WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil seepage basin

  1. Final technology report for D-Area oil seepage basin bioventing optimization test, environmental restoration support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radway, J.C.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    One method proposed for the cleanup of the D-Area Oil Seepage Basin was in situ bioremediation (bioventing), involving the introduction of air and gaseous nutrients to stimulate contaminant degradation by naturally occurring microorganisms. To test the feasibility of this approach, a bioventing system was installed at the site for use in optimization testing by the Environmental Biotechnology Section of the Savannah River Technology Center. During the interim action, two horizontal wells for a bioventing remediation system were installed eight feet below average basin grade. Nine piezometers were also installed. In September of 1996, a generator, regenerative blower, gas cylinder station, and associated piping and nutrient injection equipment were installed at the site and testing was begun. After baseline characterization of microbial activity and contaminant degradation at the site was completed, four injection campaigns were carried out. These consisted of (1) air alone, (2) air plus triethylphosphate (TEP), (3) air plus nitrous oxide, and (4) air plus methane. This report describes results of these tests, together with conclusions and recommendations for further remediation of the site. Natural biodegradation rates are high. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and methane levels in soil gas indicate substantial levels of baseline microbial activity. Oxygen is used by indigenous microbes for biodegradation of organics via respiration and hence is depleted in the soil gas and water from areas with high contamination. Carbon dioxide is elevated in contaminated areas. High concentrations of methane, which is produced by microbes via fermentation once the oxygen has been depleted, are found at the most contaminated areas of this site. Groundwater measurements also indicated that substantial levels of natural contaminant biodegradation occurred prior to air injection

  2. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  3. New TNX Seepage Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    The New TNX Seepage Basin has been in operation at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) since 1980 and is located in the southeastern section of the TNX facility. The basin receives waste from pilot scale tests conducted at TNX in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the plant Separations area. The basin is scheduled for closure after the TNX Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) begins operation. The basin will be closed pursuant to all applicable state and federal regulations. A statistical analysis of monitoring data indicates elevated levels of sodium and zinc in the groundwater at this site. Closure options considered for the New TNX Seepage Basin include waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The two predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical contaminants are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options for the New TNX Seepage Basin. Cost estimates for each closure option at the basin have also been prepared. An evaluation of the environmental impacts from the New TNX Seepage Basin indicate that the relative risks to human health and ecosystems for the postulated closure options are low. The transport of six chemical and one radionuclide constituents through the environmental pathways from the basin were modeled. The maximum chemical carcinogenic risk and the noncarcinogenic risk for the groundwater pathways were from exposure to trichloromethane and nitrate

  4. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Savannah River Site (USDOE) D-Area Oil Seepage Basin (631-G), Aiken, SC, August 14, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The D-Area Oil Seepage Basin (D-Area OSB) Operable Unit (OU) is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). No Action is the selected remedy for shallow soil, surface water and sediment, because no constituents of concern (COCs) were identified for them in the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment (RFI/RI/BRA). The selected remedy for D-Area OSB groundwater is Alternative GW-2: Natural Attenuation/Groundwater Mixing Zone (GWMZ) with Institutional Controls

  5. Oil seepage detection technique as a tool to hydrocarbon prospecting in offshore Campos Basin-Brazil; Deteccao de exsudacoes de oleo como uma ferramenta de prospeccao de hidrocarbonetos na regiao maritima da Bacia de Campos - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Jose G.; Brito, Ademilson F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    With a proven capacity to identify oil slicks in offshore regions, RADARSAT-1 imagery can be useful for oil exploration purposes. The paper discusses the seepage detection method at Campos Basin, offshore Rio de Janeiro State, which is responsible for 80% of the Brazilian production of oil and gas. It is known that the horizontal migration of petroleum can occurs over tens or even hundreds of kilometers, where the source rock placed in more deep locations can be linked with shallow reservoirs or traps and even reach the ocean. It means that seepage can provide information for risking petroleum charge at basin scales, and cannot have a direct relation with the geographical position of the interpreted seeps and possible filled prospects. A good understanding of the geology, and hence the petroleum systems of a basin is the key to use seepage in exploration. The work is divided into three main steps. First step were select oil seepages interpreted at Campos Basin where is found several giant petroleum fields. Second, the geology of the study area and its structural and stratigraphic features were analyzed, in order to identify possible migration pathways related to faults generated by halokinesis. Another important aspect is the presence of 'windows' or ducts in the evaporates beds allowing the contact between the section that contains source rocks and the turbidities reservoirs, that contain the majority of the oil discovers. All these features were interpreted based on a regional dip seismic line (203 - 76), and a geologic cross section with E-W orientation, showing the structure of the Marlim Field. Finally, all the information was integrated in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and then analyzed in an interdisciplinary environment, with the intention to link possible routes of oil migration to post-evaporites reservoirs or to interpreted seeps. (author)

  6. Old TNX Seepage Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaway, J.K.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Smith, J.A.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Old TNX Seepage Basin at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  7. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, tritium, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), gross alpha, mercury, lead, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) at the Savannah River Plant. This report gives the results of the analyses of groundwater from the H-Area Seepage Basin

  8. Geochemical Modeling Of F Area Seepage Basin Composition And Variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millings, M.; Denham, M.; Looney, B.

    2012-01-01

    From the 1950s through 1989, the F Area Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS) received low level radioactive wastes resulting from processing nuclear materials. Discharges of process wastes to the F Area Seepage Basins followed by subsequent mixing processes within the basins and eventual infiltration into the subsurface resulted in contamination of the underlying vadose zone and downgradient groundwater. For simulating contaminant behavior and subsurface transport, a quantitative understanding of the interrelated discharge-mixing-infiltration system along with the resulting chemistry of fluids entering the subsurface is needed. An example of this need emerged as the F Area Seepage Basins was selected as a key case study demonstration site for the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) Program. This modeling evaluation explored the importance of the wide variability in bulk wastewater chemistry as it propagated through the basins. The results are intended to generally improve and refine the conceptualization of infiltration of chemical wastes from seepage basins receiving variable waste streams and to specifically support the ASCEM case study model for the F Area Seepage Basins. Specific goals of this work included: (1) develop a technically-based 'charge-balanced' nominal source term chemistry for water infiltrating into the subsurface during basin operations, (2) estimate the nature of short term and long term variability in infiltrating water to support scenario development for uncertainty quantification (i.e., UQ analysis), (3) identify key geochemical factors that control overall basin water chemistry and the projected variability/stability, and (4) link wastewater chemistry to the subsurface based on monitoring well data. Results from this study provide data and understanding that can be used in further modeling efforts of the F Area groundwater plume. As identified in this study, key geochemical factors affecting basin

  9. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), gross alpha, antimony, mercury, lead, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) at the Savannah River Site. This report presents and discusses the groundwater monitoring results in the H-Area for first quarter 1992

  10. F-Area Seepage Basins: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbo, P.; Killian, T.H.; Kolb, N.L.; Marine, I.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the F-Area Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1502.22). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to represent or be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory sufficient document. Technical assistance in the environmental analyses of waste site closures was provided by Clemson University; GeoTrans, Inc.; JBF Associates, Inc.; S.S. Papadopulos and Associates Inc.; Radiological Assessments Corporation; Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation; Science Applications International Corporation; C.B. Shedrow Environmental Consultants, Inc.; Exploration Software; and Verbatim Typing and Editing

  11. Operating history and environmental effects of seepage basins in chemical-separations areas of the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, J.W.; Horton, J.H.

    1973-01-01

    This report summarizes the history of operation and monitoring of the earthen seepage basins, presents results of a comprehensive study of radionuclide distribution in groundwater downgradient from the basins, and evaluates past performance and possible future alternatives for these basins

  12. H-Area Seepage Basin (H-HWMF): Fourth quarterly 1989, groundwater quality assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    During the fourth quarter of 1989 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF){sup 1} monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, and total radium.

  13. Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the Motor Shops Seepage Basin (716-A); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the Motor Shops Seepage Basin located at the Savannah River site in Aiken County, Aiken, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  14. R Reactor seepage basins soil moisture and resistivity field investigation using cone penetrometer technology, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this report is the summer 1999 investigation of the shallow groundwater system using cone penetrometer technology characterization methods to determine if the water table is perched beneath the R Reactor Seepage Basins (RRSBs)

  15. F-Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Monitoring Report: Volume 1, Third and fourth quarters 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Geologic cross sections indicate both the extent and depth of contamination of the primary contaminants in all of the hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the F-Area Seepage Basins have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  16. H-Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Monitoring Report: Volume 1, Third and Fourth quarters 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Isoconcentration/isocactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Geologic cross sections indicate both the extent and depth of contamination of the primary contaminants in all of the hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the H-Area Seepage Basins have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  17. H-Area Seepage Basins: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killian, T.H.; Kolb, N.L.; Corbo, P.

    1986-12-01

    The basins contain liquid low-level radioactivity and chemicals from the H-Area separations facility. Wells monitor the water table in the vicinity of the basins and also underlying aquifers to detect any vertical contaminant migration. A statistical analysis of monitoring data from this site indicates elevated levels of chloride, fluoride, manganese, mercury, nitrate, sodium, and total radium in the groundwater. The predominant pathways for human exposure to contaminants are surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were performed to determine the risks to humans via these pathways for the postulated closure options. Modeling calculations were also performed to determine ecological impacts. The environmental impact evaluation indicates that the relative human health risks for all closure options are low. Tritium, the dominant radionuclide, reached a maximum risk in Year -29 (from 1985) of 2.7E-04 HE/yr. Results of the atmospheric pathway modeling indicate that risks associated with the no action option are 2 or more orders of magnitude greater than the waste removal closure option for both radionuclides and chemicals. Ecological analysis indicates that the choice of closure option has no effect on the maximum surface water quality impacts. Implementation of no waste removal or waste removal closure options would not appreciably accelerate a decline in groundwater outcrop concentrations. 49 refs., 41 figs., 94 tabs

  18. Geochemistry of crude oils, seepage oils and source rocks from Belize and Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.I.; Holland, B.; Nytoft, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews the stratigraphy and the poorly documented petroleum geology of the Belize-Guatemala area in northern Central America. Guatemala is divided by the east-west trending La Libertad arch into the North and South Petén Basins. The arch is the westward continuation of the Maya...... generated from source rocks with similar thermal maturities. The crude oils were generated from marine carbonate source rocks and could be divided into three groups: Group 1 oils come from the North Petén Basin (Guatemala) and the western part of the Corozal Basin (Belize), and have a typical carbonate...

  19. Toxicity of Water Samples Collected in the Vicinity of F and H Seepage Basin 1990-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bowers, B.

    1996-09-01

    Water and contaminants from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins outcrop as shallow groundwater seeps down gradient from the basins. In 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994, and 1995, toxicity tests were performed on water collected from a number of these seeps, as well as from several locations in Fourmile Branch and several uncontaminated reference locations.

  20. Cadmium geochemistry in soil and groundwater at the F and H Seepage Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.; Johnson, W.H.

    1994-10-01

    For 33 years, low activity liquid wastes from the chemical separation areas at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site were disposed of in unlined seepage basins. This disposal practice was discontinued in 1988. At that time, the basins were drained and a low permeability cover system was placed over the basins. In the summer of 1993, soil and associated pore water samples of widely varying groundwater chemistries and contaminant concentrations were collected from the region downgradient of these basins using cone penetrometer technology. Analysis of these samples using inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry has allowed the investigation of cadmium partitioning between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at this site. The distribution of cadmium was examined with respect to the solution and soil chemistry and aqueous-phase chemical speciation modeling. Cadmium was detected in 35 of 53 aqueous samples from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB). Porewater concentration were found to vary from 0.48 to 23.5 μg 1 -1 , with a mean concentration of 3.1 ± 4.3 μg 1 -1 . Based on the 43 of 86 soil samples for which cadmium was detected, the concentration in the soil ranged 88.5 to 1090 μg kg -1 . The mean soil concentration was 214 ± 168 μg kg -1 . This concentration is not significantly different from the concentrations observed in two upgradient soil samples collected from the same lithologic unit. The concentrations from these samples were 293 ± 214 and 431 ± 293 μg kg -1

  1. Radionuclide inventories for the F- and H-area seepage basin groundwater plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, Robert A [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kubilius, Walter P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    Within the General Separations Areas (GSA) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), significant inventories of radionuclides exist within two major groundwater contamination plumes that are emanating from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. These radionuclides are moving slowly with groundwater migration, albeit more slowly due to interaction with the soil and aquifer matrix material. The purpose of this investigation is to quantify the activity of radionuclides associated with the pore water component of the groundwater plumes. The scope of this effort included evaluation of all groundwater sample analyses obtained from the wells that have been established by the Environmental Compliance & Area Completion Projects (EC&ACP) Department at SRS to monitor groundwater contamination emanating from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. Using this data, generalized groundwater plume maps for the radionuclides that occur in elevated concentrations (Am-241, Cm-243/244, Cs-137, I-129, Ni-63, Ra-226/228, Sr-90, Tc-99, U-233/234, U-235 and U-238) were generated and utilized to calculate both the volume of contaminated groundwater and the representative concentration of each radionuclide associated with different plume concentration zones.

  2. Uranium geochemistry in soil and groundwater at the F and H seepage basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.; Johnson, W.H.

    1994-09-01

    For 33 years, low activity liquid wastes from the chemical separation areas at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site were disposed of in unlined seepage basins. Soil and associated pore water samples of widely varying groundwater chemistries and contaminant concentrations were collected from the region downgradient of these basins using cone penetrometer technology. Analysis of samples using inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry has allowed the investigation of uranium partitioning between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at this site. The distribution of uranium was examined with respect to the solution and soil chemistry (e.g., pH, redox potential, cation and contaminant concentration) and aqueous-phase chemical speciation modeling. The uranium soil source term at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB) is much smaller than has been used in previous modeling efforts. This should result in a much shorter remediation time and a greater effectiveness of a pump-and-treat design than previously predicted. Distribution coefficients at the (FHSB) were found to vary between 1.2 to 34,000 1 kg -1 for uranium. Differences in sorption of these elements can be explained primarily by changes in aqueous pH and the associated change in soil surface charge. Sorption models were fit directly to sorption isotherms from field samples. All models underestimated the fraction of uranium bound at low aqueous uranium concentrations. Linear models overestimated bound uranium at locations where the aqueous concentration was greater than 500 ppb. Mechanistic models provided a much better estimate of the bound uranium concentrations, especially at high aqueous concentrations. Since a large fraction of the uranium at the site is associated with the low-pH portion of the plume, consideration should be given to pumping water from the lowest pH portions of the plume in the F-Area

  3. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the F-Area Seepage Basins (FASB) was monitored in compliance with Module 3, Section C, of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989, effective November 2, 1992. The monitoring well network is composed of 87 FSB wells screened in the three hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the FASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning in the first quarter of 1993, the standard for comparison became the SCDHEC Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS) specified in the approved F-Area Seepage Basins Part B permit. Currently and historically, gross alpha, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the FASB during the second half of 1993, notably aluminum, iodine-129, and zinc. The elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B 2 and Aquifer Zone 2B 1 wells. However, several Aquifer Unit 2A wells also contain elevated levels of constituents. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the FASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  4. Surface Water Transport for the F/H Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kuo-Fu.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSBs) tritium releases to the tritium concentration in the Savannah River are presented in this report. WASP5 was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the FHSBs. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at US Highway 301. The tritium concentrations in Fourmile Branch and the Savannah River were calculated for tritium releases from FHSBs. The calculated tritium concentrations above normal environmental background in the Savannah River, resulting from FHSBs releases, drop from 1.25 pCi/ml (<10% of EPA Drinking Water Guide) in 1995 to 0.0056 pCi/ml in 2045

  5. Percolation testing at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHood, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The design of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basin contaminated groundwater remediation system requires information from multiple well pump tests (Reference 1). Soil percolation rates are needed in order to support the multiple well pump test planning. The objective of this task was to determine characteristic percolation rates for soils in four select areas where infiltration galleries are proposed. These infiltration galleries will be temporary installations built on the ground surface and used to disposes of water from the multiple well pump tests. A procedure defining the specific work process for collecting percolation rate data is contained in Appendix 3. Results from these percolation tests will be used in the design of infiltration galleries for the disposal of well water extracted during the multiple well pump tests

  6. F/H seepage basin groundwater influent, effluent, precipitated sludge characterization task technical plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siler, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A treatability study to support the development of a remediation system which would reduce the contaminant levels in groundwater removed from the aquifers in the vicinity of the F/H seepage basins and southwest of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River facility was conducted. Proposed changes in the remediation system require an additional study to determine whether precipitated sludge generated from the proposed remediation system will be hazardous as defined by RCRA. Several contaminants, such as lead and mercury, are above the groundwater protection standards. The presence of radionuclides and other contaminants in the sludge does not present a problem provided that the sludge can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. The study has been developed in such a manner as to cover the possible range of treatment options that may be used

  7. Levels of radioactivity in fish from streams near F-Area and H-Area seepage basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Loehle, C.

    1991-05-01

    This report summarizes results of recent analyses of radioactivity in fish from SRS streams near the F-Area and H-Area seepage basins. Fish were collected from headwater areas of Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, from just below the H-Area seepage basin, and from three sites downstream in Four Mile Creek. These fish were analyzed for gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity using standard EPA methods. Levels of gross alpha and nonvolatile beta radioactivity in fish were found to be comparable to levels previously reported for these sites. Gross alpha activity was not found to be influenced by Separations Area discharges. Nonvolatile beta activity was higher in the nonvolatile beta activity was attributable to Cs-137 and K-40. The dosimetric consequences of consuming fish from this area were found to be well below DOE guidelines

  8. Vegetation concentration and inventory of metals and radionuclides in the old F-area seepage basin, 904-49G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Measured concentrations of radionuclides and toxic metals are used to calculate the total inventory of in the vegetation growing on the Old F-Area Seepage Basin. Air concentrations and inhalation doses from exposure to smoke from burning the vegetation are calculated to evaluate the effect of open air burning. Radionuclide inventory is one order of magnitude (10 x) less than those necessary to produce a 1 mrem dose. Air concentrations of toxic metals are less than one third the permissible occupational dose

  9. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with the September 30, 1992, modification of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning first quarter 1993, the HASB`s Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS), established in Appendix 3D-A of the cited permit, became the standard for comparison. Historically as well as currently, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constitutents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the HASB (notably aluminum, iodine-129, strontium-90, technetium-99, and zinc) during the second half of 1993. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} and in the upper portion of Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1}. However, constituents exceeding standards also occurred in several wells screened in the lower portion of Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1} and Aquifer Unit 2A. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps include in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1993. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the HASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  10. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with the September 30, 1992, modification of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning first quarter 1993, the HASB's Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS), established in Appendix 3D-A of the cited permit, became the standard for comparison. Historically as well as currently, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constitutents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the HASB (notably aluminum, iodine-129, strontium-90, technetium-99, and zinc) during the second half of 1993. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B 2 and in the upper portion of Aquifer Zone 2B 1 . However, constituents exceeding standards also occurred in several wells screened in the lower portion of Aquifer Zone 2B 1 and Aquifer Unit 2A. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps include in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1993. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the HASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  11. Interpretation of Oil Seepage of Source Rock Based Magnetic Survey in Cipari Cilacap District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmaji Anom Raharjo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic survey had been conducted in Village of Cipari, District of Cipari, Region of  Cilacap to interpret to the location of the oil seepage source rock. Boundary of the research area is 108.75675°E – 108.77611°E and 7.42319°S – 7.43761°S. The observed total magnetic data is corrected and reducted to obtain the local magnetic anomaly data. The local magnetic anomaly data is applied to model the subsurface bodies anomalies based on the Mag2DC for Windows software. With be supported the geological information, the some bodies anomalies are interpreted as the basaltic igneous rock (c = 0.0051, the alternately of sandstone and claystone and insert of marl from Halang Formation (c = 0.0014, the breccia from Kumbang Formation (c = 0.0035, the alternately of sandstones and claystone with insert of marl and breccia from Halang Formation (c = 0.0036, the claystone from Tapak Formation (c = 0.0015, the alternately of sandstones and claystone with insert of marl and compacted breccia from Halang Formation (c = 0.0030, and the alternately of sandstone and claystone from   Halang Formation (c = 0.0020. The plantonic foraminifer fossils as resources of oil seepage are estimated in the sedimentaries rocks, where the oil flows from those rocks into the         reservoir (source rock. Based on the interpretation results, the source rock is above basaltic igneous rock with the approximate position is 108.76164°W and 7.43089°S; and the depth is 132.09 meters below the average topographic.

  12. Removal Site Evaluation Report to the C-Reactor Seepage Basins (904-066, -067 and -068G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Removal Site Evaluation Reports are prepared in accordance with Section 300.410 of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and Section X of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). The C-Reactor Seepage Basins (904-066G,-067G,-068G) are listed in Appendix C, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Units List, of the FFA. The purpose of this investigation is to report information concerning conditions at this unit sufficient to assess the threat (if any) posed to human health and the environment and to determine the need for additional CERCLA action. The scope of the investigation included a review of past survey and investigation data, the files, and a visit to the unit.Through this investigation unacceptable conditions of radioactive contaminant uptake in on-site vegetation were identified. This may have resulted in probable contaminant migration and become introduced into the local ecological food chain. As a result, the SRS will initiate a time critical removal action in accordance with Section 300.415 of the NCP and FFA Section XIV to remove, treat (if required), and dispose of contaminated vegetation from the C-Reactor Seepage Basins. Erosion in the affected areas will be managed by an approved erosion control plan. further remediation of this unit will be conducted in accordance with the FFA.

  13. Removal Site Evaluation Report to the C-Reactor Seepage Basins (904-066, -067 and -068G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1997-07-01

    Removal Site Evaluation Reports are prepared in accordance with Section 300.410 of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and Section X of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). The C-Reactor Seepage Basins (904-066G,-067G,-068G) are listed in Appendix C, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Units List, of the FFA. The purpose of this investigation is to report information concerning conditions at this unit sufficient to assess the threat (if any) posed to human health and the environment and to determine the need for additional CERCLA action. The scope of the investigation included a review of past survey and investigation data, the files, and a visit to the unit.Through this investigation unacceptable conditions of radioactive contaminant uptake in on-site vegetation were identified. This may have resulted in probable contaminant migration and become introduced into the local ecological food chain. As a result, the SRS will initiate a time critical removal action in accordance with Section 300.415 of the NCP and FFA Section XIV to remove, treat (if required), and dispose of contaminated vegetation from the C-Reactor Seepage Basins. Erosion in the affected areas will be managed by an approved erosion control plan. further remediation of this unit will be conducted in accordance with the FFA

  14. Effects of outcropping groundwater from the F- and H-Area seepage basins on the distribution of fish in Four Mile Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Storey, C.

    1990-10-01

    Four Mile Creek was electrofished during June 26--July 2, 1990 to assess the impacts of outcropping ground water form the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins on fish abundance and distribution. Number of fish species and total catch were comparable at sample stations upstream from and downstream from the outcropping zone in Four Mile Creek. Species number and composition downstream from the outcropping zone in Four Mile Creek were similar to species number and composition in unimpacted portions of Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Meyers Branch. These findings indicate that seepage basin outcropping was not adversely affecting the Four Mile Creek fish community. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  15. PAHs distribution in sediments associated with gas hydrate and oil seepage from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Sun, Hongwen; Chang, Ying; Song, Zhiguang; Qin, Xuebo

    2011-12-01

    Six sediment samples collected from the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed. Total concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 52 to 403 ng g(-1) dry weight. The lowest PAH concentration without 5-6 rings PAHs appeared in S-1 sample associated with gas hydrate or gas venting. Moreover, S-1 sample had the lowest organic carbon content with 0.85% and highest reduced sulfur level with 1.21% relative to other samples. And, analysis of the sources of PAHs in S-1 sample indicated that both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources, converserly, while S-8, S-10 and S-11 sample suggested petrogenic origin. The distribution of dibenzothiophene, fluorine and dibenzofuran and the maturity parameters of triaromatic steranes suggested that organic matters in S-1 sample were different from that in S-8, S-10 and S-11 sample. This study suggested that organic geochemical data could help in distinguish the characteristic of sediment associated with gas hydrate or with oil seepage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gas seepage from Tokamachi mud volcanoes, onshore Niigata Basin (Japan): Origin, post-genetic alterations and CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etiope, G., E-mail: etiope@ingv.it [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, via V. Murata 605, 00143 Roma (Italy); Nakada, R. [Dept. of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University (Japan); Tanaka, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University (Japan); Yoshida, N. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Tokamachi gas shows signals of subsurface hydrocarbon biodegradation. {yields} Hydrocarbon molecular fractionation depends on gas flux. {yields} Substantial gas emission from mud volcanoes is from invisible diffuse seepage. {yields} Global mud volcano methane emission is likely higher than 10 Mt a{sup -1}. - Abstract: Methane and CO{sub 2} emissions from the two most active mud volcanoes in central Japan, Murono and Kamou (Tokamachi City, Niigata Basin), were measured in from both craters or vents (macro-seepage) and invisible exhalation from the soil (mini- and microseepage). Molecular and isotopic compositions of the released gases were also determined. Gas is thermogenic ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4} from -32.9 per mille to -36.2 per mille), likely associated with oil, and enrichments of {sup 13}C in CO{sub 2} ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub CO2} up to +28.3 per mille) and propane ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub C3H8} up to -8.6 per mille) suggest subsurface petroleum biodegradation. Gas source and post-genetic alteration processes did not change from 2004 to 2010. Methane flux ranged within the orders of magnitude of 10{sup 1}-10{sup 4} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} in macro-seeps, and up to 446 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} from diffuse seepage. Positive CH{sub 4} fluxes from dry soil were widespread throughout the investigated areas. Total CH{sub 4} emission from Murono and Kamou were estimated to be at least 20 and 3.7 ton a{sup -1}, respectively, of which more than half was from invisible seepage surrounding the mud volcano vents. At the macro-seeps, CO{sub 2} fluxes were directly proportional to CH{sub 4} fluxes, and the volumetric ratios between CH{sub 4} flux and CO{sub 2} flux were similar to the compositional CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} volume ratio. Macro-seep flux data, in addition to those of other 13 mud volcanoes, supported the hypothesis that molecular fractionation (increase of the 'Bernard ratio' C{sub 1}/(C{sub 2} + C{sub 3})) is inversely

  17. Projected tritium releases from F ampersand H Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facilities to Fourmile Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; Haselow, J.S.; Lewis, C.M.; Harris, M.K.; Wyatt, D.E.; Hetrick, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    A large percentage of the radioactivity released to the environment by operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is due to tritium. Because of the relative importance of the releases of tritium from SRS facilities through the groundwater to the environment, periodic evaluation and documentation of the facility operational status, proposed corrective actions, and projected changes/reductions in tritium releases are justified. Past, current, and projected tritium releases from the F and H Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF) to Fourmile Branch are described. Each section provides a brief operational history along with the current status and proposed corrective actions. A conceptual model and quantitative estimates of tritium release from the facilities into the groundwater and the environment are developed. Tritium releases from the F and H Area Seepage Basins are declining and will be further reduced by the implementation of a groundwater corrective action required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Tritium releases from the SWDF have been relatively stable over the past 10 years. It is anticipated that SWDF tritium releases to Fourmile Branch will remain approximately at current levels for at least 10--20 years. Specific characterization activities are recommended to allow an improved projection of tritium flux and to assist in developing plans for plume mitigation. SRS and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control are developing groundwater corrective action plans for the SWDF. Portions of the SWDF are also regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Reduction of tritium flux is one of the factors considered in the development of the RCRA/CERCLA groundwater corrective action. The final section of the document presents the sum of the projected tritium fluxes from these facilities to Fourmile Branch

  18. Assessment of tree toxicity near the F- and H-Area seepage basins of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C. (ed.) (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); Richardson, C.J. (ed.); Greenwood, K.P.; Hane, M.E.; Lander, A.J. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Areas of tree mortality, originating in 1979, have been documented downslope of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. The basins were used as discharge areas for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive waste. Preliminary studies indicated that there are three possible causes of stress: altered hydrology; hazardous chemicals; and nonhazardous chemicals. It was originally hypothesized that the most likely hydrological stressors to Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora were flooding where water levels cover the lenticels for more than 26 percent of the growing season, resulting in low oxygen availability, and toxins produced under anaerobic conditions. In fact, trees began to show stress only flowing a drought year (1977) rather than a wet year. Dry conditions could exacerbate stress by concentrating contaminants, particularly salt. Study of the soil and water chemical parameters in the impacted sites indicated that salt concentrations in the affected areas have produced abnormally high exchangeable sodium percentages. Furthermore, significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals were found in each impacted site, although no one metal was consistently elevated. Evaluation of the concentrations of various chemicals toxic to Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora revealed that aluminum was probably the most toxic in the F-Area. Manganese, cadmium, and zinc had concentrations great enough to be considered possible causes of tree mortality in the F-Area. Aluminum was the most likely cause of mortality in the H-Area. Controlled experiments testing metal and salt concentration effects on Nyssa sylvatica would be needed to specifically assign cause and effect mortality relationships.

  19. Assessment of tree toxicity near the F- and H-Area seepage basins of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehle, C.; Richardson, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    Areas of tree mortality, originating in 1979, have been documented downslope of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. The basins were used as discharge areas for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive waste. Preliminary studies indicated that there are three possible causes of stress: altered hydrology; hazardous chemicals; and nonhazardous chemicals. It was originally hypothesized that the most likely hydrological stressors to Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora were flooding where water levels cover the lenticels for more than 26 percent of the growing season, resulting in low oxygen availability, and toxins produced under anaerobic conditions. In fact, trees began to show stress only flowing a drought year (1977) rather than a wet year. Dry conditions could exacerbate stress by concentrating contaminants, particularly salt. Study of the soil and water chemical parameters in the impacted sites indicated that salt concentrations in the affected areas have produced abnormally high exchangeable sodium percentages. Furthermore, significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals were found in each impacted site, although no one metal was consistently elevated. Evaluation of the concentrations of various chemicals toxic to Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora revealed that aluminum was probably the most toxic in the F-Area. Manganese, cadmium, and zinc had concentrations great enough to be considered possible causes of tree mortality in the F-Area. Aluminum was the most likely cause of mortality in the H-Area. Controlled experiments testing metal and salt concentration effects on Nyssa sylvatica would be needed to specifically assign cause and effect mortality relationships

  20. Chemical Properties of Pore Water and Sediment at Three Wetland Sites Near the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.

    2001-05-15

    In 1980, vegetative stress and arboreal mortality in wetland plant communities down-gradient from the F- and H-Area seepage basins were detected using aerial imagery. By 1988, approximately six acres in H-Area and four acres in F-Area had been adversely impacted. Today, wetland plant communities have become well established at the H-Area tree-kill zone.

  1. Oil seepage polarimetric contrast analysis in a time series of TerraSAR-X images

    OpenAIRE

    de Macedo, Carina Regina; Nunziata, Ferdinando; Velotto, Domenico; Migliaccio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Natural hydrocarbon seeps are broadly distributed across the Gulf of Mexico. Such seeps emit oil and gas into the water column, increasing the phytoplankton biomass and impacting regionally the productivity, carbon and nutrient cycling [1]. A fraction of this oil reaches to the sea surface and can be detected by SAR data. Although the ability of SAR data to detect oil features present in ocean's surface is wide exploited in the literature, it is known that the detection of those features is a...

  2. Oil geochemistry of the Putumayo basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramon, J.C

    1996-01-01

    Bio marker fingerprinting of 2O crude oils from Putumayo Basin, Colombia, shows a vertical segregation of oil families. The Lower Cretaceous reservoirs (Caballos and 'U' Villeta sands) contain oils that come from a mixture of marine and terrestrial organic matter, deposited in a marginal, 'oxic' marine setting. The Upper Cretaceous ('T' and N ' sands) and Tertiary reservoirs contain oils with marine algal input deposited in a reducing, carbonate-rich environment. Lithology, environmental conditions and organic matter type of source rocks as predicted from oil bio marker differences correspond to organic composition of two Cretaceous source rocks. Vertical heterogeneity in the oils, even those from single wells, suggests the presence of two isolated petroleum systems. Hydrocarbons from Lower Cretaceous source rocks charged Lower Cretaceous reservoirs whereas oils from Upper Cretaceous source rocks charged Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs. Oil migration from mature source rocks into multiple reservoirs has been stratigraphically up dip along the regional sandstone units and vertical migration through faults has been limited. Bio marker maturity parameters indicate that all oils were generated from early thermal maturity oil window

  3. Final Report for the Demonstration of Plasma In-situ Vitrification at the 904-65G K-Reactor Seepage Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blundy, R.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Zionkowki, P.G.

    1997-12-22

    The In-situ Vitrification (ISV) process potentially offers the most stable waste-form for containment of radiologically contaminated soils while minimizing personnel contamination. This is a problem that is extensive, and at the same time unique, to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Complex. An earlier ISV process utilized joule heating of the soil to generate the subsurface molten glass product. However previous test work has indicated that the Savannah river Site soils (SRS) may not be entirely suitable for vitrification by joule heating due to their highly refractory nature. The concept of utilizing a plasma torch for soil remediation by in-situ vitrification has recently been developed, and laboratory test work on a 100 kW unit has indicated a potentially successful application with SRS soils. The Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) conducted the first field scale demonstration of this process at the (904-65G) K-Reactor Seepage Basin in October 1996 with the intention of determining the applicability and economics of the process for remediation of a SRS radioactive seepage basin. The demonstration was successful in completing three vitrification runs, including two consecutive runs that fused together adjacent columns of glass to form a continuous monolith. This report describes the demonstration, documents the engineering data that was obtained, summarizes the process economics and makes recommendations for future development of the process and equipment.

  4. Final Report for the Demonstration of Plasma In-situ Vitrification at the 904-65G K-Reactor Seepage Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundy, R.F.; Zionkowki, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    The In-situ Vitrification (ISV) process potentially offers the most stable waste-form for containment of radiologically contaminated soils while minimizing personnel contamination. This is a problem that is extensive, and at the same time unique, to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Complex. An earlier ISV process utilized joule heating of the soil to generate the subsurface molten glass product. However previous test work has indicated that the Savannah river Site soils (SRS) may not be entirely suitable for vitrification by joule heating due to their highly refractory nature. The concept of utilizing a plasma torch for soil remediation by in-situ vitrification has recently been developed, and laboratory test work on a 100 kW unit has indicated a potentially successful application with SRS soils. The Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) conducted the first field scale demonstration of this process at the (904-65G) K-Reactor Seepage Basin in October 1996 with the intention of determining the applicability and economics of the process for remediation of a SRS radioactive seepage basin. The demonstration was successful in completing three vitrification runs, including two consecutive runs that fused together adjacent columns of glass to form a continuous monolith. This report describes the demonstration, documents the engineering data that was obtained, summarizes the process economics and makes recommendations for future development of the process and equipment

  5. Microseepage of methane to the atmosphere from the Dawanqi oil-gas field, Tarim Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junhong; Xu, Yue; Wang, Guojian; Etiope, Giuseppe; Han, Wei; Yao, Zhitong; Huang, Jingang

    2017-04-01

    The microseepage of natural gas from subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs is a widespread process in petroleum basins. On a global scale, microseepage represents an important natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4). To date, microseepage CH4 flux data have been obtained from 20 petroleum systems in North America, Europe, and Asia. While the seasonal variations of gas flux due to soil methanotrophic activity are known, the role of geological factors in controlling gas fluxes has been poorly investigated. Here we present new microseepage data from the Dawanqi oil-gas field located within the Tarim Basin (China), a petroleum system characterized by intense faulting and shallow (petroleum fields with active tectonics. Our results confirm that dry soil over petroleum fields can be a net source of atmospheric CH4 and its flux is primarily controlled by faulting, and reservoir depth and pressure. These factors shall be considered in global bottom-up seepage emission estimates.

  6. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States today is Canada’s largest customer for oil and refined oil products. However, this relationship may be strained due to physical, economic and political influences. Pipeline capacity is approaching its limits; Canadian oil is selling at substantive discounts to world market prices; and U.S. demand for crude oil and finished products (such as gasoline, has begun to flatten significantly relative to historical rates. Lower demand, combined with increased shale oil production, means U.S. demand for Canadian oil is expected to continue to decline. Under these circumstances, gaining access to new markets such as those in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming more and more important for the Canadian economy. However, expanding pipeline capacity to the Pacific via the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline and the planned Trans Mountain pipeline expansion is only feasible when there is sufficient demand and processing capacity to support Canadian crude blends. Canadian heavy oil requires more refining and produces less valuable end products than other lighter and sweeter blends. Canadian producers must compete with lighter, sweeter oils from the Middle East, and elsewhere, for a place in the Pacific Basin refineries built to handle heavy crude blends. Canadian oil sands producers are currently expanding production capacity. Once complete, the Northern Gateway pipeline and the Trans Mountain expansion are expected to deliver an additional 500,000 to 1.1 million barrels a day to tankers on the Pacific coast. Through this survey of the capacity of Pacific Basin refineries, including existing and proposed facilities, we have concluded that there is sufficient technical capacity in the Pacific Basin to refine the additional Canadian volume; however, there may be some modifications required to certain refineries to allow them to process Western Canadian crude. Any additional capacity for Canadian oil would require refinery modifications or

  7. Hydrocarbon Degradation in Caspian Sea Sediment Cores Subjected to Simulated Petroleum Seepage in a Newly Designed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Treude

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbial community response to petroleum seepage was investigated in a whole round sediment core (16 cm length collected nearby natural hydrocarbon seepage structures in the Caspian Sea, using a newly developed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through (SOFT system. Distinct redox zones established and migrated vertically in the core during the 190 days-long simulated petroleum seepage. Methanogenic petroleum degradation was indicated by an increase in methane concentration from 8 μM in an untreated core compared to 2300 μM in the lower sulfate-free zone of the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective decrease in the δ13C signal of methane from -33.7 to -49.5‰. The involvement of methanogens in petroleum degradation was further confirmed by methane production in enrichment cultures from SOFT sediment after the addition of hexadecane, methylnapthalene, toluene, and ethylbenzene. Petroleum degradation coupled to sulfate reduction was indicated by the increase of integrated sulfate reduction rates from 2.8 SO42-m-2 day-1 in untreated cores to 5.7 mmol SO42-m-2 day-1 in the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective accumulation of sulfide from 30 to 447 μM. Volatile hydrocarbons (C2–C6 n-alkanes passed through the methanogenic zone mostly unchanged and were depleted within the sulfate-reducing zone. The amount of heavier n-alkanes (C10–C38 decreased step-wise toward the top of the sediment core and a preferential degradation of shorter (C30 was seen during the seepage. This study illustrates, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time the development of methanogenic petroleum degradation and the succession of benthic microbial processes during petroleum passage in a whole round sediment core.

  8. Hydrocarbon Degradation in Caspian Sea Sediment Cores Subjected to Simulated Petroleum Seepage in a Newly Designed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sonakshi; Wefers, Peggy; Schmidt, Mark; Knittel, Katrin; Krüger, Martin; Stagars, Marion H; Treude, Tina

    2017-01-01

    The microbial community response to petroleum seepage was investigated in a whole round sediment core (16 cm length) collected nearby natural hydrocarbon seepage structures in the Caspian Sea, using a newly developed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through (SOFT) system. Distinct redox zones established and migrated vertically in the core during the 190 days-long simulated petroleum seepage. Methanogenic petroleum degradation was indicated by an increase in methane concentration from 8 μM in an untreated core compared to 2300 μM in the lower sulfate-free zone of the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective decrease in the δ 13 C signal of methane from -33.7 to -49.5‰. The involvement of methanogens in petroleum degradation was further confirmed by methane production in enrichment cultures from SOFT sediment after the addition of hexadecane, methylnapthalene, toluene, and ethylbenzene. Petroleum degradation coupled to sulfate reduction was indicated by the increase of integrated sulfate reduction rates from 2.8 SO 4 2- m -2 day -1 in untreated cores to 5.7 mmol SO 4 2- m -2 day -1 in the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective accumulation of sulfide from 30 to 447 μM. Volatile hydrocarbons (C2-C6 n -alkanes) passed through the methanogenic zone mostly unchanged and were depleted within the sulfate-reducing zone. The amount of heavier n -alkanes (C10-C38) decreased step-wise toward the top of the sediment core and a preferential degradation of shorter (C30) was seen during the seepage. This study illustrates, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time the development of methanogenic petroleum degradation and the succession of benthic microbial processes during petroleum passage in a whole round sediment core.

  9. Dynamic behaviour of natural oil droplets through the water column in deep-water environment: the case of the Lower Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatiault, R.; Dhont, D.; Loncke, L.; Durrieu De Madron, X.; Dubucq, D.; Channelliere, C.; Bourrin, F.

    2017-12-01

    Key words: Hydrocarbon seepage, Oil Slick, Lower Congo Basin, Underwater deflection, Deep-water Pockmark, Ascent speedThe space-borne imagery provides a significant means to locate active oil seeps and to estimate the expelled volume in the marine environment. The analysis of numerous overlapping satellite images revealed an abundant volume of 4400 m3 of oil naturally reaching the sea surface per year, expelled from more than a hundred seep sites through the Lower Congo Basin. The active seepage area is located in the distal compressional province of the basin where salt napes and squeezed diapirs. The integration of current data was used to link accurately sea surface manifestations of natural oil leakages with active fluid flow features on the seafloor. A mooring with ADCPs (Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers) distributed throughout the water column provided an efficient calibration tool to evaluate the horizontal deflection of oil droplets. Using a Eulerian propagation model that considered a range of probable ascent speeds, we estimated the oil migration pathways through the water column using two different approaches. The first approach consisted in simulating the backwards trajectory of oil droplets using sea surface oil slicks locations and concomitant current measurements. The second method analyzed the spatial spreading of the surfacing signatures of natural oil slicks based on 21 years of satellite observations. The location of the surfacing points of oil droplets at the sea surface is restricted to a circle of 2.5 km radius around the release point at the seafloor. Both approaches provided a range of ascent speeds of oil droplets between 3 to 8 cm.s-1. The low deflection values validate the near-vertical links between the average surfacing area of oil slicks at the sea surface with specific seafloor disturbances (i.e. pockmarks or mounds) known to expel fluids.

  10. Oil and gas in the Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Toit, S.R.; Kurdy, S. [Alconsult International, Calgary, AB (Canada); Asfaw, S.H.; Gessesse, A.A. [Petroleum Operations Dept., Ministry of Mines and Energy, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    1997-09-01

    To date, many of the 47 exploration and development wells drilled in the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia have exhibited natural oil seeps and oil and gas shows. The Calub gas field and the Hilala oil field occurs in the central part of the 350,000 sq. km. basin. The various units within the basin consist of continental sediments, a regional organic-rich interval close to the Permo-Triassic boundary, organic-rich marine sediments and carbonates. The Ogaden Basin is dissected by several faults that are related to the Ethiopian Rift and may form a component of traps in the Calub-Hilala area.

  11. Effect of pore structure on the seepage characteristics of tight sandstone reservoirs: A case study of Upper Jurassic Penglaizhen Fm reservoirs in the western Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Sima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tight sandstone reservoirs are characterized by complex pore structures and strong heterogeneity, and their seepage characteristics are much different from those of conventional sandstone reservoirs. In this paper, the tight sandstone reservoirs of Upper Jurassic Penglaizhen Fm in western Sichuan Basin were analyzed in terms of their pore structures by using the data about physical property, mercury injection and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR tests. Then, the seepage characteristics and the gas–water two-phase migration mechanisms and distribution of tight sandstone reservoirs with different types of pore structures in the process of hydrocarbon accumulation and development were simulated by combining the relative permeability experiment with the visual microscopic displacement model. It is shown that crotch-like viscous fingering occurs in the process of gas front advancing in reservoirs with different pore structures. The better the pore structure is, the lower the irreducible water saturation is; the higher the gas-phase relative permeability of irreducible water is, the more easily the gas reservoir can be developed. At the late stage of development, the residual gas is sealed in reservoirs in the forms of bypass, cutoff and dead end. In various reservoirs, the interference between gas and water is stronger, so gas and water tends to be produced simultaneously. The sealed gas may reduce the production rate of gas wells significantly, and the existence of water phase may reduce the gas permeability greatly; consequently, the water-bearing low-permeability tight sandstone gas reservoirs reveal serious water production, highly-difficult development and low-recovery percentage at the late stage, which have adverse impacts on the effective production and development of gas wells.

  12. Hydrothermal dolomitization of the Bekhme formation (Upper Cretaceous), Zagros Basin, Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Record of oil migration and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurbeg, Howri; Morad, Daniel; Othman, Rushdy; Morad, Sadoon; Ceriani, Andrea; Al-Aasm, Ihsan; Kolo, Kamal; Spirov, Pavel; Proust, Jean Noel; Preat, Alain; Koyi, Hemin

    2016-07-01

    The common presence of oil seepages in dolostones is widespread in Cretaceous carbonate successions of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. This integrated field, petrographic, chemical, stable C, O and Sr isotopes, and fluid inclusion study aims to link dolomitization to the origin and geochemical evolution of fluids and oil migration in the Upper Cretaceous Bekhme carbonates. Flux of hot basinal (hydrothermal) brines, which is suggested to have occurred during the Zagros Orogeny, resulted in dolomitization and cementation of vugs and fractures by coarse-crystalline saddle dolomite, equant calcite and anhydrite. The saddle dolomite and host dolostones have similar stable isotopic composition and formed prior to oil migration from hot (81-115 °C) basinal NaCl-MgCl2-H2O brines with salinities of 18-22 wt.% NaCl eq. The equant calcite cement, which surrounds and hence postdates saddle dolomite, has precipitated during oil migration from cooler (60-110 °C) NaCl-CaCl2-H2O brines (14-18 wt.% NaCl eq). The yellowish fluorescence color of oil inclusions in the equant calcite indicates that the oil had API gravity of 15-25° composition, which is lighter than present-day oil in the reservoirs (API of 10-17°). This difference in oil composition is attributed to oil degradation by the flux of meteoric water, which is evidenced by the low δ13C values (- 8.5‰ to - 3.9‰ VPDB) as well as by nil salinity and low temperature in fluid inclusions of late columnar calcite cement. This study demonstrates that linking fluid flux history and related diagenesis to the tectonic evolution of the basin provides important clues to the timing of oil migration, degradation and reservoir evolution.

  13. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM is developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA (see upcoming REV 02 of CRWMS M and O 2000 [153314]), which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model (see BSC 2003 [161530]). The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross Drift to obtain the permeability structure for the seepage model; (3) to use inverse modeling to calibrate the SCM and to estimate seepage-relevant, model-related parameters on the drift scale; (4) to estimate the epistemic uncertainty of the derived parameters, based on the goodness-of-fit to the observed data and the sensitivity of calculated seepage with respect to the parameters of interest; (5) to characterize the aleatory uncertainty

  14. The Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea: chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taviani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The geo-biological exploration of a pockmark field located at ca. 800 m below sea level in the Gela basin (Strait of Sicily, Central Mediterranean provided a relatively diverse chemosymbiotic community and methane-imprinted carbonates. To date, this is the first occurrence of such a type of specialised deep-water cold-seep communities recorded from this key region, before documented in the Mediterranean as rather disjunct findings in its eastern and westernmost basins. The thiotrophic chemosymbiotic organisms recovered from this area include empty tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., loose and articulated shells of lucinids (Lucinoma kazani, Myrtea amorpha, vesicomyids (Isorropodon perplexum, and gastropods (Taranis moerchii. A callianassid decapod (Calliax sp. was consistently found alive in large numbers in the pockmark mud. Their post-mortem calcified parts mixed with molluscs and subordinately miliolid foraminifers form a distinct type of skeletal assemblage. Carbonate concretions display δ13C values as low as −40‰ PDB suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the seeping fluids. Since none of the truly chemosymbiotic organisms was found alive, although their skeletal parts appear at times very fresh, some specimens have been AMS-14C dated to shed light on the historical evolution of this site. Lamellibrachiav and Lucinoma are two of the most significant chemosymbiotic taxa reported from various Mediterranean cold seep sites (Alboran Sea and Eastern basin. Specimens from station MEDCOR78 (pockmark #1, Lat. 36°46´10.18" N, Long. 14°01´31.59" E, 815 m below sea level provided ages of 11736 ± 636 yr cal BP (Lamellibrachia sp., and 9609.5 ± 153.5 yr cal BP (L. kazani. One shell of M. amorpha in core MEDCOR81 (pockmark #6, Lat 36°45´38.89" N, Long 14°00´07.58" E, 822 m below sea level provided a sub-modern age of 484 ± 54 yr cal BP. These ages document that fluid seepage at this pockmark site has been

  15. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Finsterle

    2004-09-02

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM was developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). This Model Report has been revised in response to a comprehensive, regulatory-focused evaluation performed by the Regulatory Integration Team [''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Evaluation of Analysis and Model Reports Supporting the TSPA-LA'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169653])]. The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross-Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA [''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167652])], which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model [see ''Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170338])]. The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross-Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross

  16. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM was developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). This Model Report has been revised in response to a comprehensive, regulatory-focused evaluation performed by the Regulatory Integration Team [''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Evaluation of Analysis and Model Reports Supporting the TSPA-LA'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169653])]. The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross-Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA [''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167652])], which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model [see ''Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170338])]. The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross-Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross-Drift to obtain the permeability structure for the seepage model

  17. Triassic oils and related hydrocarbon kitchens in the Adriatic basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, L.; Demaison, G. (AGIP, Milan (Italy))

    1988-08-01

    Without exception, the oils from both the Abruzzi basin and Albanian foredeep are of lower Liassic to Upper Triassic origin. This is demonstrated by biological marker-based correlations between the oils and stratigraphically controlled, carbonate-rich source rocks. The biomarker studies also provided proof to conclude that many of the oils possess low API gravities and high sulfur contents because they are immature rather than biodegraded. Following the geochemical investigations, a computer-aided, basinwise maturation simulation of the hydrocarbon kitchens was carried out, with backstripping in geologic time. The simulations, performed with the Tissot-Espitalie kinetic model, used basin-specific kerogen activation energies obtained by the optimum method. These simulated values were calibrated with observed values in deep wells. Two characteristics diverge from normal petroleum basin situations (e.g., the North Sea basin): sulfur-rich kerogens in the source rocks, featuring relatively low activation energy distributions, and low geothermal gradients in the subsurface. The geographic outlines of simulated Triassic-lower Liassic hydrocarbon kitchens closely coincide with the zones of petroleum occurrence and production in the Adriatic basin. Furthermore, API gravities of the oils are broadly predicted by the mathematical simulations. This methodology has once again shown its ability to rationally high-grade the petroleum-rich sectors of sedimentary basin while identifying those areas where chances of success are extremely low regardless of the presence of structures.

  18. PRELIMINARY DATA REPORT: HUMATE INJECTION AS AN ENHANCED ATTENUATION METHOD AT THE F-AREA SEEPAGE BASINS, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millings, M.

    2013-09-16

    A field test of a humate technology for uranium and I-129 remediation was conducted at the F-Area Field Research Site as part of the Attenuation-Based Remedies for the Subsurface Applied Field Research Initiative (ABRS AFRI) funded by the DOE Office of Soil and Groundwater Remediation. Previous studies have shown that humic acid sorbed to sediments strongly binds uranium at mildly acidic pH and potentially binds iodine-129 (I-129). Use of humate could be applicable for contaminant stabilization at a wide variety of DOE sites however pilot field-scale tests and optimization of this technology are required to move this technical approach from basic science to actual field deployment and regulatory acceptance. The groundwater plume at the F-Area Field Research Site contains a large number of contaminants, the most important from a risk perspective being strontium-90 (Sr-90), uranium isotopes, I-129, tritium, and nitrate. Groundwater remains acidic, with pH as low as 3.2 near the basins and increasing to the background pH of approximately 5at the plume fringes. The field test was conducted in monitoring well FOB 16D, which historically has shown low pH and elevated concentrations of Sr-90, uranium, I-129 and tritium. The field test included three months of baseline monitoring followed by injection of a potassium humate solution and approximately four and half months of post monitoring. Samples were collected and analyzed for numerous constituents but the focus was on attenuation of uranium, Sr-90, and I-129. This report provides background information, methodology, and preliminary field results for a humate field test. Results from the field monitoring show that most of the excess humate (i.e., humate that did not sorb to the sediments) has flushed through the surrounding formation. Furthermore, the data indicate that the test was successful in loading a band of sediment surrounding the injection point to a point where pH could return to near normal during the study

  19. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-01-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport

  20. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  1. Seepage into PEP tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, H.

