 75 FR 63504 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management...

  5. 77 FR 40380 - Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area Lease Sale 231 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... proposed Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sale 231...

  6. 77 FR 51568 - Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area Lease Sale 231 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... announced its intent to prepare a Supplemental EIS for proposed Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale...

  7. 78 FR 42544 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sale, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sale, Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sales 238, 246, and 248 MMAA104000 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... Supplemental EIS for proposed WPA lease sales beginning with Lease Sale 238 (WPA Lease Sales 238, 246, and...

  8. 78 FR 52562 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sales 235, 241, and 247 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... EIS for proposed Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sales 235, 241 and 247 in the Gulf of Mexico...

  9. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...

  10. 75 FR 25291 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Mid-Atlantic Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Mid-Atlantic Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 220 AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of indefinite postponement of...

  11. Enhancement of Shelf Life of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by Fumigant Application of Lippia alba Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Pratima; Pandey, Abhay K; Mishra, Priyanka; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2015-01-01

    Eleven essential oils isolated from higher plant species were assessed against the four isolates of Verticillium fungicola found on fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Eucalyptus citriodora and Lippia alba oils were more efficacious and completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungal isolates. L. alba oil was fungistatic and fungicidal at 10- and 20-µL concentrations against all of the isolates, respectively, and was more potent than E. citriodora oil as well as some prevalent synthetic fungicides such as benomyl, ethylene dibromide, and phosphine. Eighty microliters of L. alba oil protected 500 g of fruiting bodies of A. bisporus for up to 7 d from infection of the fungus under in vivo conditions. The findings strengthen the possibility of L. alba oil as a plant-based protectant to enhance the shelf life of A. bisporus fruiting bodies.

  12. Lithofacies, biofacies, and ichnoassemblage evolution of a shallow submarine volcaniclastic fan-shelf depositional system (Upper Cretaceous, James Ross Island, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasso, R. A.; Olivero, E. B.; Buatois, L. A.

    The Upper Cretaceous (Santonian-Campanian/lower Maastrichtian) Santa Marta Formation on James Ross Island, Antarctica, represents volcaniclastic shallow marine fan and shelf sedimentation adjacent to an active volcanic arc. A combined analysis of sedimentologic, paleoecologic, and ichnologic data allows for the recognition in this unit of six lithofacies associations, eight biofacies, and five trace fossils assemblages. Lithofacies are dominated by fine, massive, tuffaceous rocks; graded, turbidite-like tuffaceous sandstones; carbonaceous mudstones; resedimented conglomerates; coquinas; sandstones; silty sandstones; and minor stromatolite beds. Biofacies are defined by different composition and relative abundance of elements of the benthic fauna, mainly bivalves, gastropods, and serpulids, with minor elements represented by scaphopods, corals, brachiopods, and echinoids. Trace fossil assemblages include the most common elements of the Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies. A striking result of the analysis is that lithofacies, biofacies, and trace fossil assemblages form distinct, non-repetitive, vertically successive horizons, with their distribution boundaries roughly coincident. On this basis, seven major facies groups, showing a distinct combination of lithofacies, biofacies, and trace fossils, are distinguished in the Santa Marta Formation. These non-repetitive, vertically stacked facies groups reveal a one-way evolution of the depositional system during a transgressive-regressive cycle, with a new transgression at the top of the unit. The lower facies groups represent shallow marine settings with a very high rate of volcaniclastic sedimentation within subsiding basin. Shallow, volcaniclastic fan systems were probably formed at the base of delta slope and grew rapidly as a consequence of high sedimentary supply in equilibrium with basin subsidence. The upper facies groups probably represent sedimentation within the marine part of the envisaged deltaic system on a

  13. Distinct trends in the speciation of iron between the shallow shelf seas and the deep basins of the Arctic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuroczy, C-E.; Gerringa, L. J. A.; Klunder, M.; Laan, P.; Le Guitton, M.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The speciation of iron was investigated in three shelf seas and three deep basins of the Arctic Ocean in 2007. The dissolved fraction ( 3 nM on the shelves and [TDFe] <2 nM in the Makarov Basin). A relative enrichment of particulate Fe toward the bottom was revealed at all stations, indicating Fe

  14. Horizontal drilling pilot in a shallow heavy oil reservoir in the Suplac Field in Northwestern Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavelle, J.; Yaghoobi, A. [OMV Petrom S.A. (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    The Suplac field situated in north-western Romania is a shallow and heavy oil deposit lying at depths of between 40 and 200 meters. The deposit has been exploited since 1964 using different techniques but some areas of the reservoir located beneath villages and steep hills were never reached. The aim of this paper is to describe a project using horizontal alternating steam drive (HASD) to harvest oil from these areas by turning from vertical to horizontal. A pilot test was conducted over 4 months in 2010 with 3 parallel horizontal wells. The rig equipment, the well path designs and the directional difficulties are discussed herein. Results showed that horizontals could be drilled using a vertical mast rig and all the expectations were met. The success of this pilot project was highlighted herein and the company is now planning on continuing with a horizontal development program; however wellbore clean out is a remaining challenge.

  15. Exploration Potential of Atectonic Oil-gas Pools in the Northern Shelf Basin of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuWeilin; WangZhenfeng; LvMing

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale oil exploration has been done and large quantities of oil-gas fields have been found in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea for more than 20 years. The tectonic oil-gas pools are the main type. With the exploration to be deepened, looking for atectonic oil-gas pools is listed in China's exploration strategy. There are advantages for the forming of atectonic oil-gas pools in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea. Because the level of water has been frequently changing within all historical periods, lithozones are changed alternately in both vertical and lateral directions and formed lithologic deposition especially at low water level stages, such as the low-lying fans of basin-floor fans and slope fans. Due to frequent tectonic movement within all historical periods, many structural surfaces and structural unconformities were formed. At the same time, they also formed many kinds of structural unconformity oil-gas pools. According to our exploration and research, the promising areas of atectonic reservoirs within marine basins include: (1) the basin-floor fan of the deep water district, such as the central depression of the Southeast Qiong basin and Baiyun sag in the Zhujiangkou basin; (2) the frontal area of the large ancient delta, such as the Lingao structural belt in the Yingge Sea basin and Huizhou sag in the Zhujiangkou basin; (3) the unconformity pinchout belt or denudation belt in the slope area and the uplift area, for instance, the Yingdong slope belt in the Yingge Sea basin and Yacheng 13-1 structural belt in the southeast Qiong basin. All this proves that the prospects for atectonic oil-gas pools in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea are very broad.

  16. The macrofaunal communities in the shallow subtidal areas for the first 3 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Young; Kim, Moonkoo; Lim, Hyun-Sig; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-05-15

    In order to detect the early impact of the Hebei Spirit oil spill on the shallow subtidal macrozoobenthic communities, macrobenthic fauna were collected seasonally for 3 years. The alkylated PAHs concentrations within sediments near Mallipo beach remained as high as 129 ng g(-)(1) DW one month after the oil spill, but the concentration decreased below the background level thereafter. The number of species and density decreased in 4 months compared to those before the oil spill. An opportunistic polychaete, Prionospio paradisea, occurred as a dominant species at subtidal area near Mallipo beach in 10 months after the oil spill. Any mass mortality of amphipods and any clear dominance of opportunistic species were not detected except for the stations near Mallipo and Hagampo beaches. The macrobenthic communities at the shallow subtidal stations seemed to have a relatively stable faunal composition, even not fully recovered, in 3 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

  17. Shallow stratigraphy and gas-charged sediments in the inner shelf off Redi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.

    palaeochannel running across the region in ENE-WSW direction. Shallow seismic surveys indicate a pseudo escapment of more than 7 m deep between 12-14 m water depths. Eastern part (11-14 m) of the escarpment indicate the existence of gas-charged sediments (silty...

  18. Compositional Analyses and Shelf-Life Modeling of Njangsa (Ricinodendron heudelotii) Seed Oil Using the Weibull Hazard Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaidoo-Ayin, Harold K; Boakye, Prince G; Jones, Kerby C; Wyatt, Victor T; Besong, Samuel A; Lumor, Stephen E

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the compositional characteristics and shelf-life of Njangsa seed oil (NSO). Oil from Njangsa had a high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of which alpha eleostearic acid (α-ESA), an unusual conjugated linoleic acid was the most prevalent (about 52%). Linoleic acid was also present in appreciable amounts (approximately 34%). Our investigations also indicated that the acid-catalyzed transesterification of NSO resulted in lower yields of α-ESA methyl esters, due to isomerization, a phenomenon which was not observed under basic conditions. The triacylglycerol (TAG) profile analysis showed the presence of at least 1 α-ESA fatty acid chain in more than 95% of the oil's TAGs. Shelf-life was determined by the Weibull Hazard Sensory Method, where the end of shelf-life was defined as the time at which 50% of panelists found the flavor of NSO to be unacceptable. This was determined as 21 wk. Our findings therefore support the potential commercial viability of NSO as an important source of physiologically beneficial PUFAs. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Geochemical haloes as an indication of over oil and gas fields in the Arctic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Hydrocarbon deposits at the Arctic shelf of Russia are a source of jet dispersion of heavy metals that forms haloes in sediments and in the bottom layer of sea water. The intensity of the haloes and their spatial position are jointly determined by geological structure of their source and the environment, i.e., hydrocarbon deposits in host rocks, seafloor lithodynamics and oceanographic factors. Based on theoretical works of Kholmyansky and Putikov (2000; 2006; 2008), an application of electrochemical modification of electric prospecting for offshore hydrocarbon exploration and detailed survey of the morphology of deposits was developed. Specialized equipment was developed for studies of electrochemical features of bottom water layer. With this equipment one can detect ion anomalies in water and determine the type of deposit as gas, gas hydrate, gas condensate or oil. At operation, the unit with equipment is towed underwater off the stern of research vessel. Type and configuration of deposits are determined based on occurrence of trace heavy metals detected by ion-selective electrodes. The proposed method was applied to study a few hydrocarbon fields in Barents and Kara seas in 2001 -2012 including Shtokman, Medyn, Polyarnoe, Prirazlomnoye and others. The results allowed us to trace the margins of the deposits in more detail, and geochemical data, in addition, showed the type of deposits. In general, the method has proven efficient and applicable to a wide range of hydrocarbon deposits.

  20. Imbalanced nutrients as triggers for black shale formation in a shallow shelf setting during the OAE 2 (Wunstorf, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blumenberg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During the oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE 2 in the mid-Cretaceous widespread black shale (BS formation occurred, reflecting perturbations in major biogeochemical cycles. Here we present geochemical and biomarker data of the OAE 2 from a shelf setting situated at about 100 to 150 water depth (Wunstorf, Germany. Our data support that processes inducing BS deposition were related to orbital cyclicity in Wunstorf and that they were not restricted to the time of the OAE 2 carbon isotope excursion. Correlations of total organic carbon (TOC and δ15N and high relative abundances of functionalized hopanoids (incl. 2-methylated structures suggest that BS were formed during times of imbalanced nutrients with high phosphorus inputs and increased (cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation. Periods of BS formation were also characterized by enhanced growth of dinoflagellates and bacteriovorous ciliates, the latter supporting the presence of a stratified water body. The lack of biomarkers specific for green-sulfur bacteria excludes photic zone euxinia during OAE 2 in Wunstorf. Conflicting maturities and biomarker distributions in kerogen and extractable organic matter and, interestingly, a negative correlation of the diagenetically resistant 2-methyl hopane hydrocarbons with TOC indicate a complex depositional setting at Wunstorf. In Wunstorf this might have been induced by high continental run-off during BS formation and the accompanying mobilisation of refractory OM from the shelfs and near shore areas.

  1. Hydro-acoustic remote sensing of benthic biological communities on the shallow South East Australian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Alex; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie; Burq, Shoaib; Reston, Marcus

    2009-09-01

    Information regarding the composition and extent of benthic habitats on the South East Australian continental shelf is limited. In this habitat mapping study, multibeam echosounder (MBES) data are integrated with precisely geo-referenced video ground-truth data to quantify benthic biotic communities at Cape Nelson, Victoria, Australia. Using an automated decision tree classification approach, 5 representative biotic groups defined from video analysis were related to hydro-acoustically derived variables in the Cape Nelson survey area. Using a combination of multibeam bathymetry, backscatter and derivative products produced highest overall accuracy (87%) and kappa statistic (0.83). This study demonstrates that decision tree classifiers are capable of integrating variable data types for mapping distributions of benthic biological assemblages, which are important in maintaining biodiversity and other system services in the marine environment.

  2. Assessing Risks of Shallow Riparian Groundwater Quality Near an Oil Sands Tailings Pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, J W; Bickerton, G; Frank, R A; Grapentine, L; Hewitt, L M

    2016-07-01

    The potential discharge of groundwater contaminated by oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is a concern for aquatic ecosystems near tailings ponds. Groundwater in the area, but unaffected by OSPW, may contain similar compounds, complicating the assessment of potential ecological impacts. In this study, 177 shallow groundwater samples were collected from riparian areas along the Athabasca River and tributaries proximate to oil sands developments. For "pond-site" samples (71; adjacent to study tailings pond), Canadian aquatic life guidelines were exceeded for 11 of 20 assessed compounds. However, "non-pond" samples (54; not near any tailings pond) provided similar exceedances. Statistical analyses indicate that pond-site and non-pond samples were indistinguishable for all but seven parameters assessed, including salts, many trace metals, and fluorescence profiles of aromatic naphthenic acids (ANA). This suggests that, regarding the tested parameters, groundwater adjacent to the study tailings pond generally poses no greater ecological risk than other nearby groundwaters at this time. Multivariate analyses applied to the groundwater data set separated into 11 smaller zones support this conclusion, but show some variation between zones. Geological and potential OSPW influences could not be distinguished based on major ions and metals concentrations. However, similarities in indicator parameters, namely ANA, F, Mo, Se, and Na-Cl ratio, were noted between a small subset of samples from two pond-site zones and two OSPW samples and two shallow groundwater samples documented as likely OSPW affected. This indicator-based screening suggests that OSPW-affected groundwater may be reaching Athabasca River sediments at a few locations. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Groundwater © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  3. Effect of added citrus fibre and spice essential oils on quality characteristics and shelf-life of mortadella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuda-Martos, M; Ruiz-Navajas, Y; Fernández-López, J; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of adding orange dietary fibre (1%), rosemary essential oil (0.02%) or thyme essential oil (0.02%) and the storage conditions on the quality characteristics and the shelf-life of mortadella, a bologna-type sausage. The moisture, fat, ash content and colour coordinates lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were affected by the fibre content. The treatments analysed lowered the levels of residual nitrite (57.56% and 57.61%) and the extent of lipid oxidation, while analysis of the samples revealed the presence of the flavonoids, hesperidin and narirutin. No enterobacteria or psychotropic bacteria were found in any of the treatments. The treated samples stored in vacuum packaging showed the lowest aerobic and lactic acid bacteria counts. Sensorially, the most appreciated sample was the one containing orange dietary fibre and rosemary essential oil, stored in vacuum packaging. Orange dietary fibre and spice essential oils could find a use in the food industry to improve the shelf-life of meat products.

  4. Disrupted carbonate hardgrounds in shallow carbonate-shelf sediments: origin and setting of tepees and their associated fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, C.G.; Warren, J.K.

    1985-02-01

    Carbonate-sediment surface hardgrounds are commonly disrupted and brecciated. Some of these breccias are the results of repeated episodes of fracturing and fracture fill by sediment and/or cement. Each fracture and fracture-fill phase causes the crust to grow in surface area and crumples it into megapolygons whose anteform margins are called tepees. Fracturing is caused by thermal contraction, water-table movement buoying up the crust, mass movement of sediment, and tectonic events. Tepees are commonly ascribed to tidal flats but, in fact, also occur in many settings that can be determined from their fabric and facies associations. (1) Submarine tepees from shallow, carbonate-saturated water occur in fractured, bedded, marine grainstones with acicular and micritic cements. They contain no vadose pisolites or gravity cements, and the hardground surface is altered and bored. (2) Peritidal tepees occur in fractured, bedded, tidal-flat carbonates characterized by fenestral, pisolitic, and laminar algal fabrics close to the marine water table. Fracture fills include gravity-controlled marine travertine and/or marine and terra rossa sediments. (3) Groundwater tepees form in fractured fenestral, pisolitic, and laminar algal crusts over boxwork carbonates at the margin of shallow salinas where periodic groundwater resurgence is common. (4) Extrusion tepees, which are also from salina margins with periodic groundwater resurgence, form in crusts coated with laminated micrite that extend from the fractures downward into dolomitic micrite. (5) Caliche tepees, from continental settings overlying soil profiles, form in laminar crusts with pisolites. Fractures are filled by micritic laminae, microspar, spar, and terra rossa.

  5. Imbalanced nutrients as triggers for black shale formation in a shallow shelf setting during the OAE 2 (Wunstorf, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blumenberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE 2 in the Mid-Cretaceous Period, widespread black shale (BS formation occurred, reflecting perturbations in major biogeochemical cycles. Here we present geochemical and biomarker data of the OAE 2 from a shelf setting situated at about 100–150 m water depth (Wunstorf, Germany. Our data support that processes inducing BS deposition were related to orbital cyclicity in Wunstorf and that they were not restricted to the time of the OAE 2 carbon isotope excursion. Correlations of total organic carbon (TOC and δ15N and high relative abundances of functionalized hopanoids (including 2-methylated structures suggest that BS were formed during times of imbalanced nutrients with high phosphorus inputs and increased cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation. Periods of BS formation were also characterized by enhanced growth of dinoflagellates and bacteriovorous ciliates, the latter supporting the presence of a stratified water body. The lack of biomarkers specific for green sulfur bacteria excludes photic zone euxinia during OAE 2 in Wunstorf. Conflicting maturities and biomarker distributions in kerogen and extractable organic matter and, interestingly, a negative correlation of the diagenetically resistant 2-methyl hopane hydrocarbons with TOC indicate a complex depositional setting at Wunstorf. This might have been induced by high continental runoff during BS formation and the accompanying mobilisation of refractory OM from the shelves and near shore areas.

  6. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils. Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  7. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils.  Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  8. The effects of antioxidants and shelf life conditions on oxidation markers in a sunflower oil salad dressing emulsion (SOSDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Jeanine; Grypa, Roman; Ellingworth, John; Duodu, Kwaku G; De Kock, Henriëtta L

    2016-12-15

    The effects of levels of antioxidant [gallic acid or ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA)] in a sunflower oil salad dressing emulsion (SOSDE) and shelf life affecting conditions on aroma, anisidine values (AV) and peroxide values (PV) were determined. Aroma differences between products with different concentrations of antioxidants were more apparent for ambient than accelerated stored SOSDEs. Aroma differences were more noted between SOSDEs with different antioxidants than antioxidant concentrations per se. PV differences between accelerated stored SOSDEs with high and low EDTA concentrations were found. AV differences existed between SOSDEs with different gallic acid concentrations for both storage conditions, and for accelerated stored SOSDEs with different EDTA concentrations. The accelerated storage model is more suitable for SOSDEs with metal chelator antioxidants e.g. EDTA, than free radical scavenging antioxidants e.g. gallic acid. PV, AV and aroma of accelerated stored SOSDEs do not clearly predict ambient shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of edible coatings with essential oils on the quality of red raspberries over shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos de Souza; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Guimarães, Ana Clara Garcia; Guerreiro, Adriana Cavaco; Gago, Custódia Maria Luís; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Dias, Cristina Maria Barrocas; Manhita, Ana Cristina Cabaça; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Miguel, Maria Graça Costa; Antunes, Maria Dulce Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for increasing the shelf-life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red color verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1% or 0.2% were very efficient for controlling yeast and mold growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. The application of the film improved post-harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Late Quaternary Incisions and Related Shallow Subsurface Stratigraphy on the New Jersey Mid-Outer Shelf: Preliminary Results from Ultra-High Resolution Chirp Sonar Images - Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulthorpe, C. S.; Goff, J. A.; Austin, J. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Nordfjord, S.

    2002-12-01

    High-resolution (1-15 kHz), shallow-penetration (~50 m), deep-towed chirp seismic profiles were collected on the New Jersey mid- and outer-shelf in August-September 2001 (R/V Endeavor cruise 359) in support of ONR's Geoclutter program. Geoclutter goals are to understand and predict acoustic scattering from the seafloor and the shallow sub-seafloor in order to distinguish man-made objects from naturally occurring features ("geological clutter") on sonar returns. The 2001 chirp survey focused on previously identified buried channels, of presumed fluvial origin, which may contribute to geoclutter. These channels are inferred to have formed during the sea-level lowstand of the last glacial maximum, and their fill likely constitutes a high-resolution record of the latest transgression. This survey represents the most comprehensive mapping to date of shallowly buried fluvial channels in a continental shelf setting. To allow robust mapping of channel systems, the survey maintained dense seismic profile spacings, mainly 200-900 m, but with some at 50 m. We focus on the southern portion of the survey area, where three channel systems are identified within an 8.6 x 10.2 km grid. The northernmost of these lies sufficiently within the survey area to be mapped in detail. Its channels are mainly V-shaped, up to 350 m wide and 12 m deep. Present water depth is ~80 m and channel flanks are truncated by the seafloor, except in a small area where an overlying unconformity truncating channel flanks is preserved. Some channels are truncated by erosional seafloor scour pits, mapped earlier with high-resolution multibeam data. Channel fill stratigraphy indicates multiple stages of incision and filling. Interfluves comprise up to ~20 m of a seismically transparent facies overlying stratified sediment. Grab samples contain medium-to-coarse sands, but such surficial sediments may not be entirely representative of the transparent facies. The contact with the stratified sediment is irregular

  11. Feasibility study of the in-situ combustion in shallow, thin, and multi-layered heavy oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, L. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[Daqing Petroleum Inst., Beijing (China); Yu, D. [Daqing Petroleum Inst., Beijing (China); Gong, Y. [China National Petroleum Corp., Beijing (China). Liaohe Oilfield; Wang, P.; Zhang, L. [China National Petroleum Corp., Beijing (China). Huabei Oilfield; Liu, C. [China National Petroleum Corp., Beijing (China). JiLin Oilfield

    2008-10-15

    In situ combustion is a process where oxygen is injected into oil reservoirs in order to oxidize the heavier components of crude oil. The oil is driven towards the production wells by the combustion gases and steam generated by the combustion processes. This paper investigated dry and wet forward in situ combustion processes designed for an oil reservoir with thin sand layers. Laboratory and numerical simulations were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the processes in a shallow, thin, heterogenous heavy oil reservoir in China. Combustion tube experiments were conducted in order to determine fuel consumption rates. A numerical geological model was constructed to represent the reservoir conditions. Gas, water, oil and solid phases were modelled. Four processes were considered: cracking; pyrolysis of heavy fractions; the combustion of light and heavy fractions; and the combustion of coke. Oil recovery rates were calculated for a period of 10 years. Reactor experiments were conducted to investigate igniting temperatures and air injection rates using an apparatus comprised of an electric heater, oil sand pack tube and a computerized control system. Experiments were performed at different temperature and injection rates. The experiments demonstrated that ignition times and air volumes decreased when air temperature was increased. Results of the study showed that a 20 per cent increase in oil recovery using the in situ combustion processes. It was concluded that adequate air injection rates are needed to ensure effective combustion front movement. 4 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Hydraulic Fracturing of 403 Shallow Diatomite Wells in South Belridge Oil Field, Kern County, California, in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, D. B.; Agusiegbe, V.

    2015-12-01

    We examine all 403 Hydraulic Fracture (HF) jobs performed by Aera Energy, LLC, in the South Belridge oil field, Kern County, CA in 2014. HFs in the South Belridge oil field are atypical amongst North American plays because the reservoir is shallow and produced via vertical wells. Our data set constitutes 88% of all HF jobs performed in CA oil fields in calendar-2014. The South Belridge field produces 11% of California's oil and the shallow HFs performed here differ from most HFs performed elsewhere. We discuss fracture modeling and methods and summary statistics, and modelled dimensions of fractures and their relationships to depth and reservoir properties. The 403 HFs were made in the diatomite-dominated Reef Ridge member of the Monterey Formation. The HFs began at an average depth of 1047 feet below ground (ft TVD) and extended an average of 626 ft vertically downward. The deepest initiation of HF was at 2380 ft and the shallowest cessation was at 639 ft TVD. The average HF was performed using 1488 BBL (62,496 gallons) of water. The HFs were performed in no more than 6 stages and nearly all were completed within one day. We (1) compare metrics of the South Belridge sample group with recent, larger "all-CA" and nationwide samples; and (2) conclude that if relationships of reservoir properties, well completion and HF are well understood, shallow diatomite HF may be optimized to enhance production while minimizing environmental impact.

  13. Temporary expansion to shelf depths rather than an onshore-offshore trend: the shallow-water rise and demise of the modern deep-sea brittle star family Ophiacanthidae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Thuy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypotheses on the age and possible antiquity of the modern deep-sea fauna put forward to date almost all agree on the assumption that the deep-sea fauna is largely the result of colonisation from shallow-water environments. Here, the fossil record of the Ophiacanthidae, a modern deep-sea brittle star family with extensive fossil occurrences at shelf depths, is systematically traced against a calibrated phylogeny. Several lines of evidence suggest that the Ophiacanthidae originated and greatly diversified in the deep sea, with most extant clades having diverged by the end of the Triassic at the latest. During the Jurassic, the family temporarily invaded shelf environments, attaining relative abundances and diversities comparable to those found in coeval and modern deep-sea settings, and gradually declined in abundance subsequently, to become largely restricted to the deep-sea again. The pattern of temporary expansion to shelf environments suggested here underpins the potential of deep-sea environments to contribute significantly to shallow-water biodiversity; an aspect that has mostly been neglected so far. It is speculated that the large-scale ophiacanthid invasion of shelf environments around the Triassic-Jurassic boundary was initiated by a change from thermohaline to halothermal circulation, attenuating the thermal stratification of the water column and thus providing opportunities for enhanced vertical migration of marine taxa.

  14. Shallow-ocean methane leakage and degassing to the atmosphere: triggered by offshore oil-gas and methane hydrate explorations

    OpenAIRE

    Yong eZHANG; Weidong eZhai

    2015-01-01

    Both offshore oil-gas exploration and marine methane hydrate recovery can trigger massive CH4 release from seafloor. During upward transportation of CH4 plume through water column, CH4 is subjected to dissolution and microbial consumption despite the protection of hydrate and oil coating on bubbles surface. The ultimate CH4 degassing to the atmosphere appears to be water-depth dependent. In shallow oceans with water depth less than 100 m, the natural or human-induced leakages or both lead to ...

  15. 78 FR 52239 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... would be added because the hydraulic control pressure to an individual subsea well may not be able to be... subsea tree production systems on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) and divide the current subpart H into... following headings: General requirements; Surface and subsurface safety systems--Dry trees; Subsea...

  16. Combined effects of salting, oregano oil and vacuum-packaging on the shelf-life of refrigerated trout fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangos, L; Pyrgotou, N; Giatrakou, V; Ntzimani, A; Savvaidis, I N

    2010-02-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of salt, oregano essential oil (EO) and packaging on fresh rainbow trout fillets during storage at 4 degrees C. Treatments included the following: A1 (control samples, unsalted: air packaged), A2 (salted: air packaged), VP1 (salted, vacuum packaged), VP2 (salted, vacuum packaged with added oregano EO 0.2% v/wt), and VP3 salted, vacuum packaged with added oregano EO 0.4% v/wt). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (to a greater extent), followed by H(2)S-producing bacteria (including Shewanella putrefaciens), Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae reached higher populations in A1, A2 (as compared to VP1, VP2 and VP3) trout samples. Treatments VP1, VP2 and VP3 produced significantly lower (P TVBN) and trimethylamine nitrogen (TMAN) values as compared to the A1 and A2 samples after day 6 and until end of storage period. Changes in thiobarbituric acid values (TBA) values for A1, A2, VP1, VP2 and VP3 samples were variable, indicative of no specific trend in trout samples, irrespective of packaging in the absence and/or presence of salt and oregano EO. As determined by sensory analysis (overall acceptability attribute) the observed shelf-life of trout fillets was longest for VP2 (16-17 days) followed by VP1 (14 days), A2 (8 days) and control (A1) samples (5 days). The presence of salt and oregano oil (0.2%) in cooked VP1 trout samples produced a distinct but sensorially acceptable pleasant odor, well received by the panellists, in contrast to the combined effect of salt and oregano oil at the higher concentrations (0.4% v/wt) used. Addition of salt (treatment VP1) extended the product's shelf-life by 9 days, whereas the combination of salt, oregano EO (0.2% v/wt) under VP conditions (treatment VP2) resulted in a significant shelf-life extension of trout fillets (11-12 days) according to sensory data, as compared to the control sample, kept under aerobic conditions.

  17. 75 FR 20271 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ..., in OCS Order No. 11 in 1974, ] during a period of oil shortages and energy crises. In 1988, MMS... other oil and natural gas production data. The Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration... recommendation to the Secretary of Energy to consider consulting with EPA (Environmental Protection Agency),...

  18. Discharges and Emissions on the Norwegian Continental Shelf : Oil, chemicals and emissions to air; Utslipp paa norsk kontinentalsokkel 2000. Olje, kjemikalier og utslipp til luft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The report gives an overview of the discharges of oil and chemicals to sea and emissions to air from the Norwegian Continental Shelf for 2000. This report is based on the operators annual report to the Norwegian Pollution Control Authorities. (author)

  19. Movement and effects of spilled oil over the outer continental shelf; inadequacy of existent data for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Harley J.

    1974-01-01

    A deductive approach to the problem of determining the movement and effects of spilled oil over the Outer Continental Shelf requires that the potential paths of oil be determined first, in order that critical subareas may be defined for later studies. The paths of spilled oil, in turn, depend primarily on the temporal and spatial variability of four factors: the thermohaline structure of the waters, the circulation of the water, the winds, and the distribution of suspended matter. A review of the existent data concerning these factors for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area (a relatively well studied segment of the Continental Shelf) reveals that the movement and dispersal of potential oil spills cannot be reliably predicted. Variations in the thermohaline structure of waters and in the distribution of suspended matter are adequately known; the uncertainty is due to insufficient wind and storm statistics and to the lack of quantitative understanding of the relationship between the nontidal drift and its basic driving mechanisms. Similar inadequacies should be anticipated for other potentially leasable areas of the shelf because an understanding of the movement of spilled oil has not been the underlying aim of most previous studies.

  20. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Wells - Pacific OCS Region NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains surface locations for oil and gas wells located in the Pacific Coast federal waters. Note: Wells are being added or modified continuously;...

  1. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Wells - Alaska Region NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Surface Locations of Boreholes drilled for exploration or oil and gas production. Dataset is maintained by Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. Please note: older well...

  2. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Platforms - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD 27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains point locations for oil and gas platforms (structures) located in the Gulf of Mexico federal waters. Note: Platforms are being added or...

  3. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Wells - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD 27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains surface locations for oil and gas wells located in the Gulf of Mexico federal waters. Note: Wells are being added or modified continuously;...

  4. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Wells - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains surface locations for oil and gas wells located in the Atlantic federal waters. All wells in the Atlantic Region were completed and abandoned...

  5. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Gulf of Mexico and their onshore impacts. Gulf of Mexico summary report, October 1984-June 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, C.W.; Risotto, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    This report provide a brief but comprehensive overview of oil and gas activites offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. While the reports focus on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) and the onshore impacts of operations in federal waters, information also is included on development in state waters and on how significant national issues affect Gulf Coast States. In addition, this sumary report includes a chapter that considers in detail wetland loss in Louisiana resulting from marshland development by the petroleum and other industries. The northern Gulf of Mexico continues to be a world leader in the production of offshore oil and gas, with a cumulative total of over 6 million barrels of crude oil and 67 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Between December 1983 and the end of 1984, the number of identified oil and gas fields in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf increased from 572 to 621. The 1983 advent of areawide leasing in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Region resulted in the leasing of more than 10.5 million acres by the oil. The vast number of tracts industry has leased, but not yet explored, leads to expectations of greater exploration activity in the next 3 to 4 years. The Gulf's offshore pipeline network is the most extensive in the world, totaling over 14,000 miles of pipe on the regions's Outer Continental Shelf. Postproduction facilities in the Gulf region have advanced in technology and flexibility in recent years. Major new discoveries in the Gulf augur well for area refineries and processors, as do plans for west-to-east pipelines bringing crude oil from California and Alaska. (DMC)

  6. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a CO{sub 2} project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. The work reported here is on the reservoir characterization and project design objective. This objective is scheduled to be completed in early 1996 at which time work on the field demonstration phase is scheduled to begin.

  7. Shallow-ocean methane leakage and degassing to the atmosphere: Triggered by offshore oil-gas and methane hydrate explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong eZHANG

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both offshore oil-gas exploration and marine methane hydrate recovery can trigger massive CH4 release from seafloor. During upward transportation of CH4 plume through water column, CH4 is subjected to dissolution and microbial consumption despite the protection of hydrate and oil coating on bubbles surface. The ultimate CH4 degassing to the atmosphere appears to be water-depth dependent. In shallow oceans with water depth less than 100 m, the natural or human-induced leakages or both lead to significant sea-to-air CH4 degassing from 3.00 to 1.36 × 105 μmol m-2 d-1. To quantify the human-perturbation induced CH4 degassing, the combination of top-down modeling and bottom-up calculations is essential due to spatial and temporal variability of diffusion and ebullition at water-air interface.

  8. What kind of oil company do we need? Maturity and industrial structure on the Norwegian Shelf; Hva slags oljeselskap trenger vi? Modenhet og industristruktur paa norsk sokkel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noreng, Oeystein

    1998-12-01

    After many years with relatively high oil prices and moderately good oil discoveries, there is today an investment pressure on the Shelf. Many current development projects concern smaller discoveries made a long time ago. Thus the present rapid development depletes a capital of discoveries made at an early phase when the Norwegian Shelf was less mature. On this background, this presentation suggests that perhaps Norway, as a mature oil province, may not need the same kind of oil companies that dominated the petroleum activities during the development to maturity. It is experienced internationally that the various phases in the development of an oil province require different competence and thus different companies. Less oil has been found the last years than what has been produced. The command is now to find more oil. The question is how and by what company. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for four categories of companies: (1) state companies, (2) large multinational, (3) independent, and (4) small newcomers. A section on maturing and the interest of the state as the property owner discusses the processes from large-scale operation to diversity, and maturing and the need for selective competence and low costs. Finally the paper discusses the negotiation policy of the state, political instruments and the company structure and reviews some experience from U.S.A. and UK. 1 table

  9. Oil residue contamination of continental shelf sediments of the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, V; Camp, J; Morgan, L J; Gryko, J

    2016-12-15

    We have investigated the distribution of a heavy oil residue in the coastal sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. The amount of the contamination was determined by high-temperature pyrolysis coupled with the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) of air-dried sediments. The pyrolysis products contain straight-chain saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as dodecane and 1-dodecene, resulting in a very characteristic pattern of double peaks in the GCMS. Hydrocarbons containing 8 to 23 carbon atoms were detected in the pyrolysis products. Using thermal pyrolysis we have found that the sediment samples collected along Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi shores contain no detectable traces of oil residue, but most of the samples collected along Alabama and Florida shores contain ~200ppm of heavy oil residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of Shallow Structures as The Pathway of Oil Seep in The Alue Punoe Village, Bireuen District, Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Asrillah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of magnetic data has been done in the area of oil seeps in the village of the Alue Punoe, with 121 measurement points as a grid within 500 m x 500 m area where each grid is approximately in 250 m2. The total magnetic field measurement has been examined by using Proton Precession Magnetometer (PPM. Upward continuation correction was applied to obtain residual magnetic field anomaly. Residual magnetic field anomaly data are mapped using the Surfer software, while subsurface models are made using the Mag2DC software. Based on the models that have been sliced from the local magnetic anomalies along the cross section of A-B and C-D from which then obtained a shallow structure which is a fault whose an approximate depth from 30 to 100 meters and three stratified media. The stratified media of the study area are interpreted as an alluvial deposit, alternating sandstone and clay and igneous rocks. Interpretation of subsurface models shows that there exists a shallow structure assumed as a fault. Expected fault has an adjacent to the manifestations which are about 50 to 70 m. It strengthens the case that the fault is strongly related to as the pathways of oil seepsfrom possibly existed petroleum system below subsurface of unknown strata

  11. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities. Pacific update: August 1987 - November 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slitor, Douglas L.; Wiese, Jeffrey D.; Karpas, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    This Pacific Update focuses on the geology and petroleum potential of the Central California and Washington-Oregon OCS Planning Areas. This report discusses the following topics: offshore oil and gas resources of the Pacific region; project-specific developments and status; and magnitude and timing of offshore developments. (CBS)

  12. Study of Reservoir Heterogencities and Structural Features Affecting Production in the Shallow Oil Zone, Eastern Elk Hills Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janice Gillespie

    2004-11-01

    Late Neogene (Plio-Pleistocene) shallow marine strata of the western Bakersfield Arch and Elk Hills produce hydrocarbons from several different reservoirs. This project focuses on the shallow marine deposits of the Gusher and Calitroleum reservoirs in the Lower Shallow Oil Zone (LSOZ). In the eastern part of the study area on the Bakersfield Arch at North and South Coles Levee field and in two wells in easternmost Elk Hills, the LSOZ reservoirs produce dry (predominantly methane) gas. In structurally higher locations in western Elk Hills, the LSOZ produces oil and associated gas. Gas analyses show that gas from the eastern LSOZ is bacterial and formed in place in the reservoirs, whereas gas associated with oil in the western part of the study area is thermogenic and migrated into the sands from deeper in the basin. Regional mapping shows that the gas-bearing LSOZ sands in the Coles Levee and easternmost Elk Hills area are sourced from the Sierra Nevada to the east whereas the oil-bearing sands in western Elk Hills appear to be sourced from the west. The eastern Elk Hills area occupied the basin depocenter, farthest from either source area. As a result, it collected mainly low-permeability offshore shale deposits. This sand-poor depocenter provides an effective barrier to the updip migration of gases from east to west. The role of small, listric normal faults as migration barriers is more ambiguous. Because our gas analyses show that the gas in the eastern LSOZ reservoirs is bacterial, it likely formed in-place near the reservoirs and did not have to migrate far. Therefore, the gas could have been generated after faulting and accumulated within the fault blocks as localized pools. However, bacterial gas is present in both the eastern AND western parts of Elk Hills in the Dry Gas Zone (DGZ) near the top of the stratigraphic section even though the measured fault displacement is greatest in this zone. Bacterial gas is not present in the west in the deeper LSOZ which

  13. A chitosan-based coating with or without clove oil extends the shelf life of cooked pork sausages in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekjing, Somwang

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan coatings, with and without clove oil, were investigated for effects on quality and shelf life of cooked pork sausages stored at a refrigerated temperature (4±2°C). The various treatments of cooked pork sausages were: untreated (control), coating with 2% chitosan (CS), and coating with a mixture having 2% chitosan and 1.5% clove oil (CS+CO). Various microbiological, physical, chemical and sensory properties were monitored over 25 days of storage. The total viable count, the psychrotrophic bacteria count, the L* value, peroxide value and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances increased, while the a* value, the b* value, the pH and the sensory scores decreased with storage time, across all treatments. However, these changes were slowest with the CS+CO treatment. Based on sensory evaluation and microbiological quality, the shelf lives were 14 days for control, 20 days for CS, and 20 days for CS+CO treated samples, under refrigerated storage.

  14. Effect of quince seed mucilage edible films incorporated with oregano or thyme essential oil on shelf life extension of refrigerated rainbow trout fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash; Khazaei, Naimeh

    2014-03-17

    The effects of quince seed mucilage film (QSMF) containing oregano (O) or thyme (T) essential oil on shelf life extension of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during refrigerated storage (4°C) were evaluated over a period of 18days. Films were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. The control and the wrapped fillet samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (aerobic and psychrotrophic count, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae), chemical (TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N), and sensory characteristics. Bacteria grew most quickly in trout fillets stored in air, followed by those wrapped with QSMF and the lowest counts were in wrapped samples with QSMF+2%T. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and LAB counts were significantly lower in samples wrapped with QSMF+2%T. The lowest TBA value was obtained in fillets wrapped QSMF containing 2% oregano essential oil. The strong antioxidant activity of QSMF+2%O was related to the composition of oregano essential oil. The GC analysis of essential oil components revealed that carvacrol (81.85%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. TBA value varied for all treatments and remained lower than 2mg MDA/kg throughout storage. The formation of TVB-N, TMA-N increased with time of storage. TVB-N and TMA-N correlated well with the microbiological data, indicating that along with TVB-N, TMA-N may serve as a useful index for fillets spoilage. QSMF extended the microbial shelf life of rainbow trout fillets by 2days, whereas the QSMF+1%O, QSMF+1.5%O, QSMF+2%O, QSMF+1%T, QSMF+1.5%T and QSMF+2%T resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the trout fillets by 3, 5, 9, 6, 10 and 11days, respectively, as compared to the control samples.

  15. Spatial and temporal changes in benthic communities of the Galician continental shelf after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Alberto [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain)]. E-mail aserrano@st.ieo.es; Sanchez, Francisco [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain); Preciado, Izaskun [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain); Parra, Santiago [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 130, 15080 La Coruna (Spain); Frutos, Inmaculada [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 130, 15080 La Coruna (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Two years after the Prestige oil spill (POS) an assessment of the effects on benthic fauna was carried out using the data obtained in five multidisciplinary surveys. Otter trawl, beam trawl, suprabenthic sled and box corer were used to study the main benthic compartments, along eight transects perpendicular to the coastline. Beam trawl was also employed to quantify the amount of tar aggregates on the continental shelf. No significant correlations between tar aggregates and species richness, biomass and diversity of benthic communities were found. This result was corroborated when the role of depth, season, latitude and sediment characteristics was examined by canonical ordination, in which POS-related variables had low influence on spatial distribution patterns. Depth and sediment grain diameter profoundly influence epibenthic communities. Sediment organic content is a third key variable for the infaunal, suprabenthic and lower-sized epibenthic communities, but not for the larger epibenthic communities. Nevertheless, a decrease in the densities of several epibenthic indicators was detected the first year after spill, followed by a noteworthy recovery in 2004. Non-macroscopic toxicity and some oceanographic agents are suggested as possible causes of these shifts.

  16. Effects of Rosemary Oil (Rosmarinus officinalis on the Shelf-Life of Minced Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of three concentrations (0.2%, 1% and 3% of rosemary oil (RO on the freshness indicators, oxidative stability, fatty acid and biogenic amine (BA contents of minced rainbow trout muscle (MTM were investigated after different periods of storage (three and nine days at 4 ± 1 °C. Moreover, the terpene and sesquiterpene contents in the treated MTM were also measured. RO treatment improves the pH, oxidative stability of the lipids and the FA profile, which resulted in a significant extension of MTM shelf-life. Storage time influenced all freshness indicators, with the exception of yellowness and chroma. Treatment with RO had a positive effect, leading to low BA content, especially putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and histamine. Differences in BA were also found to be due to storage time, with the exception of spermidine, which was not influenced by time. Moreover, the presence of the terpenoid fraction of RO in MTM improved the quality of this ready-to-cook fish food.

  17. The Processing of Chive Oil and the Prediction of Its Shelf Life%香葱油的制作及货架期的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清梅; 潘思轶; 徐晓云

    2015-01-01

    实验以新鲜香葱为原料,采用食用大豆油浸提的方式制备具有香葱风味的调味油,并对其货架期以及挥发性风味物质成分进行研究。结果表明:浸提温度45℃,固液比1∶2,浸提时间2 h,得到具有新鲜葱特有清香风味的调味油;货架期为176天,添加少量花椒油、生姜油可以有效抑制油脂的氧化,货架期提高至240天;在葱浆中检测到的挥发性物质主要为硫醚类、噻吩类以及醛酮类,其中44%的硫醚类物质是葱浆产生辛辣刺鼻味道的重要原因。在调味油中只检测到6种挥发性物质,其中正戊烷和二硫化碳为检测出的共同物质。%Fresh chives are used as raw materials in this study;the seasoning oil prepared by the way of soybean oil extraction has fresh chive flavor.The shelf life and flavor volatile components of chive oil are studied.The results show that the seasoning oil with special flavor of fresh chive can be obtained using soybean oil extraction method when the solid-liquid ratio is 1∶2,temperature is 45 ℃and time is 2 h.The shelf life of seasoning oil is 176 days,adding a small amount of pepper oil/ginger oil could effectively inhibit the oxidation of fat and the shelf life is increased to 240 days;the main volatile substances of minced chive are sulfides,thiophenes,aldehydes and ketones,of which 44% of sulfides is the key source of pungent taste of chive.Only six kinds of volatile substances are detected in the seasoning oil,and n-pentane and carbon disulfide are detected both in minced chive and seasoning oil.