    1990-01-01

    The current rate of seepage into the PEP tunnel in the vicinity of IR-10 is very low compared to previous years. Adequate means of handling this low flow are in place. It is not clear whether the reduction in the flow is temporary, perhaps due to three consecutive dry years, or permanent due to drainage of a perched water table. During PEP construction a large amount of effort was expended in attempts to seal the tunnel, with no immediate effect. The efforts to ''manage'' the water flow are deemed to be successful. By covering equipment to protect it from dripping water and channeling seepage into the drainage gutters, the seepage has been reduced to a tolerable nuisance. There is no sure, safe procedure for sealing a leaky shotcreted tunnel

  2. ABSTRACTION OF DRIFT SEEPAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS MandO 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing

  3. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

  4. SEEPAGE/INVERT INTERACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.S. Domski

    2000-01-01

    As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a), a conceptual model for water entering the drift and reacting with the invert materials is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction, and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This AMR also seeks to: (1) Develop a logical conceptual model for physical/chemical interactions between seepage and the invert materials; (2) screen potential processes and reactions that may occur between seepage and invert to evaluate the potential consequences of the interactions; and (3) outline how seepage/invert processes may be quantified. This document provides the conceptual framework for screening out insignificant processes and for identifying and evaluating those seepage/invert interactions that have the potential to be important to subsequent PAO analyses including the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. Additionally, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to certain near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts. The seepage/invert interactions will not directly affect any principal factors

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2017-05-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 4.2 billion barrels of oil and 3.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  6. Oils and source rocks from the Anadarko Basin: Final report, March 1, 1985-March 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, R. P. [School of Geology and Geophysics, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The research project investigated various geochemical aspects of oils, suspected source rocks, and tar sands collected from the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. The information has been used, in general, to investigate possible sources for the oils in the basin, to study mechanisms of oil generation and migration, and characterization of depositional environments. The major thrust of the recent work involved characterization of potential source formations in the Basin in addition to the Woodford shale. The formations evaluated included the Morrow, Springer, Viola, Arbuckle, Oil Creek, and Sylvan shales. A good distribution of these samples was obtained from throughout the basin and were evaluated in terms of source potential and thermal maturity based on geochemical characteristics. The data were incorporated into a basin modelling program aimed at predicting the quantities of oil that could, potentially, have been generated from each formation. The study of crude oils was extended from our earlier work to cover a much wider area of the basin to determine the distribution of genetically-related oils, and whether or not they were derived from single or multiple sources, as well as attempting to correlate them with their suspected source formations. Recent studies in our laboratory also demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight components(C{sub 4}-C{sub 80}) in oils and waxes from drill pipes of various wells in the region. Results from such a study will have possible ramifications for enhanced oil recovery and reservoir engineering studies.

  7. L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkala, R.O.; Price, V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  8. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  9. Natural gas seepage from a dug well in Gemerska Panica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milicka, J.; Pereszlenyi, M.; Masaryk, P.

    1997-01-01

    On July 20 1993, a seepage of inflammable natural gas was reported by workers of the Slovak Gas Industry enterprise (SPP) to the Oil and Gas Research and Prospecting (VVNP). Therefore, the locality was visited with the aim to evaluate the current situation, to take rock and water samples for for chemical analysis, to survey the vicinity of Gemerska Panica and to prepare a preliminary oil-geological evaluation of the area, with a suggestion of further prospecting. At the same time, the seepage of inflammable natural gas was reported to the District Mining Office in Spisska Nova Ves. (authors)

  10. Potential evaluation of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery of tight oil reservoir in the Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Linsong; Cao, Renyi; Zhang, Miaoyi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Carbon -di-oxide (CO2) is regarded as the most important greenhouse gas to accelerate climate change and ocean acidification. The Chinese government is seeking methods to reduce anthropogenic CO2 gas emission. CO2 capture and geological storage is one of the main methods. In addition, injecting CO2 is also an effective method to replenish formation energy in developing tight oil reservoirs. However, exiting methods to estimate CO2 storage capacity are all based on the material balance theory. This was absolutely correct for normal reservoirs. However, as natural fractures widely exist in tight oil reservoirs and majority of them are vertical ones, tight oil reservoirs are not close. Therefore, material balance theory is not adaptive. In the present study, a new method to calculate CO2 storage capacity is presented. The CO2 effective storage capacity, in this new method, consisted of free CO2, CO2 dissolved in oil and CO2 dissolved in water. Case studies of tight oil reservoir from Ordos Basin was conducted and it was found that due to far lower viscosity of CO2 and larger solubility in oil, CO2 could flow in tight oil reservoirs more easily. As a result, injecting CO2 in tight oil reservoirs could obviously enhance sweep efficiency by 24.5% and oil recovery efficiency by 7.5%. CO2 effective storage capacity of Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Longdong area was 1.88 x 10(7) t. The Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Ordos Basin was estimated to be 6.38 x 10(11) t. As tight oil reservoirs were widely distributed in Songliao Basin, Sichuan Basin and so on, geological storage capacity of CO2 in China is potential.

  11. SEEPAGE/BACKFILL INTERACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariner, P.

    2000-01-01

    As directed by written development plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a), a sub-model of seepage/backfill interactions is developed and presented in this document to support the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Physical and Chemical Environment Model. The purpose of this analysis is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and the Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift. In this analysis, a conceptual model is developed to provide PAO a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). The development plan calls for a sub-model that evaluates the effect on water chemistry of chemical reactions between water that enters the drift and backfill materials in the drift. The development plan specifically requests an evaluation of the following important chemical reaction processes: dissolution-precipitation, aqueous complexation, and oxidation-reduction. The development plan also requests the evaluation of the effects of varying seepage and drainage fluxes, varying temperature, and varying evaporation and condensation fluxes. Many of these effects are evaluated in a separate Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Precipitates Salts Analysis AMR'' (CRWMS M andO 2000), so the results of that AMR are referenced throughout this AMR

  12. SEEPAGE/BACKFILL INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Mariner

    2000-04-14

    As directed by written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a sub-model of seepage/backfill interactions is developed and presented in this document to support the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Physical and Chemical Environment Model. The purpose of this analysis is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and the Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift. In this analysis, a conceptual model is developed to provide PAO a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). The development plan calls for a sub-model that evaluates the effect on water chemistry of chemical reactions between water that enters the drift and backfill materials in the drift. The development plan specifically requests an evaluation of the following important chemical reaction processes: dissolution-precipitation, aqueous complexation, and oxidation-reduction. The development plan also requests the evaluation of the effects of varying seepage and drainage fluxes, varying temperature, and varying evaporation and condensation fluxes. Many of these effects are evaluated in a separate Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Precipitates Salts Analysis AMR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000), so the results of that AMR are referenced throughout this AMR.

  13. The taming of brackish seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, F.J.C.; Olsthoorn, T.; Smulders, L.; van Wielink, I.

    2016-01-01

    In the area that is managed by the waterboard Amstel, Gooi and Vecht, some deep polders are located. Most of them attract large amounts of brackish seepage. This seepage not only contains salt, but also nutriënts.
    Without hydrological intervention, the waterquality in the area would suffer

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 236 million barrels of oil and 112 billion cubic feet of associated gas in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina.

  15. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  16. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Perth Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 223 million barrels of oil and 14.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Perth Basin Province, Australia.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-05-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  18. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Cooper Basin, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2016-07-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 482 million barrels of oil and 29.8 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper Basin of Australia.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-09-19

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 164 million barrels of oil and 24.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan.

  20. Seepage/Cement Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Development Plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a) pertaining to this task defines the work scopes and objectives for development of various submodels for the Physical and Chemical Environment Abstraction Model for TSPA-LA. The Development Plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a) for this specific task establishes that an evaluation be performed of the chemical reactions between seepage that has entered the drift and concrete which might be used in the repository emplacement drifts. The Development Plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a) then states that the potential effects of these water/grout reactions on chemical conditions in the drift be assessed factoring in the influence of carbonation and the relatively small amount of grout. This task is also directed at: (1) developing a conceptualization of important cement/seepage interactions and potential impacts on EBS performance, (2) performing a screening analysis to assess the importance of cement/seepage interactions. As the work progresses and evolves on other studies, specifically the Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment (P andCE) Model (in progress), many of the issues associated with items 1 and 2, above, will be assessed. Such issues include: (1) Describing the mineralogy of the specified cementitious grout and its evolution over time. (2) Describing the composition of the water before contacting the grout. (3) Developing reasonable upper-bound estimates for the composition of water contacting grout, emphasizing pH and concentrations for anions such as sulfate. (4) Evaluating the equilibration of cement-influenced water with backfill and gas-phase CO 2 . (5) Developing reasonable-bound estimates for flow rate of affected water into the drift. The concept of estimating an ''upper-bound'' range for reaction between the grout and the seepage, particularly in terms of pH is based on equilibrium being established between the seepage and the grout. For example, this analysis can be based on equilibrium being established as

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Ventura Basin Province, California, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-10-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in the part of the Ventura Basin Province that lies onshore or within State waters (within 3 miles of the shoreline) of California (fig. 1). Conventional oil and gas resources are those that have migrated upward into structural or stratigraphic traps from deep zones where the oil and gas is generated; water is present below the oil or gas. Continuous accumulations, in contrast, are those in which oil or gas is pervasively present in essentially all wells that penetrate them, that may not be structurally or stratigraphically trapped, and that typically lack oil-water or gas-water contacts. They are commonly produced with well-stimulation technology, such as hydraulic fracturing, referred to as “unconventional.” The same stimulation technology, however, is also used in many conventionally trapped accumulations. We estimated both the likely range of oil and gas volumes remaining to be discovered in accumulations similar to existing conventional oil and gas fields in the Ventura Basin Province (previously assessed by Keller [1995] as 1,060 million barrels of oil [MMBO], 1,900 billion cubic feet of gas [BCFG], and 60 million barrels of natural gas liquids [MMBNGL]), and the potential for oil and gas that might be present in a continuous accumulation at extreme depth in the floor of the basin.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Susitna Basin, southern Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Potter, Christopher J.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Shah, Anjana K.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Valin, Zenon C.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Haines, Seth S.; Higley, Debra K.; Houseknecht, David W.; Le, Phuong A.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.

    2018-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Susitna Basin of southern Alaska. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of about 2 million barrels of oil and nearly 1.7 trillion cubic feet of gas may be found in this area.

  3. Assessment of Uinta Basin Oil and Natural Gas Well Pad Pneumatic Controller Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the fall of 2016, a field study was conducted in the Uinta Basin Utah to improve information on oil and natural gas well pad pneumatic controllers (PCs) and emission measurement methods. A total of 80 PC systems at five oil sites (supporting six wells) and three gas sites (sup...

  4. Geological characteristics and resource potentials of oil shale in Ordos Basin, Center China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunlai, Bai; Yingcheng, Zhao; Long, Ma; Wu-jun, Wu; Yu-hu, Ma

    2010-09-15

    It has been shown that not only there are abundant oil, gas, coal, coal-bed gas, groundwater and giant uranium deposits but also there are abundant oil shale resources in Ordos basin. It has been shown also that the thickness of oil shale is, usually, 4-36m, oil-bearing 1.5%-13.7%, caloric value 1.66-20.98MJ/kg. The resource amount of oil shale with burial depth less than 2000 m is over 2000x108t (334). Within it, confirmed reserve is about 1x108t (121). Not only huge economic benefit but also precious experience in developing oil shale may be obtained in Ordos basin.

  5. Geochemical characteristics of crude oil from a tight oil reservoir in the Lucaogou Formation, Jimusar Sag, Junggar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Jimusar Sag, which lies in the Junggar Basin,is one of the most typical tight oil study areas in China. However, the properties and origin of the crude oil and the geochemical characteristics of the tight oil from the Lucaogou Formation have not yet been studied. In the present study, 23 crude oilsfrom the Lucaogou Formation were collected for analysis, such as physical properties, bulk composition, saturated hydrocarbon gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the calculation of various biomarker parameters. In addition,source rock evaluation and porosity permeability analysis were applied to the mudstones and siltstones. Biomarkers of suitable source rocks (TOC>1, S1+S2>6mg/g, 0.7%oil-source correlation. To analyze the hydrocarbon generation history of the Lucaogou source rock, 1D basin modeling was performed. The oil-filling history was also defined by means of basin modeling and microthermometry. The results indicated the presence of low maturity to mature crude oils originating from the burial of terrigenous organic matter beneath a saline lake in the source rocks of mainly type II1kerogen. In addition, a higher proportion of bacteria and algae was shown to contribute to the formation of crude oil in the lower section when compared with the upper section of the Lucaogou Formation. Oil-source correlations demonstrated that not all mudstones within the Lucaogou Formation contributed to oil accumulation.Crude oil from the upper and lower sections originated from thin-bedded mudstones interbedded within sweet spot sand bodies. A good coincidence of filling history and hydrocarbon generation history indicated that the Lucaogou reservoir is a typical in situ reservoir. The mudstones over or beneath the sweet spot bodies consisted of natural caprocks and prevented the vertical movement of oil by capillary forces. Despite being thicker, the thick-bedded mudstone between the upper and lower sweet spots had no obvious contribution to

  6. Oil and gas potential of the Korotaikha Depression in the Timan-Pechora basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Stoupakova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Prospects for the growth of hydrocarbon (HC reserves in the Timan-Pechora basin are associated with poorly explored areas, which include the Korotaikha Depression, which is a very difficult region for oil and gas exploration. Analysis and reinterpretation of both old and new seismic data made it possible to identify a number of anticlinal structures within the region, as well as to identify possible lithological HC traps, such as reefing bodies of late Devonian-Early Carboniferous age and delta sand formations of the Permian-Triassic age. The wide stratigraphic range of the sedimentary cover makes it possible to select several hydrocarbon systems in the basin of the Korotaikha Depression. Basin modeling has shown that there are all conditions for НС generation and accumulation in the Korotaikha Basin. Based on the results of the simulation, Korotaikha Basin should be considered as a potentially promising oil and gas area, where the main oil and gas accumulations are located in the side parts of the basin, and also within the inversion highs and saddles. The total booked geological resources of hydrocarbons may amount to about 1.7 billion tons standard fuel. Korotaikha Depression and its aquatorial continuation can be referred to the category of major oil-gas search regions.

  7. Maceral and geochemical characteristics of oil shale 2 from the Huangxian Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuzhuang; Lin, Mingyue; Li, Haimei; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Shifeng; Jin, Kankun [Hebei Architectural Science and Technology Inst., Handan, Hebei (China)

    2001-07-01

    Five samples of Oil Shale 2 from the Huangxian Basin have been analysed by coal petrographic and geochemical methods in order to study its formation environment. Higher alginite ratios and hopanes in Oil Shale 2 indicate a lower plants and anoxic environment. Two ternary diagrams of 'facies diagnostic' macerals and biomarkers were used to interpret the depositional environments of organic matter in Oil Shale 2. In both diagrams, Oil Shale 2 plots in a lower plant zone, and was deposited in a deeper water environment. (Author)

  8. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A.; Engle, Mark A.; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F. Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  10. Review of oil families and their petroleum systems of the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    The petroleum system concept was first applied in 1974 (Dow/Williams) to identify three oil systems in the Williston Basin, and recent studies have expanded the number to at least nine. This paper reviews the petroleum geochemistry, oil-oil, and oil-source correlations of the oil systems of the Williston Basin, providing a new perspective and some new findings. Petroleum systems with a known source (documented oil-source correlation) include the Red River (Ordovician), Winnipegosis (Devonian), Bakken (Devonian-Mississippian), Madison (Mississippian), and Tyler (Pennsylvanian) systems. Petroleum systems with an identified source rock but no documented oil-source correlation are considered hypothetical and include the Winnipeg (Ordovician), Duperow (Devonian), and Birdbear (Devonian). The Deadwood (Cambrian-Ordovician) petroleum system is speculative because a good oil-prone source rock has not been identified. The stratigraphic distribution of the oil families from each system is generally limited to the same formation from which they were sourced due to efficient seals and a paucity of vertical migration pathways, but some notable exceptions do occur.

  11. A Critical Review of the Oil and Tar Sands of the Dahomey Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osundina, A.; Mustapha, A.; Nzewi, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Benin Basin previously referred to as the Dahomey embayment has been designated as a frontier basin within Nigeria due to its potentially high prospects, but comparatively low exploitation campaign to date. The basin offers a promising opportunity for heavy oil exploration in a narrow belt extending westward from Edo State to the republic of Benin; while offshore, there are high prospects for finding more conventional hydrocarbon.The eastern Dahomey embayment is known to have an extensive reserve of hydrocarbons (bitumen and tar sands). The sediments occur in a 5 8 km belt stretching 120km from the fringes of Lagos State through Ogun, Ondo and Edo States. The estimated reserve potentials exceed 30 billion barrels of oil equivalent.Recently acquired seismic data in OPL 309 and 310, and subsequent drilling of 2 wells on the narrow continental shelf, have shown the presence of closed structures over Basement Highs and other related structural styles in the basin and confirm that conventional light oils and condensates hydrocarbons occur in commercial quantity. These hydrocarbons are reservoired in stratigraphic sequences of Albian Cenomanian age.This paper hopes to expose the hidden riches of this Basin and hopefully get the attention of the big players in refocusing their interests in the basin that attracted attention of the early petroleum explorers to Nigeria approximately 100 years ago

  12. Sequence Stratigraphic Framework Analysis of Putaohua Oil Reservoir in Chaochang Area of Songliao Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan; Liu, Dameng; Yao, Yanbin

    2018-01-01

    The regional structure of the Changchang area in the Songliao Basin is located on the Chaoyangou terrace and Changchunling anticline belt in the central depression of the northern part of the Songliao Basin, across the two secondary tectonic units of the Chaoyanggou terrace and Changchunling anticline. However, with the continuous development of oil and gas, the unused reserves of Fuyu oil reservoir decreased year by year, and the oil field faced a serious shortage of reserve reserves. At the same time, during the evaluation process, a better oil-bearing display was found during the drilling and test oil in the Putao depression to the Chaoyanggou terraces, the Yudong-Taipingchuan area, and in the process of drilling and testing oil in the Putaohua reservoir. Zhao41, Zhao18-1, Shu38 and other exploration wells to obtain oil oil, indicating that the area has a further evaluation of the potential. Based on the principle of stratification, the Putao area was divided into three parts by using the core, logging and logging. It is concluded that the middle and western strata of the study area are well developed, including three sequences, one cycle from bottom to top (three small layers), two cycles (one small layer), three cycles (two small layers) Rhythm is positive-anti-positive. From the Midwest to the southeastern part of the strata, the strata are overtaken, the lower strata are missing, and the top rhythms become rhythmic.

  13. Generation and migration of Bitumen and oil from the oil shale interval of the Eocene Green River formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    The results from the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, based primarily on the Fischer assay method, are applied herein to define areas where the oil shale interval is depleted of some of its petroleum-generating potential along the deep structural trough of the basin and to make: (1) a general estimates of the amount of this depletion, and (2) estimate the total volume of petroleum generated. Oil yields (gallons of oil per ton of rock, GPT) and in-place oil (barrels of oil per acre, BPA) decrease toward the structural trough of the basin, which represents an offshore lacustrine area that is believed to have originally contained greater petroleum-generating potential than is currently indicated by measured Fischer assay oil yields. Although this interval is considered to be largely immature for oil generation based on vitrinite reflectance measurements, the oil shale interval is a likely source for the gilsonite deposits and much of the tar sands in the basin. Early expulsion of petroleum may have occurred due to the very high organic carbon content and oil-prone nature of the Type I kerogen present in Green River oil shale. In order to examine the possible sources and migration pathways for the tar sands and gilsonite deposits, we have created paleogeographic reconstructions of several oil shale zones in the basin as part of this study.

  14. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  15. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-11-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  16. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-09-22

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 0.45 billion barrels of oil and 1.0 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia.

  17. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 78 million barrels of oil and 8.9 trillion cubic feet of gas in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina.

  18. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2018-02-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.0 billion barrels of oil and 20.3 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Canning Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-05-31

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 1.3 billion barrels of oil and 34.4 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Canning Basin Province of Australia.

  20. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province as part of the 2008 USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated on the Omolon superterrane of the Kolyma block. The one assessment unit (AU) that was defined for this study, called the Zyryanka Basin AU, which coincides with the province, was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the Zyryanka Basin Province are ~72 million barrels of crude oil, 2,282 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 61 million barrels of natural-gas liquids. About 66 percent of the study area and undiscovered petroleum resources are north of the Arctic Circle.

  1. Oil spill contamination probability in the southeastern Levantine basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ron; Biton, Eli; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit; Levin, Noam

    2015-02-15

    Recent gas discoveries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea led to multiple operations with substantial economic interest, and with them there is a risk of oil spills and their potential environmental impacts. To examine the potential spatial distribution of this threat, we created seasonal maps of the probability of oil spill pollution reaching an area in the Israeli coastal and exclusive economic zones, given knowledge of its initial sources. We performed simulations of virtual oil spills using realistic atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The resulting maps show dominance of the alongshore northerly current, which causes the high probability areas to be stretched parallel to the coast, increasing contamination probability downstream of source points. The seasonal westerly wind forcing determines how wide the high probability areas are, and may also restrict these to a small coastal region near source points. Seasonal variability in probability distribution, oil state, and pollution time is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Deep-Sea Microbial Community from the Amazonian Basin Associated with Oil Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeão, Mariana E; Reis, Luciana; Leomil, Luciana; de Oliveira, Louisi; Otsuki, Koko; Gardinali, Piero; Pelz, Oliver; Valle, Rogerio; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane C

    2017-01-01

    One consequence of oil production is the possibility of unplanned accidental oil spills; therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential of indigenous microorganisms (both prokaryotes and eukaryotes) from different oceanic basins to degrade oil. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial response during the biodegradation process of Brazilian crude oil, both with and without the addition of the dispersant Corexit 9500, using deep-sea water samples from the Amazon equatorial margin basins, Foz do Amazonas and Barreirinhas, in the dark and at low temperatures (4°C). We collected deep-sea samples in the field (about 2570 m below the sea surface), transported the samples back to the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions (5°C in the dark) and subsequently performed two laboratory biodegradation experiments that used metagenomics supported by classical microbiological methods and chemical analysis to elucidate both taxonomic and functional microbial diversity. We also analyzed several physical-chemical and biological parameters related to oil biodegradation. The concomitant depletion of dissolved oxygen levels, oil droplet density characteristic to oil biodegradation, and BTEX concentration with an increase in microbial counts revealed that oil can be degraded by the autochthonous deep-sea microbial communities. Indigenous bacteria (e.g., Alteromonadaceae, Colwelliaceae , and Alcanivoracaceae ), archaea (e.g., Halobacteriaceae, Desulfurococcaceae , and Methanobacteriaceae ), and eukaryotic microbes (e.g., Microsporidia, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota) from the Amazonian margin deep-sea water were involved in biodegradation of Brazilian crude oil within less than 48-days in both treatments, with and without dispersant, possibly transforming oil into microbial biomass that may fuel the marine food web.

  3. The Deep-Sea Microbial Community from the Amazonian Basin Associated with Oil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana E. Campeão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of oil production is the possibility of unplanned accidental oil spills; therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential of indigenous microorganisms (both prokaryotes and eukaryotes from different oceanic basins to degrade oil. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial response during the biodegradation process of Brazilian crude oil, both with and without the addition of the dispersant Corexit 9500, using deep-sea water samples from the Amazon equatorial margin basins, Foz do Amazonas and Barreirinhas, in the dark and at low temperatures (4°C. We collected deep-sea samples in the field (about 2570 m below the sea surface, transported the samples back to the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions (5°C in the dark and subsequently performed two laboratory biodegradation experiments that used metagenomics supported by classical microbiological methods and chemical analysis to elucidate both taxonomic and functional microbial diversity. We also analyzed several physical–chemical and biological parameters related to oil biodegradation. The concomitant depletion of dissolved oxygen levels, oil droplet density characteristic to oil biodegradation, and BTEX concentration with an increase in microbial counts revealed that oil can be degraded by the autochthonous deep-sea microbial communities. Indigenous bacteria (e.g., Alteromonadaceae, Colwelliaceae, and Alcanivoracaceae, archaea (e.g., Halobacteriaceae, Desulfurococcaceae, and Methanobacteriaceae, and eukaryotic microbes (e.g., Microsporidia, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota from the Amazonian margin deep-sea water were involved in biodegradation of Brazilian crude oil within less than 48-days in both treatments, with and without dispersant, possibly transforming oil into microbial biomass that may fuel the marine food web.

  4. Origin of an unusual heavy oil from the Baiyinchagan depression, Erlian basin, northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiping Huang [China University of Geosciences, Beijing (China); University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences; Guangxi Jin [China University of Geosciences, Beijing (China); Exploration and Development Institute, Puyang (China); Changsong Lin; Yabin Zheng [China University of Geosciences, Beijing (China)

    2003-01-01

    A detailed organic geochemical analysis of six oil samples from the Baiyinchagan depression in the Erlian basin, Northern China, was carried out in order to evaluate their origin. The oils are reservoired at a very shallow depth (223-560 m subsurface) and their chemical and physical properties vary greatly, ranging from normal to extremely heavy oil. The preservation of non-biodegraded oil in such a shallow reservoir is possibly related with palaeo-pasteurization of the reservoir before uplift. Maturity difference is not the primary control on the chemical and physical properties of the oils and there is considerable geochemical evidence to suggest the additional influence of in-reservoir/post-accumulation processes such as biodegradation, water-washing and (possibly) evaporation. Whereas some oils appear to be less affected, others are moderately biodegraded up to level 4 on the [Peters and Moldowan, 1993] scale, with sterane distributions largely unaffected and 25-norhopanes undetected. Contrary to classical biodegradation, the unusual heavy oil shows little evidence of biodegradation from aliphatic components. Water-washing is suggested to be the primary process leading to its formation since the severe alteration of soluble aromatic hydrocarbons is observed. In addition, since the oils have been uplifted significantly after accumulation, evaporation and/or leakage to modify oil compositions cannot be ruled out. (author)

  5. Primary migration of Jurassic coal-derived oil in Santanghu basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Zhong, N.; Ren, D. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept of Resource Exploitation Engineering

    2000-11-01

    It is known that the differential evolution of the multiple macerals results in 'oil generation by stage', and that 'early generation, early expulsion' is one of the preconditions for the efficient accumulation of the coal-derived oil. Based upon the study on the evolution of the physical properties, related to the hydrocarbon expulsion, of the Jurassic organic rock in Santanghu basin during the course of maturation, the mechanism of the primary migration of its coal-derived oil was discussed. The rapid loss of the inherent moisture in the organic rock was not accordant with the main generation stage of the coal-derived oil, so it was unrealistic that the oil migrated by dissolution in the expelled water. It is thought that the special forming mechanism of the continuous 'bitumen network' under the condition of over-pressure and an earlier history of primary migration may be essential to the Jurassic coal-derived oil in Santanghu basin. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through

  7. Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Phitsanulok Basin, onshore Thailand.

  8. The Atlantic Basin: A New Africa-Americas Oil and Gas Geopolitical Arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Ocean (North and Latin America, Africa and Europe) is bordered by states experiencing a significant change in their relationships regarding hydrocarbons. The rapid development of shale oil and gas in USA allows the country more and more independence from African states in the gulf of Guinea. Some of these producing countries like Nigeria are worried that the special political and security ties with America will turn into a mere trade relationship. Africa's excess oil and gas capacity, no longer sold to USA, is bought by Latin America and Europe (alongside countries such as India). Oil and gas transactions are creating new networks and fresh ties between countries from these zones that previously had to do with each other. From a geological perspective, the Atlantic Ocean is bordered by coastal countries with multiple similarities, and which we will refer to as the Atlantic basin. Millions of years back, they formed one single continent. Oil companies, bearing this geological similarity in mind and profiting from better technology, apply for oil blocks on one side of the Atlantic basin whenever a discovery is made on the opposite side. New relationships are thus flourishing between Latin-American and African states. New players, competing to control new zones, gives rise to a fresh geopolitical situation that we are going to examine in this article

  9. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Hope Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-04

    The Hope Basin, an independent petroleum province that lies mostly offshore in the southern Chukchi Sea north of the Chukotka and Seward Peninsulas and south of Wrangel Island, the Herald Arch, and the Lisburne Peninsula, is the largest in a series of postorogenic (successor) basins in the East Siberian-Chukchi Sea region and the only one with exploratory-well control and extensive seismic coverage.In spite of the seismic coverage and well data, the petroleum potential of the Hope Basin Province is poorly known. The adequacy of hydrocarbon charge, in combination with uncertainties in source-rock potential and maturation, was the greatest risk in this assessment. A single assessment unit was defined and assessed, resulting in mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources that include ~3 million barrels of oil and 650 billion cubic feet of nonassociated gas.

  10. Depositional Environment of the Sangkarewang Oil Shale, Ombilin Basin, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Anggayana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Five samples from 56 m long drill core of lacustrine Sangkarewang oil shale have been studied by means of petrography and organic geochemistry to investigate the organic matter composition and depositional environments of the shale. The organic matter consists of abundant lamalginite (30%, v/v and very limited amount of vitrinite, suggesting aquatic depositional environments with minor terrestrial influence. Organic geochemical analysis exhibits the dominance of pristane, phytane, and generally n-alkanes compounds. These compounds might originate mostly from aquatic photosynthetic organisms. The oil shale was likely deposited in anoxic lake environments, suggested by the presence of framboidal pyrite (6%, v/v and preserved organic matter with total organic carbon (TOC about 4.9%. The pristane/phytane ratio is relatively high about 3.9 and thought as source sensitive rather than redox sensitive. Hopanoid and aryl isoprenoid compounds are present in minor amounts. The latter compounds are interpreted to be derived from green sulfur bacteria dwelling in anoxic and the presence of H2S in bottom water.

  11. Cracking and thermal maturity of Ordovician oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anlai Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal maturity of the Ordovician oils from the Tahe oilfield of Tarim Basin, NW China was assessed through various maturity parameters, such as biomarkers, aromatic parameters, and diamondoid parameters. Both Ts/(Ts+Tm and C29Ts/(C29H+C29Ts values indicate that the maturity of oils has not reached the condensates stage, which is consistent with the maturity obtained by MPI1. However, the diamondoid maturity suggests that the oil maturity ranges 1.1%–1.6% Ro, which is apparently higher than that of the maturity obtained by the biomarker and MPI1. This discrepancy in maturity may indicate that the Ordovician reservoir has multiple filling history. The 4-MD+3-MD concentration of oils disperses and increases slowly when the Ts/(Ts+Tm value is lower than 0.55. Meanwhile, the value increases rapidly when the Ts/(Ts+Tm value is higher than 0.55. It is proposed that the diamondoid baseline is about 15 μg/goil for marine oils in the Tahe oilfield based on the diamondoid concentration of marine oils from reservoirs of various age. The concentration of 4-MD+3-MD of most Ordovician oils generally ranges from 4.5 to 35 μg/goil, suggesting that the degree of oil-cracking is lower than 50% and the deep Ordovician have potential of oil exploration. The distribution of the concentration of 4-MD+3-MD is characterized by being high in the east and south, low in the west and north, proposing that the two migration pathways exit in the oilfield, which are from east to west and from south to north, respectively. The migration directions are consistent with the results obtained from the oil density and the maturity parameters such as Ts/(Ts+Tm. Thus, suggesting the concentration of 4-MD+3-MD can be used as migration index in oilfield scale.

  12. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  13. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  14. Kinetics of oil-cracking for different types of marine oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anlai Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The C1–C5 gas and carbon isotope ratios generated during the cracking of heavy, normal and high-waxy marine oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China, using a closed-gold tube system under high pressure were presented. The three types of oil tested resulted in a similar gas-generation process. The C2–C5 range initially increased its yield with the application of pyrolysis temperature and thereafter decreased, while the C1 yield increased with the same application. High-waxy oil had the highest C1–C5 yield of 510 mg/goil, whereas heavy oil had the lowest C1–C5 yield of 316 mg/goil. The δ13C1 value was low at first, but gradually became higher as the pyrolysis temperature increased. However, the δ13C2 and δ13C3 values gradually became higher when the temperature was greater than 420 °C. The kinetic parameters of the C1–C5 gas generation for the different types of marine oils were then calculated using KINETIC software. This calculation resulted in a frequency factor of about 1.78 × 1014 s−1, while the distribution of the activation energy of the C1–C5 gas mass generated was relatively narrow with a range from 56 to 66 kcal/mol. Among the three types of oil tested, heavy oil had the widest activation energy distribution and the lowest major frequency of activation energy. The maximum temperature at which oil could be preserved as a separate oil phase varied from about 178 °C at a slow geological heating rate to 206 °C at a fast geological heating rate. This result is based on the kinetic parameters determined and in combination with the fractional conversion (C of oil to gas. Testing conducted at the volatile Middle Cambrian reservoir of well Zhongshen 1 in the Tazhong Uplift strongly supported this conclusion.

  15. An evaluation of seepage gains and losses in Indian Creek Reservoir, Ada County, Idaho, April 2010–November 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marshall L.; Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2013-01-01

    of flow. The reservoir tended to gain water from seepage of groundwater in the early spring months (March–May), while seepage losses to groundwater from the reservoir occurred in the drier months (June–October). Net monthly seepage rates, as computed by the water-budget method, varied greatly. Reservoir gains from seepage ranged from 0.2 to 59.4 acre-feet per month, while reservoir losses to seepage ranged from 1.6 and 26.8 acre-feet per month. An analysis of seepage meter estimates and segmented-Darcy estimates qualitatively supports the seasonal patterns in seepage provided by the water-budget calculations, except that they tended to be much smaller in magnitude. This suggests that actual seepage might be smaller than those estimates made by the water-budget method. Although the results of all three methods indicate that there is some water loss from the reservoir to groundwater, the seepage losses may be due to rewetting of unsaturated near-shore soils, possible replenishment of a perched aquifer, or both, rather than through percolation to the local aquifer that lies 130 feet below the reservoir. A lithologic log from an adjacent well indicates the existence of a clay lithology that is well correlated to the original reservoir’s base elevation. If the clay lithologic unit extends beneath the reservoir basin underlying the fine-grain reservoir bed sediments, the clay layer should act as an effective barrier to reservoir seepage to the local aquifer, which would explain the low seepage loss estimates calculated in this study.

  16. Geochemical characteristics of Tertiary saline lacustrine oils in the Western Qaidam Basin, northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yangming; Weng Huanxin; Su Aiguo; Liang Digang; Peng Dehua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the systematic analyses of light hydrocarbon, saturate, aromatic fractions and C isotopes of over 40 oil samples along with related Tertiary source rocks collected from the western Qaidam basin, the geochemical characteristics of the Tertiary saline lacustrine oils in this region was investigated. The oils are characterized by bimodal n-alkane distributions with odd-to-even (C 11 -C 17 ) and even-to-odd (C 18 -C 28 ) predominance, low Pr/Ph (mostly lower than 0.6), high concentration of gammacerane, C 35 hopane and methylated MTTCs, reflecting the high salinity and anoxic setting typical of a saline lacustrine depositional environment. Mango's K 1 values in the saline oils are highly variable (0.99-1.63), and could be associated with the facies-dependent parameters such as Pr/Ph and gammacerane indexes. Compared with other Tertiary oils, the studied Tertiary saline oils are marked by enhanced C 28 sterane abundance (30% or more of C 27 -C 29 homologues), possibly derived from halophilic algae. It is noted that the geochemical parameters of the oils in various oilfields exhibit regular spatial changes, which are consistent with the depositional phase variations of the source rocks. The oils have uncommon heavy C isotopic ratios (-24%o to -26%o) and a flat shape of the individual n-alkane isotope profile, and show isotopic characteristics similar to marine organic matter. The appearance of oleanane and high 24/(24 + 27)-norcholestane ratios (0.57-0.87) in the saline oils and source rocks confirm a Tertiary organic source

  17. Organic geochemistry of oil and gas in the Kuqa depression, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digang Liang; Shuichang Zhang; Jianping Chen [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry; Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina, Beijing (China); Feiyu Wang [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry; Peirong Wang [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry; Jianghan Petroleum Institute (China)

    2003-07-01

    The Kuqa depression in the Tarim Basin, NW China contains significant natural gas and condensate resources, with only small amounts of black oil. This study demonstrates that the primary reason for the accumulation of large natural gas reserves in the Kuqa depression is the high maturity level of the Jurassic coal-bearing sequence that is currently at the peak stage of dry gas generation. From the combined stable carbon isotopes and molecular and biomarker data it is possible to identify two separate source rocks for the discovered hydrocarbon fluids: the gases were primarily from the Middle-Lower Jurassic coals and associated clastic rocks, and the oils were from the Upper Triassic lacustrine mudstones. Peak oil generation from the Triassic source rocks occurred during the early Miocene (23-12 Ma b.p.). These oils migrated laterally over relatively long distances ({approx}20-50 km) reaching the outer periphery of the depression. Peak gas generation took place more recently, perhaps during the past 5 Ma. The gases migrated mainly along faults over relatively short lateral distances, resulting in accumulations adjacent to the over-matured source kitchens. Different timings for the trap formation along the north and south margins and a late injection of gas into early oil accumulations provided favorable conditions for the formation of evaporative condensates and the preservation of gas pools in the more down-dip reservoirs and oil pools in the more up-dip locations. (author)

  18. Multivariate statisticalmethods applied to interpretation of saturated biomarkers (Velebit oil field, SE Pannonian Basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA SOLEVIC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five crude oils originating from the Velebit oil field (SE Pannonian Basin, the most important oil field in Serbia, were investigated. Saturated biomarkers (n-alkanes, isoprenoids, steranes and triterpanes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Based on the distribution and abundance of these compounds, a large number of source and maturation parameters were calculated, particularly those most often used in correlation studies of oils. The examined samples were classified according to their origin and level of thermal maturity using factor, cluster and discriminant analyses. According to the source and maturation parameters, combined factor and cluster analyses using the Ward method enabled the categorization of the investigated oils into three groups. The cluster Ward analysis was shown to be of greater susceptibility and reliability. However, in addition to the two aforementioned methods, K-Means cluster analysis and discriminant analysis were shown to be necessary for a more precise and detailed categorization in the case of a large number of samples in one group. Consequently, it was concluded that factor and cluster K-Means andWard analyses can generally be used for the interpretation of saturated biomarkers in correlation studies of oils, but the observed results have to be checked, i.e., confirmed by discriminant analysis.

  19. Quantification of Seepage in Groundwater Dependent Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Beven, Keith; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2018-01-01

    Restoration and management of groundwater dependent wetlands require tools for quantifying the groundwater seepage process. A method for determining point estimates of the groundwater seepage based on water level observations is tested. The study is based on field data from a Danish rich fen...

  20. Revegetation research on oil shale lands in the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Satisfactory stands of vegetation failed to establish on unleached retorted shale during two successive years of seeding. All seedings with soil over retorted shale were judged to be successful at the end of three growing seasons, but deep-rooted shrubs that depend upon subsoil moisture may have their growth hampered by the retorted shale substrate. Natural revegetation on areas with various degrees of disturbance shows that natural invasion and succession was slow at best. Invasion of species on disturbed topsoil plots showed that after three years introduced seed mixtures were more effective than native mixtures in occupying space and closing the community to invading species. Fertilizer appears to encourage the invasion of annual plants even after the third year following application. Long-term storage of topsoil without vegetation significantly decreases the mycorrhizal infection potential and, therefore, decreases the relative success of aboveground vegetation and subsequent succession. Ecotypic differentation related to growth and competitive ability, moisture stress tolerance, and reproductive potential have been found in five native shrub species. Germplasm sources of two grasses and two legumes, that have shown promise as revegetation species, have been collected and evaluated for the production of test seed. Fertilizer (nitrogen) when added to the soil at the time of planting may encourage competition from annual weeds to the detriment of seeded species.

  1. Relationship between deep structure and oil-gas in the eastern Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changqing; Qu, Chen; Han, Jianguang

    2017-04-01

    The Tarim Basin is a large composite superimposed basin which developed in the Presinian continental basement. It is an important area for oil and gas replacement in China. In the eastern part of Tarim Basin, the exploration and research degree is very low and less system, especially in the study of tectonic evolution and physical property change. Basing on the study of geophysics, drilling and regional geological data in this area, analysis of comprehensive geophysical, geological and geophysical analysis comparison are lunched by new methods and new technology of geophysical exploration. Fault, tectonic evolution and change of deep character in the eastern Tarim Basin are analyzed in system. Through in-depth study and understanding of the deep structure and physical changes of the eastern region, we obtain the fault characteristics in the study area and the deep structure and physical change maps to better guide the oil and gas exploration in this area. The east area is located in the eastern Tarim Basin, west from the Garr Man depression, Well Kunan 1 - Well Gucheng 4 line to the East, north to Kuruketage uplift group near Qunke 1 wells, south to Cherchen fault zone, east to Lop Nor depression, an area of about 9 * 104 square kilometres, Including the East of Garr Man sag, Yingjisu depression, Kongquehe slope, Tadong low uplift and the Lop Nor uplift, five two grade tectonic units. The east area of Tarim is belonging to Tarim plate. It changes with the evolution of the Tarim plate. The Tarim plate is closely related to the collision between the Yining - the Junggar plate, the Siberia plate and the southern Qiangtang - the central Kunlun plate. Therefore, it creates a complex tectonic pattern in the eastern Tarim basin. Earth electromagnetic, gravity, deep seismic and other geophysical data are processed by a new generation of geophysical information theory and method, including multi-scale inversion of potential field inversion (Hou and Yang, 2011), 3D

  2. Hydrodynamism, crude oil distribution and geochemistry of the stratigraphic column in a transect of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallango, O.; Escandon, M.; Alberdi, M. (Intevep, S.A. Caracas (Venezuela)); Parnaud, F.; Pascual, J.C. (Beicip, Rueil Malmaison (France))

    1992-01-01

    The hydrocarbon accumulation history in a transect of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin is closely related to the generation and migration process as a consequence of the stratigraphic, structural and tectonic evolution of the basin during the Cretaceous and Cenozoic times. Thermal maturity assessment based on kinetic parameters using the appropriate software indicates that the generation of oil from the marine facies of the Querecual and San Antonio source rocks in the northern part of the basin took place during early Paleocene to early Miocene times prior to the start of thrusting, while the second and third phase occurred during middle Miocene to recent times in zones beneath the principal thrust in the Maturing area. The third phase of oil generation is associated with the latter thrusts which are out of sequence. Taking into consideration the development of the oil and gas kitchen through time, the hydrodynamism, the characteristics and distribution of the hydrocarbons, the migration of oil and gas have been outlined. The major differences observed among the oils, are due to maturity and post-accumulation processes such as oil mixing and biodegradation. A wide range of thermal maturity was observed in the oils, which is mainly due to the thermal stress experienced by the source rock. Association of light crudes with meteoric waters have been observed, as well as heavy to extra-heavy crudes with connate waters at greater depth. These unusual associations of crudes and formation waters are related to the hydrodynamical regime in the basin.

  3. Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin: reservoir characterization for improved well completion and oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Morgan, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    Bluefield Field is the largest oil-producing area in the Unita basin of northern Utah. The field inclucdes over 300 wells and has produced 137 Mbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10 500-13 000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta Basin withi reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.Bluebell field is the largest oil-producing area in the Uinta basin of northern Utah. The field includes over 300 wells and has produced 137 MMbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine

  4. Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Tsang, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to

  5. Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Li; C. Tsang

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in

  6. Predicting emissions from oil and gas operations in the Uinta Basin, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkey, Jonathan; Kelly, Kerry; Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina; Spinti, Jennifer; Ring, Terry; Hogue, Michael; Pasqualini, Donatella

    2016-05-01

    In this study, emissions of ozone precursors from oil and gas operations in Utah's Uinta Basin are predicted (with uncertainty estimates) from 2015-2019 using a Monte-Carlo model of (a) drilling and production activity, and (b) emission factors. Cross-validation tests against actual drilling and production data from 2010-2014 show that the model can accurately predict both types of activities, returning median results that are within 5% of actual values for drilling, 0.1% for oil production, and 4% for gas production. A variety of one-time (drilling) and ongoing (oil and gas production) emission factors for greenhouse gases, methane, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are applied to the predicted oil and gas operations. Based on the range of emission factor values reported in the literature, emissions from well completions are the most significant source of emissions, followed by gas transmission and production. We estimate that the annual average VOC emissions rate for the oil and gas industry over the 2010-2015 time period was 44.2E+06 (mean) ± 12.8E+06 (standard deviation) kg VOCs per year (with all applicable emissions reductions). On the same basis, over the 2015-2019 period annual average VOC emissions from oil and gas operations are expected to drop 45% to 24.2E+06 ± 3.43E+06 kg VOCs per year, due to decreases in drilling activity and tighter emission standards. This study improves upon previous methods for estimating emissions of ozone precursors from oil and gas operations in Utah's Uinta Basin by tracking one-time and ongoing emission events on a well-by-well basis. The proposed method has proven highly accurate at predicting drilling and production activity and includes uncertainty estimates to describe the range of potential emissions inventory outcomes. If similar input data are available in other oil and gas producing regions, then the method developed here could be applied to those regions as well.

  7. Seepage into drifts with mechanical degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guomin; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2002-01-01

    Seepage into drifts in unsaturated tuff is an important issue for the long-term performance of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drifts in which waste packages will potentially be emplaced are subject to degradation in the form of rockfall from the drift ceiling induced by stress relief, seismic, or thermal effects. The objective of this study is to calculate seepage rates for various drift-degradation scenarios and for different values of percolation flux for the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and the Topopah Spring lower lithophysal (Tptpll) units. Seepage calculations are conducted by (1) defining a heterogeneous permeability model on the drift scale that is consistent with field data, (2) selecting calibrated parameters associated with the Tptpmn and Tptpll units, and (3) simulating seepage on detailed degraded-drift profiles, which were obtained from a separate rock mechanics engineering analysis. The simulation results indicate (1) that the seepage threshold (i.e., the percolation flux at which seepage first occurs) is not significantly changed by drift degradation, and (2) the degradation-induced increase in seepage above the threshold is influenced more by the shape of the cavity created by rockfall than the rockfall volume

  8. ANL-W 779 pond seepage test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, D.R.

    1992-11-01

    The ANL-W 779 sanitary wastewater treatment ponds are located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), north of the Argonne National Laboratory -- West (ANL-W) site A seepage test was performed for two Argonne National Laboratory -- West (ANL-W) sanitary wastewater treatment ponds, Facility 779. Seepage rates were measured to determine if the ponds are a wastewater land application facility. The common industry standard for wastewater land application facilities is a field-measured seepage rate of one quarter inch per day or greater

  9. Value of the principles of ''isolation of basins and their boundaries'' and ''isolation of basins and elevations'' in prospecting for oil and gas in the oil and gas basin of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chzhan, V.; Li, Yu.; Se, M.

    1982-01-01

    A feature of the Chinese oil and gas basins is their fracturing into a large number (to several dozen in one oil and gas basin) isolated basins which are controlled by fault disorders. In these basins in which thick masses of Mesozoic and mainly Cenozoic sedimentary rocks are developed, the main volumes of source rocks are concentrated. Migration of hydrocarbons usually occurs to short distances not exceeding tens of kilometers. From the experience of prospecting and exploration back in the 1950's it was established that thick masses in the central zones of the basins are favorable for processes of hydrocarbon generation, while accumulation occurs in the elevated peripheral parts of the basins and in the regions of the central elevations. The zones of articulation of the central elevations and the edges of the basins are very promising for prospecting for local structures. Examples of large fields which are subordinate to these laws are the largest oil fields in China, Lyakhoe, Dagan and Shenli which are located along the edges of the Bokhayvan basin in the North Chinese oil and gas basin and the Datsin field which is confined to the central elevation of the Sunlyao basin.

  10. Forecasting sandstone uranium deposits in oil-and-gas bearing basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechenkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    . Such work was carried out within the limits of the Ordos oil and gas basin and adjacent structures, where a set of paleontological maps and cross-sections was created. They reflect the relationship between hydrogenic redox processes over long periods in the geological history of the region. Comparative analysis of the sequence of multidirectional epigenetic alterations in sedimentary basins in Central Asia and adjacent territories was instrumental in forming the overall picture of uranium ore genesis complicated by the intrusion of various reducing agents. The methods used in the study of epigenetic alterations in the formations of oil and gas sedimentary basins were developed on uranium rock bodies in Central Asia. These methods were successfully applied during forecasting on the fringes of oil-and-gas basins across the whole of the Asian continent. They made it possible to carry out metallogenic zoning of a large territory in terms of uranium and at the same time to estimate the role of hydrocarbons. The interrelation of epigenetic processes determines the distinctive characteristics of ore genesis in different parts of oil and gas basins. Their detection by means of mapping creates the necessary conditions for determining the prospects for both local regions of subsoil assets and large geological structures. (author)

  11. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Yukon Flats Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Stanley, Richard G.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The hydrocarbon potential of the Yukon Flats Basin Province in Central Alaska was assessed in 2004 as part of an update to the National Oil and Gas Assessment. Three assessment units (AUs) were identified and assessed using a methodology somewhat different than that of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA). An important difference in the methodology of the two assessments is that the 2004 assessment specified a minimum accumulation size of 0.5 million barrels of oil equivalent (MMBOE), whereas the 2008 CARA assessment specified a minimum size of 50 MMBOE. The 2004 assessment concluded that >95 percent of the estimated mean undiscovered oil and gas resources occur in a single AU, the Tertiary Sandstone AU. This is also the only AU of the three that extends north of the Arctic Circle.For the CARA project, the number of oil and gas accumulations in the 2004 assessment of the Tertiary Sandstone AU was re-evaluated in terms of the >50-MMBOE minimum accumulation size. By this analysis, and assuming the resource to be evenly distributed across the AU, 0.23 oil fields and 1.20 gas fields larger than 50 MMBOE are expected in the part of the AU north of the Arctic Circle. The geology suggests, however, that the area north of the Arctic Circle has a lower potential for oil and gas accumulations than the area to the south where the sedimentary section is thicker, larger volumes of hydrocarbons may have been generated, and potential structural traps are probably more abundant. Because of the low potential implied for the area of the AU north of the Arctic Circle, the Yukon Flats Tertiary Sandstone AU was not quantitatively assessed for the 2008 CARA.

  12. Impact assessment of oil spills on sediments in Vasyugan River Basin (Western Siberia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyov, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    Vasyugan River (more than 1100 km of length and 65000 km 2 of catchment totally) is right tributary of Ob River. Exploration and development of oil fields have provided in the area since 1970's. Long-term project for hydro-ecological investigation of Vasyugan River Basin was provided during 1992-2002. Main aim of the project was study of distribution and spatial dynamics of bottom invertebrate communities (population density, biomass) affected by oil contamination for tasks of environmental monitoring. Samples of sediments were assessed hydro-biologically (zoo-benthos) and chemically (petroleum hydrocarbons). Concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons (non-polar hydrocarbons) in bottom sediments in oil fields were significantly different depending on texture and organic matter content: detritus - 370 mg/kg; silt - 89 mg/kg; silty-sand - 37 mg/kg. The significant correlation between concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and organic matter content in sediments was found (? = 0,94). Concentration of in bottom sediments depended on destination from and age of developed oil fields: 300 mg/kg (areas of oil fields developed more than 20 years); 77 mg/kg (areas of oil fields developed less than 10 years); 59 mg/kg (estuary of Vasyugan, 400 km far from main sources of contamination at least). Population of zoo-benthos is increasing depending on extension of destination from source of contamination. The phenomena can be explained by stream transport and accumulation of PAH. Population of oligochaeta and mollusks in sediments increase depending on extension from sources of contamination (p<0,05). (author)

  13. Source rock contributions to the Lower Cretaceous heavy oil accumulations in Alberta: a basin modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesi, Luiyin Alejandro; di Primio, Rolando; Anka, Zahie; Horsfield, Brian; Higley, Debra K.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the immense oil sand deposits in Lower Cretaceous reservoirs of the Western Canada sedimentary basin is still a matter of debate, specifically with respect to the original in-place volumes and contributing source rocks. In this study, the contributions from the main source rocks were addressed using a three-dimensional petroleum system model calibrated to well data. A sensitivity analysis of source rock definition was performed in the case of the two main contributors, which are the Lower Jurassic Gordondale Member of the Fernie Group and the Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Exshaw Formation. This sensitivity analysis included variations of assigned total organic carbon and hydrogen index for both source intervals, and in the case of the Exshaw Formation, variations of thickness in areas beneath the Rocky Mountains were also considered. All of the modeled source rocks reached the early or main oil generation stages by 60 Ma, before the onset of the Laramide orogeny. Reconstructed oil accumulations were initially modest because of limited trapping efficiency. This was improved by defining lateral stratigraphic seals within the carrier system. An additional sealing effect by biodegraded oil may have hindered the migration of petroleum in the northern areas, but not to the east of Athabasca. In the latter case, the main trapping controls are dominantly stratigraphic and structural. Our model, based on available data, identifies the Gordondale source rock as the contributor of more than 54% of the oil in the Athabasca and Peace River accumulations, followed by minor amounts from Exshaw (15%) and other Devonian to Lower Jurassic source rocks. The proposed strong contribution of petroleum from the Exshaw Formation source rock to the Athabasca oil sands is only reproduced by assuming 25 m (82 ft) of mature Exshaw in the kitchen areas, with original total organic carbon of 9% or more.

  14. Organic geochemistry investigations of crude oils from Bayoot oilfield in the Masila Basin, east Yemen and their implication for origin of organic matter and source-related type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hail Hakimi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen crude oil samples from fractured basement reservoir rocks in the Bayoot oilfield, Masila Basin were studied to describe oil characteristics and to provide information on the source of organic matter input and the genetic link between oils and their potential source rock in the basin. The bulk geochemical results of whole oil and gasoline hydrocarbons indicate that the Bayoot oils are normal crude oil, with high hydrocarbons of more than 60%. The hydrocarbons are dominated by normal, branched and cyclic alkanes a substantial of the light aromatic compounds, suggesting aliphatic oil-prone kerogen. The high abundant of normal, branched and cyclic alkanes also indicate that the Bayoot oils are not biodegradation oils.The biomarker distributions of isoprenoid, hopane, aromatic and sterane and their cross and triangular plots suggest that the Bayoot oils are grouped into one genetic family and were generated from marine clay-rich source rock that received mixed organic matter and deposited under suboxic conditions. The biomarker distributions of the Bayoot oils are consistent with those of the Late Jurassic Madbi source rock in the basin. Biomarker maturity and oil compositions data also indicate that the Bayoot oils were generated from mature source rock with peak oil-window maturity. Keywords: Crude oil, Basement reservoir rocks, Biomarker, Organic source input, Bayoot oilfield, Masila Basin

  15. Correlation of structural lineaments with oil discoveries in Potwar sub-basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Ali, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Potwar sub-basin is located in the foothills of western Himalayas. It is developed as a result of continent collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. This sub-basin is one of the major oil and gas producing-region of the country. Clastics of Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, Paleocene, and carbonates of Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene are producing reservoir. Fractured and eocene carbonate reservoirs (Sakesar and Chorgali) are the main producing horizons in the region. Shale of infra-Cambrian-Cambrian and Paleocene are the main source rocks in the area. Interpretation of satellite data for lineament analysis coupled with stress models indicate that 63% of oil and gas fields fall along and 37% within 2-5 km radius of extensional lineaments and their corresponding open fractured zones developed due to various stress regimes. It is therefore suggested that exploration for hydrocarbon may be targeted in the strike extension of the mentioned lineaments in areas where optimum conditions for hydrocarbon generation exist. (author)

  16. Mineralogy and organic petrology of oil shales in the Sangkarewang Formation, Ombilin Basin, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatimah [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)]|[Centre for Geological Resources, Department of Mines and Energy, Jalan Soekarno Hatta No. 444, Bandung 40254 (Indonesia); Ward, Colin R. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2009-01-31

    The Ombilin Basin is filled by late Eocene to early Oligocene marginal fan deposits (Brani Formation) and lacustrine shales (Sangkarewang Formation), unconformably overlain by a late Oligocene to early Miocene fluvial sequence (Sawahlunto and Sawahtambang Formations) and capped by an early to mid-Miocene marine sequence (Ombilin Formation). Significant oil shale deposits occur in the Sangkarewang Formation, intercalated with thin laminated greenish-grey calcareous sandstones. X-ray diffraction shows that the sediments consist mainly of quartz, feldspar, carbonates and a range of clay minerals, together in some cases with minor proportions of sulphides, evaporites and zeolites. Feldspar and non-kaolinite clay minerals decrease up the sequence, relative to kaolinite, suggesting a changing sediment source as the basin was filled. Calcite, thought to be mainly of authigenic origin, is also more abundant in the middle and upper parts of the sequence. The organic matter in the oil shales of the sequence is dominated by liptinite macerals, particularly alginite (mainly lamalginite) and sporinite. Cutinite also occurs in some samples, along with resinite and traces of bituminite. The dominance of lamalginite in the liptinite components suggests that the material can be described as a lamosite. Samples from the Sangkarewang Formation have vitrinite reflectance values ranging between 0.37% and 0.55%. These are markedly lower than the vitrinite reflectance for coal from the overlying Sawahlunto Formation (0.68%), possibly due to suppression associated with the abundant liptinite in the oil shales. Fischer assay data on outcrop samples indicate that the oil yield is related to the organic carbon content. Correlations with XRD data show that, with one exception, the oil yield and organic carbon can also be correlated directly to the abundance of carbonate (calcite) and inversely to the abundance of quartz plus feldspar. This suggests that the abundance of algal material in the

  17. Petroleum geochemistry of the Potwar Basin, Pakistan: II – Oil classification based on heterocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, Muhammad; Fazeelat, Tahira

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, oils in the Potwar Basin (Upper Indus) of Pakistan were correlated based on the dissimilarity of source and depositional environment of organic matter (OM) using biomarkers and bulk stable isotopes. This study is aimed at supporting the classification of Potwar Basin oils into three groups (A, B and C) using the distribution of alkylnaphthalenes, alkylphenanthrenes, alkyldibenzothiophenes, alkyldibenzofurans, alkylfluorenes, alkylbiphenyls, triaromatic steroids, methyl triaromatic steroids, retene, methyl retenes and cadalene. The higher relative abundance of specific methyl isomers of naphthalene and phenanthrene and the presence of diagnostic aromatic biomarkers clearly indicate the terrigenous and oxic depositional environment of OM for group A oil. Group B and C oils are of marine origin and the aforementioned heterocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HCs) differentiate them clearly into two different groups. The relative percentages of heterocyclic aromatic HCs reveal that the distribution of these compounds is controlled by the depositional environment of the OM. Sulfur-containing heterocyclic aromatic HCs are higher in crude oils generated from source rocks deposited in suboxic depositional environments, while oxygen-containing heterocyclic aromatic HCs in combination with alkylfluorenes are higher in marine oxic and deltaic oils. Biomarker and aromatic HC parameters do not indicate significant differences in the thermal maturity of Potwar Basin oils. Triaromatic and methyl triaromatic steroids support the division of Potwar Basin oils into the three groups and their relative abundances are related to source OM rather than thermal maturity. Significantly higher amounts of C 20 and C 21 triaromtic steroids and the presence or absence of long chain triaromatic steroids (C 25 , C 26 , C 27 , and C 28 ) indicates that these compounds are probably formed from different biological precursors in each group. Different isomers of methyl

  18. Small-scale production in the Congo basin of low-acid carotene-rich red palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silou Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The red palm oil consumed in the Congo basin come essentially from small-scale production from the dura or tenera varieties (the latter being a hybrid of dura and pisifera. These three varieties are endemic to the Congo basin. The tenera variety is characterized a thick pulp (about 50% of the nut from which 70–90% of oil (based on fresh pulp can be extracted. The dura variety has less pulp (30% of the nut by weight, and gives an oil yield of the same order of magnitude. The oil is extracted from the crushed pulp after a series of mixing steps in hot water at about 60 °C. When obtained from freshly harvested nuts (at most 3 days storage, this oil is rich in carotenoids (800–2600 ppm and polyphenols (5–13 mg/g, and presents low acid values (IA < 5 and peroxide values (IP < 10. Here we describe this traditional production process, widespread in the Congo basin, and suggest innovations that substantially increase the quantity of oil extracted and significantly improve the quality of the end product.

  19. Geology and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered petroleum resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province as part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. These two provinces are situated northeast of Scandinavia and the northwestern Russian Federation, on the Barents Sea Shelf between Novaya Zemlya to the east and the Barents Platform to the west. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined in the East Barents Basins Province for this study: the Kolguyev Terrace AU, the South Barents and Ludlov Saddle AU, and the North Barents Basin AU. A fourth AU, defined as the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch AU, coincides with the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province. These four AUs, all lying north of the Arctic Circle, were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources, resulting in total estimated mean volumes of ~7.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 318 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  20. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  1. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources of Upper Cretaceous Shales in the Songliao Basin of China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2018-05-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 3.3 billion barrels of oil and 887 billion cubic feet of gas in shale reservoirs of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou and Nenjiang Formations in the Songliao Basin of northeastern China.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Paradox Basin Province, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 560 million barrels of undiscovered oil, 12,701 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, and 490 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona.

  3. Quantitative calculation of GOR of complex oil-gas-water systems with logging data: A case study of the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field in the Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Liqiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field of the Qaidam Basin, multiple suites of oil-gas-water systems overlie each other vertically, making it difficult to accurately identify oil layers from gas layers and calculate gas-oil ratio (GOR. Therefore, formation testing and production data, together with conventional logging, NMR and mud logging data were integrated to quantitatively calculate GOR. To tell oil layers from gas layers, conventional logging makes use of the excavation effect of compensated neutron log, NMR makes use of the different relaxation mechanisms of light oil and natural gas in large pores, while mud logging makes use of star chart of gas components established based on available charts and mathematical statistics. In terms of the quantitative calculation of GOR, the area ratio of the star chart of gas components was first used in GOR calculation. The study shows that: (1 conventional logging data has a modest performance in distinguishing oil layers from gas layers due to the impacts of formation pressure, hydrogen index (HI, shale content, borehole conditions and invasion of drilling mud; (2 NMR is quite effective in telling oil layers from gas layers, but cannot be widely used due to its high cost; (3 by contrast, the star chart of gas components is the most effective in differentiating oil layers from gas layers; and (4 the GOR calculated by using the area ratio of star chart has been verified by various data such as formation testing data, production data and liquid production profile.

  4. Executive Summary -- assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California, 2003: Chapter 1 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; French, Christopher D.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California (fig. 1.1). The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each Total Petroleum System defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock type and maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined five total petroleum systems and ten assessment units within these systems. Undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated for the ten assessment units (table 1.1). In addition, the potential was estimated for further growth of reserves in existing oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin.

  5. Organic geochemistry of petroleum seepages within the Jurassic Bencliff Grit, Osmington Mills, Dorset, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.F.; Farrimond, P. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry; Hindle, A.D. [Egdon Resources (UK) Ltd., Odiham (United Kingdom)

    2000-11-01

    Occurrences of oil within the Bencliff Grit at Osmington Mills were studied through an integration of organic geochemistry and a consideration of the geological setting. Oil-stained sandstones dominate the cliff outcrop with localized regions of particularly concentrated oil impregnation. A second 'live' seep of oil occurs where the Bencliff Grit beds pass below high tide level at Bran Point. Organic geochemical analyses showed both oils to be at least moderately biodegraded, with the oils in the cliff outcrop showing enrichment in polar constituents compared with the active seep. Multivariate statistical analysis of the molecular composition identified an enrichment in diasterane biomarkers in the oils of the live seep; this difference is ascribed to source and/or maturity differences. The oil within the outcrop is considered to represent the residual staining of an unroofed oil field, whilst the live seepage at Bran Point represents a migration pathway towards the eroded anticline. (Author)

  6. Nature, origin, and production characteristics of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, central Appalachian basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R.; Zagorski, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-permeability sandstones of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation cover about 45,000 mi2 (117,000 km2) of the Appalachian basin and may contain as much as 30 tcf of recoverable gas resources. Major reservoirs consist of the "Clinton" sandstone and Medina Group sandstones. The stratigraphically equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone increases the area of the Lower Silurian regional accumulation (LSRA) by another 30,000 mi2 (78,000 km2). Approximately 8.7 tcf of gas and 400 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Clinton/Medina reservoirs since 1880. The eastern predominantly gas-bearing part of the LSRA is a basin-center gas accumulation, whereas the western part is a conventional oil and gas accumulation with hybrid features of a basin-center accumulation. The basin-center accumulations have pervasive gas saturation, water near irreducible saturation, and generally low fluid pressures. In contrast, the hybrid-conventional accumulations have less-pervasive oil and gas saturation, higher mobile-water saturation, and both normal and abnormally low fluid pressures. High mobile-water saturation in the hybrid-conventional reservoirs form the updip trap for the basin-center gas creating a broad transition zone, tens of miles wide, that has characteristics of both end-member accumulation types. Although the Tuscarora Sandstone part of the basin-center gas accumulation is pervasively saturated with gas, most of its constituent sandstone beds have low porosity and permeability. Commercial gas fields in the Tuscarora Sandstone are trapped in naturally fractured, faulted anticlines. The origin of the LSRA includes (1) generation of oil and gas from Ordovician black shales, (2) vertical migration through an overlying 1000-ft (305-m)-thick Ordovician shale; (3) abnormally high fluid pressure created by oil-to-gas transformation; (4) updip displacement of mobile pore water by overpressured gas; (5) entrapment of pervasive gas in the basin center; (6) postorogenic

  7. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael Vanden; Anderson, Paul; Wallace, Janae; Morgan, Craig; Carney, Stephanie

    2012-04-30

    Saline water disposal is one of the most pressing issues with regard to increasing petroleum and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah. Conventional oil fields in the basin provide 69 percent of Utah?s total crude oil production and 71 percent of Utah?s total natural gas, the latter of which has increased 208% in the past 10 years. Along with hydrocarbons, wells in the Uinta Basin produce significant quantities of saline water ? nearly 4 million barrels of saline water per month in Uintah County and nearly 2 million barrels per month in Duchesne County. As hydrocarbon production increases, so does saline water production, creating an increased need for economic and environmentally responsible disposal plans. Current water disposal wells are near capacity, and permitting for new wells is being delayed because of a lack of technical data regarding potential disposal aquifers and questions concerning contamination of freshwater sources. Many companies are reluctantly resorting to evaporation ponds as a short-term solution, but these ponds have limited capacity, are prone to leakage, and pose potential risks to birds and other wildlife. Many Uinta Basin operators claim that oil and natural gas production cannot reach its full potential until a suitable, long-term saline water disposal solution is determined. The enclosed project was divided into three parts: 1) re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer in the Uinta Basin, 2) creating a detailed geologic characterization of the Birds Nest aquifer, a potential reservoir for large-scale saline water disposal, and 3) collecting and analyzing water samples from the eastern Uinta Basin to establish baseline water quality. Part 1: Regulators currently stipulate that produced saline water must be disposed of into aquifers that already contain moderately saline water (water that averages at least 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids). The UGS has re-mapped the moderately saline water boundary

  8. POST-PROCESSING ANALYSIS FOR THC SEEPAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUN, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the selection of water compositions for the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model of results from the thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) seepage model documented in ''Drift-Scale THC Seepage Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169856]). The selection has been conducted in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Post-Processing Analysis for THC Seepage) Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171334]). This technical work plan (TWP) was prepared in accordance with AP-2.27Q, ''Planning for Science Activities''. Section 1.2.3 of the TWP describes planning information pertaining to the technical scope, content, and management of this report. The post-processing analysis for THC seepage (THC-PPA) documented in this report provides a methodology for evaluating the near-field compositions of water and gas around a typical waste emplacement drift as these relate to the chemistry of seepage, if any, into the drift. The THC-PPA inherits the conceptual basis of the THC seepage model, but is an independently developed process. The relationship between the post-processing analysis and other closely related models, together with their main functions in providing seepage chemistry information for the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA), are illustrated in Figure 1-1. The THC-PPA provides a data selection concept and direct input to the physical and chemical environment (P and CE) report that supports the TSPA model. The purpose of the THC-PPA is further discussed in Section 1.2. The data selection methodology of the post-processing analysis (Section 6.2.1) was initially applied to results of the THC seepage model as presented in ''Drift-Scale THC Seepage Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169856]). Other outputs from the THC seepage model (DTN: LB0302DSCPTHCS.002 [DIRS 161976]) used in the P and CE (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860

  9. Assessing impacts of oil-shale development on the Piceance Basin mule deer herd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.C.; Garrott, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Development of energy resources on big game ranges generally negatively impacts these important wildlife resources. Although habitat disturbance is generally important, this impact is overshadowed by the negative impacts due to an increasing human population in the area. Increased human activities particularly stress animals during winter periods when inadequate nutrition levels may have already severely impacted the population. Increased road traffic and poaching causes additional deaths, which a decline in survival rates expected, or at least changes in the cause of mortality. This paper describes the experimental design to monitor and mitigate the impact of oil shale development in northwestern Colorado on the Piceance Basin mule deer herd. Biotelemetry techniques are used to measure changes through time in movements, habitat utilization, and survival rates between control and treatment areas. 2 figures.

  10. Feasibility of CO{sub 2} geological storage in the Xingou oil field, Jianghan Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Sanxi [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China); Shana, Huimei; Li, Yilian [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Yang, Zhen; Zhong, Zhaohong [Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Geological storage of CO{sub 2} as an effective way of reducing CO{sub 2} output to the atmosphere receives growing attention worldwide. To evaluate the feasibility of this technique in the Xingou oil field of Jianghan Basin in China, 2D and 3D models of CO{sub 2} geological storage were established using TOUGH2 software. Results showed that CO{sub 2} gas can be stored in the deepest reservoir through continuous injection over 50 years, and will remain effectively confined within the space under the second cap-rock during its diffusion over 500 years. Compared with 2D models, 3D models showed that the diffusion process of CO{sub 2} gas in the reservoir will create a mushroom-shaped zone of influence. (authors)

  11. Evaluation and prediction of oil biodegradation: a novel approach integrating geochemical and basin modeling techniques in offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudino, Roger [YPF S.A. (Argentina); Santos, Glauce Figueiredo dos; Losilla, Carlos; Cabrera, Ricardo; Loncarich, Ariel; Gavarrino, Alejandro [RepsolYPF do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Oil fields accounting for a large portion of the world reserves are severely affected by biological degradation. In Brazil, giant fields of the Campos Basin are producing biodegraded oils with widely variable fluid characteristics (10 to 40 deg API) and no apparent logical distribution nor predictability. Modern geochemical techniques allow defining the level of biodegradation. When original (non-degraded) oil samples and other with varying degradation level are available it might be possible to define a distribution trend and to relate it to present day geological factors such as temperature and reservoir geometry. However, other critical factors must be taken into account. But most of all, it is fundamental to have a vision in time of their evolution. This can only be achieved through 3D Basin Models coupled with modern visualization tools. The multi-disciplinary work-flow described here integrates three-dimensional numerical simulations with modern geochemical analyses. (author)

  12. Geochemical Aspects of Formation of Large Oil Deposits in the Volga-Ural Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I.; Nosova, F.; Pronin, N.; Nosova, J.; Budkevich, T.

    2012-04-01

    C35/hC34, GAM / HOP, S27/S28/S29 (steranes), DIA / REG, Ts / Tm, MOR / HOP, NOR / HOP, TET / TRI, C29SSR, C29BBAA, C31HSR, S30STER, TRI / PENT, TRI / HOP. Comparison in the rock-oil system was performed primarily according to the parameters indicating the depositional environment of the source rock that contains syngenetic DOM - according to the coefficients that determine lithological conditions for the formation of the supposed oil-source bed strata (DIA / REG, Ts / Tm, NOR / HOP, TRI / HOP and STER / PENT). Biomarker ratios indicate a different type of sedimentation basins. Sediments, which accumulated DOM from Semilukskiy horizon, can be characterized by low clay content, or its absence, that is consistent with the carbonate type of cut of the horizon. The bacterial material that was accumulated under reducing conditions of sedimentation appeared to be the source of syngenetic OM. Chemofossils found in oils from Pashiyskiy horizon are typical of sedimentary strata that contain clay - for clastic rocks, which in the study area are mainly represented by deposits and Eyfel Givetian layers of the Middle Devonian and lowfransk substage of the Upper Devonian. The study of correlations obtained for the different coefficients of OM and oils showed that only the relationships between Ts/Tm and DIA/REG and between NOR/HOP and TRI/HOP are characteristic of close, almost similar values of correlation both for the dispersed organic matter and for oil. In all other cases, the character of the correlation of OM is significantly different from that of oil. The differences in values and ranges of biomarker ratios as well as the character of their correlation indicates the absence of genetic connection between the oil from Pashiyskiy horizon for the dispersed organic matter from Semilukskiy horizon. This conclusion is based on the study of five biomarker parameters (DIA/REG, Ts/Tm, NOR/HOP, TRI/HOP and STER/PENT). The research results described in the article clearly indicate the

  13. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular area that represents the northeasternmost cratonic block of east European Russia. A 75-year history of petroleum exploration and production in the area there has led to the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG). Three geologic assessment units (AUs) were defined for assessing the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the province: (1) the Northwest Izhma Depression AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed in the northwestern part of the Izhma-Pechora Depression, although this part of the basin contains only sparse source and reservoir rocks and so was not assessed quantitatively; (2) the Main Basin Platform AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed in the central part of the basin, where the tectonic and petroleum system evolution was complex; and (3) the Foredeep Basins AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed within the thick sedimentary section of the foredeep basins west of the Uralian fold and thrust belt during the Permian and Triassic Uralian orogeny.For the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 3.3 BBO, 17 TCFG, and 0.3 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids (BBNGL). For the AU areas north of the Arctic Circle in the province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 1.7 BBO, 9.0 TCFG, and 0.2 BBNGL. These assessment results indicate that exploration in the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is at a mature level.

  14. Iron speciation and mineral characterization of upper Jurassic reservoir rocks in the Minhe Basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiangxian; Zheng, Guodong, E-mail: gdzhbj@mail.iggcas.ac.cn; Xu, Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province / Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics (China); Liang, Minliang [Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Institute of Geomechanics, Key Lab of Shale Oil and Gas Geological Survey (China); Fan, Qiaohui; Wu, Yingzhong; Ye, Conglin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province / Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics (China); Shozugawa, Katsumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki [The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Six samples from a natural outcrop of reservoir rocks with oil seepage and two control samples from surrounding area in the Minhe Basin, northwestern China were selectively collected and analyzed for mineralogical composition as well as iron speciation using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Iron species revealed that: (1) the oil-bearing reservoir rocks were changed by water-rock-oil interactions; (2) even in the same site, there was a different performance between sandstone and mudstone during the oil and gas infusion to the reservoirs; and (3) this was evidence indicating the selective channels of hydrocarbon migration. In addition, these studies showed that the iron speciation by Mössbauer spectroscopy could be useful for the study of oil and gas reservoirs, especially the processes of the water-rock interactions within petroleum reservoirs.

  15. A tube seepage meter for in situ measurement of seepage rate and groundwater sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, John; Gilmore, Troy E.; Genereux, David P.; Solomon, D. Kip

    2016-01-01

    We designed and evaluated a “tube seepage meter” for point measurements of vertical seepage rates (q), collecting groundwater samples, and estimating vertical hydraulic conductivity (K) in streambeds. Laboratory testing in artificial streambeds show that seepage rates from the tube seepage meter agreed well with expected values. Results of field testing of the tube seepage meter in a sandy-bottom stream with a mean seepage rate of about 0.5 m/day agreed well with Darcian estimates (vertical hydraulic conductivity times head gradient) when averaged over multiple measurements. The uncertainties in q and K were evaluated with a Monte Carlo method and are typically 20% and 60%, respectively, for field data, and depend on the magnitude of the hydraulic gradient and the uncertainty in head measurements. The primary advantages of the tube seepage meter are its small footprint, concurrent and colocated assessments of q and K, and that it can also be configured as a self-purging groundwater-sampling device.

  16. Transient Seepage for Levee Engineering Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, F. T.

    2017-12-01

    Historically, steady-state seepage analyses have been a key tool for designing levees by practicing engineers. However, with the advances in computer modeling, transient seepage analysis has become a potentially viable tool. A complication is that the levees usually have partially saturated flow, and this is significantly more complicated in transient flow. This poster illustrates four elements of our research in partially saturated flow relating to the use of transient seepage for levee design: (1) a comparison of results from SEEP2D, SEEP/W, and SLIDE for a generic levee cross section common to the southeastern United States; (2) the results of a sensitivity study of varying saturated hydraulic conductivity, the volumetric water content function (as represented by van Genuchten), and volumetric compressibility; (3) a comparison of when soils do and do not exhibit hysteresis, and (4) a description of proper and improper use of transient seepage in levee design. The variables considered for the sensitivity and hysteresis studies are pore pressure beneath the confining layer at the toe, the flow rate through the levee system, and a levee saturation coefficient varying between 0 and 1. Getting results for SEEP2D, SEEP/W, and SLIDE to match proved more difficult than expected. After some effort, the results matched reasonably well. Differences in results were caused by various factors, including bugs, different finite element meshes, different numerical formulations of the system of nonlinear equations to be solved, and differences in convergence criteria. Varying volumetric compressibility affected the above test variables the most. The levee saturation coefficient was most affected by the use of hysteresis. The improper use of pore pressures from a transient finite element seepage solution imported into a slope stability computation was found to be the most grievous mistake in using transient seepage in the design of levees.

  17. Cleveland Dam East Abutment : seepage control project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, F.; Siu, D. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ahlfield, S.; Singh, N. [Klohn Crippen Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    North Vancouver's 91 meter high Cleveland Dam was built in the 1950s in a deep bedrock canyon to provide a reservoir for potable water to 18 municipalities. Flow in the concrete gravity dam is controlled by a gated spillway, 2 mid-level outlets and intakes and 2 low-level outlets. This paper describes the seepage control measures that were taken at the time of construction as well as the additional measures that were taken post construction to control piezometric levels, seepage and piping and slope instability in the East Abutment. At the time of construction, a till blanket was used to cover the upstream reservoir slope for 200 meters upstream of the dam. A single line grout curtain was used through the overburden from ground surface to bedrock for a distance of 166 meters from the dam to the East Abutment. Since construction, the safety of the dam has been compromised through changes in piezometric pressure, seepage and soil loss. Klohn Crippen Consultants designed a unique seepage control measure to address the instability risk. The project involved excavating 300,000 cubic meters of soil to form a stable slope and construction bench. A vertical wall was constructed to block seepage. The existing seepage control blanket was also extended by 260 meters. The social, environmental and technical issues that were encountered during the rehabilitation project are also discussed. The blanket extension construction has met design requirements and the abutment materials that are most susceptible to internal erosion have been covered by non-erodible blanket materials such as plastic and roller-compacted concrete (RCC). The project was completed on schedule and within budget and has greatly improved the long-term stability of the dam and public safety. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  18. [Work-related accidents on oil drilling platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, C M; Souza, C A; Machado, J M; Porto, M F

    2001-01-01

    The offshore oil industry is characterized by complex systems in relation to technology and organization of work. Working conditions are hazardous, resulting in accidents and even occasional full-scale catastrophes. This article is the result of a study on work-related accidents in the offshore platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro State. The primary objective was to provide technical back-up for both workers' representative organizations and public authorities. As a methodology, we attempt to go beyond the immediate causes of accidents and emphasize underlying causes related to organizational and managerial aspects. The sources were used in such a way as to permit classification in relation to the type of incident, technological system, operation, and immediate and underlying causes. The results show the aggravation of safety conditions and the immediate need for public authorities and the offshore oil industry in Brazil to change the methods used to investigate accidents in order to identify the main causes in the organizational and managerial structure of companies.

  19. OIL RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CO2 INJECTION MONITORING IN THE PERMIAN BASIN WITH CROSSWELL ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Wilt

    2004-02-01

    Substantial petroleum reserves exist in US oil fields that cannot be produced economically, at current prices, unless improvements in technology are forthcoming. Recovery of these reserves is vital to US economic and security interests as it lessens our dependence on foreign sources and keeps our domestic petroleum industry vital. Several new technologies have emerged that may improve the situation. The first is a series of new flooding techniques to re-pressurize reservoirs and improve the recovery. Of these the most promising is miscible CO{sub 2} flooding, which has been used in several US petroleum basins. The second is the emergence of new monitoring technologies to track and help manage this injection. One of the major players in here is crosswell electromagnetics, which has a proven sensitivity to reservoir fluids. In this project, we are applying the crosswell EM technology to a CO{sub 2} flood in the Permian Basin oil fields of New Mexico. With our partner ChevronTexaco, we are testing the suitability of using EM for tracking the flow of injected CO{sub 2} through the San Andreas reservoir in the Vacuum field in New Mexico. The project consisted of three phases, the first of which was a preliminary field test at Vacuum, where a prototype system was tested in oil field conditions including widely spaced wells with steel casing. The results, although useful, demonstrated that the older technology was not suitable for practical deployment. In the second phase of the project, we developed a much more powerful and robust field system capable of collecting and interpreting field data through steel-cased wells. The final phase of the project involved applying this system in field tests in the US and overseas. Results for tests in steam and water floods showed remarkable capability to image between steel wells and provided images that helped understand the geology and ongoing flood and helped better manage the field. The future of this technology is indeed bright

  20. Effect of fluid–solid coupling on shale mechanics and seepage laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuquan Song

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cores of outcropped black shale of Lower Silurian Longmaxi Fm in the Yibin area, Sichuan Basin, were taken as samples to investigate the effects of extraneous water on shale mechanics and seepage laws during the production of shale gas reservoirs. Firstly, the development of fractures in water saturated cores was observed by using a VHX-5000 optical superdepth microscope. Secondly, water, formation water and slick water, as well as the damage form and compression strength of water saturated/unsaturated cores were investigated by means of a uniaxial compression testing machine and a strain testing & analysis system. Finally, the effects of fluid–solid coupling on shale gas flowing performance in different water saturations were analyzed by using a DYQ-1 multi-function displacement device. Analysis on core components shows that the Longmaxi shale is a highly crushable reservoir with a high content of fragile minerals, so fracturing stimulation is suitable for it. Shale compression strength test reveals that the effects of deionized water, formation water and slick water on shale are different, so the compression strength of shale before being saturated is quite different from that after being saturated. Due to the existence of water, the compression strength of shale drops, so the shale can be fractured easily, more fractures are generated and thus its seepage capacity is improved. Experiments on shale gas seepage under different water saturations show that under the condition of fluid–solid coupling, the higher the water saturation is, the better the propagation and seepage capacity of micro-fractures in shale under the effect of pressure. To sum up, the existence of water is beneficial to fracturing stimulation of shale gas reservoirs and helps to achieve the goal of production improvement. Keywords: Shale gas, Core, Fluid–solid coupling, Water, Compression strength, Permeability, Seepage characteristic, Sichuan Basin

  1. On leakage and seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Unger, A.J.A.; Hepple, R.P.; Jordan, P.D.

    2002-07-18

    Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy for reducing the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ) concentrations (IEA, 1997; Reichle, 2000). As used here, the term geologic carbon sequestration refers to the direct injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} deep into subsurface target formations. These target formations will typically be either depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or brine-filled permeable formations referred to here as brine formations. Injected CO{sub 2} will tend to be trapped by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) permeability trapping, for example when buoyant supercritical CO{sub 2} rises until trapped by a confining caprock; (2) solubility trapping, for example when CO{sub 2} dissolves into the aqueous phase in water-saturated formations, or (3) mineralogic trapping, such as occurs when CO{sub 2} reacts to produce stable carbonate minerals. When CO{sub 2} is trapped in the subsurface by any of these mechanisms, it is effectively sequestered away from the atmosphere where it would otherwise act as a greenhouse gas. The purpose of this report is to summarize our work aimed at quantifying potential CO{sub 2} seepage due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites. The approach we take is to present first the relevant properties of CO{sub 2} over the range of conditions from the deep subsurface to the vadose zone (Section 2), and then discuss conceptual models for how leakage might occur (Section 3). The discussion includes consideration of gas reservoir and natural gas storage analogs, along with some simple estimates of seepage based on assumed leakage rates. The conceptual model discussion provides the background for the modeling approach wherein we focus on simulating transport in the vadose zone, the last potential barrier to CO{sub 2} seepage (Section 4). Because of the potentially wide range of possible properties of actual future geologic sequestration sites, we carry out sensitivity analyses by

  2. Numerical Analysis on Seepage in the deep overburden CFRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyu, GUO; Junrui, CHAI; Yuan, QIN

    2017-12-01

    There are many problems in the construction of hydraulic structures on deep overburden because of its complex foundation structure and poor geological condition. Seepage failure is one of the main problems. The Combination of the seepage control system of the face rockfill dam and the deep overburden can effectively control the seepage of construction of the concrete face rockfill dam on the deep overburden. Widely used anti-seepage measures are horizontal blanket, waterproof wall, curtain grouting and so on, but the method, technique and its effect of seepage control still have many problems thus need further study. Due to the above considerations, Three-dimensional seepage field numerical analysis based on practical engineering case is conducted to study the seepage prevention effect under different seepage prevention methods, which is of great significance to the development of dam technology and the development of hydropower resources in China.

  3. A seepage meter designed for use in flowing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, D.O.

    2008-01-01

    Seepage meters provide one of the most direct means to measure exchange of water across the sediment-water interface, but they generally have been unsuitable for use in fluvial settings. Although the seepage bag can be placed inside a rigid container to minimize velocity head concerns, the seepage cylinder installed in the sediment bed projects into and disrupts the flow field, altering both the local-scale fluid exchange as well as measurement of that exchange. A low-profile seepage meter designed for use in moving water was tested in a seepage meter flux tank where both current velocity and seepage velocity could be controlled. The conical seepage cylinder protrudes only slightly above the sediment bed and is connected via tubing to a seepage bag or flowmeter positioned inside a rigid shelter that is located nearby where current velocity is much slower. Laboratory and field tests indicate that the net effect of the small protrusion of the seepage cylinder into the surface water flow field is inconsequentially small for surface water currents up to 65 cm s-1. Current velocity affects the variability of seepage measurements; seepage standard deviation increased from ???2 to ???6 cm d-1 as current velocity increased from 9 to 65 cm s-1. Substantial bias can result if the shelter is not placed to minimize hydraulic gradient between the bag and the seepage cylinder.

  4. Drift-Scale THC Seepage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R. Bryan

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this report (REV04) is to document the thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) seepage model, which simulates the composition of waters that could potentially seep into emplacement drifts, and the composition of the gas phase. The THC seepage model is processed and abstracted for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Post-Processing Analysis for THC Seepage) Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172761]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertaining to the technical scope, content, and management of this report. The plan for validation of the models documented in this report is given in Section 2.2.2, ''Model Validation for the DS THC Seepage Model,'' of the TWP. The TWP (Section 3.2.2) identifies Acceptance Criteria 1 to 4 for ''Quantity and Chemistry of Water Contacting Engineered Barriers and Waste Forms'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) as being applicable to this report; however, in variance to the TWP, Acceptance Criterion 5 has also been determined to be applicable, and is addressed, along with the other Acceptance Criteria, in Section 4.2 of this report. Also, three FEPS not listed in the TWP (2.2.10.01.0A, 2.2.10.06.0A, and 2.2.11.02.0A) are partially addressed in this report, and have been added to the list of excluded FEPS in Table 6.1-2. This report has been developed in accordance with LP-SIII.10Q-BSC, ''Models''. This report documents the THC seepage model and a derivative used for validation, the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC submodel. The THC seepage model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral

  5. Drift-Scale THC Seepage Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.R. Bryan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report (REV04) is to document the thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) seepage model, which simulates the composition of waters that could potentially seep into emplacement drifts, and the composition of the gas phase. The THC seepage model is processed and abstracted for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Post-Processing Analysis for THC Seepage) Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172761]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertaining to the technical scope, content, and management of this report. The plan for validation of the models documented in this report is given in Section 2.2.2, ''Model Validation for the DS THC Seepage Model,'' of the TWP. The TWP (Section 3.2.2) identifies Acceptance Criteria 1 to 4 for ''Quantity and Chemistry of Water Contacting Engineered Barriers and Waste Forms'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) as being applicable to this report; however, in variance to the TWP, Acceptance Criterion 5 has also been determined to be applicable, and is addressed, along with the other Acceptance Criteria, in Section 4.2 of this report. Also, three FEPS not listed in the TWP (2.2.10.01.0A, 2.2.10.06.0A, and 2.2.11.02.0A) are partially addressed in this report, and have been added to the list of excluded FEPS in Table 6.1-2. This report has been developed in accordance with LP-SIII.10Q-BSC, ''Models''. This report documents the THC seepage model and a derivative used for validation, the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC submodel. The THC seepage model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral alteration on flow in rocks surrounding drifts. The DST THC submodel uses a drift

  6. Organic geochemistry of oils and condensates in the Kekeya field, southwest depression of the Tarim Basin (China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maowen Li; Snowdon, L.R. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary (Canada); Renzi Lin; Peirong Wang [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China); Yongsheng Liao; Peilong Li [Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau, Shandong (China)

    1999-07-01

    This study shows that the oils and condensates in the Kekeya Field in the Tarim Basin, NW China, belong to a single family, most likely derived from marine shale source rocks deposited under oxic-suboxic conditions with mixed terrigenous and algal-bacterial organic inputs. The maturity data clearly indicate that the paraffinic condensates were not formed by thermal cracking of oil during late catagenesis (R{sub o} > 1.2%). Both the oils and condensates were generated within the normal oil window, whereas addition of gaseous hydrocarbons from a separate source resulted in migration fractionation and hence spuriously high heptane indices. Age specific biomarkers show that the oils and condensates were not generated from the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata, but from the Carboniferous-Permian sections. 1D basin modelling results are consistent with this interpretation, suggesting that the Mesozoic-Eocene strata are currently immature with respect to hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. Deep-seated faults may have provided routes for upward fluid migration at the time of active deformation during several pulses of the Himalayan orogeny. The favoured targets for further petroleum exploration in front of the Kunlun Mountains include the deep structures within the Carboniferous-Permian strata for indigenous petroleum accumulations and anticlines and stratigraphic traps within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sections that are cut by deep-seated thrust faults where secondary petroleum accumulations most likely occurred. (author)

  7. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah

  8. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province as part of the its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. This geologic province is north of western Siberia, Russian Federation, in the North Kara Sea between Novaya Zemlya to the west and Severnaya Zemlya to the east. One assessment unit (AU) was defined, the North Kara Basins and Platforms AU, which coincides with the geologic province. This AU was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The total estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the province are ~1.8 billion barrels of crude oil, ~15.0 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and ~0.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  9. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, north of the Arctic Circle, as part of the Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated between the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt and the Siberian craton. The one assessment unit (AU) defined for this study—the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep AU—was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep in the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province are ~400 million barrels of crude oil, 1.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 40 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, practically all (99.49 percent) of which is north of the Arctic Circle.

  10. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah

  11. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  12. Produced water ponds are an important source of aromatics and alcohols in Rocky Mountain oil and gas basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the water extracted with oil and natural gas (i.e., produced water) is disposed of by injection into the subsurface. In the arid western United States, however, a significant portion of produced water is discharged in ponds for evaporative disposal, and produced water is often stored in open ponds prior to subsurface injection. Even though they are common in the West (Utah's Uinta Basin has almost 200 ha), produced water ponds have been excluded from oil and gas emissions inventories because little information about their emission rates and speciation is available. We used flux chambers and inverse plume modeling to measure emissions of methane, C2-C11 hydrocarbons, light alcohols, carbonyls, and carbon dioxide from oil and gas produced water storage and disposal ponds in the Uinta Basin and the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming, during 2013-2017. Methanol was the most abundant organic compound in produced water (91 ± 2% of the total volatile organic concentration; mean ± 95% confidence interval) but accounted for only 25 ± 30% of total organic compound emissions from produced water ponds. Non-methane hydrocarbons, especially C6-C9 alkanes and aromatics, accounted for the majority of emitted organics. We were able to predict emissions of individual compounds based on water concentrations, but only to within an order of magnitude. The speciation and magnitude of emissions varied strongly across facilities and was influenced by water age, the presence or absence of oil sheens, and with meteorological conditions (especially ice cover). Flux chamber measurements were lower than estimates from inverse modeling techniques.Based on our flux chamber measurements, we estimate that produced water ponds are responsible for between 3 and 9% of all non-methane organic compound emissions in the Uinta Basin (or as much as 18% if we rely on our inverse modeling results). Emissions from produced water ponds contain little methane and are more reactive (i.e., they have

  13. An organic geochemical correlation study of some Drmno depresssion crude oils (southern part of the Pannonian Basin, Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. VITOROVIC

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation of crude oils originating from the Sirakovo and Bradarac-Maljurevac localities (southern part of the Pannonian Basin are reported in this paper. The aim was to estimate the organic geochemical similarity of the crude oils from the Drmno (Kostolac depression oil fields. The nine selected samples originated from reservoir rocks of various depths. Reliable source and organic geochemical maturation parameters served as the basis for the correlation studies. The similar origin of the investigated Drmno depression crude oils was corroborated, characterized by a significant participation of terrestrial precursor biomass. They were shown to be of relatively low maturity and to have been formed during the earlier stages of the diagenet- ic-catagenetic sequence of processes leading to the formation of crude oils, most probably in source rocks ofTertiary age, corresponding to vitrinite reflectances between Ro = 0.70 % and Ro = 0.80 %. The crude oils from Bradarac-Maljurevac seemed to be somewhat less homogeneous with respect to organic geochemical parameters compared to Sirakovo crude oils.

  14. Phase I Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (904-83G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the completed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS) for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (LAOCB)/L-Area Acid Caustic Basin (9LAACB) Solid Waste Management Unit/Operable Unit (SWMU/OU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  15. Emission of Methane and Heavier Alkanes From the La Brea Tar Pits Seepage Area, Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiope, G.; Doezema, L. A.; Pacheco, C.

    2017-11-01

    Natural hydrocarbon (oil and gas) seeps are widespread in Los Angeles, California, due to gas migration, along faults, from numerous subsurface petroleum fields. These seeps may represent important natural contributors of methane (CH4) and heavier alkanes (C2-C4) to the atmosphere, in addition to anthropogenic fossil fuel and biogenic sources. We measured the CH4 flux by closed-chamber method from the La Brea Tar Pits park (0.1 km2), one of the largest seepage sites in Los Angeles. The gas seepage occurs throughout the park, not only from visible oil-asphalt seeps but also diffusely from the soil, affecting grass physiology. About 500 kg CH4 d-1 is emitted from the park, especially along a belt of enhanced degassing that corresponds to the 6th Street Fault. Additional emissions are from bubble plumes in the lake within the park (order of 102-103 kg d-1) and at the intersection of Wilshire Boulevard and Curson Avenue (>130 kg d-1), along the same fault. The investigated area has the highest natural gas flux measured thus far for any onshore seepage zone in the USA. Gas migration, oil biodegradation, and secondary methanogenesis altered the molecular composition of the original gas accumulated in the Salt Lake Oil Field (>300 m deep), leading to high C1/C2+ and i-butane/n-butane ratios. These molecular alterations can be important tracers of natural seepage and should be considered in the atmospheric modeling of the relative contribution of fossil fuel (anthropogenic fugitive emission and natural geologic sources) versus biogenic sources of methane, on local and global scales.

  16. The tidal influence on oil and gas emissions from an abandoned oil well: Nearshore Summerland, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Wilson, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Oil and gas emissions were quantified for natural and human sources in nearshore waters off Summerland, California through deployment of custom designed collection tents. Seepage was measured at a repeatedly abandoned well, on the seabed from a caisson located along the historical location of the Treadwell Wharf, where the world's first off-shore oil wells were drilled at the end of the 19th century. Seepage rates at the capped T-10 Well, located in ∼5 m water, showed high correlation to tides. Site emissions were 2.4 and 38.7 L day -1 oil and gas, respectively. Emissions were measured from two areas of seepage at the T-10 Well Site. Oil and gas ratios were inversely correlated between the two seepage areas, demonstrating connectivity. Data were interpreted in terms of an electronic circuit model of seepage with respect to the time lag between local low tide and peak oil emissions

  17. A hybrid Delphi-SWOT paradigm for oil and gas pipeline strategic planning in Caspian Sea basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavana, Madjid; Pirdashti, Mohsen; Kennedy, Dennis T.; Belaud, Jean-Pierre; Behzadian, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The Caspian Sea basin holds large quantities of both oil and natural gas that could help meet the increasing global demand for energy resources. Consequently, the oil and gas potential of the region has attracted the attention of the international oil and gas industry. The key to realizing the energy producing potential of the region is the development of transnational export routes to take oil and gas from the landlocked Caspian Sea basin to world markets. The evaluation and selection of alternative transnational export routes is a complex multi-criteria problem with conflicting objectives. The decision makers (DMs) are required to consider a vast amount of information concerning internal strengths and weaknesses of the alternative routes as well as external opportunities and threats to them. This paper presents a hybrid model that combines strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) analysis with the Delphi method. - Highlights: ► The evaluation and selection of the pipeline routes is a multi-criteria problem. ► A hybrid SWOT-Delphi method is proposed to evaluate five potential routes. ► The Southern and Northern routes are chosen as the best and second-best options. ► The second best option is identified to provide some degree of diversification.

  18. Infiltration and Seepage Through Fractured Welded Tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.A. Ghezzehei; P.F. Dobson; J.A. Rodriguez; P.J. Cook

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I mine in Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico, contains a uranium ore deposit within fractured tuff. Previous mining activities exposed a level ground surface 8 m above an excavated mining adit. In this paper, we report results of ongoing research to understand and model percolation through the fractured tuff and seepage into a mined adit both of which are important processes for the performance of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Travel of water plumes was modeled using one-dimensional numerical and analytical approaches. Most of the hydrologic properly estimates were calculated from mean fracture apertures and fracture density. Based on the modeling results, we presented constraints for the arrival time and temporal pattern of seepage at the adit

  19. Infiltration and Seepage Through Fractured Welded Tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Ghezzehei; P.F. Dobson; J.A. Rodriguez; P.J. Cook

    2006-06-20

    The Nopal I mine in Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico, contains a uranium ore deposit within fractured tuff. Previous mining activities exposed a level ground surface 8 m above an excavated mining adit. In this paper, we report results of ongoing research to understand and model percolation through the fractured tuff and seepage into a mined adit both of which are important processes for the performance of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Travel of water plumes was modeled using one-dimensional numerical and analytical approaches. Most of the hydrologic properly estimates were calculated from mean fracture apertures and fracture density. Based on the modeling results, we presented constraints for the arrival time and temporal pattern of seepage at the adit.

  20. Geophysical and hydrologic studies of lake seepage variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Laura; Nyquist, Jonathan E.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Gagliano, Michael P.; Mitchell, Natasha; Mikochik, James

    2014-01-01

    Variations in lake seepage were studied along a 130 m shoreline of Mirror Lake NH. Seepage was downward from the lake to groundwater; rates measured from 28 seepage meters varied from 0 to −282 cm/d. Causes of this variation were investigated using electrical resistivity surveys and lakebed sediment characterization. Two-dimensional (2D) resistivity surveys showed a transition in lakebed sediments from outwash to till that correlated with high- and low-seepage zones, respectively. However, the 2D survey was not able to predict smaller scale variations within these facies. In the outwash, fast seepage was associated with permeability variations in a thin (2 cm) layer of sediments at the top of the lakebed. In the till, where seepage was slower than that in the outwash, a three-dimensional resistivity survey mapped a point of high seepage associated with heterogeneity (lower resistivity and likely higher permeability). Points of focused flow across the sediment–water interface are difficult to detect and can transmit a large percentage of total exchange. Using a series of electrical resistivity geophysical methods in combination with hydrologic data to locate heterogeneities that affect seepage rates can help guide seepage meter placement. Improving our understanding of the causes and types of heterogeneity in lake seepage will provide better data for lake budgets and prediction of mass transfer of solutes or contaminants between lakes and groundwater.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  2. Solution of AntiSeepage for Mengxi River Based on Numerical Simulation of Unsaturated Seepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Youjun; Zhang, Linzhi; Yue, Jiannan

    2014-01-01

    Lessening the leakage of surface water can reduce the waste of water resources and ground water pollution. To solve the problem that Mengxi River could not store water enduringly, geology investigation, theoretical analysis, experiment research, and numerical simulation analysis were carried out. Firstly, the seepage mathematical model was established based on unsaturated seepage theory; secondly, the experimental equipment for testing hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soil was developed to obtain the curve of two-phase flow. The numerical simulation of leakage in natural conditions proves the previous inference and leakage mechanism of river. At last, the seepage control capacities of different impervious materials were compared by numerical simulations. According to the engineering actuality, the impervious material was selected. The impervious measure in this paper has been proved to be effectible by hydrogeological research today. PMID:24707199

  3. Solution of AntiSeepage for Mengxi River Based on Numerical Simulation of Unsaturated Seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youjun Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lessening the leakage of surface water can reduce the waste of water resources and ground water pollution. To solve the problem that Mengxi River could not store water enduringly, geology investigation, theoretical analysis, experiment research, and numerical simulation analysis were carried out. Firstly, the seepage mathematical model was established based on unsaturated seepage theory; secondly, the experimental equipment for testing hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soil was developed to obtain the curve of two-phase flow. The numerical simulation of leakage in natural conditions proves the previous inference and leakage mechanism of river. At last, the seepage control capacities of different impervious materials were compared by numerical simulations. According to the engineering actuality, the impervious material was selected. The impervious measure in this paper has been proved to be effectible by hydrogeological research today.

  4. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, M. Lee; Chidsey, Thomas Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million bbl of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO-) flood 2 project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals

  5. Observations on sediment sources in the Lower Athabasca River basin: implications of natural hydrocarbons inputs from oil sands deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conly, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Government, industry and public concern exists over the environmental consequences of the development of the oil sand deposits in the McMurray Formation in the lower Athabasca River basin, Alberta. The impact of this development is unclear and is undergoing investigation. Investigations to date have focussed on the nature of the effluent produced by the extraction industry and its effect on biotic systems, and on the spatial distribution of hydrocarbon contaminants associated with deposited fluvial sediments. Natural hydrocarbon outcrops may be responsible for observed biomarker responses in areas not exposed to industrial effluent. Given this source of hydrocarbons and doubt concerning its environmental impact, it is difficult to ascertain the impact of oil extraction activities within a fluvial system. A study was conducted to determine the nature and extent of natural hydrocarbon releases within the context of the sediment regime of the lower Athabasca River basin. A description is included of observations from the field and a context is set up for assessing sediment-bound hydrocarbon contaminants in the lower Athabasca River basin. Abstract only included

  6. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This progress report from the Savannah River Plant for first quarter 1992 includes discussion on the following topics: description of facilities; hydrostratigraphic units; monitoring well nomenclature; integrity of the monitoring well network; groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; tritium, nitrate, and pH time-trend data; water levels; groundwater flow rates and directions; upgradient versus downgradient results

  7. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This progress report from the Savannah River Plant for second quarter 1992 includes discussion on the following topics: description of facilities; hydrostratigraphic units; monitoring well nomenclature; integrity of the monitoring well network; groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; tritium, nitrate, and pH time-trend data; water levels; groundwater flow rates and directions; upgradient versus downgradient results

  8. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uintah Basin, Utah: oil and gas well pad emissions compared to ambient air composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uintah Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and for short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas well pads with collection and dehydration on the well pad were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas well pads showed that gas well pads without dehydration on the well pad compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool, and that oil well pads compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil well pads on average emit heavier compounds than gas well pads. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  9. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which

  10. Seepage through a hazardous-waste trench cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Water movement through a waste-trench cover under natural conditions at a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 to June 1984, using tensiometers, a moisture probe, and meteorological instruments. Four methods were used to estimate seepage: the Darcy, zero-flux plane, surface-based water-budget, and groundwater-based water-budget methods. Annual seepage estimates ranged from 48 to 216 mm (5-23% of total precipitation), with most seepage occurring in spring. The Darcy method, although limited in accuracy by uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity, was capable of discretizing seepage in space and time and indicated that seepage varied by almost an order of magnitude across the width of the trench. Lowest seepage rates occurred near the center of the cover, where seepage was gradual. Highest rates occurred along the edge of the cover, where seepage was highly episodic, with 84% of the total there being traced to wetting fronts from 28 individual storms. Limitations of the zero-flux-plane method were severe enough for the method to be judged inappropriate for use in this study.Water movement through a waste-trench cover under natural conditions at a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 to June 1984, using tensiometers, a moisture probe, and meteorological instruments. Four methods were used to estimate seepage: the Darcy, zero-flux plane, surface-based water-budget, and groundwater-based water-budget methods. Annual seepage estimates ranged from 48 to 216mm (5-23% of total precipitation), with most seepage occurring in spring. The Darcy method, although limited in accuracy by uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity, was capable of discretizing seepage in space and time and indicated that seepage varied by almost an order of magnitude across the width of the trench. Lowest seepage rates occurred near the center of the cover, where seepage was gradual. Highest

  11. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  12. Chapter 2. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley group, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System is defined for this assessment to include (1) Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation carbonates and calcareous shales and (2) Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group organic-rich shales. The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System includes four conventional Cotton Valley assessment units: Cotton Valley Blanket Sandstone Gas (AU 50490201), Cotton Valley Massive Sandstone Gas (AU 50490202), Cotton Valley Updip Oil and Gas (AU 50490203), and Cotton Valley Hypothetical Updip Oil (AU 50490204). Together, these four assessment units are estimated to contain a mean undiscovered conventional resource of 29.81 million barrels of oil, 605.03 billion cubic feet of gas, and 19.00 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The Cotton Valley Group represents the first major influx of clastic sediment into the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Major depocenters were located in south-central Mississippi, along the Louisiana-Mississippi border, and in northeast Texas. Reservoir properties and production characteristics were used to identify two Cotton Valley Group sandstone trends across northern Louisiana and east Texas: a high-permeability blanket-sandstone trend and a downdip, low-permeability massive-sandstone trend. Pressure gradients throughout most of both trends are normal, which is characteristic of conventional rather than continuous basin-center gas accumulations. Indications that accumulations in this trend are conventional rather than continuous include (1) gas-water contacts in at least seven fields across the blanket-sandstone trend, (2) relatively high reservoir permeabilities, and (3) high gas-production rates without fracture stimulation. Permeability is sufficiently low in the massive-sandstone trend that gas-water transition zones are vertically extensive and gas-water contacts are poorly defined. The interpreted presence of gas-water contacts within the Cotton Valley

  13. Diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette Oil Reservoir (Givetian-Frasnian), deep basin of west-central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.P.; Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1997-05-01

    The geology and diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette oil field of west-central Alberta basin was described. Present-day burial depth is 3900 m; formation temperature is 93 degrees C. Highest porosites (20 per cent) occur in dolostones of the lagoon, ref, and fore-reef depositional environments but limestones still retain porosities up to five per cent. Hydrocarbons are present in saddle dolomite fluid inclusions. Oxygen isotopes for replacement dolomites and late calcite suggest that the carbonate-precipitating fluids were derived from the Precambrian basement or Paleozoic clastics sourced from the basement. Faults may have acted as vertical conduits for fluid migration.

  14. Primary successions of vegetation on technogenic sand patches in oil and gas producing districts of the middle Ob' river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilova, I I

    1977-11-01

    Intensive economic exploitation of the natural resources of the oil-and-gas producing districts of the central Ob' basin has led to increased exposure of sandy patches over the landscape. These sandy areas are becoming a common site. Technogenic factors involved include, for example, construction projects, oil-drilling and the like. Exposure is accelerated by wind and water erosion. Efforts are underway to reintroduce verdure in the region, and a study has been underway of the features of the ecotope and the stages of natural overgrowth of the area of reclamation. This overgrowth is proceeding well. Vegetation is of the syngenetic succession type, involving four successive stages and formation of associations of a zonal character. Seventy-four species of yeast, 2 species of fungi, 2 of lichens, 19 of Bryophyton and 106 of vascular spore- and covered-seed plants of the area have been recorded, and are tabulated. Recultivation will require due attention to existing conditions. 14 references.