  18. Stress, seismicity and structure of shallow oil reservoirs of Clinton County, Kentucky. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton-Smith, T. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-12

    Between 1993 and 1995 geophysicists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in a project funded by the US Department of Energy, conducted extensive microseismic monitoring of oil production in the recently discovered High Bridge pools of Clinton County and were able to acquire abundant, high-quality data in the northern of the two pools. This investigation provided both three-dimensional spatial and kinetic data relating to the High Bridge fracture system that previously had not been available. Funded in part by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kentucky Geological Survey committed to develop a geological interpretation of these geophysical results, that would be of practical benefit to future oils exploration. This publication is a summary of the results of that project. Contents include the following: introduction; discovery and development; regional geology; fractured reservoir geology; oil migration and entrapment; subsurface stress; induced seismicity; structural geology; references; and appendices.

  19. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study, Appendix 4, Fourth Wilhelm sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 with the United States Department of Energy. This study, Appendix IV, addresses the Fourth Wilhelm Sand and its sub units and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. Basic pressure production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verification. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can now additionally serve as a take off point for exploitation engineers to develop specific programs toward the end. 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. The economics of incremental investments in mature oil fields in the U. K. continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, A.G.; Reading, D.

    1991-09-01

    North Sea oil production commenced in the mid 1970s. Many fields have now passed their plateau years of production and are now in their mature phase. From a national viewpoint it is important to ensure that maximum economic benefit is obtained from these fields. This requires sound housekeeping, refurbishment and investment in incremental projects. The economic aspects of such projects are examined in this paper. The purpose is two-fold. Firstly, the study investigates, from an economic viewpoint, the characteristics of such projects in the conditions typically currently to be found in the North Sea. Secondly, the study elucidates the impact of the complex fiscal system in the projects. The issue of possible modification to the tax system is also discussed. (author).

  1. The extension of shelf-life of chicken meat after application of caraway and anise essential oils and vacuum packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kluz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The effect of caraway (CEO and anise (AEO essential oils as well as vacuum packaging (VP in extending of the shelf life of fresh chicken breast meat stored at 4 °C was investigated. CEO and AEO were used at concentrations 0.2% v/w with and without VP. Microbiological properties of chicken breast meat were monitored over a 16 day period. The microbiological parameters as the anaerobic plate count (AC, Enterobacteraceae, lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. counts were detected. The anaerobic plate counts ranged from 2.77 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 5.45 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. The number of lactic acid bacteria ranged from 3.20 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 4.75 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. Enterobacteriaceae counts ranged from 0.00 to 4.25 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. The number of Pseudomonas spp. ranged from 0.00 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 2.65 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. Statistically significant differences (P≤0.001 were found among tested group in all tested microorganisms. Among the antimicrobial combination treatments were examined in the study, the as application of vacuum packaging, EDTA, and essential oils were the most effective against the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Enterobactericeae and to a less extent on anaerobic plate count. The results of this present study suggest the possibility of using the essential oil of caraway and anise as natural food preservatives and potential source of antimicrobial ingredients for chicken breast meat.

  2. Hydrodynamic factors affecting the persistence of the Exxon Valdez oil in a shallow bedrock beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuqiang; Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Sharifi, Youness

    2010-10-01

    We report a field study and numerical modeling of multicomponent flow in a tidal gravel beach in Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska, where oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill persisted. Field measurements of water table, salinity, and tracer (lithium) concentration were obtained for around a week during the summer of 2008. The numerical model MARUN was used to simulate the field observations. On the basis of field experiments and numerical simulations, the beach was identified to have a two-layered hydraulic structure: a high-permeability surface layer underlain by a low-permeability lower layer. The hydraulic conductivity was found to be 5 × 10-2 m s-1 for the surface layer and 7 × 10-6 m s-1 for the lower layer. The simulations reproduced the observed water table, salinity, and lithium concentrations accurately. The small flow entering the beach from the land side resulted in a beach water table dropping below the interface of the two layers. This seems to be the major reason for the presence of oil in the lower layer. The exchange flow between the beach and the sea due to tidal influence was ˜2.12 m3 d-1 m-1. The patterns of inflow and outflow rates showed that the maximum seawater-groundwater exchange occurred in the middle to high intertidal zone, which explains the persistence of oil in the lower intertidal zone. To explore bioremediation of the beach with nutrient amendment, a numerical simulation of nutrient application on the beach surface was conducted, where the applied nutrient concentration was 5,000 mg L-1. The results showed that the nutrient concentration remaining in oiled areas after a week was larger than 50 mg L-1, which is larger than that needed for maximum microbial growth (2-10 mg L-1). This implies that the bioremediation via nutrient application on the beach surface could be adopted if nutrients were the only limiting factor.

  3. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Kumar Khare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Materials and Methods: Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA, tyrosine value (TVextract release volume (ERV, Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV, instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. Results: There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. Conclusion: The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application.

  4. Combined effect of an oxygen absorber and oregano essential oil on shelf life extension of rainbow trout fillets stored at 4 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexis, S F; Chouliara, E; Kontominas, M G

    2009-09-01

    In the present study the combined effect of an O2 absorber and oregano essential oil (0.4% v/w) on shelf life extension of rainbow trout fillets (Onchorynchus mykiss) stored under refrigeration (4 degrees C) was investigated. The study was based on microbiological [TVC, Pseudomonas spp., Lactic Acid Bacteria, H2S-producing bacteria including Shewanella putrefaciens, Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium spp.), physicochemical (pH, PV, TBA, TVBN and Drip loss) and sensory (odor, taste) changes occurring in the product as a function of treatment and storage time. Aerobically-packaged rainbow trout fillets stored at 4 degrees C were taken as control samples. Results showed that TVC exceeded 7 log cfu/g on day 4 of storage for control samples, day 7-8 for samples containing oregano oil, day 9 for samples containing the O2 absorber and day 12-13 for samples containing the O2 absorber and oregano oil. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and LAB were only partially inhibited by the O2 absorber and/or the oregano oil. In all cases the inhibition effect was more pronounced when the combination of O2 absorber with oregano essential oil was used. pH decreased from an initial value of 6.65-6.09 and subsequently increased to 6.86 due to formation of protein decomposition products. % Drip loss ranged between 7% and 11-12% at the end of the product shelf life. PV values ranged between 11.4 and 27.0 meq O2/kg oil while malondialdehyde (MDA) ranged between 9.6 and 24.5 mg/kg. TVBN ranged between 10.6 and 54.6 mg/kg at the time of sensory rejection. Sensory shelf life was 4 days for the control samples, 7-8 days for samples containing oregano oil, 13-14 days for samples containing the O2 absorber and 17 days for samples containing the O2 absorber plus oregano oil.

  5. 76 FR 14040 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central and Western Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central and... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA), and the Coastal Zone...

  6. Effects of Ocimum basilicum Linn essential oil and sodium hexametaphosphate on the shelf life of fresh chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Albano, Mariana; Castilho, Ivana Giovannetti; Rall, Vera Lucia Mores; Athayde, Natália Bortoleto; Delbem, Nara Laiane Casagrande; Roça, Roberto de Oliveira; Fernandes, Ary

    2014-06-01

    Although consumers and the food industry have an interest in reducing the use of synthetic additives, the consumption of processed meat in Brazil has been increasing because of the easy preparation and low cost. Owing to the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of Ocimum basilicum essential oil (EO), it has potential applications in food products. Polyphosphates are already used in meat processing with the goal of improving the quality of the products. The aim of this work was to assess the effects of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) and O. basilicum EO, when added separately or together, on physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters during the shelf life of chicken sausage. We also performed sensory analysis of the product prepared in this manner. Six different treatments were produced in which the substances were tested together or separately, and the content of EO was 0.3 or 0.03%. The samples were analyzed after 1, 7, and 15 days of storage at 4°C. An increase in pH on days 7 and 15 in samples that contained SHMP was observed. In the samples that contained either 0.3 or 0.03% EO, coliforms were inhibited throughout the study period (P < 0.05), which was not observed in samples with EO plus SHMP, thus demonstrating that the stabilizer blocked the antibacterial action of EO. There was a reduction in the cook loss and increased compressive force in the samples with 0.5% SHMP, contributing to greater juiciness of the product. The EO had substantial impact on acceptability of samples, but it did not influence the activities already described of polyphosphate.

  7. Late Quaternary Incisions and Related Shallow Subsurface Stratigraphy on the New Jersey Mid-Outer Shelf: Preliminary Results from Ultra-High Resolution Chirp Sonar Images - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfjord, S.; Gulick, S. P.; Austin, J. A.; Goff, J. A.; Fulthorpe, C. S.

    2002-12-01

    ONR's Geoclutter program is a multi-year initiative to investigate systematic relationships between geologic phenomena and discrete acoustic signals ("geoclutter"). The New Jersey middle and outer shelf is the natural laboratory for Geoclutter because of the abundance of surficial geologic structures, including complex dendritic networks of fluvial (?) channels shallowly buried below the seafloor. Their geophysical characterization includes collection of high resolution seismic data in August-September 2001, using a deep-towed chirp sonar aboard the R/V Endeavor. These data image the upper ~30 m of sediments at ~2 m horizontal resolution and ~10 cm vertical resolution. Track spacing is typically 200 m. This resolution allows us to resolve subsurface structures in greater detail and over a wider range of spatial scales than previous imaging efforts using boomer sources. We present preliminary results from the central portion of the survey, a ~20x30 km area covering two separate dendritic systems. Principal drainage axes of buried channels are oriented NW to SE. Multiple incisions include cut-and-fill morphologies that characterize the channel fills, suggesting a complicated history since the last eustatic lowstand, ~20-22 ka. Both flat-lying and chaotic reflections are imaged within the fills, suggesting that infilling occurred episodically, in response to high-order relative base-level variations, and under fluctuating energy conditions. Channel-fills are often capped with a thin veneer of sand deposited after channel-filling; this has been confirmed by recent grab sampling geoclutter aboard R/V Cape Henlopen. These sediments appear to have been deposited during the last glacio-eustatic cycle (~100 kyr). A regionally important seismic reflector mappable throughout the middle to outer shelf, "R", has been interpreted as an erosional surface created during the last regression. This hypothesis is supported by the few age constraints currently available (AMS Carbon-14

  8. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC50, FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples.

  9. Effect of cinnamon essential oil on bacterial diversity and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Dongping; Lv, Jian; Li, Qingzheng; Kong, Chunli; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-05-16

    The present study investigated the effect of cinnamon essential oil on the quality of vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets stored at 4±1°C in terms of sensory scores, physicochemical characteristics (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), biogenic amines, and color), and presence of spoilage microbiota. A total of 290,753 bacterial sequences and 162 different genera belonging to 14 phyla were observed by a high-throughput sequencing technique targeting the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA, which showed a more comprehensive estimate of microbial diversity in carp samples compared with microbial enumeration. Before storage, Macrococcus and Aeromonas were the prevalent populations in the control samples, but cinnamon essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Macrococcus in the treated samples. Variability in the predominant microbiota in different samples during chilled storage was observed. Aeromonas followed by Lactococcus were the major contaminants in the spoiled control samples. Microbial enumeration also observed relatively higher counts of Aeromonas than other spoilage microorganisms. Compared with the control samples, cinnamon essential oil inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Lactococcus were the predominant components in the treated samples on day 10; plate counts also revealed a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria during refrigerated storage. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the composition of dominant microbiota between these two treatments at the end of the shelf-life. Furthermore, cinnamon essential oil treatment was more effective in inhibiting the increase of TVB-N and the accumulation of biogenic amines (especially for putrescine and cadaverine levels). Based primarily on sensory analysis, the use of cinnamon essential oil extended the shelf-life of vacuum-packaged common carp fillets by about 2days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 53481 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region...) announces the availability of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for...

  11. Holocene sea levels of Visakhapatnam shelf, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.M.; Rao, T.C.S.

    The Holocene sea level changes in the shelf areas off Visakhapatnam was studied from sediment distribution pattern and shallow seismic profiling. Morphological features on the shelf indicate a Late Pleistocene regression down to about -130 m below...

  12. 78 FR 59715 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Web site at http://www.boem.gov/Oil-and-Gas-Energy-Program/Mapping-and-Data/Alaska.aspx . 4... Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 237 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior..., scheduled to be held in 2016, as included in the Proposed Final OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program...

  13. 76 FR 70473 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Western Planning Area (WPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ..., 6th Floor, Immediately. Please Note: 1. Bidders mailing bid(s) are advised to call Ms. Nancy Kornrumpf... provisions of the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention, and could be subject to a continental shelf delimitation... additional information, please call the Mapping and Automation Section at (504) 736-5768. All blocks...

  14. 78 FR 45557 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... making its decision, BOEM considered alternatives to the proposed action and the potential impacts as... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area...: Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision. SUMMARY: BOEM has prepared a Record of Decision (ROD) for...

  15. 78 FR 9731 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Mississippi. In making its decision, BOEM considered alternatives to the proposed action and the potential... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area...: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Record of Decision (ROD) for CPA Lease Sale 227 in the Gulf of Mexico...

  16. 78 FR 45558 - Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Migration, Reverse Migration, Reverse Time Migration) of the data, velocity models used, and other requested...-Program/Mapping-and-Data/Official-Protraction-Diagrams.aspx . For the current status of all WPA leasing... the U.S.-Mexico Maritime and Continental Shelf Boundary The following definitions apply to...

  17. Local natural electric fields - the electrochemical factor of formation of placers and the criterion of prospectings of oil and gas deposits on the Arctic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir; Kholmianskaia, Galina

    2014-05-01

    On the basis litologo-facial, geo- and hydrochemical characteristics of a cross-section lito - and shelf hydrospheres, the estimation of structural features modern and paleostatic local electric fields and their influence on transportation of the suspended mineral material is made. The formula of dynamic carrying over of the ore material which is in a subcolloidal condition under the influence of natural electric field of a shelf is deduced. On a structure of a friable cover and its features on G.I. Teodorovicha's method position of oxidation-reduction border, sign Eh was reconstructed. On the basis of the established dependence between Eh and local substatic electric field of a shelf it was reconstructed paleostatic a field and its influence on the weighed mineral particles was estimated. Influence of local electric field on lithodynamic moving of ore minerals is estimated for a shelf of the Arctic seas of Russia. On the basis of this estimation and data on structure of a friable cover the map of influence of local electric field on sedimentation and transportation of ore minerals for water area of the East Arctic seas of Russia is constructed. For Laptev seas and East-Siberian the areas in which limits local electric field promoted are revealed and promotes formation Holocene placers of an ilmenite, a cassiterite and gold. For Chukchi and the Bering Seas such estimation is made for all friable cover. hydrocarbonic deposits located on water area of the Arctic shelf of the Russian Federation, initiate occurrence of jet auras of dispersion of heavy metals in ground deposits and in a layer of the sea water, blocking these deposits. Intensity of auras and their spatial position is caused by a geological structure of deposits of breeds containing them, lithodynamic and oceanologic factors. On the basis of the theoretical representations developed by M.A.Holmjansky and O.F.Putikova (Holmjansky, Putikov, 2000, 2006, 2008) application of electrochemical updating of

  18. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  19. Imaging continental shelf shallow stratigraphy by using different high-resolution seismic sources: an example from the Calabro-Tyrrhenian margin (Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Martorelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution seismic reflection profiles of the Calabro-Tyrrhenian continental shelf were collected using different seismic sources (Sub-Bottom Profiler, Uniboom, Sparker 0.5-1-4.5 kJ. Noticeable differences and results were obtained both from a geophysical and geological-interpretative point of view. The availability of different sources permitted the definition of the most suitable seismostratigraphic characterization in terms of resolution, penetration and acoustic facies. Very high resolution stratigraphy was defined through profiles produced by different seismic systems used in parallel. This permitted the application of sequence-stratigraphy concepts with the reconstruction of a thick postglacial depositional sequence, formed by a transgressive and a high-stand systems tract. The thickness distribution of postglacial deposits reveals that the main depocenter (55-65 m is located offshore of the Coastal Range, along a stretch of coast supplied by several small and seasonal streams ("fiumare" and characterized by the lack of a coastal plain. This suggests the greater efficiency of sediment supply and bypass in this area relatively to sectors located offshore of the main rivers. The transgressive systems tract, usually thin or nearly absent, is particularly well developed (up to 33 m and is composed of up to three parasequences with a retrogradational stacking pattern. The high-stand systems tract, up to 30 m thick, is made up of two parasequences and has a quite regular geometry and acoustic facies.Perfis de reflexão sísmica de alta resolução da plataforma continental tirreniana de Calabro foram obtidos utilizando-se recursos sísmicos diversos (Perfilador de Sub-superfície, Uniboom, Sparker 0.5-1-4.5 kJ. Diferenças evidentes foram encontradas sob o ponto de vista geofísico e geológico-interpretativo. A disponibilidade de diferentes fontes permitiu a definição de uma caracterização sismo-estratigráfica mais acurada em termos

  20. Sedimentary facies and depositional model of shallow water delta dominated by fluvial for Chang 8 oil-bearing group of Yanchang Formation in southwestern Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林; 陆永潮; 吴吉元; 邢凤存; 刘璐; 马义权; 饶丹; 彭丽

    2015-01-01

    A systematic analysis of southwestern Ordos Basin’s sedimentary characteristics, internal architectural element association styles and depositional model was illustrated through core statistics, well logging data and outcrop observations in Chang 8 oil-bearing group. This analysis indicates that shallow water delta sediments dominated by a fluvial system is the primary sedimentary system of the Chang 8 oil-bearing group of the Yanchang Formation in southwestern Ordos Basin. Four microfacies with fine grain sizes are identified: distributary channels, sheet sandstone, mouth bar and interdistributary fines. According to the sandbody’s spatial distribution and internal architecture, two types of sandbody architectural element associations are identified: amalgamated distributary channels and thin-layer lobate sandstone. In this sedimentary system, net-like distributary channels at the delta with a narrow ribbon shape compose the skeleton of the sandbody that extends further into the delta front and shades into contiguous lobate distribution sheet sandstone in the distal delta front. The mouth bar is largely absent in this system. By analyzing the palaeogeomorphology, the palaeostructure background, sedimentary characteristics, sedimentary facies types and spatial distribution of sedimentary facies during the Chang 8 period, a distinctive depositional model of the Chang 8 shallow water fluvial-dominated delta was established, which primarily consists of straight multi-phase amalgamated distributary channels in the delta plain, net-like distributary channels frequently diverting and converging in the proximal delta front, sheet sandstones with dispersing contiguous lobate shapes in the distal delta front, and prodelta or shallow lake mudstones.

  1. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2005-04-01

    In this reporting period two main accomplishments stand out. The Springdale task is in play in the northern Michigan Basin and the geochemical survey work over the Springdale prospect continued to progress. We still need to characterize the play in terms of the type of trap (basal reef diagenetic (?)) and its relation to the well documented pinnacle reef play. Also, we have become aware that Capac Field in the southern reef trend (Figure 1) is a possible analog to Springdale and so will be looking more closely at the literature on that field, particularly the work by Bowers (1987). Future work is directed toward further defining the Springdale project via more wells and examination and characterization of well cuttings. One to two more geochemical surveys are planned, one this spring and a final one in early fall. Based on current oil prices and Springdale production as of January 2005, an ROI, (defined as Total liquids revenue, $5.45m/DOE support, $1.45m) better than 3.75. This does not include gas revenues, which have not yet been calculated.

  2. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan

    2003-01-01

    Presented in this quarterly report is the Case History and Well Summary for the Vernon Field demonstration project in Isabella County, Michigan. This new case history and well summary format organizes and presents the technical and historical details of the Vernon Field demonstration, as well as the field demonstration results and the applicability of these results to other demonstration projects. This format could be duplicated for other demonstration projects and will be used on all subsequent field demonstrations as they near completion. Planning for the annual project meeting in Tampa, Florida has begun. This meeting will be held March 7-9, 2003 at the same site as the last three meetings. The goals of this project were to: (1) test the use of multi-lateral wells to recover bypassed hydrocarbons and (2) to access the potential of using surface geochemistry to reduce drilling risk. Two new demonstration wells, the State-Smock and the Bowers 4-25, were drilled to test the Dundee Formation at Vernon Field for bypassed oil. Neither well was commercial, although both produced hydrocarbon shows. An extensive geochemical survey in the vicinity of Vernon Field, covering much of Isabella County, has produced a base map for interpretation of anomalies in Michigan. Several potential new anomalies were discovered that could be further investigated.

  3. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTRY, MI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-04-01

    The principal objective of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. A major part of the remaining project will focus on using surface geochemistry to delineate prospects. A Niagaran reef field geochemical survey, the Bagley Prospect area in Otsego County, Michigan is scheduled to take place this summer. Previous wells drilled in Bagley Prospect area in the early 1970's and in place in late 2002 and early 2003 resulted in discoveries and numerous hydrocarbon shows in the Brown Niagaran reservoir interval. The Bagley region is still considered an area of interest by the industry and appears ripe for a geochemical survey. Our industry partner is interested in a possible test in the Bagley prospect because subsurface geophysical and geological interpretation indicates the presence of structures. Anomalous production and pressure data further suggest the region is not yet well understood and should not be considered mature. The most recent well, the Bagley 1-22A sidetrack, was unsuccessful at locating a new reef culmination to the south of the original vertical well and did not encounter hydrocarbon shows. The sidetrack and well were plugged and abandoned. The proposed geochemical survey will concentrate on areas away from the Bagley 1-22A to the north and west but will include the entire prospect so that the existing data can be used in interpretations. Bagley appears to offer a unique combination of potential and data for a geochemical study that focuses on looking for new oil in an area that has exhausted traditional geologic and geophysical methods. The Bear Lake pinnacle reef trend in Manistee County, Michigan, is also scheduled for further geochemical work this summer. Industry interest, mostly by small companies, is picking up in this area and it is also ripe for targeted geochemical surveys for

  4. Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates, eastern margin of Central Basin platform, Permian basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.F.; Chalcraft, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates serve as the reservoir for a nearly continuous band of oil fields extending 100 mi along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform of west Texas. Approximately 5 billion bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic-structural traps within the Upper Permian (Gaudalupian Series) dolomites of the San Andrea and Grayburg Formations in Upton, Crane, Ector, Pecos, and Andrews Counties, Texas. The San Andrea and Grayburg Formations are cyclical shallowing-upward carbonate sequences of open shelf through sabkha facies whose depositional strike parallels the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform. Porosity and permeability of reservoir rock are governed by diagenetic processes such as dolomitization, anhydrite porosity occlusion, leaching, silicification, and authigenic clay formation. Self sediments are primarily burrowed wackestones and packstones that locally contain pelletal, skeletal, and ooid grainstones. Typical subtidal shelf sediments are capped by algal-laminated dolomite, nodular anhydritic dolomite, and bedded anhydrite. The fauna is normally sparse and dominated by foraminifera and algae. Less common faunal components include pelecypods, crinoids, sponges, Bryozoa, brachiopods, gastropods, and coral that are associated with the development of small scattered patch reefs. Lowering the sea level during the early Guadalpian initiated basinward progradation of San Andres carbonate facies with hydrocarbon reservoirs best developed in shallow self fusulinid wackestones to packstone and oolitic grainstone. Reservoir dolomites of the Grayburg formation are present east of San Andres fields with optimal reservoir properties occurring near the San Andreas outer shelf margin.

  5. Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil combined with different packaging conditions to extend the shelf life of refrigerated beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocchi, Veronica; Devlieghere, Frank; Peelman, Nanou; Sagratini, Gianni; Maggi, Filippo; Vittori, Sauro; Ragaert, Peter

    2017-04-15

    Rosemary essential oil (REO) contains bioactives having antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This work investigated the effect of REO combined with modified atmosphere packaging conditions (MAP), in our case, aerobic, vacuum or high O2, to extend the shelf life of beef. Beef slices were wrapped in special three-layer sheets of packaging material, some with a coating of REO (active packaging, AP), and some without REO (non active packaging, NAP), and stored at 4°C for 20days. The use of REO proved efficacious in every storage condition, as seen in the lower counts of psychrotrophics, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., and Enterobacteriaceae in AP meat compared to NAP meat. Sensory and colourimetric analyses showed that the best packaging conditions were high-O2 atmosphere in combination with REO. Based on microbiological data, shelf life of beef was 5-6days for AP samples packaged under aerobic conditions and 14-15days for AP samples in high-O2 conditions.

  6. 77 FR 29682 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Central Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 216/222

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... lease sale in the 2007-2012 OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program (Five-Year Program), which is scheduled for... Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the economic and energy security benefits of exploring and developing the... U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone in the area known as the northern portion of the Eastern Gap; and...

  7. Applicability of NASA contract quality management and failure mode effect analysis procedures to the USGS Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, M. K.; Little, D. G.; Hoard, E. G.; Taylor, A. C.; Campbell, R.

    1972-01-01

    An approach that might be used for determining the applicability of NASA management techniques to benefit almost any type of down-to-earth enterprise is presented. A study was made to determine the following: (1) the practicality of adopting NASA contractual quality management techniques to the U.S. Geological Survey Outer Continental Shelf lease management function; (2) the applicability of failure mode effects analysis to the drilling, production, and delivery systems in use offshore; (3) the impact on industrial offshore operations and onshore management operations required to apply recommended NASA techniques; and (4) the probable changes required in laws or regulations in order to implement recommendations. Several management activities that have been applied to space programs are identified, and their institution for improved management of offshore and onshore oil and gas operations is recommended.

  8. Shelf life of ready to use peeled shrimps as affected by thymol essential oil and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromatteo, Marianna; Danza, Alessandra; Conte, Amalia; Muratore, Giuseppe; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2010-12-15

    In this work the influence of different packaging strategies on the shelf life of ready to use peeled shrimps was investigated. First, the effectiveness of the coating (Coat) and the active coating loaded with different concentrations of thymol (Coat-500, Coat-1000, and Coat-1500) on the quality loss of the investigated food product packaged in air was addressed; afterwards, the thymol concentration that had shown the best performance was used in combination with MAP (5% O(2); 95% CO(2)). Microbial cell load of main spoilage microorganisms, pH and sensorial quality were monitored during the refrigerated storage. Results of the first step suggested that the sole coating did not affect the microbial growth. A slight antimicrobial effect was obtained when the coating was loaded with thymol and a concentration dependence was also observed. Moreover, the active coating was effective in minimizing the sensory quality loss of the investigated product, it was particularly true at the lowest thymol concentration. In the second step, the thymol concentration (1000 ppm) that showed the strike balance between microbial and sensorial quality was chosen in combination with MAP. As expected, MAP significantly affected the growth of the mesophilic bacteria. In particular, a cell load reduction of about 2 log cycle for the samples under MAP respect to that in air was obtained. Moreover, the MAP packaging inhibited the growth of the Pseudomonas spp. and hydrogen sulphide-producing bacteria. The MAP alone was not able to improve the shelf life of the uncoated samples. In fact, no significant difference between the control samples packaged in air and MAP was observed. Whilst, the use of coating under MAP condition prolonged the shelf life of about 6 days with respect to the same samples packaged in air. Moreover, when the MAP was used in combination with thymol, a further shelf life prolongation with respect to the samples packaged in air was observed. In particular, a shelf life of

  9. Application of lemon peel essential oil with edible coating agent to prolong shelf life of tofu and strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Della; Chandra, Mega; Santoso, Stefanus; Puteri, Maria Gunawan

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of sweet orange, lemon, and key lime peel were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of each citrus essential oil with different concentration was assessed using broth macro-dilution against Bacillus sp, Eschericia coli, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Botrytis sp which represented specific spoilage microorganism in tofu and fresh strawberry. Among all the citrus peel essential oils tested, lemon peel essential oil with 0.6% concentration showed significant activity as an antimicrobial agent against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp. In other hand 1% of lemon peel essential oil is also considered to be the best concentration of inhibiting the Rhizopus Stolonifer and Botrytis sp. Lemon peel essential oil which has the highest antimicrobial activity was combined with two different kind of edible coating agents (cassava starch and sodium alginate) and was applied in both tofu and strawberry to observe whether it had possibility to decrease the degradation rate of tofu and strawberry. The addition of 0.6% and 1% lemon peel essential oil with each of edible coating agents was significantly able to reduce the degradation of tofu and fresh strawberry.

  10. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

  11. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; T.J. Bornhorst; S.D. Chittick; William B. Harrison; W. Quinlan; E. Taylor

    2001-07-31

    Appendix I. Five geochemical techniques have been tested in Phase I. These include surface iodine, microbial, enzyme leaching, soil gas and subsurface iodine. We are most comfortable with the results of the microbial surveys but feel that direct measurement of soil gas is the best method if analytical difficulties can be overcome. The reason the microbial surveys are presently favored is because they provide a logical, consistent picture that is easy to interpret and easy to explain. This in turn is because the microbial anomaly is manifested as an ''apical'' as opposed to an ''edge'' or ''halo'' anomaly. Several lessons were learned during Phase I activities. The main one was that surface geochemistry could locate anomalies over old fields such as Vernon. We also learned that horizontal drilling has advantages and disadvantages in situations such as this. On the plus side, it does provide a means to probe for pockets of bypassed oil, but it is expensive relative to vertical (or slant wells?) and is difficult to control in a narrow pay zone. We tentatively conclude that horizontal wells do not provide a cost-effective solution in this setting and suggest that geochemical anomalies be investigated via a single vertical well or multiple vertical wells.

  12. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern

  13. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Pacific (Southern California) and their onshore impacts: a summary report, May 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, George S.; Bernstein, Janis

    1980-01-01

    Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas exploration and development have been under way in the Pacific (Southern California) Region since 1966. During that time, there have been four Federal lease sales: in 1966, 1968, 1975 (Sale 35), and 1979 (Sale 48). Oil and gas production from three leases has been going on since 1968. It peaked in 1971 and now averages around 31,400 barrels of oil and 15.4 million cubic feet of gas per day. Discoveries on areas leased in the 1968 and 1975 sales have led to plans for eight new platforms to begin production in the early 1980's. Five platforms are in the eastern end of Santa Barbara Channel, one is in the western Channel, and two are in San Pedro Bay, south of Long Beach. Three rigs are doing exploratory drilling in the Region. The most recent estimates by the U.S. Geological Survey of remaining reserves for all identified fields in the Southern California Region are 695 million barrels of oil and 1,575 billion cubic feet of gas (January 1979). The USGS has also made risked estimates of economically recoverable oil and gas resources for all the leased tracts in the Region (March 1980). These risked estimates of economically recoverable resources are 394 billion barrels of oil and 1,295 billion cubic feet of gas. The USGS estimates of undiscovered recoverable resources for the entire Southern California OCS Region (January 1980) are 3,200 million barrels of oil and 3,400 billion cubic feet of gas. Because of the long history of oil and gas production in Southern California from wells onshore and in State waters, there are many existing facilities for the transportation, processing, and refining of oil and gas. Some of the expected new OCS production can be accommodated in these facilities. Four new onshore projects will be required. Two of these are under construction: (1) a 9.6-km (6-mi) onshore oil pipeline (capacity: 60,000 bpd) between Carpinteria (Santa Barbara County) and the existing Mobil-Rincon separation and treatment

  14. Wave-driven sediment mobilization on a storm-controlled continental shelf (Northwest Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hanebuth, Till

    2014-01-01

    Seafloor sediment mobilization on the inner Northwest Iberian continental shelf is caused largely by ocean surface waves. The temporal and spatial variability in the wave height, wave period, and wave direction has a profound effect on local sediment mobilization, leading to distinct sediment mobilization scenarios. Six grain-size specific sediment mobilization scenarios, representing seasonal average and storm conditions, were simulated with a physics-based numerical model. Model inputs included meteorological and oceanographic data in conjunction with seafloor grain-size and the shelf bathymetric data. The results show distinct seasonal variations, most importantly in wave height, leading to sediment mobilization, specifically on the inner shelf shallower than 30 m water depth where up to 49% of the shelf area is mobilized. Medium to severe storm events are modeled to mobilize up to 89% of the shelf area above 150 m water depth. The frequency of each of these seasonal and storm-related sediment mobilization scenarios is addressed using a decade of meteorological and oceanographic data. The temporal and spatial patterns of the modeled sediment mobilization scenarios are discussed in the context of existing geological and environmental processes and conditions to assist scientific, industrial and environmental efforts that are directly affected by sediment mobilization. Examples, where sediment mobilization plays a vital role, include seafloor nutrient advection, recurrent arrival of oil from oil-spill-laden seafloor sediment, and bottom trawling impacts.

  15. Reservoir engineering optimized techniques and applications research in initial development stage of a super shallow sea marginal oil field : Development case of Chengdao Oil Field in Bohai Bay, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, D.; Ren, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, D. [Shengli Oil field Inc. (China). SINOPEC Corp.

    2002-06-01

    One of the greatest Chinese neritic marginal oil fields is the Chengdao oil field, located north of Dongying City, Shandong Province, China in the southern part of Bohai Bay. The depth of the seawater is less than 15 metres, even though the field lies 5 kilometres from shore. It falls in the category of super shallow sea marginal oil field, due to a number of reasons: peculiar geographical location, abominable environment and climate, complex reservoir characteristics and high economic risk of exploration and development. The major oil-bearing series of the Chengdao oil field is upper Guantao sandstones. The establishment of a three-dimensional conceptual model and static model in initial development stage were completed using Log-Constrained Seismic Inversion technique combined with three-dimensional visual geological model establishment technique. The optimization and determination of reservoir engineering technical limits, namely development scheme, well pattern and spacing, timing of water injection, water injection scheme and injection-to-production ratio was accomplished with the application of geostatistics, numerical simulation and economic evaluation techniques. For the period 1996-2001, the cumulative oil productivity of upper Guantao reservoir in pure natural energy development increased substantially. The results were presented in this paper. 3 refs., 6 tabs., 13 figs.

  16. Groundwater methane in relation to oil and gas development and shallow coal seams in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Rogers, Jessica D.; Lackey, Greg; Burke, Troy L.; Osborn, Stephen G.; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development has generated intense public concerns about potential impacts to groundwater quality. Specific pathways of contamination have been identified; however, overall rates of contamination remain ambiguous. We used an archive of geochemical data collected from 1988 to 2014 to determine the sources and occurrence of groundwater methane in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of northeastern Colorado. This 60,000-km2 region has a 60-y-long history of hydraulic fracturing, with horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing beginning in 2010. Of 924 sampled water wells in the basin, dissolved methane was detected in 593 wells at depths of 20–190 m. Based on carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes and gas molecular ratios, most of this methane was microbially generated, likely within shallow coal seams. A total of 42 water wells contained thermogenic stray gas originating from underlying oil and gas producing formations. Inadequate surface casing and leaks in production casing and wellhead seals in older, vertical oil and gas wells were identified as stray gas migration pathways. The rate of oil and gas wellbore failure was estimated as 0.06% of the 54,000 oil and gas wells in the basin (lower estimate) to 0.15% of the 20,700 wells in the area where stray gas contamination occurred (upper estimate) and has remained steady at about two cases per year since 2001. These results show that wellbore barrier failure, not high-volume hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells, is the main cause of thermogenic stray gas migration in this oil- and gas-producing basin. PMID:27402747

  17. Groundwater methane in relation to oil and gas development and shallow coal seams in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Owen A; Rogers, Jessica D; Lackey, Greg; Burke, Troy L; Osborn, Stephen G; Ryan, Joseph N

    2016-07-26

    Unconventional oil and gas development has generated intense public concerns about potential impacts to groundwater quality. Specific pathways of contamination have been identified; however, overall rates of contamination remain ambiguous. We used an archive of geochemical data collected from 1988 to 2014 to determine the sources and occurrence of groundwater methane in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of northeastern Colorado. This 60,000-km(2) region has a 60-y-long history of hydraulic fracturing, with horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing beginning in 2010. Of 924 sampled water wells in the basin, dissolved methane was detected in 593 wells at depths of 20-190 m. Based on carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes and gas molecular ratios, most of this methane was microbially generated, likely within shallow coal seams. A total of 42 water wells contained thermogenic stray gas originating from underlying oil and gas producing formations. Inadequate surface casing and leaks in production casing and wellhead seals in older, vertical oil and gas wells were identified as stray gas migration pathways. The rate of oil and gas wellbore failure was estimated as 0.06% of the 54,000 oil and gas wells in the basin (lower estimate) to 0.15% of the 20,700 wells in the area where stray gas contamination occurred (upper estimate) and has remained steady at about two cases per year since 2001. These results show that wellbore barrier failure, not high-volume hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells, is the main cause of thermogenic stray gas migration in this oil- and gas-producing basin.

  18. West Florida shelf upwelling: Origins and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    Often described as oligotrophic, the west Florida continental shelf supports abundant fisheries, experiences blooms of the harmful alga, Karenia brevis, and exhibits subsurface chlorophyll maxima evident in shipboard and glider surveys. Renewal of inorganic nutrients by the upwelling of deeper ocean water onto the shelf may account for this, but what are the origins and pathways by which such new water may broach the shelf break and advance toward the shoreline? We address these questions via numerical model simulations of pseudo-Lagrangian, isopycnic water parcel trajectories. Focus is on 2010, when the west Florida shelf was subjected to an anomalously protracted period of upwelling caused by Gulf of Mexico Loop Current interactions with the shelf slope. Origins and pathways are determined by integrating trajectories over successive 45 day intervals, beginning from different locations along the shelf break and at various locations and depths along the shelf slope. Waters upwelling across the shelf break are found to originate from relatively shallow depths along the shelf slope. Even for the anomalous 2010 year, much of this upwelling occurs from about 150 m and above, although waters may broach the shelf break from 300 m depth, particularly in the Florida Panhandle. Such interannual renewal of west Florida shelf waters appears to have profound effects on west Florida shelf ecology.

  19. 米糠油氧化稳定性研究及货架期预测%Oxidation Stability and Shelf-life of Rice Bran Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丹; 吴雪辉; 杨公明; 陈小龙

    2012-01-01

    以精炼米糠油为原料,通过分析其理化指标与脂肪酸组成,探讨贮藏条件对米糠油氧化稳定性的影响,建立氧化反应动力学方程,预测米糠油的货架期.结果表明,米糠油脂肪酸中不饱和脂肪酸含量为77.45%,主要有棕榈酸17.77%、油酸46.74%、亚油酸29.34%.米糠油的氧化稳定性受光照、温度和氧气含量的影响,空气中氧气的存在会加速米糠油氧化,温度越高,氧化速度越快;不同光照条件下的稳定性依次为:避光>紫外光>自然光>日光灯.米糠油氧化遵循一级化学反应,其动力学模型为k=0.3564e 796.36/RT,通过外推法得出米糠油20℃、25℃和30℃的货架期分别为1068 d、410d、206 d.%Physical and chemical indexes were analyzed to study the oxidation stability, oxidation kinetics and shelf-life of refined rice bran oil. The results showed that the percentage of unsaturated acid was 77.45%, including 17.77% palmitic acid, 46.74% oleic acid, and 29.34% linoleic acid. Light conditions, temperature and oxygen significantly affected the oxidation stability of rice bran oil. The stability of rice bran oil significantly decreased with increasing storage temperature. The stability of different light conditions was as follows: dark>UV-light>natural light> fluorescent light. The oxidation of rice bran oil followed first-oeder dynamic model shelif-life of rice bran oil at 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 "C were 1068 days, 410 days and 206 days, repestively.

  20. The economics of field abandonment in the UKCS. [Oil and gas fields in the United Kingdom continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1989-08-01

    The abandonment of oil and natural gas fields in the North Sea raises a number of economic issues. These are principally (a) the costs incurred in the abandonment operations, (b) the criteria to be employed in determining the timing of field abandonment, (c) the fiscal reliefs available for the abandonment expenditures, and (d) the (financial) security aspects of the operation. These topics are briefly discussed in this paper. (author).

  1. The Effect of Isabgol (Plantago psyllium Mucilage and Shiraz Thyme Essential Oils on Microbial Load and Improving Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azizi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fresh-cut produce graduated to retail during the1990s, especially for lettuce, cabbage, carrots and other similar vegetables. The high microbial loads of these products after harvest can be substantially reduced through a cleaning in flowing chlorinated water and adistribution under ensured controlledrefrigeration. Therefore, a good number of convenient ready-to-use greens were launched to the market in the past decade. Nowadays, theuse of this technology to achieve similar results in fruit products is one of the most challengingtargets for processors. However, there is anumber of issues that still need to beovercomebeforefresh-cut fruit commodities can be sparked off to anoutstanding position in the segment of lightly-treatedrefrigerated foods. The importance of freshly cut products increases day by day. Tissue and cell rupture leads to a decrease in the shelf life of these products. On the other hand, these products due to increased enzyme activity, respiration rate and microbiological considerations that affect the health of these productsrequires highly attention.To increase the shelf life of the products and prevent undesirable changes in cut slices of fruit or vegetables a coating on the surface of these products has been suggested. Mucilages and essential oils of herbs are natural compounds that can be used to create such covers. The advantages of these coatings are their bactericidal effect, maintenanceof pleasant taste and other physical and chemical characteristics of the product and even decrease of environmental pollution. In this research, the effect of natural compounds such as Zataria multiflora essential oil (EO and Plantagopsyllium mucilage on storage life and microbial load of fresh cut carrot was studied. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted in two separate experiments on fresh-cut carrot: In the first experiment, the effect of different concentrations of Plantago psyllium mucilage (0,100, 200, and

  2. Trace fossils and sedimentary facies from a Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician tide-dominated shelf (Santa Rosita Formation, northwest Argentina): Implications for ichnofacies models of shallow marine successions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.; Acenolaza, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Santa Rosita Formation is one the most widely distributed lower Paleozoic units of northwest Argentina. At the Quebrada del Salto Alto section, east of Purmamarca, Jujuy Province, it is represented by four sedimentary facies: thick-bedded planar cross-stratified quartzose sandstones (A), thin-bedded planar cross-stratified quartzose sandstones and mudstones (B), wave-rippled sandstones and bioturbated mudstones (C), and black and greenish gray shales (D). Paleocurrent data, sandstone architecture, and sedimentary structures from facies A and B indicate bipolar/bimodal paleoflows, suggesting the action of tidal currents. The succession is interpreted as that of a tide-dominated shelf, with only secondary influence of wave processes. Trace fossils are restricted to facies B and C. The Cruziana ichnocoenosis is preserved on the soles of thin-bedded planar cross-stratified quartzose sandstones (facies B). This ichnocoenosis consists of Conostichus isp., Cruziana omanica, C. semiplicata, C. cf. tortworthi, Cruziana isp. Helminthopsis abeli, Monomorphichnus bilinearis, M. multilineatus, Palaeophycus tubularis, Rusophycus carbonarius, R. latus, and R. isp. The occurrence of Cruziana semiplicata, C. omanica, C. cf. tortworthi, and Rusophycus latus supports a Late Cambrian-Tremadoc age. Slabbing of Cruziana shows complex interactions between biologic and sedimentologic processes, and suggests a predominance of exhumed traces, washed out and recast by tractive sand deposition. Sandstone soles are densely packed with biogenic structures and exhibit distinctive clusters of Rusophycus isp. that most likely represent trilobite nesting burrows. The Cruziana ichnocoenosis records the resident fauna of a protected, lower intertidal to subtidal interbar setting. The Skolithos ichnocoenosis is represented by high to low density vertical burrows of Skolithos linearis, which extend downwards to the quartzose sandstone soles of facies B and cross the Cruziana ichnocoenosis. The

  3. South Atlantic summary report 2. Revision of Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their onshore impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deis, J.L.; Kurz, F.N.; Porter, E.O.