  15. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry

  16. Oil, gas potential in shallow water: Peru`s continental shelf basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Rivero, F.; Keeling, J.A.; Hay-Roe, H. [BPZ and Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-11-16

    This third article of a series highlights the three sedimentary basins that underlie the 16 million acres of continental shelf adjacent to a 650-mile stretch of Peruvian coastline. This area lies roughly between the ports of Chiclayo and Pisco. These basins offer a variety of reservoirs, traps, and source-rock potential in water depths of less than 1,000 ft. They are characterized by a thick sequence of Neogene strata, underlain by Paleogene, Mesozoic, and Upper Paleozoic sediments down to as much as 7 sec two-way time on modern seismic records. In some places the sedimentary section may reach an aggregate thickness in excess of 50,000 ft. From north to south these contiguous shelf basins are the Sechura-Salaverry, Huacho, and Pisco basins. All three basins are described.

  17. Geochemical studies based in microconstituent elements of oils, betuminous shales and its extracts from Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clain, Almir Faria

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum contains a high number of elements, considered as microconstituents, once they contribute with less than 1 % of its constitution. The concentration of those elements in the petroleum is very low, because it varies from ng/g to μg/g, therefore the use of sensitive and multielemental techniques is essential for their determination. The objective of this work is to determine the concentration of 46 microconstituent elements in organic extracts from the betuminous shales of the Irati Formation, and correlate oils from Paraná Basin, Brazil, using the instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. Aspects associated with origin, secondary migration, oil age, pH and E h values, and the redox conditions in the depositional environment of the organic matter are discussed. The concentration behavior of the microconstituent elements is presented using statistical techniques of multivariate analysis The determined oil concentration was about 10% and 0.14-0.91% for the reservoir rocks and organic extracts from source rocks, respectively. The concentration values of the elements in oils trended to decrease with the atomic number, ranging from 5-166 μg/g for AI, 24-238 for Fe and 0.0007-0.38 for U. For some elements, which are organically bound to oil, the results were 0.48-39 μg/g to V, 4.4-28 μg/g for Ni and 0.13-27 μg/g for Mo. The concentration values in oils and organic extracts samples presented a statistic distribution almost log-normal for most of determined elements. The concentration ratios U/Th and V/Cr are representative of paleo-redox condition index. (author)

  18. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louw, de P.G.B.; Eeman, S.; Siemon, B.; `Voortman, B.R.; Gunnink, J.; Baaren, E.S.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, freshwater availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and

  19. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Louw, Perry G.B.; Eeman, Sara; Siemon, Bernhard; Voortman, Bernard R.; Gunnink, Jan; Van Baaren, Esther S.; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, fresh water availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence

  20. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources, onshore Claiborne Group, United Statespart of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Ewing, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    The middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources using established U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology. This work was conducted as part of a 2007 assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, including the United States onshore and state waters (Dubiel et al., 2007). The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-CretaceousTertiary composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich, downdip, shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources, including the Jurassic Smackover Formation and the Haynesville and Bossier shales, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall (?) formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is currently ongoing. Primary reservoir sandstones in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data, including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AUs) with three distinctive structural and depositional settings. The three structural and depositional settings are (1) stable shelf, (2) expanded fault zone, and (3) slope and basin floor; the seven AUs are (1) lower Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (2) lower Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, (3) lower Claiborne slope and basin-floor gas, (4) lower Claiborne Cane River, (5) upper Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (6) upper Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, and (7) upper Claiborne slope and basin

  1. Final report on the sampling and analysis of sediment cores from the L-Area oil and chemical basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    Nine vibracores were collected in the L-Area oil and chemical basin (904-83G) during late March and early April 1985. These cores were collected for analysis of the sludge on the basin floor and the underlying sediment. Several different field and laboratory analyses were performed on each three inch segment of all the cores. These included: (1) Sediment characterization; (2) Percent moisture; (3) Dry weight; (4) Spectral gamma analysis; (5) Gross alpha and beta analysis. Detailed chemical analysis were measured on selected intervals of 2 cores (LBC-5 and 6) for complete chemical characterization of the sediments. This sampling program was conducted to provide information so that a closure plan for the basin could be developed. This report describes the methods employed during the project and provide a hard copy of the analytical results from the sample analyses. Included in the appendices are copies of all field and laboratory notes taken during the project and copies of the gas chromatograms for the petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. All chemical results were also submitted on a 5-inch floppy disk.

  2. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: point sources compared to ambient air composition

    OpenAIRE

    C. Warneke; F. Geiger; P. M. Edwards; W. Dube; G. Pétron; J. Kofler; A. Zahn; S. S. Brown; M. Graus; J. Gilman; B. Lerner; J. Peischl; T. B. Ryerson; J. A. de Gouw; J. M. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aroma...

  3. The Nature of Temporally Variable Methane Emissions at Oil and Natural Gas Operations in the Eagle Ford Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, T. N.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Stirm, B. H.; Conley, S. A.; Mehrotra, S.; Faloona, I. C.; Mayfield, M.; Lyon, D. R.; Alvarez, R.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the current state of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from oil and gas operations, policy makers refer to national inventories and reporting programs, and therefore, it is imperative that these reports are accurate and representative. Many studies exist that investigate the reliability of current monitoring methods, however, to our knowledge the temporal variability of the magnitude and source of methane (CH4) emissions from oil and gas facilities has not been reported in the literature. We present results from a field campaign conducted in June 2014 in the Eagle Ford basin, Texas to assess the temporal variability of emissions from a variety of facilities using data obtained through four different methods. The variability of total CH4 emission rate from individual facilities was investigated by repeated measurement of emissions from five gathering facilities using two aircraft-based mass balance approaches. Basin-wide emissions variation was examined by conducting a series of eight four hour afternoon aerial surveys of two 35 x 35 km areas, with transects oriented perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. The emission source-type and magnitude were further investigated using helicopter-based FLIR camera observations conducted repeatedly at eight oil wells, one gas well, and four gathering facilities. Results indicate a high degree of variability in day-to-day and sometimes hour-to-hour CH4 emissions magnitude. FLIR camera observations suggest that the component-level source of facility emissions is also highly variable over time, with both storage tank vent stacks and tank hatches representing important components of the observed day-to-day variability. While some emissions were due to scheduled maintenance, others appeared to occur due to faulty and/or aging equipment. Here we discuss what was learned in terms of factors that explain the observed emission rate variability.

  4. Faults as Windows to Monitor Gas Seepage: Application to CO2 Sequestration and CO2-EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Klusman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of potential gas seepage for CO2 sequestration and CO2-EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery in geologic storage will involve geophysical and geochemical measurements of parameters at depth and at, or near the surface. The appropriate methods for MVA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting are needed for both cost and technical effectiveness. This work provides an overview of some of the geochemical methods that have been demonstrated to be effective for an existing CO2-EOR (Rangely, CA, USA and a proposed project at Teapot Dome, WY, USA. Carbon dioxide and CH4 fluxes and shallow soil gas concentrations were measured, followed by nested completions of 10-m deep holes to obtain concentration gradients. The focus at Teapot Dome was the evaluation of faults as pathways for gas seepage in an under-pressured reservoir system. The measurements were supplemented by stable carbon and oxygen isotopic measurements, carbon-14, and limited use of inert gases. The work clearly demonstrates the superiority of CH4 over measurements of CO2 in early detection and quantification of gas seepage. Stable carbon isotopes, carbon-14, and inert gas measurements add to the verification of the deep source. A preliminary accounting at Rangely confirms the importance of CH4 measurements in the MVA application.

  5. Geographic information system (GIS)-based maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields: Chapter C.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Kinney, Scott A.; Suitt, Stephen E.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more recent maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields (and the adjoining Black Warrior basin) is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compilation by Mast and others (1998) (see Trippi and others, this volume, chap. I.1). This map is part of a larger oil and gas field map for the conterminous United States that was derived by Mast and others (1998) from the Well History Control System (WHCS) database of Petroleum Information, Inc. (now IHS Energy Group). Rather than constructing the map from the approximately 500,000 proprietary wells in the Appalachian and Black Warrior part of the WHCS database, Mast and others (1998) subdivided the region into a grid of 1-mi2 (square mile) cells and allocated an appropriate type of hydrocarbon production (oil production, gas production, oil and gas production, or explored but no production) to each cell. Each 1-mi2 cell contains from 0 to 5 or more exploratory and (or) development wells. For example, if the wells in the 1-mi2 cell consisted of three oil wells, one gas well, and one dry well, then the cell would be characterized on the map as an area of oil and gas production. The map by Mast and others (1998) accurately shows the distribution and types of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Appalachian and Black Warrior basins, but it does not show the names of individual fields. To determine the locality and name of individual oil and gas fields, one must refer to State oil and gas maps (for example, Harper and others, 1982), which are generally published at scales of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 (see References Cited), and (or) published journal articles.

  6. Phase II Interim Report - Assessment of Hydrocarbon Seepage Detection Methods on the Fort Peck Reservation, Northeast Montana; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, Lawrence M.

    2002-01-01

    The following work was performed: (1) collected reconnaissance micro-magnetic data and background field data for Area 1, (2) identified and collected soil sample data in three anomalous regions of Area 1, (3) sampled soils in Northwest Poplar Oil Field, (4) graphed, mapped, and interpreted all data areas listed above, (5) registered for the AAPG Penrose Conference on Hydrocarbon Seepage Mechanisms and Migration (postponed from 9/16/01 until 4/7/02 in Vancouver, B.C.). Results include the identification and confirmation of an oil and gas prospect in the northwest part of Area 1 and the verification of a potential shallow gas prospect in the West Poplar Area. Correlation of hydrocarbon micro-seepage to TM tonal anomalies needs further data analysis

  7. Phase II Interim Report -- Assessment of Hydrocarbon Seepage Detection Methods on the Fort Peck Reservation, Northeast Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monson, Lawrence M.

    2002-04-24

    The following work was performed: (1) collected reconnaissance micro-magnetic data and background field data for Area 1, (2) identified and collected soil sample data in three anomalous regions of Area 1, (3) sampled soils in Northwest Poplar Oil Field, (4) graphed, mapped, and interpreted all data areas listed above, (5) registered for the AAPG Penrose Conference on Hydrocarbon Seepage Mechanisms and Migration (postponed from 9/16/01 until 4/7/02 in Vancouver, B.C.). Results include the identification and confirmation of an oil and gas prospect in the northwest part of Area 1 and the verification of a potential shallow gas prospect in the West Poplar Area. Correlation of hydrocarbon micro-seepage to TM tonal anomalies needs further data analysis.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Uteland Butte Member of the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-09-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered resources of 214 million barrels of oil, 329 billion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 14 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the informal Uteland Butte member of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah.

  10. Determination of danger categories of chisel waste, which are made by investigation and operation of oil-and-gas deposits in the Caspian Sea basin by calculation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gadzhiyev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article there is undertaken the attempt to define danger categories of the chisel solutions formed at investigation and operation of oil-and-gas deposits in Caspian sea basin by making calculations. Definition of a danger category was made in view of their initial structure and at various stages of drilling.

  11. Evolution Procedure of Multiple Rock Cracks under Seepage Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoying Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical geotechnical engineering, most of rock masses with multiple cracks exist in water environment. Under such circumstance, these adjacent cracks could interact with each other. Moreover, the seepage pressure, produced by the high water pressure, can change cracks’ status and have an impact on the stress state of fragile rocks. According to the theory of fracture mechanics, this paper discusses the law of crack initiation and the evolution law of stress intensity factor at the tip of a wing crack caused by compression-shear stress and seepage pressure. Subsequently, considering the interaction of the wing cracks and the additional stress caused by rock bridge damage, this paper proposes the intensity factor evolution equation under the combined action of compression-shear stress and seepage pressure. In addition, this paper analyzes the propagation of cracks under different seepage pressure which reveals that the existence of seepage pressure facilitates the wing crack’s growth. The result indicates that the high seepage pressure converts wing crack growth from stable form to unstable form. Meanwhile, based on the criterion and mechanism for crack initiation and propagation, this paper puts forward the mechanical model for different fracture transfixion failure modes of the crag bridge under the combined action of seepage pressure and compression-shear stress. At the last part, this paper, through investigating the flexibility tensor of the rock mass’s initial damage and its damage evolution in terms of jointed rock mass's damage mechanics, deduces the damage evolution equation for the rock mass with multiple cracks under the combined action of compression-shear stress and seepage pressure. The achievement of this investigation provides a reliable theoretical principle for quantitative research of the fractured rock mass failure under seepage pressure.

  12. Influence of the Istranca-Rhodope Massifs and strands of the North Anatolian Fault on oil potential of Thrace Basin, NW Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Thrace Basin (NW Turkey) is an intermontane trough bounded to the north and west by the granitic and metamorphic rocks of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs. Recent subsurface studies of the NW portion of the Thrace Basin have led to the identification of two trends in geothermal gradient, both of which are oriented approximately NW-SE (i.e. parallel to the depositional axis of the basin). Geological and geophysical data indicate that, due to the thrust of the Istranca Massif upon the Rhodope Massif, the subsurface temperature may have increased in the northern part of the basin. Other controls were wrench-fault activity of the Splays of the North Anatolian Fault (SNAF) and continuing basinal subsidences. The thermal history of the southern part of the basin was affected by Miocene ophiolitic emplacement to the west in Greece. The presence of a belt of intrabasinal palaeotopography (mainly Palaeozoic rocks) also contributed to increased geothermal gradients in the southern part of the study area. The basin is divisible into northern and southern zones of subsidence, which are separated by the Kuleli-Babaeski High. During the Oligocene, subsidence rates were highest in the northern zone and in the western sector of the southern zone. Later, during the Miocene, basin subsidence was associated with intense tectonic activity of the SNAF and with the emplacement of ophiolites to the west. A map of the top of the oil generation zone, based on TTI values calculated by the Lopatin method, indicates the presence of two maturation zones in the basin ; these were separated by the Late Oligocene Kuleli-Babaeski High. Oil generation in these zones was influenced by rapid subsidence, by a NW-SE oriented wrench fault system associated with the NAF and also by tectonic activity of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs in the study area

  13. Oil majors under states pressure: two examples in the Caspian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussac, Samuel; Raballand, Gael

    2011-01-01

    All over the world, and especially in developing countries, governments strive to strengthen national oil companies over oil and gas majors. The Caspian, and notably Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan, is not an exception to this current trend. This article sheds light on the leverages both Azerbaijani and Kazakhstani governments have used to increase pressure over oil and gas multinationals. In a first step, they both established a publicly-owned integrated company managed by the presidential entourage. Then, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan have applied various instruments. Baku has sought to increase its own oil production to decrease the role of majors while Astana has preferred to use ecological, fiscal, legal and logistical leverages. However, in both cases, the outcome has been rather similar since the increasing pressure over majors has not necessarily led to benefit local populations

  14. Investigation of seepage under the Wenxiakou dam using radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhangsu

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the result of seepage observation on the dam foundation of Wenxiakou Reservoir using radioactive NaI (I-131) as a tracer. The main feature of the observing technique is to ascertain the seepages between the dam foundation and the clay core wall and around the abutment by measuring vertical flow. The results obtained from the observation have provided some important information for planning the engineering project of anti-seepage and reinforcement of the dam foundation and its right abutment. (author). 2 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  15. Modelling and simulation of compressible fluid flow in oil reservoir: a case study of the Jubilee Field, Tano Basin (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawusu, S.

    2015-07-01

    Oil extraction represents an important investment and the control of a rational exploitation of a field means mastering various scientific techniques including the understanding of the dynamics of fluids in place. This thesis presents a theoretical investigation of the dynamic behaviour of an oil reservoir during its exploitation. The study investigated the dynamics of fluid flow patterns in a homogeneous oil reservoir using the Radial Diffusivity Equation (RDE) as well as two phase oil-water flow equations. The RDE model was solved analytically and numerically for pressure using the Constant Terminal Rate Solution (CTRS) and the fully implicit Finite Difference Method (FDM) respectively. The mathematical derivations of the models and their solution procedures were presented to allow for easy utilization of the techniques for reservoir and engineering applications. The study predicted that the initial oil reservoir pressure will be able to do the extraction for a very long time before any other recovery method will be used to aid in the extraction process depending on the rate of production. Reservoir simulation describing a one dimensional radial flow of a compressible fluid in porous media may be adequately performed using ordinary laptop computers as revealed by the study. For the simulation of MATLAB, the case of the Jubilee Fields, Tano Basin was studied, an algorithm was developed for the simulation of pressure in the reservoir. It ensues from the analysis of the plots of pressure vrs time and space that the Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) was duly followed. The approximate solutions of the analytical and numerical solutions to the Radial Diffusivity Equation (RDE) were in excellent agreement, thus the reservoir simulation model developed can be used to describe typical pressure-time relationships that are used in conventional Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA). The study was extended to two phase oil-water flow in reservoirs. The flow of fluids in multi

  16. Magnetic enhancement caused by hydrocarbon migration in the Mawangmiao Oil Field, Jianghan Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingsheng; Yang, Tao [Department of Geophysics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Qingsong [National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Chan, Lungsang [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Xia, Xianghua; Cheng, Tongjin [Wuxi Institute of Petroleum Geology, SNOPEC, Jiangsu Wuxi 214151 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Magnetic parameters (volume-specific susceptibility k, and hysteresis parameters and ratios) of 47 samples, collected from an oil-producing well (M{sub 36}) and a dry well (M{sub 46}) from the oil-bearing II-You Formation of Paleogene Xingouzui Group in the Mawangmiao Oil Field in China, were measured to address the secondary alteration of iron-bearing minerals associated with hydrocarbon migration. Our results indicated that both k and magnetization (saturation magnetization J{sub s} and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization J{sub rs}) of oil-bearing formation have been dramatically enhanced. Further grain size estimation reveals that the background samples (samples both in M{sub 46} and outside the oil-bearing formation in M{sub 36}) contain coarser-grained magnetic particles (circa 30{mu}m) of detrital origin. In contrast, the alteration of hydrocarbon produces finer-grained (circa 25nm) magnetic particles. The new constraints on grain sizes and its origin of the hydrocarbon-related magnetic particles improve our understanding of the mechanism of formation of these secondary finer-grained particles, even though the precise nature of this process is still unknown. (author)

  17. The analysis of physicochemical characteristics of pig farm seepage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dikonketso Matjuda

    -bodies, promoting ... that the seepage from pig farm degraded the natural environment by causing eutrophication, promote ... mainly livestock droppings, heavy metals, fertilizers and ... from microorganisms to insects, birds, fish, and at the.

  18. Three Dimensional Seepage Analyses in Mollasadra Dam after Its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    constructed on Kor River. pore water pressure in the dam was investigated following its construction and first and second ... Some problems like seepage failure and slope stability are ... In addition, the effects of change in certain input ...

  19. Calculating earth dam seepage using HYDRUS software applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Nieć

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulations of water seepage within and under the embankment dam of Lake Kowalskie reservoir. The aim of the study was to compare seepage calculation results obtained using analytical and numerical methods. In April 1985, after the first filling of the reservoir to normal storage levels, water leaks was observed at the base of the escarpment, on the air side of the dam. In order to control seepage flow, drainage was performed and additional piezometers installed. To explain the causes of increased pressure in the aquifer under the dam in May 1985 a simplified calculation of filtration was performed. Now, on the basis of archived data from the Department of Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineering using 3D HYDRUS STANDARD software, the conditions of seepage under the dam have been recreated and re-calculated. Piezometric pressure was investigated in three variants of drainage, including drainage before and after modernization.

  20. modelingthe effect the effect of contact and seepage forces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This research work has investigated the contribution of contact force and seepage force to the ... e equilibrium model has deduced an expression for the safe hydraulic head during well ...... Plastic deformation of soils simulation using DEM,.

  1. Oils from different depth in the Alagoas sub-basin distribution and concentration; Oleos em diferentes profundidades na sub-bacia Alagoas: distribuicao e econcentracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboucas, Lucia M.C.; Sant' Ana, Antonio E.G.; Sabino, Adilson R.; Nogueira, Fred A.R.; Moraes, Reinaldo J.R.; Crispim, Alessandre [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia . Lab. de Analises de Biomarcadores e Semioquimicos]. E-mail: lmcr@qui.ufal.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the distribution and the concentration of n-alkane homologue series and the HPA compounds in 22 oils from Alagoas sub-basin, Pilar Field, Brazil. The n-alkane profile of whole oil gas chromatograms (CG-FID) to light, medium and heave oils represented no-biodegraded oils. The light and medium oils have n-alkane distribution with a maximum in nC{sub 10} and nC{sub 17}. The ration pristine/phytane (P/F) between 1,5 and 2,7 suggest Lacustrine origin. The nalkane distribution from the heavy oils show two maximum between nC{sub 15} and nC{sub 23}. The concentrations of n-alkane are different to all the 22 oils. The F2 fraction classified as light (API>39), medium (36oils show that they can be readily distinguished to three or four oil families in each oil class. Therefore, it seems that the same oil can belong to different family accord to abundance of n-alkane or to the HPA, F2 fraction, compounds. By the F2 fraction we can suggest different families or different migration route. The oils show by GC-MS (characteristic ion m/z to each class) abundant fluorenone and alkylfluorenones compounds. Other HPA homologue series compounds as: naphthalene, biphenyl, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran, chrysene, mono- and triaromatic steroid, benzohopane and their alkyl derivates, were identified in the oils. (author)

  2. Water resources and shale gas/oil production in the Appalachian Basin: critical issues and evolving developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, William M.; Williams, John H.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas and oil resources in the United States are important components of a national energy program. While the Nation seeks greater energy independence and greener sources of energy, Federal agencies with environmental responsibilities, state and local regulators and water-resource agencies, and citizens throughout areas of unconventional shale gas development have concerns about the environmental effects of high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF), including those in the Appalachian Basin in the northeastern United States (fig. 1). Environmental concerns posing critical challenges include the availability and use of surface water and groundwater for hydraulic fracturing; the migration of stray gas and potential effects on overlying aquifers; the potential for flowback, formation fluids, and other wastes to contaminate surface water and groundwater; and the effects from drill pads, roads, and pipeline infrastructure on land disturbance in small watersheds and headwater streams (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2012). Federal, state, regional and local agencies, along with the gas industry, are striving to use the best science and technology to develop these unconventional resources in an environmentally safe manner. Some of these concerns were addressed in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet 2009–3032 (Soeder and Kappel, 2009) about potential critical effects on water resources associated with the development of gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale of the Hamilton Group (Ver Straeten and others, 1994). Since that time, (1) the extraction process has evolved, (2) environmental awareness related to high-volume hydraulic fracturing process has increased, (3) state regulations concerning gas well drilling have been modified, and (4) the practices used by industry to obtain, transport, recover, treat, recycle, and ultimately dispose of the spent fluids and solid waste materials have evolved. This report updates and expands on Fact Sheet 2009

  3. Modeling Coupled Evaporation and Seepage in Ventilated Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezzehei, T.; Trautz, R.; Finsterle, S.; Cook, P.; Ahlers, C.

    2004-01-01

    Cavities excavated in unsaturated geological formations are important to activities such as nuclear waste disposal and mining. Such cavities provide a unique setting for simultaneous occurrence of seepage and evaporation. Previously, inverse numerical modeling of field liquid-release tests and associated seepage into cavities were used to provide seepage-related large-scale formation properties by ignoring the impact of evaporation. The applicability of such models was limited to the narrow range of ventilation conditions under which the models were calibrated. The objective of this study was to alleviate this limitation by incorporating evaporation into the seepage models. We modeled evaporation as an isothermal vapor diffusion process. The semi-physical model accounts for the relative humidity, temperature, and ventilation conditions of the cavities. The evaporation boundary layer thickness (BLT) over which diffusion occurs was estimated by calibration against free-water evaporation data collected inside the experimental cavities. The estimated values of BLT were 5 to 7 mm for the open underground drifts and 20 mm for niches closed off by bulkheads. Compared to previous models that neglected the effect of evaporation, this new approach showed significant improvement in capturing seepage fluctuations into open cavities of low relative humidity. At high relative-humidity values (greater than 85%), the effect of evaporation on seepage was very small

  4. Origin of a Tertiary oil from El Mahafir wildcat & geochemical correlation to some Muglad source rocks, Muglad basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadul Abul Gebbayin, Omer. I. M.; Zhong, Ningning; Ali Ibrahim, Gulfan; Ali Alzain, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Source rock screening analysis was performed on four stratigraphic units from the Muglad basin namely; Abu Gabra, Zarqa, Ghazal, and Baraka formations using pyrolysis and Vitrinite Reflectance (Ro). Results, integrated with the chromatographic and isotopic data from these rocks extracts and a Tertiary oil from El Mahafir-1 wild cat, were used to determine the origin of the oil. A good organic source within the Middle Abu Gabra Formation is observed in wells El Toor-6 and Neem Deep-1 (TOC, 1.0-2.0% & S2 5.0-10.0 mg C/g rock), with mixed kerogens I, II, & III, and thermally mature (% Ro = 0.74-0.94). The Campanian-Early Maastrichtian sequence, i.e. Zarqa and Ghazal formations are generally poor (TOC, diversity, both in space and time and is characterized by dominant algal input at some areas and or stratigraphic intervals [Elevated tricyclics, higher C29/C30 hopanes (0.5-1.14), and relatively low Gammacerane indices (4.6-14.4)], while mixed with abundant terrigenous material at others. A direct correlation between El Mahafir oil and the Abu Gabra extracts is thus inferred based on: its mixed organic source nature, oxic to sub-oxic depositional environment (Pr/Ph 1.22), relatively low C29/C30 hopanes (0.54), low C28 steranes (29%), and a high gammacerane index (20.5). This is largely supported by the maturity modeling results which suggest generation is only from the Abu Gabra at this location.

  5. Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado. Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995. There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  6. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  7. Appalachian basin oil and natural gas: stratigraphic framework, total petroleum systems, and estimated ultimate recovery: Chapter C.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The most recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Appalachian basin was completed in 2002 (Milici and others, 2003). This assessment was based on the total petroleum system (TPS), a concept introduced by Magoon and Dow (1994) and developed during subsequent studies such as those by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (2000) and by Biteau and others (2003a,b). Each TPS is based on specific geologic elements that include source rocks, traps and seals, reservoir rocks, and the generation and migration of hydrocarbons. This chapter identifies the TPSs defined in the 2002 Appalachian basin oil and gas assessment and places them in the context of the stratigraphic framework associated with regional geologic cross sections D–D′ (Ryder and others, 2009, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.1) and E–E′ (Ryder and others, 2008, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.2). Furthermore, the chapter presents a recent estimate of the ultimate recoverable oil and natural gas in the basin.

  8. Effects of Uncertainty and Spatial Variability on Seepage into Drifts in the Yucca Mountain Total system Performance Assessment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinich, D. A.; Wilson, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Seepage into the repository drifts is an important factor in total-system performance. Uncertainty and spatial variability are considered in the seepage calculations. The base-case results show 13.6% of the waste packages (WPs) have seepage. For 5th percentile uncertainty, 4.5% of the WPs have seepage and the seepage flow decreased by a factor of 2. For 95th percentile uncertainty, 21.5% of the WPs have seepage and the seepage flow increased by a factor of 2. Ignoring spatial variability resulted in seepage on 100% of the WPs, with a factor of 3 increase in the seepage flow

  9. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  10. Oil and gas development footprint in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cericia D.; Preston, Todd M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding long-term implications of energy development on ecosystem functionrequires establishing regional datasets to quantify past development and determine relationships to predict future development. The Piceance Basin in western Colorado has a history of energy production and development is expected to continue into the foreseeable future due to abundant natural gas resources. To facilitate analyses of regional energy development we digitized all well pads in the Colorado portion of the basin, determined the previous land cover of areas converted to well pads over three time periods (2002–2006, 2007–2011, and 2012–2016), and explored the relationship between number of wells per pad and pad area to model future development. We also calculated the area of pads constructed prior to 2002. Over 21 million m2 has been converted to well pads with approximately 13 million m2 converted since 2002. The largest land conversion since 2002 occurred in shrub/scrub (7.9 million m2), evergreen (2.1 million m2), and deciduous (1.3 million m2) forest environments based on National Land Cover Database classifications. Operational practices have transitioned from single well pads to multi-well pads, increasing the average number of wells per pad from 2.5 prior to 2002, to 9.1 between 2012 and 2016. During the same time period the pad area per well has increased from 2030 m2 to 3504 m2. Kernel density estimation was used to model the relationship between the number of wells per pad and pad area, with these curves exhibiting a lognormal distribution. Therefore, either kernel density estimation or lognormal probability distributions may potentially be used to model land use requirements for future development. Digitized well pad locations in the Piceance Basin contribute to a growing body of spatial data on energy infrastructure and, coupled with study results, will facilitate future regional and national studies assessing the spatial and temporal effects of

  11. High temperature annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Nancy D.; Crowley, Kevin D.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Reaves, Chris M.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Annealing of fission tracks is a kinetic process dependent primarily on temperature and to a laser extent on time. Several kinetic models of apatite annealing have been proposed. The predictive capabilities of these models for long-term geologic annealing have been limited to qualitative or semiquantitative at best, because of uncertainties associated with (1) the extrapolation of laboratory observations to geologic conditions, (2) the thermal histories of field samples, and (3) to some extent, the effect of apatite composition on reported annealing temperatures. Thermal history in the Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California, is constrained by an exceptionally well known burial history and present-day temperature gradient. Sediment burial histories are continuous and tightly constrained from about 9 Ma to present, with an important tie at 3.4 Ma. No surface erosion and virtually no uplift were recorded during or since deposition of these sediments, so the burial history is simple and uniquely defined. Temperature gradient (???40??C km-1) is well established from oil-field operations. Fission-track data from the Santa Fe Springs area should thus provide one critical field test of kinetic annealing models for apatite. Fission-track analysis has been performed on apatites from sandstones of Pliocene to Miocene age from a deep drill hole at Santa Fe Springs. Apatite composition, determined by electron microprobe, is fluorapatite [average composition (F1.78Cl0.01OH0.21)] with very low chlorine content [less than Durango apatite; sample means range from 0.0 to 0.04 Cl atoms, calculated on the basis of 26(O, F, Cl, OH)], suggesting that the apatite is not unusually resistant to annealing. Fission tracks are preserved in these apatites at exceptionally high present-day temperatures. Track loss is not complete until temperatures reach the extreme of 167-178??C (at 3795-4090 m depth). The temperature-time annealing relationships indicated by the new data

  12. Air Compressibility Effect on Bouwer and Rice Seepage Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xin; Zhan, Hongbin

    2017-11-01

    Measuring a disconnected streambed seepage flux using a seepage meter can give important streambed information and help understanding groundwater-surface water interaction. In this study, we provide a correction for calculating the seepage flux rate with the consideration of air compressibility inside the manometer of the Bouwer and Rice seepage meter. We notice that the effect of air compressibility in the manometer is considerably larger when more air is included in the manometer. We find that the relative error from neglecting air compressibility can be constrained within 5% if the manometer of the Bouwer and Rice seepage meter is shorter than 0.8 m and the experiment is done in a suction mode in which air is pumped out from the manometer before the start of measurement. For manometers longer than 0.8 m, the relative error will be larger than 5%. It may be over 10% if the manometer height is longer than 1.5 m and the experiment is done in a no-suction mode, in which air is not pumped out from the manometer before the start of measurement. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Interpretation of self-potential data for dam seepage investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, R.F.; Sheffer, M.R.; Salmon, G. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2007-04-15

    This book represents one of a series on the subject of geophysical methods and their use in assessing seepage and internal erosion in embankment dams. This manual facilitates the interpretation of self-potential (SP) data generated by subsurface fluid flow, with an emphasis on dam seepage studies. It is intended for users with a background in geophysics or engineering having a general familiarity with both the SP and direct-current (DC) resistivity methods and their applications. It includes an extensive reference list covering all aspects of available SP interpretation techniques, including qualitative, analytical and numerical methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of geometric source analytical modeling methods to evaluate SP anomalies. These methods provide a simple yet efficient means of estimating the location and depth of current sources of observed SP data, which may be linked to fluid flow in the subsurface. The manual is primarily oriented toward embankment dams and earthen structures such as levees and dikes. SP methods have been used to investigate seepage through pervious zones and cracks in concrete and concrete-faced structures. The manual describes the nature of SP fields generated by both uniform and non-uniform dam seepage flow, as well as non-seepage sources of SP variations. These methods enable the study of more complex systems and require a more comprehensive analysis of a given field site. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Mapping seepage through the River Reservoir Dam near Eagar, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollins, P.

    2005-06-30

    This article describes the actions taken to address an unusual amount of water seepage from the left abutment weir-box of the River Reservoir dam built in 1896 near Eagar, Arizona. Upon noting the seepage in March 2004, the operator, Round Valley Water Users Association, contacted the State of Arizona who funded the investigation and subsequent remediation activities through an emergency fund. The dam was originally built with local materials and did not include a clay core. It was modified at least four times. The embankment sits on basalt bedrock and consists of clayey soils within a rock-fill shell. AquaTrack technology developed by Willowstick Technologies was used to assess the deteriorating situation. AquaTrack uses a low voltage, low amperage audio-frequency electrical current to energize the groundwater or seepage. This made it possible to follow the path of groundwater between the electrodes. A magnetic field was created which made it possible to locate and map the field measurements. The measured magnetic field data was processed, contoured and correlated to other hydrogeologic information. This identified the extent and preferential flow paths of the seepage. The survey pinpointed the area with the greatest leakage in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Fluorescent dyes were also used for tracer work to confirm previous findings that showed a serious seepage problem. The water of the reservoir was lowered to perform remedial measures to eliminate the risk of immediate failure. Funding for a more permanent repair is pending. 10 figs.

  15. Electrofacies vs. lithofacies sandstone reservoir characterization Campanian sequence, Arshad gas/oil field, Central Sirt Basin, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burki, Milad; Darwish, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    The present study focuses on the vertically stacked sandstones of the Arshad Sandstone in Arshad gas/oil field, Central Sirt Basin, Libya, and is based on the conventional cores analysis and wireline log interpretation. Six lithofacies types (F1 to F6) were identified based on the lithology, sedimentary structures and biogenic features, and are supported by wireline log calibration. From which four types (F1-F4) represent the main Campanian sandstone reservoirs in the Arshad gas/oil field. Lithofacies F5 is the basal conglomerates at the lower part of the Arshad sandstones. The Paleozoic Gargaf Formation is represented by lithofacies F6 which is the source provenance for the above lithofacies types. Arshad sediments are interpreted to be deposited in shallow marginal and nearshore marine environment influenced by waves and storms representing interactive shelf to fluvio-marine conditions. The main seal rocks are the Campanian Sirte shale deposited in a major flooding events during sea level rise. It is contended that the syn-depositional tectonics controlled the distribution of the reservoir facies in time and space. In addition, the post-depositional changes controlled the reservoir quality and performance. Petrophysical interpretation from the porosity log values were confirmed by the conventional core measurements of the different sandstone lithofacies types. Porosity ranges from 5 to 20% and permeability is between 0 and 20 mD. Petrophysical cut-off summary of the lower part of the clastic dominated sequence (i. e. Arshad Sandstone) calculated from six wells includes net pay sand ranging from 19.5‧ to 202.05‧, average porosity from 7.7 to 15% and water saturation from 19 to 58%.

  16. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; William Raatz; Cari Breton; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans; Mark H. Holtz

    2003-04-01

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest petroleum-producing basin in the US. Approximately 1300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl of oil through 2000. Of these major reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. On a preliminary basis, 32 geologic plays have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs and assignment of each of the 1300 major reservoirs to a play has begun. The reservoirs are being mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonardian Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  17. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-02-24

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a cost-shared field demonstration project in the US Department of Energy Class II Program. A major goal of the Class III Program is to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geologic, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description is being used as a risk reduction tool to identify ''sweet spots'' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well simulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  18. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Skalak, Katherine; Kent, D.B.; Engle, Mark A.; Benthem, Adam J.; Mumford, Adam; Haase, Karl B.; Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David; Nagel, S. C.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Orem, William H.; Akob, Denise M.; Jaeschke, Jeanne B.; Galloway, Joel M.; Kohler, Matthias; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Jolly, Glenn D.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4 M L (million liters) of wastewater (300 g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030 mg/L) and bromide (7.8 mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11 mg/L and < 0.4 mg/L, respectively). Lithium (0.25 mg/L), boron (1.75 mg/L) and strontium (7.1 mg/L) were present downstream at 5–10 times upstream concentrations. Light hydrocarbon measurements indicated a persistent thermogenic source of methane in the stream. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons indicative of oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1 km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that

  19. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, I M; Skalak, K J; Kent, D B; Engle, M A; Benthem, A; Mumford, A C; Haase, K; Farag, A; Harper, D; Nagel, S C; Iwanowicz, L R; Orem, W H; Akob, D M; Jaeschke, J B; Galloway, J; Kohler, M; Stoliker, D L; Jolly, G D

    2017-02-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4ML (million liters) of wastewater (300g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030mg/L) and bromide (7.8mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11mg/L and <0.4mg/L, respectively). Lithium (0.25mg/L), boron (1.75mg/L) and strontium (7.1mg/L) were present downstream at 5-10 times upstream concentrations. Light hydrocarbon measurements indicated a persistent thermogenic source of methane in the stream. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons indicative of oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that environmental signatures

  20. Mapping on Slope Seepage Problem using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Nizam, Z. M.; Aziman, M.; Dan, M. F. Md; Shaylinda, M. Z. N.; Faizal, T. B. M.; Aishah, M. A. N.; Ambak, K.; Rosli, S.; Rais, Y.; Ashraf, M. I. M.; Alel, M. N. A.

    2018-04-01

    The stability of slope may influenced by several factors such as its geomaterial properties, geometry and environmental factors. Problematic slope due to seepage phenomenon will influenced the slope strength thus promoting to its failure. In the past, slope seepage mapping suffer from several limitation due to cost, time and data coverage. Conventional engineering tools to detect or mapped the seepage on slope experienced those problems involving large and high elevation of slope design. As a result, this study introduced geophysical tools for slope seepage mapping based on electrical resistivity method. Two spread lines of electrical resistivity imaging were performed on the slope crest using ABEM SAS 4000 equipment. Data acquisition configuration was based on long and short arrangement, schlumberger array and 2.5 m of equal electrode spacing interval. Raw data obtained from data acquisition was analyzed using RES2DINV software. Both of the resistivity results show that the slope studied consists of three different anomalies representing top soil (200 – 1000 Ωm), perched water (10 – 100 Ωm) and hard/dry layer (> 200 Ωm). It was found that seepage problem on slope studied was derived from perched water zones with electrical resistivity value of 10 – 100 Ωm. Perched water zone has been detected at 6 m depth from the ground level with varying thickness at 5 m and over. Resistivity results have shown some good similarity output with reference to borehole data, geological map and site observation thus verified the resistivity results interpretation. Hence, this study has shown that the electrical resistivity imaging was applicable in slope seepage mapping which consider efficient in term of cost, time, data coverage and sustainability.

  1. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. B. de Louw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In deltaic areas with saline seepage, freshwater availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and size. Our findings are based on different types of field measurements and detailed numerical groundwater models applied in the south-western delta of the Netherlands. By combining the applied techniques we could extrapolate measurements at point scale (groundwater sampling, temperature and electrical soil conductivity (TEC-probe measurements, electrical cone penetration tests (ECPT to field scale (continuous vertical electrical soundings (CVES, electromagnetic survey with EM31, and even to regional scale using helicopter-borne electromagnetic measurements (HEM. The measurements show a gradual mixing zone between infiltrating fresh rainwater and upward flowing saline groundwater. The mixing zone is best characterized by the depth of the centre of the mixing zone Dmix, where the salinity is half that of seepage water, and the bottom of the mixing zone Bmix, with a salinity equal to that of the seepage water (Cl-conc. 10 to 16 g l−1. Dmix is found at very shallow depth in the confining top layer, on average at 1.7 m below ground level (b.g.l., while Bmix lies about 2.5 m b.g.l. The model results show that the constantly alternating upward and downward flow at low velocities in the confining layer is the main mechanism of mixing between rainwater and saline seepage and determines the position and extent of the mixing zone (Dmix and Bmix. Recharge, seepage flux, and drainage depth are the controlling factors.

  2. Site evaluation for U.S. Bureau of Mines experimental oil-shale mine, Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, John R.; Leavesley, G.H.; Steele, G.S.; Weeks, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Bureau of Mines in the selection of a site for a shaft and experimental mine to be constructed in the Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colo. The Piceance Creek basin, an asymmetric, northwest-trending large structural downwarp, is located approximately 40 km (25 mi) west of the town of Meeker in Rio Blanco County, Colo. The oil-shale, dawsonite, nahcolite, and halite deposits of the Piceance Creek basin occur in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age. In the basin the Green River Formation comprises three members. In ascending order, they are the Douglas Creek, the Garden Gulch, and the Parachute Creek Members, Four sites are presented for consideration and evaluated on geology and hydrology with respect to shale-oil economics. Evaluated criteria include: (1) stratigraphy, (2) size of site, (3) oil-shale yield, (4) representative quantities of the saline minerals dawsonite and nahcolite, which must be present with a minimum amount of halite, (5) thickness of a 'leached' saline zone, (6) geologic structure, (7) engineering characteristics of rock, (8) representative surface and ground-water conditions, with emphasis on waste disposal and dewatering, and (9) environmental considerations. Serious construction and support problems are anticipated in sinking a deep shaft in the Piceance Creek basin. The two major concerns will be dealing with incompetent rock and large inflow of saline ground water, particularly in the leached zone. Engineering support problems will include stabilizing and hardening the rock from which a certain amount of ground water has been removed. The relative suitability of the four potential oil-shale experimental shaft sites in the Piceance Creek basin has been considered on the basis of all available geologic, hydrologic, and engineering data; site 2 is preferred to sites 1, 3, and 4, The units in this report are presented in the form: metric (English). Both units of

  3. Succession of Hydrocarbon Degradation and Microbial Diversity during a Simulated Petroleum Seepage in Caspian Sea Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S.; Stagars, M.; Wefers, P.; Schmidt, M.; Knittel, K.; Krueger, M.; Leifer, I.; Treude, T.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial degradation of petroleum was investigated in intact sediment cores of Caspian Sea during a simulated petroleum seepage using a sediment-oil-flow-through (SOFT) system. Over the course of the SOFT experiment (190 days), distinct redox zones established and evolved in the sediment core. Methanogenesis and sulfate reduction were identified to be important processes in the anaerobic degradation of hydrocarbons. C1 to C6 n-alkanes were completely exhausted in the sulfate-reducing zone and some higher alkanes decreased during the upward migration of petroleum. A diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria was identified by 16s rRNA phylogenetic studies, some of which are associated with marine seeps and petroleum degradation. The δ13C signal of produced methane decreased from -33.7‰ to -49.5‰ indicating crude oil degradation by methanogenesis, which was supported by enrichment culturing of methanogens with petroleum hydrocarbons and presence of methanogenic archaea. The SOFT system is, to the best of our knowledge, the first system that simulates an oil-seep like condition and enables live monitoring of biogeochemical changes within a sediment core during petroleum seepage. During our presentation we will compare the Caspian Sea data with other sediments we studied using the SOFT system from sites such as Santa Barbara (Pacific Ocean), the North Alex Mud Volcano (Mediterranean Sea) and the Eckernfoerde Bay (Baltic Sea). This research was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SPP 1319) and DEA Deutsche Erdoel AG. Further support came from the Helmholtz and Max Planck Gesellschaft.

  4. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  5. Research on borehole stability of shale based on seepage-stress-damage coupling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil drilling, one of the most complicated problems is borehole stability of shale. Based on the theory of continuum damage mechanics, a modified Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion according to plastic damage evolution and the seepage-stress coupling is established. Meanwhile, the damage evolution equation which is based on equivalent plastic strain and the permeability evolution equation of shale are proposed in this paper. The physical model of borehole rock for a well in China western oilfield is set up to analyze the distribution of damage, permeability, stress, plastic strain and displacement. In the calculation process, the influence of rock damage to elastic modulus, cohesion and permeability is involved by writing a subroutine for ABAQUS. The results show that the rock damage evolution has a significant effect to the plastic strain and stress in plastic zone. Different drilling fluid density will produce different damage in its value, range and type. This study improves the theory of mechanical mechanism of borehole collapse and fracture, and provides a reference for the further research of seepage-stress-chemical-damage coupling of wall rock.

  6. Chapter 7. The GIS project for the geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak and Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2006-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) focusing on the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group and the Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the northern Gulf Coast region was developed as a visual-analysis tool for the U.S. Geological Survey's 2002 assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural gas resources in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces. The Central Energy Resources Team of the U.S. Geological Survey has also developed an Internet Map Service to deliver the GIS data to the public. This mapping tool utilizes information from a database about the oil and natural gas endowment of the United States-including physical locations of geologic and geographic data-and converts the data into visual layers. Portrayal and analysis of geologic features on an interactive map provide an excellent tool for understanding domestic oil and gas resources for strategic planning, formulating economic and energy policies, evaluating lands under the purview of the Federal Government, and developing sound environmental policies. Assessment results can be viewed and analyzed or downloaded from the internet web site, http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/ .

  7. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  8. Major factors controlling fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation tight oil reservoir, Junggar Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhu, Deyu; Luo, Qun; Liu, Luofu; Liu, Dongdong; Yan, Lin; Zhang, Yunzhao

    2017-09-01

    Natural fractures in seven wells from the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar Basin were evaluated in light of regional structural evolution, tight reservoir geochemistry (including TOC and mineral composition), carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcite-filled fractures, and acoustic emission (AE). Factors controlling the development of natural fractures were analyzed using qualitative and/or semi-quantitative techniques, with results showing that tectonic factors are the primary control on fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation of the Junggar Basin. Analyses of calcite, dolomite, and TOC show positive correlations with the number of fractures, while deltaic lithofacies appear to be the most favorable for fracture development. Mineral content was found to be a major control on tectonic fracture development, while TOC content and sedimentary facies mainly control bedding fractures. Carbon and oxygen isotopes vary greatly in calcite-filled fractures (δ13C ranges from 0.87‰ to 7.98‰, while δ18O ranges from -12.63‰ to -5.65‰), indicating that fracture development increases with intensified tectonic activity or enhanced diagenetic alteration. By analyzing the cross-cutting relationships of fractures in core, as well as four Kaiser Effect points in the acoustic emission curve, we observed four stages of tectonic fracture development. First-stage fractures are extensional, and were generated in the late Triassic, with calcite fracture fills formed between 36.51 °C and 56.89 °C. Second-stage fractures are shear fractures caused by extrusion stress from the southwest to the northeast, generated by the rapid uplift of the Tianshan in the Middle and Late Jurassic; calcite fracture fills formed between 62.91 °C and 69.88 °C. Third-stage fractures are NNW-trending shear fractures that resulted from north-south extrusion and thrusting in a foreland depression along the front of the Early Cretaceous Bogda Mountains. Calcite fracture

  9. Heterogeneous seepage at the Nopal I natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Cook, Paul J.; Rodríguez-Pineda, J. Alfredo; Villalba, Lourdes; de La Garza, Rodrigo

    2012-02-01

    A study of seepage occurring in an adit at the Nopal I uranium mine in Chihuahua, Mexico, was conducted as part of an integrated natural analogue study to evaluate the effects of infiltration and seepage on the mobilization and transport of radionuclides. An instrumented seepage collection system and local automated weather station permit direct correlation between local precipitation events and seepage. Field observations recorded between April 2005 and December 2006 indicate that seepage is highly heterogeneous with respect to time, location, and quantity. Seepage, precipitation, and fracture data were used to test two hypotheses: (1) that fast flow seepage is triggered by large precipitation events, and (2) that an increased abundance of fractures and/or fracture intersections leads to higher seepage volumes. A few zones in the back adit recorded elevated seepage volumes immediately following large (>20 mm/day) precipitation events, with transit times of less than 4 h through the 8-m thick rock mass. In most locations, there is a 1-6 month time lag between the onset of the rainy season and seepage, with longer times observed for the front adit. There is a less clear-cut relation between fracture abundance and seepage volume; processes such as evaporation and surface flow along the ceiling may also influence seepage.

  10. Executive summary--2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 1 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province (5022), New Mexico and Colorado (fig. 1). Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  11. Analysis of three-dimensional transient seepage into ditch drains ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ratan Sarmah

    waterlogged soils in many regions of the world, including. India [2, 6–9]—to name a ... predicting two-dimensional seepage into a network of ...... when d1 ¼ 0, the lower limits of integration of the integral ...... and agricultural development. Irrig.

  12. Heterogeneous Seepage at the Nopal I Uranium Mine, Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Patrick; Dobson, Patrick F.; Cook, Paul J.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Rodriguez, J. Alfredo; Garza, Rodrigo de la

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this analogue study is to evaluate flow and transport processes of relevance to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Seepage data obtained from this study will be used to constrain flow and transport models being developed for the Nopal I system

  13. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiin-Shuh Jean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks. More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surface erosion. This paper suggests 17 antifreeze compounds potentially present in Martian seepage groundwater. Given their liquid state and physical properties, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and 1,3-propylene glycol are advanced as the most likely candidate compounds. This paper also explores how a mixing of glycol or glycerol with salts in the Martian seepage groundwater may have lowered water¡¦s freezing point and raised its boiling point, with consequences that created fluid gully and channel erosion. Ethylene glycol and related hydrocarbon compounds have been identified in Martian and other interstellar meteorites. We suggest that these compounds and their proportions to water be included for detection in future explorations.

  14. Modeling of Seepage Losses in Sewage Sludge Drying Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to develop a model governing seepage losses in sewage sludge drying bed. The model will assist in the design of sludge drying beds for effective management of wastes derived from households' septic systems. In the experiment conducted this study, 125kg of sewage sludge, 90.7% moisture ...

  15. solution of confined seepage problems below hydraulic structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1985-09-01

    Sep 1, 1985 ... boundaries are used for solving the seepage problem beneath practical profiles of ... 1. INTRODUCTION. The study of flow through porous media has a wide range of .... free surface flow [3, 4, 5] and unconfined flow situations ...

  16. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources as part of the 2007 USGS assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin including onshore and State waters. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined as part of the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich downdip shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources including the Jurassic Smackover and Haynesville Formations and Bossier Shale, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall(?) Formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is ongoing at present. Emplacement of hydrocarbons into Claiborne reservoirs has occurred primarily via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir sands in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are rollover anticlines associated with growth faults; salt structures and stratigraphic traps also are important. Sealing lithologies probably are shaley facies within the Claiborne and in the overlying Jackson Group. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AU) with distinctive structural and depositional settings. The AUs include (1) Lower Claiborne Stable Shelf

  17. Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-01-13

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest onshore petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Approximately 1,300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000. Of these significant-sized reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. There are 32 geologic plays that have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs, and each of the 1,300 major reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. The final reservoir shapefile for each play contains the geographic location of each reservoir. Associated reservoir information within the linked data tables includes RRC reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are smaller than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production of >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl [5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]). Detailed studies of three reservoirs

  18. Atmospheric benzene observations from oil and gas production in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in July and August 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Hannah S.; Thompson, Anne M.; Wisthaler, Armin; Blake, Donald R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Müller, Markus; Eichler, Philipp; Apel, Eric C.; Hills, Alan J.

    2016-09-01

    High time resolution measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected using a proton-transfer-reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry (PTR-QMS) instrument at the Platteville Atmospheric Observatory (PAO) in Colorado to investigate how oil and natural gas (O&NG) development impacts air quality within the Wattenburg Gas Field (WGF) in the Denver-Julesburg Basin. The measurements were carried out in July and August 2014 as part of NASA's "Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality" (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaign. The PTR-QMS data were supported by pressurized whole air canister samples and airborne vertical and horizontal surveys of VOCs. Unexpectedly high benzene mixing ratios were observed at PAO at ground level (mean benzene = 0.53 ppbv, maximum benzene = 29.3 ppbv), primarily at night (mean nighttime benzene = 0.73 ppbv). These high benzene levels were associated with southwesterly winds. The airborne measurements indicate that benzene originated from within the WGF, and typical source signatures detected in the canister samples implicate emissions from O&NG activities rather than urban vehicular emissions as primary benzene source. This conclusion is backed by a regional toluene-to-benzene ratio analysis which associated southerly flow with vehicular emissions from the Denver area. Weak benzene-to-CO correlations confirmed that traffic emissions were not responsible for the observed high benzene levels. Previous measurements at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) and our data obtained at PAO allow us to locate the source of benzene enhancements between the two atmospheric observatories. Fugitive emissions of benzene from O&NG operations in the Platteville area are discussed as the most likely causes of enhanced benzene levels at PAO.

  19. Atmospheric Benzene Observations from an Oil and Gas Field in the Denver Julesburg Basin in July and August 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Hannah S.; Thompson, Anne M.; Wisthaler, Armin; Blake, Donald; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Mueller, Markus; Eichler, Philipp; Apel, Eric C.; Hills, Alan

    2016-01-01

    High time resolution measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collectedusing a proton-transfer-reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry (PTR-QMS) instrument at the PlattevilleAtmospheric Observatory (PAO) in Colorado to investigate how oil and natural gas (ONG) developmentimpacts air quality within the Wattenburg Gas Field (WGF) in the Denver-Julesburg Basin. The measurementswere carried out in July and August 2014 as part of NASAs Deriving Information on Surface Conditions fromColumn and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaign. ThePTR-QMS data were supported by pressurized whole air canister samples and airborne vertical and horizontalsurveys of VOCs. Unexpectedly high benzene mixing ratios were observed at PAO at ground level (meanbenzene 0.53 ppbv, maximum benzene 29.3 ppbv), primarily at night (mean nighttime benzene 0.73ppbv). These high benzene levels were associated with southwesterly winds. The airborne measurementsindicate that benzene originated from within the WGF, and typical source signatures detected in the canistersamples implicate emissions from ONG activities rather than urban vehicular emissions as primary benzenesource. This conclusion is backed by a regional toluene-to-benzene ratio analysis which associated southerlyflow with vehicular emissions from the Denver area. Weak benzene-to-CO correlations confirmed that trafficemissions were not responsible for the observed high benzene levels. Previous measurements at the BoulderAtmospheric Observatory (BAO) and our data obtained at PAO allow us to locate the source of benzeneenhancements between the two atmospheric observatories. Fugitive emissions of benzene from ONGoperations in the Platteville area are discussed as the most likely causes of enhanced benzene levels at PAO.

  20. Distributions of air pollutants associated with oil and natural gas development measured in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Field

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diffusive sampler monitoring techniques were employed during wintertime studies from 2009 to 2012 to assess the spatial distribution of air pollutants associated with the Pinedale Anticline and Jonah Field oil and natural gas (O&NG developments in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming. Diffusive sampling identified both the extent of wintertime ozone (O3 episodes and the distributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx, and a suite of 13 C5+ volatile organic compounds (VOC, including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, allowing the influence of different O&NG emission sources to be determined. Concentration isopleth mapping of both diffusive sampler and continuous O3 measurements show the importance of localized production and advective transport. As for O3, BTEX and NOx mixing ratios within O&NG development areas were elevated compared to background levels, with localized hotspots also evident. One BTEX hotspot was related to an area with intensive production activities, while a second was located in an area influenced by emissions from a water treatment and recycling facility. Contrastingly, NOx hotspots were at major road intersections with relatively high traffic flows, indicating influence from vehicular emissions. Comparisons of observed selected VOC species ratios at a roadside site in the town of Pinedale with those measured in O&NG development areas show that traffic emissions contribute minimally to VOCs in these latter areas. The spatial distributions of pollutant concentrations identified by diffusive sampling techniques have potential utility for validation of emission inventories that are combined with air quality modeling.

  1. SEEPAGE INTO DRIFTS IN UNSATRUATED FRACTURED ROCK AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENS BIRHOLZER; GUOMIN LI; CHIN-FU TSANG; YVONNE TSANG

    1998-01-01

    An important issue for the long-term performance of underground nuclear waste repositories is the rate of seepage into the waste emplacement drifts. A prediction of the future seepage rate is particularly complicated for the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as it is located in thick, partially saturated, fractured tuff formations. The long-term situation in the drifts several thousand years after waste emplacement will be characterized by a relative humidity level close to or equal to 100%. as the drifts will be sealed and unventilated, and the waste packages will have cooled. The underground tunnels will then act as capillary barriers for the unsaturated flow, ideally diverting water around them, if the capillary forces are stronger than gravity and viscous forces. Seepage into the drifts will only be possible if the hydraulic pressure in the rock close to the drift walls increases to positive values; i.e., the flow field becomes locally saturated. In the present work, we have developed and applied a methodology to study the potential rate of seepage into underground cavities embedded in a variably saturated, heterogeneous fractured rock formation. The fractured rock mass is represented as a stochastic continuum where the fracture permeabilities vary by several orders of magnitude. Three different realizations of random fracture permeability fields are generated, with the random permeability structure based on extensive fracture mapping, borehole video analysis, and in-situ air permeability testing. A 3-D numerical model is used to simulate the heterogeneous steady-state flow field around the drift, with the drift geometry explicitly represented within the numerical discretization grid. A variety of flow scenarios are considered assuming present-day and future climate conditions at Yucca Mountain. The numerical study is complemented by theoretical evaluations of the drift seepage problem, using stochastic perturbation theory to develop a better

  2. Methane Seepage on Mars: Where to Look and Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Methane on Mars is a topic of special interest because of its potential association with microbial life. The variable detections of methane by the Curiosity rover, orbiters, and terrestrial telescopes, coupled with methane's short lifetime in the martian atmosphere, may imply an active gas source in the planet's subsurface, with migration and surface emission processes similar to those known on Earth as "gas seepage." Here, we review the variety of subsurface processes that could result in methane seepage on Mars. Such methane could originate from abiotic chemical reactions, thermogenic alteration of abiotic or biotic organic matter, and ancient or extant microbial metabolism. These processes can occur over a wide range of temperatures, in both sedimentary and igneous rocks, and together they enhance the possibility that significant amounts of methane could have formed on early Mars. Methane seepage to the surface would occur preferentially along faults and fractures, through focused macro-seeps and/or diffuse microseepage exhalations. Our work highlights the types of features on Mars that could be associated with methane release, including mud-volcano-like mounds in Acidalia or Utopia; proposed ancient springs in Gusev Crater, Arabia Terra, and Valles Marineris; and rims of large impact craters. These could have been locations of past macro-seeps and may still emit methane today. Microseepage could occur through faults along the dichotomy or fractures such as those at Nili Fossae, Cerberus Fossae, the Argyre impact, and those produced in serpentinized rocks. Martian microseepage would be extremely difficult to detect remotely yet could constitute a significant gas source. We emphasize that the most definitive detection of methane seepage from different release candidates would be best provided by measurements performed in the ground or at the ground-atmosphere interface by landers or rovers and that the technology for such detection is currently available. Key

  3. A comparison of ground-based and aircraft-based methane emission flux estimates in a western oil and natural gas production basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snare, Dustin A.

    Recent increases in oil and gas production from unconventional reservoirs has brought with it an increase of methane emissions. Estimating methane emissions from oil and gas production is complex due to differences in equipment designs, maintenance, and variable product composition. Site access to oil and gas production equipment can be difficult and time consuming, making remote assessment of emissions vital to understanding local point source emissions. This work presents measurements of methane leakage made from a new ground-based mobile laboratory and a research aircraft around oil and gas fields in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) of Wyoming in 2014. It was recently shown that the application of the Point Source Gaussian (PSG) method, utilizing atmospheric dispersion tables developed by US EPA (Appendix B), is an effective way to accurately measure methane flux from a ground-based location downwind of a source without the use of a tracer (Brantley et al., 2014). Aircraft measurements of methane enhancement regions downwind of oil and natural gas production and Planetary Boundary Layer observations are utilized to obtain a flux for the entire UGRB. Methane emissions are compared to volumes of natural gas produced to derive a leakage rate from production operations for individual production sites and basin-wide production. Ground-based flux estimates derive a leakage rate of 0.14 - 0.78 % (95 % confidence interval) per site with a mass-weighted average (MWA) of 0.20 % for all sites. Aircraft-based flux estimates derive a MWA leakage rate of 0.54 - 0.91 % for the UGRB.

  4. Analysis of the saturated hydrocarbon in coal, carbonaceous mudstone and oils from the lower Jurassic coal measures in the Turpan Basin by GC/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xuan; Meng Qianxiang; Sun Minzhuo; Du Li; Ding Wanren

    2005-01-01

    Saturated hydrocarbon of coal, carbonaceous mudstone and oils from the Lower Jurassic coal measures in the Turpan basin were studied, and biomarker characteristics and coal thermal maturity analyzed to draw the following conclusions. T here are many similar biomarker characteristics between oil from middle-lower Jurassic of Turpan Basin and coal and carbonaceous mudstone in the same strata. They all contain specific r-lupane, I-norbietane, C 24 -tetracyclic and high content of C 29 -steranes. These characteristics suggest that they have similar matter source of the organic matter derived from matter with abundant high plants. Meanwhile, biomarkers often used to indicate depositional environments characterized by high Pr/Ph ratio, little or no gammacerane and high abundance dibenzofurans, such biomarker distributions are indicative of suboxic and freshwater environment. Although coal and carbonaceous mudstone remain in lower thermal maturity (Ro=0.47-0.53), but C 29 -ββ/(αα+ββ) sterane ratio (0.294-0.489) and bezohopane are detected. Because these ferture are related to bacterial activity, bacterial degradation of organic matter maybe take an important role in coal-derived oil. (authors)

  5. Polymer flooding effect of seepage characteristics of the second tertiary combined model of L oilfield block B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan ZHAO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The second tertiary combined model is applied to develop the second and third type reservoirs which have more oil layer quantity and strong anisotropism, compared to the regular main reservoir with polymer injection, whose seepage characteristics of polymer-injection-after-water-drive shows a remarkable difference, in addition. This development appears to have a larger effect on the remaining oil development and production. Simulating the second tertiary combined model by reservoir numerical simulation under different polymer molecular weight, polymer concentration, polymer injection rate on the polymer injection period, conclusions of the influenced seepage characteristics of original and added perforated interval pressure and water saturation are drawn. The conclusion shows that the polymer molecular weight could influence water saturation of added perforated interval; polymer concentration makes a significant impact on reservoir pressure; polymer injection rate has a great influence on the separate rate of original and added perforated interval. This research provides firm science evidence to the theory of the second tertiary combined model to develop and enhance oil injection-production rate.

  6. Natural and unnatural oil slicks in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia‐Pineda, O.; Beet, A.; Daneshgar Asl, S.; Feng, L.; Graettinger, G.; French‐McCay, D.; Holmes, J.; Hu, C.; Huffer, F.; Leifer, I.; Muller‐Karger, F.; Solow, A.; Silva, M.; Swayze, G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract When wind speeds are 2–10 m s−1, reflective contrasts in the ocean surface make oil slicks visible to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) under all sky conditions. Neural network analysis of satellite SAR images quantified the magnitude and distribution of surface oil in the Gulf of Mexico from persistent, natural seeps and from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) discharge. This analysis identified 914 natural oil seep zones across the entire Gulf of Mexico in pre‐2010 data. Their ∼0.1 µm slicks covered an aggregated average of 775 km2. Assuming an average volume of 77.5 m3 over an 8–24 h lifespan per oil slick, the floating oil indicates a surface flux of 2.5–9.4 × 104 m3 yr−1. Oil from natural slicks was regionally concentrated: 68%, 25%, 7%, and Gulf, respectively. This reflects differences in basin history and hydrocarbon generation. SAR images from 2010 showed that the 87 day DWH discharge produced a surface‐oil footprint fundamentally different from background seepage, with an average ocean area of 11,200 km2 (SD 5028) and a volume of 22,600 m3 (SD 5411). Peak magnitudes of oil were detected during equivalent, ∼14 day intervals around 23 May and 18 June, when wind speeds remained <5 m s−1. Over this interval, aggregated volume of floating oil decreased by 21%; area covered increased by 49% (p < 0.1), potentially altering its ecological impact. The most likely causes were increased applications of dispersant and surface burning operations. PMID:27774370

  7. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laural L.

    2001-01-01

    The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities

  8. Citronelle Dome: A giant opportunity for multizone carbon storage and enhanced oil recovery in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R.A.; Pashin, J.C.; Walsh, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Citronelle Dome is a giant, salt-cored anticline in the eastern Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of southern Alabama that is located near several large-scale, stationary, carbon-emitting sources in the greater Mobile area. The dome forms an elliptical, four-way structural closure containing opportunities for CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and large-capacity saline reservoir CO2 sequestration. The Citronelle oil field, located on the crest of the dome, has produced more than 169 million bbl of 42-46?? API gravity oil from sandstone bodies in the Lower Cretaceous Rodessa Formation. The top seal for the oil accumulation is a thick succession of shale and anhydrite, and the reservoir is underfilled such that oil-water contacts are typically elevated 30-60 m (100-200 ft) above the structural spill point. Approximately 31-34% of the original oil in place has been recovered by primary and secondary methods, and CO2-EOR has the potential to increase reserves by up to 20%. Structural contour maps of the dome demonstrate that the area of structural closure increases upward in section. Sandstone units providing prospective carbon sinks include the Massive and Pilot sands of the lower Tuscaloosa Group, as well as several sandstone units in the upper Tuscaloosa Group and the Eutaw Formation. Many of these sandstone units are characterized by high porosity and permeability with low heterogeneity. The Tuscaloosa-Eutaw interval is capped by up to 610 m (2000 ft) of chalk and marine shale that are proven reservoir seals in nearby oil fields. Therefore, the Citronelle Dome can be considered a major geologic sink where CO2 can be safely stored while realizing the economic benefits associated with CO2-EOR. Copyright ?? 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection Model for Seepage Behavior of Earth Dams Based on Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxiang Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seepage behavior detecting is an important tool for ensuring the safety of earth dams. However, traditional seepage behavior detection methods have used insufficient monitoring data and have mainly focused on single-point measures and local seepage behavior. The seepage behavior of dams is not quantitatively detected based on the monitoring data with multiple measuring points. Therefore, this study uses data mining techniques to analyze the monitoring data and overcome the above-mentioned shortcomings. The massive seepage monitoring data with multiple points are used as the research object. The key information on seepage behavior is extracted using principal component analysis. The correlation between seepage behavior and upstream water level is described as mutual information. A detection model for overall seepage behavior is established. Result shows that the model can completely extract the seepage monitoring data with multiple points and quantitatively detect the overall seepage behavior of earth dams. The proposed method can provide a new and reasonable means of quantitatively detecting the overall seepage behavior of earth dams.

  10. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil and natural gas activities: compositional comparison of 13 major shale basins via NOAA airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Aikin, K. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; Warneke, C.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J. S.; Graus, M.; Tokarek, T. W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Sueper, D.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The recent and unprecedented increase in natural gas production from shale formations is associated with a rise in the production of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including natural gas plant liquids (e.g., ethane, propane, and butanes) and liquid lease condensate (e.g., pentanes, hexanes, aromatics and cycloalkanes). Since 2010, the production of natural gas liquids and the amount of natural gas vented/flared has increased by factors of ~1.28 and 1.57, respectively (U.S. Energy and Information Administration), indicating an increasingly large potential source of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. Emission of VOCs may affect local and regional air quality due to the potential to form tropospheric ozone and organic particles as well as from the release of toxic species such as benzene and toluene. The 2015 Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNex) campaign studied emissions from oil and natural gas activities across the central United States in order to better understand their potential air quality and climate impacts. Here we present VOC measurements from 19 research flights aboard the NOAA WP-3D over 11 shale basins across 8 states. Non-methane hydrocarbons were measured using an improved whole air sampler (iWAS) with post-flight analysis via a custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The whole air samples are complimented by higher-time resolution measurements of methane (Picarro spectrometer), ethane (Aerodyne spectrometer), and VOCs (H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer). Preliminary analysis show that the Permian Basin on the New Mexico/Texas border had the highest observed VOC mixing ratios for all basins studied. We will utilize VOC enhancement ratios to compare the composition of methane and VOC emissions for each basin and the associated reactivities of these gases with the hydroxyl radical, OH, as a proxy for potential ozone formation.

  11. Introduction to the 2002 geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks: Chapter 2 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the United States. The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The last major USGS assessment of oil and gas of the most important oil and gas provinces in the United States was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). Since then a number of individual assessment provinces have been reappraised using new methodology. This was done particularly for those provinces where new information has become available, where new methodology was expected to reveal more insight to provide a better estimate, where additional geologic investigation was needed, or where continuous accumulations were deemed important. The San Juan Basin was reevaluated because of industry exploitation of new hydrocarbon accumulations that were not previously assessed and because of a change in application of assessment methodology to potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations. Several changes have been made in this study. The methodology is different from that used in 1995 (Schmoker, 2003; Schmoker and Klett, 2003). In this study the total petroleum system (TPS) approach (Magoon and Dow, 1994) is used rather than the play approach. The Chama Basin is not included. The team of scientists studying the basin is different. The 1995 study focused on conventional accumulations, whereas in this 2002 assessment, it was a priority to assess continuous-type accumulations, including coal-bed gas. Consequently we are presenting here an entirely new study and results for the San Juan Basin Province. The results of this 2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province (5022) are presented in this report within the geologic context of individual TPSs and their assessment units (AU) (table 1). Results

  12. 2D seismic interpretation and characterization of the Hauterivian-Early Barremian source rock in Al Baraka oil field, Komombo Basin, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moamen; Darwish, M.; Essa, Mahmoud A.; Abdelhady, A.

    2018-03-01

    Komombo Basin is located in Upper Egypt about 570 km southeast of Cairo; it is an asymmetrical half graben and the first oil producing basin in Upper Egypt. The Six Hills Formation is of Early Cretaceous age and subdivided into seven members from base to top (A-G); meanwhile the B member is of Hauterivian-Early Barremian and it is the only source rock of Komombo Basin. Therefore, a detailed study of the SR should be carried out, which includes the determination of the main structural elements, thickness, facies distribution and characterization of the B member SR which has not been conducted previously in the study area. Twenty 2D seismic lines were interpreted with three vertical seismic profiles (VSP) to construct the depth structure-tectonic map on the top of the B member and to highlight the major structural elements. The interpretation of depth structure contour map shows two main fault trends directed towards the NW-SE and NE to ENE directions. The NW-SE trend is the dominant one, creating a major half-graben system. Also the depth values range from -8400 ft at the depocenter in the eastern part to -4800 ft at the shoulder of the basin in the northwestern part of the study area. Meanwhile the Isopach contour map of the B member shows a variable thickness ranging between 300 ft to 750 ft. The facies model shows that the B member SR is composed mainly of shale with some sandstone streaks. The B member rock samples were collected from Al Baraka-1 and Al Baraka SE-1 in the eastern part of Komombo Basin. The results indicate that the organic matter content (TOC) has mainly good to very good (1-3.36 wt %), The B member samples have HI values in the range 157-365 (mg HC/g TOC) and dominated by Type II/III kerogen, and is thus considered to be oil-gas prone based on Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Tmax values between 442° and 456° C therefore interpreted to be mature for hydrocarbon generation. Based on the measured vitrinite equivalent reflectance values, the B member SR

  13. Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and THC Seepage) Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this Model Report (REV02) is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) models used to evaluate the potential effects of coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes on UZ flow and transport. This Model Report has been developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) 2002 [160819]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertaining to the technical scope, content, and management of this Model Report in Section 1.12, Work Package AUZM08, ''Coupled Effects on Flow and Seepage''. The plan for validation of the models documented in this Model Report is given in Attachment I, Model Validation Plans, Section I-3-4, of the TWP. Except for variations in acceptance criteria (Section 4.2), there were no deviations from this TWP. This report was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models''. This Model Report documents the THC Seepage Model and the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model. The THC Seepage Model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral alteration on flow in rocks surrounding drifts. The DST THC model is a drift-scale process model relying on the same conceptual model and much of the same input data (i.e., physical, hydrological, thermodynamic, and kinetic) as the THC Seepage Model. The DST THC Model is the primary method for validating the THC Seepage Model. The DST THC Model compares predicted water and gas compositions, as well as mineral alteration patterns, with observed data from the DST. These models provide the framework to evaluate THC coupled processes at the drift scale, predict flow and transport behavior for specified thermal-loading conditions, and predict the evolution of mineral alteration and fluid chemistry around potential waste emplacement drifts. The DST THC Model is used solely for the validation of the THC

  14. Lack of inhibiting effect of oil emplacement on quartz cementation: Evidence from Cambrian reservoir sandstones, Paleozoic Baltic Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molenaar, Nicolaas; Cyziene, Jolanta; Sliaupa, Saulius

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the question of whether or not the presence of oil in sandstone inhibits quartz cementation and preserves porosity is still debated. Data from a number of Cambrian sandstone oil fields and dry fields have been studied to determine the effects of oil emplacement on quartz cementation. T...

  15. The role of optimality in characterizing CO2 seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortis, Andrea; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-09-15

    Storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in deep geological formations for greenhouse gas mitigation is gaining momentum and moving from its conceptual and testing stages towards widespread application. In this work we explore various optimization strategies for characterizing surface leakage (seepage) using near-surface measurement approaches such as accumulation chambers and eddy covariance towers. Seepage characterization objectives and limitations need to be defined carefully from the outset especially in light of large natural background variations that can mask seepage. The cost and sensitivity of seepage detection are related to four critical length scales pertaining to the size of the: (1) region that needs to be monitored; (2) footprint of the measurement approach, and (3) main seepage zone; and (4) region in which concentrations or fluxes are influenced by seepage. Seepage characterization objectives may include one or all of the tasks of detecting, locating, and quantifying seepage. Each of these tasks has its own optimal strategy. Detecting and locating seepage in a region in which there is no expected or preferred location for seepage nor existing evidence for seepage requires monitoring on a fixed grid, e.g., using eddy covariance towers. The fixed-grid approaches needed to detect seepage are expected to require large numbers of eddy covariance towers for large-scale geologic CO{sub 2} storage. Once seepage has been detected and roughly located, seepage zones and features can be optimally pinpointed through a dynamic search strategy, e.g., employing accumulation chambers and/or soil-gas sampling. Quantification of seepage rates can be done through measurements on a localized fixed grid once the seepage is pinpointed. Background measurements are essential for seepage detection in natural ecosystems. Artificial neural networks are considered as regression models useful for distinguishing natural system behavior from anomalous behavior

  16. A coupling model for gas diffusion and seepage in SRV section of shale gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusheng Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A prerequisite to effective shale gas development is a complicated fracture network generated by extensive and massive fracturing, which is called SRV (stimulated reservoir volume section. Accurate description of gas flow behaviors in such section is fundamental for productivity evaluation and production performance prediction of shale gas wells. The SRV section is composed of bedrocks with varying sizes and fracture networks, which exhibit different flow behaviors – gas diffusion in bedrocks and gas seepage in fractures. According to the porosity and permeability and the adsorption, diffusion and seepage features of bedrocks and fractures in a shale gas reservoir, the material balance equations were built for bedrocks and fractures respectively and the continuity equations of gas diffusion and seepage in the SRV section were derived. For easy calculation, the post-frac bedrock cube was simplified to be a sphere in line with the principle of volume consistency. Under the assumption of quasi-steady flow behavior at the cross section of the sphere, the gas channeling equation was derived based on the Fick's laws of diffusion and the density function of gas in bedrocks and fractures. The continuity equation was coupled with the channeling equation to effectively characterize the complicated gas flow behavior in the SRV section. The study results show that the gas diffusivity in bedrocks and the volume of bedrocks formed by volume fracturing (or the scale of fracturing jointly determines the productivity and stable production period of a shale gas well. As per the actual calculation for the well field A in the Changning–Weiyuan Block in the Sichuan Basin, the matrix has low gas diffusivity – about 10−5 cm2/s and a large volume with an equivalent sphere radius of 6.2 m, hindering the gas channeling from bedrocks to fractures and thereby reducing the productivity of the shale gas well. It is concluded that larger scale of volume fracturing

  17. Application of carbon isotopes to detect seepage out of coalbed natural gas produced water impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Shikha; Baggett, Joshua K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Coalbed natural gas extraction results in large amount of produced water. → Risk of deterioration of ambient water quality. → Carbon isotope natural tracer for detecting seepage from produced water impoundments. - Abstract: Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production from coal bed aquifers requires large volumes of produced water to be pumped from the subsurface. The produced water ranges from high quality that meets state and federal drinking water standards to low quality due to increased salinity and/or sodicity. The Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming is a major coalbed natural gas producing region, where water quality generally decreases moving from the southeastern portion of the basin towards the center. Most produced water in Wyoming is disposed into impoundments and other surface drainages, where it may infiltrate into shallow groundwater. Groundwater degradation caused by infiltration of CBNG produced water holding impoundments into arid, soluble salt-rich soils is an issue of immense importance because groundwater is a major source for stock water, irrigation, and drinking water for many small communities in these areas. This study examines the potential of using stable C isotope signatures of dissolved inorganic C (δ 13 C DIC ) to track the fate of CBNG produced water after it is discharged into the impoundments. Other geochemical proxies like the major cations and major anions were used in conjunction with field water quality measurements to understand the geochemical differences between CBNG produced waters and ambient waters in the study area. Samples were collected from the CBNG discharge outfalls, produced water holding impoundments, and monitoring wells from different parts of the Powder River Basin and analyzed for δ 13 C DIC . The CBNG produced waters from outfalls and impoundments have positive δ 13 C DIC values that fall within the range of +12 per mille to +22 per mille, distinct from the ambient regional surface and

  18. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of low-permeability oil-shales - Case study from HaShfela sub-basin, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Avihu; Gersman, Ronen

    2016-09-01

    Low permeability rocks are of great importance given their potential role in protecting underlying aquifers from surface and buried contaminants. Nevertheless, only limited data for these rocks is available. New appraisal wells drilled into the oil shale unit (OSU) of the Mt. Scopus Group in the HaShfela sub-basin, Central Israel, provided a one-time opportunity for detailed study of the hydrogeology and geochemistry of this very low permeability unit. Methods used include: slug tests, electrical logs, televiewer imaging, porosity and permeability measurements on core samples, chemical analyses of the rock column and groundwater analyses. Slug tests yielded primary indication to the low permeability of the OSU despite its high porosity (30-40%). Hydraulic conductivities as low as 10-10-10-12 m/s were calculated, using both the Hvorslev and Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos decoding methods. These low conductivities were confirmed by direct measurements of permeability in cores, and from calculations based on the Kozeny-Carman approach. Storativity was found to be 1 · 10-6 and specific storage - 3.8 · 10-9 m-1. Nevertheless, the very limited water flow in the OSU is argued to be driven gravitationally. The extremely slow recovery rates as well as the independent recovery of two adjacent wells, despite their initial large head difference of 214 m, indicate that the natural fractures are tight and are impermeable due to the confining stress at depth. Laboratory measured permeability is similar or even higher than the field-measured values, thereby confirming that fractures and bedding planes do not form continuous flow paths. The vertical permeability along the OSU is highly variable, implying hydraulic stratification and extremely low vertical hydraulic conductivity. The high salinity of the groundwater (6300-8000 mgCl/L) within the OSU and its chemical and isotopic compositions are explained by the limited water flow, suggesting long residence time of the water

  19. Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Raton Basin - Sierra Grande Uplift Province, Colorado and New Mexico - USGS Province 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province of southeastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico (USGS Province 41). The Cretaceous Vermejo Formation and Cretaceous-Tertiary Raton Formation have production and undiscovered resources of coalbed methane. Other formations in the province exhibit potential for gas resources and limited production. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define two total petroleum systems and five assessment units. All five assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered gas resources. Oil resources were not assessed because of the limited potential due to levels of thermal maturity of petroleum source rocks.

  20. Canopy volume removal from oil and gas development activity in the upper Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania and New York (USA): An assessment using lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John A.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Slonecker, Terry; Milheim, Lesley E.; Siripoonsup, David

    2018-01-01

    Oil and gas development is changing the landscape in many regions of the United States and globally. However, the nature, extent, and magnitude of landscape change and development, and precisely how this development compares to other ongoing land conversion (e.g. urban/sub-urban development, timber harvest) is not well understood. In this study, we examine land conversion from oil and gas infrastructure development in the upper Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania and New York, an area that has experienced much oil and gas development over the past 10 years. We quantified land conversion in terms of forest canopy geometric volume loss in contrast to previous studies that considered only areal impacts. For the first time in a study of this type, we use fine-scale lidar forest canopy geometric models to assess the volumetric change due to forest clearing from oil and gas development and contrast this land change to clear cut forest harvesting, and urban and suburban development. Results show that oil and gas infrastructure development removed a large volume of forest canopy from 2006 to 2013, and this removal spread over a large portion of the study area. Timber operations (clear cutting) on Pennsylvania State Forest lands removed a larger total volume of forest canopy during the same time period, but this canopy removal was concentrated in a smaller area. Results of our study point to the need to consider volumetric impacts of oil and gas development on ecosystems, and to place potential impacts in context with other ongoing land conversions.

  1. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: point sources compared to ambient air composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas wells using dry-gas collection, which means dehydration happens at the well, were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. Another large source was the flowback pond near a recently hydraulically re-fractured gas well. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas wells showed that wet gas collection wells compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool and that oil wells compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil wells on average emit heavier compounds than gas wells. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  2. Numerical simulations of seepage flow in rough single rock fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the structural characteristics and seepage flow behavior of rough single rock fractures, a set of single fracture physical models were produced using the Weierstrass–Mandelbrot functions to test the seepage flow performance. Six single fractures, with various surface roughnesses characterized by fractal dimensions, were built using COMSOL multiphysics software. The fluid flow behavior through the rough fractures and the influences of the rough surfaces on the fluid flow behavior was then monitored. The numerical simulation indicates that there is a linear relationship between the average flow velocity over the entire flow path and the fractal dimension of the rough surface. It is shown that there is good a agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data in terms of the properties of the fluid flowing through the rough single rock fractures.

  3. Shallow bedrock limits groundwater seepage-based headwater climate refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Lane, John W.; Snyder, Craig D.; White, Eric A.; Johnson, Zachary; Nelms, David L.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater/surface-water exchanges in streams are inexorably linked to adjacent aquifer dynamics. As surface-water temperatures continue to increase with climate warming, refugia created by groundwater connectivity is expected to enable cold water fish species to survive. The shallow alluvial aquifers that source groundwater seepage to headwater streams, however, may also be sensitive to seasonal and long-term air temperature dynamics. Depth to bedrock can directly influence shallow aquifer flow and thermal sensitivity, but is typically ill-defined along the stream corridor in steep mountain catchments. We employ rapid, cost-effective passive seismic measurements to evaluate the variable thickness of the shallow colluvial and alluvial aquifer sediments along a headwater stream supporting cold water-dependent brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Shenandoah National Park, VA, USA. Using a mean depth to bedrock of 2.6 m, numerical models predicted strong sensitivity of shallow aquifer temperature to the downward propagation of surface heat. The annual temperature dynamics (annual signal amplitude attenuation and phase shift) of potential seepage sourced from the shallow modeled aquifer were compared to several years of paired observed stream and air temperature records. Annual stream water temperature patterns were found to lag local air temperature by ∼8–19 d along the stream corridor, indicating that thermal exchange between the stream and shallow groundwater is spatially variable. Locations with greater annual signal phase lag were also associated with locally increased amplitude attenuation, further suggestion of year-round buffering of channel water temperature by groundwater seepage. Numerical models of shallow groundwater temperature that incorporate regional expected climate warming trends indicate that the summer cooling capacity of this groundwater seepage will be reduced over time, and lower-elevation stream sections may no longer serve as larger

  4. Geophysical investigation of seepage beneath an earthen dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikard, S J; Rittgers, J; Revil, A; Mooney, M A

    2015-01-01

    A hydrogeophysical survey is performed at small earthen dam that overlies a confined aquifer. The structure of the dam has not shown evidence of anomalous seepage internally or through the foundation prior to the survey. However, the surface topography is mounded in a localized zone 150 m downstream, and groundwater discharges from this zone periodically when the reservoir storage is maximum. We use self-potential and electrical resistivity tomography surveys with seismic refraction tomography to (1) determine what underlying hydrogeologic factors, if any, have contributed to the successful long-term operation of the dam without apparent indicators of anomalous seepage through its core and foundation; and (2) investigate the hydraulic connection between the reservoir and the seepage zone to determine whether there exists a potential for this success to be undermined. Geophysical data are informed by hydraulic and geotechnical borehole data. Seismic refraction tomography is performed to determine the geometry of the phreatic surface. The hydro-stratigraphy is mapped with the resistivity data and groundwater flow patterns are determined with self-potential data. A self-potential model is constructed to represent a perpendicular profile extending out from the maximum cross-section of the dam, and self-potential data are inverted to recover the groundwater velocity field. The groundwater flow pattern through the aquifer is controlled by the bedrock topography and a preferential flow pathway exists beneath the dam. It corresponds to a sandy-gravel layer connecting the reservoir to the downstream seepage zone. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  5. The central Myanmar (Burma) oil family - composition and implications for source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiale, J A; Kyi, P; Collins, I D; Din, A; Nyein, K; Nyunt, M; Stuart, C J [Unocal Inc., Brea, CA (United States). Energy Resources Division

    1994-11-01

    Geochemical characteristics of 13 Miocene through Eocene oils/seeps, an Eocene coal and an Eocene resin from the central Myanmar (Burma) basin system are examined. Geologic arguments suggest a deep Paleogene source for these oils. Two geochemical arguments that support this inference are (a) the occurrence of saturated and unsaturated C-15 and C-30 cadinane monomers and dimers in pyrolyzates of an Eocene resin and the kerogen from an Eocene coal, and (b) identical compound-specific carbon isotope ratios for selected isoprenoids and n-alkanes in a typical central Myanmar oil and the hydrous pyrolyzate expelled from an Eocene coal. The authors propose an Eocene resinous shale/coal source for these oils, with the oldest (Eocene) reservoirs filling first and the youngst (Miocene) reservoirs filling last, consistent with the observation that the least mature oils are present in the oldest reservoirs. According to this model, surface seepage and near-surface oil could result from subsurface traps that are filled to spillpoint.

  6. Chronology and backtracking of oil slick trajectory to source in offshore environments using ultraspectral to multispectral remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, Talita; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de

    2015-07-01

    Offshore natural seepage confirms the occurrence of an active petroleum system with thermal maturation and migration, regardless its economic viability for petroleum production. Ocean dynamics, however, impose a challenge for correlation between oil seeps detected on the water surface and its source at the ocean floor. This hinders the potential use of seeps in petroleum exploration. The present study aims to estimate oil exposure time on the water surface via remote sensing in order to help locating ocean floor seepage sources. Spectral reflectance properties of a variety of fresh crude oils, oil films on water and oil-water emulsions were determined. Their spectral identity was used to estimate the duration of exposure of oil-water emulsions based on their temporal spectral responses. Laboratory models efficiently predicted oil status using ultraspectral (>2000 bands), hyperspectral (>300 bands), and multispectral (oil seepage recorded by the ASTER sensor on the Brazilian coast was used to test the designed predictive model. Results indicate that the model can successfully forecast the timeframe of crude oil exposure in the ocean (i.e., the relative "age" of the seepage). The limited spectral resolution of the ASTER sensor, though, implies less accurate estimates compared to higher resolution sensors. The spectral libraries and the method proposed here can be reproduced for other oceanic areas in order to approximate the duration of exposure of noticeable natural oil seepages. This type of information is optimal for seepage tracing and, therefore, for oceanic petroleum exploration and environmental monitoring.

  7. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Todilto Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 3 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic-rich, shaly limestone beds, which contain hydrocarbon source beds in the lower part of the Jurassic Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation, and sandstone reservoirs in the overlying Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, compose the Todilto Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rock facies of the Todilto Limestone were deposited in a combined marine-lacustrine depositional setting. Sandstone reservoirs in the Entrada Sandstone were deposited in eolian depositional environments. Oil in Todilto source beds was generated beginning in the middle Paleocene, about 63 million years ago, and maximum generation of oil occurred in the middle Eocene. In the northern part of the San Juan Basin, possible gas and condensate were generated in Todilto Limestone Member source beds until the middle Miocene. The migration distance of oil from the Todilto source beds into the underlying Entrada Sandstone reservoirs was short, probably within the dimensions of a single dune crest. Traps in the Entrada are mainly stratigraphic and diagenetic. Regional tilt of the strata to the northeast has influenced structural trapping of oil, but also allowed for later introduction of water. Subsequent hydrodynamic forces have influenced the repositioning of the oil in some reservoirs and flushing in others. Seals are mostly the anhydrite and limestone facies of the Todilto, which thin to as little as 10 ft over the crests of the dunes. The TPS contains only one assessment unit, the Entrada Sandstone Conventional Oil Assessment Unit (AU) (50220401). Only four of the eight oil fields producing from the Entrada met the 0.5 million barrels of oil minimum size used for this assessment. The AU was estimated at the mean to have potential additions to reserves of 2.32 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 5.56 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 0.22 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  8. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-05-01

    The Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico has produced >30 Bbbl (4.77 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000, most of it from 1,339 reservoirs having individual cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}). These significant-sized reservoirs are the focus of this report. Thirty-two Permian Basin oil plays were defined, and each of the 1,339 significant-sized reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Associated reservoir information within linked data tables includes Railroad Commission of Texas reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are <1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. This report contains a summary description of each play, including key reservoir characteristics and successful reservoir-management practices that have been used in the play. The CD accompanying the report contains a pdf version of the report, the GIS project, pdf maps of all plays, and digital data files. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 from these significant-sized reservoirs was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl 5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres

  9. Integrated assessment for establishing an oil environmental vulnerability map: case study for the Santos Basin region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A F; Abessa, D M S; Fontes, R F C; Silva, G H

    2013-09-15

    The growth of maritime transport and oil exploitation activities may increase the risk of oil spills. Thus, plans and actions to prevent or mitigate impacts are needed to minimize the effects caused by oil. However, tools used worldwide to support contingency plans have not been integrated, thus leading to failure in establishing priority areas. This investigation aimed to develop indices of environmental vulnerability to oil (IEVO), by combining information about environmental sensibility to oil and results of numerical modeling of spilled oil. To achieve that, a case study concerning to oil spills scenarios in a subtropical coastal area was designed, and IEVOs were calculated and presented in maps, in order to make the information about the areas' vulnerability more easily visualized. For summer, the extension of coastline potentially affected by oil was approximately 150 km, and most of the coastline presented medium to high vulnerability. For winter, 230 km coastline would be affected, from which 75% were classified as medium to high vulnerability. Thus, IEVO maps allowed a rapid and clearer interpretation of the vulnerability of the mapped region, facilitating the planning process and the actions in response to an oil spill. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Possible Involvement of Permian Phosphoria Formation Oil as a Source of REE and Other Metals Associated with Complex U-V Mineralization in the Northern Bighorn Basin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Moore-Nall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The origin of V, U, REE and other metals in the Permian Phosphoria Formation have been speculated and studied by numerous scientists. The exceptionally high concentrations of metals have been interpreted to reflect fundamental transitions from anoxic to oxic marine conditions. Much of the oil in the Bighorn Basin, is sourced by the Phosphoria Formation. Two of the top 10 producing oil fields in Wyoming are located approximately 50 km west of two abandoned U-V mining districts in the northern portion of the basin. These fields produce from basin margin anticlinal structures from Mississippian age reservoir rock. Samples collected from abandoned U-V mines and prospects hosted in Mississippian aged paleokarst in Montana and Wyoming have hydrocarbon residue present and contain anomalous high concentrations of many metals that are found in similar concentrations in the Phosphoria Formation. As, Hg, Mo, Pb, Tl, U, V and Zn, often metals of environmental concern occur in high concentrations in Phosphoria Formation samples and had values ranging from 30–1295 ppm As, 0.179–12.8 ppm Hg, 2–791 ppm Mo, <2–146 ppm Pb, 10–490 ppm Tl, 907–86,800 ppm U, 1240–18,900 ppm V, and 7–2230 ppm Zn, in mineralized samples from this study. The REE plus Y composition of Madison Limestone- and limestone breccia hosted-bitumen reflect similar patterns to both mineralized samples from this study and to U.S. Geological Survey rock samples from studies of the Phosphoria Formation. Geochemical, mineralogical and field data were used to investigate past theories for mineralization of these deposits to determine if U present in home wells and Hg content of fish from rivers on the proximal Crow Indian Reservation may have been derived from these deposits or related to their mode of mineralization.

  11. Microbial Community Response to Simulated Petroleum Seepage in Caspian Sea Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Knittel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic microbial hydrocarbon degradation is a major biogeochemical process at marine seeps. Here we studied the response of the microbial community to petroleum seepage simulated for 190 days in a sediment core from the Caspian Sea using a sediment-oil-flow-through (SOFT system. Untreated (without simulated petroleum seepage and SOFT sediment microbial communities shared 43% bacterial genus-level 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic units (OTU0.945 but shared only 23% archaeal OTU0.945. The community differed significantly between sediment layers. The detection of fourfold higher deltaproteobacterial cell numbers in SOFT than in untreated sediment at depths characterized by highest sulfate reduction rates and strongest decrease of gaseous and mid-chain alkane concentrations indicated a specific response of hydrocarbon-degrading Deltaproteobacteria. Based on an increase in specific CARD-FISH cell numbers, we suggest the following groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria to be likely responsible for the observed decrease in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentration in SOFT sediments: clade SCA1 for propane and butane degradation, clade LCA2 for mid- to long-chain alkane degradation, clade Cyhx for cycloalkanes, pentane and hexane degradation, and relatives of Desulfobacula for toluene degradation. Highest numbers of archaea of the genus Methanosarcina were found in the methanogenic zone of the SOFT core where we detected preferential degradation of long-chain hydrocarbons. Sequencing of masD, a marker gene for alkane degradation encoding (1-methylalkylsuccinate synthase, revealed a low diversity in SOFT sediment with two abundant species-level MasD OTU0.96.

  12. Seepage into drifts in unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Li, Guomin; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Tsang, Yvonne

    1998-01-01

    An important issue for the long-term performance of underground nuclear waste repository is the rate of seepage into the waste emplacement drifts. A prediction of the future seepage rate is particularly complicated for the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as it is located in thick, partially saturated, fractured tuff formations. The long-term situation in the drifts several thousand years after waste emplacement will be characterized by a relative humidity level close to or equal to 100%, as the drifts will be sealed and unventilated, and the waste packages will have cooled. The underground tunnels will then act as capillary barriers for the unsaturated flow, ideally diverting water around them, if the capillary forces are stronger than gravity and viscous forces. Seepage into the drifts will only be possible if the hydraulic pressure in the rock close to the drift walls increases to positive values; i.e., the flow field becomes locally saturated. In the present work, they have developed and applied a methodology to study the potential rate of seepage into underground cavities embedded in a variably saturated, heterogeneous fractured rock formation. The fractured rock mass is represented as a stochastic continuum where the fracture permeabilities vary by several orders of magnitude. Three different realizations of random fracture permeability fields are generated, with the random permeability structure based on extensive fracture mapping, borehole video analysis, and in-situ air permeability testing. A 3-D numerical model is used to simulate the heterogeneous steady-state flow field around the drift, with the drift geometry explicitly represented within the numerical discretization grid. A variety of flow scenarios are considered assuming present-day and future climate conditions at Yucca Mountain. The numerical study is complemented by theoretical evaluations of the drift seepage problem, using stochastic perturbation theory to develop a better

  13. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin with Intensive Oil and Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matichuk, R.; Tonnesen, G.; Luecken, D.; Roselle, S. J.; Napelenok, S. L.; Baker, K. R.; Gilliam, R. C.; Misenis, C.; Murphy, B.; Schwede, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is an important source of domestic energy resources. One of the primary environmental impacts associated with oil and natural gas production is related to air emission releases of a number of air pollutants. Some of these pollutants are important precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone. To better understand ozone impacts and other air quality issues, photochemical air quality models are used to simulate the changes in pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere on local, regional, and national spatial scales. These models are important for air quality management because they assist in identifying source contributions to air quality problems and designing effective strategies to reduce harmful air pollutants. The success of predicting oil and natural gas air quality impacts depends on the accuracy of the input information, including emissions inventories, meteorological information, and boundary conditions. The treatment of chemical and physical processes within these models is equally important. However, given the limited amount of data collected for oil and natural gas production emissions in the past and the complex terrain and meteorological conditions in western states, the ability of these models to accurately predict pollution concentrations from these sources is uncertain. Therefore, this presentation will focus on understanding the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model's ability to predict air quality impacts associated with oil and natural gas production and its sensitivity to input uncertainties. The results will focus on winter ozone issues in the Uinta Basin, Utah and identify the factors contributing to model performance issues. The results of this study will help support future air quality model development, policy and regulatory decisions for the oil and gas sector.

  14. Geochemical Variability and the Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste Water Coproduced with Oil from Permian Basin of the Southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. A.; Holguin, F. O.; Xu, P.; Engle, M.; Dungan, B.; Hunter, B.; Carroll, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. generates 21 billion barrels/year of coproduced water from oil and gas exploration, which is generally considered waste water. Growth in unconventional oil and gas production has spurred interest in beneficial uses of produced water, especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico, the largest U.S. tight oil producer. Produced waters have variable chemistries, but generally contain high levels of organics and salts. In order to evaluate the environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of produced water. In the present study, produced water samples were collected from 12 wells across the Permian Basin. Compositional analyses including coupled gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy were conducted. The samples show elevated benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene, alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene compared to other heteroaromatics; they also contain complex hydrocarbon compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Van Krevelen diagrams show an increase in the concentration of heteroaromatic hydrocarbons with increasing well depth. The salinity, dominated by sodium-chloride, also increases with depth, ranging from 37-150 g/L TDS. Depth of wells (or producing formation) is a primary control on predicting water quality for treatment and beneficial use. Our results suggest that partial treatment by removing suspended solids and organic contaminants would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse, bioenergy production, and other industrial uses. Due to the high salinity, conventional desalination processes are not applicable or very costly, making beneficial uses requiring low salinity not feasible.

  15. Return to the catagenesis assessment of the sedimentary stratum in the Timan‑Pechora oil and gas basin by means of coal petrographical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Pronina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Timan-Pechora basin still has a large importance and as a potential region for the hydrocarbons mining in Russia. At present, new facts are emerging from oil and gas exploration. The authors studied more than 50 samples from 11 wells. Most samples in this series were related to the Middle-Late-Frasnian sediments (Late Devonian, which are allocated in «domanic» horizon. Organic macerals of the studed samples are represented both by fragments of humic macerals and sapropelic OM (formed from algal material. The common organic macerals in Timan-Pechora basin are bituminites. They were met in all samples without exception and provide total content of OM,% in the rock. Bituminites are regularly distributed among mineral matter and color the rock in gray or more dark colors. Bituminite was used to determine the reflectance index (RB,% that later was converted into the corresponding equivalent of vitrinite reflectance index (RVeq,%. This is particularly important as authors’ information was used together with the results of earlier studies. ID-modeling has been made in the program PetroMod (2015.1 Schlumberger and helped to understand evolution in Timan-Pechora basin and maturity degree of rocks. The concept of the model was coordinated with the main evolution stages of the northeast European Platform and the foredeep Ural trough. The thicknesses of catagenesis zones and position of boundaries between them are indicators of thermal regime in the analyzed regions. The heat flow used in the modelling was one and the same for most tectonic regions (except foredeep Ural trough and Khoreiverskaja depression. According to the classification of the sedimentary basins by P. Robert (1985, 5 regions belong to regions with a normal or slightly hypothermal geothermal regime (heat flow 45-65 mV/m2 and foredeep Ural trough with heat flow up to 74 mV/m2 is a region with a high hyperthermal regime.

  16. Effects of oil palm expansion through direct and indirect land use change in Tapi river basin, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Hein, Lars; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit

    2016-01-01

    The Thai government has ambitious plan to further promote the use of biodiesel. However, there has been insufficient consideration on the environmental effects of oil palm expansion in Thailand. This paper focuses on the effects of oil palm expansion on land use. We analysed the direct land use

  17. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  18. Characteristics of source rocks of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of Sichuan Basin and their significance to oil and gas exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengye Xie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development environment, biogenetic compositions and hydrocarbon generation characteristics of ancient source rocks in the deep strata of the Sichuan Basin because oil and gas exploration extends continuously to the deep and ultra-deep strata and a giant gas field with the explored reserves of more than 1 × 1012 m3 was discovered in the Middle and Upper Proterozoic–Lower Paleozoic strata in the stable inherited paleo-uplift of the central Sichuan Basin. Based on the previous geological research results, outcrop section of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin was observed and the samples taken from the source rocks were tested and analyzed in terms of their organic geochemistry and organic petrology. It is shown that high-quality black shale source rocks of the Datangpo Fm are developed in the tensional background at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin between two glacial ages, i.e., Gucheng and Nantuo ages in the Nanhua Period. Their thickness is 16–180 m and mineral compositions are mainly clay minerals and clastic quartz. Besides, shale in the Datangpo Fm is of high-quality sapropel type source rock with high abundance at an over-mature stage, and it is characterized by low pristane/phytane ratios (0.32–0.83, low gammacerane abundance, high-abundance tricyclic terpane and higher-content C27 and C29 gonane, indicating that biogenetic compositions are mainly algae and microbes in a strong reducing environment with low salinity. It is concluded that the Datangpo Fm source rocks may be developed in the rift of Nanhua System in central Sichuan Basin. Paleo-uplifts and paleo-slopes before the Caledonian are the favorable locations for the accumulation of dispersed liquid hydrocarbons and paleo-reservoirs derived from the Datangpo Fm source rocks. In addition, scale accumulation zones of dispersed organic matter cracking gas and paleo

  19. Organic geochemistry of heavy/extra heavy oils from sidewall cores, Lower Lagunillas Member, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Basin, Venenzuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocco, R.; Alberdi, M. [PDVSA-Inteveo S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    2002-10-01

    The study of 22 oils from sidewall cores taken at different depths in the Lower Lagunillas Member, well LSJ-AB, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Lake is presented, with the purpose of predicting the intervals that present the best crude oil quality. Differences were detected in the biodegradation levels of the studied samples, which are correlated with the depth at which the sidewall core was taken. The API gravity was considered for the oils from each sidewall core and it was found that toward the top of the sequence, the oils have an API gravity of 10.6-11.2{sup o}C, while toward the base part of the sequence, the well produces extra heavy oils with an API gravity that varies between 8.2 and 8.7{sup o}. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.10 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the Appalachian Basin Province is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. The total organic carbon (TOC) values for the Utica Shale are usually greater than 1 weight percent. TOC values ranging from 2 to 3 weight percent outline a broad, northeast-trending area that extends across western and southern Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, northern West Virginia, and southeastern New York. The Utica Shale is characterized by type II kerogen, which is a variety of kerogen that is typically prone to oil generation. Conondont color-alteration index (CAI) isograds, which are based on samples from the Upper Ordovician Trenton Limestone (or Group), indicate that a pod of mature Utica Shale source rocks occupies most of the TPS.

  1. Analysis of the influence of the interlayer staggered zone in the basalt of Jinsha River Basin on the main buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiaona; Huang, Jiangwei

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the finite element software FEFLOW is used to simulate the seepage field of the interlayer staggered zone C2 in the basalt of Jinsha River Basin. The influence of the interlayer staggered zone C2 on the building is analyzed. Combined with the waterproof effect of current design scheme of anti-seepage curtain, the seepage field in the interlayer staggered zone C2 is discussed under different design schemes. The optimal design scheme of anti-seepage curtain is put forward. The results showed that the case four can effectively reduce the head and hydraulic gradient of underground powerhouse area, and improve the groundwater seepage field in the plant area.

  2. Avian diversity and feeding guilds in a secondary forest, an oil palm plantation and a paddy field in riparian areas of the kerian river basin, perak, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Nur Munira; Latip, Nurul Salmi Abdul; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Khairuddin, Nurul Liyana

    2011-12-01

    The diversity and the feeding guilds of birds in three different habitats (secondary forest, oil palm plantation and paddy field) were investigated in riparian areas of the Kerian River Basin (KRB), Perak, Malaysia. Point-count observation and mist-netting methods were used to determine bird diversity and abundance. A total of 132 species of birds from 46 families were recorded in the 3 habitats. Species diversity, measured by Shannon's diversity index, was 3.561, 3.183 and 1.042 in the secondary forest, the paddy field and the oil palm plantation, respectively. The vegetation diversity and the habitat structure were important determinants of the number of bird species occurring in an area. The relative abundance of the insectivore, insectivore-frugivore and frugivore guilds was greater in the forest than in the monoculture plantation. In contrast, the relative abundance of the carnivore, granivore and omnivore guilds was higher in the plantation. The results of the study show that the conversion of forest to either oil palm plantation or paddy fields produced a decline in bird diversity and changes in the distribution of bird feeding guilds.

  3. Characterization of light gaseous hydrocarbons of the surface soils of Krishna-Godavari basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, M; Rasheed, M A; Madhavi, T; Kalpana, M S; Patil, D J; Dayal, A M

    2012-01-01

    Several techniques are used for the exploration of hydrocarbons, of which; the geochemical techniques involving the microbiological technique use the principle of detecting the light hydrocarbon seepage activities for indication of sub-surface petroleum accumulations. Asurvey was carried out to characterize the light gaseous hydrocarbons seeping in oil and gas fields of Krishna-Godavari basin ofAndhra Pradesh. Aset of 50 sub-soil samples were collected at depths of about 3 m for geochemical analyses and 1m for microbiological analysis. The microbial prospecting studies showed the presence of high bacterial population for methane 2.5 x 10(2) to 6.0 x 10(6) cfu g(-1), propane 1x10(2) to 8.0 x 10(6) cfu g(-1) in soil samples. The adsorbed soil gas analysis showed the presence of moderate to low concentrations of methane (26 to 139 ppb), ethane (0 to 17 ppb), propane (0 to 8 ppb), butane (0 to 5 ppb) and pentane (0 to 2 ppb) in the soil samples of the study area. Carbon isotope analysis for methane ('13C1) ranging from -36.6 to -22.7 per hundred Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) suggests these gases are of thermogenic origin. Geo-microbial prospecting method coupled with adsorbed soil gas and carbon isotope ratio analysis have thus shown good correlation with existing oil/gas fields of Krishna-Godavari basin.

  4. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-10-05

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the fourth project year (April 6 through October 5, 2003). The work included (1) analysis of well-test data and oil production from Cherokee and Bug fields, San Juan County, Utah, and (2) diagenetic evaluation of stable isotopes from the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Production ''sweet spots'' and potential horizontal drilling candidates were identified for Cherokee and Bug fields. In Cherokee field, the most productive wells are located in the

  5. Some peculiarities of basin petroleum potential, mediterranean belt, in connection with estimating oil potential of large depths, south Caspian province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belonin, M.D.; Sobolev, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Some peculiarities of occuring and forming oil pools in the richest south Caspian province are considered in connection with the problems concerning the estimation of oil potential of large depths. On the data of A.A. Ali-zade (1981, 1985) and other researchers, in the direction of regional subsidence of sedimentary beds, gas saturation of fluids increases and oil pools change progressively into gas-oil and gas-condensate ones. The continental margins of a transitional stage between the synoceanic and final phases of developing a continent-ocean system are present in the Mediterranean belt including its west component in the Mexico-Caribbean region. Some new results of a chromatographic analysis of nonfractional oils were received. The indices of individual hydrocarbon composition are indicative of the presence of wide vertical hydrocarbon migration during forming multibedded offshore hydrocarbon fields in south Caspian. In the south Caspian offshore, the composition of oils found in the range between 4-6 km is in agreement with the composition of fluids of the main zone of oil generation. It suggests the generation of liquid hydrocarbons at depths exceeding 6.5 km.