    1982-05-01

    The search for oil and gas on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in the South Atlantic Region began in 1960, when geophysical surveys of the area were initiated. In 1977, a Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) well was drilled in the Southeast Georgia Embayment. In March 1978, the first lease sale, Sale 43, was held, resulting in the leasing of 43 tracts. Approximately a year later, in May 1979, the first exploratory drilling began, and by February 1980, six exploratory wells had been drilled by four companies. Hydrocarbons were not found in any of these wells. Lease Sale 56, the second lease sale in the South Atlantic Region, was held in August 1981. The sale resulted in the leasing of 47 tracts. Most of the leased tracts are in deep water along the Continental Slope off North Carolina. To date, no drilling has occurred on these tracts, but it is likely that two wells will be drilled or will be in the process of being drilled by the end of 1982. Reoffering Sale RS-2 is scheduled for July 1982, and it will include tracts offered in Lease Sale 56 that were not awarded leases. Lease Sale 78 is scheduled to be held in July 1983. The most recent (March 1982) estimates of risked resources for leased lands in the South Atlantic OCS are 27 million barrels of oil and 120 billion cubic feet of gas. To date, onshore impacts resulting from OCS exploration have been minimal, and they were associated with Lease Sale 43 exploratory activities. In June 1981, the South Atlantic Regional Technical Working Group prepared a Regional Transportation Management Plan for the South Atlantic OCS. The plan is principally an integration of regulatory frameworks, policies, and plans that are applicable to pipeline siting from each of the South Atlantic coastal States and Federal agencies with jurisdiction in the area.

  4. Research of HDNS technology for shallow super heavy oil reservoir in Chunfeng Oilfield%春风油田浅层超稠油HDNS技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学忠; 席伟军; 沈海兵

    2013-01-01

    There are thinner layers and serious thermal loss in shallow super heavy oil reservoir in Chunfeng Oilfield on the west of Junggar Basin.Aiming at these difficult problems,this paper puts forward a HDNS thermal recovery technology which includes drilling horizontal wells,adding viscosity reducer,and injecting nitrogen gas and steam.Nitrogen gas can re-duce the thermal conductivity factor of rock and the heat loss of thin heavy oil reservoir along the top caprock.Upward o-verlapped N2 gas has heat preservation function for the formation.The viscosity reducer can effectively reduce viscosity of crude oil and significantly decrease the yield value of underground crude oil and the critical temperature of crude oil flow. As a result,production period is extended and periodic oil production is increased.The injection-production integration string and the high angle deviated pump technology for horizontal well were adopted.Using the HDNS technology,it is to form productivity of 61.7 ×104 t/a with a oil production rate of more than 3.0% in Chunfeng Oilfield.%针对准噶尔盆地西缘春风油田浅层超稠油油层薄、地层热损失严重的难题,提出了水平井、降黏剂、氮气、蒸汽强化热采方式(HDNS)。氮气降低岩石导热系数,降低薄层稠油油藏沿上部盖层的热量损失。地层内氮气向上超覆,起到地层保温作用。降黏剂有效降低原油黏度,大幅降低了地下原油屈服值和原油能够流动的临界温度,延长了生产周期,增加了周期产油量。配套了注采一体化管柱和水平井大斜度泵工艺。春风油田应用HDNS技术已经建成产能61.7×104 t/a,采油速度大于3%。

  5. Application of predictive models to assess the influence of thyme essential oil on Salmonella Enteritidis behaviour during shelf life of ready-to-eat turkey products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possas, Arícia; Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar D; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Valero, Antonio; García-Gimeno, Rosa M; Duarte, Marta C T

    2017-01-02

    Consumers' demand for ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat is attributed to its convenience and healthy properties. However, as cooked meat product it is subjected to post-process contamination, thus allowing presence and growth of microbial pathogens, such as Salmonella spp.. The aim of this study was to include a natural antimicrobial, thyme essential oil (TEO), on RTE turkey products in order to evaluate its effectiveness throughout the shelf life. To do so, the effect of four different formulations of cooked RTE turkey products on Salmonella Enteritidis behaviour was investigated. Products' slices were surface inoculated with S. Enteritidis (ca. 4 to 5logcfu/g), subsequently stored at 10 and 25°C and microbiologically analysed during 18 and 12days, respectively. Predictive microbiology models fitted to count data were used to evaluate microbial behaviour. Results showed that S. Enteritidis behaviour on RTE turkey products slices during storage was strongly dependent on temperature. The pathogen was able to grow on slices at all tested conditions during storage at 25°C and no statistical differences were detected (p>0.05) between growth parameters. At 10°C, different behaviour patterns were observed. The application of TEO led to higher Salmonella inactivation rates on a product exempt of chemical preservatives. The addition of this novel antimicrobial on meat products or its incorporation on meat active packaging systems as a part of hurdle technology could increase RTE turkey products safety while satisfying the demand of more natural foods.

  6. Potential application of corn starch edible films with spice essential oils for the shelf life extension of red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Rakhavan, K R; Tharavin, R; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of corn starch (CS) edible films with spice oils on the stability of raw beef during refrigerated storage. The antimicrobial properties of corn starch films containing 0-4·0% (w/v) ratios of clove (CL) and cinnamon (CI) essential oils (EOs) were tested against seven meat spoilage organisms by zone inhibition test. Effects of CS films containing 3% CL or CI or a mixture of CL + CI were also tested in raw beef stored at 4°C. Meat samples were analysed for pH, microbial counts, colour values and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values for a period of 15 days. CS films with CL + CI resulted in a significant reduction in microbial populations in the meat samples and also improved meat colour stability at the end of storage period. The incorporation of spice EOs in CS films may provide antimicrobial and antioxidant activities that could improve the stability of raw meat. Results from this study may be applied in meat industries as an additional barrier to control microbial spoilage as well as lipid oxidation in meat products. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Inverse modelling of the reversely magnetized, shallow plumbing system hosting oil reservoirs of the Auca Mahuida volcano (Payeina retroarc, Neuquén Basin, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, John; De Ritis, Riccardo; Ventura, Guido; Longo, Mariana; Ravat, Dhananjay; Speranza, Fabio; Chiappini, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    The Auca Mahuida volcano (2.03-0.88 Ma) located east of the Andean thrust front in the Neuquén basin (Argentina) hosts an oil system of thermogenic origin and is affected by the NW-SE striking-faults. Intrusive bodies and the underlying Jurassic sediments constitute the reservoir rocks. Aeromagnetic data collected in the Auca Mahuida area detected multiple dipolar magnetic anomalies, many of which have reverse polarity. Palaeomagnetic measurements on rock samples collected in the field together with available age determinations indicate that the reversely magnetized sources were mainly emplaced during the Matuyama reverse polarity chron while the normal polarity sources were emplaced during the Olduvai and/or Jaramillo subchrons. The location and geometry of the intrusive bodies is poorly known and the customary magnetic inversion is rendered difficult because of multiple natural remanent magnetization directions. To address these difficulties, a voxel inversion was applied to model the vector residual magnetic intensity (VRMI) transformation of the observed total magnetic intensity data. The modelling showed a 1.5 km deep, subcircular ring-shaped intrusion below the summit of the volcano and a series of NW-SE elongated, fault-controlled intrusive bodies to depths up to 3-4 km. Our results show that magnetic data and VRMI modelling help resolve the geometry of the shallow plumbing system of volcanoes with remanently magnetized sources, and estimate the depth and geometry of potential oil reservoirs in volcanic areas.

  8. Combined effect of vacuum-packaging and oregano essential oil on the shelf-life of Mediterranean octopus (Octopus vulgaris) from the Aegean Sea stored at 4 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrea, I; Papavergou, A; Amvrosiadis, I; Savvaidis, I N

    2009-04-01

    The present study evaluated the use of vacuum packaging (alone) or with addition of oregano essential oil (EO), as an antimicrobial treatment for shelf-life extension of fresh Mediterranean octopus stored under refrigeration for a period of 23 days. Four different treatments were tested: A, control sample; under aerobic storage in the absence of oregano essential oil; VP, under vacuum packaging in the absence of oregano essential oil; and VO1, VO2, treated samples with oregano essential oil 0.2 and 0.4% (v/w), respectively, under VP. Of all the microorganisms enumerated, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the groups that prevailed in octopus samples, irrespective of antimicrobial treatment. With regard to the chemical freshness indices determined, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values were low in all octopus samples, as could have been expected from the low fat content of the product. Both trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values of oregano treated under VP octopus samples were significantly lower compared to control samples during the entire refrigerated storage period. Based primarily on sensory evaluation (odor), the use of VP, VO1 and VO2 extended the shelf-life of fresh Mediterranean octopus by ca. 3, 11 and 20 days, respectively.

  9. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Laura L.; Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.

    2002-07-24

    This report covers research activities for the second half of the second project year (October 6, 2001, through April 5, 2002). This work includes description and analysis of cores, correlation of geophysical well logs, reservoir mapping, petrographic description of thin sections, cross plotting of permeability and porosity data, and development of horizontal drilling strategies for the Little Ute and Sleeping Ute fields in Montezuma County, Colorado. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative core, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells.

  10. Stability of rice bran oil extracted by SFE and soxhlet methods during accelerated shelf-life storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariod, A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid high oryzanol (SFE HO and supercritical fluid low oryzanol (SFE LO rice bran oils were obtained and compared with that extracted by the Soxhlet (SOX method. Their composition and stability during storage were determined. The amount of unsaponifiable matter and gamma oryzanol of SFE samples were significantly (p -1 was higher than that reported in SFE HO and SFE LO, at 3.2 and 2.6 mg·g-1, respectively. After storage for 42 days at 70 °C the PV, FFA%, conjugated diene and p-anisidine values of SOX were higher than those of SFE HO, and SFE LO. The SFE samples showed better stability than SOX under successive heating and the addition of BHA decreased PV, FFA%, conjugated diene and p-anisidine levels in all samples.Se realizaron extracciones mediante fluido supercrítico de salvado de arroz con alto (SFE HO y bajo (SFE LO contenido en orizanol y se comparó con los extraídos mediante Soxhlet (SOX. Se determinó la composición y la estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. La materia insaponificable y el gamma orizanol de las muestras SFE fueron significativamente más altas (p -1 fue mayor que lo encontrado para SFE HO y SFE LO, 3,2 y 2,6 mg·g-1 respectivamente. Después de 42 días de almacenamiento a 70 °C los valores de PV, FFA %, dienos conjugados y p-anisidina de SOX fueron mayores que los de SFE HO, y SFE LO. Las muestras SFE mostraron mejor estabilidad que SOX bajo calentamiento y la adición de BHA disminuyó el PV, FFA %, dienos conjugados y los niveles de p-anisidina en todas las muestras.

  11. The Effects of Olive (Olea europaea L. Leaf and Oil-Bearing Rose (Rosa damascena Mill. Extracts on Shelf Life of Hot Smoked Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Fillets during Refrigerated Storage (4±1°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla MUTLU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of olive (Olea europaea L. leaf and oil-bearing rose (Rosa damascena Mill. extracts on shelf life of hot smoked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fillets during refrigerated storage (4±1°C were investigated in terms of chemical (pH, TBA, TVB-N, microbiological (TMA, TPA, LAB and ENT and sensory characteristics. Proximate compositions (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash of fresh and hotsmoked trouts were also determined. The results showed that significant differences were observed in TVB-N and TBA levels (p<0.05 between the control group and the treatment groups. Significant differences (p<0.05. were also observed in total mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and the enterobacteria numbers during storage between the control group and the treatment groups. Shelf life of control group was found as 21 days and 28 days for the treatment groups (except for olive leaf group according to microbiological assessment. The microbiological values exceeded limit on 42 days for the olive leaf group. According to sensory evaluation, samples with oil-bearing rose extracts were not appreciated by panelists while samples with the olive leaf extract were appreciated by panelists. As a result, application of herbal extracts influenced positively shelf life of trout, especially olive leave extracts.

  12. Offshore oil in the alaskan arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, W F; Weller, G

    1984-07-27

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent nature gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas, of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  13. 浅层弱稠油油藏主体开发技术%KEY DEVELOPING TECHNIQUES OF SHALLOW AND LIGHTLY HEAVY OIL RESERVOIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程静波

    2012-01-01

    Changchunling Oilfield is shallow low-temperature and low-pressure oil reservoirs discovered in Jilin Oilfield with special characteristics. Because of the low-temperature, low-pressure and poor flowability of the crude oil, the cold damage of wax precipitation is prone to happen in the course of production. That results in low and e-ven no productivity for conventional operations, so the normal production can be seriously influenced and the effective development of the reserves can be limited. In response to this current situation, the laboratory experiments of wax precipitation, physical simulation tests and numerical simulation of thermal recovery are carried out. Integrating with the development results of huff-puff, steam flooding, fire flooding process etc. , hot water flooding is clearly determined to be the key developing technique in Changchunling Oilfield. At the mean time, it has provided valuable experiences for the development of other similar oil reservoirs.%长春岭油田为吉林油田新发现的浅层低温低压油藏.油藏性质表现出特殊的油藏特征,由于油层低温、低压、原油流动性差,开采过程中储层易受析蜡冷伤害,造成常规开采产能低,甚至无产能,严重影响油田正常生产,制约储量有效动用.针对这一现状,对该油藏开展了原油析蜡室内实验、热采物理模拟实验、热采数值模拟研究,结合现场已开展的蒸汽吞吐、蒸汽驱、火驱等多种热采试验的开发效果,明确了热水驱开发为长春岭油田主体开发技术,同时也为其他同类油藏的开发提供了宝贵经验.

  14. Depositional architecture and evolution of inner shelf to shelf edge delta systems since the Late Oliocene and their respone to the tectonic and sea level change, Pear River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Changsong; Zhang, Zhongtao; liu, Jingyan; Jiang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    The Pear River Mouth Basin is located in the northern continent margin of the South China Sea. Since the Late Oligocene, the long-term active fluvial systems (Paleo-Zhujiang) from the western basin margin bebouched into the northern continental margin of the South China Sea and formed widespread deltaic deposits in various depositional geomorphologies and tectonic settings. Based of integral analysys of abundant seismic, well logging and drilling core data, Depositional architecture and evolution of these delta systems and their respone to the tectonic and sea level change are documented in the study. There are two basic types of the delta systems which have been recognized: inner shelf delta deposited in shallow water enviroments and the outer shelf or shelf-edge delta systems occurred in deep water settings. The paleowater depths of these delta systems are around 30 to 80m (inner shelf delta) and 400-1000m (shelf-edge delta) estimated from the thickness (decompaction) of the delta front sequences. The study shows that the inner shelf delta systems are characterized by relatively thin delta forests (20-40m), numereous stacked distributary channel fills, relative coarse river mouth bar deposits and thin distal delta front or distal bar and prodelta deposits. In contrast, the outer shelf or shelf edge delta systems are characteristic of thick (300-800m) and steep (4-60) of deltaic clinoforms, which commonly display in 3D seismic profiles as "S" shape reflection. Large scale soft-sediment deformation structures, slump or debris flow deposits consisting mainly of soft-sediment deformed beds, blocks of sandstones and siltstones or mudstones widely developed in the delta front deposits. The shelf edge delta systems are typically associated with sandy turbidite fan deposits along the prodelta slopes, which may shift basinwards as the progradation of the delta systems. The delta systems underwent several regional cycles of evolution from inner shelf deltas to shelf edge

  15. Impact of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on the Changes in the Seasonal Average Concentrations of Nickel, Vanadium, and Lead in Bottom Sediment Retrieved from the Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffy, D. A.; Nichols, A.; Morgan, J.; Gibbs, R.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment samples were collected during the fall of 2010 and 2011from across the Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf (OCS). A Tukey range test was used to compare samples between the relict sand deposits of the northern Gulf OCS to the relict carbonate sediments off of western Florida OCS. Tests indicate that nickel, vanadium, and lead are significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the seasonal average concentrations in the relict sand deposits closer to the Deepwater Horizon Well. These metals also significantly decreased (p < 0.05) from 2010 to 2011 in each region. These changes can be explained by the presence of a new source for these metals in the crude oil released from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill during the spring of 2010. Chromium and thallium did not vary seasonally or between the two areas of the OCS being investigated.

  16. Oceanography of the Southeastern Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume, the second in the Coastal and Estuarine Sciences series, provides a synthesis of the physical, chemical, and biological oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). The results presented derive from a decade-long multidisciplinary investigation of the SAB continental shelf regime.The SAB extends from West Palm Beach, Fla., where the narrow south Florida shelf begins to broaden, to Cape Hatteras, N.C., where the shelf again narrows. This broad and shallow area is distinguished by the proximity of the Gulf Stream to the shelf break. Large contrasts in the distribution of properties, the strength of oceanic and atmospheric forces, and the high frequency (4-12 days) at which these forces vary have created a unique natural laboratory in which a variety of oceanic processes may be studied.

  17. Impacts of Sea-Level Rise and Human Activity on a Tropical Continental Shelf, RN State, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, H.; Barros Pereira, T. R.; Lira, H. F.; Tabosa, W. F.; Eichler, P.; Stattegger, K.; Sen Gupta, B. K.; Gomes, M. P.; Nogueira, M. L. D. S.; Pierri, G. C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The northeastern Brazilian, tropical coast-shelf system along the Atlantic Ocean is a sediment-starved zone, because of low relief, small drainage basins, and a semiarid climate. This work presents the major results of a study of environmental changes, particularly those related to Holocene sea-level rise, affecting the coast and shallow waters of Rio Grande do Norte (RN) State, NE Brazil. The methods included bottom-sediment characterization, bioindicator tracking, and integrated shallow-water geophysical investigation. This coastline is marked by active sea cliffs carved into tablelands alternating with reef- or dune-barrier sections, beach rocks and lagoons, whereas the shelf is a narrow, very shallow, and highly energetic system. Overall, the area is under the natural influence of tides (with a semidiurnal mesotidal regime) and the anthropogenic influence of salt exploration, oil industry, shrimp farms, tourism, and wind-farms. Sedimentation during the Holocene has been controlled mainly by sea-level variation, longshore currents, and the advance and westward propagation of active dunes along the coast. As in other areas around the world, growing numbers of permanent and seasonal residents choose to live at or near the ocean. Coastal erosion is a cause for concern along many Brazilian beaches, and several erosion hot spots are already recognized in RN State. Curves of Holocene relative sea-level variation were established for RN State, but the absence of long-term oceanographic observations in the last centuries or that of detailed altimetry maps hinders the evaluation of different risk scenarios at the local level. Nevertheless, impacts of the current sea-level rise and human activity can be observed along the RN coastal-shelf system. Particular aspects of the study, such as oil-spill monitoring, coastal-water sewage contamination, and coastal erosion, will be highlighted.

  18. Shallow gamification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . To isolate the effects of framing, students (N=90) were assigned to either discuss study environment issues through a list of questions, via a competitive discussion board game, or though the same game artifacts but with no game mechanics. Task engagement and self-reported intrinsic motivation was compared...... motivation variables remained unchanged. Implications for game design in non-game contexts are discussed, and a framework for differentiating “deep and shallow gamification” in terms of mechanics and framing is developed....

  19. Protective effect of essential oils on the shelf life of smoked and vacuum packed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.1792) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir Çoban, Ozlem; Patir, Bahri; Yilmaz, Okkeş

    2014-10-01

    This study was investigated the effects of some oils on chemical, microbiological and sensory quality in vacuum packed smoked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.1792) fillets. Acceptability scores for appearance, taste and odour of untreated and treated smoked trout decreased with storage time. The limit of sensory acceptance was reached after 56 days for the untreated samples, after 84 days for with rosemary and thyme oil-treated samples after 98 days for with sage oil-treated and after 112 days for with clove oil-treated samples. Significant differences were not found between groups as microbiological (p > 0.05). However, significant differences were found both among groups and during the storage in term of TBA (thiobarbituric acid) and PV (peroxide value), FFA (free fatty acid) values (p Essential oils as natural antioxidant can be used in conjunction with vacuum packed to enhance hot smoked fish quality.

  20. Oil and Gas Distribution Features and Main Controlling Factors of Northwest Shelf,Australia%澳大利亚西北大陆架油气分布及成藏主控因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伟光; 童晓光; 喻莲; 温志新; 王兆明

    2013-01-01

      从构造演化分析入手,通过对澳大利亚西北大陆架石油地质条件的分析,总结了油气分布特征,并对影响油气成藏及分布的主控因素进行了探讨。研究表明:西北大陆架的油气分布在平面上具有分区性,石油主要富集在侏罗纪晚期形成的北东向狭长裂谷内,天然气主要分布在狭长裂谷之外的构造高地上。纵向上,油气分布较为集中,主要分布于中生界。同时,油和气分布具有明显的分层性:天然气主要分布于三叠系和侏罗系储集层,而石油则主要分布于白垩系及以上地层。西北大陆架的油气富集主要受烃源岩、构造背景、大型三角洲沉积体系和区域盖层以及后期保存条件的控制。烃源岩的性质及分布决定了西北大陆架的富气贫油及油、气的平面分布特征;大型的三角洲沉积体系及优质的区域盖层为油气提供了良好的生储盖组合,决定了油气富集的层位;紧邻洼陷分布的构造高地,发育多种类型的圈闭,成为油气运移的有利指向区。%Based on the analysis of tectonic evolution and petroleum geology,the author summarized the oil and gas distribution features of northwest shelf of Australia,and discuss the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon accumulation. The results show that the hydrocarbon distribution of northwest shelf of Australia are divisional in plane,oil mainly occurs in NW trend narrow rifts formed during the late Jurassic,while gas mainly distributed in the outer highs adjacent to those rifts. Vertically, hydrocarbon principally occurs in Mesozoic series with a stratified feature,and gas is concentrated in Triassic and Jurassic reservoirs while oil mainly occurred in Cretaceous and upper formations. Hydrocarbon accumulation of northwest shelf of Australia is principally controlled by source rock,structural background,big delta sedimentary systems,regional seal and later preservation

  1. Acid-labile sulfides in shallow marine bottom sediments: A review of the impact on ecosystems in the Azov Sea, the NE Black Sea shelf and NW Adriatic lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Yu. I.; Zakuskina, O. Yu

    2012-02-01

    Acid-labile sulfides (LS) increase in bottom sediments at sites in the Azov Sea, at the NE Black Sea shelf and in the coastal lagoons of NW Adriatic Sea experiencing direct impacts of anthropogenic pollution. Fresh anthropogenic organic matter stimulates the bacterial sulfate reduction and here the rate of the LS production overcomes their loss during the oxidation and pyritization. This results in the expansion of reduced sediment layer up to the bottom surface. The LS concentration in the reduced sediments varies between 300 and 2000 mg S l -1 of wet silt depending on the size of pollution loading and on the rate of sedimentation. In the oxidized sediments away from the direct pollution impact, the LS concentration did not exceed 100-150 mg S l -1. Being a strong cytochrome toxin, the LS adversely affect the coastal ecosystems. The concentrations over 600 mg S l -1 result in quasi total benthic mortality whereas >300-400 mg S l -1 depletes the benthic faunal abundance and taxonomic diversity. Accumulation of the LS in sediments also induces nocturnal hypoxia and stimulates domination of toxic cyanobacteria in the pelagic phytocenoses.

  2. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  3. Edible films from methylcellulose and nanoemulsions of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils as shelf life extenders for sliced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoni, Caio G; Pontes, Silvania F O; Medeiros, Eber A A; Soares, Nilda de F F

    2014-06-04

    Consumers are increasingly demanding foods with lower synthetic preservatives. Plant essential oils are natural compounds with remarkable antimicrobial properties and may be incorporated as emulsions into water-soluble polymers to form antimicrobial films. Coarse emulsions (diameters of 1.3-1.9 μm) and nanoemulsions (diameters of 180-250 nm) of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils were produced through low-speed mixing and ultrasonication, respectively. Methylcellulose was added for film-forming purposes. Both essential oils reduced the rigidity and increased the extensibility of the methylcellulose films, effects that were even more pronounced for nanodroplets. Both essential oils lessened the counts of yeasts and molds in sliced bread during 15 days, and droplet size reduction provided a further improvement in antimicrobial properties. Due to increased bioavailability, less preservative content might be used and still deliver the same antimicrobial efficiency if encapsulated in smaller particles.

  4. Effect of Postharvest Application of Thyme Essential oil on Quality and Shelf-life of Pomegranate (Punica granatum cv. Tarom red skin) Fruit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Ghfouri; A. Soleimani; V. Rabie; R. Hemmati

    2016-01-01

    .... In this context, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted to study the postharvest spraying of thyme essential oil on storage life and qualitative characteristics of pomegranate fruit (cv. Tarom red skin...

  5. Remote Sensing Systems to Detect and Analyze Oil Spills on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf - A State of the Art Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-18

    interactive spreadsheet system incorporating a searchable database to aid in selecting appropriate technologies and sensors for a variety of oil spill...2016 Memorandum Report Oil spill Scenario Sensor performance Database Classification Interactive tool Decision rule 73-1B58-04-5 Bureau of Safety and...appropriate for this purpose . Using a primary classification based on Visual Observation, Active/Passive sensors and Multi-band and Multi-sensor

  6. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Annual report, June 3, 1994--October 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, L.D.; Harpole, K.J.; Gerard, M.G.

    1996-05-01

    The work reported here covers Budget Phase I of the project. The principal tasks in Budget Phase I are the Reservoir Analysis and Characterization Task and the Advanced Technology Definition Task. Completion of these tasks have enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed and evaluated from an economic and risk analysis standpoint. Field implementation of the project has been recommended to the working interest owner of the South Cowden Unit (SCU) and approval has been obtained. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative CO{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take or pay requirements, CO{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate crude oil price) and gas recycle agreements (expensing cost as opposed to large capital investments for compression) were negotiated to further improve project economics. A detailed reservoir characterization study was completed by an integrated team of geoscientists and engineers. The study consisted of detailed core description, integration of log response to core descriptions, mapping of the major flow units, evaluation of porosity and permeability relationships, geostatistical analysis of permeability trends, and direct integration of reservoir performance with the geological interpretation. The study methodology fostered iterative bidirectional feedback between the reservoir characterization team and the reservoir engineering/simulation team to allow simultaneous refinement and convergence of the geological interpretation with the reservoir model. The fundamental conclusion from the study is that South Cowden exhibits favorable enhanced oil recovery characteristics, particularly reservoir quality and continuity.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Bonaparte Basin, Browse Basin, Northwest Shelf, and Gippsland Basin Provinces, Australia, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 4.7 billion barrels of undiscovered oil and 227 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in three major offshore petroleum basins of northwest Australia and in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia.

  8. Shallow Discussion on Waste Water Treatment of Oil Reservoir%浅谈油库污水处理工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲可为

    2011-01-01

    There are many ports along the coast in our country,and it is necessary to clean oil tanks and discharge the oily waste water separated from blow down tanks on a regular basis in many oil reservoir.Besides, the oil tanks should discharge ballast water,in which the oil content can reach 20%,while the oil content is quite complicated.Oil content in oily waste water usually varies from dozens to several thousands of mg/L,and even tens of thousands of mg/L at maximum.According to the occurrence type,the oily waste water is normally sorted as floating oil,dispersed oil,emulsified oil and dissolved oil.The principle of waste water treatment is such that,first to consider recovering oil from the oily waste water to maximum extent,and the treated water should meet the requirement of Regeneration and recycling of municipal waste water and water quality of municipal domestic water GBfF 18920-2002.%我国沿海港口众多,很多油库每天需要清洗油罐并且定期排放罐内分离出来的含油污水,而油轮需要清理压舱水,其压舱水的含油量最大可达20%,而且油质复杂。含油废水中的含油量,一般为几十至几千mg/L,最高可达数万mg/L。而国家规定的允许排放标准仅为10mg/L。根据含油废水中油类存在形式的不同,通常分为浮油、分散油、乳化油和溶解油四种。含油废水的治理原则:首先应该考虑尽可能多的回收含油废水中的油,对治理过的水,应达到国家《城市污水再生利用城市杂用水水质》GB/T18920—2002标准的要求。

  9. Regional anomalies of hydrocarbon fluid saturation as a new source of data on promising oil and gas deposits in the Caspian shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydenko, D. B.

    2016-10-01

    This paper analyzes the ratio of local and regional anomalies of fluid saturation identified in the southern margins of the Eastern European Platform by remote fluid indexation. A characteristic feature of this area is the very low background values in the initial field, i.e., local anomalies reflecting the deposits. Regional anomalies are mainly related to oil and gas accumulation zones. In the Middle Caspian areas studied, the regional field of the fluid saturation index is the background for local anomalies. We made an attempt to justify the hydrocarbon migration and generation zones as anomaly-forming zones of the regional anomalies. The correlation of oil and gas accumulation zones with the regional field anomalies was noted.

  10. Effects of herbal essential oils used to extend the shelf life of freshwater-reared Asian sea bass fish (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz, S; Glatman, L; Drabkin, V; Gelman, A

    2003-03-01

    Sensory and microbiological characteristics of Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) fish raised in a freshwater pond were evaluated during cold storage for 33 days. Whole fish (averaging 400 g each) were stored in a cold storage room at 0 to 2 degrees C. Essential oils of herbs--thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and oregano (Origanum vulgare)--added at 0.05% (vol/vol) were used as preservatives. On the basis of the sensory test results as well as the bacteriological tests, the addition of oregano and thyme essential oils can considerably slow the process of spoilage. The fish treated with these oils were still fit for human consumption after 33 days of storage. The results obtained through sensory tests are corroborated to a great extent by the chemical (hypoxanthine) tests and to a lesser extent by the physical (Cosmos units) tests. The initial total bacteriological counts were 1.7 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface and fish flesh, and in the control treatment (without preservatives), these counts rose continuously, reaching around 10(7) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface and 10(3) CFU/g in the flesh after 33 days of storage at 0 to 2 degrees C. The use of herbal essential oils as preservatives, on the other hand, resulted in a maximal count of 10(5) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface, while the bacterial count in the flesh remained <10(2) CFU/g by the end of the 33-day storage period at 0 to 2 degrees C.

  11. Effect of adding essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) on the shelf life of ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Magdalena; Macura, Ryszard; Tesarowicz, Iwona; Banaś, Joanna

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effect of adding essential oils of hyssop and coriander at the highest concentration (0.02% v/w) sensorially acceptable to a panel of assessors on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of stored ground beef. Vacuum-packed meat was stored at 0.5±0.5°C and 6±1°C for 15days. The greatest beneficial effect of both additives was in inhibiting the development of undesirable sensory changes (extending acceptability by up to 3days) and the growth of Enterobacteriaceae (by up to approximately 1-2 log cycles compared with the controls). The effect on lactic acid bacteria, total viable bacterial count and other groups of microorganisms investigated was minor (up to 1 log cycle) and similar for both oils. Neither did these additives significantly affect amino nitrogen levels, protease activity, the proportions of meat pigments, protein electropherograms and pH levels. This indicates the limited effect of these essential oils in the concentrations applied on preserving vacuum-packed minced beef.

  12. Effect of Postharvest Application of Thyme Essential oil on Quality and Shelf-life of Pomegranate (Punica granatum cv. Tarom red skin Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghfouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to high quality, Iran pomegranate is quite competitive compared to other countries is unrivaled among agricultural products and has great economic importance. Using essential oil is a new idea to reduce postharvest losses and increase the horticultural crop storage life and control of fungal infection. In this context, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted to study the postharvest spraying of thyme essential oil on storage life and qualitative characteristics of pomegranate fruit (cv. Tarom red skin Materials and Methods: Pomegranate fruit (cv. Tarom red skin was prepared and transferred to University of Zanjan, Horticulture postharvest physiology lab. Treatments were included essential oil of thyme at four levels (0, 500, 1000, 1500 mg/l and the cold time storage (6 °C and 85% of relative humidity at three levels (one, two and three months (by four replications. In the first experiment, 180 normal pomegranate fruits were treated with thyme essential oil. In the second experiment, fruits were infected with spores of the fungus Aspergillus niger and then treated with essential oil. During experiment, total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio, pH, anthocyanin, electrolyte leakage, chilling injury, weight loss and fungal decay were evaluated. Fruit juice TSS was determined with a hand-refractometer at room temperature. TA was determined by titration an aliquot (20 mL of the juice with 0.1 N NaOH and the results were expressed as a percentage of citric acid. The maturity index (TSS/TA ratio was evaluated as the TSS/TA ratio. Fruit juice pH was measured using a pH meter. Anthocyanin was performed to method Fuleki & Francis. Electrolyte leakage was measured according to McCollum & McDonald method. Weight loss was measured according to Ershadi method. Chilling injury was measured by Wang method. Decay was visually evaluated and expressed as percentage. An analysis of variance

  13. Effect of Thymus serpyllum and Ocimum basilicum essential oils on the shelf-life of chicken’s meat during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality of chicken’s thighs meat after application of Thymus serpyllum and Ocimum basilicum essential oils with combination of vacuum packaging and EDTA treatment. The microbiological quality of control samples without vacuum packaging, vacuum packed with and without EDTA treatment, vacuum packed and treated with EDTA and samples treated with the essential oils of basil and breckland thyme were followed for 16 days. Microbiological analyses were conducted with standard microbiological methods. For anaerobic plate count, PCA agar was inoculated and incubated for 2 days at 35°C anaerobically. Pseudomonas spp. count was determined on Pseudomonas Isolation agar after incubation at 48 h at 25°C. For lactic acid bacteria (LAB, MRS agar was inoculated and incubated for 48-78 h at 37°C microaerophilly. For Enterobacteriaceae, VRBG agar was inoculated and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. . Anaerobic plate count ranged from 2.89 log CFU/g in all tested group on 0 day to 5.19 log CFU/g on 16 day in control group stored in air. LAB count ranged from 3.01 log CFU/g in all tested group on 0 day to 4.08 log CFU/g on 16 day in control group stored in air. Enterobacteriacea counts were from 1.33 log CFU/g on 0 day to 5.11 on 16 day in control group stored in air. Pseudomonas spp. were found only in control group stored in air on 12 and 16 day.  The results of the present study suggest the possibility of application of Thymus serpyllum and Ocimum basilicum essential oils as natural food preservatives and potential sources of antimicrobial ingredients for food industry.

  14. Ion mobility spectrometry versus classical physico-chemical analysis for assessing the shelf life of extra virgin olive oil according to container type and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Dobao-Prieto, M Mar; Arce, Lourdes; Aguilar, Joaquín; Cumplido, José L; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-03-04

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the stability of a single-variety (Arbequina) extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) as a function of container type and storage conditions over a period of 11 months. EVOO quality was assessed by using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), which provides increased simplicity, expeditiousness, and relative economy. The results were compared with the ones obtained by using the official method based on classical physico-chemical analysis. Bag-in-box, metal, dark glass, clear glass, and polyethylene terephthalate containers holding EVOO were opened on a periodic basis for sampling to simulate domestic use; in parallel, other containers were kept closed until analysis to simulate the storage conditions on market shelves. The results of the physico-chemical and instrumental analyses led to similar conclusions. Thus, samples packaged in bag-in-box containers preserved oil quality for 11 months, better than other container types. The HS-GC-IMS results confirm that 2-heptenal and 1-penten-3-one are two accurate markers of EVOO quality.

  15. Shallow Algal Mass Culture Systems for the Production of Oils: Final Report on Work Carried Out 8/16/84 - 6/15/85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project was to improve the technology of outdoor mass culture of microa1gae for oil production by investigation of species/strains, optimization of culture conditions and development of strategies that increase efficiency and improve yield.

  16. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  17. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  18. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    In this document the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate estimates the total recoverable petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf to be 12.5 billion Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the undiscovered resources, the expected value being 3.5 billion Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. The new estimates signify an increase of 14% since the calculations made last year. This increase is chiefly due to an upward adjustment of the expectations for a future increase in the recovery factor for the in place resources on the continental shelf. In 1995, the Norwegian oil production accounted for 4.3% of the global oil production. It is estimated that Norway has a total of about 1.3% of the discovered recoverable oil resources and about 1.8% of the discovered recoverable gas resources in the world. The Norwegian annual oil production is expected to reach a maximum of 3.7 million barrels per day in the year 2000. Many new discoveries are still being made on the Norwegian continental shelf. In the last two years, 20 new discoveries have been made, giving a resources growth of about 260 million Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. Great technological progress has been made on the Norwegian continental shelf during the last five years concerning exploration, development and production. As for mapping, the introduction of 3D seismic data and the development of interpolation tools have helped to provide a much better understanding of the substratum. 88 figs.

  19. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    In this document the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate estimates the total recoverable petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf to be 12.5 billion Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the undiscovered resources, the expected value being 3.5 billion Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. The new estimates signify an increase of 14% since the calculations made last year. This increase is chiefly due to an upward adjustment of the expectations for a future increase in the recovery factor for the in place resources on the continental shelf. In 1995, the Norwegian oil production accounted for 4.3% of the global oil production. It is estimated that Norway has a total of about 1.3% of the discovered recoverable oil resources and about 1.8% of the discovered recoverable gas resources in the world. The Norwegian annual oil production is expected to reach a maximum of 3.7 million barrels per day in the year 2000. Many new discoveries are still being made on the Norwegian continental shelf. In the last two years, 20 new discoveries have been made, giving a resources growth of about 260 million Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. Great technological progress has been made on the Norwegian continental shelf during the last five years concerning exploration, development and production. As for mapping, the introduction of 3D seismic data and the development of interpolation tools have helped to provide a much better understanding of the substratum. 88 figs.

  20. Feasibility Study and Potential Evaluation of Steam Flooding for Shallow Extra-Heavy Oil Reservoir%浅层超稠油油藏蒸汽驱可行性及潜力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永杰

    2014-01-01

    随着超稠油油藏蒸汽吞吐注汽周期的增加,地层压力大幅下降,开采效果变差。在分析油藏温度、压力和饱和度“三场”的基础上,论证油藏蒸汽吞吐转蒸汽驱进一步提高采收率的可行性。并通过油藏数值模拟方法确定该区块蒸汽驱最优注采参数,对最优参数预测结果进行经济评价。研究表明,蒸汽驱在技术和经济上都具备可行性,可以作为蒸汽吞吐后续接替技术,进一步提高稠油油藏采收率。%Reservoir pressure will drop greatly with the increment of steam inj ection cycle.Meanwhile production effect of huff and puff will become worse.Feasibility of steam flooding for shallow extra-heavy oil reservoir was researched through the analysis of reservoir temperature,pressure and oil saturation after several steam inj ection cycles.Production performance of steam flooding was predicted based on parameter optimization.Meanwhile economic evaluation was discussed.The results show that steam flooding for extra-heavy oil reservoir is technically and economically feasible.

  1. Technical Research on Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery of Thin Shallow Bed Super Heavy Oil High Water-Cut Wells%薄浅层超稠油高含水井微生物采油技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学忠

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at poor steam stimulation effect of high water-cut super heavy oil wells near edge water in west edge of Chunfeng Oilfield in Junggar Basin, the article researches microbial single well stimulation oil recovery technology. Microorganisms and oil-water interact with each other, have apparent effect upon crude oil viscosity reduction. Field Test of microbial single well stimulation at Pai6-Ping 48 well and Pai6-Ping49 well shows, oil production increases 25t/d, 2 727t in the stage. opening a new route of high water-cut super heavy oil cold production, having been popularized to the other 2 wells.%针对准噶尔盆地西缘春风油田靠近边水的高含水超稠油井蒸汽吞吐效果差的情况,开展了微生物单井吞吐采油技术研究。微生物与油水相互作用,对于原油降黏效果明显。排6-平48和排6-平49井微生物单井吞吐矿场试验,日增油25吨,阶段增油2727吨,开辟了高含水超稠油井冷采的新途径,已在另外两口井推广。

  2. Evidence That the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Caused Changes in Seasonal Mean Trace Metal Concentrations in Bottom Sediment Retrieved from the Eastern Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffy, D. A.; Nichols, A.; Morgan, J.

    2014-12-01

    Higher nickel, vanadium, and lead concentrations measured in sea bottom sediment of the eastern OCS can be explained by the presence of a new source for these metals from the damaged Mconco Well which resulted in the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill during the spring of 2010. Sixty-five sediment samples were collected during the fall months for the years 2008-2011 from the eastern OCS. The Tukey range test was used to compare six metal concentrations between the relict sand deposits of the northern Gulf OCS to the relict carbonate sediments off of western Florida OCS. Tests indicated that nickel, vanadium, and lead were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the seasonal mean concentrations in the relict sand deposits. These higher concentrations are also reflected in the vanadium to nickel ratio being statistically different (p < 0.005) for carbonate sediment (1.70 ± 0.24) when compared to relict sand (0.96 ± 0.12) in the north, which is closer to the damaged well. This difference indicates a new source of nickel that accumulated through time in the north. In the carbonate sediment there appears a zonation of the ratios with a dependency on water depth. The V/Ni ratio is 0.80 ± 0.10 for samples taken in water depths at or deeper than 200 m; and ratios are 2.06 ±0.42 for samples taken in water depths shallower than 200 m.

  3. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    conditions, and neotectonic activity. The most prominent bathymetric feature on the Ayeyarwady continental shelf is the 120 km-wide Martaban Depression, at the centre of which is located the Martaban Canyon. Most of the suspended sediment discharge...

  4. Geometry of calcite cemented zones in shallow marine sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walderhaug, O.; Prestholm, E.; Oexnevad, I.E.I.

    1995-12-31

    In offshore oil production, tightly cemented calcite zones often form impermeable barriers to fluid flow an so adversely affect reservoir performance. Based on recent breakthroughs in the theory of the formation of calcite cemented zones, the project discussed in this paper was concerned with (1) Performing outcrop studies in order to increase the existing database on the geometry of calcite cemented zones, (2) Extending and refining methods of predicting the geometry of cored calcite cemented zones, and (3) Applying and illustrating the use of these methods by studying calcite cementation in shallow marine reservoir sandstones on the Norwegian shelf. The paper presents results from field work and applies these results and the criteria for recognizing geometrical forms of calcite cementation in cores to the Ula Formation of the Ula Field and the Rannoch Formation of the Gullfax Field. The results from the core and outcrop studies are integrated in a tentative identification key for cored calcite cemented zones. The work is part of PROFIT (Program for Research On Field oriented Improved recovery Technology), a research project conducted by RF - Rogaland Research in 1991-1994. 32 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Australian Continental Shelf as an Inverse Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjabin, T.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Hetzel, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Transport of inshore waters and suspended material off the continental shelf by Dense Shelf Water Cascades (DSWC) has important ecological and biogeochemical implications in Australian waters. Because of high rates of evaporation, denser saline water along the sea bed occurs in a majority of the shallow coastal regions around Australia, setting up horizontal density gradients that can form DSWC. This study uses data available from the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), which is operated by the Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders (ANFOG) located at the University of Western Australia, to measure cross-shelf density profiles under varying conditions around the entire continent. Analysis of 143 transects of 97 sets of spatial and temporal resolution data from the ocean gliders under varying wind and tide conditions for seven contrasting regions surrounding Australia has allowed us to confirm that DSWC occurs on a regular basis during autumn and winter seasons. Results indicate that cascades occur during these seasons mainly due to cooling of the coastal water which already have higher salinity due to evaporation during the summer months. The cascades were present under different wind and tidal energy conditions and the controlling parameter for cascade formation is the cross-shelf density gradient. The cross-shelf density gradient in North-West Australia is maximum in July (14.23x10-6 kgm-4); whereas it is a maximum in June in South Australia (18.78x10-6 kgm-4) and in May in South-West Australia (25.884x10-6 kgm-4). Greater knowledge of the occurrence of DSWC will enhance understanding of the offshore transport of larvae, nutrients, salt, heat, carbon, low-oxygen water, sediment, and pollutants in Australian waters.

  6. 75 FR 70021 - Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... (FONSI) prepared for two oil and gas activities proposed on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)...

  7. Shallow-Water Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Shallow- Water Propagation William L. Siegmann Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 Eighth Street Troy, New York 12180-3590 phone: (518) 276...ocean_acoustics LONG-TERM GOALS Develop methods for propagation and coherence calculations in complex shallow- water environments, determine...intensity and coherence. APPROACH (A) Develop high accuracy PE techniques for applications to shallow- water sediments, accounting for

  8. 浅薄层稠油热采新工艺关键技术研究%Research on the Key Technique for Shallow Thin Layer Heavy Oil Thermal Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许冬进; 张传新; 易勇刚; 刘花军; 刘若虚

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of blank tubing for steam injection in the early-stage test of the new technology for heavy oil thermal recovery gives rise to low heating efficiency in steam injection and damage of casings of some wells and cementing concrete. Therefore, Model Y341 -115 thermal recovery packer was developed. The packer and other matching tools are used in combination with the heat insulation technology of well bore to solve the problems in production satisfactorily and to utilize and develop heavy oil reservoirs of shallow thin layer effectively. In addition the tools including tension tubing anchor and large flow channel check valve have been developed according to the characteristics of the field technological pipestring. As a result the problems such as heat insulation and baekwashing have been solved and the combination of heat insulation, injection and recovery has been achieved. The field application of the matching technology of Model Y341 - 115 thermal recovery packer over 500 well-times has reached a 98% technological success rate. A total of over 400 well-times operation have been cancelled. The accumulative increase of oil output is 8 312 tons.%稠油热采新工艺应用中前期先导试验时采用光油管注汽,出现注汽热效率低、部分井套管和固井水泥环被破坏等问题。为此,研制了Y341-115热采封隔器等配套工具。配套工具与井筒隔热技术相结合,使浅薄层稠油油藏得到了有效动用和开发。此外还根据现场工艺管柱的特点,配套开发了张力油管锚、大流道单流阀等工具,解决了隔热和反洗井等问题,实现了隔热注采合一的功能。Y341-115隔热封隔器配套工艺技术现场共应用500多井次,其工艺成功率达98%以上,累计节约作业井次400多次,累计增加产油量8312t。

  9. 76 FR 52963 - Information Collection Activity: Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ...: Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer Continental Shelf, Revision of a... for Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer Continental Shelf (OMB No. 1010-0072), and... Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer Continental Shelf. BOEMRE Form(s): 0134. OMB...

  10. 浅层稠油油藏CO2吞吐控水增油机理研究%Mechanism Study on Water Control and Enhanced Oil Recovery by CO2 Huff-puff for Shallow Heavy Oil Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雷; 庞辉; 孙扬; 侯大力; 潘毅

    2014-01-01

    To solve the problems of rapidly increase water cut and low oil recovery in the later water-flooding of low heavy oil and heavy oil reservoirs,we conducted laboratory physical simulation experiments and single well numerical simulation of CO2 huff and puff in water control and oil enhancement. To find out the mechanism and feasibility,CO2 and reservoir oil/water compatibility experiment and long core experiment of CO2 huff and puff are carried out respectively. The former has shown that CO2 has capacity expansion and viscosity reduction effects on the heavy oil. At a certain temperature,as the pressure decreases, the volume of reservoir water saturated with CO2 expands and the solubility of CO2 in reservoir water declines which indicates that in CO2 huff and puff,water is trapped by the small core thus causing Jamine Effect,and preventing the water from being produced. The long core experiment has also shown that CO2 huff and puff has a significant effect on controlling the water and enhancing the oil recovery. This has also been demonstrated by single well numerical simulation of CO2 huff and puff.%针对低稠油油藏和稠油油藏注水开发中后期含水上升快、原油采收率的低等问题,开展了CO2吞吐控水增油的室内物理模拟实验和单井CO2吞吐控水增油的数值模拟。为了研究CO2吞吐控水增油的机理及可行性,在室内分别开展了CO2与地层原油/地层水配伍性实验和CO2吞吐控水增油长岩芯实验。CO2与地层原油/地层水配伍性实验结果表明:CO2对原油有增容膨胀和降黏作用;一定温度下,随着压力的降低,饱和CO2的地层水的体积膨胀,CO2在地层水中的溶解度降低,CO2吞吐过程中,地层水遇到狭小孔隙受阻,产生贾敏效应,控制水的产出。长岩芯实验也表明,CO2吞吐有明显的控水增油的作用。单井CO2吞吐控水增油的数值模拟结果同样证实了CO2吞吐具有良好的控水增油显著。

  11. A coupled oscillator model of shelf and ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbic, Brian K.; Garrett, Chris

    2010-04-01

    The resonances of tides in the coupled open ocean and shelf are modeled by a mechanical analogue consisting of a damped driven larger mass and spring (the open-ocean) connected to a damped smaller mass and spring (the shelf). When both masses are near resonance, the addition of even a very small mass can significantly affect the oscillations of the larger mass. The influence of the shelf is largest if the shelf is resonant with weak friction. In particular, an increase of friction on a near-resonant shelf can, perhaps surprisingly, lead to an increase in ocean tides. On the other hand, a shelf with large friction has little effect on ocean tides. Comparison of the model predictions with results from numerical models of tides during the ice ages, when lower sea levels led to a much reduced areal extent of shelves, suggests that the predicted larger tidal dissipation then is related to the ocean basins being close to resonance. New numerical simulations with a forward global tide model are used to test expectations from the mechanical analogue. Setting friction to unrealistically large values in Hudson Strait yields larger North Atlantic M2 amplitudes, very similar to those seen in a simulation with the Hudson Strait blocked off. Thus, as anticipated, a shelf with very large friction is nearly equivalent in its effect on the open ocean to the removal of the shelf altogether. Setting friction in shallow waters throughout the globe to unrealistically large values yields even larger open ocean tidal amplitudes, similar to those found in simulations of ice-age tides. It thus appears that larger modeled tides during the ice ages can be a consequence of enhanced friction in shallower water on the shelf in glacial times as well as a reduced shelf area then. Single oscillator and coupled oscillator models for global tides show that the maximum extractable power for human use is a fraction of the present dissipation rate, which is itself a fraction of global human power

  12. Holocene sediment dynamics on a cool-water carbonate shelf: Otway, southeastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreen, T.D.; James, N.P. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-07-01

    The Otway Shelf is covered by cool waters and veneered by bryozoan-dominated carbonate sediments. Radiocarbon dating and stratigraphy of shelf vibracores and slope gravity cores document late Pleistocene/Holocene deposition. Shelf sediments of the late Pleistocene high-stand are rare, either never having been deposited or having been removed during the following sea-level fall. During the subsequent lowstand the shelf was exposed, facies shifted basinward, and beach/dune complexes were constructed near the shelf edge. The deep shelf was characterized by nondeposition and hardground formation, and the shelf margin became locally erosional. Upper-slope bryozoan/sponge assemblages continued to grow actively, and lower-slope foraminifera and nannofossil ooze was increasingly enriched in hemipelagic terrigenous mud swept off the wide shelf. Coarse shelf debris and lowstand dune sands were erosively reworked and transported onto the upper slope and redistributed to deep-slope aprons during early transgression. The late Quaternary shelf record resembles that of flat-topped, warm-water platforms with Holocene sediment overlying Pleistocene/Tertiary limestone, but for different reasons. The slow growth potential, uniform profile of sediment production and distribution, and inability of constituent organisms to construct rigid frameworks favor maintenance of a shallow ramp profile and makes the cool-water carbonate system an excellent modern analog for interpretation of many ancient ramp successions.

  13. Habitat Specialization in Tropical Continental Shelf Demersal Fish Assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Ben M Fitzpatrick; Euan S Harvey; Heyward, Andrew J.; Twiggs, Emily J.; Jamie Colquhoun

    2012-01-01

    The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. ...

  14. The abundance of boarfish (Capros aper) along the western shelf estimated using hydro-acoustics

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, C; Farrell, E.; Saunders, R.; Campbell, A

    2012-01-01

    The Boarfish (Capros aper, Linnaeus) is a relatively small deep bodied fish growing up to 23 cm in total length. Typically reddish in colour with large eyes and a highly protrusible mouth boarfish are known to inhabit shallow shelf seas to shelf slopes from 40-600 m. Boarfish are a mesopelagic shoaling species distributed in the eastern Atlantic from Norway to Senegal including the Mediterranean. Exploratory fishing for boarfish by Irish vessels began in the later 1980s when commercial quanti...

  15. Southeast continental shelf studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1979-02-12

    Research efforts on the southeast continental shelf currently describe the manner in which fluctuations in Gulf Stream motion influence biological and chemical processes. Current meter arrays are maintained in the Georgia Bight and in Onslow Bay to describe general circulation patterns and to identify forcing functions. biological studies describe processes affecting temporal and spatial variations on the shelf and have attempted to track the biological history of intruded Gulf Stream water masses. Chemical studies examine the influence of both physical and biological variables on the distribution and fate of trace elements. The current state of knowledge is reviewed, the hypotheses developed and are described, a rationale for testing these hypotheses is given. 1 figure, 1 table.

  16. Discoveries on the Norwegian continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    As discussed in this document, there are 108 discoveries on the Norwegian continental shelf which so far have not been approved for development. The oil and gas resources of the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea are mostly found in discoveries containing large volumes of gas. Eighty-one of the discoveries which are not approved for development are located in the North Sea and more than 60% of the discoveries in this province contain less than 5 mill Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. In the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea there are 27 discoveries which are not approved for development and whose total resources are estimated at 500 mill Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. About 60% of the oil resources is expected to be comprised by development plans in 1997 or 1998. Another 20% is in new discoveries currently being evaluated or in discoveries containing large volumes of gas. Production forecasts indicate substantial vacant oil processing capacity after 2000. Vacant gas processing capacity will mainly arise after 2005. 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Sources, Fate and Distribution of Organic Matter on the Western Adriatic Continental Shelf, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesi, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.tesi@bo.ismar.cnr.it; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo [ISMAR-CNR, Sede di Bologna - Geologia Marina (Italy); Boni, Laurita; Guerrini, Franca [Universita di Bologna, Laboratorio di Biologia e Fisiologia Algale, Sc. Ambientali (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In the framework of the EUROSTRATAFORM projects, a multidisciplinary research was focused on processes that involve transport and deposition of riverine material in the Adriatic Sea. The aim of our contribution was to increase a more complete understanding of organic matter deposition on the Adriatic shelf, also taking into account the role of Apennine rivers beyond the Po influence. In order to characterize origin, fate and variability of sedimentary organic carbon we utilized elemental and stable carbon isotope data in surficial sediments along shallow cross-shelf transects on the western Adriatic shelf.

  18. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  19. 2017-2022 OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Proposed Program - Gulf of Mexico Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This file represents the program areas of the Outer Continental Shelf that have been included in the 2017-2022 Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Proposed...

  20. 2017-2022 OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Proposed Program - All Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This file represents the program areas of the Outer Continental Shelf that have been included in the 2017-2022 Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Proposed...

  1. 2017-2022 OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Proposed Program - Alaska Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This file represents the program areas of the Outer Continental Shelf that have been included in the 2017-2022 Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Proposed...

  2. 2017-2022 OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Proposed Final Program - All Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This file represents the program areas of the Outer Continental Shelf that have been included in the 2017-2022 Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Final...

  3. Piping coarse-grained sediment to a deep water fan through a shelf-edge delta bypass channel: Tank experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuri; Kim, Wonsuck; Cheong, Daekyo; Muto, Tetsuji; Pyles, David R.

    2013-12-01

    is now generally accepted that deltas that prograde to the shelf edge are able to transport coarse sediment to deep water either with or without sea level changes. However, it is still unclear how feeder rivers behave differently in the shelf-edge delta case to rivers found in a delta that progrades over the shelf. A series of nine shelf-edge delta experiments are presented to investigate the lateral mobility of the feeder channel at the shelf edge and the associated deep water depositional system under a range of sediment supply rates and shelf-front depths. In the experiments, constant sediment supply from an upstream point source under static sea level led the fluviodeltaic system to prograde over the shallow shelf surface and advance beyond the shelf edge into deep water. The feeder river of the fluviodeltaic system became a bypass system once the toe of the delta front reached the shelf edge. After the delta front was perched at the shelf edge, a submarine fan developed in deep water although remaining disconnected from the delta. In this bypass stage, no regional avulsion or lateral migration of the feeder river occurred and all sediment from the upstream source bypassed the river, delta front, and shelf-front slope. The duration of the bypass stage is proportional to shelf-front depth and inversely proportional to sediment discharge. The combined duration of the shelf-transit phase of the fluviodeltaic system and the bypass phase is the characteristic time scale for the continental margin to "anneal" transgression-inducing perturbation due to high-frequency and/or high-amplitude relative sea level rise. The sequential evolution in the experiment compares favorably to the Eocene Sobrarbe Formation, a shelf-edge delta in Spain, although natural variations are noted. This comparison justifies the application of concepts proposed herein to natural systems and provides insight into interpreting processes from ancient shelf-edge delta systems.

  4. Antarctica - Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf to the right and its border with the sea. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken about 6:20 p.m. PST on December 8, 1990. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica.

  5. The effects of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) essential oils on Brochothrix thermosphacta and on the shelf life of beef packaged in high-oxygen modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Kalemba, Danuta; Krala, Lucjan; Piotrowska, Malgorzata; Czyzowska, Agata

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of thyme (29.4% thymol, 21.6% p-cymene) and rosemary essential oils (27.6% 1,8-cineole, 13.5% limonene, 13.0% β-pinene) against Brochothrix thermosphacta and to establish the feasibility of their use as components of modified atmosphere during beef refrigerated storage. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of thyme oil against B. thermosphacta is 0.05% and that of rosemary oil 0.5%. The MIC values are independent on strain and temperature of growth, however the bactericidal effects are strain dependent. The addition of any of oil at a concentration equal to 2MIC to the modified atmosphere (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) does not significantly influence the microbial quality of meat. At the same time, such a concentration of the essential oils was considerably detrimental to the organoleptic factors.

  6. Texas and Louisiana coastal vulnerability and shelf connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyng, Kristen M; Hetland, Robert D

    2017-03-15

    A numerical study of connectivity between the continental shelf and coast in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico using a circulation model and surface-limited numerical drifters shows that despite seasonal changes in winds, the overall connectivity of the shelf with the coastline is similar in the winter and summer, though it extends more offshore in Texas in summer. However, there is a spatial pattern to the connectivity: more of the inner shelf is connected with the coast in Texas as compared with Louisiana. Subsets of the coast do have seasonal variability: the coast near both Galveston and Port Aransas has more connectivity from upcoast in the winter and from offshore and downcoast in the summer. In both seasons, we find drifters reach the Port Aransas coast most frequently, with a stronger trend in the summer. These results are important for assessing likely pathways for spilled oil and other potentially hazardous material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  8. Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for You Consumers Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Email Print FAQs Main Page What is the shelf life of cosmetics? The shelf life for eye- ...

  9. A retrospective analysis of trace metals, C, N and diatom remnants in sediments from the Mississippi River delta shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R. Eugene; Milan, C.S.; Rabalais, N.N

    2004-10-01

    The development of oil and gas recovery offshore of the Mississippi River delta began in shallow water in the 1950s, expanded into deeper waters, and peaked in the 1990s. This area of the outer continental shelf (OCS) is the historical and present location of >90% of all US OCS oil and gas production and reserves. The juxtaposition of its 4000 producing platforms, recovering $10 billion yr{sup -1} of oil, gas and produced water in the same area where about 28% of the US fisheries catch (by weight) is made and near 40% of the US coastal wetlands, makes this an area worth monitoring for regional pollutant loading. This loading may come from several sources, including sources related to OCS development, but also from the Mississippi River watershed. In this context, any contaminant loading on this shelf may be neither detectable nor significant against a background of climatic or biological variability. We examined the sedimentary record for indicators of industrial byproducts from OCS oil and gas development and of industrial products entering via the Mississippi River, primarily using vanadium (V) and barium (Ba) concentrations normalized for aluminum (Al). Barium is primarily used in drilling muds in the form of barite, whereas V is an important strengthening component of metal alloys, including steel. The fluctuations in the accumulation of Ba, but not V, were coincidental with the presumed use of barite. The fluctuations in V concentration in the sediments were coincidental with the national consumption of V. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in sediments fluctuate coincidentally with V, not Ba, thus indicating that the dominant source of these trace metals in offshore sediments were derived from riverine sources, and were not primarily from in situ industrial processes releasing them on the shelf. This is not to suggest that local site-specific contamination is not a significant management or health concern. The low oxygen (hypoxia; {<=}2 mg

  10. A retrospective analysis of trace metals, C, N and diatom remnants in sediments from the Mississippi River delta shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R Eugene; Milan, C S; Rabalais, N N

    2004-10-01

    The development of oil and gas recovery offshore of the Mississippi River delta began in shallow water in the 1950s, expanded into deeper waters, and peaked in the 1990s. This area of the outer continental shelf (OCS) is the historical and present location of >90% of all US OCS oil and gas production and reserves. The juxtaposition of its 4000 producing platforms, recovering $10 billion yr(-1) of oil, gas and produced water in the same area where about 28% of the US fisheries catch (by weight) is made and near 40% of the US coastal wetlands, makes this an area worth monitoring for regional pollutant loading. This loading may come from several sources, including sources related to OCS development, but also from the Mississippi River watershed. In this context, any contaminant loading on this shelf may be neither detectable nor significant against a background of climatic or biological variability. We examined the sedimentary record for indicators of industrial byproducts from OCS oil and gas development and of industrial products entering via the Mississippi River, primarily using vanadium (V) and barium (Ba) concentrations normalized for aluminum (Al). Barium is primarily used in drilling muds in the form of barite, whereas V is an important strengthening component of metal alloys, including steel. The fluctuations in the accumulation of Ba, but not V, were coincidental with the presumed use of barite. The fluctuations in V concentration in the sediments were coincidental with the national consumption of V. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in sediments fluctuate coincidentally with V, not Ba, thus indicating that the dominant source of these trace metals in offshore sediments were derived from riverine sources, and were not primarily from in situ industrial processes releasing them on the shelf. This is not to suggest that local site-specific contamination is not a significant management or health concern. The low oxygen (hypoxia; < or = 2 mg

  11. Seabed topography beneath Larsen C Ice Shelf from seismic soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Brisbourne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seismic reflection soundings of ice thickness and seabed depth were acquired on the Larsen C Ice Shelf in order to test a sub-shelf bathymetry model derived from the inversion of IceBridge gravity data. A series of lines were collected, from the Churchill Peninsula in the north to the Joerg Peninsula in the south, and also towards the ice front. Sites were selected using the bathymetry model derived from the inversion of free-air gravity data to indicate key regions where sub-shelf oceanic circulation may be affected by ice draft and sub-shelf cavity thickness. The seismic velocity profile in the upper 100 m of firn and ice was derived from shallow refraction surveys at a number of locations. Measured temperatures within the ice column and at the ice base were used to define the velocity profile through the remainder of the ice column. Seismic velocities in the water column were derived from previous in situ measurements. Uncertainties in ice and water cavity thickness are in general <10 m. Compared with the seismic measurements, the root-mean-square error in the gravimetrically derived bathymetry at the seismic sites is 162 m. The seismic profiles prove the non-existence of several bathymetric features that are indicated in the gravity inversion model, significantly modifying the expected oceanic circulation beneath the ice shelf. Similar features have previously been shown to be highly significant in affecting basal melt rates predicted by ocean models. The discrepancies between the gravity inversion results and the seismic bathymetry are attributed to the assumption of uniform geology inherent in the gravity inversion process and also the sparsity of IceBridge flight lines. Results indicate that care must be taken when using bathymetry models derived by the inversion of free-air gravity anomalies. The bathymetry results presented here will be used to improve existing sub-shelf ocean circulation models.

  12. 墨西哥湾盆地陆棚区油气田数量与储量规模的分形分析%Fractals of Oil and Gas Field Reserve Distribution in Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠玮; 侯贵廷; 肖芳锋

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of dividing the size of proved oil and gas fields in the outer continental shelf (OCS) of Gulf of Mexico Basin, the authors applied the fractal theory to the study of the relationship between the number of oil and gas fields and their sizes, and discussed the meaning of fractal dimension D. The fractal dimension D is a reflection of the exploratory development level, the larger the fractal dimension D is, the more mature the exploration is. The fractal method is a good way to analyze the size-distribution of oil and gas fields, to decide the exploration degree and to predict the reserve distribution of oil and gas fields.%在对墨西哥湾盆地陆棚区已探明油气田储量规模划分的基础上,应用分形理论对油气田数量与储量规模之间的分形关系进行了研究,讨论了油气田储量规模分布的分数维值D的含义。油气田储量规模分布的分数维值D反映了油气田的勘探开发程度,勘探开发程度越高,分数维值D越大;勘探开发程度越低,分数维值D越小。利用分形方法可以较好地分析油气田储量规模与数量之间的关系,评判油气田勘探开发的程度。预测未来发现油气田的数量及其储量规模。

  13. Policy and Profit Allocation for the Cooperative Development of Natural Gas Resource on Chinese Offshore Continental Shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingsong; Zhang Mingzhi

    1994-01-01

    @@ Rich natural gas resources on Chinese offshore continental shelf China has a wide sea waters with their offshore continental shelf covering over 1 million km2. Rich oil-gas resources are lying under the sea waters. In accordance with the conventional international assessment method for oil and gas resources, it is expected that the gas reserve volume in China is approximately 14 000 billion cu.m.

  14. Sediments, structural framework, petroleum potential, environmental conditions, and operational considerations of the United States South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1975-01-01

    The area designated for possible oil and gas lease sale in Bureau of Land Management memorandum 3310 #43 (722) and referred to therein as part of the United States South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) contains about 98,000 square kilometres of the continental margin seaward of the 3 mile offshore limit and within the 600 metre isobath. The designated area, offshore of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, encompasses parts of three physiographic provinces: the Continental Shelf, the Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake Plateau. The structural framework of the U.3. South Atlantic region is dominated by the Southeast Georgia Embayment --an east-plunging depression recessed into the Atlantic Coastal Plain and shelf between Cape Fear, North Carolina and Jacksonville, Florida. The embayment is bounded to the north by the Cape Fear Arch and to southeast by the Peninsular Arch. Refraction data indicate a minor basement(?) ridge beneath the outer shelf between 30? and 32?N at 80?W. Drill hole data also suggest a gentle fold or accretionary structure (reef?) off the east coast of Florida. Several other structural features have been identified by refraction and reflection techniques and drilling. These are the Yamacraw Uplift, Burton High, Stone Arch, and the Suwannee Channel. Gravity and magnetic anomalies within the area probably result from emplacement of magma bodies along linear features representing fundamental crustal boundaries. Of these anomalies, the most prominent, is a segment of the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly which crosses the coast at Brunswick, Georgia. This anomaly has been interpreted as representing an ancient continental boundary where two formerly separate continental plates collided and were welded together. There may be as much as 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks in the Southeast Georgia Embayment out to the 600 m isobath. Basement rocks beneath the Southeast Georgia Embayment are expected to be similar to those exposed in the

  15. On the freshening of the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Hellmer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed hydrographic data from the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf of the three austral winters 1989, 1997, and 2006 and two summers following the last winter cruise. During summer a thermal front exists at ~64° S separating cold southern waters from warm northern waters that have similar characteristics as the deep waters of the central basin of the Bransfield Strait. In winter, the whole continental shelf exhibits southern characteristics with high Neon (Ne concentrations, indicating a significant input of glacial melt water. The comparison of the winter data from the shallow shelf off the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, spanning a period of 17 yr, shows a salinity decrease of 0.09 for the whole water column, which has a residence time of <1 yr. We interpret this freshening as being caused by a combination of reduced salt input due to a southward sea ice retreat and higher precipitation during the late 20th century on the western Weddell Sea continental shelf. However, less salinification might also result from a delicate interplay between enhanced salt input due to sea ice formation in coastal areas formerly occupied by Larsen A and B ice shelves and increased Larsen C ice loss.

  16. 76 FR 11811 - Environmental Document Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... activities proposed on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  17. 浅薄层稠油油藏水平井蒸汽吞吐注汽参数分析%The Study on Injection Parameters about Steam Huff and Puff of Horizontal Well in Shallow and Thin Heavy Oil Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马翠玉; 刘月田; 王春红; 刘亚庆

    2013-01-01

    随着稠油开采技术的发展,水平井在浅层稠油开采上的应用规模逐渐扩大.为高效开发浅薄层稠油油藏,应用数值模拟方法及灰度关联分析方法研究了浅薄层稠油油藏蒸汽吞吐注汽参数的敏感性.研究结果表明,水平井蒸汽吞吐注汽参数敏感性排序为:注汽强度>蒸汽干度>焖井时间>注汽速度.并在此基础上,优化了某浅薄层油藏的注汽参数,优化结果为注汽强度14 t/m,蒸汽干度大于等于0.5,焖井时间为2~4d,注汽速度300 t/d时,每周期注汽量较上一周期递增10%左右.该研究成果对此类油藏的高效开发具有重要的意义.%With the development of heavy oil recovery technology, the scale of horizontal well was applied in shallow heavy oil exploitation gradually expanded. For the efficient development of shallow thin heavy oil reservoir, numerical simulation and gray association analysis were used to study the sensitivity of injection parameters about steam huff and puff of horizontal well in shallow and thin heavy oil reservoir. Research results show that the sensitivity descending order of injection parameters about steam huff and puff of horizontal well is as follows; steam injection intensity, dryness fraction of steam, soak time, steam injection rate. Optimizing the steam injection parameters, optimization results are as follows: steam injection intensity is 14 t/m, steam dryness is greater than or equal to 0. 5, soak time is 2 to 4 days, steam injection rate is 300 t/d, each cycle steam injection volume increases 10% compared with the previous cycle. The research has important significance on the efficient development of such reservoirs.

  18. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Terriary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    1998-04-08

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO -) 2 flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. Two activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of productive carbonate buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) diagenetic characterization of project field reservoirs, and (2) technology transfer.

  19. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-11-02

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  20. Widespread collapse of the Ross Ice Shelf during the late Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yusuke; Anderson, John B; Yamane, Masako; Simkins, Lauren M; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Koizumi, Mamito; Suga, Hisami; Kusahara, Kazuya; Prothro, Lindsay; Hasumi, Hiroyasu; Southon, John R; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-03-01

    The stability of modern ice shelves is threatened by atmospheric and oceanic warming. The geologic record of formerly glaciated continental shelves provides a window into the past of how ice shelves responded to a warming climate. Fields of deep (-560 m), linear iceberg furrows on the outer, western Ross Sea continental shelf record an early post-Last Glacial Maximum episode of ice-shelf collapse that was followed by continuous retreat of the grounding line for ∼200 km. Runaway grounding line conditions culminated once the ice became pinned on shallow banks in the western Ross Sea. This early episode of ice-shelf collapse is not observed in the eastern Ross Sea, where more episodic grounding line retreat took place. More widespread (∼280,000 km(2)) retreat of the ancestral Ross Ice Shelf occurred during the late Holocene. This event is recorded in sediment cores by a shift from terrigenous glacimarine mud to diatomaceous open-marine sediment as well as an increase in radiogenic beryllium ((10)Be) concentrations. The timing of ice-shelf breakup is constrained by compound specific radiocarbon ages, the first application of this technique systematically applied to Antarctic marine sediments. Breakup initiated around 5 ka, with the ice shelf reaching its current configuration ∼1.5 ka. In the eastern Ross Sea, the ice shelf retreated up to 100 km in about a thousand years. Three-dimensional thermodynamic ice-shelf/ocean modeling results and comparison with ice-core records indicate that ice-shelf breakup resulted from combined atmospheric warming and warm ocean currents impinging onto the continental shelf.

  1. Bedrock control on the Assu Incised Valley morphology and sedimentation in the Brazilian Equatorial Shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moab Praxedes Gomes; Helenice Vital; Karl Stattegger; Klaus Schwarzer

    2016-01-01

    The Assu Incised Valley (AIV) is a new example of an incised-valley system located on the Brazilian Equatorial continental shelf. This valley extends over 40 km from the present-day shoreline to the shelf break, in a passive margin setting, on a shallow (~70 m), narrow (43 km) and flat («1°) shelf, with mixed carbonate–siliciclastic sedimentation and a low terrigenous sediment supply. To investigate the mor-phology of the incised valley and the surrounding shelf area, we analyzed LandSat images and bathy-metric, shallow seismic and sedimentological data. The results indicate that the AIV is a coastal-plain incised valley. The incision was mainly forced by the magnitude of the last fall in sea level, which created the specific geometry of valley, atypically widening landward due to lithological and structural control. The AIV is a broad N–S-trending valley with a negative relief of approximately 12 m below the mean shelf topography and low-angle valley walls (~3°), surrounded by a highly planar shelf. The valley is asymmetric in cross-section and subdivided into three segments along the shelf:the landward segment is wide (up to 8 km), shallow (<9 m deep), and 25 km long; the middle segment is narrow (~2 km wide), only slightly deeper than the inner segment (<15 m deep) and 10 km long;the outer segment is very narrow (<1 km), has incised relief up to 30 m deep and is 8 km long. The incised valley changes near the shelf break abruptly to a deeper (300 m) and wider submarine canyon (3 km). The three valley-segments are bounded by transfer faults of W–E orientation. In addition, the accommodation-space response to the last deglacial sea-level rise provided a 30 m thick sedimentary fill above a Pleistocene/Holocene regional unconformity and a morphologically controlled stratigraphic organization. The ante-cedent valley topography controls the sedimentation and hydrodynamics of the modern shelf. Further-more, the morphology of the AIV is a key example of the

  2. On the distribution of batch shelf lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Michelle; Stroup, Walter; Christopher, David; Schwenke, James

    2013-01-01

    Implicit in ICH Q1E (International Conference on Harmonization [ICH], 2003b ) are definitions of batch shelf life (the time the batch mean crosses the acceptance limit) and product shelf life (the minimum batch shelf life). The distribution of batch means over time projects to a distribution of batch shelf lives on the x-axis. Assuming multivariate normality, shelf life is the ratio of correlated Gaussian variables. Using Hinkley ( 1969 ), we describe the relationship between quantiles of the distributions of batch shelf lives and batch means. Exploiting this relationship, a linear mixed model is used to estimate a target quantile of batch shelf lives to address the ICH objective.

  3. New Result on Methane Emissions from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhova, N. E.; Semiletov, I. P.; Sergienko, V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Dmitrevsky, N.; Salyuk, A.; Yusupov, V.; Salomatin, A.; Karnaukh, V.; Chernykh, D.; Kosmach, D.; Ananiev, R.; Meluzov, A.; Nicolsky, D.; Panteleev, G.

    2013-12-01

    Methane release from thawing Arctic permafrost is one of the few carbon-climate mechanisms that could change projected climate forcing substantially in this century. Venting of methane to the atmosphere in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, the world's largest yet shallowest shelf, was recently shown to be ubiquitous. Here we report results of multi-year investigations performed in the coastal East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS), where invasion of relatively warm seawater occurred most recently. Observational data and simulation of the warming effect of seawater on subsea permafrost suggest that disintegrating subsea permafrost allows formation of migration pathways for methane bubbles released from the sea floor. Sonar data collected in the coastal area and in the mid-outer shelf area together with data, obtained using high-resolution high-speed video camera, enabled area-weighted methane fluxes to be estimated. New factors controlling spatial and temporal variability of methane fluxes on the ESAS were found. In the outer shelf, it was shown that methane releases from the seabed via strong flare-like ebullition that produces fluxes much greater than on the shallow shelf, where largely frozen sediments restrict fluxes. The coastward progression of thawing subsea permafrost in a warming Arctic could potentially result in a significant increase in methane emissions from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf.

  4. A three-dimensional model of wind-driven circulation on the shelf: application to the storm of January 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alan M.; Kwong, Simon C. M.; Flather, Roger A.

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model covering the NorthWest European Continental Shelf is used to examine the wind-induced circulation on the shelf during early January 1993, the time of the oil spill due to the grounding of the tanker Braer on the Shetlands. The model is used to study the response of the wind-driven currents on the shelf to changes in the wind stress which occurred on a number of time scales during this period. The sensitivity of the currents to various formulations of vertical eddy viscosity is considered in detail with particular emphasis on surface currents. Although the prime aim of the calculations is a study of the wind-driven flow over the whole shelf and not a study of oil movement, some of the flow fields in the vicinity of the Shetlands help to explain the movement and eventual fate of the oil in that region.

  5. Shallow Water Acoustics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    to look at the complicated boundary between deep and shallow water, i.e. the slope/ canyon region. (Dates for any experiments are approximate...them for publication, 2) begin the 2018 (shelfbreak, slope and canyon ) experimental planning, both on an individual basis, and in conjunction with...experimental planning for a shelfbreak/slope/ canyon experiment has been placed “on hold” by ONR for the time being, though some of that planning has been

  6. Seabed topography beneath Larsen C Ice Shelf from seismic soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbourne, A. M.; Smith, A. M.; King, E. C.; Nicholls, K. W.; Holland, P. R.; Makinson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Seismic reflection soundings of ice thickness and seabed depth were acquired on the Larsen C Ice Shelf in order to test a sub-ice shelf bathymetry model derived from the inversion of IceBridge gravity data. A series of lines was collected, from the Churchill Peninsula in the north to the Joerg Peninsula in the south, and also towards the ice front. Sites were selected using the bathymetry model derived from the inversion of free-air gravity data to indicate key regions where sub-ice shelf oceanic circulation may be affected by ice draft and seabed depth. The seismic velocity profile in the upper 100 m of firn and ice was derived from shallow refraction surveys at a number of locations. Measured temperatures within the ice column and at the ice base were used to define the velocity profile through the remainder of the ice column. Seismic velocities in the water column were derived from previous in situ measurements. Uncertainties in ice and water cavity thickness are in general model, significantly modifying the expected oceanic circulation beneath the ice shelf. Similar features have previously been shown to be highly significant in affecting basal melt rates predicted by ocean models. The discrepancies between the gravity inversion results and the seismic bathymetry are attributed to the assumption of uniform geology inherent in the gravity inversion process and also the sparsity of IceBridge flight lines. Results indicate that care must be taken when using bathymetry models derived by the inversion of free-air gravity anomalies. The bathymetry results presented here will be used to improve existing sub-ice shelf ocean circulation models.

  7. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304 collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth, down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth. Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of

  8. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ben M; Harvey, Euan S; Heyward, Andrew J; Twiggs, Emily J; Colquhoun, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304) collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth), down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth) then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth). Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category) were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of connected habitats

  9. The Jurassic petroleum system north and west of Britain: a geochemical oil-source correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotchman, I.C. [Statoil Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Griffith, C.E.; Holmes, A.J. [Mobil North Sea Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Jones, D.M. [University of Newcastle (United Kingdom). Newcastle Research Group in Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry

    1998-12-31

    Recent significant oil discoveries have focused exploration attention on the Atlantic Margin areas north and west of Britain, in particular the West of Shetlands area. These discoveries, the Foinaven and Schiehallion fields, each have reserves of 250 to 500 million barrels (39.8 to 79.5 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}) of 24-27 {sup o} API oil while an earlier heavy oil discovery, the Clair Field, is the largest undeveloped oil discovery on the U.K. Continental Shelf with resources estimated in the range 3-5 billion barrels (477 to 795 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}). Other discoveries include Suilven, the very heavy oil in well 204/28-1 and the Quadrant 205 Strathmore and Solan fields. Potential source rocks in areas adjacent to the West of Shetlands include the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge CLay Formation equivalent, the Middle and Lower Jurassic and the Middle Devonian. The results of geochemical studies of the oils, reservoir core extracts and source rocks from released wells from these West of Shetlands discoveries show them to be genetically related to North Sea oils sourced from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation equivalent. Detailed geochemical analysis (biomarkers, source rock reaction kinetics, compound specific isotope analysis and fluid inclusion ``crush-leach`` analysis) of the Clair Field and ``Foinaven Complex`` oils showed that at least two episodes of charging from different source facies within the Kimmeridge Clay Formation took place, with an intervening biodegradation event. Oil charging from Middle Jurassic lacustrine source rocks is also indicated in the ``Foinaven Complex`` oils. The source rocks are shown to exhibit variations in organic facies, from very oil-prone to mixed oil and gas, with a corresponding range of kinetic parameters. This complex generation, migration and trapping scenario is directly linked with the tectonic evolution of the West of Shetlands with major oil generation from very oil-prone Kimmeridge Clay and Middle Jurassic lacustrine facies into

  10. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy

  11. Peculiarities of spreading of acoustic waves over a shelf with decreasing depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, G. I.; Budrin, S. S.; Ovcharenko, V. V.; Plotnikov, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    We analyze experimental data collected in Vityaz Bay of the Sea of Japan during study of the peculiarities of spreading of hydroacoustic waves over a shelf with decreasing depth. We found that the waves propagate over a shelf with depths greater than half of the hydroacoustic wave according to the law of cylindrical divergence with least losses of the wave energy. If the depths are shallower than half of the hydroacoustic wave, they spread along the water-bottom boundary as Rayleigh waves of decaying and undamped types with significant absorption of the wave energy by the bottom.

  12. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  13. Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province, Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.

    2007-01-01

    The Laptev Sea Shelf Province was assessed for undiscovered crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids/condensates resources (collectively referred to as petroleum) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates the mean undiscovered, conventional petroleum resources in the province to be approximately 9,300 million barrels of oil equivalent, including approximately 3,069 million barrels of crude oil, 32,252 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 861 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  14. Impacts of combined overfishing and oil spills on the plankton trophodynamics of the West Florida shelf over the last half century of 1965-2011: A two-dimensional simulation analysis of biotic state transitions, from a zooplankton- to a bacterioplankton-modulated ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. J.; Lenes, J. M.; Darrow, B.; Parks, A.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2016-03-01

    Over 50 years of multiple anthropogenic perturbations, Florida zooplankton stocks of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico declined ten-fold, with increments of mainly dominant toxic dinoflagellate harmful algal blooms (HABs), rather than diatoms, and a shift in loci of nutrient remineralization and oxygen depletion by bacterioplankton, from the sea floor to near surface waters. Yet, lytic bacterial biomass and associated ammonification only increased at most five-fold over the same time period, with consequently little indication of new, expanded "dead zones" of diatom-induced hypoxia. After bacterial lysis of intact cells of these increased HABs, the remaining residues of zooplankton biomass decrements evidently instead exited the water column as malign aerosolized HAB asthma triggers, correlated by co-traveling mercury aerosols, within wind-borne sea sprays. To unravel the causal mechanisms of these inferred decadal food web transitions, a 36-state variable plankton model of algal, bacterial, protozoan, and copepod component communities replicated daily time series of each plankton group's representatives on the West Florida shelf (WFS) during 1965-2011. At the lower phytoplankton trophic levels, 52% of the ungrazed HAB increments, between 1965-1967 and 2001-2002 before recent oil spills, remained in the water column to kill fishes and fuel bacterioplankton. But, another 48% of the WFS primary production then left the ocean's surface as a harbinger of increased public health hazards during continuing sea spray exports of salts, HAB toxins, and Hg poisons. Following the Deepwater Horizon petroleum releases in 2010, little additional change of element partition among the altered importance of WFS food web components of the trophic pyramid then pertained between 2001-2002 and 2010-2011, despite when anomalous upwelled nutrient supplies instead favored retrograde benign, oil-tolerant diatoms over the HABs during 2010. Indeed, by 2011 HABs were back, with biomass

  15. Apple Puree-Alginate Edible Coating as Carrier of Antimicrobial Agents to Prolong Shelf-Life of Fresh-Cut Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruit. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut Fuji apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air-filled pol...

  16. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  17. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  18. Entry of Oil to the Coastal Planktonic Food Web During the Deepwater Horizon Spill (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, W. M.; Condon, R. H.; Carmichael, R. H.; D'Ambra, I.; Patterson, H. K.; Hernandez, F. J., Jr.

    2010-12-01

    After the explosion and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) on 22 April 2010, an estimated 780,000 m3 of Sweet Louisiana Crude (SLC) and 205,000 mT of methane were released into the northern Gulf of Mexico over an 85 d period. A great deal of controversy ensued regarding the application of unprecedented volumes of chemical dispersants both at the surface and at depth. One of the consequences of dispersing such large volumes of oil into the water column was the difficulty of tracking its fate over distance and through the food web. Most of the attention to date has been on large underwater plumes of oil, and scant evidence exists for subsea oil in warm (>25 °C), shallow shelf waters due to rapid weathering and utilization by prokaryotes. A large pool of isotopically depleted carbon from released oil and methane is presumably available to zooplankton and zooplankton-eating fish and invertebrates via prokaryotic consumers. Thus, carbon isotopic depletion extending into marine zooplankton grazers, a pathway mediated by the microbial food web, is a good proxy for food web modification by the spill. We employed δ13C as a tracer of oil-derived carbon incorporation into the lower marine food web across the middle and inner continental shelf. During June-August 2010, we followed two particle size classes: the nominally 1 μm - 0.2 mm “small suspended particulate” and the >0.2-2 mm “mesozooplankton” fractions, with the former considered likely food particle size for the latter. A clear pattern of δ13C depletion occurring in each fraction at middle and inner shelf stations was consistent with two sequential northward pulses of surface oil slicks from DWH. Relative to early June, an isotopic shift of -1 to -3 ‰ (toward weathered and fresh oil, -27.23 ± 0.03 ‰ and -27.34 ± 0.34 ‰, respectively) occurred during the peak of areal coverage of oil over the sites in late June 2010. Recovery of this depletion was 2-4 wks. A third pulse of residual oil

  19. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The petroleum resources will not last for ever. It is therefore important for Norway to look ahead so as to be prepared for the changes that will come. In this report, the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate presents the current status of the petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. This is the basis on which the authorities can lay plans for the future. Since no-one can predict the future with certainty, on this occasion the Directorate is presenting four alternative scenarios for the future of Norwegian petroleum activities if the basic scenario proves incorrect. This will enable us to prepare ourselves for changes that may come, and to view the consequences of the various choices we can make. In this report, the Directorate also describes the various plays on the continental shelf, and explains the techniques used and the evaluations made when it estimates the undiscovered resources. This information is important for exploration work, particularly for new companies which need to get acquainted with the geology and the possibilities for finding oil and gas in Norway. Significant volumes remain to be produced and found on the Norwegian continental shelf. Only a third of the total resources have so far been produced, and a quarter of them have still not been discovered. Oil and gas prices are high at the moment, giving the industry and society in general good incentives to produce at a maximum rate. Oil production reached its peak a couple of years ago, but gas production is still increasing. However, the industry is finding less than it produces, which places demands on both it and the authorities. The industry must actively explore the acreage it has been allocated. The Petroleum Directorate believes that substantial resources can still be discovered in areas where production licences have been awarded. At the same time, the industry must gain access to new areas for exploration. The authorities must find an appropriate balance between concern for the

  20. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Exploration activity has reached record-breaking levels in the last couple of years, which has led to many, but small, discoveries. The NPD believes that large discoveries can still be made in areas of the shelf that have not been extensively explored. Content: Challenges on the Norwegian continental shelf; Value creation in fields; 40 years of oil and gas production; Resource management; Still many possibilities; Energy consumption and the environment; Exploration; Access to acreage; Awards of new licenses; Exploration in frontier areas; Exploration history and statistics; Resources and forecasts; Undiscovered resources; Proven recoverable resources; Forecasts; Short-term petroleum production forecast (2009-2013); Investments- and operating costs forecasts; Long-term forecast for the petroleum production; Emissions from the petroleum activity. (AG)

  1. Development of a Lipid Particle for β-Carotene Encapsulation Using a Blend of Tristearin and Sunflower Oil: Choice of Lipid Matrix and Evaluation of Shelf Life of Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela V. L. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid particles are colloidal carriers that have been studied for almost 20 years in the pharmaceutical field and recently have been investigated by food researchers due to their capacity to enhance the incorporation of lipophilic bioactives and their bioavailability in aqueous formulations. The aims of this study are to choose a suitable lipid matrix to produce solid lipid particles, which would be used to encapsulate β-carotene, and to evaluate the capacity of dispersions to protect the incorporated carotenoid. Bulk lipid mixtures of tristearin and sunflower oil were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction, and the mixture with the highest degree of structural disorganisation was chosen. β-Carotene was then encapsulated in solid lipid particles produced with this mixture, composed of 70 % tristearin and 30 % sunflower oil (6 % total lipid and stabilised with hydrogenated soy lecithin and Tween 80 (3 % total surfactant by hot pressure homogenisation. Two types of particles were produced, using one or two passages in the homogenisation step. Average particle size, zeta potential, thermal behaviour, crystallinity and β-carotene concentration were monitored over 4 months of storage (under refrigerated conditions. The results showed minor differences between the systems in terms of size distribution, although the particles produced with one passage through the homogeniser were slightly more efficient at protecting the β-carotene from degradation and also suffered few microstructural alterations after 4 months.