  6. Fault-related CO2 degassing, geothermics, and fluid flow in southern California basins---Physiochemical evidence and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, James R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Garven, Grant [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    2015-08-04

    Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO2 degassing, such as might occur from stored CO2 reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.

  7. Fault-Related CO2 Degassing, Geothermics, and Fluid Flow in Southern California Basins--Physiochemical Evidence and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garven, Grant [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    2015-08-11

    Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO2 degassing, such as might occur from stored CO2 reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.

  8. Calculation of drift seepage for alternative emplacement designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guomin; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Birkholzer, Jens

    1999-01-01

    The calculations presented in this report are performed to obtain seepage rates into drift and boreholes for two alternative designs of drift and waste emplacement at Yucca Mountain. The two designs are defined according to the Scope of Work 14012021M1, activity 399621, drafted October 6, 1998, and further refined in a conference telephone call on October 13, 1998, between Mark Balady, Jim Blink, Rob Howard and Chin-Fu Tsang. The 2 designs considered are: (1) Design A--Horizontal boreholes 1.0 m in diameter on both sides of the drift, with each borehole 8 m long and inclined to the drift axis by 30 degrees. The pillar between boreholes, measured parallel to the drift axis, is 3.3 m. In the current calculations, a simplified model of an isolated horizontal borehole 8 m long will be simulated. The horizontal borehole will be located in a heterogeneous fracture continuum representing the repository layer. Three different realizations will be taken from the heterogeneous field, representing three different locations in the rock. Seepage for each realization is calculated as a function of the percolation flux. Design B--Vertical boreholes, 1.0 m in diameter and 8.0 m deep, drilled from the bottom of an excavated 8.0 m diameter drift. Again, the drift with the vertical borehole will be assumed to be located in a heterogeneous fracture continuum, representing the rock at the repository horizon. Two realizations are considered, and seepage is calculated for the 8-m drift with and without the vertical 1-m borehole at its bottom

  9. Kinetic modeling of the thermal evolution of crude oils in sedimentary basins; Modelisation cinetique de l'evolution thermique des petroles dans les gisements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounaceur, R.

    2001-01-15

    The aim of this work is to obtain a better understanding of the reactions involved in the thermal cracking of crude oil in sedimentary basins, and to study its kinetics as a function of temperature and pressure. We study the kinetics of pyrolysis of alkanes at low temperature, high pressure and high conversion and we propose three methods of reduction of the corresponding mechanisms. Several compounds having an inhibiting or accelerating effect on the rate of decomposition of alkanes were also studied. This research led to the construction of a general kinetic model of 5200 elementary steps representing the pyrolysis of a complex mixture of 52 molecules belonging to various chemical families: 30 linear alkanes (from CH{sub 4} to C{sub 30}H{sub 62}), 10 branched-chain alkanes (including pristane and phytane), 2 naphthenes (propyl-cyclo-pentane and propyl-cyclohexane), tetralin, 1-methyl-indan, 4 aromatics (benzene, toluene, butyl-benzene and decyl-benzene), 3 hetero-atomic compounds (a disulfide, a mercaptan and H{sub 2}S). This model is compared to experimental data coming from the pyrolysis of two oils: one from the North Sea and the other from Pematang. The results obtained show a good agreement between the experimental and simulated values. Then, we simulated the cracking of these two oils by using the following burial scenario: initial temperature of 160 degrees, 50 m per million years (ma) in a constant geothermal gradient of 30 degrees C/km, implying a heating rate of 1.5 degrees C/ma. Under these conditions, our model shows that these two oils start to crack only towards 210-220 degrees C and that their time of half-life corresponds to a temperature around 230-240 degrees C. The model also makes it possible to simulate the evolution of geochemical parameters such as the GOR, the API degree... (author)

  10. Black Gold, White Power: Mapping Oil, Real Estate, and Racial Segregation in the Los Angeles Basin, 1900-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Cumming

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1923, Southern California produced over twenty percent of the world’s oil. At the epicenter of an oil boom from 1892 to the 1930s, Los Angeles grew into the nation’s fifth largest city. By the end of the rush, it had also become one of the most racially segregated cities in the country. Historians have overlooked the relationship between industrialists drilling for oil and real estate developers codifying a racist housing market, namely through “redlining” maps and mortgage lending. While redlining is typically understood as a problem of horizontal territory, this paper argues that the mapping of the underground—the location and volume of subterranean oil fields, in particular—was a crucial technique in underwriting urban apartheid. Mapping technologies linked oil exploitation with restrictive property rights, constructing oil as a resource and vertically engineering a racialized housing market. By focusing on petro-industrialization interlocked with segregationist housing, this article reveals an unexamined chapter in Los Angeles’s history of resource exploitation and racial capitalism. Moreover, it contributes to a growing literature on the social production of resources, extractive technology and political exclusion, and the technoscientific practices used by states and corporations to mine the underground while constructing metropolitan inequality above ground.

  11. Formation and mechanism of the abnormal pressure zone and its relation to oil and gas accumulations in the Eastern Jiuquan Basin, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建平; 黄第藩

    1996-01-01

    Three abnormal overpressure zoes with a planar top at different depths occur in the Ying’er Depression in the Eastern Jiuquan Basin. The distance and the temperature difference between them are about 1 000 m and 30℃, respectively. The studies of sedimentary history, nature of formation water, variation of geothermal gradient and examination of thin sections, and the relationship between lithologic section and formation pressure show that there are conditions for formation of abnormal overpressure zones in the Ying’er Depression. Aquathermal pressuring and the overlying sediment load are main factors forming the abnormal overpressure zones. The study indicates that most of oil and gas in the Ying’er Depression accumulated in reservoirs above or under the seals or in the top of the compartments.

  12. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  13. Radioactive Seepage through Groundwater Flow from the Uranium Mines, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamiru Abiye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the seepage of uranium from unlined tailing dams into the alluvial aquifer in the Gawib River floodplain in Namibia where the region solely relies on groundwater for its economic activities as a result of arid climatic condition. The study reviewed previous works besides water sample collection and analyses for major ions, metals and environmental isotopes in addition to field tests on physico-chemical parameters (pH, Electrical Conductivity, Redox and T. Estimation of seepage velocity (true velocity of groundwater flow has been conducted in order to understand the extent of radioactive plume transport. The hydrochemistry, stable isotopes and tritium results show that there is uranium contamination from the unlined uranium tailings in the Gawib shallow aquifer system which suggests high permeability of the alluvial aquifer facilitating groundwater flow in the arid region. The radioactive contaminants could spread into the deeper aquifer system through the major structures such as joints and faults. The contamination plume could also spread downstream into the Swakop River unless serious interventions are employed. There is also a very high risk of the plume to reach the Atlantic Ocean through seasonal flash floods that occurs in the area.

  14. Geological characteristic of the main oil and gas producing formations of the upper Austrian molasse basin. Pt. 1. The Eocene sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L [Rohoel-Aufsuchungs-Gesellschaft m.b.H., Vienna (Austria)

    1980-09-01

    The sandstones of the Upper Eocene are the main oil carriers within RAG's Upper Austrian concession area. The attempt is being made to reconstruct the paleogeography of the Eocene-in which time the sea transgressed the Molasse basin towards N and E - from core and log evidence. From deep Lower Tertiary onwards the mesozoic and older sediments were exposed to intensive erosion, which resulted in a slightly undulating peneplane sloping in a S to SW direction. This erosion plane was - still in Lower Tertiary times - in some areas dissected into horst and graben structures which greatly influenced the deposition of the early Eocene sediments. During the Upper Eocene the Molasse basin began to subside and subsided more strongly in the SW than in the N and NE, so that neritic deposits could form in the first area, whereas lagoonal and brackish sedimentation still prevailed in the latter. The Eocene sandstones are being classified according to their environment of deposition, and their reservoir, characteristics are being studied. Sandstones are absent in the neritic environment of the Discocyclina-marls only. Sand deposits have been encountered as: 1) transgressive horizons directly overlying the pretertiary substrate, 2) infills of channels cut into limnic-brackish sediments, 3) littoral deposits, partly interfingering with Lithothamnium limestone, 4) fine grained sandy marls and nummulitic sandstones within sublittoral to neritic sediments.

  15. The three-dimensional geologic model used for the 2003 National Oil and Gas Assessment of the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 7 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra

    2013-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional geologic model of the San Joaquin Basin (SJB) that may be the first compilation of subsurface data spanning the entire basin. The model volume spans 200 × 90 miles, oriented along the basin axis, and extends to ~11 miles depth, for a total of more than 1 million grid nodes. This model supported the 2003 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of future additions to reserves of oil and gas in the SJB. Data sources include well-top picks from more than 3,200 wildcat and production wells, published cross sections, regional seismic grids, and fault maps. The model consists of 15 chronostratigraphic horizons ranging from the Mesozoic crystalline basement to the topographic surface. Many of the model units are hydrocarbon reservoir rocks and three—the Cretaceous Moreno Formation, the Eocene Kreyenhagen Formation, and the Miocene Monterey Formation—are hydrocarbon source rocks. The White Wolf Fault near the southern end of the basin divides the map volume into 2 separate fault blocks. The construction of a three-dimensional model of the entire SJB encountered many challenges, including complex and inconsistent stratigraphic nomenclature, significant facies changes across and along the basin axis, time-transgressive formation tops, uncertain correlation of outcrops with their subsurface equivalents, and contradictory formation top data. Although some areas of the model are better resolved than others, the model facilitated the 2003 resource assessment in several ways, including forming the basis of a petroleum system model and allowing a precise definition of assessment unit volumes.

  16. Sustaining Petroleum Exploration and Development in Mature Basins: Production Sharing Contracts and Financing of Joint Venture Oil and Gas Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwueke, T.

    2002-01-01

    Oil companies make a business by bearing the risks of investing in, and making profits from, oil and gas operations. International Oil Companies (IOC) are the recognised leaders in technology and develop expertise in the management of technical such as subsurface and surface uncertainties through seismic surveys, well drilling and production facilities. In export oriented oil and gas developments, IOCs also carry the commercial risks associated with the export market (ups and downs in the demand for oil and gas) that could make the project non-profitable, if not properly managed.Conversely, Local Oil Companies (LOCs), i.e. indigenous private or state owned companies, are more adapt at developing expertise in the management of the local environmental, domestic market and political risks associated with the area or country of operations. It is recognised that in certain countries some LOCs are also making significant progress in the acquisition of modern technology. Any critical business risks which cannot be adequately managed by either the IOC or the LOC will require the involvement of third party, who will normally provide guarantee or securitisation in one form or another.A partnership between local and international oil companies has become accepted to be the most secure and profitable arrangement in international oil and gas business. In the Niger Delta, which is mature oil and gas province and as such non-market related risks, particularly technical and supply risks, are substantially reduced, Joint Venture type of arrangement is considered the most suitable form of partnership. Joint Venture arrangement allows each partner to fund the venture in direct proportion to its participation interest. Because of the reduced risks profile, the joint venture is more bankable; each partner can therefore secure funding for its share with its revenue profile. In Nigeria, however, where the revenue profile (and consequently development budget) of the dominant local player

  17. Seepage into an Underground Opening Constructed in Unsaturated Fractured Rock Under Evaporative Conditions, RPR 29013(C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautz, R. C.; Wang, Joseph S. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Liquid-release tests, performed in boreholes above an underground opening constructed in unsaturated fractured rock, are used in this study to evaluate seepage into a waste emplacement drift. Evidence for the existence of a capillary barrier at the ceiling of the drift is presented, based on field observations (including spreading of the wetting front across the ceiling and water movement up fractures exposed in the ceiling before seepage begins). The capillary barrier mechanism has the potential to divert water around the opening, resulting in no seepage when the percolation flux is at or below the seepage threshold flux. Liquid-release tests are used to demonstrate that a seepage threshold exists and to measure the magnitude of the seepage threshold flux for three test zones that seeped. The seepage data are interpreted using analytical techniques to estimate the test-specific strength of the rock capillary forces (α -1 ) that prevent water from seeping into the drift. Evaporation increases the seepage threshold flux making it more difficult for water to seep into the drift and producing artificially inflated α -1 values. With adjustments for evaporation, the minimum test-specific threshold is 1,600 mm/yr with a corresponding α -1 of 0.027 m

  18. Effects of smectite on the oil-expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale, San Joaquin Basin, California, based on hydrous-pyrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael D.; Dolan, Michael P.; Curtis, John B.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of oil that maturing source rocks expel is expressed as their expulsion efficiency, which is usually stated in milligrams of expelled oil per gram of original total organic carbon (TOCO). Oil-expulsion efficiency can be determined by heating thermally immature source rocks in the presence of liquid water (i.e., hydrous pyrolysis) at temperatures between 350°C and 365°C for 72 hr. This pyrolysis method generates oil that is compositionally similar to natural crude oil and expels it by processes operative in the subsurface. Consequently, hydrous pyrolysis provides a means to determine oil-expulsion efficiencies and the rock properties that influence them. Smectite in source rocks has previously been considered to promote oil generation and expulsion and is the focus of this hydrous-pyrolysis study involving a representative sample of smectite-rich source rock from the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale in the San Joaquin Basin of California. Smectite is the major clay mineral (31 wt. %) in this thermally immature sample, which contains 9.4 wt. % total organic carbon (TOC) comprised of type II kerogen. Compared to other immature source rocks that lack smectite as their major clay mineral, the expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale was significantly lower. The expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen whole rock was reduced 88% compared to that of its isolated kerogen. This significant reduction is attributed to bitumen impregnating the smectite interlayers in addition to the rock matrix. Within the interlayers, much of the bitumen is converted to pyrobitumen through crosslinking instead of oil through thermal cracking. As a result, smectite does not promote oil generation but inhibits it. Bitumen impregnation of the rock matrix and smectite interlayers results in the rock pore system changing from water wet to bitumen wet. This change prevents potassium ion (K+) transfer and dissolution and precipitation reactions needed for the conversion of smectite to

  19. Downhole Upgrading of Orinoco Basin Extra-Heavy Crude Oil Using Hydrogen Donors under Steam Injection Conditions. Effect of the Presence of Iron Nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ovalles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An extra-heavy crude oil underground upgrading concept and laboratory experiments are presented which involve the addition of a hydrogen donor (tetralin to an Orinoco Basin extra-heavy crude oil under steam injection conditions (280–315 °C and residence times of at least 24-h. Three iron-containing nanocatalysts (20 nm, 60 nm and 90 nm were used and the results showed increases of up to 8° in API gravity, 26% desulfurization and 27% reduction in the asphaltene content of the upgraded product in comparison to the control reaction using inert sand. The iron nanocatalysts were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDAX, and Mössbauer spectroscopy before and after the upgrading reactions. The results indicated the presence of hematite (Fe2O3 as the predominant iron phase. The data showed that the catalysts were deactivating by particle sintering (~20% increase in particle size and also by carbon deposition. Probable mechanisms of reactions are proposed.

  20. Closure plan for the M-Area settling basin and vicinity at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colven, W.P.; Pickett, J.B.

    1985-07-01

    The areas addressed in this closure plan include a process sewer line, surface impoundment (settling basin), overflow ditch, seepage area, and a Carolina Bay known as Lost Lake. Since it is proposed that the basin and vicinity be closed with the hazardous wastes placed and stabilized in the basin, it will be closed pursuant to regulations for closing a hazardous waste landfill. No free liquids will remain in the impoundment after closure is completed

  1. Study of chemical composition of sludges and scales from the oil production activities and correlation with natural radioactivity - case study: Campos Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Rosana Petinatti da

    2002-01-01

    This work intended to study general aspects related to natural radioactivity, focusing on its occurrence in the oil industry and on sludge and scales samples taken from the Oil E and P region from Campos's Basin. The physical and chemical analysis and the statistical treatment were carried out with the objective of determine the samples composition checking the differences between the sludges and the scales. Third six representative samples were obtained from the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute (IRD/CNEN), Brazil, taking into account factors such as activity concentration, physical and chemical aspects and origin. After the oil extraction, samples were classified by aspects as color and granulometry. Ali the studied samples were analyzed by X-rays diffraction being identified the presence of barite, calcite, quartz among others. The results supplied a base for the elaboration of a successive determination scheme which comprehended residual organic material, carbonate, sulfate, silica, chloride and metals as the alkaline, earthy alkaline, aluminum, etc. The sludges presented a highly variable chemical composition, being rich in silica and carbonates. The main components analysis showed a statistical valid relationship among the radium isotopes and the carbonates presence. On the other hand, the scales are made of barium and strontium sulfates (75%), presenting a minor variation on its chemical composition and in the existing radium content. Due to this low variability of the barium, sulfate and radium contents, it has not been possible to consider valid a relationship that could exist among them in the application of the main component analysis. (author)

  2. Fault kinematics and depocenter evolution of oil-bearing, continental successions of the Mina del Carmen Formation (Albian) in the Golfo San Jorge basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, José Matildo; Plazibat, Silvana; Crovetto, Carolina; Stein, Julián; Cayo, Eric; Schiuma, Ariel

    2013-10-01

    normal faults (mean Az = 98°) formed during the "third rifting phase", which occurs coeval with the deposition of the Upper Member of the Bajo Barreal Formation. The fault characteristics indicate a counterclockwise rotation of the stress field during the deposition of the Chubut Group of the Golfo San Jorge basin, likely associated to the rotation of Southern South America during the fragmentation of the Gondwana paleocontinent. Understanding the evolution of fault-controlled topography in continental basins allow to infer location and orientation of coeval fluvial systems, providing a more reliable scenario for location of producing oil wells.

  3. Subduction zone earthquake probably triggered submarine hydrocarbon seepage offshore Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David; José M., Mogollón; Michael, Strasser; Thomas, Pape; Gerhard, Bohrmann; Noemi, Fekete; Volkhard, Spiess; Sabine, Kasten

    2014-05-01

    Seepage of methane-dominated hydrocarbons is heterogeneous in space and time, and trigger mechanisms of episodic seep events are not well constrained. It is generally found that free hydrocarbon gas entering the local gas hydrate stability field in marine sediments is sequestered in gas hydrates. In this manner, gas hydrates can act as a buffer for carbon transport from the sediment into the ocean. However, the efficiency of gas hydrate-bearing sediments for retaining hydrocarbons may be corrupted: Hypothesized mechanisms include critical gas/fluid pressures beneath gas hydrate-bearing sediments, implying that these are susceptible to mechanical failure and subsequent gas release. Although gas hydrates often occur in seismically active regions, e.g., subduction zones, the role of earthquakes as potential triggers of hydrocarbon transport through gas hydrate-bearing sediments has hardly been explored. Based on a recent publication (Fischer et al., 2013), we present geochemical and transport/reaction-modelling data suggesting a substantial increase in upward gas flux and hydrocarbon emission into the water column following a major earthquake that occurred near the study sites in 1945. Calculating the formation time of authigenic barite enrichments identified in two sediment cores obtained from an anticlinal structure called "Nascent Ridge", we find they formed 38-91 years before sampling, which corresponds well to the time elapsed since the earthquake (62 years). Furthermore, applying a numerical model, we show that the local sulfate/methane transition zone shifted upward by several meters due to the increased methane flux and simulated sulfate profiles very closely match measured ones in a comparable time frame of 50-70 years. We thus propose a causal relation between the earthquake and the amplified gas flux and present reflection seismic data supporting our hypothesis that co-seismic ground shaking induced mechanical fracturing of gas hydrate-bearing sediments

  4. Groundwater flow and heterogeneous discharge into a seepage lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmierczak, Jolanta; Müller, Sascha; Nilsson, B.

    2016-01-01

    with the lake remained under seemingly steady state conditions across seasons, a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the discharge to the lake was observed. The results showed that part of the groundwater flowing from the west passes beneath the lake and discharges at the eastern shore, where groundwater......Groundwater discharge into a seepage lake was investigated by combining flux measurements, hydrochemical tracers, geological information, and a telescopic modeling approach using first two-dimensional (2-D) regional then 2-D local flow and flow path models. Discharge measurements and hydrochemical...... tracers supplement each other. Discharge measurements yield flux estimates but rarely provide information about the origin and flow path of the water. Hydrochemical tracers may reveal the origin and flow path of the water but rarely provide any information about the flux. While aquifer interacting...

  5. Chapter 5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources-Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston formations, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation of east Texas and southern Arkansas (and the correlative Hosston Formation of Louisiana and Mississippi) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin from east Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic detritus was derived from two main fluvial-deltaic depocenters, one in northeastern Texas and the other extending from southeastern Mississippi northwestward into northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in east Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are about 2,000 ft thick.

  6. Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and THC Seepage) Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenthale, E.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Near-Field Environment (NFE) and Unsaturated Zone (UZ) models used to evaluate the potential effects of coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) processes on unsaturated zone flow and transport. This is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'', Addendum D, Attachment D-4 (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) 2000 [1534471]) and ''Technical Work Plan for Nearfield Environment Thermal Analyses and Testing'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [153309]). These models include the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model and several THC seepage models. These models provide the framework to evaluate THC coupled processes at the drift scale, predict flow and transport behavior for specified thermal loading conditions, and predict the chemistry of waters and gases entering potential waste-emplacement drifts. The intended use of this AMR is to provide input for the following: Performance Assessment (PA); Near-Field Environment (NFE) PMR; Abstraction of Drift-Scale Coupled Processes AMR (ANL-NBS-HS-000029); and UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). The work scope for this activity is presented in the TWPs cited above, and summarized as follows: Continue development of the repository drift-scale THC seepage model used in support of the TSPA in-drift geochemical model; incorporate heterogeneous fracture property realizations; study sensitivity of results to changes in input data and mineral assemblage; validate the DST model by comparison with field data; perform simulations to predict mineral dissolution and precipitation and their effects on fracture properties and chemistry of water (but not flow rates) that may seep into drifts; submit modeling results to the TDMS and document the models. The model development, input data, sensitivity and validation studies described in this AMR are

  7. DRIFT-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (DST AND TH SEEPAGE) MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.T. Birkholzer; S. Mukhopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document drift-scale modeling work performed to evaluate the thermal-hydrological (TH) behavior in Yucca Mountain fractured rock close to waste emplacement drifts. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in rock temperatures elevated from ambient for thousands of years after emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, giving rise to water redistribution and altered flow paths. The predictive simulations described in this report are intended to investigate fluid flow in the vicinity of an emplacement drift for a range of thermal loads. Understanding the TH coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally driven water saturation changes affect the potential seepage of water into waste emplacement drifts. Seepage of water is important because if enough water gets into the emplacement drifts and comes into contact with any exposed radionuclides, it may then be possible for the radionuclides to be transported out of the drifts and to the groundwater below the drifts. For above-boiling rock temperatures, vaporization of percolating water in the fractured rock overlying the repository can provide an important barrier capability that greatly reduces (and possibly eliminates) the potential of water seeping into the emplacement drifts. In addition to this thermal process, water is inhibited from entering the drift opening by capillary forces, which occur under both ambient and thermal conditions (capillary barrier). The combined barrier capability of vaporization processes and capillary forces in the near-field rock during the thermal period of the repository is analyzed and discussed in this report

  8. STUDY OF GAS POTENCY BASED ON GRAVITY ANOMALY MODELING AND SEISMIC PROFILE ANALYSIS AT BANGGAI-SULA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediar Usman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Banggai-Sula Basin is one of the basins with character of the micro-continent derived from northern part of Australia. Some traces the migration in the central part of Papua are slate, schist, and gneiss, current movement is facilitated by the Sorong Fault, which runs from the northern part of Papua to eastern part of Sulawesi. Results of gravity anomaly model (2D and 3D, seepage distribution, seismic and fields existing of oil and gas production in the western part of the Banggai-Sula Basin obtained a new prospect area in the northern part of Peleng Island, western part of Banggai Island, southern part of Banggai-Taliabu Islands, western and eastern part of Sulabesi Island. The new prospect area is reflected in the centre with form of the low morphology on gravity model and prospect trap on seismic data in the western part of Tolo Bay. Results of chemical analysis on the source rock of Buya Formation on Tmax vs Hydrogen Index (Tmax vs HI Diagram shows the type III kerogen quality and the Oxygen Index vs Hydrogen Index (OI vs HI Diagram shows the gas prone Type II, so that giving the impression that this area has the potential to containing the gas. The quality of the gas is included in the category of immature to mature type.

  9. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Aptian carbonates, onshore northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Karlsen, Alexander W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate lithofacies of the Lower Cretaceous Sligo Formation and James Limestone were regionally evaluated using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic–Cretaceous–Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Hydrocarbons reservoired in carbonate platform Sligo-James oil and gas accumulations are interpreted to originate primarily from the Jurassic Smackover Formation. Emplacement of hydrocarbons occurred via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir facies include porous patch reefs developed over paleostructural salt highs, carbonate shoals, and stacked linear reefs at the carbonate shelf margin. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are combination structural-stratigraphic. Sealing lithologies include micrite, calcareous shale, and argillaceous lime mudstone. A geologic model, supported by discovery history analysis of petroleum geology data, was used to define a single regional assessment unit (AU) for conventional reservoirs in carbonate facies of the Sligo Formation and James Limestone. The AU is formally entitled Sligo-James Carbonate Platform Oil and Gas (50490121). A fully risked mean undiscovered technically recoverable resource in the AU of 50 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 791 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 26 million barrels of natural gas liquids was estimated. Substantial new development through horizontal drilling has occurred since the time of this assessment (2010), resulting in cumulative production of >200 BCFG and >1 MMBO.

  10. Heterogeneous seepage at the Nopal I natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Cook, Paul J.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Rodriguez, J. Alfredo; Villalba, Lourdes; de la Garza, Rodrigo

    2008-10-25

    An integrated field, laboratory, and modeling study of the Pena Blanca (Chihuahua, Mexico) natural analogue site is being conducted to evaluate processes that control the mobilization and transport of radionuclides from a uranium ore deposit. One component of this study is an evaluation of the potential for radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone (UZ) via a seepage study in an adit at the Nopal I uranium mine, excavated 10 m below a mined level surface. Seasonal rainfall on the exposed level surface infiltrates into the fractured rhyolitic ash-flow tuff and seeps into the adit. An instrumented seepage collection system and local automated weather station permit direct correlation between local precipitation events and seepage within the Nopal I +00 adit. Monitoring of seepage within the adit between April 2005 and December 2006 indicates that seepage is highly heterogeneous with respect to time, location, and quantity. Within the back adit area, a few zones where large volumes of water have been collected are linked to fast flow path fractures (0-4 h transit times) presumably associated with focused flow. In most locations, however, there is a 1-6 month time lag between major precipitation events and seepage within the adit, with longer residence times observed for the front adit area. Seepage data obtained from this study will be used to provide input to flow and transport models being developed for the Nopal I hydrogeologic system.

  11. Heterogeneous seepage at the Nopal I natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Cook, Paul J.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Rodriguez, J. Alfredo; Villalba, Lourdes; de la Garza, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    An integrated field, laboratory, and modeling study of the Pena Blanca (Chihuahua, Mexico) natural analogue site is being conducted to evaluate processes that control the mobilization and transport of radionuclides from a uranium ore deposit. One component of this study is an evaluation of the potential for radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone (UZ) via a seepage study in an adit at the Nopal I uranium mine, excavated 10 m below a mined level surface. Seasonal rainfall on the exposed level surface infiltrates into the fractured rhyolitic ash-flow tuff and seeps into the adit. An instrumented seepage collection system and local automated weather station permit direct correlation between local precipitation events and seepage within the Nopal I +00 adit. Monitoring of seepage within the adit between April 2005 and December 2006 indicates that seepage is highly heterogeneous with respect to time, location, and quantity. Within the back adit area, a few zones where large volumes of water have been collected are linked to fast flow path fractures (0-4 h transit times) presumably associated with focused flow. In most locations, however, there is a 1-6 month time lag between major precipitation events and seepage within the adit, with longer residence times observed for the front adit area. Seepage data obtained from this study will be used to provide input to flow and transport models being developed for the Nopal I hydrogeologic system.

  12. Investigation of Seepage Meter Measurements in Steady Flow and Wave Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russoniello, Christopher J; Michael, Holly A

    2015-01-01

    Water exchange between surface water and groundwater can modulate or generate ecologically important fluxes of solutes across the sediment-water interface. Seepage meters can directly measure fluid flux, but mechanical resistance and surface water dynamics may lead to inaccurate measurements. Tank experiments were conducted to determine effects of mechanical resistance on measurement efficiency and occurrence of directional asymmetry that could lead to erroneous net flux measurements. Seepage meter efficiency was high (average of 93%) and consistent for inflow and outflow under steady flow conditions. Wave effects on seepage meter measurements were investigated in a wave flume. Seepage meter net flux measurements averaged 0.08 cm/h-greater than the expected net-zero flux, but significantly less than theoretical wave-driven unidirectional discharge or recharge. Calculations of unidirectional flux from pressure measurements (Darcy flux) and theory matched well for a ratio of wave length to water depth less than 5, but not when this ratio was greater. Both were higher than seepage meter measurements of unidirectional flux made with one-way valves. Discharge averaged 23% greater than recharge in both seepage meter measurements and Darcy calculations of unidirectional flux. Removal of the collection bag reduced this net discharge. The presence of a seepage meter reduced the amplitude of pressure signals at the bed and resulted in a nearly uniform pressure distribution beneath the seepage meter. These results show that seepage meters may provide accurate measurements of both discharge and recharge under steady flow conditions and illustrate the potential measurement errors associated with dynamic wave environments. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Composition of natural gas and crude oil produced from 10 wells in the Lower Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone, Trumbull County, Ohio: Chapter G.7 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, Robert A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Natural gases and associated crude oils in the “Clinton” sandstone, Medina Group sandstones, and equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone in the northern Appalachian basin are part of a regional, continuous-type or basin-centered accumulation. The origin of the hydrocarbon charge to regional continuoustype accumulations is poorly understood. We have analyzed the molecular and stable isotopic composition of gases and oils produced from 10 wells in the “Clinton” sandstone in Trumbull County, Ohio, in an initial attempt to identify the characteristics of the accumulated fluids. The analyses show that the fluids have remarkably uniform compositions that are similar to previously published analyses of oils (Cole and others, 1987) and gases (Laughrey and Baldasarre, 1998) in Early Silurian reservoirs elsewhere in Ohio; however, geochemical parameters in the oils and gases suggest that the fluids have experienced higher levels of thermal stress than the present-day burial conditions of the reservoir rocks. The crude oils have an unusual geochemical characteristic: they do not contain detectable levels of sterane and triterpane biomarkers. The origin of these absences is unknown.

  14. Geology and assessment of unconventional resources of Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) quantitatively assessed the potential for unconventional oil and gas resources within the Phitsanulok Basin of Thailand. Unconventional resources for the USGS include shale gas, shale oil, tight gas, tight oil, and coalbed gas. In the Phitsanulok Basin, only potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  15. Delineating a road-salt plume in lakebed sediments using electrical resistivity, piezometers, and seepage meters at Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Laura; Johnson, Melanie; Nyquist, Jonathan E.; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical-resistivity surveys, seepage meter measurements, and drive-point piezometers have been used to characterize chloride-enriched groundwater in lakebed sediments of Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, U.S.A. A combination of bottom-cable and floating-cable electrical-resistivity surveys identified a conductive zone (ohm-m)">(ohm-m)(ohm-m) overlying resistive bedrock (ohm-m)">(ohm-m)(ohm-m)beneath the lake. Shallow pore-water samples from piezometers in lakebed sediments have chloride concentrations of 200–1800μeq/liter">200–1800μeq/liter200–1800μeq/liter, and lake water has a chloride concentration of 104μeq/liter">104μeq/liter104μeq/liter. The extent of the plume was estimated and mapped using resistivity and water-sample data. The plume (20×35m">20×35m20×35m wide and at least 3m">3m3m thick) extends nearly the full length and width of a small inlet, overlying the top of a basin formed by the bedrock. It would not have been possible to mapthe plume's shape without the resistivity surveys because wells provided only limited coverage. Seepage meters were installed approximately 40m">40m40m from the mouth of a small stream discharging at the head of the inlet in an area where the resistivity data indicated lake sediments are thin. These meters recorded in-seepage of chloride-enriched groundwater at rates similar to those observed closer to shore, which was unexpected because seepage usually declines away from shore. Although the concentration of road salt in the northeast inlet stream is declining, the plume map and seepage data indicate the groundwater contribution of road salt to the lake is not declining. The findings demonstrate the benefit of combining geophysical and hydrologic data to characterize discharge of a plume beneath Mirror Lake. The extent of the plume in groundwater beneath the lake and stream indicate there will likely be a long-term source of chloride to the lake from groundwater.

  16. Major and trace elements in Mahogany zone oil shale in two cores from the Green River Formation, piceance basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.; Dean, W.E.; Parduhn, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Parachute Creek Member of the lacustrine Green River Formation contains thick sequences of rich oil-shale. The richest sequence and the richest oil-shale bed occurring in the member are called the Mahogany zone and the Mahogany bed, respectively, and were deposited in ancient Lake Uinta. The name "Mahogany" is derived from the red-brown color imparted to the rock by its rich-kerogen content. Geochemical abundance and distribution of eight major and 18 trace elements were determined in the Mahogany zone sampled from two cores, U. S. Geological Survey core hole CR-2 and U. S. Bureau of Mines core hole O1-A (Figure 1). The oil shale from core hole CR-2 was deposited nearer the margin of Lake Uinta than oil shale from core hole O1-A. The major- and trace-element chemistry of the Mahogany zone from each of these two cores is compared using elemental abundances and Q-mode factor modeling. The results of chemical analyses of 44 CR-2 Mahogany samples and 76 O1-A Mahogany samples are summarized in Figure 2. The average geochemical abundances for shale (1) and black shale (2) are also plotted on Figure 2 for comparison. The elemental abundances in the samples from the two cores are similar for the majority of elements. Differences at the 95% probability level are higher concentrations of Ca, Cu, La, Ni, Sc and Zr in the samples from core hole CR-2 compared to samples from core hole O1-A and higher concentrations of As and Sr in samples from core hole O1-A compared to samples from core hole CR-2. These differences presumably reflect slight differences in depositional conditions or source material at the two sites. The Mahogany oil shale from the two cores has lower concentrations of most trace metals and higher concentrations of carbonate-related elements (Ca, Mg, Sr and Na) compared to the average shale and black shale. During deposition of the Mahogany oil shale, large quantities of carbonates were precipitated resulting in the enrichment of carbonate-related elements

  17. Variation of stream power with seepage in sand-bed channels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-27

    Dec 27, 2009 ... Keywords: friction slope, seepage, sediment transport, stream power, suction ... particles from the bed and on further movement of the bed load is of great ..... KNIGHTON AD (1987) River channel adjustment – the down stream.

  18. Distributed optical fiber-based monitoring approach of spatial seepage behavior in dike engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huaizhi; Ou, Bin; Yang, Lifu; Wen, Zhiping

    2018-07-01

    The failure caused by seepage is the most common one in dike engineering. As to the characteristics of seepage in dike, such as longitudinal extension engineering, the randomness, strong concealment and small initial quantity order, by means of distributed fiber temperature sensor system (DTS), adopting an improved optical fiber layer layout scheme, the location of initial interpolation point of the saturation line is obtained. With the barycentric Lagrange interpolation collocation method (BLICM), the infiltrated surface of dike full-section is generated. Combined with linear optical fiber monitoring seepage method, BLICM is applied in an engineering case, which shows that a real-time seepage monitoring technique is presented in full-section of dike based on the combination method.

  19. Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and THC Seepage) Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gonnenthal; N. Spyoher

    2001-02-05

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Near-Field Environment (NFE) and Unsaturated Zone (UZ) models used to evaluate the potential effects of coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) processes on unsaturated zone flow and transport. This is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'', Addendum D, Attachment D-4 (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) 2000 [153447]) and ''Technical Work Plan for Nearfield Environment Thermal Analyses and Testing'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [153309]). These models include the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model and several THC seepage models. These models provide the framework to evaluate THC coupled processes at the drift scale, predict flow and transport behavior for specified thermal loading conditions, and predict the chemistry of waters and gases entering potential waste-emplacement drifts. The intended use of this AMR is to provide input for the following: (1) Performance Assessment (PA); (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Coupled Processes AMR (ANL-NBS-HS-000029); (3) UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR); and (4) Near-Field Environment (NFE) PMR. The work scope for this activity is presented in the TWPs cited above, and summarized as follows: continue development of the repository drift-scale THC seepage model used in support of the TSPA in-drift geochemical model; incorporate heterogeneous fracture property realizations; study sensitivity of results to changes in input data and mineral assemblage; validate the DST model by comparison with field data; perform simulations to predict mineral dissolution and precipitation and their effects on fracture properties and chemistry of water (but not flow rates) that may seep into drifts; submit modeling results to the TDMS and document the models. The model development, input data

  20. Radioactivity and radiogenic heat production in the oil field of the Reconcavo Basin; Radioatividade e geracao de calor radiogenico em pocos petroliferos na Bacia do Reconcavo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves Junior, Paulo B.; Argollo, Roberto M. de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Geofisica e Geologia

    2004-07-01

    The production of radiogenic heat in the terrestrial crust is due mainly to U, Th and K presents in the rocks. In this work, we use the gamma-ray spectrometry technique to determine the contents of these elements in drill cuttings and obtaining profiles of heat production rates in oils wells of the Reconcavo basin. In the total, we measure 640 samples of drill cuttings from wells FFL-1 and MGP-34 ceded by PETROBRAS. The thorium contents vary from 1.6 to 25.5 ppm, the uranium contents varied from 0.5 to 5.82 ppm, the potassium samples varied from 0.05 to 2.25 % and the production rates of radiogenic heat varied among 0.50 to 10.85 10{sup -4} {mu}W kg{sup -1}. With the profiles heat production rates obtained, a correlation was verified among these rates and the lithologies at wells FFL-1 and MGP-34. These values will be used in the correlation between these samples at wells and the sample collected at blooming. (author)

  1. Multiple isotopes (O, C, Li, Sr) as tracers of CO2 and brine leakage from CO2-enhanced oil recovery activities in Permian Basin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T. T.; Sharma, S.; Gardiner, J. B.; Thomas, R. B.; Stuckman, M.; Spaulding, R.; Lopano, C. L.; Hakala, A.

    2017-12-01

    Potential CO2 and brine migration or leakage into shallow groundwater is a critical issue associated with CO2 injection at both enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon sequestration sites. The effectiveness of multiple isotope systems (δ18OH2O, δ13C, δ7Li, 87Sr/86Sr) in monitoring CO2 and brine leakage at a CO2-EOR site located within the Permian basin (Seminole, Texas, USA) was studied. Water samples collected from an oil producing formation (San Andres), a deep groundwater formation (Santa Rosa), and a shallow groundwater aquifer (Ogallala) over a four-year period were analyzed for elemental and isotopic compositions. The absence of any change in δ18OH2O or δ13CDIC values of water in the overlying Ogallala aquifer after CO2 injection indicates that injected CO2 did not leak into this aquifer. The range of Ogallala water δ7Li (13-17‰) overlaps the San Andres water δ7Li (13-15‰) whereas 87Sr/86Sr of Ogallala (0.70792±0.00005) significantly differs from San Andres water (0.70865±0.00003). This observation demonstrates that Sr isotopes are much more sensitive than Li isotopes in tracking brine leakage into shallow groundwater at the studied site. In contrast, deep groundwater δ7Li (21-25‰) is isotopically distinct from San Andres produced water; thus, monitoring this intermitted formation water can provide an early indication of CO2 injection-induced brine migration from the underlying oil producing formation. During water alternating with gas (WAG) operations, a significant shift towards more positive δ13CDIC values was observed in the produced water from several of the San Andres formation wells. The carbon isotope trend suggests that the 13C enriched injected CO2 and formation carbonates became the primary sources of dissolved inorganic carbon in the area surrounding the injection wells. Moreover, one-way ANOVA statistical analysis shows that the differences in δ7Li (F(1,16) = 2.09, p = 0.17) and 87Sr/86Sr (F(1,18) = 4.47, p = 0.05) values of

  2. Calcareous forest seepages acting as biodiversity hotspots and refugia for woodland snail faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsák, Michal; Tajovská, Eva; Horsáková, Veronika

    2017-07-01

    Land-snail species richness has repeatedly been found to increase with the increasing site calcium content and humidity. These two factors, reported as the main drivers of land-snail assemblage diversity, are also among the main habitat characteristics of calcareous seepages. Here we explore local species richness and compositional variation of forest spring-fed patches (i.e. seepages), to test the hypothesis that these habitats might act as biodiversity hotspots and refugia of regional snail faunas. In contrast to treeless spring fens, only little is known about land snail faunas inhabiting forest seepages. Studying 25 isolated calcareous forest seepages, evenly distributed across the White Carpathians Protected Landscape Area (SE Czech Republic), we found that these sites, albeit spatially very limited, can harbour up to 66% of the shelled land-snail species known to occur in this well-explored protected area (in total 83 species). By comparing land snail assemblages of the studied seepages with those occurring in the woodland surroundings of each site as well as those previously sampled in 28 preserved forest sites within the study area, we found the seepages to be among the most species rich sites. Although the numbers of species did not statistically differ among these three systems, we found highly significant differences in species composition. Seepage faunas were composed of many species significantly associated with spring sites, in contrast to the assemblages of both surrounding and preserved forest sites. Our results highly support the hypothesis that calcareous forest seepages might serve as refugia and biodiversity hotspots of regional land snail faunas. Protection of these unique habitats challenges both conservation plans and forest management guidelines as they might act as sources for the recolonization and restoration of forest snail assemblages particularly in areas impoverished by harvesting and clearcutting.

  3. Modelling stream aquifer seepage in an alluvial aquifer: an improved loosing-stream package for MODFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Yassin Z.; Bruen, Michael P.

    2002-07-01

    Seepage from a stream, which partially penetrates an unconfined alluvial aquifer, is studied for the case when the water table falls below the streambed level. Inadequacies are identified in current modelling approaches to this situation. A simple and improved method of incorporating such seepage into groundwater models is presented. This considers the effect on seepage flow of suction in the unsaturated part of the aquifer below a disconnected stream and allows for the variation of seepage with water table fluctuations. The suggested technique is incorporated into the saturated code MODFLOW and is tested by comparing its predictions with those of a widely used variably saturated model, SWMS_2D simulating water flow and solute transport in two-dimensional variably saturated media. Comparisons are made of both seepage flows and local mounding of the water table. The suggested technique compares very well with the results of variably saturated model simulations. Most currently used approaches are shown to underestimate the seepage and associated local water table mounding, sometimes substantially. The proposed method is simple, easy to implement and requires only a small amount of additional data about the aquifer hydraulic properties.

  4. Seepage Flow Model and Deformation Properties of Coastal Deep Foundation Pit under Tidal Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-chen Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the coastal region is the most developed region in China, an increasing number of engineering projects are under construction in it in recent years. However, the quality of these projects is significantly affected by groundwater, which is influenced by tidal variations. Therefore, the regional groundwater dynamic characteristics under tidal impact and the spatiotemporal evolution of the seepage field must be considered in the construction of the projects. Then, Boussinesq function was introduced into the research to deduce the seepage equation under tidal influence for the coastal area. To determine the spatiotemporal evolution of the deep foundation pit seepage field and the coastal seepage field evolution model, numerical calculations based on changes in the tidal water level and seepage equation were performed using MATLAB. According to the developed model, the influence of the seepage field on the foundation pit supporting structure in the excavation process was analyzed through numerical simulations. The results of this research could be considered in design and engineering practice.

  5. Using self-potential housing technique to model water seepage at the UNHAS housing Antang area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahruddin, Muhammad Hamzah

    2017-01-01

    The earth's surface has an electric potential that is known as self-potentiall (SP). One of the causes of the electrical potential at the earth's surface is water seepage into the ground. Electrical potential caused by water velocity seepage into the ground known as streaming potential. How to model water seepage into the ground at the housing Unhas Antang? This study was conducted to answer these questions. The self-potential measurements performed using a simple digital voltmeter Sanwa brand PC500 with a precision of 0.01 mV. While the coordinates of measurements points are self-potential using Global Positioning System. Mmeasurements results thus obtained are plotted using surfer image distribution self-potential housing Unhas Antang. The self-potential data housing Unhas Antang processed by Forward Modeling methods to get a model of water infiltration into the soil. Housing Unhas Antang self-potential has a value of 5 to 23 mV. Self-potential measurements carried out in the rainy season so it can be assumed that the measurement results caused by the velocity water seepage into the ground. The results of modeling the velocity water seepage from the surface to a depth of 3 meters was 2.4 cm/s to 0.2 cm /s. Modeling results showed that the velocity water seepage of the smaller with depth.

  6. Impact of Quaternary Climate on Seepage at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.F. Whelan; J.B. Paces; L.A. Neymark; A.K. Schmitt; M. Grove

    2006-01-01

    Uranium-series ages, oxygen-isotopic compositions, and uranium contents were determined in outer growth layers of opal and calcite from 0.5- to 3-centimeter-thick mineral coatings hosted by lithophysal cavities in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed site of a permanent repository for high-level radioactive waste. Micrometer-scale growth layering in the minerals was imaged using a cathodoluminescence detector on a scanning electron microscope. Determinations of the chemistry, ages, and delta oxygen-18 values of the growth layers were conducted by electron microprobe analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry techniques at spatial resolutions of 1 to about 20 micrometers ((micro)m) and 25 to 40 micrometers, respectively. Growth rates for the last 300 thousand years (k.y.) calculated from about 300 new high-resolution uranium-series ages range from approximately 0.5 to 1.5 (micro)m/k.y. for 1- to 3-centimeter-thick coatings, whereas coatings less than about I-centimeter-thick have growth rates less than 0.5 (micro)m/k.y. At the depth of the proposed repository, correlations of uranium concentration and delta oxygen-18 values with regional climate records indicate that unsaturated zone percolation and seepage water chemistries have responded to changes in climate during the last several hundred thousand years

  7. Development and evaluation of an ultrasonic ground water seepage meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, R J; Smith, C F; O'Rourke, D; Wong, T F

    2001-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a ground water seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flowmeter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve ground water discharges on the order of 0.1 microm/sec, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York, elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine ground water discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology.

  8. Hurricane Impact on Seepage Water in Larga Cave, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieten, Rolf; Warken, Sophie; Winter, Amos; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Scholz, Denis; Spötl, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    Hurricane-induced rainfall over Puerto Rico has characteristic δ18O values which are more negative than local rainfall events. Thus, hurricanes may be recorded in speleothems from Larga cave, Puerto Rico, as characteristic oxygen isotope excursions. Samples of 84 local rainfall events between 2012 and 2013 ranged from -6.2 to +0.3‰, whereas nine rainfall samples belonging to a rainband of hurricane Isaac (23-24 August 2012) ranged from -11.8 to -7.1‰. Cave monitoring covered the hurricane season of 2014 and investigated the impact of hurricane rainfall on drip water chemistry. δ18O values were measured in cumulative monthly rainwater samples above the cave. Inside the cave, δ18O values of instantaneous drip water samples were analyzed and drip rates were recorded at six drip sites. Most effective recharge appears to occur during the wet months (April-May and August-November). δ18O values of instantaneous drip water samples ranged from -3.5 to -2.4‰. In April 2014 and April 2015 some drip sites showed more negative δ18O values than the effective rainfall (-2.9‰), implying an influence of hurricane rainfall reaching the cave via stratified seepage flow months to years after the event. Speleothems from these drip sites in Larga cave have a high potential for paleotempestology studies.

  9. Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2008-01-01

    We present a generalized framework for the stability of infinite slopes under steady unsaturated seepage conditions. The analytical framework allows the water table to be located at any depth below the ground surface and variation of soil suction and moisture content above the water table under steady infiltration conditions. The framework also explicitly considers the effect of weathering and porosity increase near the ground surface on changes in the friction angle of the soil. The factor of safety is conceptualized as a function of the depth within the vadose zone and can be reduced to the classical analytical solution for subaerial infinite slopes in the saturated zone. Slope stability analyses with hypothetical sandy and silty soils are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the framework. These analyses indicate that for hillslopes of both sandy and silty soils, failure can occur above the water table under steady infiltration conditions, which is consistent with some field observations that cannot be predicted by the classical infinite slope theory. A case study of shallow slope failures of sandy colluvium on steep coastal hillslopes near Seattle, Washington, is presented to examine the predictive utility of the proposed framework.

  10. Radiotracer investigations in oil production and water injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, A.C.; Jain, S.K.; Kirti

    1977-01-01

    Injection of gamma emitting radiotracers into oil wells followed by logging provides information on several aspects such as the identification of zones of seepage of water in the water injection wells and also the location of source of water entering oil producting wells. The experience gained in the application of bromine-82 and rubidium-86 as radiotracers in such studies at the Ankleshwar and Kalol oil fields in Gujarat and Nazira in Assam has been briefly reported. (author)

  11. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This progress report for fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary fro the Savannah River Plant includes discussion on the following topics: description of facilities; hydrostratigraphic units; monitoring well nomenclature; integrity of the monitoring well network; groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; tritium, nitrate, and pH time-trend data; water levels; groundwater flow rates and directions; upgradient versus downgradient results

  12. The oil potential of the BM-J-2 block, Jequitinhonha basin, Brazil: the integrated study of the basin analysis and modeling of petroleum system; Potencial petrolifero do Bloco BM-J-2, Bacia de Jequitinhonha, Brasil: um estudo integrado de analise de bacia e modelagem de sistemas petroliferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Roberto; Braga, Jose A.E.; Saito, Makoto; Cortez, Marcella; Ponte Filho, Francisco C.; Romao, Felipe [Queiroz Galvao Perfuracoes S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Felix T.T. [PGT-Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltd., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The integration of all available geochemical data from this and adjoining blocks (BM-J-1 e BM-J-3) Jequitinhonha Basin revealed that only the Albian-Turonian and Aptian sections contains potential hydrocarbon source rock intervals. The existence of an oil accumulation (1-BAS-37) represents an unequivocal evidence of the presence of effective source rocks in the Jequitinhonha Basin. The geochemical characteristics of this oil accumulation points to an origin related to petroleum source rocks deposited under a lacustrine/marine restricted (hyper saline) environment. Such characteristics are typical of pre-salt Aptian source rocks in several basins along the Brazilian margin. The pseudo-3D modeling results indicate that the stage of thermal evolution of the base of the rift section attained ranges from early mature (0.6-0.8 Ro) in the structural highs to over mature (up to 2.0% Ro) in the structural lows On the other hand, the potential sources rocks of Albian-Turonian age ranges to immature to early mature throughout the block. The modeling results also points to the existence of two distinct hydrocarbon 'kitchens': one located in the easternmost portion of the block (slope/deep water area) and the other in a structural low located in the shallow platform area. The main phase of petroleum expulsion ranged from Late Cretaceous/Paleogene in the platform area. Probabilistic simulations has estimated migrated oils and gas volumes around 507 MMbbl and 20 billion cubic meters, respectively. (author)

  13. New Prespective Paleogeography of East Java Basin; Implicationrespond to Oil and Gas Eksploration at Kujung Formation Carbonate Reservoar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprilana, C.; Premonowati; S, Hanif I.; Choirotunnisa; Shirly, A.; Utama, M. K.; Sinulingga, Y. R.; Syafitra, F.

    2018-03-01

    Paleogeography is one of critical points that always less considered by explorationist in the world. Almost all of the consideration is focused on trapping mechanism. Paleogeography is guidance in understanding both of physical and chemical of rock characteristic which will correlate with its depositional environment. Integration of various geological and geophysical data such as; tectonic, structural geology, stratigraphy, lithology, and biostratigraphy will lead us to a better understanding of rock characteristics. Six paleogeographic interpretations was made consist of; Early Tertiary (P5-56-55 ma), Middle Eocene (P14-41 ma), Late Oiligocene (P22-25.5 ma), Early Miocene (N7-16.5 ma), Middle Miocene (N9-14.5 ma), and Pleistocene (NN19-1.5 ma). That six paleogeographic interpretations are assumed represent the paleogeographic evolution of East Java Basin time after time. In Middle Eocene time, it would be more than hundred possibilities regarding the location where the formation deposited. This would be controlled by the existence of some local structural paleohighs and horsts which oriented NW-SE followed by their own sedimentary transportation path. With assumption that hydrocarbon generation was occurred in 15 Ma and the depth of maturation window lies on about 2,500 m depth. Therefore, the possibility of source rock maturation is high, due to almost of the clastics sediment of Ngimbang deposited into the series of grabens. The Kujung reef types simplified defines and categorize into; 1) Patch Reef 2) Berrier Reef 3) Pinnacle Reef Over Isolated Reef. Kujung Carbonates were deposited in Early Miocene when regional transgression occurred. The depositional environments were dominated by shallow marine littoral-sublittoral. Generally, the reservoir quality of this Kujung Carbonate shows fair to good quality, in range7-32% porosity, and 1-1400 mD permeability (internal SKK Migas data).

  14. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eHe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

  15. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES. Semi-annual Technical Report October 6, 2002 - April 5, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; McClure, Kevin; Morgan, Craig D.

    2003-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m 3 ) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone. Examination of upper Ismay cores

  16. Fault zone controlled seafloor methane seepage in the rupture area of the 2010 Maule Earthquake, Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Geersen, Jacob; Scholz, Florian; Linke, Peter; Schmidt, Mark; Lange, Dietrich; Behrmann, Jan H.; Völker, David; Hensen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Seafloor seepage of hydrocarbon-bearing fluids has been identified in a number of marine forearcs. However, temporal variations in seep activity and the structural and tectonic parameters that control the seepage often remain poorly constrained. Subduction-zone earthquakes for example, are often discussed to trigger seafloor seepage but causal links that go beyond theoretical considerations have not yet been fully established. This is mainly due to the inaccessibility of offshore epicentral a...