  2. Assessing economic impacts to coastal recreation and tourism from oil and gas development in the Oregon and Washington Outer Continental Shelf. Inventory and evaluation of Washington and Oregon coastal recreation resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, G.M.; Johnson, N.S.; Chapman, D.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of the three-part study was to assist Materials Management Service (MMS) planners in evaluation of the anticipated social impact of proposed oil and gas development on the environment. The purpose of the report is primarily to analyze the econometric models of the Dornbusch study. The authors examine, in detail, key aspects of the gravity, consumer surplus, and economic effects (input-output) models. The purpose is two-fold. First, the authors evaluate the performance of the model in satisfying the objective for which it was developed: analyzing economic impacts of OCS oil and gas development in California. Second, the authors evaluate the applicability of the modeling approach employed in the Dornbusch study for analyzing potential OCS development impacts in Washington and Oregon. At the end of the report, the authors offer suggestions for any future study of economic impacts of OCS development in Washington and Oregon. The recommendations concern future data gathering procedures and alternative modeling approaches for measuring economic impacts.

  3. Secondary ferroan dolomite rhombs in oil reservoirs, Chadra Sands, Gialo field, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shaieb, Z.; Shelton, J.W.

    1978-03-01

    Oil-productive, Oligocene Chadra sands in Gialo field, Libya, at depths of 600 to 750 m contain small dolomite rhombs. The rhombs are present as single crystals on detrital grains and as nonmosaic aggregates in pore space. The dolomite is calcium-rich and contains up to 10% iron but not measurable sodium or strontium. Total dissolved solids of produced interstitial water from the Chadra sand range from about 4,500 to 10,000 ppM. Introduction of fresh (meteoric) water into the Chadra sands, which were deposited in shallow-marine (shelf) environment, was responsible for formation of the dolomite rhombs. Iron in the dolomite rhombs was derived from alteration of galuconite.

  4. Water masses of Visakhapatnam shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, V.S.

    The T-S relationships of shelf waters off Visakhapatnam in the Bay of Bengal are studied for the different seasons with the data collected during February 1979 to January 1981. The T-S relationships indicate distinct characteristics of the water...

  5. Assessment of sediment hydrocarbon contamination from the 2009 Montara oil blow out in the Timor Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kathryn A; Jones, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In August 2009, a blowout of the Montara H1 well 260 km off the northwest coast of Australia resulted in the uncontrolled release of about 4.7 M L of light crude oil and gaseous hydrocarbons into the Timor Sea. Over the 74 day period of the spill, the oil remained offshore and did not result in shoreline incidents on the Australia mainland. At various times slicks were sighted over a 90,000 km(2) area, forming a layer of oil which was tracked by airplanes and satellites but the slicks typically remained within 35 km of the well head platform and were treated with 183,000 L of dispersants. The shelf area where the spill occurred is shallow (100-200 m) and includes off shore emergent reefs and cays and submerged banks and shoals. This study describes the increased inputs of oil to the system and assesses the environmental impact. Concentrations of hydrocarbon in the sediment at the time of survey were very low (total aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 0.04 to 31 ng g(-1)) and were orders of magnitude lower than concentrations at which biological effects would be expected.

  6. Vegetable oil spills on salt marsh sediments; comparison between sunflower and linseed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M; Latchford, John

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a simulated spill of sunflower oil in salt marsh sediments were compared with an experiment with linseed oil. Sunflower and linseed oil penetrated the sediments at the same rates but different adsorption of the oils onto sediment particles resulted in the establishment of anaerobic conditions at shallower depths in sediments contaminated with linseed oil than with sunflower oil. The total lipid content of sunflower oil contaminated sediments remained almost stable for 6 months, whilst only 40% of linseed oil remained in the sediment after 2 months. Numbers of culturable heterotrophic bacteria and aerobic oil degrading bacteria in muddy sediment increased rapidly in response to the presence of the oils but bacterial numbers in sandy sediments increased more slowly for sunflower oil. Changes in fatty acid composition indicate similar degradation pathways for both oils but sunflower oil degraded more slowly than linseed oil and thus has the potential for longer lasting effects in marine environments.

  7. The relevance of buttressing for Filchner-Ronne and Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronja; Gudmundsson, Hilmar; Levermann, Anders; Winkelmann, Ricarda

    2016-04-01

    Sub-shelf melting is an important component of Antarctica's mass budget. Although thinning of ice shelves does not directly contribute to sea-level rise, it may have a significant indirect impact through the potential of ice shelves to buttress their adjacent ice sheet. This is clearly seen in recent observations, e.g. in the Amundsen region (Pritchard et al., 2012) or at the Southern Antarctic Peninsula (Wouters et al, 2015) where increased ice loss of the adjacent upstream drainage basins is attributed to enhanced sub-shelf melting. In the extreme case, the complete disintegration of an ice shelf, e.g. during the calving events of Larsen A and B in 1995 and 2002, respectively, the adjacent ice streams subsequently accelerated significantly (Scambos et al., 2014). Here, we investigate the importance of buttressing using the finite-element, shallow-stream approximation numerical model Úa. We derive transfer functions for an idealized setup (Gudmundsson et al. 2012) and the Filchner-Ronne and Ross Ice Shelf. They allow for the computation of instantaneous changes in velocities to thickness perturbation patterns. Based on the transfer functions, we calculate the sensitivity of flux across the grounding line to regional varying melting patterns for the idealized setup and for Filchner-Ronne and Ross Ice Shelf. We find that the immediate response of velocities in the ice shelf-ice sheet system to changes in sub-shelf melting can be understood as the interaction of two effects: On the one hand, the spreading rate is a function of local ice thickness, indicating that a thinning of the ice shelf reduces velocities. On the other hand, ice shelf thinning weakens its ability to buttress, and thus enhances velocities. These two processes compete, leading to a complex pattern of velocity changes within the ice shelf. We find - both in the idealized setup and for Ross and Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelves - that the reduction in buttressing is dominating the velocity changes in the

  8. 76 FR 5189 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activities: 1010-0081, Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... the public consultation process, on September 7, 2010, we published a Federal Register notice (75 FR...: 1010-0081, Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur... collection (1010-0081). SUMMARY: To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), we are...

  9. 76 FR 29156 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ..., Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Outer Continental Shelf, Ozone, Particulate matter, Permits, Reporting...). Rule 325 Crude Oil Production and Separation (Adopted 07/19/01). Rule 326 Storage of Reactive Organic... Analysis and Modeling (Adopted 04/17/97). Rule 808 New Source Review for Major Sources of Hazardous...

  10. Metals in water, sediments, and biota of an offshore oil exploration area in the Potiguar Basin, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, L D; Campos, R C; Santelli, R E

    2013-05-01

    Metal concentrations were evaluated in water, bottom sediments, and biota in four field campaigns from 2002 to 2004 in the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil, where offshore oil exploration occurs. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Total metal concentrations in water (dissolved + particulate) and sediments were in the range expected for coastal and oceanic areas. Abnormally high concentrations in waters were only found for Ba (80 μg l(-1)) and Mn (12 μg l(-1)) at the releasing point of one of the outfalls, and for the other metals, concentrations in water were found in stations closer to shore, suggesting continental inputs. In bottom sediments, only Fe and Mn showed abnormal concentrations closer to the effluent releasing point. Metal spatial distribution in shelf sediments showed the influence of the silt-clay fraction distribution, with deeper stations at the edge of the continental shelf, which are much richer in silt-clay fraction showing higher concentrations than shallower sediments typically dominated by carbonates. Metal concentrations in estuarine (mollusks and crustaceans) and marine (fish) organisms showed highest concentrations in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae). Fish tissues metal concentrations were similar between the continental shelf influenced by the oil exploration area and a control site. The results were within the range of concentrations reported for pristine environments without metals contamination. The global results suggest small, if any, alteration in metal concentrations due to the oil exploration activity in the Potiguar Basin. For monitoring purposes, the continental inputs and the distribution of the clay-silt fraction need to be taken into consideration for interpreting environmental monitoring results.

  11. Export of terrigenous organic carbon along submarine canyons driven by dense shelf water cascading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, T.; Puig, P.; Goni, M.; Canals, M.; Langone, L.; Palanques, A.; Miserocchi, S.; Heussner, S.; Trincardi, F.; Calafat, A.; Turchetto, M.; Fabres, J.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Boldrin, A.

    2008-12-01

    At current highstand in sea level, shelves are considered major sites of terrigenous organic carbon (OCterr) accumulation with relatively little connectivity to the ocean interior. In recent years, the process of dense water cascading from the continental shelf, which occurs in numerous places around the world, has been suggested as carrier for OCterr to the deep ocean. The land-locked Mediterranean Sea is characterized by intense and recurrent cascades of dense shelf water. In winter, cold and dry winds cause the formation of dense water over the shelf that may overflow it and travel down to the outer margin and basin. Moored instruments were deployed in the canyons of the Gulf of Lion (France-Spain) and the Adriatic Sea (Italy) to intercept particulate material escaping the shelf and to investigate hydrodynamic and physical properties of the water column. Surface sediments along the shelves were also sampled to evaluate their contribution to the particle fluxes. The relative fractions of autochthonous and advected OC in sediment trap samples were investigated using biogeochemical proxies including alkaline CuO oxidation products (lignin phenols, dicarboxylic acids, and fatty acids), radiocarbon measurements (Ä14C), and elemental and carbon stable isotope (ä13C) compositions. Lignin-derived CuO products were a powerful biogeochemical tool that allowed us to identify the provenance of the material from the continental margin and to assess the amount of OCterr transferred across the slope in both Mediterranean regions. The results indicate that the composition of OC escaping the shelf through submarine canyons depends on the geomorphological setting. At the present sea level stage, cascading on a broad shelf limits the transport of OCterr, promoting instead the down-slope export of material accumulated in the mid- and outer-shelf. In contrast, cascade events on narrow shelves lead to the efficient export of OCterr from shallower regions of the margin along with

  12. Thermohaline structure inhomogeneity associated with polynia at the northern margin of Emery Ice-shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the hydrographic data in austral summer during the 22nd Antarctic Expedition of China (2005/2006), some features can be found about the northern margin of Emery ice shelf as follows. The heat content in the surface layer(0-50 m) at the eastern end and the western end of the ice-shelf margin is much higher than that at the middle. The upper mixing-layer depth and the seasonal thermocline depth at the middle of the ice-shelf northern margin are much shallower than those at the both ends. However there is much less difference between the middle and the ends in the bottom layer. The remote sensing photos show that the inhomogeneity in the surface-layer water is closely related to the spatial distribution of the floes and polynia in the area.

  13. The Cumacea community of the southeastern Brazilian Continental Shelf: structure and dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda L. Dos Santos

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Specific composition, abundance, diversity and dynamics of the Cumacea community from the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf were studied. The area is characterized by the intrusion of a cold and highly saline water mass in summer, the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW, from the slope towards the coast, changing the hydrographic structure of the shelf and the species distribution. During the other seasons the inner shelf, area shallower than 50 m, is filled with warm and low saline water, the Coastal Water (CW. The presence of the SACW seems to favor the abundance and diversity of Cumacea due to its higher primary production and stability. Three groups of species were related to the water masses. Depth and fine sand fraction were shown to be the main factors structuring the Cumacea community. The role of the SACW in maintaining the Cumacea populations in the area through the passive transport of pre-ovigerous and ovigerous females is discussed.

  14. Comprehensive study on enhancing oil recovery in water-flooded gas well of Shenxi shallow gas reservoir%沈西浅层水淹气井提高采收率的综合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 王凯

    2016-01-01

    沈西浅层气田处于开采后期,气藏地质条件复杂,水驱气藏产能降低,水淹气井采收率降低。根据水淹气井不同特点,分析产水状态及水淹主要因素,优选排水采气工艺技术措施,运用综合研究提高气藏采收率。%According to different characteristics of water-flooded gas well in Shenxi shallow gas reservoir, this paper analyses the status of water producing and the main factors of water flooding. Finally, the optimized drainage gas recovery measures are concluded and comprehensive study for enhancing gas reservoir recovery is used in this paper.

  15. Focus on shallow gas systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.M.; Nelskamp, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent exploration activities in two of the largest deltas in the world, the still active Nile delta and the Cenozoic Southern North Sea (SNS) deltas, proved the potential of shallow gas resources. However, shallow gas production is still limited due to a lack of understanding of this gas system. Fo

  16. Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Katsnelson, Boris; Lynch, James

    2012-01-01

    Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the world's oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume, the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in U.S. and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.

  17. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which

  18. Archive of Digitized Analog Boomer and Minisparker Seismic Reflection Data Collected from the Alabama-Mississippi-Louisiana Shelf During Cruises Onboard the R/V Carancahua and R/V Gyre, April and July, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Jordan M.; Harrison, Arnell S.; Wiese, Dana S.; Flocks, James G.

    2009-01-01

    In April and July of 1981, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys to investigate the shallow geologic framework of the Alabama-Mississippi-Louisiana Shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Work was conducted onboard the Texas A&M University R/V Carancahua and the R/V Gyre to develop a geologic understanding of the study area and to locate potential hazards related to offshore oil and gas production. While the R/V Carancahua only collected boomer data, the R/V Gyre used a 400-Joule minisparker, 3.5-kilohertz (kHz) subbottom profiler, 12-kHz precision depth recorder, and two air guns. The authors selected the minisparker data set because, unlike with the boomer data, it provided the most complete record. This report is part of a series to digitally archive the legacy analog data collected from the Mississippi-Alabama SHelf (MASH). The MASH data rescue project is a cooperative effort by the USGS and the Minerals Management Service (MMS). This report serves as an archive of high-resolution scanned Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) and Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) images of the original boomer and minisparker paper records, navigation files, trackline maps, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, cruise logs, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata.

  19. Shelf-life extension of refrigerated sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate/fish skin gelatin-ZnO nanocomposite film incorporated with basil leaf essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfat, Yasir Ali; Benjakul, Soottawat; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee

    2015-10-01

    Microbiological, chemical and sensory changes of sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate (FPI)/fish skin gelatin (FSG) films incorporated with 3 % ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONP) (w/w, based on protein content) and 100 % basil leaf essential oil (BEO) (w/w, based on protein content) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film had the lowest growth of psychrophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including Pseudomonas , H2S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with those wrapped with FPI/FSG-BEO, FPI/FSG-ZnONP, FPI/FSG film, polypropylene film (PP film) and the control (without wrapping), respectively (P life of sea bass slices was longest for samples wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film (12 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05).

  20. Accelerated shallow water modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandham, Rajesh; Medina, David; Warburton, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    ln this talk we will describe our ongoing developments in accelerated numerical methods for modeling tsunamis, and oceanic fluid flows using two dimensional shallow water model and/or three dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes model discretized with high order discontinuous Galerkin methods. High order discontinuous Galerkin methods can be computationally demanding, requiring extensive computational time to simulate real time events on traditional CPU architectures. However, recent advances in computing architectures and hardware aware algorithms make it possible to reduce simulation time and provide accurate predictions in a timely manner. Hence we tailor these algorithms to take advantage of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) architecture that is seen in modern many core compute devices such as GPUs. We will discuss our unified and extensive many-core programming library OCCA that alleviates the need to completely re-design the solvers to keep up with constantly evolving parallel programming models and hardware architectures. We will present performance results for the flow simulations demonstrating performance leveraging multiple different multi-threading APIs on GPU and CPU targets.

  1. OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Withdraw & Moratoria Areas - Alaska Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Areas currently under congressional moratoria or executive (presidential) withdraw from leasing for oil, gas, or minerals within the US Outer Continental Shelf. The...

  2. OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Withdrawal and Moratoria Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Areas currently under congressional moratoria or executive (presidential) withdrawal from leasing for oil, gas, or minerals within the US Outer Continental Shelf....

  3. Shelf Stable Epoxy Repair Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    manufacturing operations are more efficient , discarding less expired film. Commercial and military aircraft repair operations at Boeing experience very similar...successfully encapsulated at concentrations greater than 50 wt% within four N N = CC Infoscitex Corporation Shelf Stable Epoxy Resin Adhesive WP-1763 8...affects the composition of the encapsulant , which in turn affects the ability of the encapsulant to wet the core phase, the barrier properties of the

  4. Earth - Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire Antarctic continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken on December 8, 1990.

  5. Offshore forcing on the "pressure point" of the West Florida Shelf: Anomalous upwelling and its influence on harmful algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Weisberg, Robert H.; Lenes, Jason M.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Hubbard, Katherine; Walsh, John J.

    2016-08-01

    Gulf of Mexico Loop Current (LC) interactions with the West Florida Shelf (WFS) slope play an important role in shelf ecology through the upwelling of new inorganic nutrients across the shelf break. This is particularly the case when the LC impinges upon the shelf slope in the southwest portion of the WFS near the Dry Tortugas. By contacting shallow water isobaths at this "pressure point" the LC forcing sets the entire shelf into motion. Characteristic patterns of LC interactions with the WFS and their occurrences are identified using unsupervised neural network, self-organizing map, from 23 years (1993-2015) of altimetry data. The duration of the occurrences of such LC patterns is used as an indicator of offshore forcing of anomalous upwelling. Consistency is found between the altimetry-derived offshore forcing and the occurrence and severity of WFS coastal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis: years without major blooms tend to have prolonged LC contact at the "pressure point," whereas years with major blooms tend not to have prolonged offshore forcing. Resetting the nutrient state of the shelf by the coastal ocean circulation in response to deep-ocean forcing demonstrates the importance of physical oceanography in shelf ecology. A satellite altimetry-derived seasonal predictor for major K. brevis blooms is also proposed.

  6. Geomorphology and late Holocene accretion history of Adele Reef: a northwest Australian mid-shelf platform reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solihuddin, Tubagus; Bufarale, Giada; Blakeway, David; O'Leary, Michael J.

    2016-08-01

    The mid-shelf reefs of the Kimberley Bioregion are one of Australia's more remote tropical reef provinces and such have received little attention from reef researchers. This study describes the geomorphology and late Holocene accretion history of Adele Reef, a mid-shelf platform reef, through remote sensing of contemporary reef habitats, shallow seismic profiling, shallow percussion coring and radiocarbon dating. Seismic profiling indicates that the Holocene reef sequence is 25 to 35 m thick and overlies at least three earlier stages of reef build-up, interpreted as deposited during marine isotope stages 5, 7 and 9 respectively. The cored shallow subsurface facies of Adele Reef are predominantly detrital, comprising small coral colonies and fragments in a sandy matrix. Reef cores indicate a `catch-up' growth pattern, with the reef flat being approximately 5-10 m deep when sea level stabilised at its present elevation 6,500 years BP. The reef flat is rimmed by a broad low-relief reef crest only 10-20 cm high, characterised by anastomosing ridges of rhodoliths and coralliths. The depth of the Holocene/last interglacial contact (25-30 m) suggests a subsidence rate of 0.2 mm/year for Adele Reef since the last interglacial. This value, incorporated with subsidence rates from Cockatoo Island (inshore) and Scott Reefs (offshore), provides the first quantitative estimate of hinge subsidence for the Kimberley coast and adjacent shelf, with progressively greater subsidence across the shelf.

  7. Geomorphology and late Holocene accretion history of Adele Reef: a northwest Australian mid-shelf platform reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solihuddin, Tubagus; Bufarale, Giada; Blakeway, David; O'Leary, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    The mid-shelf reefs of the Kimberley Bioregion are one of Australia's more remote tropical reef provinces and such have received little attention from reef researchers. This study describes the geomorphology and late Holocene accretion history of Adele Reef, a mid-shelf platform reef, through remote sensing of contemporary reef habitats, shallow seismic profiling, shallow percussion coring and radiocarbon dating. Seismic profiling indicates that the Holocene reef sequence is 25 to 35 m thick and overlies at least three earlier stages of reef build-up, interpreted as deposited during marine isotope stages 5, 7 and 9 respectively. The cored shallow subsurface facies of Adele Reef are predominantly detrital, comprising small coral colonies and fragments in a sandy matrix. Reef cores indicate a `catch-up' growth pattern, with the reef flat being approximately 5-10 m deep when sea level stabilised at its present elevation 6,500 years BP. The reef flat is rimmed by a broad low-relief reef crest only 10-20 cm high, characterised by anastomosing ridges of rhodoliths and coralliths. The depth of the Holocene/last interglacial contact (25-30 m) suggests a subsidence rate of 0.2 mm/year for Adele Reef since the last interglacial. This value, incorporated with subsidence rates from Cockatoo Island (inshore) and Scott Reefs (offshore), provides the first quantitative estimate of hinge subsidence for the Kimberley coast and adjacent shelf, with progressively greater subsidence across the shelf.

  8. Wind-driven coastal upwelling and westward circulation in the Yucatan shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castillo, Eugenio; Gomez-Valdes, Jose; Sheinbaum, Julio; Rioja-Nieto, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    The wind-driven circulation and wind-induced coastal upwelling in a large shelf sea with a zonally oriented coast are examined. The Yucatan shelf is located to the north of the Yucatan peninsula in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. This area is a tropical shallow body of water with a smooth sloping bottom and is one of the largest shelves in the world. This study describes the wind-driven circulation and wind-induced coastal upwelling in the Yucatan shelf, which is forced by easterly winds throughout the year. Data obtained from hydrographic surveys, acoustic current profilers and environmental satellites are used in the analysis. Hydrographic data was analyzed and geostrophic currents were calculated in each survey. In addition an analytical model was applied to reproduce the currents. The results of a general circulation model were used with an empirical orthogonal function analysis to study the variability of the currents. The study area is divided in two regions: from the 40 m to the 200 m isobaths (outer shelf) and from the coast to the 40 m isobath (inner shelf). At the outer shelf, observations revealed upwelling events throughout the year, and a westward current with velocities of approximately 0.2 m s-1 was calculated from the numerical model output and hydrographic data. In addition, the theory developed by Pedlosky (2007) for a stratified fluid along a sloping bottom adequately explains the current's primary characteristics. The momentum of the current comes from the wind, and the stratification is an important factor in its dynamics. At the inner shelf, observations and numerical model output show a wind-driven westward current with maximum velocities of 0.20 m s-1. The momentum balance in this region is between local acceleration and friction. A cold-water band is developed during the period of maximum upwelling.

  9. Crude Oil Model Emulsion Characterised by means of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallevik, H.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Sæther, Ø.

    2000-01-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering of the wa......Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering...

  10. Tectonics and Petroleum Potential of the East China Sea Shelf Rift Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are two Cenozoic sedimentary basins in the East China Sea. They are the East China Sea shelf basin and the Okinawa Trough basin. The former can be divided into a western and an eastern rift region. The development of the shelf basin underwent continental-margin fault depression, post-rift and then tectonic inversion stages. Available exploration results show that the distribution of source rocks is controlled by the basin architecture and its tectonic evolution. In the Xihu depression, mudstones and coals are the main source rocks. The eastern rift region has good geological conditions for the formation of large oil and gas fields.

  11. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    The GABEX I experiment is designed to provide synoptic coverage of a series of Gulf Stream wave-like disturbances, the effect of these on the circulation of the entire shelf, and on biological and chemical processes. This study was initiated in February 1980 when current meter arrays were deployed. These meters will be removed in July 1980. In April three ships will simultaneously study the effects of Gulf Stream disturbances on the hydrography, chemistry, and biology of the shelf. One vessel will track a specific wave-like disturbance and provide synoptic coverage of the shelf area. The second vessel will determine the effect of shelf break processes on adjacent shelf water; and the third will study trace metal distributions in and outside of disturbances. Research progress is reported in continental shelf studies, nearshore and estuarine studies (diffusion of freshwater out of nearshore zone), tidal currents and material transport, and mixing of inlet plumes.

  12. On the shelf life of pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capen, Robert; Christopher, David; Forenzo, Patrick; Ireland, Charles; Liu, Oscar; Lyapustina, Svetlana; O'Neill, John; Patterson, Nate; Quinlan, Michelle; Sandell, Dennis; Schwenke, James; Stroup, Walter; Tougas, Terrence

    2012-09-01

    This article proposes new terminology that distinguishes between different concepts involved in the discussion of the shelf life of pharmaceutical products. Such comprehensive and common language is currently lacking from various guidelines, which confuses implementation and impedes comparisons of different methodologies. The five new terms that are necessary for a coherent discussion of shelf life are: true shelf life, estimated shelf life, supported shelf life, maximum shelf life, and labeled shelf life. These concepts are already in use, but not named as such. The article discusses various levels of "product" on which different stakeholders tend to focus (e.g., a single-dosage unit, a batch, a production process, etc.). The article also highlights a key missing element in the discussion of shelf life-a Quality Statement, which defines the quality standard for all key stakeholders. Arguments are presented that for regulatory and statistical reasons the true product shelf life should be defined in terms of a suitably small quantile (e.g., fifth) of the distribution of batch shelf lives. The choice of quantile translates to an upper bound on the probability that a randomly selected batch will be nonconforming when tested at the storage time defined by the labeled shelf life. For this strategy, a random-batch model is required. This approach, unlike a fixed-batch model, allows estimation of both within- and between-batch variability, and allows inferences to be made about the entire production process. This work was conducted by the Stability Shelf Life Working Group of the Product Quality Research Institute.

  13. The weeding handbook a shelf-by-shelf guide

    CERN Document Server

    Vnuk, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    "No! We can't rid of that!" Vnuk, author of the popular "Weeding Tips" column on Booklist Online, is here to show you that yes, you can. A library is an ever-changing organism; when done the right way, weeding helps a library thrive by focusing its resources on those parts of the collection that are the most useful to its users. Her handbook takes the guesswork out of this delicate but necessary process, giving public and school library staff the knowledge and the confidence to effectively weed any collection, of any size. Going through the proverbial stacks shelf by shelf, Vnuk: Explains why weeding is important for a healthy library, demonstrating that a vibrant collection leads to robust circulation, which in turn affects library budgets Walks readers through a library's shelves by Dewey area, with recommended weeding criteria and call-outs in each area for the different considerations of large collections and smaller collections Features a chapter addressing reference, media, magazines and newspapers, e-b...

  14. Mineral resource management of the Outer Continental Shelf : leasing procedures, evaluation of resources, and supervision of production operations on leased lands of the Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Maurice V.; John, C.B.; Kelly, R.F.; LaPointe, A.E.; Meurer, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    An important function of the Geological Survey is the evaluation and management of the mineral resources of the Outer Continental Shelf, particularly with respect to oil and gas, salt, and sulfur. Production of oil and gas from the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States has increased substantially over the past 20 years and represents an increasing percentage of total United States production. As discovery of major onshore production of oil and gas has become more difficult, the search has moved into the surrounding waters where submerged sedimentary formations are conducive to the accumulation of oil and gas. Increased energy demands of recent years have accelerated the pace of offshore operations with a corresponding improvement in technology as exploration and development have proceeded farther from shore and into deeper water. While improved technology and enforcement of more stringent regulations have made offshore operations safer, it is unrealistic to believe that completely accident-free operations can ever be achieved. Only slightly more than six percent of the world's continental terrace is adjacent to the United States, but less than one percent has been explored for oil and gas. Since the lead time for the development of offshore oil and gas resources can be as much as a decade, they do not provide an immediate energy supply but should be viewed in the light of a near-term source with a potential of becoming a medium-range source of supply pending the development of alternative energy sources. Revenues from the Outer Continental Shelf are deposited to the general fund of the United States Treasury. A major portion of these funds is allocated to the Land and Water Conservation Fund, the largest Federal grant-in-aid program of assistance to States, counties, and cities for the acquisition and development of public parks, open space, and recreation lands and water.

  15. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... country hams, canned and bottled foods, rice, pasta, flour, sugar, spices, oils, and foods processed in aseptic ... Nicholas Appert, who invented the process of packing meat and poultry in glass bottles, corking them, and ...

  16. Quality of vegetable oil prior to fortification is an important criteria to achieve a health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

    2014-11-11

    Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2-3 months, while PO2's shelf life was a few weeks and PO3's only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil.

  17. Quality of Vegetable Oil Prior to Fortification Is an Important Criteria to Achieve a Health Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Andarwulan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1; (ii cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2; and (iii cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3. The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT, where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2–3 months, while PO2’s shelf life was a few weeks and PO3’s only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil.

  18. 26 CFR 1.638-1 - Continental Shelf areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Continental Shelf areas. 1.638-1 Section 1.638-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Continental Shelf Areas § 1.638-1 Continental Shelf areas. (a) General rule. For.... The terms Continental Shelf of the United States and Continental Shelf of a possession of the United...

  19. The geochemical similarity of Oligocene and recent phosphorites from the Chiatura deposit (Georgia) and the Namibian shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturin, G. N.; Zhegallo, E. A.; Shkolnik, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed studies of the distribution of macro- and microelements in phosphorites associated with Oligocene manganese ores of the Chiatura deposit revealed their geochemical similarity to the Late Quaternary phosphorites on the recent shelf of Namibia in the Atlantic Ocean. This shows that the Chiatura nodular phosphorites were formed in the shallow-water bioproductive zone of the Oligocene basin by biogenic supply of phosphorus onto the bottom and its subsequent diagenetic concentrating similarly to the granular-nodular phosphorites on the shelf of the recent ocean. The Chiatura phosphorites were later subjected to the epigenetic impact of hydrogeological processes, which modified the initial composition of the contained rareearth elements.

  20. Multibeam mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Dartnell, Peter; Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    A zone of deep-water reefs is thought to extend from the mid and outer shelf south of Mississippi and Alabama to at least the northwestern Florida shelf off Panama City, Florida (Figure 1). The reefs off Mississippi and Alabama are found in water depths of 60 to 120 m (Ludwick and Walton, 1957; Gardner et al., 2001, in press) and were the focus of a multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping survey by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2000 (Gardner et al., 2000, Gardner et al., 2001, in press). If this deep-water-reef trend does exist along the northwestern Florida shelf, then it is critical to determine the accurate geomorphology and reef type that occur because of their importance as benthic habitats for fisheries. Georeferenced high-resolution mapping of bathymetry is a fundamental first step in the study of areas suspected to be critical habitats. Morphology is thought to be critical to defining the distribution of dominant demersal plankton/planktivores communities. Fish faunas of shallow hermatypic reefs have been well studied, but those of deep ahermatypic reefs have been relatively ignored. The ecology of deep-water ahermatypic reefs is fundamentally different from hermatypic reefs because autochthonous intracellular symbiotic zooxanthellae (the carbon source for hermatypic corals) do not form the base of the trophic web in ahermatypic reefs. Instead, exogenous plankton, transported to the reef by currents, serves as the primary carbon source. Thus, one of the principle uses of the morphology data will be to identify whether any reefs found are hermatypic or ahermatypic in origin.

  1. The last glaciation and deglaciation of the Northeast Greenland continental shelf revealed by hydro-acoustic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jan Erik; Jokat, Wilfried; Dorschel, Boris

    2017-03-01

    About 16% of the Greenland Ice Sheet drains in the area of the Northeast Greenland shelf between 76°N and 80.5°N via marine terminating glaciers. Most of it is via the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream, the largest ice stream of Greenland. During ice ages, the ice sheet extended onto the continental shelf and modern-day cross-shelf troughs were filled by ice streams. In this study, high-resolution hydro-acoustic data acquired during three decades of research were jointly investigated to reveal the past glacial conditions. Our data shows that Westwind Trough and Norske Trough were filled by fast flowing ice streams that extended to the shelf edge during the last glacial maximum. In between the cross-shelf troughs, ice domes resided on shallow banks that may have contributed about a decimetre to global sea level. Most probably these ice domes initiated fast ice flow through sinks in the inter-trough area. In Westwind Trough, ice sheet retreat to the inner shelf after the last glacial maximum was intermittent. In contrast, in Norske Trough the ice sheet retreat appears relatively rapid with no evidences for phases of grounding line stabilization. Probably during the Younger Dryas, the ice sheet readvanced to a mid-shelf position in both troughs documented by grounding zone wedges. During this time, a thick ice shelf was present in Norske Trough releasing tabular icebergs. Ice sheet retreat from the mid-shelf to the coastline during Holocene deglaciation was rapid.

  2. Shelf waves with diurnal tidal frequency at the Greenland shelf edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, F.P.A

    1999-01-01

    Tidal analysis was carried out on current measurements at a 'cross-shelf' transect off Greenland at 71°N. The diurnal tides manifest themselves mainly as a barotropic continental shelf wave, travelling southward along the shelf slope. This follows from the amplitude distribution of the diurnal tidal

  3. Sponges of the Guyana Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Soest, Rob W M

    2017-01-12

    Sponges collected on the Guyana Shelf, predominantly in Suriname offshore waters, by Dutch HMS 'Snellius' O.C.P.S. 1966, HMS 'Luymes' O.C.P.S. II 1969, and HMS 'Luymes' Guyana Shelf 1970 expeditions are described in this study. Sponges were obtained by trawling, dredging or grabbing on sandy, muddy, shelly, and fossil reef bottoms at 88 stations between 19 and 681 m depth. A total of 351 samples were identified to species level, each consisting of one or more specimens of a given species from each individual station (together comprising 547 individuals and fragments). The collection yielded 119 species together belonging to all sponge classes, but in large majority are Demospongiae. All species are identified to species level, occasionally tentatively, and all are described and illustrated. A new subgenus is proposed, Tedania (Stylotedania) subgen. nov. and a previously synonymized genus, Tylosigma Topsent, 1894 is revived. Thirtysix species were found to be new to science, excluding the first Central West Atlantic record of the genus Halicnemia, not named at the species level because of lack of sufficient material. The new species erected are, in alphabetical order: Amphoriscus ancora sp. nov., Biemna rhabdotylostylota sp. nov., Callyspongia (Callyspongia) scutica sp. nov., Chelonaplysilla americana sp. nov., Cladocroce guyanensis sp. nov., Clathria (Axosuberites) riosae sp. nov., Clathria (Clathria) gomezae sp. nov., Clathria (Microciona) snelliusae sp. nov., Clathria (Thalysias) complanata sp. nov., Clathria (Thalysias) zeai sp. nov., Coelosphaera (Coelosphaera) lissodendoryxoides sp. nov., Craniella crustocorticata sp. nov., Diplastrella spirastrelloides sp. nov., Epipolasis tubulata sp. nov., Erylus rhabdocoronatus sp. nov., Erylus surinamensis sp. nov., Geodia pocillum sp. nov., Geodia sulcata sp. nov., Hemiasterella camelus sp. nov., Hymedesmia (Stylopus) alcoladoi sp. nov., Hymenancora cristoboi sp. nov., Penares sineastra sp. nov., Hymerhabdia kobluki sp

  4. Shallow marine sedimentation within an active margin basin, James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrie, Duncan

    1989-06-01

    The Santa Marta Formation exposed on northern James Ross Island, Antarctica, represents shallow marine shelf sedimentation within an active margin basin. The formation is approximately 1000 m thick, is of uppermost Santonian to Campanian age and represents part of a 5000-6000 m thick sedimentary sequence forming the Larsen Basin. The Larsen Basin represents either a back-arc basin, or a half-graben basin, developed on the extending margin of the Weddell Sea. Twelve sedimentary facies have been recognised, which can be subdivided into two groups: those which are controlled by shelf processes and those which are related to active arc volcanism. Background shelf processes include fair-weather suspension sedimentation, storm sands and rare tidal current reworking. Active arc processes include direct settling of airfall detritus and rapid resedimentation of volcaniclastic detritus by sandy debris-flows and both high- and low-concentration turbidity currents. In addition sheet conglomerates represent debris flows that evolved from syn-sedimentary slumps. Two facies associations representing a mid to outer shelf and an inner shelf depositional setting respectively can be distinguished, with an apparent regression in the ?mid to late Campanian.

  5. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas, with... informational purposes only. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams in the North Atlantic,...

  6. An introductory perspective on non-tropical shelf carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Campbell S.

    1988-11-01

    This brief account introduces the topic of non-tropical shelf carbonate deposits, both modern and ancient, specific aspects of which are described and discussed in the 22 accompanying papers in this Special Issue of Sedimentary Geology. "Non-tropical" shelves are loosely defined as lying poleward of the present limit of development of hermatypic coral reefs, or beyond the mean annual surface-water isotherm of about 20°C, typically near 30° latitude. Most geoscientists have traditionally regarded shallow-water carbonate formation as a low-latitude phenomenon. However, wherever the rate and extent of terrigenous sediment dilution is small, the potential exists for extensive deposits of skeletal carbonate to accumulate on shelves beyond the (sub)tropics. The facies attributes of the modern non-tropical carbonates are distinctive and contrast significantly with the structural, lithological, faunal, floral, mineralogical and diagenetic character of their tropical counterparts. In the rock record, non-tropical limestones probably occur throughout the Phanerozoic, but generally remain to be identified and/or interpreted as such. They are presently described mainly from the Ordovician, Permian and Tertiary-Quaternary, periods of major continental glaciations and accentuated latitudinal thermal gradients. A uniformitarian approach to the recognition and interpretation of ancient shallow-marine limestones requires acceptance of both tropical and non-tropical carbonate facies models.

  7. Meteotsunami disintegration and soliton forerunners on Atchafalaya shelf, Lousiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet, Alex; Gravois, Uriah; Shrira, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Field observations collected on the Atcahfalaya shelf in 2008 captured in high detail the shoaling evolution of a meteotsunami, including its disintegration into a undular bore. One of the intriguing elements of this process is a spectacular 1.5-m solitary-wave (soliton) forerunner, that precedes the arrival of the meteotsunami by approximately 5 min, reaching the observation site propagating through relatively calm waters (a wave field of approximately 20-cm height). The source of the meteotsunami is identified as a squall line associated with a strong atmospheric perturbation. An inverse ray method used to estimate the meteotsunami path suggests that the meteotsunami propagated as a trapped wave, originating in shallow water and ending in shallow water. The process of the generation of the soliton forerunner is investigated using the variable-coefficient KdV equation first proposed by Ostrovsky and Pelinovsky (1975). Numerical scenarios indicate that the soliton is the product of the collision of a shoaling "multiple-bump" tsunami structure. Given the natural irregularities of the generation mechanism of the meteotsunami, this suggests that such solitary-wave foreunners might be more common than expected. Ostrovsky L.A., and E.N. Pelinovsky (1975). Refraction of nonlinear ocean waves in a beach zone. Izv Atmos Ocean Phys 11, 37-41.

  8. Influence of Late Paleozoic Gondwana glaciations on the depositional evolution of the northern Pangean shelf, North Greenland, Svalbard and the Barents Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stemmerik, Lars

    2008-01-01

    fluctuations linked to the 100 k.y. Milankovitch cycle. The stratigraphic distribution of subaerial exposure surfaces indicates that during Late Carboniferous-Early Permian time, the northern Pangea shelf repeatedly changed from being a shallow subtropical carbonate platform to a vast subaerially exposed...

  9. Formation waters of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, R. A.; Rein, E.

    2006-03-15

    New and previously published analyses of formation waters for the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have been evaluated and interpreted to determine the compositional distribution of formation waters in the region and factors controlling their compositions, and also to obtain information on subsurface fluid flow. Formation waters in the region are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-type waters that display a wide range of salinity (2500-212000 mg/kg Cl). Generally, the concentrations of most dissolved constituents are positively correlated with Cl so that their distribution in formation waters largely reflects the variations shown by salinity. Exceptions are SO4 which is generally low (less than 40 mg/l) regardless of Cl, and HCO3 and in-situ pH which are negatively correlated with Cl. The main factors determining the compositions of the formation waters are mixing of meteoric water (probably late-Jurassic to Eocene), ancient seawater and primary brine together with diagenetic reactions that have affected each of these components individually as well as mixtures of them. Evaluation of the distribution of salinity has helped us identify where vertical and/or lateral migration of brine from the evaporites has occurred. This has in turn provided us with information on the presence of leak-points and vertical mixing, although further investigation of the location of evaporites and basin palaeohydrogeology are required to determine whether regional lateral advection has occurred in the past. The results of this study may benefit oil exploration and production activities in the NCS including constraint of hydrocarbon migration models, economic evaluation of undrilled prospects, scale management and compartmentalisation studies. (Author)

  10. Holocene marine tephrochronology on the Iceland shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guomundsdottir, Esther Ruth; Eiriksson, Jón; Larsen, Guorun

    2012-01-01

    Currently the Late-glacial and Holocene marine tephrochronology on the shelf around Iceland comprises 130 tephra layers from 30 sediment cores ranging in age from 15,000 years cal. BP to AD 1947. A vast majority of the cores and tephra layers are from the North Iceland shelf Much fewer tephra...... layers have been found on the South and West Iceland shell The early Holocene Saksunarvatn ash and Vedde Ash are the only tephra layers identified on all investigated shelf areas. For the last 15,000 years correlated tephra layers from the shelf sediments around Iceland to their terrestrial counterparts...... both in Iceland and overseas are 40 of which 26 are terrestrially dated tephra markers. Thirty correlations are within the last 7050 years. The terrestrially dated tephra markers found on the shelf have been used to constrain past environmental variability in the region, as well as marine reservoir age...

  11. 浅薄层稠油油藏氮气泡沫调驱适应性研究%Flexibility study on nitrogen-foam flooding for shallow-thin heavy oil reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢川; 刘慧卿; 卢克勤; 刘程; 何封

    2013-01-01

    Due to high viscosity, thin reservoir and the serious situation of steam channeling and overriding, it is urgent for Henan spe-cific oil field to change its development pattern. Based on physical experiments and numerical simulation, the suitability of nitro-gen-foam flooding is studied. As indicated in the experiments, it is beneficial to use foam static comprehensive evaluation index to uni-fy the criteria of foam screening. Under the same condition of steam and foam injection parameters, compared with cold foam flooding, the oil production of unit foaming agent of hot foam flooding stays 24.4 percents higher. In the development of multi-layer co-injection and combined reservoir, start-up pressure of each layer is affected by foam injection pattern and permeability contrast. When injected with cold foam, the start pressure of each layer increases linearly along with the increase of permeability grade. But, for hot foam, this value increases in function of power. Because of permeability divergence, each layer's contribution to the recovery percent is different, and to middle and low level permeability layers, foam has the similar producing degree. The optimized program of nitrogen-foam flood-ing is determined that the appropriate foaming injection mode is slug injection, and on the condition that the steam injection rate is 4.5 t/(d·m) and foaming agent mass concentration of 0.5%, the optimum injection volume is 0.01 PV; the optimum gas(steam)-gas(nitrogen) ratio is 20:1; the optimum production factor is 1.3:1 and the best foam spacing interval is 90 days.%针对河南油田某区块稠油粘度大、油层厚度薄、蒸汽吞吐后期汽窜超覆现象严重,急需转变热采开发方式,利用室内物理模拟实验和数值模拟方法,进行了氮气泡沫调驱的适应性研究.实验结果表明,发泡剂静态性能综合评价指数有利于发泡剂的统一筛选;在蒸汽和发泡剂基本注入参数相同的条件下,热泡沫(蒸汽伴随)的

  12. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products.

  13. Model of inner shelf shoal development, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, P.; Nummedal, D.; Reimnitz, E.

    1985-01-01

    At least two types of inner shelf shoals exist in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. One type is located up to 40 km from the shoreline in an average water depth of 20m and oriented obliquely to the coast. A second type of shoals occur adjacent to existing barrier islands where minimum water depth over the shoal crest may be as little as 30-50cm. The development of shallow water shoals is believed to be a result of barrier island submergence. Dinkum Sands is an example of a shallow water shoal. This linear sand body is located between Cross and Narwhal Islands, 25km northeast of Prudhoe Bay. The shoal complex is 8 km long and less than 2 km wide and has a maximum relief of 5m. Historical data reveal submergence of an island over at least a 25 year period. The proposed initial stage of shoal development occurs when longshore sediment transport between barrier islands is disrupted by numerous events of downdrift tidal inlet breaching. Reduction in the amount of available sediment to each island results in significant coastal erosion (stage 2), manifest as a landward migration of the shoreline and a reduction in barrier elevation. The final stage of the model is barrier submergence. At present the greatest accumulation of sediment on Dinkum Sands occur at the distal extremities of the shoal. These are believed to represent the location of recurved spits at either end of the island prior to submergence. Application of the submergence model to explain deepwater shoal development must await the collection of shallow (10m) whole core data.

  14. The Effect of Addition Vitamin E on Catfish Oil Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Maria Kusharto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids contained oils which sensitive to oxidation caused by heat, light andoxygen. The oxidized oil known harmful to the body. One of the effort to prevent the oxidationprocess is by adding antioxidants stability of oil catfish and shelf life of the oil. The experimentalstudy was applied by adding vitamin E to the oil as much as 0.67 mg / g PUFA compared with thecontrol oil. Oil was stored with the Schaal Oven Test method, which are stored at a temperatureof 600C. The study showed that, based on the parameters of oxidation (free fatty acids, peroxidevalue, anisidin numbers, and the number of total oxidation, catfish oil were added vitamin Emore stabilized than the catfish oil without added vitamin E. The catfish fish oil in the form of softgell capsules added vitamin E could maintain stability in appropriate with IFOS up to 23 months.Keywords: Catfish oil, vitamin E, stability, Schaal Oven Test

  15. Impact of geochemical stressors on shallow groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Y.-J.; Kampbell, D.H.; Jeong, S.-W.; Jewell, K.P.; Masoner, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring wells (about 70 wells) were extensively installed in 28 sites surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, to assess the impact of geochemical stressors to shallow groundwater quality. The monitoring wells were classified into three groups (residential area, agricultural area, and oil field area) depending on their land uses. During a 2-year period from 1999 to 2001 the monitoring wells were sampled every 3 months on a seasonal basis. Water quality assay consisted of 25 parameters including field parameters, nutrients, major ions, and trace elements. Occurrence and level of inorganics in groundwater samples were related to the land use and temporal change. Groundwater of the agricultural area showed lower levels of ferrous iron and nitrate than the residential area. The summer season data revealed more distinct differences in inorganic profiles of the two land use groundwater samples. There is a possible trend that nitrate concentrations in groundwater increased as the proportions of cultivated area increased. Water-soluble ferrous iron occurred primarily in water samples with a low dissolved oxygen concentration and/or a negative redox potential. The presence of brine waste in shallow groundwater was detected by chloride and conductivity in oil field area. Dissolved trace metals and volatile organic carbons were not in a form of concentration to be stressors. This study showed that the quality of shallow ground water could be related to regional geochemical stressors surrounding the lake. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Shallow seismic studies on the inner continental shelf off selected bays, Central West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    .g., Ratnagiri bay). Methods Atlas Deso 10, a dual frequency (30-210 kHz) echosounder was deployed for recording the bathymetry. The echosounder was calibrated and adjusted by lowering a bar to a set depth below the side-mounted transducer and adjust- ing...

  17. Exposure to oil mist and oil vapour during offshore drilling in Norway, 1979-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinsvag, K.; Bratveit, M.; Moen, B.E. [University of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Public Health and Primary Health Care

    2006-07-01

    Objectives: To describe personal exposure to airborne hydrocarbon contaminants (oil mist and oil vapour) from 1979 to 2004 in the mud-handling areas of offshore drilling facilities operating on the Norwegian continental shelf when drilling with oil-based muds. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative information was gathered during visits to companies involved in offshore oil and gas production in Norway. Monitoring reports on oil mist and oil vapour exposure covered 37 drilling facilities. Exposure data were analysed using descriptive statistics and by constructing linear mixed-effects models. Results: Samples had been taken during the use of three generations of hydrocarbon base oils, namely diesel oils (1979-1984), low-aromatic mineral oils (1985-1997) and non-aromatic mineral oils (1998-2004). Sampling done before 1984 showed high exposure to diesel vapour (arithmetic mean, AM = 1217 mg m{sup -3}). When low-aromatic mineral oils were used, the exposure to oil mist and oil vapour was 4.3 and 36 mg m{sup -3}, and the respective AMs for non-aromatic mineral oils were reduced to 0.54 and 16 mg m{sup -3}. Downward time trends were indicated for both oil mist (6% per year) and oil vapour (8% per year) when the year of monitoring was introduced as a fixed effect in a linear mixed-effects model analysis. Rig type, technical control measures and mud temperature significantly determined exposure to oil mist. Rig type, type of base oil, viscosity of the base oil, work area, mud temperature and season significantly determined exposure to oil vapour. Major decreases in variability were found for the between-rig components. Conclusions: Exposure to oil mist and oil vapour declined over time in the mud-handling areas of offshore drilling facilities. Exposure levels were associated with rig type, mud temperature, technical control measures, base oil, viscosity of the base oil, work area and season. (author)

  18. 鄂尔多斯盆地南部延7+8油层组滨浅湖滩坝体系沉积特征%Sedimentary characteristics of the shore-shallow lacustrine beach bar system of Yan 7+8 oil reservoirs in southern Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建民

    2013-01-01

    Retrograding sedimentary sequence and shore-shallow lacustrine beach bar system are developed in the Meso-zoic Jurassic Yan ’ an Formation in southern Ordos Basin ,and the latter has close paragenetic relationship with the mean-dering river delta around the lake basin of the Yan ’ an stage .Retrogradation and the destruction of the meandering delta provide clastic input for the development of the low-shallow lake beach bar system .During the depostion of Yan 7+8, An’ sai and Zhidan areas in the north of Shaaxi province were in shore-shallow lacustrine environment .Beach bar deposits were widely developed as the major part of sedimentation ,and can be divided into four microfacies types including beach sand,sand bar,sand sheet and mudstone .Generally,the beach bar sand bodies occur at the side of the river mouth and the flat open shore-shallow lake environment ,and are parallel with the lake shoreline .They are dominated by medium and fine sandstone,and have massive bedding ,wavy bedding,inclined wavy bedding and lenticular bedding ,etc.Beach sand is usually in sheet-like shape and is relatively thin.Bar sand,which is the most representative deposit of the beach bar system ,usually has banded shoreline-parallel distribution ,large thickness ,and lenticular shape on section ,reverse grading at the bottom and transgressive sequences in the middle and upper parts .A series of beach bar sandbodies superimposed with each other in different phases ,forming large-scale shoreline-parallel clustered reservoirs with high net-to-gross ratio . The mudstones of shore-shallow lake facies between the beach bars act as lateral barriers or overlying seals of the beach bar sandbodies .The sedimentary characteristics of the shore-shallow lacustrine beach bar system have significant influ-ences on reservoir development and oil/gas accumulation of the Yan ’ an Formation.%鄂南中生界侏罗系延安组发育退积型沉积层序及滨浅湖滩坝沉积体系;滨浅湖滩坝

  19. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean...

  20. EFFECT OF EUGENOL EMULSION ON SHELF LIFE OF GRAPES AND STRAWBERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Bhatia* and Alka Sharma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In present study, eugenol (major functional component of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (clove, at 2% level (v/v was incorporated in peanut oil based coating to get antimicrobial emulsion. Eugenol emulsion thus prepared was applied on grapes and strawberries. After applying emulsion, reference fruits were kept in corrugated fiber boxes for 8 days for shelf life studies under ambient conditions (temperature 24-27°C; Relative Humidity 55±5%. Fruit samples were checked for their visible microbiological growth every day and sensory evaluation of the coated samples was done up to the day of initiation of visible microbial growth. Results revealed that eugenol emulsions did not produced desirable effect on the shelf life of grapes and strawberries.

  1. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of nine essential oils (EO) on P. phosphoreum and determine the effect of oregano oil on the shelf-life of modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) cod fillets. Methods and Results: The antimicrobial effect of EO was studied in a liquid medium and in product...... storage trials. Oils of oregano and cinnamon had strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by lemongrass, thyme, clove, bay, marjoram, sage and basil oils. Oregano oil (0.05%, v/w) reduced growth of P. phosphoreum in naturally contaminated MAP cod fillets and extended shelf-life from 11-12 d to 21-26 d...... at 2degreesC. Conclusions: Oregano oil reduced the growth of P. phosphoreum and extended the shelf-life of MAP cod fillets. Significance and Impact of the Study: Mild and natural preservation using EO can extend the shelf-life of MAP seafood through inhibiting the specific spoilage organism P...

  2. SHALLOW GROUNDWATER USE BY ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One proposal for drainage water disposal is to reuse drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant crops until the volume has been reduced sufficiently to enable final disposal by evaporation. Part of this concept of serial biological concentration requires in-situ crop water reuse from shallow gr...

  3. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving t

  4. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving

  5. Mapping and classifying the seabed of the West Greenland continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougeon, S.; Kemp, K. M.; Blicher, M. E.; Yesson, C.

    2017-03-01

    Marine benthic habitats support a diversity of marine organisms that are both economically and intrinsically valuable. Our knowledge of the distribution of these habitats is largely incomplete, particularly in deeper water and at higher latitudes. The western continental shelf of Greenland is one example of a deep (more than 500 m) Arctic region with limited information available. This study uses an adaptation of the EUNIS seabed classification scheme to document benthic habitats in the region of the West Greenland shrimp trawl fishery from 60°N to 72°N in depths of 61-725 m. More than 2000 images collected at 224 stations between 2011 and 2015 were grouped into 7 habitat classes. A classification model was developed using environmental proxies to make habitat predictions for the entire western shelf (200-700 m below 72°N). The spatial distribution of habitats correlates with temperature and latitude. Muddy sediments appear in northern and colder areas whereas sandy and rocky areas dominate in the south. Southern regions are also warmer and have stronger currents. The Mud habitat is the most widespread, covering around a third of the study area. There is a general pattern that deep channels and basins are dominated by muddy sediments, many of which are fed by glacial sedimentation and outlets from fjords, while shallow banks and shelf have a mix of more complex habitats. This first habitat classification map of the West Greenland shelf will be a useful tool for researchers, management and conservationists.

  6. A vertically integrated treatment of ice stream and ice shelf thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, O. V.

    2014-04-01

    The extremely small vertical shear in ice stream and ice shelf flow simplifies the equations, which govern their thermodynamic evolution. Complemented by the widely used shallow shelf approximation used to simplify the ice flow momentum balance, a vertically integrated formulation of heat transfer presented here reduces the dimensionality of the thermodynamic problem from three to two (plan view) dimensions and thus significantly reduces the computational cost of treating ice stream and ice shelf thermodynamics in models. For realistic conditions, errors in ice stiffness parameter, ice thickness, and speed caused by the vertically integrated treatment of heat transfer are less than 5% of magnitudes of these values compared to the standard three-dimensional thermomechanical computations. In addition, for the specific case of ice shelves with strong bottom melting, the governing equation describing evolution of the vertically integrated ice stiffness parameter is derived, which further reduces computational cost. The presented error analysis and formulations of ice stream and ice shelf thermodynamics in terms of the vertically integrated temperature allow the thermodynamic effects on ice deformation to be easily incorporated into studies that traditionally disregard them.

  7. Accident statistics for fixed offshore units on the UK Continental Shelf 1980-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funnemark, E. [Det Norske Veritas Industry AS, (Norway); Young, E. [Health and Safety Executive, (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Comprehensive statistics for the accidents and incidents on fixed units engaged in oil and gas exploration/exploitation on the UK continental shelf between 1980 and 2001 have been assembled from other databases. The data includes nature of the incident, type of unit involved, geographical area and time period. The results cover a total of 5,563 events which are described as accidents, hazardous situations or near misses.

  8. Improvement of Shelf Life and Sensory Quality of Pears Using a Specialized Edible Coating

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An edible coating functionalized with pomegranate polyphenols was designed. Different blends of candelilla wax, gum arabic, jojoba oil, and pomegranate polyphenols were formulated in order to improve the shelf life quality of pears (variety Bartlett), and all formulations were applied by immersion onto the fruit surface. Coated pears with and without polyphenols and uncoated pears (control) were stored under the same conditions. Fruits were analyzed to evaluate changes in their physicochemica...

  9. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a) You must immediately notify the National Response Center (1-800-424-8802) if you observe: (1) An oil spill from...

  10. Native carbonoxidation microorganisms in bioremedetion Northern Caspian sea from oil pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gridneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 26 strains microorganisms - degradation oil have been isolated from shelf water North Caspian. The high emulsifying ability relative to benzine, kerosene and diesel-fuel oil relevantly were possessed the 11 strains. The 4 cultures exhibiting degradation of oil rates 43-49 %, respectively, were selected.

  11. Near-inertial ocean response to tropical cyclone forcing on the Australian North-West Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayson, M. D.; Ivey, G. N.; Jones, N. L.; Lowe, R. J.; Wake, G. W.; McConochie, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was applied to the Australian North-West Shelf (NWS) to hindcast the ocean response to four intense historical tropical cyclones (TCs). While the four cyclones had very different trajectories across the NWS, all passed within 150 km of a long-term vertical mooring located on the continental shelf in 125 m depth. The observed ocean response at this relatively shallow, Southern Hemisphere shelf site was characterized by the development of a peak in the counter-clockwise (CCW) near-inertial kinetic energy, mixed layer deepening, and subsequent restratification. Strong near-inertial isotherm oscillations were also observed following two of the cyclones. ROMS reproduced these features and also showed that the peak in the near-inertial CCW kinetic energy was observed on the left side of each cyclone trajectory. The time rate of change of near-inertial kinetic energy depended strongly on the storm Rossby number, i.e., defined based on the storm speed, the storm length scale, and the Coriolis frequency. The shallow water depth on the NWS resulted in first, a more rapid decay of near-inertial oscillations than in the deep ocean, and second a generation efficiency (the ratio of near-inertial power to the rate of wind work) of up to 10%, smaller than found for cyclones propagating across deeper water. The total energy put into near-inertial motions is nevertheless large compared to the background tidal energy. The rapid decay of near-inertial motions emphasizes the importance of frictional effects in characterizing the response to cyclone forcing in shallow seas.

  12. Exchanges between the shelf and the deep Black Sea: an integrated analysis of physical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zatsepin, Andrei; Akivis, Tatiana; Zhou, Feng

    2017-04-01

    % of shelf waters, were moved into the deep-sea region, respectively. Due to the high intensity of cross-shelf exchanges, the average renewal time for the NW shelf in the Black Sea was only 28 days in the summer of 2005 (Zhou et al. 2014). Mechanism 3: exchanges due to assisted cascading. Using the model run for 2003 as an example, we examine the fate of the tracer after 5.5 months of model integration. At 100m depth we identify four anti-cyclonic eddies: two eddies west of the Crimea peninsula, one north of Sinop and one west of Batumi. These eddies can be seen to assist cascading into the basin interior of cold waters formed on a shallow NW shelf to a depth greater than at which they were originally formed. The important result is that for many of the 24 studied years a significant proportion of dense shelf water does not cascade locally off the NW shelf, but is transported by the Rim Current over hundreds of kilometres before cascading into the deep basin in the southern and southeastern Black Sea. This work has been supported by EU FP7 PERSEUS, EU H2020 Sea Basin checkpoints Lot4 - Black Sea and a number of Chinese and Russian national projects. References Zhou, F., G. I. Shapiro, and F. Wobus, 2014: Cross-shelf exchange in the northwestern Black Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 119, 2143-2164.

  13. Sediments, structural framework, petroleum potential, environmental conditions, and operational considerations of the United States North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1975-01-01

    Scotian Shelf, Cretaceous sandstones are considered to be potential reservoir rocks. Local zones of porous dolomite are believed to be present in carbonate rocks of Jurassic age and should not be overlooked as potential reservoirs. Structural highs related to draping and differential compaction over basement blocks could be important potential petroleum traps. Additional traps may include reef structures near the shelf edge, updip pinchouts, and stratigraphic traps in both clastic and carbonate sediment. A statistical mean for the undiscovered recoverable petroleum resources is calculated to be 0.9 billion barrels of oil and 4.2 trillion cubic feet of gas. At the 5 percent probability level (1 in 20 chance) the undiscovered recoverable petroleum resources are calculated to be 2.4 billion barrels of oil and 12.5 trillion cubic feet of gas. These undiscovered recoverable petroleum resources are those quantities of oil and gas that may be reasonably expected to exist in favorable settings, but which have not yet been identified by drilling. Such estimates, therefore, carry a high degree of uncertainty. Environmental studies of Georges Bank indicated a low-moderate risk from petroleum development. However, the risk estimate is based on very limited data. Drift bottle returns used to infer oil spill trajectories show about a 2% overall recovery rate. Meteorologic data comes mainly from nearby land areas and from ships attempting to avoid storms. Seismicity on Georges Bank is low. This may reflect, in large part, the difficulty of land-based stations in recording earthquakes far from the coast. Direct data on the engineering properties of shallow buried sediment comes mainly from two Texas Tower surveys of limited areas on Georges Shoal and Nantucket Shoals made in the early 1950's. The 17 holes (most less than 30 m deep) reveal some silty layers below loose sand and much lateral variability in sediment type over short distances. The technology for exploration at the required

  14. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shelf-life codes. 101-27.205 Section 101-27.205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  15. The Effect of Addition Vitamin E on Catfish Oil Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara M. Kusharto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids contained oils which sensitive to oxidation caused by heat, light and oxygen. The oxidized oil known harmful to the body. One of the effort to prevent the oxidation process is by adding antioxidants stability of oil catfish and shelf life of the oil. The experimental study was applied by adding vitamin E to the oil as much as 0.67 mg / g PUFA compared with the control oil. Oil was stored with the Schaal Oven Test method, which are stored at a temperature of 600C. The study showed that, based on the parameters of oxidation (free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidin numbers, and the number of total oxidation, catfish oil were added vitamin E more stabilized than the catfish oil without added vitamin E. The catfish fish oil in the form of soft gell capsules added vitamin E could maintain stability in appropriate with IFOS up to 23 months.

  16. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  17. Continental Shelf Boundary - Alaska NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundaries (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  18. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  19. Influence of estuaries on shelf foraminiferal species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Dabhol-bhatkal stretch of the west coast of India is marked by a number of estuaries. Cavarotalia annectens is selected to monitor the influence of these estuaries on the inner shelf foraminiferal fauna. The percentage distribution of this species...

  20. The shelf life of dyed polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, R.; Watts, M. F.; Plested, M. E.

    2002-03-01

    The long-term stability of the radiation response of Harwell Red 4034 and Amber 3042 Perspex Dosimeters has been monitored for more than 15 years, and the resulting data used in the justification of their shelf-life specifications.

  1. Shelf-Life Prediction of Chilled Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; Kristbergsson, Kristberg

    All foods have a finite shelf life. Even foods, which mature with time, will in the end deteriorate, although their life span can exceed 100 years. Definitions of shelf life of food products differ. Some stress the suitability of the product for consump¬tion, others for how long the product can be sold. The Institute of Food Science and Technology emphasizes safety in its definition of shelf life: "The period of time under defined conditions of storage, after manufacture or packing, for which a food product will remain safe and be fit for use" ( http://www.ifst.org ). This definition does not describe what makes a food product "safe" or "fit" for use, but one can say all factors which restrict the shelf life of a food product either affect safety or quality or both.

  2. Shelf life of electronic/electrical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, S. (Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)); Behera, A.K. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-08-01

    This paper discusses inconsistencies which exist between various industry practices regarding the determination of shelf life for electrical and electronic components. New methodologies developed to evaluate the shelf life of electrical and electronic components are described and numerous tests performed at Commonwealth Edison Company's Central Receiving Inspection and Testing (CRIT) Facility are presented. Based upon testing and analysis using the Arrhenius methodology and typical materials used in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic components, shelf life of these devices was determined to be indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite shelf life are presented to ultimately reduce inventory and operating costs at nuclear power plants.

  3. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  4. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Grabs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Vegetable-Oil Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Jeppe Lindegaard

    be desirable to enhance specific properties such as shelf life, viscosity, texture, sensory aspects and physical appearance. Vegetable oils and fats constitute a considerable part of many food products such as chocolate, margarine, bread, spreads and ice cream. Several attractive properties found...

  6. Inter-shelf nutrient transport from the East China Sea as a major nutrient source supporting winter primary production on the northeast South China Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Han

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The East China Sea (ECS and the South China Sea (SCS are two major marginal seas of the north Pacific with distinct seasonal primary productivity. Based upon field observation in December 2008–January 2009 covering both the ECS and the northern SCS (NSCS in wintertime, we examined southward long-range nutrient-transport from the ECS to the northeast SCS (NESCS carried by the China Coastal Current (CCC driven by the northeast prevailing monsoon. These nutrients escaped from the cold ECS shelf to refuel the primary production on the NESCS shelf where river-sourced nutrients were limited yet water temperature remained favorable. By coupling the field observation of nitrate + nitrite (DIN with the volume transport of the CCC, we derived a first order estimate of DIN flux of ~ 1430 ± 260 mol s−1. This DIN flux was ~ 7 times the wintertime DIN input from the Pearl River, a primary riverine nutrient source to the NSCS. By assuming DIN was the limiting nutrient, such southward DIN transport would have stimulated ~ 8.8 ± 1.6 × 1011 gC of new production (NP, accounting for ~ > 58 ± 10% of the total NP or ~ 38 ± 7–24 ± 4% of primary production on the NESCS shelf shallower than 100 m.

  7. Late Quaternary glaciation history of northernmost Greenland - Evidence of shelf-based ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj; Kjær, Kurt H.; Funder, Svend Visby;

    2011-01-01

    to retreat ca 16 ka to 10.3 cal ka BP before the final break-up, which took place ca 10.1 cal ka BP probably as a combined result of increased inflow of warm Atlantic water through the Fram Strait, a shallower halocline and higher summer temperatures, corresponding to orbital maximum solar insolation...... at this time. The existence of extensive shelf-based ice north of Greenland provides an important contribution to the understanding of the LGM glaciation history of the Arctic Ocean....

  8. Geology and geochemistry of gas-charged sediment on Kodiak Shelf, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, M.A.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Methane concentrations in some sediment cores from the Kodiak Shelf and adjacent continental slope increase with depth by three or four orders of magnitude and exceed the solubility in water at ambient conditions. Acoustic anomalies in seismic-reflection records imply that methane-rich sediment is widespread. Molecular composition of hydrocarbon gases and isotopic composition of methane indicate gas formation by shallow biogenic processes. Stratigraphic positions of acoustic anomalies in Quaternary glacial and posttransgressive sediments suggest that these units are likely sources of gas. A seep along the extension of a fault may be gas venting from a deeper thermogenic source. ?? 1981 A.M. Dowden, Inc.

  9. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Erik F. Tjong Kim

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving the performance of the memory-based learner. Our approach is evaluated on standard data sets and the results are compared with that of other systems. This reveals that our approach works well for ba...

  10. Alternative Attractors of Shallow Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Scheffer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ponds and shallow lakes can be very clear with abundant submerged plants, or very turbid due to a high concentration of phytoplankton and suspended sediment particles. These strongly contrasting ecosystem states have been found to represent alternative attractors with distinct stabilizing feedback mechanisms. In the turbid state, the development of submerged vegetation is prevented by low underwater light levels. The unprotected sediment frequently is resuspended by wave action and by fish searching for food causing a further decrease of transparency. Since there are no plants that could serve as refuges, zooplankton is grazed down by fish to densities insufficient to control algal blooms. In contrast, the clear state in eutrophic shallow lakes is dominated by aquatic macrophytes. The submerged macrophytes prevent sediment resuspension, take up nutrients from the water, and provide a refuge for zooplankton against fish predation. These processes buffer the impacts of increased nutrient loads until they become too high. Consequently, the response of shallow lakes to eutrophication tends to be catastrophic rather than smooth, and various lakes switch back and forth abruptly between a clear and a turbid state repeatedly without obvious external forcing. Importantly, a switch from a turbid to a stable clear state often can be invoked by means of biomanipulation in the form of a temporary reduction of the fish stock.

  11. Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hereman, Willy

    2013-01-01

    Encyclopedic article covering shallow water wave models used in oceanography and atmospheric science. Sections: Definition of the Subject; Introduction and Historical Perspective; Completely Integrable Shallow Water Wave Equations; Shallow Water Wave Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Computation of Solitary Wave Solutions; Numerical Methods; Water Wave Experiments and Observations; Future Directions, and Bibliography.

  12. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  13. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  14. High Pressure Effects on Lipid Oxidation of Extra Virgin Olive Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cereals, milk, fruit, beverages). (TAUSCHER ... during the subsequent storage time at 5°. C in the dark, .... following the method of MONTEDORO and ... the EFC method (1991) for olive oil analysis. .... shelf life of complex foods, containing.

  15. OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Withdraw & Moratoria Areas - Gulf of Mexico Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Areas currently under congressional moratoria or executive (presidential) withdraw from leasing for oil, gas, or minerals within the US Outer Continental Shelf. The...

  16. Ichnofabric analysis of the Tithonian shallow marine sediments (Bhadasar Formation) Jaisalmer Basin, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhawanisingh G Desai; Rajendra Dutt Saklani

    2014-08-01

    The shallow marine sedimentary sequence of the Jaisalmer Basin exhibits one of the important and well-developed Tithonian sedimentary outcrops for western India. The ichnology and ichnofabric of the lower part of Bhadasar Formation (i.e., Kolar Dongar Member) belonging to Tithonian age are presented and discussed. The Kolar Dongar Member represents a shallow marine succession that contains 16 ichnotaxa: Ancorichnus ancorichnus, Conichnus conicus, Gyrochorte comosa, cf. Jamesonichnites heinbergi, Imponoglyphus kevadiensis, Laevicyclus mongraensis, Monocraterion tentaculatum, Ophiomorpha nodosa, Palaeophycus tubularis, P. bolbiterminus, Phycodes palmatus, Planolites beverleyensis, Rhizocorallium isp., Rosselia rotatus, R. socialis, and Teichichnus rectus. The ichnofabric analysis divulges five distinct ichnofabrics, each typifying distinct depositional environment within shallow marine conditions. The ichnofabric Ophiomorpha 1 with syn-sedimentary faulting exemplifies high energy conditions typical of lower shoreface environment, whereas the Ophiomorpha 2 ichnofabric typifies upper shoreface environment. The Ancorichnus ichnofabric reflects lower offshore condition of deposition. The high ichnodiversity Ancorichnus–Rosselia ichnofabric is indicative of inner shelf conditions, while low ichno-diversity Teichichnus ichnofabric indicates prevalence of low energy brackish bay environment. Thus, Tithonian Kolar Dongar Member indicates depositional environment ranging from shoreface to offshore to inner shelf and finally to brackish bay environment.

  17. The geological record preserved by Amazon shelf sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Charles A.; Kuehl, Steven A.; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Allison, Mead A.; Sommerfield, Christopher K.; Rine, James M.; Faria, L. Ercilio C.; Silveira, Odete M.

    A recent study of the subaqueous delta and coastal plain near the mouth of the Amazon River provides insight to the geological record created there and elsewhere. A compound clinoform structure is forming across the Amazon shelf. The uppermost portion is the shoreline, whose aggradation brings the modern sedimentary deposit to sea level and produces a deposit 5-10 m thick. It contains sediments accumulating primarily in shallow subtidal areas, intertidal mudflats and mangrove forests, and progradation occurs by overlapping of northward-extending mudcapes. Through these processes, the coastal plain has been widened by 10-100 km during the Holocene. The shoreline deposits are prograding across topset strata of the modern subaqueous delta, which is the lowermost and dominant portion of the compound clinoform structure. The subaqueous delta extends to a water depth of 70 m, with a depositional break between topset and foreset strata at 30-40 m. Advective sediment input to the foreset region causes high accumulation rates, which control the geometry and progradation of the clinoform structure. On time scales of 10 2-10 3 y, physical processes (e.g. waves, currents) have changed and the upper portions of the coastal plain and subaqueous delta have been eroded. One expression of this is a widespread unconformity recorded within late Holocene strata on the inner shelf. Over longer time scales (10 3-10 4 y) sea-level changes have led to more extensive erosion and only the lower 20 m of the compound clinoform structure is preserved, overlain by a transgressive sand layer. On other continental margins with different regional characteristics (e.g. more rapid subsidence) larger fractions of the clinoform structures could be preserved.

  18. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Moura Dos Reis

    Full Text Available The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013-2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future.

  19. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Vanessa Moura; Karez, Cláudia Santiago; Mariath, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Fernando Coreixas; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Tomazetto; Brasileiro, Poliana Silva; Bahia, Ricardo da Gama; Lotufo, Tito Monteiro da Cruz; Ramalho, Laís Vieira; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme Henrique; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013–2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future. PMID:27119151

  20. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Vanessa Moura Dos; Karez, Cláudia Santiago; Mariath, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Fernando Coreixas; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Tomazetto; Brasileiro, Poliana Silva; Bahia, Ricardo da Gama; Lotufo, Tito Monteiro da Cruz; Ramalho, Laís Vieira; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme Henrique; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013-2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future.

  1. Ice-shelf – ocean interactions at Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica from oxygen isotope ratio measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Nicholls

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Melt water from the floating ice shelves at the margins of the southeastern Weddell Sea makes a significant contribution to the fresh water budget of the region. In February 2005 a multi-institution team conducted an oceanographic campaign at Fimbul Ice Shelf on the Greenwich Meridian as part of the Autosub Under Ice programme. This included a mission of the autonomous submarine Autosub 25 km into the cavity beneath Fimbul Ice Shelf, and a number of ship-based hydrographic sections on the continental shelf and adjacent to the ice shelf front. The measurements reveal two significant sources of glacial melt water at Fimbul Ice Shelf: the main cavity under the ice shelf and an ice tongue that protrudes from the main ice front and out over the continental slope into deep water. Glacial melt water is concentrated in a 200 m thick Ice Shelf Water (ISW layer below the base of the ice shelf at 150–200 m, with a maximum glacial melt concentration of up to 1.16%. Some glacial melt is found throughout the water column, and much of this is from sources other than Fimbul Ice Shelf. However, at least 0.2% of the water in the ISW layer cannot be accounted for by other processes and must have been contributed by the ice shelf. Just downstream of Fimbul Ice Shelf we observe locally created ISW mixing out across the continental slope. The ISW formed here is much less dense than that formed in the southwest Weddell Sea, and will ultimately contribute a freshening (and reduction in δ18O to the upper 100–150 m of the water column in the southeast Weddell Sea.

  2. Ice-shelf – ocean interactions at Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica from oxygen isotope ratio measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Nicholls

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Melt water from the floating ice shelves at the margins of the southeastern Weddell Sea makes a significant contribution to the fresh water budget of the region. In February 2005 a multi-institution team conducted an oceanographic campaign at Fimbul Ice Shelf on the Greenwich Meridian as part of the Autosub Under Ice programme. This included a mission of the autonomous submarine Autosub 25 km into the cavity beneath Fimbul Ice Shelf, and a number of ship-based hydrographic sections on the continental shelf and adjacent to the ice shelf front. The measurements reveal two significant sources of glacial melt water at Fimbul Ice Shelf: the main cavity under the ice shelf and an ice tongue, Trolltunga, that protrudes from the main ice front and out over the continental slope into deep water. Glacial melt water is concentrated in a 200 m thick Ice Shelf Water (ISW layer below the base of the ice shelf at 150–200 m, with a maximum glacial melt concentration of up to 1.16%. Some glacial melt is found throughout the water column, and much of this is from sources other than Fimbul Ice Shelf. However, at least 0.2% of the water in the ISW layer cannot be accounted for by other processes and must have been contributed by the ice shelf. Just downstream of Fimbul Ice Shelf we observe locally created ISW mixing out across the continental slope. The ISW formed here is much less dense than that formed in the southwest Weddell Sea, and will ultimately contribute a freshening (and reduction in δ18O to the upper 100–150 m of the water column in the southeast Weddell Sea.

  3. An East Siberian ice shelf during the Late Pleistocene glaciations: Numerical reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleoni, Florence; Kirchner, Nina; Niessen, Frank; Quiquet, Aurélien; Liakka, Johan

    2016-09-01

    A recent data campaign in the East Siberian Sea has revealed evidence of grounded and floating ice dynamics in regions of up to 1000 m water depth, and which are attributed to glaciations older than the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kyrs BP). The main hypothesis based on this evidence is that a small ice cap developed over Beringia and expanded over the East Siberian continental margin during some of the Late Pleistocene glaciations. Other similar evidence of ice dynamics that have been previously collected on the shallow continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean have been attributed to the penultimate glaciation, i.e. Marine Isotopes Stage 6 (≈140 kyrs BP). We use an ice sheet model, forced by two previously simulated MIS 6 glacial maximum climates, to carry out a series of sensitivity experiments testing the impact of dynamics and mass-balance related parameters on the geometry of the East Siberian ice cap and ice shelf. Results show that the ice cap developing over Beringia connects to the Eurasian ice sheet in all simulations and that its volume ranges between 6 and 14 m SLE, depending on the climate forcing. This ice cap generates an ice shelf of dimensions comparable with or larger than the present-day Ross ice shelf in West Antarctica. Although the ice shelf extent strongly depends on the ice flux through the grounding line, it is particularly sensitive to the choice of the calving and basal melting parameters. Finally, inhibiting a merging of the Beringia ice cap with the Eurasian ice sheet affects the expansion of the ice shelf only in the simulations where the ice cap fluxes are not large enough to compensate for the fluxes coming from the Eurasian ice sheet.

  4. Large-Scale Ichthyoplankton and Water Mass Distribution along the South Brazil Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27′ and 34°51′S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients. PMID:24614798

  5. High Resolution Ice Surface of the Ross Ice Shelf: Accuracy and Links to Basal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    We use airborne laser altimetry data from IcePod and IceBridge to map the surface across the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Laser altimetry and radar data is analyzed from the IcePod 2014 and 2015 field campaigns as well as IceBridge 2013. Icepod is a multi sensor suite that includes ice penetrating radars, a swath scanning laser, visible and IR cameras as well as GPS mounted on a LC-130. Using shallow ice radar data from both IcePod and IceBridge we identify the base of the ice shelf. Across the shelf we observe distinct areas of high reflectivity in the radar data suggesting basal crevassing. In some regions, the basal reflector is not well defined. Laser altimetry profiles correlate surface morphology with features at the base including basal crevasses and marine ice formed by freezing on to the base of the ice shelf. Building Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from the laser altimetry data, we investigate the relationship between the surface expressions of these ice shelf dynamics including thickness changes, potential sites of marine ice at the base and basal morphology in regions where a well defined basal reflector does not exist in the radar profiles. We present accuracy of the IcePod laser altimetry dataset using ground control points and GPS grids from Greenland and Antarctica as well as Photogrammetric DEMs. Our laser altimetry analysis resolves sub-meter surface features which, combined with coincident radar, provides a link between basal processes and their surface expressions.

  6. Detecting changes in the eastern Scotian shelf ecosystem -- what changes and why?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwanenburg, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2000-07-01

    Changes in the species and size composition of fish communities and changes in the physical environment have been tracked on the Scotian shelf for the past 30 years. Until very recently, bottom temperatures on the Shelf have been very cold since the late 1980s, resulting in the colonization of the area by cold-water fish and shell-fish species such as capelin, turbot, northern shrimp, and snow crabs. It is also believed that the reduced number of cod and other predators which feed on these species also contributed to the increase in these populations. Since the 1970s the average weights of commercially targeted fish decreased by 51 per cent on the eastern shelf and by 41 per cent on the western shelf. The decline in average weight occurred during a period when fishing effort has doubled; this too, is seen as a contributory factor, especially when combined with the fact that the declines in biomass and weight were found to be more prevalent for commercially targeted species than for non-target species. Average weights and integrated community size structure have stabilized since the closure of the cod fishery in 1993 and the restrictions on landings on the western shelf. In the east, the stability is associated with a warming of bottom temperatures and reduced fishing effort, while in the west the increase in stability is believed to be the result of reduced landings and increase in bottom temperature. Readers are cautioned that the annual sampling rate on the Sable Island Bank was designed to monitor large scale changes in abundance and distribution of a shelf-wide basis. It is therefore unlikely that these surveys would detect changes due to local oil and gas exploration. To do so, it would be necessary to conduct high resolution surveys of at least fish and benthic invertebrates. 1 fig.

  7. Map of Distribution of Bottom Sediments on the Continental Shelf, Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kevin R.; Carlson, Paul R.; Hampton, Monty A.; Marlow, Michael S.; Barnes, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey has a long history of exploring marine geology in the Gulf of Alaska. As part of a cooperative program with other federal and state agencies, the USGS is investigating the relations between ocean-floor geology and benthic marine biohabitats. This bottom sediment map, compiled from published literature will help marine biologists develop an understanding of sea-floor geology in relation to various biological habitats. The pattern of sea-floor sedimentation and bottom morphology in the Gulf of Alaska reflects a complex interplay of regional tectonism, glacial advances and retreats, oceanic and tidal currents, waves, storms, eustatic change, and gravity-driven processes. This map, based on numerous cruises during the period of 1970-1996, shows distribution of bottom sediments in areas of study on the continental shelf. The samples were collected with piston, box, and gravity corers, and grab samplers. The interpretations of sediment distribution are the products of sediment size analyses combined with interpretations of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles. The sea floor was separated into several areas as follows: Cook Inlet -- Hazards studies in this embayment emphasized sediment distribution, sediment dynamics, bedforms, shallow faults, and seafloor stability. Migrating mega-sandwaves, driven by strong tidal currents, influence seabed habitats and stability of the seafloor, especially near pipelines and drilling platforms. The coarseness of the bottom sediment reinforces the influence of the strong tidal currents on the seafloor habitats. Kodiak Shelf -- Tectonic framework studies demonstrate the development of an accretionary wedge as the Pacific Plate underthrusts the Alaskan landmass. Seismic data across the accretionary wedge reveal anomalies indicative of fluid/gas vent sites in this segment of the continental margin. Geologic hazards research shows that movement along numerous shallow faults poses a risk to sea

  8. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the

  9. Shelf waves with diurnal tidal frequency at the Greenland shelf edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, F.P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Tidal analysis has been carried out on current measurements at a “cross-shelf” transect off Greenland at 71o N. The diurnal tides manifest themselves mainly as a barotropic continental shelf wave, travelling southward along the shelf slope. This follows from the amplitude distribution of the diurnal

  10. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact On Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAllocating the proper amount of shelf space to stock keeping units [SKUs] is an increasingly relevant and difficult topic for managers. Shelf space is a scarce resource and it has to be distributed across a larger and larger number of items. It is in particular important because the

  11. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact On Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAllocating the proper amount of shelf space to stock keeping units [SKUs] is an increasingly relevant and difficult topic for managers. Shelf space is a scarce resource and it has to be distributed across a larger and larger number of items. It is in particular important because the amou

  12. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the subs

  13. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the subs

  14. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact On Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAllocating the proper amount of shelf space to stock keeping units [SKUs] is an increasingly relevant and difficult topic for managers. Shelf space is a scarce resource and it has to be distributed across a larger and larger number of items. It is in particular important because the amou

  15. Shelf Life Prediction for Canned Gudeg using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) Based on Arrhenius Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, R.; Rahayu NH, E.; Susanto, A.; Khasanah, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Gudeg is traditional food from Yogyakarta. It is consist of jackfruit, chicken, egg and coconut milk. Gudeg generally have a short shelf life. Canning or commercial sterilization is one way to extend the shelf life of gudeg. This aims of this research is to predict the shelf life of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg with Accelerated Shelf Life Test methods, Arrhenius model. Canned gudeg stored at three different temperature, there are 37, 50 and 60°C for two months. Measuring the number of Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA), as a critical aspect, were tested every 7 days. Arrhenius model approach is done with the equation order 0 and order 1. The analysis showed that the equation of order 0 can be used as an approach to estimating the shelf life of canned gudeg. The storage of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg at 30°C is predicted untill 21 months and 24 months for 25°C.

  16. 水平井、氮气及降黏剂辅助蒸汽吞吐技术——以准噶尔盆地春风油田浅薄层超稠油为例%Horizontal well, nitrogen and viscosity reducer assisted steam huff and puff technology:Taking super heavy oil in shallow and thin beds, Chunfeng Oilfield, Junggar Basin,NW China, as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学忠; 王金铸; 乔明全

    2013-01-01

    针对准噶尔盆地春风油田埋藏浅(400~570 m)、地层温度低(22~28℃)、储集层薄(2~6 m,平均3.5m)、地下原油黏度高(50000~90000 mPa·s)但热敏性好、适合热采的特点,提出了综合水平井、降黏剂、氮气、蒸汽的复合开发稠油方式(HDNS),并在排601砂体北部实施了HDNS开发先导试验.结果表明:油套环空注氮气,可起到隔热作用;利用氮气膨胀性高的特点,补充地层能量;地层内氮气向上超覆,对地层有保温作用.HDNS各要素的综合作用显著提高了蒸汽波及体积、驱油效率和原油流动能力,降低了原油黏度.春风油田应用HDNS技术已经建成产能40×104t,采油速度3.0%,实现了低品位浅薄层超稠油的高速高效开发.图2表6参19%Chunfeng Oilfield in the Junggar Basin has shallow burial depth (400-570 m), low formation temperature (22-28℃), thin reservoirs (2-6 m, averaging 3.5 m), high underground crude oil viscosity (50 000-90 000 mPa · s), but high sensitivity to heat, it is suitable for thermal recovery. In view of these features, a development method for this oilfield combining horizontal well, viscosity reducer, nitrogen and steam flooding (HDNS) was put forward, and pilot test was carried out in Northern Pai 601 sand body. The results show: injecting nitrogen through annulus can insulate thermal, high expansibility of nitrogen works to compensate formation energy, and nitrogen overlapping in reservoir has insulation effect. The combination effect of all parts of HDNS significantly increased steam sweep volume, oil displacement efficiency and crude oil flow ability, and reduced oil viscosity. Thanks to this technique, Chunfeng Oilfield has built up a production capacity of 40×104t, with an oil recovery rate of 3%, marking the successful high-speed and high-efficiency development of low-grade shallow thin super heavy oil.

  17. The wind- and wave-driven inner-shelf circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Steven J; Fewings, Melanie R

    2012-01-01

    The inner continental shelf, which spans water depths ofa few meters to tens of meters, is a dynamically defined region that lies between the surf zone (where waves break) and the middle continental shelf (where the along-shelf circulation is usually in geostrophic balance). Many types of forcing that are often neglected over the deeper shelf-such as tides, buoyant plumes, surface gravitywaves, and cross-shelfwind stress-drive substantial circulations over the inner shelf. Cross-shelf circulation over the inner shelf has ecological and geophysical consequences: It connects the shore to the open ocean by transporting pollutants, larvae, phytoplankton, nutrients, and sediment. This review of circulation and momentum balances over the inner continental shelf contrasts prior studies, which focused mainly on the roles of along-shelfwind and pressure gradients, with recent understanding of the dominant roles of cross-shelf wind and surface gravity waves.

  18. Shallow Water Tuned Liquid Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Jørgen

    researchers on TLDs termed wave breaking. A large part of the energy dissipation in the fluid is anticipated to stem from the turbulence in the vicinity of the moving hydraulic jump, and in order to verify this supposition the effect of bottom friction is included in the mathematical model. Studies reveal...... in connection with sloshing has used cumbersome, computationally expensive and somewhat outdated numerical solution schemes. We compare a state of the art, high order, shock capturing method with a simpler low order scheme and find that the simple scheme is adequate for simulating shallow water sloshing...

  19. Sensory shelf life of dulce de leche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garitta, L; Hough, G; Sánchez, R

    2004-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the sensory cutoff points for dulce de leche (DL) critical descriptors, both for defective off-flavors and for storage changes in desirable attributes, and to estimate the shelf life of DL as a function of storage temperature. The critical descriptors used to determine the cutoff points were plastic flavor, burnt flavor, dark color, and spreadability. Linear correlations between sensory acceptability and trained panel scores were used to determine the sensory failure cutoff point for each descriptor. To estimate shelf life, DL samples were stored at 25, 37, and 45 degrees C. Plastic flavor was the first descriptor to reach its cutoff point at 25 degrees C and was used for shelf-life calculations. Plastic flavor vs. storage time followed zero-order reaction rate. Shelf-life estimations at different temperatures were 109 d at 25 degrees C, 53 d at 37 degrees C, and 9 d at 45 degrees C. The activation energy, necessary to calculate shelf lives at different temperatures, was 14,370 +/- 2080 cal/mol.