  17. Probability distribution functions of turbulence in seepage-affected alluvial channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anurag; Kumar, Bimlesh, E-mail: anurag.sharma@iitg.ac.in, E-mail: bimk@iitg.ac.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, 781039 (India)

    2017-02-15

    The present experimental study is carried out on the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of turbulent flow characteristics within near-bed-surface and away-from-bed surfaces for both no seepage and seepage flow. Laboratory experiments were conducted in the plane sand bed for no seepage (NS), 10% seepage (10%S) and 15% seepage (15%) cases. The experimental calculation of the PDFs of turbulent parameters such as Reynolds shear stress, velocity fluctuations, and bursting events is compared with theoretical expression obtained by Gram–Charlier (GC)-based exponential distribution. Experimental observations follow the computed PDF distributions for both no seepage and seepage cases. Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD) method is used to measure the similarity between theoretical and experimental PDFs. The value of JSD for PDFs of velocity fluctuation lies between 0.0005 to 0.003 while the JSD value for PDFs of Reynolds shear stress varies between 0.001 to 0.006. Even with the application of seepage, the PDF distribution of bursting events, sweeps and ejections are well characterized by the exponential distribution of the GC series, except that a slight deflection of inward and outward interactions is observed which may be due to weaker events. The value of JSD for outward and inward interactions ranges from 0.0013 to 0.032, while the JSD value for sweep and ejection events varies between 0.0001 to 0.0025. The theoretical expression for the PDF of turbulent intensity is developed in the present study, which agrees well with the experimental observations and JSD lies between 0.007 and 0.015. The work presented is potentially applicable to the probability distribution of mobile-bed sediments in seepage-affected alluvial channels typically characterized by the various turbulent parameters. The purpose of PDF estimation from experimental data is that it provides a complete numerical description in the areas of turbulent flow either at a single or finite number of points

  18. Treatment of septic tank effluents by a full-scale capillary seepage soil biofiltration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chihhao; Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Teng, Chia-Ji; Chang, Tzi-Chin; Sheu, Yiong-Shing

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of septic tank effluent treatment by an underground capillary seepage soil biofiltration system in a suburban area of Taipei, Taiwan. In contrast to traditional subsurface wastewater infiltration systems, capillary seepage soil biofiltration systems initially draw incoming influent upwards from the distribution pipe by capillary and siphonage actions, then spread influent throughout the soil biofiltration bed. The underground capillary seepage soil biofiltration system consists of a train of underground treatment units, including one wastewater distribution tank, two capillary seepage soil biofiltration units in series, and a discharge tank. Each capillary seepage soil biofiltration unit contains one facultative digestion tank and one set of biofiltration beds. At the flow rate of 50 m3/day, average influent concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and total phosphates (TP), were 36.15 mg/L, 29.14 mg/L, 16.05 mg/L, and 1.75 mg/L, respectively. After 1.5 years of system operation, the measured influent and effluent results show that the treatment efficiencies of the soil biofiltration system for BOD, SS, NH3-N, TP, and total coliforms are 82.96%, 60.95%, 67.17%, 74.86%, and 99.99%, respectively.

  19. Effects of Atmospheric Dynamics on CO2 Seepage at Mammoth Mountain, California USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Ogretim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, atmospheric effects on the variation of seepage from soil have been studied in disciplines such as volcanology, environmental protection, safety and health hazard avoidance. Recently, monitoring of potential leakage from the geologic sequestration of carbon has been added to this list. Throughout these diverse fields, barometric pumping and presence of steady winds are the two most commonly investigated atmospheric factors. These two factors have the effect of pumping gas into and out of the unsaturated zone, and sweeping the gas in the porous medium. This study focuses on two new factors related to atmosphere in order to explain the CO2 seepage anomalies observed at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill near Mammoth Mountain, CA, where the temporal variation of seepage due to a storm event could not be explained by the two commonly studied effects. First, the interaction of the lower atmospheric dynamics and the ground topography is considered for its effect on the seepage variation over an area that is linked through high-porosity, high-permeability soils and/or fracture networks. Second, the regional pressure fronts that impose significant pressure oscillation over an area are studied. The comparison of the computer simulation results with the experimental measurements suggests that the seepage anomaly observed at the Horseshoe Lake Tree Kill could be due to the unsteady effects caused by regional pressure fronts.

  20. Systematic approach to the treatment of crude oil produced by small concessionaires in marginal areas of the Reconcavo Basin; Abordagem sistematizada para o tratamento do oleo produzido em campos marginais da Bacia do Reconcavo por pequenos concessionarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Edson Jorge Alves [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Araujo, Marcia Queiroz de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia e Geofisica Aplicada

    2008-07-01

    The establishment of the 'Petroleum Law' (Law No. 9.478/97) abolished the Exploration and Production State Monopoly in Brazil. Attaining concessions through the bidding rounds promoted by the Brazilian Petroleum Agency (ANP) became the only legal means for exploring and/or producing oil and natural gas in Brazil. In order to attract small and medium companies to this niche, inactive areas with marginal accumulations were offered by the Agency. These areas were returned to ANP by PETROBRAS. Currently, six small companies operate in the Reconcavo Oil Province, extracting and processing different types of oil. The available infrastructure is mostly deteriorated and obsolete. Additionally, there are serious limitations in the separation and storage capacity. This scenario resulted in the fragmentation of the old PETROBRAS production infrastructure. A possible solution to this problem could involve the establishment of a collective treatment unit which would work as a condominium. However, the operation of this plant must take into account the diversity of oils being produced in the Reconcavo Basin (physical-chemicals characteristics). This paper is aimed at (1) establishing a preliminary characterization of the different types of oil which will be delivered by local producers; (2) the critical variables for the oil model (it includes all oils received from different areas of the Reconcavo); (3) the identification of the main stake holders within this process; and (4) suggestions for operating models for the treatment unit taking into account the potential innovations and opportunities for R and D and spin-offs. (author)

  1. Geology, sequence stratigraphy, and oil and gas assessment of the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 5 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the San Juan Basin Province contains a continuous gas accumulation in three distinct stratigraphic units deposited in genetically related depositional environments: offshore-marine shales, mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Lewis Shale, and marginal-marine shoreface sandstones and siltstones of both the La Ventana Tongue and the Chacra Tongue of the Cliff House Sandstone. The Lewis Shale was not a completion target in the San Juan Basin (SJB) in early drilling from about the 1950s through 1990. During that time, only 16 wells were completed in the Lewis from natural fracture systems encountered while drilling for deeper reservoir objectives. In 1991, existing wells that penetrated the Lewis Shale were re-entered by petroleum industry operators in order to fracture-stimulate the Lewis and to add Lewis gas production onto preexisting, and presumably often declining, Mesaverde Group production stratigraphically lower in the section. By 1997, approximately 101 Lewis completions had been made, both as re-entries into existing wells and as add-ons to Mesaverde production in new wells. Based on recent industry drilling and completion practices leading to successful gas production from the Lewis and because new geologic models indicate that the Lewis Shale contains both source rocks and reservoir rocks, the Lewis Shale TPS was defined and evaluated as part of this U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the San Juan Basin. Gas in the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System is produced from shoreface sandstones and siltstones in the La Ventana and Chacra Tongues and from distal facies of these prograding clastic units that extend into marine rocks of the Lewis Shale in the central part of the San Juan Basin. Reservoirs are in shoreface sandstone parasequences of the La Ventana and Chacra and their correlative distal parasequences in the Lewis Shale where both natural and artificially enhanced fractures produce

  2. Formation of Box Canyon, Idaho, by megaflood: implications for seepage erosion on Earth and Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael P; Dietrich, William E; Aciego, Sarah M; Depaolo, Donald J; Manga, Michael

    2008-05-23

    Amphitheater-headed canyons have been used as diagnostic indicators of erosion by groundwater seepage, which has important implications for landscape evolution on Earth and astrobiology on Mars. Of perhaps any canyon studied, Box Canyon, Idaho, most strongly meets the proposed morphologic criteria for groundwater sapping because it is incised into a basaltic plain with no drainage network upstream, and approximately 10 cubic meters per second of seepage emanates from its vertical headwall. However, sediment transport constraints, 4He and 14C dates, plunge pools, and scoured rock indicate that a megaflood (greater than 220 cubic meters per second) carved the canyon about 45,000 years ago. These results add to a growing recognition of Quaternary catastrophic flooding in the American northwest, and may imply that similar features on Mars also formed by floods rather than seepage erosion.

  3. Numerical Modelling of Tailings Dam Thermal-Seepage Regime Considering Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniskin Nikolay Alekseevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem. The article describes the problem of combined thermal-seepage regime for earth dams and those operated in the permafrost conditions. This problem can be solved using the finite elements method based on the local variational formulation. Results. A thermal-seepage regime numerical model has been developed for the “dam-foundation” system in terms of the tailings dam. The effect of heat-and-mass transfer and liquid phase transition in soil interstices on the dam state is estimated. The study with subsequent consideration of these factors has been undertaken. Conclusions. The results of studying the temperature-filtration conditions of the structure based on the factors of heat-and-mass transfer and liquid phase transition have shown that the calculation results comply with the field data. Ignoring these factors or one of them distorts the real situation of the dam thermal-seepage conditions.

  4. Seepage from uranium tailing ponds and its impact on ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, P.H.; Mabes, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    A typical uranium mill produces about 1800 metric tons of tailing per day. An assessment of the seepage from an unlined tailing impoundment of a hypothetical mill in northwestern New Mexico indicates that about 2x10 5 m 3 /yr of water will seep over a period of 23 years. The seepage water will move vertically to the water table, and then spread out radially and ultimately downgradient with ground water. The principal dissolved contaminants in the tailing pond liquid are radium, thorium, sulfate, iron, manganese, and selenium; in addition, the liquid is acidic (pH=2). Many contaminants precipitate out as neutralization of seepage water occurs. At the termination of mill operation, radium will have advanced about 0.4 m and thorium no more than 0.1 m below the bottom of the tailing pond

  5. Results of a seepage investigation at Bear Creek Valley, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January through September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.A.; Johnson, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    A seepage investigation was conducted of 4,600 acres of Bear Creek Valley southwest of the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for the period of January through September 1994. The data was collected to help the Y-12 Environmental Restoration Program develop a better understanding of ground-water and surface-water interactions, recharge and discharge relations, and ground-water flow patterns. The project was divided into three phases: a reconnaissance and mapping of seeps, springs, and stream-measurement sites; a high base flow seepage investigation; and a low base flow seepage investigation. This report describes the results of the investigation. It includes a map showing measurement site locations and tables that list the coordinates for each site and measurements of discharge, pH, specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen

  6. Numerical experiments on the probability of seepage into underground openings in heterogeneous fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.; Li, G.; Tsang, C.F.; Tsang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    An important issue for the performance of underground nuclear waste repositories is the rate of seepage into the waste emplacement drifts. A prediction of this rate is particularly complicated for the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, because it is located in thick, unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. Underground opening in unsaturated media might act as capillary barriers, diverting water around them. In the present work, they study the potential rate of seepage into drifts as a function of the percolation flux at Yucca Mountain, based on a stochastic model of the fractured rock mass in the drift vicinity. A variety of flow scenarios are considered, assuming present-day and possible future climate conditions. They show that the heterogeneity in the flow domain is a key factor controlling seepage rates, since it causes channelized flow and local ponding in the unsaturated flow field

  7. A numerical procedure for transient free surface seepage through fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qinghui; Ye, Zuyang; Zhou, Chuangbing

    2014-11-01

    A parabolic variational inequality (PVI) formulation is presented for the transient free surface seepage problem defined for a whole fracture network. Because the seepage faces are specified as Signorini-type conditions, the PVI formulation can effectively eliminate the singularity of spillpoints that evolve with time. By introducing a continuous penalty function to replace the original Heaviside function, a finite element procedure based on the PVI formulation is developed to predict the transient free surface response in the fracture network. The effects of the penalty parameter on the solution precision are analyzed. A relative error formula for evaluating the flow losses at steady state caused by the penalty parameter is obtained. To validate the proposed method, three typical examples are solved. The solutions for the first example are compared with the experimental results. The results from the last two examples further demonstrate that the orientation, extent and density of fractures significantly affect the free surface seepage behavior in the fracture network.

  8. Active hydrocarbon (methane) seepage at the Alboran Sea mud volcanoes indicated by specific lipid biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G. J.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Comas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) and pockmark fields are known to occur in the Alboran Basin (Westernmost Mediterranean). These MVs occur above a major sedimentary depocenter that includes up to 7 km thick early Miocene to Holocene sequences. MVs located on the top of diapiric structures that originated from undercompacted Miocene clays and olistostromes. Here we provide results from geochemical data-analyses of four gravity cores acquired in the Northern Mud Volcano Field (north of the 36°N): i.e. Perejil, Kalinin and Schneiderś Heart mud expulsion structures. Extruded materials include different types of mud breccias. Specific lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes, hopanes, irregular isoprenoid hydrocarbons and Dialkyl Glycerol Diethers (DGDs) were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Determination of Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers (GDGTs) by high performance liquid chromatography-spectrometry (HPLC-MS), and analysis of biomarker δ13C values were performed in selected samples. Lipid biomarker analysis from the three MVs revealed similar n-alkane distributions in all mud breccia intervals, showing significant hydrocarbon-derived signals and the presence of thermally immature organic-matter admixture. This suggests that similar strata fed these MVs. The hemipelagic drapes reveal comparable n-alkane distributions, suggesting that significant upward diffusion of fluids occurs. Distributions of GDGTs are generally accepted as usefull biomarkers to locate the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments. However, our GDGT profiles only reflect the marine thaumarchaeotal signature. There seems to be no archaea producing specific GDGTs involved in AOM in the recovered interval. Evidence of recent activity (i.e., methane gas-bubbling and chemosynthetic fauna at the Perejil MV) and the presence of specific lipid biomarker related with methanotropic archaea (Irregular Isoprenoids and DGDs), however, suggest the existence of

  9. Regional study is the next important stage in evaluation of oil and gas industry potential of sedimentary basins of Western Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Azhgaliev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the general state of exploration and regional geotectonic characteristics of the structure of the basins of Western Kazakhstan (the Caspian Basin, Ustyurt-Bozashi and Mangyshlak. Principal results of regional studies carried out on the «Comprehensive study of sedimentary basins of the Republic of Kazakhstan» project for 2009-2013 are given. Based on this, topical issues in the study of the deep structure of basins are emphasized, from the perspective of further assessment of the forecasted hydrocarbon potential. In accordance with the new deep drilling data (5.5-7.0 km and more in recent years, the importance and necessity of specifying the structure and high prospects of the Paleozoic deposits are substantiated. In this regard, it is stated that it is advisable to post a parametric well in the future with an anomalous projected depth (14-15 km in the central part of the Caspian Basin (Eurasia Project. Also, the program of regional studies (geotraverses and 2D seismic profiles on the most important geological «cuttings» from the sides of the Caspian basin to the center, the zones of its articulation with the other basins that apply in the south, was considered. The characteristic of the problems solved by the program of regional study of the basins of Western Kazakhstan is given.

  10. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report April 6, 2000 - October 5, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m 3 ) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing, vertical, field wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the third project year (April 6 through October 5, 2002). This work included capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pore casting on selected samples from Cherokee and Bug fields, Utah. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found at these fields are indicators of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for enhanced oil recovery via horizontal drilling. The reservoir quality of Cherokee and Bug fields has been affected by multiple generations of dissolution, anhydrite plugging

  11. Exploitation Contradictions Concerning Multi-Energy Resources among Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium: A Case Study in the Ordos Basin (Western North China Craton and Southern Side of Yinshan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The particular “rich coal, meager oil, and deficient gas” energy structure of China determines its high degree of dependence on coal resources. After over 100 years of high-intensity mining activities in Northeast China, East Region, and the Southern Region, coal mining in these areas is facing a series of serious problems, which force China’s energy exploitation map to be rewritten. New energy bases will move to the western and northern regions in the next few years. However, overlapping phenomena of multiple resources are frequently encountered. Previous exploitation mainly focused on coal mining, which destroys many mutualistic and accompanying resources, such as uranium, gas, and oil. Aiming at solving this unscientific development mode, this research presents a case study in the Ordos Basin, where uranium, coal, and gas/oil show a three-dimensional overlapping phenomenon along the vertical downward direction. The upper uranium and lower coal situation in this basin is remarkable; specifically, coal mining disturbs the overlaying aquifer, thus requiring the uranium to be leached first. The technical approach must be sufficiently reliable to avoid the leakage of radioactive elements in subsequent coal mining procedures. Hence, the unbalanced injection and extraction of uranium mining is used to completely eradicate the discharged emissions to the environment. The gas and oil are typically not extracted because of their deep occurrence strata and their overlapping phenomenon with coal seams. Use of the integrated coal and gas production method is recommended, and relevant fracturing methods to increase the gas migrating degree in the strata are also introduced. The results and recommendations in this study are applicable in some other areas with similarities.

  12. Seepage studies through hydraulic structures and their foundations by inactive and radio tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Azher; Mahajan, N.M.; Kamble, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    In the last ten years extensive efforts have been made by the Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune to study seepage by means of inactive and radiotracers. Various inactive tracers like electrolytes and organic dyes and radiotracers like 82 Br and 3 H in the form of tritiated water have been used for location of source of seepage. Different techniques like borehole dilution, in situ detection at various observation points and analysis of water samples in liquid scintillation spectrometer in the laboratory have been employed to suit the field conditions. Some typical studies at river valley projects indicating the techniques are enumerated. (author)

  13. Comparison of Scour and Flow Characteristics Around Circular and Oblong Bridge Piers in Seepage Affected Alluvial Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Rutuja; Venkataramana, B.; Acharya, Pratik; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2018-06-01

    The present study examines scour geometry and turbulent flow characteristics around circular and oblong piers in alluvial channel with downward seepage. Experiments were conducted in plane sand bed of non-uniform sand under no seepage, 10% seepage and 15% seepage conditions. Scour depth at oblong pier is significantly lesser than the scour depth at circular one. However, the scour depth at both piers reduces with downward seepage. The measurements show that the velocity and Reynolds stresses are negative near the bed at upstream of piers where the strong reversal occurs. At downstream of oblong pier near the free surface, velocity and Reynolds stresses are less positive; whereas, they are negative at downstream of circular pier. The streamline shape of oblong pier leads to reduce the strength of wake vortices and consequently reversal flow at downstream of pier. With application of downward seepage turbulent kinetic energy is decreasing. The results show that the wake vortices at oblong pier are weaker than the wake vortices at circular pier. The strength of wake vortices diminishes with downward seepage. The Strouhal number is lesser for oblong pier and decreases with downward seepage for both oblong and circular piers.

  14. Emissões naturais e antrópicas de nitrogênio, fósforo e metais para a bacia do Rio Macaé (Macaé, RJ, Brasil sob influência das atividades de exploração de petroleo e gás na Bacia de Campos Natural and anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen, phosphorous and metals into the Macaé river basin (Macaé, RJ, Brazil Influenced by oil and gas exploration in Campos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Mussi Molisani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors of natural processes and anthropogenic activities were used to estimate nutrients and metal loads for the lower Macaé river basin, which hosts the operational base for the offshore oil and gas exploration in the Campos Basin. The estimates indicated that emissions from anthropogenic activities are higher than natural emissions. Major contributing drivers include husbandry and urbanization, whose effluents receive no treatment. The increasing offshore oil exploration along the Brazilian littoral has resulted in rapid urbanization and, therefore might increase the inshore emission of anthropogenic chemicals in cases where effective residue control measures are not implemented in fluvial basins of the region.

  15. Characterization of Coal Micro-Pore Structure and Simulation on the Seepage Rules of Low-Pressure Water Based on CT Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper used the X-ray three-dimensional (3D microscope and acquired, through CT scanning, the 3D data of the long-frame coal sample from the Daliuta Coal Mine. Then, the 3D datacube reconstructed from the coal’s CT scanning data was visualized with the use of Avizo, an advanced visualization software (FEI, Hillsboro, OR, USA. By means of a gray-scale segmentation technique, the model of the coal’s micro-pore structure was extracted from the object region, and the precise characterization was then conducted. Finally, the numerical simulation on the water seepage characteristics in the coal micro-pores model under the pressure of 3 MPa was performed on the CFX platform. Results show that the seepage of low-pressure water exhibited preference to the channels with large pore radii, short paths, and short distance from the outlet. The seepage pressure of low-pressure water decreased gradually along the seepage direction, while the seepage velocity of low-pressure water decreased gradually along the direction from the pore center to the wall. Regarding the single-channel seepage behaviors, the seepage velocity and mass flow rate of water seepage in the X direction were the largest, followed by the values of the seepage in the Y direction, and the seepage velocity and mass flow rate of water seepage in the Z direction were the smallest. Compared with the results in single-channel seepage, the dual-channel seepage in the direction of (X + Y and the multi-channel seepage in the direction of (X + Y + Z exhibited significant increases in the overall seepage velocity. The present study extends the application of 3D CT scanning data and provides a new idea and approach for exploring the seepage rules in coal micro-pore structures.

  16. Delineating gas bearing reservoir by using spectral decomposition attribute: Case study of Steenkool formation, Bintuni Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Pradana, G. S.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Tectonic setting of the Bird Head Papua Island becomes an important model for petroleum system in Eastern part of Indonesia. The current exploration has been started since the oil seepage finding in Bintuni and Salawati Basin. The biogenic gas in shallow layer turns out to become an interesting issue in the hydrocarbon exploration. The hydrocarbon accumulation appearance in a shallow layer with dry gas type, appeal biogenic gas for further research. This paper aims at delineating the sweet spot hydrocarbon potential in shallow layer by applying the spectral decomposition technique. The spectral decomposition is decomposing the seismic signal into an individual frequency, which has significant geological meaning. One of spectral decomposition methods is Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), which transforms the seismic signal into individual time and frequency simultaneously. This method is able to make easier time-frequency map analysis. When time resolution increases, the frequency resolution will be decreased, and vice versa. In this study, we perform low-frequency shadow zone analysis in which the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency of 15 Hz was observed and we then compare it to the amplitude at the mid (20 Hz) and the high-frequency (30 Hz). The appearance of the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency was disappeared at high frequency, this anomaly disappears. The spectral decomposition by using CWT algorithm has been successfully applied to delineate the sweet spot zone.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Central Burma Basin and the Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    The Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces were recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.3 billion barrels of oil, 79.6 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 2.1 billion barrels of natrual gas liquids.

  18. The Seepage Simulation of Single Hole and Composite Gas Drainage Based on LB Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhao; Zhong, Qiu; Gong, Zhenzhao

    2018-01-01

    Gas drainage is the most effective method to prevent and solve coal mine gas power disasters. It is very important to study the seepage flow law of gas in fissure coal gas. The LB method is a simplified computational model based on micro-scale, especially for the study of seepage problem. Based on fracture seepage mathematical model on the basis of single coal gas drainage, using the LB method during coal gas drainage of gas flow numerical simulation, this paper maps the single-hole drainage gas, symmetric slot and asymmetric slot, the different width of the slot combined drainage area gas flow under working condition of gas cloud of gas pressure, flow path diagram and flow velocity vector diagram, and analyses the influence on gas seepage field under various working conditions, and also discusses effective drainage method of the center hole slot on both sides, and preliminary exploration that is related to the combination of gas drainage has been carried on as well.

  19. Steady flow rate to a partially penetrating well with seepage face in an unconfined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz-Koohenjani, Siavash; Samani, Nozar; Kompani-Zare, Mazda

    2011-06-01

    The flow rate to fully screened, partially penetrating wells in an unconfined aquifer is numerically simulated using MODFLOW 2000, taking into account the flow from the seepage face and decrease in saturated thickness of the aquifer towards the well. A simple three-step method is developed to find the top of the seepage face and hence the seepage-face length. The method is verified by comparing it with the results of previous predictive methods. The results show that the component of flow through the seepage face can supply a major portion of the total pumping rate. Variations in flow rate as a function of the penetration degree, elevation of the water level in the well and the distance to the far constant head boundary are investigated and expressed in terms of dimensionless curves and equations. These curves and equations can be used to design the degree of penetration for which the allowable steady pumping rate is attained for a given elevation of water level in the well. The designed degree of penetration or flow rate will assure the sustainability of the aquifer storage, and can be used as a management criterion for issuing drilling well permits by groundwater protection authorities.

  20. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Huiluo

    2015-07-21

    The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of AOA in different habitats (water vs. sediment) potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep.

  1. A method for estimating spatially variable seepage and hydrualic conductivity in channels with very mild slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafield, Margaret; Niswonger, Richard G.; Prudic, David E.; Pohll, Greg; Susfalk, Richard; Panday, Sorab

    2014-01-01

    Infiltration along ephemeral channels plays an important role in groundwater recharge in arid regions. A model is presented for estimating spatial variability of seepage due to streambed heterogeneity along channels based on measurements of streamflow-front velocities in initially dry channels. The diffusion-wave approximation to the Saint-Venant equations, coupled with Philip's equation for infiltration, is connected to the groundwater model MODFLOW and is calibrated by adjusting the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the channel bed. The model is applied to portions of two large water delivery canals, which serve as proxies for natural ephemeral streams. Estimated seepage rates compare well with previously published values. Possible sources of error stem from uncertainty in Manning's roughness coefficients, soil hydraulic properties and channel geometry. Model performance would be most improved through more frequent longitudinal estimates of channel geometry and thalweg elevation, and with measurements of stream stage over time to constrain wave timing and shape. This model is a potentially valuable tool for estimating spatial variability in longitudinal seepage along intermittent and ephemeral channels over a wide range of bed slopes and the influence of seepage rates on groundwater levels.

  2. Natural convection in tunnels at Yucca Mountain and impact on drift seepage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halecky, N.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Peterson, P.

    2010-04-15

    The decay heat from radioactive waste that is to be disposed in the once proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM) will significantly influence the moisture conditions in the fractured rock near emplacement tunnels (drifts). Additionally, large-scale convective cells will form in the open-air drifts and will serve as an important mechanism for the transport of vaporized pore water from the fractured rock in the drift center to the drift end. Such convective processes would also impact drift seepage, as evaporation could reduce the build up of liquid water at the tunnel wall. Characterizing and understanding these liquid water and vapor transport processes is critical for evaluating the performance of the repository, in terms of water-induced canister corrosion and subsequent radionuclide containment. To study such processes, we previously developed and applied an enhanced version of TOUGH2 that solves for natural convection in the drift. We then used the results from this previous study as a time-dependent boundary condition in a high-resolution seepage model, allowing for a computationally efficient means for simulating these processes. The results from the seepage model show that cases with strong natural convection effects are expected to improve the performance of the repository, since smaller relative humidity values, with reduced local seepage, form a more desirable waste package environment.

  3. Seepage Analysis of Upper Gotvand Dam Concerning Gypsum Karstification (2D and 3D Approaches)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadrekarimi, Jamshid; Kiyani, Majid; Fakhri, Behnam

    2011-01-01

    Upper Gotvand Dam is constructed on the Karun River at the south west of Iran. In this paper, 2D and 3D models of the dam together with the foundation and abutments were established, and several seepage analyses were carried out. Then, the gypsum veins that are scattered throughout the foundation...

  4. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Huiluo; Zhang, Weipeng; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of AOA in different habitats (water vs. sediment) potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep.

  5. Evaluation of seepage and discharge uncertainty in the middle Snake River, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Williams, Marshall L.; Evetts, David M.; Vidmar, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State of Idaho, Idaho Power Company, and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, evaluated seasonal seepage gains and losses in selected reaches of the middle Snake River, Idaho, during November 2012 and July 2013, and uncertainty in measured and computed discharge at four Idaho Power Company streamgages. Results from this investigation will be used by resource managers in developing a protocol to calculate and report Adjusted Average Daily Flow at the Idaho Power Company streamgage on the Snake River below Swan Falls Dam, near Murphy, Idaho, which is the measurement point for distributing water to owners of hydropower and minimum flow water rights in the middle Snake River. The evaluated reaches of the Snake River were from King Hill to Murphy, Idaho, for the seepage studies and downstream of Lower Salmon Falls Dam to Murphy, Idaho, for evaluations of discharge uncertainty. Computed seepage was greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty for subreaches along the middle Snake River during November 2012, the non-irrigation season, but not during July 2013, the irrigation season. During the November 2012 seepage study, the subreach between King Hill and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful (greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty) seepage gain of 415 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the subreach between Loveridge Bridge and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful seepage gain of 217 ft3/s. The meaningful seepage gain measured in the November 2012 seepage study was expected on the basis of several small seeps and springs present along the subreach, regional groundwater table contour maps, and results of regional groundwater flow model simulations. Computed seepage along the subreach from C J Strike Dam to Murphy was less than cumulative measurement uncertainty during November 2012 and July 2013; therefore, seepage cannot be quantified with certainty along this subreach. For the uncertainty evaluation, average

  6. Study of seepage losses from irrigation canals using radioactive tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Tariq, J.A.; Rashid, A.; Rafiq, M.; Iqbal, N.

    2004-06-01

    Pakistan has an intricate irrigation system comprising a huge network of canals. A significant fraction of water in irrigation canals is lost through seepage, which is further responsible for water logging and salinity in some areas. Government is considering lining of irrigation canals to overcome this twin menace. Due to involvement of huge costs, highly pervious sections where the seepage rate is appreciably high, are needed to be identified for planning and execution of remedial actions to eliminate or minimize seepage losses. The conventional methods of measuring seepage rate from canals are limited to 'ponding' and 'inflow-outflow' methods. The ponding method is usually restricted to small canals because of the costly bulkheads and water requirement, unaffordable closure of canal, non representation of the line source and variation in the rate of seepage loss with time due to the sealing effects of fine sediments settling out. Inaccurate measurement of discharge under field conditions and complication due to diversion do not favour the inflow-outflow method. It is believed that the analytical methods represent the most accurate and convenient means of determining seepage values using accurate insitu hydraulic conductivity of the subsoil determined by radiotracer, geometry of the canal and position of the groundwater. As a practical application, radiotracer experiments were carried out at Rakh branch canal near Sukhiki, District Hafizabad (Punjab) to determine groundwater filtration velocity by single well point dilution technique using Technetium-99m (sup 99m/Tc) radioactive tracer, Hydraulic conductivity (determined from filtration velocity and hydraulic gradient) and canal parameters were used in the parametric equation of parachute curve to estimate the seepage rate. The average seepage rate was 4.05 cubic meter per day per meter length of the canal (equivalent to 3.795 cusec per million square feet or 1.157 cumec per second per million square meter of

  7. A giant oil seep at a salt-induced escarpment of the São Paulo Plateau, Espírito Santo Basin, off Brazil: Host rock characteristics and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Antonio Fernando Menezes; Iemini, Juliana Andrade; Viana, Adriano Roessler; Magnavita, Luciano Portugal; Dehler, Nolan Maia; Kowsmann, Renato Oscar; Miller, Dennis James; Bezerra, Sabrina Helena Diniz Gilaberte; Zerfass, Geise de Santana dos Anjos; Shimabukuro, Seirin; Nóbrega, Marcos, II

    2017-12-01

    An international research cruise named Iatá-Piuna took place on the São Paulo Plateau on May 2013 in the Campos and Espírito Santo basins, off Brazil. The cruise was carried ou on board the research vessel (R/V) Yokosuka that hosts the human operated vehicle (HOV) SHINKAI 6500. It aimed at finding chemosynthetic communities, composed of organisms capable of generating their own vital energy by metabolizing organic and inorganic compounds related to seeps. Identification of these organisms could provide information for understanding the origin of life, since they may resemble primitive organisms that existed in the initial stages of life on Earth. During Leg 2 (May 10-24, 2013), however, dives on the northern part of the São Paulo Plateau at the Espírito Santo Basin led to the discovery of a giant oil seep. The seep, ca. 3 nautical miles (ca. 5.6 km) in length is located along an outcrop of Eocene rocks on a salt-induced escarpment of the plateau and at a water depth of ca. 2700 m. The 200 m relief of the seafloor suggests that the seep takes place along an active fault system driven by salt diapirism. The oil was analyzed and identified as a severely biodegraded marine oil, generated by carbonate rocks within a minibasin located to the east of the escarpment. This represents valuable exploratory information because it proves that an active petroleum system is present in the context of minibasins associated with salt diapirism in the area.

  8. Oil well spill trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigington, J.R. Sr.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process involving an oil well and rig having a casing, a platform on the rig extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in pulling the tubing from the casing; disconnecting joints of tubing thereby; and spilling liquids from the casing, catching spilled liquids from the casing in a basin below the platform, draining the basin substantially simultaneously; connecting the drain hole to a tank, and reducing the pressure in the tank to less than atmospheric pressure. This paper also describes an oil well and rig having a casing; the rig having a platform extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in a basin surrounding the casing and connected thereto, the basin below the platform, a drain connection in the lower part of the basin, a conduit connected to the drain, and means for applying a suction to the conduit

  9. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Final report, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    A study is described on the hydrological and geotechnical behavior of an oil shale solid waste. The objective was to obtain information which can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil shale solid waste disposal in the Green River Basin. The spent shale used in this study was combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, Inc. Laboratory bench-scale testing included index properties, such as grain size distribution and Atterberg limits, and tests for engineering properties including hydraulic conductivity and shear strength. Large-scale tests were conducted on model spent shale waste embankments to evaluate hydrological response, including infiltration, runoff, and seepage. Large-scale tests were conducted at a field site in western Colorado and in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL)at the University of Wyoming. The ESL tests allowed the investigators to control rainfall and temperature, providing information on the hydrological response of spent shale under simulated severe climatic conditions. All experimental methods, materials, facilities, and instrumentation are described in detail, and results are given and discussed. 34 refs.

  10. Seepage characteristics of the second tertiary combined model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan ZHAO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The second tertiary combined model experiment zone has been developed in Block B, Field L. The percolation feature of the second tertiary combined develop model shows great importance to rational and efficient development of the reservoir. In order to clearly illuminate its percolation feature, the typical reservoir numerical model is built by Eclipse, which is a reservoir numerical simulation software. The percolation features of original and added perforation interval under the second tertiary combined model are studied, and the variation features of general water-cut, recovery percentage, wellbore pressure, reservoir pressure and water saturation on condition of higher injection rate under the second tertiary combined model are analyzed. The research indicates that the second tertiary combined enhances the recovery of remaining oil on top of thick reservoir by developing and enhancing original perforation interval under water drive, then improves development results by polymer flooding, and gains higher recovery rate by synthetic action of water driver and polymer flooding.

  11. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report April 6, 2003 - October 5, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m 3 ) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the fourth project year (April 6 through October 5, 2003). The work included (1) analysis of well-test data and oil production from Cherokee and Bug fields, San Juan County, Utah, and (2) diagenetic evaluation of stable isotopes from the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Production ''sweet spots'' and potential horizontal drilling candidates were identified for Cherokee and Bug fields. In Cherokee field, the most productive wells are located in the thickest part of the mound facies of

  12. The Controls of Pore-Throat Structure on Fluid Performance in Tight Clastic Rock Reservoir: A Case from the Upper Triassic of Chang 7 Member, Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of porosity and permeability in tight clastic rock reservoir have significant difference from those in conventional reservoir. The increased exploitation of tight gas and oil requests further understanding of fluid performance in the nanoscale pore-throat network of the tight reservoir. Typical tight sandstone and siltstone samples from Ordos Basin were investigated, and rate-controlled mercury injection capillary pressure (RMICP and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were employed in this paper, combined with helium porosity and air permeability data, to analyze the impact of pore-throat structure on the storage and seepage capacity of these tight oil reservoirs, revealing the control factors of economic petroleum production. The researches indicate that, in the tight clastic rock reservoir, largest throat is the key control on the permeability and potentially dominates the movable water saturation in the reservoir. The storage capacity of the reservoir consists of effective throat and pore space. Although it has a relatively steady and significant proportion that resulted from the throats, its variation is still dominated by the effective pores. A combination parameter (ε that was established to be as an integrated characteristic of pore-throat structure shows effectively prediction of physical capability for hydrocarbon resource of the tight clastic rock reservoir.

  13. Seepage investigation by using Isotope and Geophysical Techniques in Gumti Flood Embankment/Dyke, Comilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Wallin, B. G.; Majumder, R. K.; Mikail, M.; Rahman, M. S.

    2004-06-01

    Gumti Flood Control Embankment/Dyke is vital for irrigation water supply and flood control. Water seepage/leakage and slope failures are the major issues in Gumti earthen dyke. The distinct seepage and slope failure zone were observed at three places (Farizpur, Kathalia and Ebdarpur) along the countryside of left dyke. The isotopic technique has been integrated in the conventional hydrologic investigations. The isotope methodology works essentially by developing a characteristics pattern of the isotopic composition to identify the sources and flow dynamics of seeping/leaking in the dykes. Two sampling campaigns were conducted; one was on October, 2002 and the other was on July, 2003; near the seepage/leakage site for chemical analysis and stable isotopic analysis (''2H and ''1 8 O). Both samplings were done after recession of peak water level in the Gumti river. Interpretation of the hydrochemical data implies that the groundwater near the investigated seepage zones is Na-Ca-HCO 3 type and the river water is Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type. The chlorides content of both groundwater and river water are found mostly similar, indicating mixing between the two water system. The stable isotopes (''2H and ''1 8 O) of groundwater fall on the Meteoric Water Line, ranging the oxygen-18 values from -4.98 to -5.46 per mil and deuterium values from -30.0 to -33.6 per mil. It indicates the recharge from the river water during peak water level in the river Gumti. On the other hand, the stable isotopes of the Gumti river show some evaporation effect, which might have occurred due to stagnation of flowing water in the river. The oxygen-18 and deuterium values for river water range from -3.61 to -4.43 per mil and from -22.30 to -28.48 per mil respectively. These isotope results reflect the hydraulic connectivity between the river water and groundwater through the base of dyke. The earth imaging resistivity survey was carried out in the dry period along the four above mentioned areas of the Gumti

  14. ThermoGIS: An integrated web-based information system for geothermal exploration and governmental decision support for mature oil and gas basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.-D. van; Juez-Larre, J.; Mijnlieff, H.; Kronimus, A.; Gessel, S. van; Kramers, L.; Obdam, A.; Verweij, H.; Bonté, D.

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years the use of geothermal energy through implementation of low enthalpy geothermal production systems for both electricity and heating have been growing rapidly in north-western Europe. Geothermal exploration and production takes largely place in sedimentary basins at depths from 2

  15. Decontamination and decommissioning of the SPERT-I seepage pit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckel, R.A.

    1984-11-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning of the SPERT-I seepage pit. Prior to its decontamination and decommissioning, the seepage pit was surrounded by an earthen dike varying from 2 to 6 ft above the pit bottom. A 6-in., cast iron, underground waste line originated at the pit tank in the reactor building and ran approximately 68 ft to the seepage pit. The soil in the seepage pit contained low-level radioactive contamination. The soil surface was removed to a depth of 2.5 ft and shipped to the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The waste line that contained fixed contamination was removed and also sent to the RWMC. The pit was backfilled with radiologically clean soil, reducing the surface activity to background. A permanent marker was erected over the backfilled pit to indicate that presence of residual subsurface radioactive contamination. 5 references, 26 figures, 3 tables

  16. Investigation of seepage around the bucket skirt during installation in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koteras, Aleksandra Katarzyna; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    or along bucket skirt with known soil condition, bucket geometry and applied suction. The second aim of the study is to evaluate expressions for normalized seepage length, s/h, for different soil combinations and penetration depths. The seepage length is then 7 used to make a prediction of critical...... pressure that will create piping channels at exit, which is near to seabed and to the caisson wall, along bucket wall and at the tip. That is how the limits for suction installation can be assumed. Finally, the critical suction is used for predicting the reduction of penetration resistance and the method...... describing this approach is presented in the report with its assumptions. The method is called AAU CPT-based method and it is a great step in the development of practical design tool for bucket foundation installation process....

  17. A Pore Scale Flow Simulation of Reconstructed Model Based on the Micro Seepage Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches on microscopic seepage mechanism and fine description of reservoir pore structure play an important role in effective development of low and ultralow permeability reservoir. The typical micro pore structure model was established by two ways of the conventional model reconstruction method and the built-in graphics function method of Comsol® in this paper. A pore scale flow simulation was conducted on the reconstructed model established by two different ways using creeping flow interface and Brinkman equation interface, respectively. The results showed that the simulation of the two models agreed well in the distribution of velocity, pressure, Reynolds number, and so on. And it verified the feasibility of the direct reconstruction method from graphic file to geometric model, which provided a new way for diversifying the numerical study of micro seepage mechanism.

  18. Sources, extent and history of methane seepage on the continental shelf off northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Simone; Lepland, Aivo; Chand, Shyam; Schubert, Carsten J.; Eichinger, Florian; Knies, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Active natural hydrocarbon gas seepage was recently discovered in the Hola area on the continental shelf off Vesterålen, northern Norway. We conducted acoustic and geochemical investigations to assess the modern and past extent, source and pathways of the gas seepage . Water column echosounder surveys showed bubble plumes up to several tens of metres above the seafloor. Analyses of dissolved methane in the water column indicated slightly elevated concentrations (50 nM) close to the seafloor. To identify fluxes and origin of methane in the sediments we analysed sediment pore water chemistry, the isotopic composition of methane and of dissolved inorganic carbon (d13CCH4, d2HCH4, d13CDIC) in three closely spaced (

  19. Modelling Technique for the Assessment of the Sub-Soil Drain for Groundwater Seepage Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Baharuddin Mohamad Faizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater simulation technique was carried out for examining the performance of sub-soil drain at problematic site area. Subsoil drain was proposed as one of solution for groundwater seepage occurred at the slope face by reducing groundwater table at Taman Botani Park Kuala Lumpur. The simulation technique used Modular Three-Dimensional Finite Difference Groundwater Flow (MODFLOW software. In transient conditions, the results of simulation showed that heads increases surpass 1 to 2 m from the elevation level of the slope area that caused groundwater seepage on slope face. This study attempt to decrease the heads increase surpass by using different sub-soil drain size in simulation technique. The sub-soil drain capable to decline the heads ranges of 1 to 2 m.

  20. Study of Movement and Seepage Along Levees Using DINSAR and the Airborne UAVSAR Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the utility of high resolution SAR (synthetic aperture radar) for levee monitoring using UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected along the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and along the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here was present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.

  1. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Mancos-Menefee Composite Total Petroleum System: Chapter 4 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Condon, S.M.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Mancos-Menefee Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) includes all genetically related hydrocarbons generated from organic-rich shales in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale and from carbonaceous shale, coal beds, and humate in the Cretaceous Menefee Formation of the Mesaverde Group. The system is called a composite total petroleum system because the exact source of the hydrocarbons in some of the reservoirs is not known. Reservoir rocks that contain hydrocarbons generated in Mancos and Menefee source beds are found in the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, at the base of the composite TPS, through the lower part of the Cliff House Sandstone of the Mesaverde Group, at the top. Source rocks in both the Mancos Shale and Menefee Formation entered the oil generation window in the late Eocene and continued to generate oil or gas into the late Miocene. Near the end of the Miocene in the San Juan Basin, subsidence ceased, hydrocarbon generation ceased, and the basin was uplifted and differentially eroded. Reservoirs are now underpressured.

  2. A pragmatic method for estimating seepage losses for small reservoirs with application in rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Jennifer A.; Moysey, Stephen M. J.; Ravindrinath, Rangoori; Guha, Chiranjit

    2010-05-01

    SummaryThe informal construction of small dams to capture runoff and artificially recharge ground water is a widespread strategy for dealing with water scarcity. A lack of technical capacity for the formal characterization of these systems, however, is often an impediment to the implementation of effective watershed management practices. Monitoring changes in reservoir storage provides a conceptually simple approach to quantify seepage, but does not account for the losses occurring when seepage is balanced by inflows to the reservoir and the stage remains approximately constant. To overcome this problem we evaluate whether a physically-based volume balance model that explicitly represents watershed processes, including reservoir inflows, can be constrained by a limited set of data readily collected by non-experts, specifically records of reservoir stage, rainfall, and evaporation. To assess the impact of parameter non-uniqueness associated with the calibration of the non-linear model, we perform a Monte Carlo analysis to quantify uncertainty in the total volume of water contributed to the subsurface by the 2007 monsoon for a dam located in the Deccan basalts near the village of Salri in Madhya Pradesh, India. The Monte Carlo analysis demonstrated that subsurface losses from the reservoir could be constrained with the available data, but additional measurements are required to constrain reservoir inflows. Our estimate of seepage from the reservoir (7.0 ± 0.6 × 10 4 m 3) is 3.5 times greater than the recharge volume estimated by considering reservoir volume changes alone. This result suggests that artificial recharge could be significantly underestimated when reservoir inflows are not explicitly included in models. Our seepage estimate also accounts for about 11% of rainfall occurring upstream of the dam and is comparable in magnitude to natural ground water recharge, thereby indicating that the reservoir plays a significant role in the hydrology of this small

  3. Groundwater Seepage Estimation into Amirkabir Tunnel Using Analytical Methods and DEM and SGR Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Farhadian; Homayoon Katibeh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, groundwater seepage into Amirkabir tunnel has been estimated using analytical and numerical methods for 14 different sections of the tunnel. Site Groundwater Rating (SGR) method also has been performed for qualitative and quantitative classification of the tunnel sections. The obtained results of above mentioned methods were compared together. The study shows reasonable accordance with results of the all methods unless for two sections of tunnel. In these t...

  4. Control and prevention of seepage from uranium mill waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper constitutes an analysis of the technologies which are available for the prevention of movement of waste waters out of uranium mill waste disposal facilities via sub-surface routes. Hydrogeologic criteria for potential uranium mill waste disposal sites and mathematical modeling of contaminant migration in ground water are presented. Methods for prevention of seepage from uranium mill waste disposal facilities are investigated: liners, clay seals, synthetic polymeric membranes (PVC, polyethylene, chlorinated polyethylene, hypalon, butyl rubber, neoprene, elasticized polyolefin)

  5. sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin took place in tectonically controlled grabens and half-grabens formed by extensional fault systems and accompanied by passive subsidence. The sedimentation history of the basin is related to the tectonic events that affected ...

  6. sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin ... accompanied by passive subsidence. ... margins, whereas the concentration of fine-grained clastic sediments and ..... concentrated at the marginal areas of the basin. .... faults favoured the accumulation of alluvial fan.

  7. Morpho structural interpretation with SRTM data for helping the oil exploration: an example of Amazonas-Brazil sedimentary basin; Interpretacao morfoestrutural com dados SRTM no auxilio a exploracao petrolifera: um exemplo na bacia sedimentar do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Filho, Raimundo; Ibanez, Delano M. [INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: rai@ltid.inpe.br, dmi77@uol.com.br; Miranda, Fernando P. de [Petrobras-CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: fmiranda@petrobras.com.br

    2010-01-15

    The availability of digital elevation models produced by the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) opened new possibilities for studies of geological remote sensing in the Amazonia, since these models enhance subtle details of the terrain and drainage system, usually masked in conventional orbital images. Using as a case study an area located in the Amazonas sedimentary basin, this article discusses an approach to use these data as an aid to oil exploration in that region. The analysis of the drainage network automatically extracted from that product, combined with altitude information provided by the digital elevation model, revealed a number of drainage anomalies, which may indicate surface expression of buried geological features. One of these drainage anomalies is located exactly within the limits of the Azulao Gas Field, and may correspond to the surface expression of the hydrocarbon trapping structures in that area. The methodological approach discussed in this study can be replicated elsewhere in the Amazonas and Solimoes sedimentary basins, which together comprise about 1,000,000 km{sup 2} covered by rainforest. (author)

  8. Reconciling Basin-Scale Top-Down and Bottom-Up Methane Emission Measurements for Onshore Oil and Gas Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-572

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Garvin A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-04

    The overall objective of the Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America (RPSEA)-funded research project is to develop independent estimates of methane emissions using top-down and bottom-up measurement approaches and then to compare the estimates, including consideration of uncertainty. Such approaches will be applied at two scales: basin and facility. At facility scale, multiple methods will be used to measure methane emissions of the whole facility (controlled dual tracer and single tracer releases, aircraft-based mass balance and Gaussian back-trajectory), which are considered top-down approaches. The bottom-up approach will sum emissions from identified point sources measured using appropriate source-level measurement techniques (e.g., high-flow meters). At basin scale, the top-down estimate will come from boundary layer airborne measurements upwind and downwind of the basin, using a regional mass balance model plus approaches to separate atmospheric methane emissions attributed to the oil and gas sector. The bottom-up estimate will result from statistical modeling (also known as scaling up) of measurements made at selected facilities, with gaps filled through measurements and other estimates based on other studies. The relative comparison of the bottom-up and top-down estimates made at both scales will help improve understanding of the accuracy of the tested measurement and modeling approaches. The subject of this CRADA is NREL's contribution to the overall project. This project resulted from winning a competitive solicitation no. RPSEA RFP2012UN001, proposal no. 12122-95, which is the basis for the overall project. This Joint Work Statement (JWS) details the contributions of NREL and Colorado School of Mines (CSM) in performance of the CRADA effort.

  9. Forward modeling of seepage of reservoir dam based on ground penetrating radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli WU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The risk of the reservoir dam seepage will bring the waste of water resources and the loss of life and property. The ground penetrating radar (GPR is designed as a daily inspection system of dams to improve the existing technology which can't determine the actual situation of the dam seepage tunnel coordinates. The finite difference time domain (FDTD is used to solve the Yee's grids discreatization in two-dimensional space, and its electromagnetic distribution equation is obtained as well. Based on the actual structure of reservoir dam foundation, the ideal model of air layer, concrete layer, clay layer and two water seepage holes is described in detail, and the concrete layer interference model with limestone interference point is established. The system architecture is implemented by using MATLAB, and the forward modeling is performed. The results indicate that ground penetrating radar can be used for deep target detection. Through comparing the detection spectrum of three kinds of frequency electromagnetic wave by changing the center frequency of the GPR electromagnetic wave of 50 MHz, 100 MHz and 200 MHz, it is concluded that the scanning result is more accurate at 100 MHz. At the same time, the simulation results of the interference model show that this method can be used for the detection of complex terrain.

  10. Optimization of Multiple Seepage Piping Parameters to Maximize the Critical Hydraulic Gradient in Bimsoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Seepage failure in the form of piping can strongly influence the stability of block-in-matrix-soils (bimsoils, as well as weaken and affect the performance of bimsoil structures. The multiple-factor evaluation and optimization play a crucial role in controlling the seepage failure in bimsoil. The aim of this study is to improve the ability to control the piping seepage failure in bimsoil. In this work, the response surface method (RSM was employed to evaluate and optimize the multiple piping parameters to maximize the critical hydraulic gradient (CHG, in combination with experimental modeling based on a self-developed servo-controlled flow-erosion-stress coupled testing system. All of the studied specimens with rock block percentage (RBP of 30%, 50%, and 70% were produced as a cylindrical shape (50 mm diameter and 100 mm height by compaction tests. Four uncertain parameters, such as RBP, soil matrix density, confining pressure, and block morphology were used to fit an optimal response of the CHG. The sensitivity analysis reveals the influential order of the studied factors to CHG. It is found that RBP is the most sensitive factor, the CHG decreases with the increase of RBP, and CHG increases with the increase of confining pressure, soil matrix density, and block angularity.

  11. Laboratorial studies on the seepage impact in open-channel flow turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera Granados, Oscar; Kostecki, Stanislaw, E-mail: Oscar.Herrera-Granados@pwr.wroc.pi [Institute of Geotechnics and Hydro-engineering (I-10), Wroclaw University of Technology. Plac Grunwaldzki 9 D-2 p.112. 50-377 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2011-12-22

    In natural streams, the interaction between water in motion and movable beds derives in transport of material. This is a fact that causes several problems for river regulation, above all in streams which were heavily modified by human interferences. Therefore, to find solutions or at least to alleviate the negative effects that sediment transport can bring with is a topic to be researched. The impact of seepage on river sedimentation processes and open-channel flow is important for environmental issues but it is commonly neglected by water specialists. The present contribution presents the output of a series of experimental works where the influence of seepage on the open channel turbulence is analyzed at the laboratory scale. Even though that the magnitude of the groundwater flow is significantly smaller than the magnitude of the open channel flow; the output of the experiments demonstrates that seepage not only modifies the water-sediment interaction as demonstrated Herrera Granados (2008; 2010); but also is affecting the velocity field and turbulence dynamics of the open-channel flow.

  12. Application of short-range photogrammetry for monitoring seepage erosion of riverbank by laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, A.; Noorzad, A.; Majdzadeh Tabatabai, M. R.; Samadi, A.

    2018-03-01

    Temporal and spatial monitoring play a significant role in evaluating and examining the riverbank morphology and its spatiotemporal changes. Unlike the terrestrial laser scanners, other previously used methods such as satellite images, total station surveying, and erosion pins have limited application to quantify the small-scale bank variations due to the lack of rapid survey and resolution in data acquisition. High cost, lack of availability, specialized equipment and hard movement of laser scanners make it necessary to develop new accurate, economical and easily available methods. The present study aims to test the Kinect photogrametric technology for measuring and assessing riverbank variations in laboratory environment. For this purpose, three models of layered soil blocks for three different levels of groundwater (i.e. 24, 34 and 44 cm) were designed to investigate the seepage erosion behavior experimentally. The results indicate the high accuracy of Kinect in measuring the bank erosion cavity dimensions (i.e., 0.5% error) with high spatial resolution data (i.e. 300,000 points per frame). The high speed of Kinect in riverbank scanning enables the analysis of time variations of mechanisms such as seepage erosion which occurs rather rapidly. The results confirmed that there is a power relationship between the seepage gradient and the time of the bank failure with a determination coefficient of 0.97. Moreover, an increase in the level of groundwater on the riverbank increases the rate of undercutting retreat that caused more rapid failure of the riverbank.