  20. Galveston Symposium: Physical Oceanography of the Louisiana/Texas Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Thomas M.; Brown, Murray

    The Minerals Management Service (MMS), Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region sponsored a symposium on the Physical Oceanography of the Louisiana/Texas (LA/TX) Shelf in Galveston, Texas, on May 24-26, 1988. The symposium brought together a number of physical oceanographers, meteorologists, and ecologists to discuss the state of knowledge and to begin the planning process for a long-term study of shelf circulation covering the region from the mouth of the Mississippi River to approximately 24° latitude along the Mexican coast and from the shore out to a depth of approximately 500 m. The proposed study, to be a component of the ongoing MMS Environmental Studies Program, is expected to take place during the period 1989-1991. It is anticipated that the work will be done principally through contracts after a competitive procurement process. Specific charges to the participants were as follows:to assess the current state of knowledge concerning the circulation on the LA/TX shelfto identify significant gaps in that knowledgeto recommend a field measurement program to address these gapsto recommend a circulation modeling program for the LA/TX shelf that will improve MMS' oil spill risk assessmentsto identify and initiate coordination mechanisms and data-sharing arrangements with other proposed research efforts

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ochoa-Reyes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums were evaluated in mixtures with candelilla wax as hydrophobic phase, jojoba oil as plasticizer and a crude extract of polyphenols as source of bioactive compounds. Green bell peppers were immersion-treated and then stored at room temperature. Response variables were: weight loss, color, appearance, pH, total soluble solids and firmness changes which were kinetically determined. All peppers treated with edible-coating showed a significant difference (Tukey, p≤0.05 in weight loss compared to control treatment (without edible coating, while a lower level of deterioration was observed in fruits treated with edible coating formulated with arabic gum, but appearance remained similar among fruits treated with different edible coatings. Use of mixtures of biopolymers, candelilla wax, jojoba oil and polyphenols to develop edible and functionalized coatings significantly extended shelf life of green bell pepper.

  2. Improvement of Shelf Life and Sensory Quality of Pears Using a Specialized Edible Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An edible coating functionalized with pomegranate polyphenols was designed. Different blends of candelilla wax, gum arabic, jojoba oil, and pomegranate polyphenols were formulated in order to improve the shelf life quality of pears (variety Bartlett, and all formulations were applied by immersion onto the fruit surface. Coated pears with and without polyphenols and uncoated pears (control were stored under the same conditions. Fruits were analyzed to evaluate changes in their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties during 30 days of storage at room temperature. Coated pears coded as T13 (candelilla wax 3%, gum arabic 4%, jojoba oil 0.15%, and pomegranate polyphenols 0.015% extended and improved their shelf life quality due to the minimization of the physic-chemical changes and sensorial properties. Therefore, the results indicated that the formulated edible coating has potential to extend the shelf life and maintain quality of pears. It was probed that coated pears were accepted for consumers as a good product. Edible coating application represents a good alternative to keep pears freshness for longer periods.

  3. Amery ice shelf DEM and its marine ice distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Amery Ice Shelf is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. A new DEM was generated for this ice shelf, using kriging to interpolate the data from ICESat altimetry and the AIS-DEM. The ice thickness distribution map is converted from the new DEM, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. The Amery Ice Shelf marine ice, up to 230 m thick, is concentrated in the northwest of the ice shelf. The volume of the marine ice is 2.38×103 km3 and accounts for about 5.6% of the shelf volume.

  4. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. 76 FR 54782 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed... of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine the potential...

  6. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2002-01-01

    storage trials. Oils of oregano and cinnamon had strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by lemongrass, thyme, clove, bay, marjoram, sage and basil oils. Oregano oil (0.05%, v/w) reduced growth of P. phosphoreum in naturally contaminated MAP cod fillets and extended shelf-life from 11-12 d to 21-26 d...

  7. 78 FR 66066 - Proposed Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request: Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...: Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the Outer Continental Shelf and Pipeline Rights of Way ACTION: 60-day... paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 CFR 556, Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the OCS; 30 CFR 550, Subpart J, Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way; and 30 CFR 560, OCS Oil and Gas...

  8. Further studies of the nature, composition and ages of contemporary phosphorite from the Namibian Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J. (Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley (UK)); Calvert, S.E.; Mukherjee, S. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Oceanography); Burnett, W.C. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA). Dept. of Oceanography); Bremner, J.M. (Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Geology)

    1984-08-01

    Major and minor element and radiochemical data are examined for a set of phosphorite concretions and other phosphatic material from the Namibian Shelf. The concretions were separated on a morphological basis from grab samples taken in a transect of shallowing depth over the diatomaceous ooze belt. Compositional data indicate that the samples are fairly pure carbonate-fluorapatite, and trend towards a maximum 32% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content. A range of compositional variability similar to other samples from the Namibian Shelf is observed. Radiochemical systematics confirm that pelletal phosphorite and glauconitized pelletal phosphorite from depths > 170 m are at radioactive equilibrium, and are therefore old and reworked. The concretions, collected from depths shallower than 78 m, are entirely Recent, with maximum ages in the range 500-3800 years. They may be much younger. Despite distinct textural and small compositional differences, similar are found for separates from the same grab. Samples of fish scales and an unidentified high-magnesian phosphate mineral are also shown to have incorporated uranium recently. 48 refs.

  9. Influence of estuarine dynamics on macrobenthos spatial variability along the southeast continental shelf of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana R. Zalmon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Along the southeast continental shelf of Brazil, the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR plays a fundamental role in sediment and nutrient transport. This study focuses on the contribution of the PSR and its effect on the benthic macrofauna. Physical and chemical analyses of the sediment were conducted, and the macrofauna were identified and counted. Multivariate analyses were used to compare the distribution patterns of the benthic assemblages related to the depth gradient over two sampling periods. The principal component analysis showed that shallow waters assemblages are mostly influenced by the environmental descriptors temperature, salinity and chlorophyll a, whereas pheophytin, degree of sediment sorting, total carbonate and organic carbon were correlated with benthic assemblages at greater depths. The high organic enrichment reflected an increase in surface and sub-surface deposit feeders such as the polychaetes Spiophanes sp. and Prionospio cristata and the crustacean Phtisica marinain the deeper stations, with a corresponding decrease in other trophic groups. This study provides evidence of differences in organic matter sources, from primary production in shallow waters to detritus in deep waters. These sources provide different niches for the corresponding macrofaunal assemblages along the continental shelf adjacent to the PSR, with species richness and abundance of benthic populations related to the river output.

  10. Variability in along-shelf and cross-shelf circulation in the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yeping; Castelao, Renato M.; He, Ruoying

    2017-02-01

    Variability in along-shelf and cross-shelf circulation in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) is investigated using altimetry observations. Satellite-derived along-shelf velocity anomalies are in good agreement with independent near-surface current measurements from moored acoustic Doppler current profilers and surface velocities from high frequency radar at adjacent locations. This is especially true if wind-driven Ekman velocities are added to the geostrophic velocities, suggesting that the influence of Ekman dynamics to surface along-shelf flow in the SAB is unusually large. The decade-long time series reveals substantial seasonal variability in surface velocities, with peak poleward anomalies during late spring and summer and strong equatorward flow during autumn. Convergences and divergences in the along-shelf transport between two cross-sections are compared with three-dimensional numerical model results and used to estimate cross-shelf transport across the 50 m isobath in the SAB. The calculation suggests a pattern of weak offshore flow during spring followed by prolonged and relatively stronger offshore flow during summer and early autumn, while cross-shelf velocity anomalies during winter are weak and slightly onshore. Prolonged offshore flow following the peak in river discharge that generally occurs in spring indicates the potential for the establishment of a conduit for offshore export of riverine material. The long-term time series also reveals several large events of interannual variability, including the 2003 cold event observed in the SAB.

  11. Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.

  12. Crude Oil Model Emulsion Characterised by means of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallevik, H.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Sæther, Ø.

    2000-01-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering...... of the water droplets are shown to be strong. Despite the strong influence of the water phase, the NIR technique is still capable of predicting the composition of the investigated oil phase....

  13. Antioxidant activity of essential oil from Coriandrum Sativum L. in Italian salami

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Four formulations of Italian salami type were produced: without antioxidants; with essential oil of coriander essential oil (0.01%); with BHT (0.01%); and with Coriander essential oil and BHT (0.005 and 0.005%). The antioxidant activity of salamis was evaluated by the lipid oxidation, through the techniques of peroxide number and TBARS. The salami with the coriander essential oil exhibited reduction in lipid oxidation by increasing the shelf life of the product. The salami with the coriander ...

  14. An assessment of vertical mixing schemes in comparison with observations in the European shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luneva, Maria; Holt, Jason; Pelling, Holly; Palmer, Mathew; Polton, Jeff; Wakelin, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    An assessment of vertical mixing schemes in comparison with observations in the European shelf. Maria Luneva, Jason Holt, , Holly Pelling, Mathew Palmer, Jeff Polton ,Sarah Wakelin. Using the NEMO-shelf model of the Atlantic Marginal Domain with 7km resolution (AMM7) we examine 5 different turbulent closures structural functions, based on the k-epsilon version of the Generic Length Scale Model: Galperin,1988 type closure ,two models by the Canuto group (2001, ab), two by Kantha and Clayson (1994,2004). The AMM7 model realistically reproduces tides and shelf sea processes in the upper and benthic layers, depth of mixed layer and pycnocline. The results have been compared with scanfish temperature sections and direct turbulence observations during 1998-2009All models show high correlations of pycnocline depth and bottom temperature with observations in, however 'less diffusive' Kantha Clayson and Galperin models have much smaller biases in bottom temperature, while more diffusive Canuto models better predicts pycnocline depth. All models underestimate dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy in the mixed layer and pycnocline at least by an order and have good agreement with observations in the bottom boundary layer. We discuss the effects of Stock's drift velocity and Langmure circulations in the upper layer and internal waves in pycnocline. Using algebraic equations for third order turbulence moment s we derive parameterisation for non-local terms in TKE equation and discuss asymptotical solutions in a shallow Stokes layer.

  15. Composition and Origin of Shallow Biogenetic Gases in the Baise Basin, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analytical data of over 30 gas samples, combined with geochemical and geological backgrounds, the composition and distribution characteristics of shallow biogenetic gases in the Baise Basin, a Tertiary residual basin in southern China, were extensively investigated, and the origin and formation mechanism tentatively approached. The shallow gases are primarily composed of gaseous hydrocarbons, generally accounting for over 90%. The abundances of methane and C2+homologues show a relatively wide range of variation, mainly 50%-100% and 0%-50%, respectively,depending on the mixing proportions between biogenetic and thermogenic gases. A highly negative carbon isotope is the significant signature for the shallow gases with δ13C1 values of -55‰ to -75‰.According to molecular and isotopic compositions and light hydrocarbon parameters, the shallow gases in the basin can be classified into three types of origins: biogenetic gas, biogenetic/thermogenic mixed gas, and oil-biodegraded gas. They exhibit regular distribution both spatially and temporally, and are believed to be associated with the maturity of adjoining gas source rocks and biodegraded oil accumulation. The Baigang and Nadu source rocks can be considered to have experienced early and late gas generation during early burial and after basin uplift respectively. A late accumulation mechanism of multiple gas sources is put forward for the formation of the shallow gas reservoirs, which is responsible for the variations in chemical and isotopic composition of the gases in depth profile.

  16. Glacier surge after ice shelf collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Hernán; Skvarca, Pedro

    2003-03-07

    The possibility that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet will collapse as a consequence of ice shelf disintegration has been debated for many years. This matter is of concern because such an event would imply a sudden increase in sea level. Evidence is presented here showing drastic dynamic perturbations on former tributary glaciers that fed sections of the Larsen Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula before its collapse in 1995. Satellite images and airborne surveys allowed unambiguous identification of active surging phases of Boydell, Sjögren, Edgeworth, Bombardier, and Drygalski glaciers. This discovery calls for a reconsideration of former hypotheses about the stabilizing role of ice shelves.

  17. Characteristics, stratigraphic architecture, and time framework of multi-order mixed siliciclastic and carbonate depositional sequences, outcropping Cisco Group (Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian), Eastern Shelf, north-central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; Kominz, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cisco Group on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is composed of fluvial, deltaic, shelf, shelf-margin, and slope-to-basin carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic analyses of 181 meter-to-decimeter-scale depositional sequences exposed in the up-dip shelf indicated that the siliciclastic and carbonate parasequences in the transgressive systems tracts (TST) are thin and upward deepening, whereas those in highstand systems tracts (HST) are thick and upward shallowing. The sequences can be subdivided into five types on the basis of principal lithofacies, and exhibit variable magnitude of facies shift corresponding to variable extents of marine transgression and regression on the shelf. The sequence stacking patterns and their regional persistence suggest a three-level sequence hierarchy controlled by eustasy, whereas local and regional changes in lithology, thickness, and sequence type, magnitude, and absence were controlled by interplay of eustasy, differential shelf subsidence, depositional topography, and pattern of siliciclastic supply. The outcropping Cisco Group is highly incomplete with an estimated 6-11% stratigraphic completeness. The average duration of deposition of the major (third-order) sequences is estimated as 67-102 ka on the up-dip shelf and increases down dip, while the average duration of the major sequence boundaries (SB) is estimated as 831-1066 ka and decreases down dip. The nondepositional and erosional hiatus on the up-dip shelf was represented by lowstand deltaic systems in the basin and slope.

  18. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    by the environmental factors existing commonly in the continental shelf and shelfbreak areas, such as slopes, submarine canyons , sub-bottom layers...existing commonly in the continental shelf and shelfbreak areas, such as slopes, submarine canyons , sub- bottom layers, surface waves, internal waves...propagation in the area ofNorth Mein-Hua Canyon northeast of Taiwan. With the hydrophone data received on bottom mounted vertical arrays, we can obtain

  19. Determination of shelf life of sous vide salmon (Salmo salard) based on sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pedro; Nieto, Gema; Bañón, Sancho; Garrido, María Dolores

    2009-10-01

    Sous vide technology permits precooked dishes of high sensory and nutritional quality to be obtained with a longer shelf life than is possible using other cooking-cooling methods. Salmon portions (200 g; 0.5, w:w; greased with olive oil) were par-roasted (300 degrees C/3 min), cooked using sous vide technology (80 degrees C/43 min), and maintained in anaerobic conditions at 2 degrees C for 0, 4, 8, 12, 15, 18, 22, and 25 d. At each control day, Enterobacteriaceae counts were made and the attributes of sensory spoilage were determined (3 visual, 2 odor, 2 flavor, and 3 texture attributes) by a panel of trained judges. A loss of smell, taste, color, and juiciness was detected during storage, along with the appearance of off-odors and off-flavors. The shelf life of the sous vide salmon based on sensory analysis was established at 18 d.

  20. Using MODIS True-Color 250 m Remote Sensing Data to Assess Interannual Variability of Suspended Matter over Southeastern Brazilian Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belem, A. L.; Silva, T. M. L.; Albuquerque, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Continental shelf is the final destination of terrigenous sediments drained by rivers and estuaries, forming a mass of water drifting over the shelf due to its differential density from underlaying salty oceanic waters, forming a coastal plume. On the Southeastern Brazilian Continental Shelf, Cabo Frio region represents the limit between Santos and Campos basin oil reserves. The continental drainage in this area is not expressive, nevertheless presents a complex interaction between the western boundary Brazil Current (BC) and shelf border mechanisms providing amid-shelf intrusion and a coastal upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) over the shelf. Satellite images of the region shows expressive shelf plumes with sedimentary contributions from Paraiba do Sul river located approximately 180 km northward of Cabo Frio, as well as from Guanabara bay, located 150 km westward of Cabo Frio. In order to understand the role of plumes in sedimentary processes over the continental shelf, this study analyzed 10 years of MODIS true-color 250 m remote sensing data in order to understand the temporal variability of the shelf front and the area of plumes. The remote data were obtained from the Aerosol Robotic Network and USDA Foreign Agricultural Service subsets. Selected 17% of daily images were cloud-free to allow shelf plumes to be delimited and processed to enhancement of features as well as land masking, geo-referencing, and daily area calculation on pixel basis. During austral winter (dry season) the plumes get its maximum extension in area over the shelf, suggesting that the mechanism of sediment transport is connected with high energetic wave-wind interactions on the coast followed by wind-driven dispersion less than continental drainage. The interannual pattern shows a general decreasing trend, mainly in the last 4 years, associated with sediment availability on the inner shelf, which is driven by river discharge during the austral summer (rain season). We also

  1. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  2. Estimated Bathymetry of the Puerto Rico shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This classification of estimated depth represents the relative bathymetry of Puerto Rico's shallow waters based on Landsat imagery for NOAA's Coastal Centers for...

  3. Estimated Bathymetry of the Puerto Rico shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This classification of estimated depth represents the relative bathymetry of Puerto Rico's shallow waters based on Landsat imagery for NOAA's Coastal Centers for...

  4. Magnetic surveys of the continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    shelf. Quantitative estimates made for the anomalies over the inner shelf using the graphical method and by computing the analytical signal suggest the existence of a fault in the nearshore region and a possible zone of heavy mineral concentration off...

  5. Shallow water cnoidal wave interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Osborne

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamics of cnoidal waves, within the context of the general N-cnoidal wave solutions of the periodic Korteweg-de Vries (KdV and Kadomtsev-Petvishvilli (KP equations, are considered. These equations are important for describing the propagation of small-but-finite amplitude waves in shallow water; the solutions to KdV are unidirectional while those of KP are directionally spread. Herein solutions are constructed from the 0-function representation of their appropriate inverse scattering transform formulations. To this end a general theorem is employed in the construction process: All solutions to the KdV and KP equations can be written as the linear superposition of cnoidal waves plus their nonlinear interactions. The approach presented here is viewed as significant because it allows the exact construction of N degree-of-freedom cnoidal wave trains under rather general conditions.

  6. Macroelement modeling of shallow foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzigogos, Charisis; Salençon, J

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a new macroelement model for shallow foundations. The model is defined through a non-linear constitutive law written in terms of some generalized force and displacement parameters. The linear part of this constitutive law comes from the dynamic impedances of the foundation. The non-linear part comprises two mechanisms. One is due to the irreversible elastoplastic soil behavior: it is described with a bounding surface hypoplastic model, adapted for the description of the cyclic soil response. An original feature of the formulation is that the bounding surface is considered independently of the surface of ultimate loads of the system. The second mechanism is the detachment that can take place at the soil-footing interface (foundation uplift). It is totally reversible and non-dissipative and can thus be described by a phenomenological non-linear elastic model. The macroelement is qualitatively validated by application to soil-structure interaction analyses of simple real structures.

  7. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  8. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  9. The role of oil and gas production platforms in providing habitat for fish populations of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.A. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences and the Coastal Fisheries Inst.; Stanley, D. [Stantec Ltd., Brampton, ON (Canada); Miller, M.W. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Coastal Fisheries Inst., School of the Coast and Environment

    2003-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impact that the nearly 4,500 oil and gas platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico may have on fish habitat. For the past decade, fish populations associated with the platforms have been examined using hydro acoustics and a remotely operated vehicle. Since 1992, more than 85 sampling excursions were conducted at 4 to 8 platforms, at water depths ranging from 22 to 300 m. Results indicate that the platforms serve as a very effective fish habitat. It was noted that along the north-south transect, fish assemblages shift from coastal-dominated fishes at shallower sites to more tropical marine-dominated assemblage at the deeper sites. Pelagic species were most abundant at water depths greater than 100 m. Most fishes at the deep sites existed only in the upper 70 m of the water column, but on the continental shelf, the fishes were abundant throughout the water column, with the highest densities being near the Mississippi River. Fish densities, which ranged from 0 to 3 fish per cubic metre, were influenced by factors such as season, water depth, and platform side. It was estimated that 10 to 30,000 fish lived around each of the platforms examined. The study showed that offshore oil and gas activity in the northern Gulf of Mexico has positively affected the distribution and abundance of many substrate-dependent species, red snapper in particular.

  10. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

    1997-10-15

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide- (CO{sub 2}-) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  11. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M. Lee; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas

    1999-11-03

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million bbl of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO-) flood 2 project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  12. Influence of estuaries on shelf sediment texture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    on the coast. Offshore from regions where there are a large number of estuaries, the inner shelf sediments are fine grained (average mean size 5.02 phi, 0.03 mm), rich in organic matter ( 2%) and low in calcium carbonate ( 25%). In contrast, in regions...

  13. Elephant teeth from the atlantic continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, F.C.; Emery, K.O.; Cooke, H.B.S.; Swift, D.J.P.

    1967-01-01

    Teeth of mastodons and mastodons have been recovered by fishermen from at least 40 sites on the continental shelf as deep as 120 meters. Also present are submerged shorelines, peat deposits, lagoonal shells, and relict sands. Evidently elephants and other large mammals ranged this region during the glacial stage of low sea level of the last 25.000 years.

  14. Sedimentologic Events on the Eel River Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-30

    PROJECTS Research into shelf processes is being conducted by a number of researchers, including: D. Drake (USGS), E. Leithold (NCSU), C. Nittrouer (SUNY...D. Swift (ODU) and R. Wheatcroft (WHOI). REFERENCES Wheatcroft, R.A., Borgeld, J.C., Born. R.S., Drake, D.E., Leithold , E.L. and Nittrouer, C.A

  15. Nature of the observed oscillatory flows in shelf waters of the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Antony, M.K.; Sundar, D.

    of internal waves. Semidiurnal characteristics computed from hydrographic data collected during the period of mooring across the shelf combined with the distribution of phases and amplitudes of horizontal velocities are found to be consistent...

  16. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.10 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in...

  17. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  18. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ...: 2010-119] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil... maximum daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to... operations in the Outer Continental Shelf at least once every 3 years. This review ensures that the...

  19. Sonograph patterns of the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    sediments. The sonographs of the outer shelf, from beyond 60 m depth, to the shelf edge, exhibit bedforms such as reef outcrops (algal and oolitic ridges) and minor topographic undulations. Towards the shelf edge these give way to isolated colonies of algal...

  20. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  1. A biological oil adsorption filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasila, Antti

    2004-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore.

  2. The exchange of water between the Faroe Shelf and the surrounding waters and its effect on the primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasen, Sólvá Karadóttir; Hansen, Bogi; Larsen, Karin Margretha Húsgarð; Hátún, Hjálmar

    2016-01-01

    The interannual variation of the spring bloom and its effect on the marine ecosystem on the Faroe Shelf has been observed for a couple of decades. However, the mechanism controlling the spring bloom has so far not been known and attempts to explain the mechanism have mostly ruled out possibilities. The Faroe Shelf is to a variable degree isolated from the surrounding waters by a tidal front. It has previously been suggested that variations in the density difference across the front and how water masses are transferred across it affect the spring primary production, which is thought to be a driver of the shelf ecosystem. Using air-sea heat flux data and sea temperature observations on the shelf and off the shelf, we estimate the cross-frontal volume exchange in January-April and find that it increases with the tidal current speed and decreases with the cross-frontal temperature difference. Using the observed exchange rates, we show that the phytoplankton growth rate may be reduced by more than 0.05 day- 1 when the exchange is intense and off-shelf production is still low. Based on frontal dynamics theory, we suggest that the cross-frontal exchange rate in the above mentioned period is determined by the rate of vertical turbulent diffusion through the front. A simple theoretical model is found to support this hypothesis qualitatively as well as quantitatively. This supports that variations in horizontal exchange are an important controlling factor of the initial spring bloom and that the horizontal exchange during the winter can be determined by vertical turbulent diffusion. Our results will be relevant for the primary production in other similar systems of small geographical extent and also for other problems involving cross-shelf exchange, such as oil spill dispersal.

  3. The evolution of an internal bore at the Malin shelf break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Small

    Full Text Available Observations of internal waves were made at the Malin shelf edge during SESAME (Shelf Edge Studies Acoustic Measurement Experiment, a part of the NERC LOIS-SES experiment, in August-September 1996. These measurements provide a high resolution dataset demonstrating internal wave generation and propagation. This note presents observations of the evolution of an internal bore. The process is shown clearly in a sequence of thermistor chain tows across the shelf break covering a complete tidal cycle, as the double-sided bore transforms into a group of undulations and eventually into more distinct solitary waveforms. Current structures associated with the bore and waves were also observed by ship-mounted ADCP. Analysis of the waveforms in terms of the linear modes and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs indicate the dominance of the first mode, which is typical of a shallow water seasonal thermocline environment. Determination of the phase speed of the waves from the consecutive ship surveys enabled the Doppler shift in the towed data to be removed, allowing analysis of the real length scales of the waves. The bore evolution has been modelled using a first order non-linear KdV model for the first mode, initialised with the waveform in the first survey. Comparison of the model and the observations show close agreement in the amplitudes, length scales, phase speeds and separations of the leading internal waves as they evolve. Finally, analysis of the observed internal wave shapes indicates that, within the uncertainties of measurement, the wave-lengths lie between those predicted by first and second order soliton theory.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; ocean prediction. Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  4. Analysis of Water Dynamics in Banda Sea and its Influences on Continental Shelf Fishing Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Muripto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the rise of the Arafura Sea of the vertical configuration results shown curves which easy to understand about its water dynamics. The water character is oceanic’s as cool, salty and stable DO were maintaining by the variability of thermal structure in the continental shelf. The pattern of water masses is the current system surrounding the Banda Sea as an upwelling from undercurrent those enhances and nitrified the shelf.  Along the coast of western part of Papua was conducted the parcel of water masses traveling across the fishing area where’s kind of fishing boat catches the fish in the whole year, and almost confining in the continental shelf has low current from the southern part. The current flows from west to east at the southern part of Nusa Tenggara Islands bringing water and curve to the southwestern coast of Australia. These water masses characterized the temperature, salinity and oxygen gradients from some points where may have an important implication to the slopes area between the deepest and the shallow water near the coast. The lower temperature ranges from 10.0˚C to 8.0˚C at 300m depth and 34.50‰ to 34.85‰ conducted was circulated back to the deepest layer were higher salinity and stable dissolved oxygen. This continental shelf as a fishing area boundary water dynamic may cause by these water dynamic,  especially from data catches of the two fishing vessels catches 17,4 to 39,21kg/haul in the western area and 44.0 to 80kg/haul in eastern coast area.

  5. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asnaashari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high–performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well-balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation–sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  6. Sources, degradation and transport of terrigenous organic carbon on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor; Dudarev, Oleg; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the present hydrological regime increase observed in the Arctic rivers is mainly the consequence of the changes in permafrost conditions as a result of climate warming. Given the enormous amount of carbon stored in coastal and terrestrial permafrost the potentially increased supply from this large carbon pool to the coastal Arctic Ocean, possibly associated with a translocated release to the atmosphere as CO2, is considered a plausible scenario in a warming climate. However, there is not sufficient information regarding the reactivity of terrigenous material once supplied to the Arctic Ocean. In this study, we address this critical issue by examining the organic composition of surface sediments collected over extensive scales on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) as part of the International Siberian Shelf Study (ISSS). The ESAS represents by far the largest shelf of the Arctic Ocean. Samples were collected from the inner- to the outer-shelf following the sediment transport pathway in a region between the Lena and the Kolyma rivers. The analytical approach includes the characterization of marine and land-derived carbon using a large number of molecular biomarkers obtained by alkaline CuO oxidation such as lignin-phenols, cutin-derived products, p-hydroxy benzenes, benzoic acids, fatty acids, and dicarboxylic acids. Our results indicated high concentrations of terrigenous material in shallow sediments and a marked decrease of terrestrial biomarkers with increasing distance from the coastline. In parallel, lignin-based degradation proxies suggested highly altered terrigenous carbon in mid- and outer-shelf sediments compared to coastal sediments. Furthermore, the ratio of cutin-derived products over lignin significantly increased along the sediment transport pathway. Considering that cutin is considered to be intrinsically more reactive compared to lignin, high values of this ratio off the coastal region were interpreted as selective

  7. Dynamics and Mass Balance of Riiser-Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica, and its Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, S.; Oelke, C.; Kleiner, T.; Lange, M. A.; Baessler, M.; Dietrich, R.

    2006-12-01

    A coupled finite difference ice sheet/ice shelf model is used to investigate the flow regime of Riiser-Larsen ice shelf, Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, and its drainage area. The model takes into account higher order terms that are neglected in the popular shallow ice approximation. The modeled region has a total area of roughly 130 · 103 km2. The model grid consists of 2.5 km × 2.5 km cells horizontally, and of 10 sigma layers vertically. As input data for the simulation, a new DEM is derived mainly from recent ICESat/GLAS laser-altimetry data. In the ice sheet part of the modeled area, ice thickness data are taken from the BEDMAP data set. For the ice shelf, the thickness distribution is computed from the DEM by assuming isostatic equilibrium. For this purpose, vertical density variations inside the ice shelf are derived by comparison of GLAS altimetry data with airborne RES ice thickness measurements from the EPICA mission. The modeled ice flow velocity is compared with interferometrically derived surface flow velocities from ERS-SAR scenes of the ice sheet and with published in-situ measurements of the ice shelf. In order to minimize the difference between modeled and measured velocities, the boundary conditions and free parameters of the flow model are adjusted. The boundary condition at the ice-rock interface turns out to play a crucial role in optimizing the agreement. Thus, the basal sliding velocity of the ice body is calculated from the basal temperature and the basal shear stress following a widely used relation originally proposed by Weertman, and by adjusting its parameters. In the ice shelf, the viscosity of the ice is used as a tuning parameter and is adjusted to maximize the agreement with in-situ measurements. From the result of the simulation with an optimal set of parameters a mass flow over the grounding line of roughly 2 · 1013 kg yr-1 is derived. The comparison with published surface accumulation data suggests a stable mass balance for

  8. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY IN MISSISSIPPIAN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS OF KANSAS--NEAR TERM--CLASS 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy R. Carr; Don W. Green; G. Paul Willhite

    1999-06-01

    This annual report describes progress during the third year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of this project is development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. The project introduced a number of potentially useful technologies, and demonstrated these technologies in actual oil field operations. Advanced technology was tailored specifically to the scale appropriate to the operations of Kansas producers. An extensive technology transfer effort is ongoing. Traditional technology transfer methods (e.g., publications and workshops) are supplemented with a public domain relational database and an online package of project results that is available through the Internet. The goal is to provide the independent complete access to project data, project results and project technology on their desktop. Included in this report is a summary of significant project results at the demonstration site (Schaben Field, Ness County, Kansas). The value of cost-effective techniques for reservoir characterization and simulation at Schaben Field were demonstrated to independent operators. All major operators at Schaben have used results of the reservoir management strategy to locate and drill additional infill locations. At the Schaben Demonstration Site, the additional locations resulted in incremental production increases of 200 BOPD from a smaller number of wells.

  9. Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs of Kansas -- Near-Term -- Class 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Timothy R.; Green, Don W.; Willhite, G. Paul

    1999-07-08

    This report describes progress during the third year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of this project is development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and mid-continent. The project introduced a number of potentially useful technologies, and demonstrated these technologies in actual oil field operations. Advanced technology was tailored specifically to the scale appropriate to the operations of Kansas producers. An extensive technology transfer effort is ongoing. Traditional technology transfer methods (e.g., publications and workshops) are supplemented with a public domain relational database and an online package of project results that is available through the Internet. The goal is to provide the independent complete access to project data, project results and project technology on their desktop. Included in this report is a summary of significant project results at the demonstration site (Schaben Field, Ness County, Kansas). The value of cost-effective techniques for reservoir characterization and simulation at Schaben Field were demonstrated to independent operators. All major operators at Schaben have used results of the reservoir management strategy to locate and drill additional infill locations. At the Schaben Demonstration Site, the additional locations resulted in incremental production increases of 200 BOPD from a smaller number of wells.

  10. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY IN MISSISSIPPIAN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS OF KANSAS - NEAR TERM - CLASS 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy R. Carr; Don W. Green; G. Paul Willhite

    2000-04-30

    This annual report describes progress during the final year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of the project was development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. As part of the project, tools and techniques for reservoir description and management were developed, modified and demonstrated, including PfEFFER spreadsheet log analysis software. The world-wide-web was used to provide rapid and flexible dissemination of the project results through the Internet. A summary of demonstration phase at the Schaben and Ness City North sites demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed reservoir management strategies and technologies. At the Schaben Field, a total of 22 additional locations were evaluated based on the reservoir characterization and simulation studies and resulted in a significant incremental production increase. At Ness City North Field, a horizontal infill well (Mull Ummel No.4H) was planned and drilled based on the results of reservoir characterization and simulation studies to optimize the location and length. The well produced excellent and predicted oil rates for the first two months. Unexpected presence of vertical shale intervals in the lateral resulted in loss of the hole. While the horizontal well was not economically successful, the technology was demonstrated to have potential to recover significant additional reserves in Kansas and the Midcontinent. Several low-cost approaches were developed to evaluate candidate reservoirs for potential horizontal well applications at the field scale, lease level, and well level, and enable the small

  11. Exact internal controllability for shallow shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Shaoji; FENG Dexing

    2006-01-01

    The internal control problem is considered, based on the linear displacement equations of shallow shell. It is shown, with some checkable geometric conditions on control region, that the undergoing shallow shell is exactly controllable by using Hilbert uniqueness method (HUM), piecewise multiplier method and Riemannian geometry method. Then some examples are given to show the assumed geometric conditions.

  12. Cretaceous–Cenozoic burial and exhumation history of the Chukchi shelf, offshore Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, William H.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Chukotkan orogen (lasting until ∼70 Ma), followed by renewed subsidence of the Chukchi shelf in the latest Cretaceous and Cenozoic. This history maintained modest thermal maturities at the base of the Brookian sequence across the Chukchi shelf, because large sediment volumes bypassed to adjacent depocenters. Therefore, the Chukchi shelf appears to be an area with the potential for widespread preservation of petroleum systems in the oil window.

  13. Study of the Use of Oxygen-Absorbing Packaging Material to Prolong Shelf-Life of Rations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    MRE soy - 9.08%; ABSO2RBTM soy - 9.86%. The standard was Lauric acid – C12. The main fatty acids present on the triglycerides chain were: Olive oil...rancid over prolonged storage. Rancidity is caused when oxygen combines with fatty acids . The access of oxygen to the food product influences the...ability of the proposed films to maintain the target product shelf life. -Cost Effectiveness The primary cost benefit derived from this study

  14. Comparison of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils in continuous frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantzaris, T. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Some work carried out by the Turbitak Marmara Research Centre and the Yildiz Technical University in Istanbul, in collaboration with the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, involved large scale laboratory frying trials of two monounsaturated oils (olive oil and palm olein and two polyunsaturated oils (sunflower and soyabean on potato chips (French fries. The oils were tested in parallel in separate 6-litre fryers on five consecutive days of eight hours and 14 batches of 150g potatoes each. At the end of each day the fryers were cleared of any sediment and topped up with fresh oil (about 250g. The performance of the oils was assessed by 11 physical and chemical tests viz. colour, smoke-point, foam height, free fatty acid content, fatty acid composition, iodine value, peroxide value, anisidine value, totox, polymer content and polar compounds. The monounsaturated oils scored higher in most tests and were clearly superior but in some tests such as colour and FFA the polyunsaturated oils scored higher. Single, simple tests as practised in many commercial establishments can be misleading and multiple tests need careful interpretation. The shelf-life of the chips was not assessed as this food is normally eaten within a short time of preparation. But the tests indicate that fried products intended for longer storage and wide distribution, will have a better shelf-life if fried in monounsaturated oils.

  15. Active Heave-Compensated Coring On The New Jersey Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, D. L.; Pardey, M.; Austin, J. A.; Goff, J. A.; Alexander, C.; Christensen, B. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Fulthorpe, C. S.; Nordfjord, S.; Sommerfield, C.; Venherm, C.

    2003-12-01

    The continental shelves are of obvious scientific and strategic importance. However, the ability to cost-effectively collect core samples of continental shelf sediments has been limited by technical difficulties. Many sites of scientific interest are too shallow to be drilled by large drill ships, and they are too deep to be drilled economically from jack-up platforms. DOSECC has developed an Active Heave Compensated (AHC800) drilling system under sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research to overcome these obstacles by building a small active heave compensated drilling rig that can be used to collect high-quality core from selected vessels of opportunity. The AHC800 drilling rig is designed to collect continuous core to a total drill string length of 800 m. Water depths of 200 m and less are optimal; however, with some modification operation in deeper water is possible. The AHC800 senses vessel heave using a constantly tensioned low-stretch taut line attached to a seafloor weight. A linear position transducer is attached to this taut line and through the data acquisition system, the ship's distance from the bottom is communicated to the heave compensation computer running Labview RT operating system and object-based software language. This real-time control system is used to achieve a 10-ms control loop for both data gathering and output functions. The Labview RT system continuously controls two hydraulic cylinders that keep the heave carriage and the drill string at the same reference distance from the bottom. The AHC800 system was used on the R/V Knorr on the New Jersey continental shelf in water depths from 74 to 130 m from 25 Sep to 15 Oct 2002. The AHC800 system performed up to and beyond its design specifications. The rig was designed to compensate for 2.44 m of heave with an 8 s period. However, the Knorr's response was a 6 s period resulting in a significant increase in the required acceleration as well as a faster response time for the system as a whole

  16. Production development on the Norwegian continental shelf; KonKraft rapport 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    After almost 40 years of virtually uninterrupted growth, total hydrocarbon production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) has reached its highest level ever, with a daily output of 4-4.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day. It is expected to remain at this level for the next 7 years. After 2015 or thereabouts, however, total oil and gas production is forecast to start declining. Oil production is already falling. Gas output has been increasing, but this is not expected to continue offsetting the drop in liquid production beyond 2015 or thereabouts if no action is taken. Only half the combined oil and gas resources predicted by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) will have been produced in 2015. Remaining recoverable resources, including those expected to be found by further exploration, are currently estimated to be 38-77 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). This estimate could be 25-65 billion boe in 2015. Only 40 per cent of the total expected remaining hydrocarbon resources remains to be discovered today, which explains the wide range in the estimates. This huge potential must be managed well to avoid a sharp decline in production and to support a healthy level of long-term investment. The report on production development on the Norwegian continental shelf is published at a time when major changes are taking place both inside and outside the petroleum industry. Several factors make a review of what can be done to address the production decline particularly urgent. Although the current level of activity in the Norwegian petroleum sector is high, assessing the long-term perspectives for the industry is very important. In many cases, the period between the award of licences and the start of production can be 15 years or more. Decisions taken now may have important implications for levels of production and activity in the 2020s. (Author)

  17. Production development on the Norwegian continental shelf; KonKraft rapport 2; Produksjonsutviklingen paa norsk sokkel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    After almost 40 years of virtually uninterrupted growth, total hydrocarbon production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) has reached its highest level ever, with a daily output of 4-4.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day. It is expected to remain at this level for the next 7 years. After 2015 or thereabouts, however, total oil and gas production is forecast to start declining. Oil production is already falling. Gas output has been increasing, but this is not expected to continue offsetting the drop in liquid production beyond 2015 or thereabouts if no action is taken. Only half the combined oil and gas resources predicted by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) will have been produced in 2015. Remaining recoverable resources, including those expected to be found by further exploration, are currently estimated to be 38-77 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). This estimate could be 25-65 billion boe in 2015. Only 40 per cent of the total expected remaining hydrocarbon resources remains to be discovered today, which explains the wide range in the estimates. This huge potential must be managed well to avoid a sharp decline in production and to support a healthy level of long-term investment. The report on production development on the Norwegian continental shelf is published at a time when major changes are taking place both inside and outside the petroleum industry. Several factors make a review of what can be done to address the production decline particularly urgent. Although the current level of activity in the Norwegian petroleum sector is high, assessing the long-term perspectives for the industry is very important. In many cases, the period between the award of licences and the start of production can be 15 years or more. Decisions taken now may have important implications for levels of production and activity in the 2020s. (Author)

  18. Modeling the evolution of climate-sensitive Arctic subsea permafrost in regions of extensive gas expulsion at the West Yamal shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnov, Alexey; Mienert, Jurgen; Serov, Pavel

    2014-11-01

    Thawing subsea permafrost controls methane release from the Russian Arctic shelf having a considerable impact on the climate-sensitive Arctic environment. Expulsions of methane from shallow Russian Arctic shelf areas may continue to rise in response to intense degradation of relict subsea permafrost. Here we show modeling of the permafrost evolution from the Late Pleistocene to present time at the West Yamal shelf. Modeling results suggest a highly dynamic permafrost system that directly responds to even minor variations of lower and upper boundary conditions, e.g., geothermal heat flux from below and/or bottom water temperature changes from above permafrost. Scenarios of permafrost evolution show a potentially nearest landward modern extent of the permafrost at the West Yamal shelf limited by ~17 m isobaths, whereas its farthest seaward extent coincides with ~100 m isobaths. The model also predicts seaward tapering of relict permafrost with a maximal thickness of 275-390 m near the shoreline. Previous field observations detected extensive emissions of free gas into the water column at the transition zone between today's shallow water permafrost (20 m). The model adapts well to corresponding heat flux and ocean temperature data, providing crucial information about the modern permafrost conditions. It shows current locations of upper and lower permafrost boundaries and evidences for possible release of methane from the seabed to the hydrosphere in a warming Arctic.

  19. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William; Bodenhamer, Steven

    2013-09-30

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests at the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.

  20. Antioxidant activity of essential oil from Coriandrum Sativum L. in Italian salami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Marangoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Four formulations of Italian salami type were produced: without antioxidants; with essential oil of coriander essential oil (0.01%; with BHT (0.01%; and with Coriander essential oil and BHT (0.005 and 0.005%. The antioxidant activity of salamis was evaluated by the lipid oxidation, through the techniques of peroxide number and TBARS. The salami with the coriander essential oil exhibited reduction in lipid oxidation by increasing the shelf life of the product. The salami with the coriander essential oil and BHT showed no synergism between the antioxidants. The salami using BHT presented less antioxidant activity than that of the salami using coriander essential oil.

  1. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  2. Numerical Simulation of Oil Spill in Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sik Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of oil in an open ocean may cause serious damage to a marine environmental system. Thus, an accurate prediction of oil spill is very important to minimize coastal damage due to unexpected oil spill accident. The movement of oil may be represented with a numerical model that solves an advection-diffusion-reaction equation with a proper numerical scheme. In this study, the spilled oil dispersion model has been established in consideration of tide and tidal currents simultaneously. The velocity components in the advection-diffusion-reaction equation are obtained from the shallow-water equations. The accuracy of the model is verified by applying it to a simple but significant problem. The results produced by the model agree with corresponding analytical solutions and field-observed data. The model is then applied to predict the spreading of an oil spill in a real coastal environment.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF MORE-EFFICIENT GAS FLOODING APPLICABLE TO SHALLOW RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Rossen; Russell T. Johns; Gary A. Pope

    2003-08-21

    The objective of this research is to widen the applicability of gas flooding to shallow oil reservoirs by reducing the pressure required for miscibility using gas enrichment and increasing sweep efficiency with foam. Task 1 examines the potential for improved oil recovery with enriched gases. Subtask 1.1 examines the effect of dispersion processes on oil recovery and the extent of enrichment needed in the presence of dispersion. Subtask 1.2 develops a fast, efficient method to predict the extent of enrichment needed for crude oils at a given pressure. Task 2 develops improved foam processes to increase sweep efficiency in gas flooding. Subtask 2.1 comprises mechanistic experimental studies of foams with N2 gas. Subtask 2.2 conducts experiments with CO{sub 2} foam. Subtask 2.3 develops and applies a simulator for foam processes in field application.

  4. Cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp larvae: Interactions of tidal currents, larval vertical migrations and internal tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales, Maria M.; Browder, Joan A.; Mooers, C.N.K.; Robblee, M.B.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    Transport and behavior of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum larvae were investigated on the southwestern Florida (SWF) shelf of the Gulf of Mexico between the Dry Tortugas spawning grounds and Florida Bay nursery grounds. Stratified plankton samples and hydrographic data were collected at 2 h intervals at 3 stations located on a cross-shelf transect. At the Marquesas station, midway between Dry Tortugas and Florida Bay, internal tides were recognized by anomalously cool water, a shallow thermocline with strong density gradients, strong current shear, and a high concentration of pink shrimp larvae at the shallow thermocline. Low Richardson numbers occurred at the pycnocline depth, indicating vertical shear instability and possible turbulent transport from the lower to the upper layer where myses and postlarvae were concentrated. Analysis of vertically stratified plankton suggested that larvae perform vertical migrations and the specific behavior changes ontogenetically; protozoeae were found deeper than myses, and myses deeper than postlarvae. Relative concentrations of protozoea in the upper, middle and bottom layers were consistent with a diel vertical migration, whereas that of postlarvae and myses were consistent with the semidiurnal tides in phase with the flood tide. Postlarvae, the shallowest dwellers that migrate with a semidiurnal periodicity, experienced the largest net onshore flux and larval concentrations were highly correlated with the cross-shelf current. These results provide the first evidence of an onshore tidal transport (a type of selective tidal stream transport, STST), in decapod larvae migrating in continental shelf waters offshore, ca. 100 km from the coast and at a depth of 20 m, while approaching the coastal nursery grounds. Longer time series would be necessary to establish whether internal tides play any role in the larval onshore transport of this species and determine if the STST is the dominant onshore transport mechanism.

  5. Classification of regimes of internal solitary waves transformation over a shelf-slope topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Talipova, Tatiana; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2015-04-01

    The internal waves shoal and dissipate as they cross abrupt changes of the topography in the coastal ocean, estuaries and in the enclosed water bodies. They can form near the coast internal bores propagating into the shallows and re-suspend seabed pollutants that may have serious ecological consequences. Internal solitary waves (ISW) with trapped core can transport masses of water and marine organisms for some distance. The transport of cold, low-oxygen waters results in nutrient pumping. These facts require development of classification of regimes of the ISWs transformation over a shelf-slope topography to recognize 'hot spots' of wave energy dissipation on the continental shelf. A new classification of regimes of internal solitary wave interaction with the shelf-slope topography in the framework of two-layer fluid is proposed. We introduce a new three-dimensional diagram based on parameters α ,β , γ. Here α is the nondimensional wave amplitude normalized on the thermocline thickness α = ain/h1 (α > 0), β is the blocking parameter introduced in (Talipova et al., 2013) that is the ratio of the height of the bottom layer on the the shelf step h2+ to the incident wave amplitude ain, β = h2+/ain (β > -3), and γ is the parameter inverse to the slope inclination (γ > 0.01). Two mechanisms are important during wave shoaling: (i) wave breaking resulting in mixing and (ii) changing of the polarity of the initial wave of depression on the slope. Range of the parameters at which wave breaking occurs can be defined using the criteria, obtained empirically (Vlasenko and Hutter, 2002). In the three-dimensional diagram this criteria is represented by the surface f1(β,γ) = 0 that separates the region of parameters where breaking takes place from the region without breaking. The polarity change surface f2(α,β) = 0 is obtained from the condition of equality of the depth of upper layer h1 to the depth of the lower layer h2. In the two-layer stratification waves of

  6. Conditional short-crested waves in shallow water and with superimposed current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2002-01-01

    For bottom-supported offshore structures like oil drilling rigs and oil production platforms, a deterministic design wave approach is often applied using a regular non-linear Stokes´ wave. Thereby, the procedure accounts for non-linear effects in the wave loading but the randomness of the ocean...... wave, given the value of the wave crest at a specific point in time or space. In the present paper a derivation of the expected linear short-crested wave riding on a uniform current is given. The analysis is based on the conventional shallow water Airy wave theory and the direction of the main wind...

  7. Breakup of the Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Recent Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery analyzed at the University of Colorado's National Snow and Ice Data Center revealed that the northern section of the Larsen B ice shelf, a large floating ice mass on the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula, has shattered and separated from the continent. This particular image was taken on March 5, 2002. The shattered ice formed a plume of thousands of icebergs adrift in the Weddell Sea. A total of about 3,250 square kilometers of shelf area disintegrated in a 35-day period beginning on January 31, 2002. Over the last five years, the shelf has lost a total of 5,700 square kilometers and is now about 40 percent the size of its previous minimum stable extent. Ice shelves are thick plates of ice, fed by glaciers, that float on the ocean around much of Antarctica. The Larsen B shelf was about 220 meters thick. Based on studies of ice flow and sediment thickness beneath the ice shelf, scientists believe that it existed for at least 400 years prior to this event and likely existed since the end of the last major glaciation 12,000 years ago. For reference, the area lost in this most recent event dwarfs Rhode Island (2,717 square kilometers) in size. In terms of volume, the amount of ice released in this short time is 720 billion tons--enough ice for about 12 trillion 10-kilogram bags. This is the largest single event in a series of retreats by ice shelves along the peninsula over the last 30 years. The retreats are attributed to a strong climate warming in the region. The rate of warming is approximately 0.5 degrees Celsius per decade, and the trend has been present since at least the late 1940s. Overall in the peninsula, the extent of seven ice shelves has declined by a total of about 13,500 square kilometers since 1974. This value excludes areas that would be expected to calve under stable conditions. Ted Scambos, a researcher with the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at

  8. Off-the-Shelf Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier

    People with severe motor-skill disabilities are often unable to use standard input devices such as a mouse or a keyboard to control a computer and they are, therefore, in strong need for alternative input devices. Gaze tracking offers them the possibility to use the movements of their eyes...... of the challenges introduced by the use of low-cost and off-the-shelf components for gaze interaction. The main contributions are: - Development and performance evaluation of the ITU Gaze Tracker, an off-the-shelf gaze tracker that uses an inexpensive webcam or video camera to track the user’s eye. The software...... is readily available as open source, offering the possibility to try out gaze interaction for a low price and to analyze, improve and extend the software by modifying the source code. - A novel gaze estimation method based on homographic mappings between planes. No knowledge about the hardware configuration...

  9. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  10. Sand Ripple Dynamics on the Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sand Ripple Dynamics on the Inner Shelf Donald N. Slinn Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611...Florida,Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering,Gainesville,FL,32611-6590 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY...2002. 452: p. 1-24. Acrivos, A., Shear-Induced Particle Diffusion in Concentrated Suspensions of Noncolloidal Particles. Journal of Rheology , 1995

  11. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  12. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  13. China's Offshore Oil Development Expected to Take Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's offshore oil industry will face a high-speed development with the crude oil production expected to top 50 million tons by 2010, according to a study recently released by China's State Oceanic Administration titled "China's Oceanic Development Report." Meanwhile, the offshore natural gas production will also enter a rapid growth stage. In addition, a series of new exploration technologies suitable for China's offshore areas will be developed, including 3D seismic imaging technology,data imaging logging technology, underwater multiphase flow oil and gas development technology, marginal oil field development technology and shallow sea oil and gas development technology.

  14. Post-bomb coral Δ14C record from Iki Island, Japan: possible evidence of oceanographic conditions on the northern East China Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hirota, Masashi; Group, Paleo Labo AMS Dating; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yamano, Hiroya

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a sea-surface water Δ14C record of AD 1966-2000 (i.e., after the atmospheric nuclear-bomb testing period of the mid-1950s to early 1960s) was reconstructed from a coral sample collected from Iki Island, western Japan. The island is located in the Tsushima Strait where the Tsushima Current flows from the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf into the Sea of Japan, indicating a strong influence of the ECS shelf water on the island. It is widely accepted that the Tsushima Current originates in the area between the ECS shelf break and the Nansei Islands further offshore as a branch of the Kuroshio Current, although another possible origin is the Taiwan-Tsushima Current System. The Δ14C record from Iki Island shows the following evidence of a response to the atmospheric nuclear testing: (1) an increase from ~55‰ in 1966 to ~133‰ in 1970, (2) a plateau ranging between ~123 and ~142‰ during the 1970s to the late 1980s, and (3) a gradual decrease from ~115‰ in 1990 to ~83‰ in 2000. Comparison of this record with coral Δ14C records from the Nansei Islands (Okinawa Island, Ishigaki Island and Kikai Island), located ~160-280 km off the ECS shelf break and little influenced by the shelf water, suggests that the surface-water Δ14C around Iki Island was ~30-45‰ lower than that of the Nansei Islands from the mid-1960s to late 1970s, and that the Δ14C difference between Iki Island and the Nansei Islands decreased from the end of the 1970s to ~0-15‰ in the mid-1980s to 2000. The lower Δ14C around Iki Island can be explained as follows: (1) in contrast to the Nansei Islands area, the ECS shelf area is a vertically mixed, highly concentrated carbon reservoir significantly connected to subsurface and deeper waters outside the shelf area, strongly suggesting that the surface-water Δ14C of the shelf area (perhaps excepting very shallow innermost shelf areas) was significantly less sensitive to the atmospheric nuclear-bomb 14C spike than that of the

  15. Observation of two-dimensional Faraday waves in extremely shallow depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaochen; Yu, Zhengyue; Liao, Shijun

    2015-09-01

    A family of two-dimensional Faraday waves in extremely shallow depth (1 mm to 2 mm) of absolute ethanol are observed experimentally using a Hele-Shaw cell that vibrates vertically. The same phenomena are not observed by means of water, ethanol solution, and silicone oil. These Faraday waves are quite different from the traditional ones. These phenomena are helpful to deepen and enrich our understandings about Faraday waves, and besides provide a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics.

  16. aromaticus: Its Development and Shelf Life Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant rich products are valued due to their health benefits and appetizers are required in several pathological and geographical stress situations such as prolonged exposure to altitude. The paper deals with the development of a shelf stable RTE (ready-to-eat antioxidant rich herbal appetizer convenient to the consumer. Using ginger and Karpurvalli (Coleus aromaticus as two independent variables, a central composite design with 13 experimental combinations was obtained. These combinations were processed by concentration and dehydration into the appetizer RTE munches using preprocessed ingredients and evaluated for antioxidant activity, vitamin C, and sensory characteristics. The product optimized using Design Expert Statistical Software had the proximate composition of 11.4% fat, 2.3% protein, and 75.0% carbohydrates, supplying about 82.36 Kcals per munch of 20 g. The munches packed in metalized polyester pouches had a shelf life of 10 months at 28 ± 5°C as well as 37°C storage. The RTE appetizer based on Coleus aromaticus was developed with excellent sensory properties and shelf stability.

  17. Along-shelf current variability on the Catalan inner-shelf (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoll, Manel; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Espino, Manuel; Warner, John C.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the circulation over the inner shelf of the Catalan Sea using observations of currents obtained from three ADCPs within the inner-shelf (24 and 50 m depth) during March-April 2011. The along-shelf current fluctuations during that period are mainly controlled by the local wind stress on short time scales and by remote pressure gradients on synoptic time scales. Different forcing mechanisms are involved in the along-shelf momentum balance. During storm conditions, wind stress, sea level gradients and the non-linear terms dominate the balance. During weak wind conditions, the momentum balance is controlled by the pressure gradient, while during periods of moderate wind in the presence of considerable stratification, the balance is established between the Coriolis and wind stress terms. Vertical variations of velocity are affected by the strong observed density gradient. The increased vertical shear is accompanied by the development of stratified conditions due to local heating when the wind is not able to counteract (and destroy) stratification. The occasional influence of the Besòs river plume is observed in time scales of hours to days in a limited area in front of Barcelona. The area affected by the plume depends on the vertical extend of the fresher layer, the fast river discharge peak, and the relaxation of cross-shore velocities after northeast storm events. This contribution provides a first interpretation of the inner-shelf dynamics in the Catalan Sea.

  18. Biogeochemical responses of shallow coastal lagoons to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, A.; Newton, A.; Tett, P.; Fernandes, T.

    2009-04-01

    The importance of climate change and global warming in the near future is becoming consensual within the scientific community (e.g. Kerr et al., 2008; Lloret et al., 2008). The surface temperature and sea level have increased during the last few years in the northern hemisphere (IPCC, 2007). Predictions for future changes include an increase of surface temperature and sea level for Europe. Moreover, the global warming phenomenon will also change the hydrological cycle and increase precipitation in northern and central Europe (IPCC, 2007). Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons (Snoussi et al., 2008). Shallow coastal lagoons are some of the most vulnerable systems that will be impacted by these changes (Eisenreich, 2005). Environmental impacts on coastal lagoons include an increase of water turbidity and therefore light attenuation. If these effects are strong enough, the lighted bottoms of shallow lagoons may loose a significant part of the benthic algal community. These communities are highly productive and are essential to control nutrient dynamics of the system by uptaking large amounts of nutrients both from the water column and from the sediments. A decrease in benthic algal communities and photosynthetic oxygen production will also contribute to increasing the vulnerability of the lagoons to hypoxia and anoxia. The flux of nutrients such as phosphate from the sediments may increase dramatically, further disrupting the nutrient balance and condition and promoting cyanobacterial blooms. Microbial activity is temperature dependent, therefore, the increase of temperature will increase the concentrations of ammonium within sediments. The release of phosphate and silicate will also increase with temperature. Coastal lagoons are valuable ecosystems and may be severely impacted, both ecologically and economically, by global change. Shallow coastal lagoons should be considered as sentinel systems and should be

  19. Evidence of shallow hydrocarbons offshore northern Santa Cruz county, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, H.T.; Nagel, D.K.

    1982-08-01

    Analyses of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and hydrocarbon samples indicate that natural hydrocarbon seepage is occurring along the San Gregorio and Monterey Bay fault zones offshore northern Santa Cruz County, California. A variety of anomalous seismic reflection features such as a water-column anomalies, subsurface amplitude anomalies (''bright spots''), and seismic ''smears/wipeouts'' has been observed and mapped. More than 100 water-column anomalies (probably gas seeps) occur in the study area of approximately 270 mi/sup 2/ (700 km/sup 2/). Many of these seismic anomalies are associated with subsurface geologic structures, which suggest hydrocarbon migration from depth. Samples of natural gas collected from a shallow coastal water well contain 74 to 91% methane, 7 to 23% nitrogen, approx.2% carbon dioxide, and < 1% ethane. The methane appears to be thermogenic in origin, having delta/sup 13/C values of -29.51 to -32.55% PDB. Rock dredges from 2,300 ft (700 m) of water in Ascension Submarine Canyon have also recovered oil-saturated sandstones, further suggesting the seepage of hydrocarbons. The shallow occurrence of most of these hydrocarbons are interpreted to be the result of migration from depth along active faults within the San Gregorio and Monterey Bay faults zones.

  20. Periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition: ichnosedimentologic evidence from west-central Utah, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ichnosedimentologic evidence of periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition includes lower ichnodiversity, shallower bioturbation and burrowing depth (<4 cm ), rare domichnia, tiny Chondrites occupying shallower or shallowest tiering, widely distributed nodules of limonite pseudomorphs after pyrite, occurrence of trace fossils being closely associated with the storm event layers, and stratigraphic successions with orbital cyclostratigraphic architecture. It is suggested that lower atmospheric oxygen level during the Early Paleozoic, the Ordovician radiation, dramatic transgression and warmer temperatures would result in the periodic anoxia in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition. This episode began at the later Early Ordovician and lasted about 3.4 Ma on the basis of orbital cyclostratigraphy.

  1. Factors governing partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredrick, E.; Walstra, P.; Dewettinck, K.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of the instability mechanism partial coalescence in oil-in-water food emulsions show a discrepancy. On the one hand, it needs to be avoided in order to achieve an extended shelf life in food products like sauces, creams and several milk products. On the other hand, during the manufa

  2. Factors governing partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredrick, E.; Walstra, P.; Dewettinck, K.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of the instability mechanism partial coalescence in oil-in-water food emulsions show a discrepancy. On the one hand, it needs to be avoided in order to achieve an extended shelf life in food products like sauces, creams and several milk products. On the other hand, during the

  3. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 3. Detailed methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. This volume, Detailed Methodology Review, presents a discussion of the methods considered and used to estimate the impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development on coastal recreation in California. The purpose is to provide the Minerals Management Service with data and methods to improve their ability to analyze the socio-economic impacts of OCS development. Chapter II provides a review of previous attempts to evaluate the effects of OCS development and of oil spills on coastal recreation. The review also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and presents the rationale for the methodology selection made. Chapter III presents a detailed discussion of the methods actually used in the study. The volume contains the bibliography for the entire study.

  4. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf activities: LaFourche Parish, La. Final repot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happ, G.; Bennett, V.R.; Burke, W.W. III; Conner, W.H.; Craig, N.J.

    1976-08-01

    Three categories of activity studied in relation to Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development are mineral extraction, navigation and transportation. Environmental impacts of OCS activities are described in terms of hydrocarbon discharge, altered drainage patterns, eutrophication, subsidence, erosion, direct land loss, changes in salinity and turbidity, and disruption of flora and fauna. The major environmental impacts of OCS activities are OCS employment-derived population increases, OCS use of pipeline ditches and navigational canals, and potential oil spills. OCS-use of oil and gas pipeline canals, and dredging of landfill, along with muck disposal, spoil banks, are other sources of environmental impact upon Lafourche Parish. Direct land loss resulting in loss of primary production of marshes and swamps has a direct impact on the economy of the area. On the basis of preliminary data guidelines for OCS-related activities are suggested.

  5. Historical polycyclic aromatic and petrogenic hydrocarbon loading in Northern Central Gulf of Mexico shelf sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, E.B.; Ashton, B.M.; Miles, M.S. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Studies

    2005-10-01

    The distribution of selected hydrocarbons within ten dated sediment cores taken from the Mississippi River Bight off coastal Louisiana suggests a chronic contaminant loading from several sources including the river itself, oil and gas exploration in the central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shelf area, and natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps. Data were grouped as either total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), which were indicative of pyrogenic PAH's; or estimated total hopanes (indicative of petrogenic hydrocarbons). The total PAH concentrations and estimated total hopanes begin increasing above background levels (approximately 200 ng g{sup -1}) after the 1950s. The distribution of these hydrocarbons and hopanes within the dated sediment cores suggests that the Mississippi River is a regional source of pyrogenic PAH's, and that the hopanes are from natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps, oil and gas exploration in the GOM, or both. (author)

  6. ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN SHALLOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development of human societies. In Okrika Island ... abstraction of groundwater due to population increase in Port ... 298. Nwankwoala and Walter: Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Shallow Coastal Aquifers ..... and Tai-Eleme areas.

  7. On the Calculation of Shallow Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambartsumyan, S. A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper considers a sufficiently thin shallow shell of nonzero Gaussian curvature. It also presents a system of symmetrically constructed differential equations, constructed by the mixed method through the stress function and the displpacement function.

  8. Some problematic shallow-marine structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    The lowermost Devonian beds in Gotland (Sweden) were deposited in a very shallow marine environment, close to the coast. In these beds three structures were observed, whose mode of formation cannot be explained by the author.

  9. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Finlayson, David P.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Leifer, Ira; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fong, Grace; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    faulted Miocene bedrock. In the map area, the relatively low-relief, elevated coastal bajada narrows from about 2.5 km wide in the east to less than 500 m wide in the west. Several beaches line the actively utilized coastal zone, including Isla Vista County Park beach, Coal Oil Point Reserve, and Goleta Beach County Park. The beaches are subject to erosion each winter during storm-wave attack, and then they undergo gradual recovery or accretion during the more gentle wave climate of the late spring, summer, and fall months. The Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area lies in the central part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, which is characterized by littoral drift to the east-southeast. Longshore drift rates have been reported to range from about 160,000 to 800,000 tons/yr, averaging 400,000 tons/yr. Sediment supply to the western and central parts of the littoral cell, including the map area, is largely from relatively small transverse coastal watersheds. Within the map area, these coastal watersheds include (from east to west) Las Llagas Canyon, Gato Canyon, Las Varas Canyon, Dos Pueblos Canyon, Eagle Canyon, Tecolote Canyon, Winchester Canyon, Ellwood Canyon, Glen Annie Canyon, and San Jose Creek. The Santa Ynez and Santa Maria Rivers, the mouths of which are about 100 to 140 km northwest of the map area, are not significant sediment sources because Point Conception and Point Arguello provide obstacles to downcoast sediment transport and also because much of their sediment load is trapped in dams. The Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, the mouths of which are about 45 to 55 km southeast of the map area, are much larger sediment sources. Still farther east, eastward-moving sediment in the littoral cell is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported to the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The offshore part of the map area consists of a relatively flat and shallow continental shelf, which dips gently seaward (about 0.8° to 1.0°) so that water depths at the shelf

  10. Evolution of the siliciclastic-carbonate shelf system of the northern Kenyan coastal belt in response to Late Pleistocene-Holocene relative sea level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordi, Giovanni; Carbone, Federico

    2016-11-01

    A classification of depositional environments of the Lamu Archipelago is proposed based on a sedimentary facies analysis of unconsolidated and hard bottoms of the study area. The genesis of the siliciclastic-carbonate depositional pattern, typical of this East African region, is closely related both to the presence of a quartz-dominate Pleistocene riverine net-flooded during the Holocene sea level rise-and to the coeval development on the shallow shelf of a coral ecosystem producing vast skeletal sediments. The present facies pattern originates from the variable contribution in time and space of three sediment types: skeletal carbonate, quartz and palimpsest debris. The facies analysis allowed to distinguish 10 depositional facies and to differentiate them into three main types of substratum: soft bottom, reefal hard bottom and non-reefal hard bottom. These three types define both the loose facies typical of the channelized coastal belt and several facies of the shallow shelf. In the first, the amounts and textures of the stored sediment are strictly related to three major geomorphic types of substratum: sheltered mangal flat, shallow channel and deep channel. In the second and the third, a wide range of textures is related to coastal flats, benches, islets and emerging rocks. This modern facies pattern is implemented through a series of evolutionary phases: i-during the Last Interglacial Period, since isotope substage 5b, the shallow shelf-above -20 m-is permanently exposed for about 80 ka, with erosion, karstification and cuts of river channels through the shelf; ii-after the Last Glacial Maximum, when the sea level fell to about 110-115 m b.p.s.l. (below present sea level) at 18-17 ka BP, the sea level rose at -20 m for about 9 ka, flooding the shallow shelf area and gradually drowning the riverine net; iii-the maximum flooding of the coastal belt was reached at about 4.5 ka BP, when a gradual moisture reduction caused a decrease of siliciclastic sediment supply

  11. Ice shelf structure derived from dispersion curve analysis of ambient seismic noise, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, A.; Bromirski, P. D.; Gerstoft, P.; Stephen, R. A.; Anthony, R. E.; Aster, R. C.; Cai, C.; Nyblade, A.; Wiens, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    An L-configured, three-component short period seismic array was deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica during November 2014. Polarization analysis of ambient noise data from these stations shows linearly polarized waves for frequency bands between 0.2 and 2 Hz. A spectral peak at about 1.6 Hz is interpreted as the resonance frequency of the water column and is used to estimate the water layer thickness below the ice shelf. The frequency band from 4 to 18 Hz is dominated by Rayleigh and Love waves propagating from the north that, based on daily temporal variations, we conclude were generated by field camp activity. Frequency-slowness plots were calculated using beamforming. Resulting Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were inverted for the shear wave velocity profile within the firn and ice to ˜150 m depth. The derived density profile allows estimation of the pore close-off depth and the firn-air content thickness. Separate inversions of Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves give different shear wave velocity profiles within the firn. We attribute this difference to an effective anisotropy due to fine layering. The layered structure of firn, ice, water and the seafloor results in a characteristic dispersion curve below 7 Hz. Forward modelling the observed Rayleigh wave dispersion curves using representative firn, ice, water and sediment structures indicates that Rayleigh waves are observed when wavelengths are long enough to span the distance from the ice shelf surface to the seafloor. The forward modelling shows that analysis of seismic data from an ice shelf provides the possibility of resolving ice shelf thickness, water column thickness and the physical properties of the ice shelf and underlying seafloor using passive-source seismic data.

  12. Carbon exchange between a shelf sea and the ocean: The Hebrides Shelf, west of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stuart C.; Hartman, Susan E.; Kivimäe, Caroline; Salt, Lesley A.; Clargo, Nicola M.; Bozec, Yann; Daniels, Chris J.; Jones, Sam C.; Hemsley, Victoria S.; Munns, Lucie R.; Allen, Stephanie R.

    2016-07-01

    Global mass balance calculations indicate the majority of particulate organic carbon (POC) exported from shelf seas is transferred via downslope exchange processes. Here we demonstrate the downslope flux of POC from the Hebrides Shelf is approximately 3- to 5-fold larger per unit length/area than the global mean. To reach this conclusion, we quantified the offshore transport of particulate and dissolved carbon fractions via the "Ekman Drain," a strong downwelling feature of the NW European Shelf circulation, and subsequently compared these fluxes to simultaneous regional air-sea CO2 fluxes and onshore wind-driven Ekman fluxes to constrain the carbon dynamics of this shelf. Along the shelf break, we estimate a mean offshelf total carbon (dissolved + particulate) flux of 4.2 tonnes C m-1 d-1 compared to an onshelf flux of 4.5 tonnes C m-1 d-1. Organic carbon represented 3.3% of the onshelf carbon flux but 6.4% of the offshelf flux indicating net organic carbon export. Dissolved organic carbon represented 95% and POC 5% of the exported organic carbon pool. When scaled along the shelf break the total offshelf POC flux (0.007 Tg C d-1) was found to be 3 times larger than the regional air-sea CO2 ingassing flux (0.0021 Tg C d-1), an order of magnitude larger than the particulate inorganic carbon flux (0.0003 Tg C d-1) but far smaller than the DIC (2.03 Tg C d-1) or DOC (0.13 Tg C d-1) fluxes. Significant spatial heterogeneity in the Ekman drain transport confirms that offshelf carbon fluxes via this mechanism are also spatially heterogeneous.

  13. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  14. A review of shallow seismic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Steeples

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Shallow seismic methods have historical roots dating to the 1930s, when limited shallow refraction work was performed using the Intercept-Time (IT method. Because of high costs and the general lack of appropriate equipment - particularly data-processing equipment and software - the shallow-reflection and surface-wave techniques did not catch on as quickly as the refraction techniques. However, since 1980 substantial progress has been made in the development of all of the shallow seismic approaches. The seismic-reflection method has been used increasingly in applications at depths of less than 30 m, incorporating both the standard Common-Midpoint (CMP method of the petroleum industry and the Common-Offset (CO method, which was developed specifically as a low-cost technique for use in shallow surveying. In refraction studies, the Generalized Reciprocal Method (GRM largely has replaced the classical intercept-time method, and tomographic approaches are rapidly gaining popularity. The Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW has been developed by civil engineers, and surface-wave analysis involving many seismograph channels (MASW recently has shown promise. With any of the shallow seismic methods, however, selecting the appropriate seismic recording equipment, energy sources, and data-acquisition parameters, along with processing and interpretation strategies, often is critical to the success of a project.

  15. Icepod Plus Potential Field: An Integrated Approach For Understanding Ice Shelf Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frearson, N.

    2015-12-01

    Warm water flowing beneath the large floating ice shelves in Antarctica will play an important role in how fast sea level rises. The lack of detailed bathymetry beneath the large ice shelves and lack of understanding of their internal structure inherently limits our knowledge of how ice shelves will thin and collapse. Understanding the bathymetry beneath the remaining ice shelves is critical to understanding how ice shelves will thin in the future and how that will impact the flux of ice into the global ocean. The Ross Ice Shelf, the largest ice shelf remaining on our planet, buttresses the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The bathymetry beneath the Ross Ice Shelf is the least explored piece of ocean floor on our planet. The IcePod is a compact integrated ice imaging system developed for use on any C-130 aircraft developed with NSF support. The initial development program was targeted towards investigating glacial and ice-sheet processes. In this program, deep and shallow ice radars were developed. Optical instruments, including a scanning laser, Infra-red camera and visible wave camera were integrated into the pod. We have expanded the IcePod instrument suite to include the potential field measurements of magnetic and gravity anomalies with support from the Moore Foundation. During the development, a total field cesium sensor magnetometer and 3-axis fluxgate from previously funded work were also incorporated into the pod. Their behavioral response to being located close to high-frequency electronics, power supplies and metallic objects were studied. We describe in part some of that development process and the positive findings that resulted. The Icepod group is also actively pursuing the development, modification and incorporation of a new gravimeter into the suite of instruments available to the program and is investigating reduction in size of this that may eventually lead to incorporating the gravimeter into the pod itself. As part of this program we are also

  16. Tidal shelf sedimentation in the Neoproterozoic Chattisgarh succession of central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarbani Patranabis Deb

    2005-06-01

    The Neoproterozoic Kansapathar Sandstone of the Chattisgarh basin, a shallow marine shelf bar sequence, consists of mineralogically and texturally mature sandstones with subordinate siltstones, mudstones and conglomerates. The sediments were transported, reworked and deposited in subtidal environments by strong tidal currents of macrotidal regime as well as storms, and accumulated as discrete shoaling-upward features, separated from each other by muddy to low-energy sandy deposits. The sandbodies developed into shoaling up linear bars, often more than a kilometre in length, through accretion of thick cross-stratified units in transverse directions under the influence of ebb and flood tidal currents, as well as in longitudinal direction affected by southeasterly flowing along-shore currents. The aggrading upper surfaces of the bars experienced protracted reworking by strong oscillatory wave currents leading to extensive development of subaqueous 2D or 3D dunes mantled with lag pebble deposits at different points. With continued shoaling and progradation, thebars amalgamated into large sandstone sheets with the development of high energy beach depositsand coastal sand flats in the uppermost part of the sequence. The presence of rill marks, flat-topped ripples, wrinkle marks, desiccation cracks and adhesion warts point to intertidal conditions with intermittent exposure. The high energy sandstone bars overlie a thick mudstone-dominated shelf sequence across a sharp interface indicating rapid change in the sea-level, provenance, rate of sediment generation and sediment input, and circulation condition in the shelf. A quiet muddy shelf was replaced by a major sand-depositing environment with strong, open marine circulation. An interplay of tidal currents, oscillatory wave currents and storm currents generated a complex flow pattern that varied in time and space from bimodal-bipolar to strongly unimodal flows. Close parallelism of wave ripple crests, trend of linear bars

  17. Oil diffusivity through fat crystal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nicole L; Rousseau, Dérick

    2015-07-21

    Oil migration in chocolate and chocolate-based confections leads to undesirable visual and textural changes. Establishing ways to slow this unavoidable process would increase shelf life and reduce consumer rejection. Diffusion is most often credited as the main pathway by which oil migration occurs. Here, we use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to explore the diffusion coefficients of vegetable and mineral oil through fat crystal networks at different solid fat contents (SFC). Differences in compatibility between the fat and oil lead to unique primary crystal clusters, yet those variations do not affect diffusion at low SFCs. Trends deviate at higher SFCs, which we ascribe to the influence of the differing crystal cluster structures. We relate our results to the strong and weak-link rheological regimes of fat crystal networks. Finally, we connect the results to relationships developed for polymer gel systems.

  18. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m-2 d-1) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m-2 d-1) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m-2 d-1). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L-1) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters.

  19. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m(-2) d(-1)). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L(-1)) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters.

  20. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/teritiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Four activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization: (1) interpretation of outcrop analogues; (2) reservoir mapping, (3) reservoir engineering analysis of the five project fields; and (4) technology transfer.

  1. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-04-30

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}-)flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  2. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Final technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-01-15

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Five activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of carbonate mound buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) regional facies evaluation, (2) evaluation of outcrop analogues, (3) field-scale geologic analysis, (4) reservoir analysis, and (5) technology transfer.

  3. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest

    OpenAIRE

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules....

  4. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  5. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  6. Environmental geologic studies on the southeastern United States Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf, 1977-1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popenoe, Peter; Popenoe, Peter

    1981-01-01

    This report is a summary of the second year of marine environmental research activities by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on the southeaster U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin, in accordance with with Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) AA551-MU8-13 between the USGS and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The report covers studies whose fieldwork was conducted during the period from 1 October 1977 to 30 September 1978. The results of the first year of study are reported in Popenoe (1978a and b) and as U.S. Department of Commerce NTIS report PB 300-820. The purpose of these investigations is to provide basic geologic and oceanographic data to the BLM Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Marine Environmental Studies Program in support of management decisions which relate to possible development of oil and gas resources of the continental shelf. The objectives of the USGS-BLM geologic research program for fiscal year 1978 (FY-78) were 1) to determine the sedimentation rates and processes on the upper slope and inner Blake Plateau; 2) to determine the distribution, areal extent, and vertical characteristics of geological features supportive of biological communities; 3) to monitor the transport of bottom sediment across the OCS, evaluate its possible effect on pollutant transfer along the seabed and the potential of sediment as a pollutant sink, determine the implications of erosion/deposition on pipeline emplacement, and aid the interpretation of chemical, biological, and physical data; 4) to determine the concentration levels of chosen trace metals and silica in three chemically defined fractions of the suspended particulate matter (seston); 5) to study the shelf edge and slope near areas of oil and gas interest, and the northern portion of the Blake Plateau for evidence of slope instability and other geologic hazards, and 6) to determine the depth and rate of sediment mixing caused by large storms and/or by benthic organisms and where possible to estimate the rate of

  7. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  8. Shallow gas in Cenozoic sediments of the Southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampe, Anna F.; Lutz, Rüdiger; Franke, Dieter; Thöle, Hauke; Arfai, Jashar

    2013-04-01

    Shallow petroleum systems in the southern North Sea are known for several decades but they were not actively explored for a long time. In recent years these unconventional shallow petroleum systems are studied in greater detail and one shallow gas field (A-12) is in production in the Netherlands. Additionally, oil was encountered in Miocene sandstones in the southern Danish North Sea (Lille John well) just north of the Danish-German border. Seismic amplitude anomalies are an indication for hydrocarbons in sediments. Therefore we have mapped the occurrence of seismic amplitude anomalies in the German North Sea based on more than 25.000 km of 2D seismic data and around 4.000 km2 of 3D seismic data. Amplitude anomalies are ubiquitous phenomena in the study area. These anomalies are not only caused by hydrocarbons but also by changing lithologies e.g. peat or fluid migration. Therefore several classes of seismic anomalies, e.g. bright spots, chimneys, blanking areas and velocity pull-down were mapped. Examples for these classes were studied with AVO (amplitude variation with offset) analyses to verify the existence or non-existence of gas in the sediments. Shallow gas can be produced and transported through the dense pipeline grid of the southern and central North Sea or it could be burned offshore close to wind parks in small power plants and the electric energy then transported through the existing power connections of the wind parks. Thus enabling a continuous energy supply during calm wind periods. This study is carried out within the framework of the project "Geoscientific Potential of the German North Sea (GPDN)" in which the Cenozoic sedimentary system was mapped in great detail. A detailed model of delta evolution (Baltic river system) was developed which serves as a structural framework. The studied interval is time equivalent to the Utsira formation which is used offshore Norway for sequestration of CO2. These different possibilities of using or exploiting

  9. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  10. Bathymetric zonation of modern shelf benthic foraminifera in the Levantine Basin, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avnaim-Katav, Simona; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Milker, Yvonne; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva

    2015-05-01

    Siliciclastic carbonate-poor sediments are common in southern and central parts of the inner Israeli shelf, part of the Nile littoral cell and in deeper water along the entire coast, while carbonate rich sediments occur in northern Israel and in submerged rocky environments. The distribution of benthic foraminifera, common components of these environments, was studied in surface sediment samples in order to identify their bathymetric zonation using multivariate statistical analyses. The dead foraminiferal assemblages exhibit a clear bathymetric zonation directly related to substrate type. A distinct faunal change has been found at approximately 40 m water depth coinciding with the shift from the shallow-water sand belt, distributed parallel to the Israeli coast up to Haifa Bay, to a silty-clayey belt relatively rich with organic matter extending westward along the entire SE Mediterranean shelf. Ammonia parkinsoniana, Ammonia sp. 1, Buccella granulata, Nubeculina divaricata and Adelosina sp. 1 predominating the shallow-water depths are positively related to sand content and negatively related to water depth. Other species, such as Asterigerinata mamilla, Hanzawaia rhodiensis, Reussella spinulosa, Triloculina marioni and Valvulineria bradyana, occurring between 40 and 100 m, exhibit a positive relationship with total organic carbon content and water depth. Beyond the Nile littoral cell and partly in its distal part Amphistegina lessonii, Peneroplis pertusus, Pseudoschlumbergerina ovata, Pseudoschlumbergerina sp. 1 and Quinqueloculina ungeriana dominate the rocky and coarse sand substrate, exhibiting a more positive relationship with higher carbonate content values. The distinct bathymetric zonation established in this study may prove to be useful in fossil records for accurate paleo-bathymetry reconstruction of Quaternary records in this dynamic system prone to frequent sea level fluctuations.

  11. The Demand and Supply of Petroleum Equipment for China Onshore Oil and Gas Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian

    1995-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) is a state corporation responsible for all onshore oil and gas operations in the country including islands and the shallow sea areas with depth of less than 5 m.

  12. Modelling the shelf circulation off eastern Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Herzfeld, Mike; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    The marine waters across Tasmanian's eastern continental shelf are biologically productive and home to economically important fisheries and aquaculture industries. However, the marine climate there is poorly understood. We use a high-resolution (∼2 km in the horizontal), three-dimensional ocean model for eastern Tasmania (ETAS) to examine the simulated mean state and seasonal cycle of temperature, salinity and three-dimensional flow field, and the evaluation of daily model outputs against in situ and remote observations for the 1993-2014 period. We also use the model to examine the roles of river input and tidal forcing. The model is evaluated against remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and in-situ observations of sea level and subsurface temperature, salinity, and currents. The mean state demonstrates the influence of two well-known boundary currents (the East Australian Current, EAC, and the Zeehan Current, ZC) as well as the effects of local freshwater input from river runoff. The EAC is dominant in summer and the ZC in winter; the influence of the EAC also increases northwards and in the offshore direction. In addition, the model indicates the presence of a semi-permanent subsurface (50-100 m depth) northward flow trapped near the coast. Cool freshwater runoff from the Derwent and Huon Rivers directly impacts the temperature and salinity in their estuaries but has little influence further across the shelf. Tidal forcing impacts the mean state through tide-river interactions which flush Frederick Henry Bay and Norfolk Bay with freshwater. Tidal forcing also impacts the variability of temperature all along the coastline, most likely due to changes in the turbulent mixing near to the coast. The ETAS model output data are available as a high-resolution representation of the mean state, seasonal variations, and interannual variability of Tasmania's eastern continental shelf marine climate.

  13. Mass Balance and Structure of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Padman, L.; Chu, W.; Fricker, H. A.; Becker, M. K.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Millstein, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in ice shelf mass balance is key to the long term stability of the Antarctic ice sheet. Although the most extensive thinning occurs on the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica, recent studies indicate that many other ice shelves are also experiencing widespread thinning. Here, we focus on the Ross Ice Self. An 18-year record (1994-2012) of satellite radar altimetry shows elevation change 1 m/yr across the shelf. Significant variability in ice shelf height on interannual time scales makes it difficult to detect a long-term mass budget trend of this ice shelf. Variability of radar signal penetration into the ice-shelf snow and firn layers further complicates assessment of mass changes. In this work, we investigate the Ross Ice Shelf mass balance using aerogeophyical data from the ROSETTA-ICE IcePod and NASA's Operation IceBridge. ROSSETTA-ICE is an aerogeophysical program planned to survey the ice shelf at a 10 km spacing over the course of two field seasons-2015 and 2016. This NSF/Moore Foundation supported multi-University collaborative project is designed to provide an integrated view of the ice shelf and the underlying bathymetry using the IcePod system including its ice-penetrating radars, laser altimetry, gravity meters and magnetometers. We present preliminary results from our ongoing efforts of quantifying the mass balance of the ice shelf using IcePod ice penetrating radars and laser altimetry along with satellite data. We will use internal layers traced from ice penetrating radars to outline the structure of the ice shelf. Airborne laser altimetry measurements from this IcePod survey and IceBridge will be used to study the elevation change of the ice shelf. Spatial variations of thickness of the internal layers in the first few meters of the ice shelf, particularly near the grounding line, will indicate the impact of wind-blown snow coming from the continent onto the ice shelf. In order to infer conditions of melt and freeze-on at the ice

  14. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  15. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  16. Are mesophotic coral ecosystems distinct communities and can they serve as refugia for shallow reefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Robert F.; Hoot, Whitney C.; Reaka, Marjorie L.

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed an extensive dataset of over 9000 benthic and suprabenthic species found throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GoMx) to assess whether mesophotic coral ecosystems represent distinct assemblages and evaluate their potential to serve as refugia for shallow reef communities. We assessed community structure of the overall benthic community from 0 to 300 m via non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of species presence across depth bands. We used the Jaccard index of similarity to calculate the proportion of shared species between adjacent depth bands, measure species turnover with depth, and assess taxonomic overlap between shallow reefs versus progressively deeper depth bands. NMDS ordinations showed that the traditionally defined mesophotic range (30-150 m) as a whole is not a distinct community. In contrast, taxonomically distinct communities, determined by hierarchical clustering, were found at 0-70, 60-120, 110-200, and 190-300 m. Clustering highlighted an important separation in the benthic community at 60 m, which was especially important for actinopterygian fishes. Species turnover between adjacent depths decreased with depth for all taxa combined and individual taxa, with peaks at 60, 90-120, and 190-200 m. Fishes showed lower turnover from shallow to upper mesophotic depths (0-50 m) than all taxa combined, a substantial peak at 60 m, followed by a precipitous and continued decline in turnover thereafter. Taxonomic overlap between shallow (0-20 m) and progressively deeper zones declined steadily with depth in all taxa and individual taxa, suggesting that mid- and lower mesophotic habitats have less (but not inconsequential) potential to serve as refugia (60-150 m, 15-25% overlap with shallow habitats) than upper mesophotic zones (30-60 m, 30-45% overlap with shallow habitats) for all taxa combined. We conclude that the traditional mesophotic zone is home to three ecological communities in the GoMx, one that is confluent with shallow reefs, a distinct

  17. Shelf Circulation in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    phase speeds while narrow shelf regions, such as between Puerto Angel and Manzanillo , have weaker wind coupling coefficients. Frictional decay length...at Puerto Pefiasco and Guaymas respectively that are probably associated with localized gales. In later comparisons with moored observations, the...So.Califomia 250 - 0.01 -0.46 (summer) 35 -,4;~ a) SAN FELIPE 4’. PUERTO APE&ASCO WI ANGEL IS JoJ OE LA $Gota uya 30’ SAN/ 6W oai FRANCISQUIT04.1

  18. Clay mineral distribution on tropical shelf: an example from the western shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.

    Seventy-five sediment samples collected from the Kerala continental shelf and slope during the 17th and 71st Cruises of RV Gaveshani were analysed by X-ray diffraction for clay mineral content. The distribution of total clay ( 4 mu fraction...

  19. Carbon Dynamics on the Louisiana Continental Shelf and Cross-Shelf Feeding of Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale hypoxia regularly develops during the summer on the Louisiana continental shelf. Traditionally, hypoxia has been linked to the vast winter and spring nutrient inputs from the Mississippi River and its distributary, the Atchafalaya River. However, recent studies indica...

  20. Deciphering the lithological consequences of bottom trawling to sedimentary habitats on the shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Nelson, Robert K.; Baasch, Benjamin; Hanebuth, Till J. J.

    2016-07-01

    Widespread bottom trawling on the NW Iberian shelf causes chronic sediment and habitat disturbance. The few studies that have investigated vessel-modified sedimentary-structure and texture of the seabed have typically classified their results as being either impacted by trawling or not. This study indicates that bottom trawling can result in a sequence of vastly different effects to the lithology of seabed sediment, which have in turn different ecological consequences. Here, we combined very high-resolution spatial bottom-trawling data with sedimentological (grain size, porosity) and geochemical datasets (excess 210Pb, 3D petroleum fingerprinting) to study sediment disturbance, including sorting and mixing. Our results were used to develop five conceptual disturbance scenarios: minimal seabed effects, sediment overturning, complete sediment mixing, sediment grading and layering, and loss of sediment. Considering that bottom trawling is a widespread and growing global fishing technique, such impacts need to be considered in the management of habitat conservation as well as in the reconstruction of late Holocene climate history from shallow-water deposits, not just on the NW Iberian shelf, but also globally.