  13. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Characteristics of Single Fracture Stress-Seepage Coupling considering Microroughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengtong Di

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of the test among the joint roughness coefficient (JRC of rock fracture, mechanical aperture, and hydraulic aperture proposed by Barton, this paper deduces and proposes a permeability coefficient formula of single fracture stress-seepage coupling considering microroughness by the introduction of effect variables considering the microparticle size and structural morphology of facture surface. Quasi-sandstone fracture of different particle size is made by the laboratory test, and the respective modification is made on the coupled shear-seepage test system of JAW-600 rock. Under this condition, the laboratory test of stress-seepage coupling of fracture of different particle size is carried out. The test results show that, for the different particle-sized fracture surface of the same JRC, the permeability coefficient is different, which means the smaller particle size, the smaller permeability coefficient, and the larger particle size, the larger permeability coefficient; with the increase of cranny hydraulic pressure, the permeability coefficient increases exponentially, and under the same cranny hydraulic pressure, there is relation of power function between the permeability coefficient and normal stress. Meanwhile, according to the theoretical formula, the microroughness coefficient of the fractures with different particle size is obtained by the calculation, and its accuracy and validity are verified by experiments. The theoretical verification values are in good agreement with the measured values.

  14. Laboratorial studies on the seepage impact in open-channel flow turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Granados, Oscar; Kostecki, Stanislaw

    2011-01-01

    In natural streams, the interaction between water in motion and movable beds derives in transport of material. This is a fact that causes several problems for river regulation, above all in streams which were heavily modified by human interferences. Therefore, to find solutions or at least to alleviate the negative effects that sediment transport can bring with is a topic to be researched. The impact of seepage on river sedimentation processes and open-channel flow is important for environmental issues but it is commonly neglected by water specialists. The present contribution presents the output of a series of experimental works where the influence of seepage on the open channel turbulence is analyzed at the laboratory scale. Even though that the magnitude of the groundwater flow is significantly smaller than the magnitude of the open channel flow; the output of the experiments demonstrates that seepage not only modifies the water-sediment interaction as demonstrated Herrera Granados (2008; 2010); but also is affecting the velocity field and turbulence dynamics of the open-channel flow.

  15. A Model of Anisotropic Property of Seepage and Stress for Jointed Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-tao Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joints often have important effects on seepage and elastic properties of jointed rock mass and therefore on the rock slope stability. In the present paper, a model for discrete jointed network is established using contact-free measurement technique and geometrical statistic method. A coupled mathematical model for characterizing anisotropic permeability tensor and stress tensor was presented and finally introduced to a finite element model. A case study of roadway stability at the Heishan Metal Mine in Hebei Province, China, was performed to investigate the influence of joints orientation on the anisotropic properties of seepage and elasticity of the surrounding rock mass around roadways in underground mining. In this work, the influence of the principal direction of the mechanical properties of the rock mass on associated stress field, seepage field, and damage zone of the surrounding rock mass was numerically studied. The numerical simulations indicate that flow velocity, water pressure, and stress field are greatly dependent on the principal direction of joint planes. It is found that the principal direction of joints is the most important factor controlling the failure mode of the surrounding rock mass around roadways.

  16. Determining the REV for Fracture Rock Mass Based on Seepage Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seepage problems of the fractured rock mass have always been a heated topic within hydrogeology and engineering geology. The equivalent porous medium model method is the main method in the study of the seepage of the fractured rock mass and its engineering application. The key to the method is to determine a representative elementary volume (REV. The FractureToKarst software, that is, discrete element software, is a main analysis tool in this paper and developed by a number of authors. According to the standard of rock classification established by ISRM, this paper aims to discuss the existence and the size of REV of fractured rock masses with medium tractility and provide a general method to determine the existence of REV. It can be gleaned from the study that the existence condition of fractured rock mass with medium tractility features average fracture spacing smaller than 0.6 m. If average fracture spacing is larger than 0.6 m, there is no existence of REV. The rationality of the model is verified by a case study. The present research provides a method for the simulation of seepage field in fissured rocks.

  17. A geochemical study on mud volcanoes in the Junggar Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Ryoichi, E-mail: ryo-nakada@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Takahashi, Yoshio [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tsunogai, Urumu [Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-10 Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Zheng Guodong [Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 382 West Donggang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Shimizu, Hiroshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hattori, Keiko H. [Department of Earth Science, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Gases released from Xinjiang mud volcanoes are dominated by thermogenic origin. > Secondary microbial activities occurring closer to the surface dramatically changed the {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CO2}. > The water-rock interaction occurred at deeper level than gas and petroleum reservoir. - Abstract: A comprehensive study was performed to characterize, for the first time, the mud, water, and gases released from onshore mud volcanoes located in the southern margin of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. Chemical compositions of mud, along with the geology of the basin, suggest that a source of the mud is Mesozoic or Cenozoic shale. Oxygen and H isotope compositions of the released water suggest a local meteoric origin. Combined with the positive Eu anomalies of the water, a large {sup 18}O shift of the water suggests extensive interaction with rocks. Gases discharged from the mud volcanoes are predominantly thermogenic hydrocarbons, and the high {delta}{sup 13}C values (>+20 per mille VPDB) for CO{sub 2} gases and dissolved carbonate in muddy water suggest secondary methanogenesis with CO{sub 2} reduction after oil biodegradation. The enrichments of Eu and {sup 18}O in water and the low thermal gradient of the area suggest that the water-rock interactions possibly occur deeper than 3670 {+-} 200 m. On the other hand, considering the relationship to the petroleum reservoir around the mud volcanoes, the depth of the gases can be derived from about 3600 m, a depth that is greater than that generally estimated for reservoirs whose gas is characterized by {sup 13}C-enriched CO{sub 2}. Oil biodegradation with CO{sub 2} reduction likely occurs at a shallower depth along the seepage system of the mud volcano. The results contribute to the worldwide data set of gas genesis in mud volcanoes. Moreover, they further support the concept that most terrestrial mud volcanoes release thermogenic gas produced in very deep sediments and may be early indicators of oil

  18. Oil pipelines inspection with high wall thickness using MFL tool - Campos Basin experience; Inspecao de oleoduto com paredes espessas com ferramenta MFL - a experiencia da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Aldo; Camerini, Claudio; Bueno, Sergio I.O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franca, Andre; Miranda, Ivan V. Janvrot; Silva, Jose A.P.; Lima, Vinicius [PipeWay Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Campos Basin deep water pipelines are designed to out stand internal pressure, launching loads and buckling witch demands high wall thickness up to 1 inch. On the other hand, operational conditions require high pumping temperatures to meet requirements of flow assurance. This scenario becomes difficult internal survey specially MFL tools. The present work describes PETROBRAS effort, with PipeWay partnership, looking for alternatives for internal inspection on those pipelines using MFL specially designed, showing details and results from a recent survey. (author)

  19. Application of Advanced Exploration Technologies for the Development of Mancos Formation Oil Reservoirs, Jicarilla Apache Indian Nation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Scott; Billingsley, Randy

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to: (1) develop an exploration rationale for the Mancos shale in the north-eastern San Juan basin; (2) assess the regional prospectivity of the Mancos in the northern Nation lands based on that rationale; (3) identify specific leads in the northern Nation as appropriate; (4) forecast pro-forma production, reserves and economics for any leads identified; and (5) package and disseminate the results to attract investment in Mancos development on the Nation lands

  20. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS ON SEEPAGE AND STRUCTURAL STABILITY OF EARTH-ROCK DAM: A CASE STUDY OF XIQUANYAN DAM IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing GUO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Earth-rock dam is commonly used in the high-dam engineering around the world. It has been widely accepted that the analysis on structural and seepage stability plays a very important role, and it is necessary to take into account while designing the earth-rock dam. In performing the analysis of structural and seepage stability, many remarkable methods are available at current stage. However, there are still some important issues remaining unsolved, including: (1 Finite element methods (FEMs is a means of solutions to analysis seepage process, but it is often a difficult task to determine the so-called seepage coefficient, because the common-used water injection test is limited in the practical work due to the high cost and complex procedure. (2 It has long been discussed that the key parameters for structural stability analysis show a significant spatial and temporal variations. It may be partly explained by the inhomogeneous dam-filling during construction work and the developing seepage process. The consequence is that one constant value of the parameter cannot represent the above variations. In this context, we solve the above issues and introduce the solution with a practical earth-rock dam project. For determining the seepage coefficient, the data from the piezo metric tube is used to calculate the potential value, based on which the seepage coefficient can be back-analysed. Then the seepage field, as well as the seepage stability are numerically analysed using the FEM-based SEEP/W program. As to the structural safety, we take into account the spatial and temporal variations of the key parameters, and incorporate the Monte-Carlo simulation method into the commonly used M-P method to calculate the frequency distribution of the obtained structural safety factor. In this way, the structural and seepage safety can be well analysed. This study is also beneficial to provide a mature method and a theoretical insight into the earth-rock dam design

  1. Evidence of orbital forcing in lake-level fluctuations in the Middle Eocene oil shale-bearing lacustrine successions in the Mudurnu-Göynük Basin, NW Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocakoğlu, F.; Açıkalın, S.; Yılmaz, İ. Ö.; Şafak, Ü.; Gökçeoğlu, C.

    2012-08-01

    Mudurnu-Göynük basin of the Sakarya Zone in NW Anatolia comprises ca. 1500 m thick Paleocene-Eocene terrestrial to shallow marine succession overlying the Late Cretaceous deeper marine progradational fore-arc sediments. Formed in a foreland setting in relation to southerly situated İzmir-Ankara suture zone, this terrestrial succession (regionally known as Kızılçay group) comprises a thin (nalysis on three correlative measured sections showed that mudstone, oil shale and thinner limestone alternations characterize the relatively deeper part of the Eocene lake with probable marine intervention, while thicker limestone, coal, marl and occasional oil shale alternations typify the southern relatively freshwater shoal areas. These facies are frequently organized as meter-scale symmetric to asymmetric transgressive-regressive cycles. Spectral analysis of the mudstone beds and the cycles within the lacustrine succession strongly indicates the occurrence of full bands of Milankovitch with the shortest precession cycle (19 ka) at ca. 2.30 m. Our observations further revealed quite rhythmic thin couplets with estimated durations of 365-730 yr that might represent abrupt climatic changes during deposition. On the other hand, longer duration (ca. 1 Ma) of shoaling and deepening trends in the studied sections were attributed basically to varying subsidence due to tectonic loading in the southerly suture zone. Lastly, regarding the distribution of depositional environments we propose that the oil shale exploration activities should be carried out within a 20 km wide E-W running belt while the southern limits of this belt is more prolific for coal resources.

  2. Evaluating origins and water seepage rates at the subdam A of the Dong Mo reservoir using environmental isotope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Dac Dung; Trinh Van Giap; Dang Anh Minh; Nguyen Van Hoan

    2008-01-01

    Environmental isotope techniques have been world-widely used for investigating origins and the rates of the seepage - leakage water at reservoir dams. We have conducted a research on the use of environmental isotope techniques for evaluating the origin of the seepage water and the seepage rate at the sub dam A of the Dong Mo reservoir. The main works were collecting water samples, analyzing for 18 O/ 16 O, 2 H(D)/ 1 H ratios, analyzing for 3 H(T) and chemical contents. Findings of the project showed that: a) Waters at the piezometers on the top and the 1st roof are not originated from lake water; b) Waters at the piezometers on 1st and 2nd levels, as well as seepage waters at the dam toe are mixed of lake and ground waters, and the old river bed could be the channel for ground water upcoming from beneath the dam body; c) The transit times of water from the lake to the observation points are from 3 to 4 months, and the seepage velocity is of about 1.1x10 -3 cm/s; d) The findings from tritium analyses show that all waters around the Dong Mo area are recent waters recharged regularly by meteoric water. (author)

  3. Fiber Bragg grating-based performance monitoring of a slope model subjected to seepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; Yan, Jun-Fan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Bao-Jun

    2014-09-01

    In the past few years, fiber optic sensing technologies have played an increasingly important role in the health monitoring of civil infrastructures. These innovative sensing technologies have recently been successfully applied to the performance monitoring of a series of geotechnical structures. Fiber optic sensors have shown many unique advantages in comparison with conventional sensors, including immunity to electrical noise, higher precision and improved durability and embedding capabilities; fiber optic sensors are also smaller in size and lighter in weight. In order to explore the mechanism of seepage-induced slope instability, a small-scale 1 g model test of the soil slope has been performed in the laboratory. During the model’s construction, specially fabricated sensing fibers containing nine fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors connected in a series were horizontally and vertically embedded into the soil mass. The surcharge load was applied on the slope crest, and the groundwater level inside of the slope was subsequently varied using two water chambers installed besides the slope model. The fiber optic sensing data of the vertical and horizontal strains within the slope model were automatically recorded by an FBG interrogator and a computer during the test. The test results are presented and interpreted in detail. It is found that the gradually accumulated deformation of the slope model subjected to seepage can be accurately captured by the quasi-distributed FBG strain sensors. The test results also demonstrate that the slope stability is significantly affected by ground water seepage, which fits well with the results that were calculated using finite element and limit equilibrium methods. The relationship between the strain measurements and the safety factors is further analyzed, together with a discussion on the residual strains. The performance evaluation of a soil slope using fiber optic strain sensors is proved to be a potentially effective

  4. Fiber Bragg grating-based performance monitoring of a slope model subjected to seepage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; Yan, Jun-Fan; Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Bao-Jun; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, fiber optic sensing technologies have played an increasingly important role in the health monitoring of civil infrastructures. These innovative sensing technologies have recently been successfully applied to the performance monitoring of a series of geotechnical structures. Fiber optic sensors have shown many unique advantages in comparison with conventional sensors, including immunity to electrical noise, higher precision and improved durability and embedding capabilities; fiber optic sensors are also smaller in size and lighter in weight. In order to explore the mechanism of seepage-induced slope instability, a small-scale 1 g model test of the soil slope has been performed in the laboratory. During the model’s construction, specially fabricated sensing fibers containing nine fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors connected in a series were horizontally and vertically embedded into the soil mass. The surcharge load was applied on the slope crest, and the groundwater level inside of the slope was subsequently varied using two water chambers installed besides the slope model. The fiber optic sensing data of the vertical and horizontal strains within the slope model were automatically recorded by an FBG interrogator and a computer during the test. The test results are presented and interpreted in detail. It is found that the gradually accumulated deformation of the slope model subjected to seepage can be accurately captured by the quasi-distributed FBG strain sensors. The test results also demonstrate that the slope stability is significantly affected by ground water seepage, which fits well with the results that were calculated using finite element and limit equilibrium methods. The relationship between the strain measurements and the safety factors is further analyzed, together with a discussion on the residual strains. The performance evaluation of a soil slope using fiber optic strain sensors is proved to be a potentially effective

  5. Study on the mechanism of seepage flow in the grouting for multiple fractured model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishigaki, Makoto; Mikake, Shin-ichiro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of study is to improve the grouting method for fractured rock masses. In this paper, the results on the fundamental phenomenon for grasping the properties of grouting injection and seepage flow are discussed. The case of grouting stage is studied about the multiple hydraulic fractured apertures in the injected borehole. So the theory on the mechanism is constructed, and experiment is executed in order to verify the availability of the theory. From the results, it is shown that Bernoulli's law is able to prove the behavior of the grouting. And the theoretical evaluation is executed on the experiential procedure of the grouting. (author)

  6. Simulation of 2-dimensional subsurface seepage flow in an anisotropic porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaya K. Lande

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we develop new analytical solution to estimate the transient behavior of phreatic surface in an anisotropic unconfined aquifer which is overlying a leaky base and subjected to multiple recharge and withdrawal. The hydrologic setting consists of a rectangular unconfined leaky aquifer adjacent to two water bodies of constant water head along the opposite faces of the aquifer. The remaining two faces of the aquifer have no flow conditions. The flow of seepage is approximated using two-dimensional Boussinesq equation, and solved analytically using mixed finite Fourier transform. Application of the new solution is demonstrated using an illustrative example.

  7. Contribution to atmospheric methane by natural seepages on the Bulgarian continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, L. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Varna (Bulgaria). Inst. of Oceanology

    2002-07-01

    This paper provides an estimation of the atmospheric methane flux from Bulgarian Black Sea continental shelf. Potential gas source rocks include Holocene gas-charged sediments, Quaternary peats and sapropels, and deep-lying Palaeocene and Neogene clays, Cretaceous coals, and other sediments of late Jurassic to early Cretaceous age. These cover almost the whole continental shelf and slope and, together with irregularly developed seal rocks and widespread active and conducting faults, provide good conditions for upward gas migration. A total of 5 100 line kilometers of shallow seismic (boomer) and echo-sounder records acquired during the Institute of Oceanology's regional surveys, and several detailed side-scan sonar lines, have been reviewed for water column targets. Four hundred and eighty-two targets were assigned as gas seepage plumes. It is estimated that a total of 19,735 individual seeps exists on the open shelf. The number of seeps in coastal waters was estimated to be 6020; this is based on available public-domain data, specific research, and results of a specially made questionnaire which was distributed to a range of 'seamen'. More than 150 measurements of the seabed flux rates were made in the 'Golden sands' and 'Zelenka' seepage areas between 1976 and 1991. Indirect estimations of flux rates from video and photo materials, and a review of published data have also been undertaken. Based on these data, three types of seepages were identified as the most representative of Bulgarian coastal waters. These have flux rates of 0.4, 1.8, and 3.51/min. The contribution to atmospheric methane is calculated by multiplying the flux rates with the number of seepages, and entering corrections for methane concentration and the survival of gas bubbles as they ascend through seawater of the corresponding water depth. The estimation indicates that between 45,100,000 (0.03 Tg) and 210,650,000 m{sup 3} (0. 15 Tg) methane yr{sup -1} come

  8. Simulation of water seepage through a vadose zone in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, Nestor O.

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve our understanding of the vadose zone in fractured rock, obtaining useful tools to simulate, predict and prevent subsurface contamination, a three-dimensional model has been developed from the base of recent two-dimensional codes. Fracture systems are simulated by means of a dynamical evolution of a random-fuse network model, and the multiphase expression of Richards equation is used to describe fluid displacements. Physical situations presented here emphasized the importance of fracture connectivity and spatial variability on the seepage evolution through the vadose zone, and confirm the existence of dendritic patterns along localized preferential paths. (author)

  9. Investigation of the geothermal state of sedimentary basins using oil industry thermal data: case study from Northern Alberta exhibiting the need to systematically remove biased data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan Gray, D; Majorowicz, Jacek; Unsworth, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface temperature data from industrial sources may contain significant biases that greatly reduce their overall quality. However, if these biases can be identified and removed, the data can provide a good preliminary source of information for further studies. In this paper, industrial thermal data from three sources: bottom hole temperatures, annual pool pressure tests and drill stem tests are evaluated to provide an updated view of the subsurface temperatures below the oil sand regions of Northern Alberta. The study highlights some of the potentially large systematic biases inherent in industrial temperature data which affect estimates of geothermal gradient and regional mapping of the geothermal field. (paper)

  10. Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System—Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit of the San Joaquin Basin Province: Chapter 21 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit (AU) of the Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System of the San Joaquin Basin Province consists of all nonassociated gas accumulations in Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sandstones located north of township 15 South in the San Joaquin Valley. The northern San Joaquin Valley forms a northwest-southeast trending asymmetrical trough. It is filled with an alternating sequence of Cretaceous-aged sands and shales deposited on Franciscan Complex, ophiolitic, and Sierran basement. Eocene-aged strata unconformably overlie the thick Cretaceous section, and in turn are overlain unconformably by nonmarine Pliocene-Miocene sediments. Nonassociated gas accumulations have been discovered in the sands of the Panoche, Moreno, Kreyenhagen, andDomengine Formations and in the nonmarine Zilch formation of Loken (1959) (hereafter referred to as Zilch formation). Most hydrocarbon accumulations occur in low-relief, northwest-southeast trending anticlines formed chiefly by differential compaction of sediment and by northeast southwest directed compression during the Paleogene (Bartow, 1991) and in stratigraphic traps formed by pinch out of submarine fan sands against slope shales. To date, 176 billion cubic feet (BCF) of nonassociated recoverable gas has been found in fields within the assessment unit (table 21.1). A small amount of biogenic gas forms near the surface of the AU. Map boundaries of the assessment unit are shown in figures 21.1 and 21.2; in plan view, this assessment unit is identical to the Northern Area Nonassociated Gas play 1007 considered by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in its 1995 National Assessment (Beyer, 1996). The AU is bounded on the east by the mapped limits of Cretaceous sandstone reservoir rocks and on the west by the east flank of the Diablo Range. The southern limit of the AU is the southernmost occurrence of nonassociated thermogenic-gas accumulations. The northern limit of the AU corresponds to the

  11. O3, CH4, CO2, CO, NO2 and NMHC aircraft measurements in the Uinta Basin oil and gas region under low and high ozone conditions in winter 2012 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Oltmans

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Instrumented aircraft measuring air composition in the Uinta Basin, Utah, during February 2012 and January-February 2013 documented dramatically different atmospheric ozone (O3 mole fractions. In 2012 O3 remained near levels of ∼40 ppb in a well-mixed 500–1000 m deep boundary layer while in 2013, O3 mole fractions >140 ppb were measured in a shallow (∼200 m boundary layer. In contrast to 2012 when mole fractions of emissions from oil and gas production such as methane (CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and combustion products such as carbon dioxide (CO2 were moderately elevated, in winter 2013 very high mole fractions were observed. Snow cover in 2013 helped produce and maintain strong temperature inversions that capped a shallow cold pool layer. In 2012, O3 and CH4 and associated NMHCs mole fractions were not closely related. In 2013, O3 mole fractions were correlated with CH4 and a suite of NMHCs identifying the gas field as the primary source of the O3 precursor NMHC emissions. In 2013 there was a strong positive correlation between CH4 and CO2 suggesting combustion from oil and natural gas processing activities. The presence of O3 precursor NMHCs through the depth of the boundary layer in 2013 led to O3 production throughout the layer. In 2013, O3 mole fractions increased over the course of the week-long episodes indicating O3 photochemical production was larger than dilution and deposition rates, while CH4 mole fractions began to level off after 3 days indicative of some air being mixed out of the boundary layer. The plume of a coal-fired power plant located east of the main gas field was not an important contributor to O3 or O3 precursors in the boundary layer in 2013.

  12. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases

  13. Compositional modification of crude oil during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yangming; Weng, Huanxin [Department of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Zulin; Chen, Qi [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, Hubei (China)

    2003-05-01

    Ten crude oils from two recovery stages spanning 5-10-year interval of five productive wells in the Tarim Basin, northwest China were analyzed for their compositional modification during production process. Significant compositional changes in polar and nonpolar fractions between the previous oil samples and the latter ones were noted at both bulk and molecular level. The latter oil samples appear to contain more aromatic fraction and less asphaltenes and resin, and their gas chromatography (GC) data for whole oil show reduced alkanes with low molecular weight and enhanced high homologue relative to the previous oil samples. Compared with the oils collected from the previous recovery stage, the concentration of basic type of nitrogen-containing compounds and organic acids in oils from the latter recovery stage have a reducing trend, suggesting the occurrence of interaction between crude oil and reservoir rock.

  14. Abating coal tar seepage into surface water bodies using sheet piles with sealed interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingwood, B.I.; Boscardin, M.D.; Murdock, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A former coal tar processing facility processed crude coal tar supplied from manufactured gas plants in the area. Coal-tar-contaminated ground water from the site was observed seeping through an existing timber bulkhead along a tidal river and producing a multicolored sheen on the surface of the river. As part of a short-term measure to abate the seepage into the river, 64-m long anchored sheet pile wall with sheet pile wing walls at each end was constructed inland of the of the timber bulkhead. The sheet piles extended to low-permeability soils at depth and the interlocks of the sheet piles were provided with polyurethane rubber seals. Based on postconstruction observations for leakage and sheens related to leakage, the steel sheet piles with polyurethane rubber interlock seals appeared to provide a successful seal and abate coal-tar-contaminated ground water seepage into the river. The tie rod penetration sealing proved to be a more problematic detail, but through several postconstruction grouting episodes, an effective seal was produced

  15. Laboratory Experiments on Steady State Seepage-Induced Landslides Using Slope Models and Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra G. Catane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A thorough understanding of the failure initiation process is crucial in the development of physicallybased early warning system for landslides and slope failures. Laboratory-scale slope models were constructed and subjected to instability through simulated groundwater infiltration. This is done by progressively increasing the water level in the upslope tank and allowing water to infiltrate laterally towards the toe of the slope. Physical changes in the slope models were recorded by tilt sensors and video cameras. When the model slope was destabilized, the chronology of events occurred in the following sequence: (1 bulging at the toe, (2 seepage at the toe, (3 initial failure of soil mass, (4 piping, (5 retrogressive failure, (6 formation of tension cracks and (7 major failure of soil mass. Tension cracks, piping and eventual failure are manifestations of differential settlements due to variations in void ratio. Finite element analysis indicates that instability and subsequent failures in the model slope were induced primarily by high hydraulic gradients in the toe area. Seepage, initial deformation and subsequent failures were manifested in the toe area prior to failure, providing a maximum of 36 min lead time. Similar lead times are expected in slopes of the same material as shown in many case studies of dam failure. The potential of having a longer lead time is high for natural slopes made of materials with higher shear strength thus evacuation is possible. The tilt sensors were able to detect the initial changes before visual changes manifested, indicating the importance of instrumental monitoring.

  16. Gas seepage on an intertidal site: Torry Bay, Firth of Forth, Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, A.G.; Sim, R.; Kingston, P.; McNally, J. [University of Sunderland, Sunderland (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    Gas seeps occurring on tidal flats on the northern shore of the inner Firth of Forth are described. The principal gas is methane, which is considered to come from the coal-bearing rocks of the Lower Limestone Series (Carboniferous); either naturally or from abandoned coal workings. Seep activity has been known, at the site for several years, and it is suggested that the presence of white filamentous bacteria (Beggiatoa sp.) and a carbonate precipitate are indicative of long-term seepage. Comparative studies at the seep and at a control site revealed that the seeps have only a marginal effect on the intertidal fauna. Migration of gas through the thin ({lt} 2 m) surficial sediments appears to be controlled by the topography of a gravel layer, seeps preferentially occurring where the top of the gravel is closest to the surface. The total gas emission from 70 to 100 individual seepage vents is estimated at approximate to 1 tonne CH{sub 4} yr{sup -1}, the majority of which is emitted direct to the atmosphere.

  17. Unsaturated Seepage Analysis of Cracked Soil including Development Process of Cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cracks in soil provide preferential pathways for water flow and their morphological parameters significantly affect the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. To study the hydraulic properties of cracks, the dynamic development of cracks in the expansive soil during drying and wetting has been measured in the laboratory. The test results enable the development of the relationships between the cracks morphological parameters and the water content. In this study, the fractal model has been used to predict the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC of the cracked soil, including the developmental process of the cracks. The cracked expansive soil has been considered as a crack-pore medium. A dual media flow model has been developed to simulate the seepage characteristics of the cracked expansive soil. The variations in pore water pressure at different part of the model are quite different due to the impact of the cracks. This study proves that seepage characteristics can be better predicted if the impact of cracks is taken into account.

  18. Methane seepage intensities traced by biomarker patterns in authigenic carbonates from the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, H.; Feng, D.

    2015-12-01

    Authigenic carbonate rocks from an active seep (Site F) at 1120 m water depth of the South China Sea (SCS) were studied using mineralogical and lipid biomarker analyses. Carbonate mineral compositions, in specific samples, were predominantly aragonite, high-Mg calcite (HMC), or a mixture of both. Abundant 13C-depleted lipid biomarkers (various isoprenoids) diagnostic for archaea provide evidence that anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) mediated by anaerobic methane oxidizing archaea (ANME) and their bacterial partners is the major process leading to formation of the carbonates. Nearly a pure suite of AOM biomarkers was preserved in aragonitic carbonate in which predominant consortia were most likely ANME-2/Desulfosarcina & Desulfococcus (DSS) assemblages and a mixture of ANME-2/DSS and ANME-1/DSS consortia in the mixed mineral sample, the predominant consortia are in good accordance with the point that the relative higher methane seepage intensity favors the precipitation of aragonite over HMC. In contrast, the completely different biomarker patterns in HMC sample were mainly composed terrestrial organic matter and marine Thaumarchaea, which most likely originally within sediments accompanied with high organic matter input and low methane supply. This environment is known to be favored for archaea of ANME-1 and precipitation of HMC. High concentrations of 13C-depleted hopanoids, including diplopterol, hopanoic acids and hopanols were observed in the aragonite sample that may be sourced by the intermittent presence of oxic conditions in an overall anoxic condition, which was possibly induced by changing seepage intensities.

  19. Environmental summary of the F- and H-area seepage basins groundwater remediation project, Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friday, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of nearly 70 investigations of the baseline environment, describes the remedial action, and identifies constituents of interest that pose potential risk to human health and the environment. It also proposes an approach for evaluating the effectiveness of the remedial action

  20. Testing and modeling of seepage into underground openings in a heterogeneous fracture system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, C.F.; Trautz, R.C.; Cook, P.J.; Finsterle, S.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss field activities designed to characterize seepage into an underground opening at the potential site for geologic storage of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the use of these data for development and calibration of a model for predicting seepage into planned HLRW emplacement drifts. Air-injection tests were conducted to characterize the permeability of the fractured rock, and liquid-release tests (LRTs) were conducted and seepage monitored to characterize the seepage-relevant properties of the fractured rock. Both air-injection and liquid-release tests were performed in the same borehole intervals, located above the underground openings. For modeling, three-dimensional, heterogeneous permeability fields were generated, conditioned on the air-permeability data. The initial seepage data collected were used to calibrate the model and test the appropriateness of the modeling approach. A capillary-strength parameter and porosity were the model parameters selected for estimation by data inversion. However, due to the short-term nature of the initial data, the inversion process was unable to independently determine the capillary strength and porosity of the fractured rock. Subsequent seepage data collection focused on longer-term tests, a representative selection of which was used for data inversion. Field observations also played a key role by identifying factors such as evaporation and ceiling geometry that can enhance or reduce seepage. These observations help guide future test and model development by ensuring that relevant processes that influence seepage are identified, characterized, and incorporated into the model, thus increasing confidence in the parameter estimates. It is this iterative and collaborative approach to field testing and modeling, and the feedback mechanisms of field-test-methodology and model review and revision, that has been employed to continuously improve the scientific quality of the study

  1. Geochemical characterisation of seepage and drainage water quality from two sulphide mine tailings impoundments: Acid mine drainage versus neutral mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, P.M.; Raisanen, M.L.; Johnson, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Seepage water and drainage water geochemistry (pH, EC, O2, redox, alkalinity, dissolved cations and trace metals, major anions, total element concentrations) were studied at two active sulphide mine tailings impoundments in Finland (the Hitura Ni mine and Luikonlahti Cu mine/talc processing plant). The data were used to assess the factors influencing tailings seepage quality and to identify constraints for water treatment. Changes in seepage water quality after equilibration with atmospheric conditions were evaluated based on geochemical modelling. At Luikonlahti, annual and seasonal changes were also studied. Seepage quality was largely influenced by the tailings mineralogy, and the serpentine-rich, low sulphide Hitura tailings produced neutral mine drainage with high Ni. In contrast, drainage from the high sulphide, multi-metal tailings of Luikonlahti represented typical acid mine drainage with elevated contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Co. Other factors affecting the seepage quality included weathering of the tailings along the seepage flow path, process water input, local hydrological settings, and structural changes in the tailings impoundment. Geochemical modelling showed that pH increased and some heavy metals were adsorbed to Fe precipitates after net alkaline waters equilibrated with the atmosphere. In the net acidic waters, pH decreased and no adsorption occurred. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatments is proposed for Hitura seepages to decrease the sulphate and metal loading. For Luikonlahti, prolonged monitoring of the seepage quality is suggested instead of treatment, since the water quality is still adjusting to recent modifications to the tailings impoundment.

  2. Burial and thermal history simulation of the Abu Rudeis-Sidri oil field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt: A 1D basin modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadalla, Ahmed; Hegab, Omar A.; Ahmed, Mohammed A.; Hassan, Saad

    2018-02-01

    An integrated 1D model on seven wells has been performed to simulate the multi-tectonic phases and multiple thermal regimes in the Abu Rudeis-Sidri oilfield. Concordance between measured and calculated present-day temperatures is achieved with present-day heat flows in the range of 42-55 mW/m2. Reconstruction of the thermal and burial histories provides information on the paleotemperature profiles, the timing of thermal activation as well as the effect of the Oligo-Miocene rifting phases and its associated magmatic activity. The burial histories show the pre-rift subsidence was progressive but modest, whereas the syn-rift was more rapid (contemporaneous with the main rifting phases and basin formation). Finally, the early post-rift thermal subsidence was slow to moderate in contrast to the late post-rift thermal subsidence which was moderate to rapid. The simulated paleo heat flow illustrates a steady state for the pre-rift phase and non-steady state (transient) for syn-rift and postrift phases. Three geothermal regimes are recognized, each of which is associated with a specific geological domain. 1) A lower geothermal regime reflects the impact of stable tectonics (pre-rift). 2) The higher temperature distribution reflects the syn-rift high depositional rate as well as the impact of stretching and thinning (rifting phases) of the lithosphere. 3) A local higher geothermal pulse owing to the magmatic activity during the Oligo-Miocene time (ARM-1 and Sidri-7 wells). Paleoheat flow values of 100mW/m2 (Oligo-Miocene rifting phase) increased to 120mW/m2 (Miocene rifting phase) and lesser magnitude of 80mW/m2 (Mio- Pliocene reactivation phase) have been specified. These affected the thermal regime and temperature distribution by causing perturbations in subsurface temperatures. A decline in the background value of 60mW/m2 owing to conductive cooling has been assigned. The blanketing effect caused by low thermal conductivity of the basin-fill sediments has been simulated

  3. Oil road effects on the anuran community of a high canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina in the upper Amazon basin, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn F McCracken

    Full Text Available Tropical forest canopies are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats on earth and one of the remaining relatively unexplored biotic frontiers. Epiphytic bromeliads provide microhabitat for a high diversity of organisms in tropical forest canopies and are considered a keystone resource. A number of amphibians inhabit these phytotelmata, yet their ecological role and status in forest canopies remains unknown. For this study, anurans were collected from an upper canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina at ∼20-45 m (x¯ = 33 m above the forest floor. Bromeliads were sampled from trees located near trails in undisturbed primary rainforest and oil access roads in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of Amazonian Ecuador. We collected 95 anurans representing 10 species from 160 bromeliads in 32 trees. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of disturbance and habitat factors on the occupancy and abundance of anurans collected. Bromeliads in forest along oil roads had a lower occupancy and abundance of anurans than those in undisturbed forest, a somewhat unexpected result due to the intactness and quality of forest adjacent to the roads. Recorded habitat variables had no relationship with occupancy or abundance of anurans, and did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings reveal that even the minimal footprint of natural resource extraction operations, primarily roads, in rainforest environments can have significant negative impacts on the unique upper canopy anuran community. Based on these results, we recommend that natural resource development treat rainforest habitat as an offshore system where roads are not used, employ industry best practice guidelines, and current access roads be protected from colonization and further deforestation.

  4. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Devonian gas shales of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.9 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of the technically recoverable undiscovered natural gas resources in Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province of the eastern United States. These results are part of the USGS assessment in 2002 of the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas resources of the province. This report does not use the results of a 2011 USGS assessment of the Devonian Marcellus Shale because the area considered in the 2011 assessment is much greater than the area of the Marcellus Shale described in this report. The USGS assessment in 2002 was based on the identification of six total petroleum systems, which include strata that range in age from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. The Devonian gas shales described in this report are within the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, which extends generally from New York to Tennessee. This total petroleum system is divided into ten assessment units (plays), four of which are classified as conventional and six as continuous. The Devonian shales described in this report make up four of these continuous assessment units. The assessment results are reported as fully risked fractiles (F95, F50, F5, and the mean); the fractiles indicate the probability of recovery of the assessment amount. The products reported are oil, gas, and natural gas liquids. The mean estimates for technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbons in the four gas shale assessment units are 12,195.53 billion cubic feet (12.20 trillion cubic feet) of gas and 158.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids

  5. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  6. Combined use of thermal methods and seepage meters to efficiently locate, quantify, and monitor focused groundwater discharge to a sand-bed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Briggs, Martin A.; Delin, Geoffrey N.; Hare, Danielle K.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying flow of groundwater through streambeds often is difficult due to the complexity of aquifer-scale heterogeneity combined with local-scale hyporheic exchange. We used fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS), seepage meters, and vertical temperature profiling to locate, quantify, and monitor areas of focused groundwater discharge in a geomorphically simple sand-bed stream. This combined approach allowed us to rapidly focus efforts at locations where prodigious amounts of groundwater discharged to the Quashnet River on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, northeastern USA. FO-DTS detected numerous anomalously cold reaches one to several m long that persisted over two summers. Seepage meters positioned upstream, within, and downstream of 7 anomalously cold reaches indicated that rapid groundwater discharge occurred precisely where the bed was cold; median upward seepage was nearly 5 times faster than seepage measured in streambed areas not identified as cold. Vertical temperature profilers deployed next to 8 seepage meters provided diurnal-signal-based seepage estimates that compared remarkably well with seepage-meter values. Regression slope and R2 values both were near 1 for seepage ranging from 0.05 to 3.0 m d−1. Temperature-based seepage model accuracy was improved with thermal diffusivity determined locally from diurnal signals. Similar calculations provided values for streambed sediment scour and deposition at subdaily resolution. Seepage was strongly heterogeneous even along a sand-bed river that flows over a relatively uniform sand and fine-gravel aquifer. FO-DTS was an efficient method for detecting areas of rapid groundwater discharge, even in a strongly gaining river, that can then be quantified over time with inexpensive streambed thermal methods.

  7. Temporal variability of exchange between groundwater and surface water based on high-frequency direct measurements of seepage at the sediment-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Sheibley, Rich W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Simonds, Frederic W.; Naftz, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Seepage at the sediment-water interface in several lakes, a large river, and an estuary exhibits substantial temporal variability when measured with temporal resolution of 1 min or less. Already substantial seepage rates changed by 7% and 16% in response to relatively small rain events at two lakes in the northeastern USA, but did not change in response to two larger rain events at a lake in Minnesota. However, seepage at that same Minnesota lake changed by 10% each day in response to withdrawals from evapotranspiration. Seepage increased by more than an order of magnitude when a seiche occurred in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Near the head of a fjord in Puget Sound, Washington, seepage in the intertidal zone varied greatly from −115 to +217 cm d−1 in response to advancing and retreating tides when the time-averaged seepage was upward at +43 cm d−1. At all locations, seepage variability increased by one to several orders of magnitude in response to wind and associated waves. Net seepage remained unchanged by wind unless wind also induced a lake seiche. These examples from sites distributed across a broad geographic region indicate that temporal variability in seepage in response to common hydrological events is much larger than previously realized. At most locations, seepage responded within minutes to changes in surface-water stage and within minutes to hours to groundwater recharge associated with rainfall. Likely implications of this dynamism include effects on water residence time, geochemical transformations, and ecological conditions at and near the sediment-water interface.

  8. Hot, deep origin of petroleum: deep basin evidence and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    1978-01-01

    Use of the model of a hot deep origin of oil places rigid constraints on the migration and entrapment of crude oil. Specifically, oil originating from depth migrates vertically up faults and is emplaced in traps at shallower depths. Review of petroleum-producing basins worldwide shows oil occurrence in these basins conforms to the restraints of and therefore supports the hypothesis. Most of the world's oil is found in the very deepest sedimentary basins, and production over or adjacent to the deep basin is cut by or directly updip from faults dipping into the basin deep. Generally the greater the fault throw the greater the reserves. Fault-block highs next to deep sedimentary troughs are the best target areas by the present concept. Traps along major basin-forming faults are quite prospective. The structural style of a basin governs the distribution, types, and amounts of hydrocarbons expected and hence the exploration strategy. Production in delta depocenters (Niger) is in structures cut by or updip from major growth faults, and structures not associated with such faults are barren. Production in block fault basins is on horsts next to deep sedimentary troughs (Sirte, North Sea). In basins whose sediment thickness, structure and geologic history are known to a moderate degree, the main oil occurrences can be specifically predicted by analysis of fault systems and possible hydrocarbon migration routes. Use of the concept permits the identification of significant targets which have either been downgraded or ignored in the past, such as production in or just updip from thrust belts, stratigraphic traps over the deep basin associated with major faulting, production over the basin deep, and regional stratigraphic trapping updip from established production along major fault zones.

  9. Levee Seepage Detection in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Using Polarimetric SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, K.; Jones, C. E.; Bekaert, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's extensive levee system protects over 2,800 km2 of reclaimed lands and serves as the main irrigation and domestic water supply for the state of California. However, ongoing subsidence and disaster threats from floods and earthquakes make the Delta levee system highly vulnerable, endangering water supplies for 23 million California residents and 2.5 million acres of agricultural land. Levee failure in the Delta can cause saltwater intrusion from San Francisco Bay, reducing water quality and curtailing water exports to residents, commercial users, and farmers. To protect the Delta levee system, it is essential to search for signs of seepage in which water is piping through or beneath levees, which can be associated with deformation of the levees themselves. Until now, in-situ monitoring has largely been applied, however, this is a time-consuming and expensive approach. We use data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) airborne radar instrument to identify and characterize levee seepages and associated land subsidence through advanced remote sensing technologies. The high spatial resolution of UAVSAR can help to direct surveys to areas that are likely to be experiencing damage. UAVSAR is an L-band airborne sensor with high signal-to-noise ratio, repeat flight track accuracy, and spatial resolution of 7x7 m2 (for multi-looked products) that is necessary for detailed levee monitoring. The adaptability of radar instruments in their ability to see through smoke, haze, and clouds during the day or night, is especially relevant during disaster events, when cloud cover or lack of solar illumination inhibits traditional visual surveys of damage. We demonstrate the advantages of combining polarimetric radar imagery with geographic information systems (GIS) datasets in locating seepage features along critical levee infrastructure in the Delta for 2009-2016. The ability to efficiently locate potential

  10. Selection of vegetation indices for mapping the sugarcane condition around the oil and gas field of North West Java Basin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saepuloh, Asep; Handoyo Harsolumakso, Agus

    2018-05-01

    Selection of vegetation indices in plant mapping is needed to provide the best information of plant conditions. The methods used in this research are the standard deviation and the linear regression. This research tried to determine the vegetation indices used for mapping the sugarcane conditions around oil and gas fields. The data used in this study is Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS. The standard deviation analysis on the 23 vegetation indices with 27 samples has resulted in the six highest standard deviations of vegetation indices, termed as GRVI, SR, NLI, SIPI, GEMI and LAI. The standard deviation values are 0.47; 0.43; 0.30; 0.17; 0.16 and 0.13. Regression correlation analysis on the 23 vegetation indices with 280 samples has resulted in the six vegetation indices, termed as NDVI, ENDVI, GDVI, VARI, LAI and SIPI. This was performed based on regression correlation with the lowest value R2 than 0,8. The combined analysis of the standard deviation and the regression correlation has obtained the five vegetation indices, termed as NDVI, ENDVI, GDVI, LAI and SIPI. The results of the analysis of both methods show that a combination of two methods needs to be done to produce a good analysis of sugarcane conditions. It has been clarified through field surveys and showed good results for the prediction of microseepages.

  11. Tracing the source of emerging seepage water at failure slope downstream, Kampung Bharu Bukit Tinggi, Bentong, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakam Mejus; Wan Zakaria Wan Mohd Tahir; Md Shahid Ayub; Jeremy Andy; Johari Latif

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses method and monitoring result of the source of seepage water emerging (mud flow) at downstream toe of the failure slope at Kampung Bharu Bukit Tinggi, Bentong Pahang. In this investigation, a saline-tracer experiment was conducted by injecting its solution into a drain at an upstream section (old road to Janda Baik town) where a pipeline was found leaking in the vicinity of the roadside and flowing towards hill slopes. Some parts of flowing water was left undetected and seeped through the soil on its way to downstream area. Seepage water downstream was monitored by using a conductivity sensor hooked up to a CR10X data logger and optical back scattering conductivity probes. From the result, it is believed that the source of seepage water is related to the water from the leaking pipeline upstream. The travelling time for the leaking water to reach downstream slope failure was within 16-17 hours. Based on this preliminary investigation, one can conclude that seepage water is one of the main contributing factors that cause slope failure in the vicinity of the investigated hill slopes. Further investigation to understand the failure mechanism at this place by conducting multi-experimental approaches in different seasons, particularly during continuous rain storms. (Author)

  12. Environmental hazards from natural hydrocarbons seepage: Integrated classification of risk from sediment chemistry, bioavailability and biomarkers responses in sentinel species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, Maura; Gorbi, Stefania; Fattorini, Daniele; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Piva, Francesco; Pacitti, Davide; Regoli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Potential effects of natural emissions of hydrocarbons in the marine environment have been poorly investigated. In this study, a multidisciplinary weight of evidence (WOE) study was carried out on a shallow seepage, integrating sediment chemistry with bioavailability and onset of subcellular responses (biomarkers) in caged eels and mussels. Results from different lines of evidence (LOEs) were elaborated within a quantitative WOE model which, based on logical flowcharts, provide synthetic indices of hazard for each LOE, before their integration in a quantitative risk assessment. Evaluations of different LOEs were not always in accordance and their overall elaboration summarized as Moderate the risk in the seepage area. This study provided first evidence of biological effects in organisms exposed to natural hydrocarbon emissions, confirming the limit of chemical characterization as stand-alone criteria for environmental quality assessment and the utility of multidisciplinary investigations to determine the good environmental status as required by Environmental Directives. -- Highlights: • Hazards from natural seepage were evaluated through a multidisciplinary WOE study. • Caged eels and mussels were chosen as bioindicator organisms. • Evaluations obtained from various LOEs were not always in accordance. • Biological effects of natural hydrocarbons release were demonstrated. • WOE approach could discriminate different levels of hazard in low impacted conditions. -- A multidisciplinary WOE study in a shallow coastal seepage summarized a Moderate level of risk based on integration of sediment chemistry with biological effects in caged organisms

  13. Albedo and land surface temperature shift in hydrocarbon seepage potential area, case study in Miri Sarawak Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman, A.; Rahman, M. Z. A.; Busu, I.

    2014-02-01

    The presence of hydrocarbon seepage is generally associated with rock or mineral alteration product exposures, and changes of soil properties which manifest with bare development and stress vegetation. This alters the surface thermodynamic properties, changes the energy balance related to the surface reflection, absorption and emission, and leads to shift in albedo and LST. Those phenomena may provide a guide for seepage detection which can be recognized inexpensively by remote sensing method. District of Miri is used for study area. Available topographic maps of Miri and LANDSAT ETM+ were used for boundary construction and determination albedo and LST. Three land use classification methods, namely fixed, supervised and NDVI base classifications were employed for this study. By the intensive land use classification and corresponding statistical comparison was found a clearly shift on albedo and land surface temperature between internal and external seepage potential area. The shift shows a regular pattern related to vegetation density or NDVI value. In the low vegetation density or low NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to lower value than external area. Conversely in the high vegetation density or high NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to higher value than external area. Land surface temperature of internal seepage potential was generally shifted to higher value than external area in all of land use classes. In dense vegetation area tend to shift the temperature more than poor vegetation area.

  14. Effect of Seepage on Change in Stress Distribution Scenario in Static and Seismic Behaviour of Earthen Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi N.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study makes an effort to understand the damage of earthen dams under static and seismic loading condition. To make the investigation more realistic, behaviour of earthen dams considering the occurrence of a phreatic line indicating the submerged zone due to seepage within the dam body is considered. In case of earthen dams, homogeneous or nonhomogeneous, the consideration of the occurrence of a phreatic line or seepage line through the dam body is an important part of the earthen dam design methodology. The impervious material properties in the submerged zone below the phreatic line due to seepage may differ a lot in magnitudes as compared to the value of the same materials lying above this line. Hence, to have the exact stress distribution scenarios within the earthen dam, the different material properties above and below the phreatic line are considered in this present study. The study is first carried out by two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional finite element analysis under static loading condition. The work is further extended to observe the effect of seepage due to the consideration of the phreatic line on dynamic characteristics of earthen dams. Free vibration analysis and seismic analysis based on the Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC method by considering twodimensional and three-dimensional modeling are carried out to present the frequencies, mode shapes and the stress distribution pattern of the earthen dam.

  15. Albedo and land surface temperature shift in hydrocarbon seepage potential area, case study in Miri Sarawak Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suherman, A; Rahman, M Z A; Busu, I

    2014-01-01

    The presence of hydrocarbon seepage is generally associated with rock or mineral alteration product exposures, and changes of soil properties which manifest with bare development and stress vegetation. This alters the surface thermodynamic properties, changes the energy balance related to the surface reflection, absorption and emission, and leads to shift in albedo and LST. Those phenomena may provide a guide for seepage detection which can be recognized inexpensively by remote sensing method. District of Miri is used for study area. Available topographic maps of Miri and LANDSAT ETM+ were used for boundary construction and determination albedo and LST. Three land use classification methods, namely fixed, supervised and NDVI base classifications were employed for this study. By the intensive land use classification and corresponding statistical comparison was found a clearly shift on albedo and land surface temperature between internal and external seepage potential area. The shift shows a regular pattern related to vegetation density or NDVI value. In the low vegetation density or low NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to lower value than external area. Conversely in the high vegetation density or high NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to higher value than external area. Land surface temperature of internal seepage potential was generally shifted to higher value than external area in all of land use classes. In dense vegetation area tend to shift the temperature more than poor vegetation area

  16. Measuring and modelling salt and heat transport in low-land drainage canals : Flow and stratification effects of saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgersom, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores a new measuring approach to quantify the seepage flux from boils. Boils are preferential groundwater seeps and are a consequence of the groundwater flow that works its way through the soil matrix by creating vents of higher conductive material. In the Netherlands, boils often

  17. Hydrogeologic setting, water budget, and preliminary analysis of ground-water exchange at Lake Starr, a seepage lake in Polk County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancar, Amy; Lee, T.M.; O'Hare, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    Lake Starr, a 134-acre seepage lake of multiple-sinkhole origin on the Lake Wales Ridge of central Florida, was the subject of a detailed water-budget study from August 1996 through July 1998. The study monitored the effects of hydrogeologic setting, climate, and ground-water pumping on the water budget and lake stage. The hydrogeologic setting of the Lake Starr basin differs markedly on the two sides of the lake. Ground water from the surficial aquifer system flows into the lake from the northwest side of the basin, and lake water leaks out to the surficial aquifer system on the southeast side of the basin. Lake Starr and the surrounding surficial aquifer system recharge the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The rate of recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer is determined by the integrity of the intermediate confining unit and by the downward head gradient between the two aquifers. On the inflow side of the lake, the intermediate confining unit is more continuous, allowing ground water from the surficial aquifer system to flow laterally into the lake. Beneath the lake and on the southeast side of the basin, breaches in the intermediate confining unit enhance downward flow to the Upper Floridan aquifer, so that water flows both downward and laterally away from the lake through the ground-water flow system in these areas. An accurate water budget, including evaporation measured by the energy-budget method, was used to calculate net ground-water flow to the lake, and to do a preliminary analysis of the relation of net ground-water fluxes to other variables. Water budgets constructed over different timeframes provided insight on processes that affect ground-water interactions with Lake Starr. Weekly estimates of net ground-water flow provided evidence for the occurrence of transient inflows from the nearshore basin, as well as the short-term effects of head in the Upper Floridan aquifer on ground-water exchange with the lake. Monthly water budgets showed the effects

  18. Geochemistry of Natural Gas Seepages in Boto Area, Bancak, Semarang, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Amijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.2.61-70Three seepage gas samples collected from Boto Area, Bancak, Semarang, Central Java, were studied to determine their chemical characteristics using GC and GC-IRMS methods. They are composed 53 - 85% of methane predominantly. However, gas seep Site 3 sample has the highest N2 compound and the lesser extent to the samples Site 2 and Site 1 respectively. The two hydrocarbon gas seeps (Site 1, 2, and Site 3 samples that are characterized by δ13C methane of -35.61‰ and -27.97‰, and values of δD methane of -112‰ and -109‰ respectively, are each isotopically distinct from all others suggesting, at least, they are derived from different maturity level. The Site 3 gas sample is suggested to be more mature than the others.

  19. Seepage determinations through auxiliary dike in Chingaza reservoir using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, L.; Obando, E.; Jimenez, G.; Torrez, E.

    1986-01-01

    Isotope techniques used in hydrology and developed during the last ten years in Colombia are usually tracer techniques based on the use of nuclides either introduced or naturally present in water. A problem of current content importance in hydraulics structures is seepage and the problems connected with it, such as impermeability of dams docks and their foundations. Many approaches are used to investigate these questions, but the simplest and most successful is the radiometric method. Radiometric observation of the flow of water through the earth dock involves introducing at a fixed point in the flow of water a radioactive solution and then following its movement downstream of the dock, and finding the place where it goes using appropriate detectors arranged at fixed control points. This paper describes the mean of choosing the injection points, the techniques for introducing radioactive solution and the conditions that must be borne in mind when selecting the radioisotope and determining its optimum activity. (author)

  20. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2006-06-30

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarb