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Sample records for oil seepage basin

  1. D-area oil seepage basin bioventing optimization test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, C.J.; Radway, J.C.; Alman, D.; Hazen, T.C.

    1998-12-31

    The D Area Oil Seepage Basin (DOSB) was used from 1952 to 1975 for disposal of petroleum-based products (waste oils), general office and cafeteria waste, and apparently some solvents [trichloroethylene (TCE)/tetrachloroethylene (PCE)]. Numerous analytical results have indicated the presence of TCE and its degradation product vinyl chloride in groundwater in and around the unit, and of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils within the unit. The DOSB is slated for additional assessment and perhaps for environmental remediation. In situ bioremediation represents a technology of demonstrated effectiveness in the reclamation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents, and has been retained as an alternative for the cleanup of the DOSB. The Savannah River Site is therefore proposing to conduct a field treatability study designed to demonstrate and optimize the effectiveness of in situ microbiological biodegradative processes at the DOSB. The introduction of air and gaseous nutrients via two horizontal injection wells (bioventing) is expected to enhance biodegradation rates of petroleum components and stimulate microbial degradation of chlorinated solvents. The data gathered in this test will allow a determination of the biodegradation rates of contaminants of concern in the soil and groundwater, allow an evaluation of the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater at the DOSB, and provide data necessary for the functional design criteria for the final remediation system.

  2. D-area oil seepage basin bioventing optimization test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, C.J.; Radway, J.C.; Alman, D.; Hazen, T.C.

    1998-12-31

    The D Area Oil Seepage Basin (DOSB) was used from 1952 to 1975 for disposal of petroleum-based products (waste oils), general office and cafeteria waste, and apparently some solvents [trichloroethylene (TCE)/tetrachloroethylene (PCE)]. Numerous analytical results have indicated the presence of TCE and its degradation product vinyl chloride in groundwater in and around the unit, and of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils within the unit. The DOSB is slated for additional assessment and perhaps for environmental remediation. In situ bioremediation represents a technology of demonstrated effectiveness in the reclamation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents, and has been retained as an alternative for the cleanup of the DOSB. The Savannah River Site is therefore proposing to conduct a field treatability study designed to demonstrate and optimize the effectiveness of in situ microbiological biodegradative processes at the DOSB. The introduction of air and gaseous nutrients via two horizontal injection wells (bioventing) is expected to enhance biodegradation rates of petroleum components and stimulate microbial degradation of chlorinated solvents. The data gathered in this test will allow a determination of the biodegradation rates of contaminants of concern in the soil and groundwater, allow an evaluation of the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater at the DOSB, and provide data necessary for the functional design criteria for the final remediation system.

  3. Seepage system of oil-gas and its exploration in Yinggehai Basin located at northwest of South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiong He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Seepage systems of oil-gas in Yinggehai Basin are divided into two types, namely: “micro-seepage”, which is presented by gas chimneys and pockmarks; and “macro-seepage”, which is also called oil-gas outflow; and, in addition, the combination of the two basic types. Among the oil seepage systems, the combined seepage system at Yingdong Slope of Yinggehai Basin is the most eye-catching, and gas chimneys and pockmarks micro-leakage systems in mud diapir zones in the central part of the basin are very common. Both the indications of large-scale oil-gas outflow at Yingdong Slope, which have been booming for a hundred years; and the occurrence of pockmarks at the central mud diapir belt, along with the chaotic seismic reflection of widely-distributed shallow gas chimneys—have shown that hydrocarbon in this area is sufficient and oil-gas is now in dynamic equilibrium of the processes of accumulation, migration, gathering and dispersing. It builds up good conditions for the accumulation, migration, gathering and reserving of oil and gas. However, it must be noted that the results of oil-gas exploration at Yingdong Slope didn't turn out to be satisfactory, despite the presence of oil-gas outflow and gas chimney combined seepage systems. So, strengthen synthesized analysis and study on oil-gas seepage systems and on the conditions for accumulation, migration, gathering and dispersing; the forecasting and evaluation to the advantageous conditions for enriched oil and gas zones; and trap preservation in accordance with the dynamic balance theories; are of significant importance for purposes of exploration.

  4. Final technology report for D-Area oil seepage basin bioventing optimization test, environmental restoration support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radway, J.C.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

    1997-01-24

    One method proposed for the cleanup of the D-Area Oil Seepage Basin was in situ bioremediation (bioventing), involving the introduction of air and gaseous nutrients to stimulate contaminant degradation by naturally occurring microorganisms. To test the feasibility of this approach, a bioventing system was installed at the site for use in optimization testing by the Environmental Biotechnology Section of the Savannah River Technology Center. During the interim action, two horizontal wells for a bioventing remediation system were installed eight feet below average basin grade. Nine piezometers were also installed. In September of 1996, a generator, regenerative blower, gas cylinder station, and associated piping and nutrient injection equipment were installed at the site and testing was begun. After baseline characterization of microbial activity and contaminant degradation at the site was completed, four injection campaigns were carried out. These consisted of (1) air alone, (2) air plus triethylphosphate (TEP), (3) air plus nitrous oxide, and (4) air plus methane. This report describes results of these tests, together with conclusions and recommendations for further remediation of the site. Natural biodegradation rates are high. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and methane levels in soil gas indicate substantial levels of baseline microbial activity. Oxygen is used by indigenous microbes for biodegradation of organics via respiration and hence is depleted in the soil gas and water from areas with high contamination. Carbon dioxide is elevated in contaminated areas. High concentrations of methane, which is produced by microbes via fermentation once the oxygen has been depleted, are found at the most contaminated areas of this site. Groundwater measurements also indicated that substantial levels of natural contaminant biodegradation occurred prior to air injection.

  5. H-Area Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  6. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  7. Geochemistry of crude oils, seepage oils and source rocks from Belize and Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.I.; Holland, B.; Nytoft, H.P.;

    2012-01-01

    Mountains fault block in central Belize which separates the Corozal Basin in northern Belize from the Belize Basin to the south. Numerous petroleum seeps have been reported in both of these basins. Small-scale oil production takes place in the Corozal Basin and the North and South Petén Basins....... For this study, samples of crude oil, seepage oil and potential source rocks were collected from both countries and were investigated by organic geochemical analyses and microscopy. The oil samples consisted of non-biodegraded crude oils and slightly to severely biodegraded seepage oils, both of which were...... generated from source rocks with similar thermal maturities. The crude oils were generated from marine carbonate source rocks and could be divided into three groups: Group 1 oils come from the North Petén Basin (Guatemala) and the western part of the Corozal Basin (Belize), and have a typical carbonate...

  8. Oil seepage detection technique as a tool to hydrocarbon prospecting in offshore Campos Basin-Brazil; Deteccao de exsudacoes de oleo como uma ferramenta de prospeccao de hidrocarbonetos na regiao maritima da Bacia de Campos - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Jose G.; Brito, Ademilson F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    With a proven capacity to identify oil slicks in offshore regions, RADARSAT-1 imagery can be useful for oil exploration purposes. The paper discusses the seepage detection method at Campos Basin, offshore Rio de Janeiro State, which is responsible for 80% of the Brazilian production of oil and gas. It is known that the horizontal migration of petroleum can occurs over tens or even hundreds of kilometers, where the source rock placed in more deep locations can be linked with shallow reservoirs or traps and even reach the ocean. It means that seepage can provide information for risking petroleum charge at basin scales, and cannot have a direct relation with the geographical position of the interpreted seeps and possible filled prospects. A good understanding of the geology, and hence the petroleum systems of a basin is the key to use seepage in exploration. The work is divided into three main steps. First step were select oil seepages interpreted at Campos Basin where is found several giant petroleum fields. Second, the geology of the study area and its structural and stratigraphic features were analyzed, in order to identify possible migration pathways related to faults generated by halokinesis. Another important aspect is the presence of 'windows' or ducts in the evaporates beds allowing the contact between the section that contains source rocks and the turbidities reservoirs, that contain the majority of the oil discovers. All these features were interpreted based on a regional dip seismic line (203 - 76), and a geologic cross section with E-W orientation, showing the structure of the Marlim Field. Finally, all the information was integrated in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and then analyzed in an interdisciplinary environment, with the intention to link possible routes of oil migration to post-evaporites reservoirs or to interpreted seeps. (author)

  9. Oil seepage onshore West Greenland: evidence of multiple source rocks and oil mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojesen-Koefoed, J.; Christiansen, F.G.; Nytoft, H.P.; Pedersen, A.K.

    1998-08-01

    Widespread oil seepage and staining are observed in lavas and hyaloclastites in the lower part of the volcanic succession on northwestern Disko and western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland. Chemical analyses suggest the existence of several petroleum systems in the underlying Cretaceous and Paleocene fluviodeltaic to marine sediments. Seepage and staining commonly occur within vesicular lava flow tops, and are often associated with mineral veins (mostly carbonates) in major fracture systems. Organic geochemical analyses suggest the existence of at least five distinct oil types: (1) a waxy oil, which on the basis of the presence of abundant angiosperm biological markers, is interpreted as generated from Paleocene mud-stones (the `Marraat type`); (2) a waxy oil, probably generated from coals and shales of the Cretaceous Atane formation (the `Kuugannguaq type`); (3) a low to moderately waxy oil containing 28,30-bisnorhopane, and abundant C{sub 27}-diasteranes and regular steranes (the `Itilli type`), possibly generated from presently unknown Cenomanian-Turonian marine modstones; (4) a low wax oil of marine, possibly lagoonal/saline lacustrine origin, containing ring-A methylated steranes and a previously unknown series of extended 28-norhopanes (the `Eqalulik type`); (5) a waxy oil with biological marker characteristics different from both the Kuugannguaq and Marraat oil types (the `Niaqornaarsuk type`), probably generated from Campanian mud-stones. The presence of widespread seepage and staining originating from several source rocks is encouraging for exploration in basins both on- and offshore western Greenland, where the existence of prolific source rocks has previously been the main exploration risk. (au) EFP-96. 34 refs.

  10. GEOCHEMICAL MODELING OF F AREA SEEPAGE BASIN COMPOSITION AND VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millings, M.; Denham, M.; Looney, B.

    2012-05-08

    From the 1950s through 1989, the F Area Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS) received low level radioactive wastes resulting from processing nuclear materials. Discharges of process wastes to the F Area Seepage Basins followed by subsequent mixing processes within the basins and eventual infiltration into the subsurface resulted in contamination of the underlying vadose zone and downgradient groundwater. For simulating contaminant behavior and subsurface transport, a quantitative understanding of the interrelated discharge-mixing-infiltration system along with the resulting chemistry of fluids entering the subsurface is needed. An example of this need emerged as the F Area Seepage Basins was selected as a key case study demonstration site for the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) Program. This modeling evaluation explored the importance of the wide variability in bulk wastewater chemistry as it propagated through the basins. The results are intended to generally improve and refine the conceptualization of infiltration of chemical wastes from seepage basins receiving variable waste streams and to specifically support the ASCEM case study model for the F Area Seepage Basins. Specific goals of this work included: (1) develop a technically-based 'charge-balanced' nominal source term chemistry for water infiltrating into the subsurface during basin operations, (2) estimate the nature of short term and long term variability in infiltrating water to support scenario development for uncertainty quantification (i.e., UQ analysis), (3) identify key geochemical factors that control overall basin water chemistry and the projected variability/stability, and (4) link wastewater chemistry to the subsurface based on monitoring well data. Results from this study provide data and understanding that can be used in further modeling efforts of the F Area groundwater plume. As identified in this study, key geochemical factors

  11. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins: Waste site assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.

    1989-09-05

    This Waste Site Assessment for the SRL Seepage Basins is the second in a series of documents being prepared to support development of an appropriate closure plan for these basins. The closure of these basins will be designed to provide protection to human health and the environment and to meet the provisions of the Consent Decree. A Technical Data Summary for these basins has already been submitted as part of the Consent Decree. This Site Assessment Report includes a waste site characterization, and a discussion of closure options for the basins. A closure option is recommended in this report, but details of the recommended closure are not provided in this report since they will be provided in a subsequent closure plan. The closure plan is the third document required under the Consent Decree. 18 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

  13. Groundwater quality assessment/corrective action feasibility plan: New TNX Seepage Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R.L.

    1989-12-05

    The New TNX Seepage Basin is located across River Road east of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site. Currently the basin is out of service and is awaiting closure in accordance with the Consent Decree settled under Civil Act No. 1:85-2583. Groundwater monitoring data from the detection monitoring network around the New TNX Seepage Basin was recently analyzed using South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.92 methods to determine if groundwater downgradient of the New TNX Seepage Basin had been impacted. Results from the data analysis indicate that the groundwater has been impacted by inorganic constituents with no associated health risks. The impacts resulting from elevated levels of inorganic constituents, such as Mn, Na, and Total PO{sub 4} in the water table, do not pose a threat to human health and the environment.

  14. H-Area Seepage Basins. Third quarter 1990 groundwater quality assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  15. H-Area Seepage Basins: Groundwater quality assessment report, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    During the second quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium. Concentrations of at least one of the following constituents: tritium, nitrate, total radium, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, mercury, lead, cadmium, trichloroethylene chromium, and arsenic in excess of the primary drinking water standard (PDWS) were observed in at least one well monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were exhibited in seventy-seven of the 105 (73%) groundwater monitoring wells. Elevated levels of nitrate in excess of the PDWS were exhibited in forty-four of the 105 (42%) monitoring wells.

  16. H-Area Seepage Basins: Groundwater quality assessment report, Savannah River Site. Second quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    During the second quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium. Concentrations of at least one of the following constituents: tritium, nitrate, total radium, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, mercury, lead, cadmium, trichloroethylene chromium, and arsenic in excess of the primary drinking water standard (PDWS) were observed in at least one well monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were exhibited in seventy-seven of the 105 (73%) groundwater monitoring wells. Elevated levels of nitrate in excess of the PDWS were exhibited in forty-four of the 105 (42%) monitoring wells.

  17. Heavy metals in fish from streams near F-Area and H-Area seepage basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.; Paller, M.

    1990-11-01

    This report summarizes results of recent analyses of heavy metals in fish from Savannah River Site (SRS) streams near the F-Area and H-Area seepage basins. Fish were collected from headwater areas of Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, from just below the H-Area seepage basin, and from three sites downstream in Four Mile Creek. These fish were analyzed for RCRA trace metals using standard EPA methods. Silver, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, antimony, and thallium were all either undetectable or had only a few detectable values. Mercury values were all well below the regulatory limit of 1 {mu}g/g. For the total group of fish analyzed, there were no differences among sampling site for aluminum, chromium, or zinc. Selenium concentrations differed among sites, with fish collected near the H-Area and two control sites having the highest concentrations. When selenium concentrations were compared across sunfishes only, the seepage basin site was shown to be slightly elevated. Among species, yellowfin shiners had higher aluminum and zinc concentrations than sunfishes and bottom fish. 24 refs.

  18. The geochemistry characteristic and dating of cold seepage carbonates of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, eastern of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yunxin; Fu, Shaoying

    2015-04-01

    Cold seepage carbonates are usually formed by the interaction of methane oxidizing archaea, sulfate reducing bacteria and cold seepage which contain abundant venting hydrocarbon gases. The presence of cold seepage carbonates on the seabed is one of the evidences that the area exist venting hydrocarbon gases, which are usually result by the dissociation of gas hydrate. The cold seepage property and fluid flow rate can influence the oxidation-deoxidation environment of the bottom water and sediment. Many previous studies focused on the mineral composition, microstructure, elemental composition, isotope composition of the cold seepage carbonates and isotopic dating for the cold seepage carbonates. The isotopic dating for the cold seepage carbonates can provide the information of the gas hydrate formation and dissociation in some area of the South China Sea. High precision TIMS-U dating and 14C dating are used as routine method for the dating of the Quaternary carbonates and fossils. The cold seepage carbonates in the study include the samples collected by ROV on the seabed and the drilling for gas hydrate in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, eastern of the South China Sea. The authigenic carbonate occurred in different depth in the A, B and C drilling site. They may be represent different events of gas hydrate formation and dissociation in the Quaternary. The dating study for all the cold seepage carbonates can provide the relative accurate eras of the gas hydrate dissociation events in certain area of the South China Sea.

  19. H-Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Monitoring Report: Volume 1, Third and Fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Isoconcentration/isocactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Geologic cross sections indicate both the extent and depth of contamination of the primary contaminants in all of the hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the H-Area Seepage Basins have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  20. Toxicity of Water Samples Collected in the Vicinity of F and H Seepage Basin 1990-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bowers, B.

    1996-09-01

    Water and contaminants from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins outcrop as shallow groundwater seeps down gradient from the basins. In 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994, and 1995, toxicity tests were performed on water collected from a number of these seeps, as well as from several locations in Fourmile Branch and several uncontaminated reference locations.

  1. Toxicity of Water Samples Collected in the Vicinity of F and H Seepage Basin 1990-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bowers, B.

    1996-09-01

    Water and contaminants from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins outcrop as shallow groundwater seeps down gradient from the basins. In 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994, and 1995, toxicity tests were performed on water collected from a number of these seeps, as well as from several locations in Fourmile Branch and several uncontaminated reference locations.

  2. Radionuclide inventories for the F- and H-area seepage basin groundwater plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, Robert A [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kubilius, Walter P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    Within the General Separations Areas (GSA) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), significant inventories of radionuclides exist within two major groundwater contamination plumes that are emanating from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. These radionuclides are moving slowly with groundwater migration, albeit more slowly due to interaction with the soil and aquifer matrix material. The purpose of this investigation is to quantify the activity of radionuclides associated with the pore water component of the groundwater plumes. The scope of this effort included evaluation of all groundwater sample analyses obtained from the wells that have been established by the Environmental Compliance & Area Completion Projects (EC&ACP) Department at SRS to monitor groundwater contamination emanating from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. Using this data, generalized groundwater plume maps for the radionuclides that occur in elevated concentrations (Am-241, Cm-243/244, Cs-137, I-129, Ni-63, Ra-226/228, Sr-90, Tc-99, U-233/234, U-235 and U-238) were generated and utilized to calculate both the volume of contaminated groundwater and the representative concentration of each radionuclide associated with different plume concentration zones.

  3. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the F-Area Seepage Basins (FASB) was monitored in compliance with Module 3, Section C, of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989, effective November 2, 1992. The monitoring well network is composed of 87 FSB wells screened in the three hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the FASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning in the first quarter of 1993, the standard for comparison became the SCDHEC Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS) specified in the approved F-Area Seepage Basins Part B permit. Currently and historically, gross alpha, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the FASB during the second half of 1993, notably aluminum, iodine-129, and zinc. The elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} and Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1} wells. However, several Aquifer Unit 2A wells also contain elevated levels of constituents. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the FASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  4. Uranium geochemistry in soil and groundwater at the F and H seepage basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.; Johnson, W.H.

    1994-09-01

    For 33 years, low activity liquid wastes from the chemical separation areas at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site were disposed of in unlined seepage basins. Soil and associated pore water samples of widely varying groundwater chemistries and contaminant concentrations were collected from the region downgradient of these basins using cone penetrometer technology. Analysis of samples using inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry has allowed the investigation of uranium partitioning between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at this site. The distribution of uranium was examined with respect to the solution and soil chemistry (e.g., pH, redox potential, cation and contaminant concentration) and aqueous-phase chemical speciation modeling. The uranium soil source term at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB) is much smaller than has been used in previous modeling efforts. This should result in a much shorter remediation time and a greater effectiveness of a pump-and-treat design than previously predicted. Distribution coefficients at the (FHSB) were found to vary between 1.2 to 34,000 1 kg{sup {minus}1} for uranium. Differences in sorption of these elements can be explained primarily by changes in aqueous pH and the associated change in soil surface charge. Sorption models were fit directly to sorption isotherms from field samples. All models underestimated the fraction of uranium bound at low aqueous uranium concentrations. Linear models overestimated bound uranium at locations where the aqueous concentration was greater than 500 ppb. Mechanistic models provided a much better estimate of the bound uranium concentrations, especially at high aqueous concentrations. Since a large fraction of the uranium at the site is associated with the low-pH portion of the plume, consideration should be given to pumping water from the lowest pH portions of the plume in the F-Area.

  5. Groundwater seepage controls salinity in a hydrologically terminal basin of semi-arid northwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; Rouillard, Alexandra; Grierson, Pauline F.

    2016-11-01

    Very small groundwater outflows have the potential to significantly impact the hydrochemistry and salt accumulation processes of notionally terminal basins in arid environments. However, this limited groundwater outflow can be very difficult to quantify using classical water budget calculations due to large uncertainties in estimates of evaporation and evapotranspiration rates from the surface of dry lake beds. In this study, we used a dimensionless time evaporation model to estimate the range of groundwater outflow required to maintain salinity levels observed at the Fortescue Marsh (FM), one of the largest wetlands of semi-arid northwest Australia (∼1100 km2). The groundwater outflow from aquifers underlying the FM to the Lower Fortescue catchment is constrained by an extremely low hydraulic gradient of flood water is fresh to brackish, and salt efflorescences are very sparse and evident only when the FM is dry. We show that if the FM was 100% "leakage free" i.e., a true terminal basin, groundwater would have achieved halite saturation (>300 g/L) after ∼45 ka. We calculated that only a very small seepage of ∼2G L/yr (∼0.03% of the FM water volume) is sufficient to maintain current salinity conditions. The minimum time required to develop the current hydrochemical groundwater composition under the FM ranges from ∼60 to ∼165 ka. We conclude that a dimensionless time evaporation model versus inflow over outflow ratio model is likely more suitable than classical water budget calculations for determining outflow from large saline lakes and to estimate groundwater seepage from hydrologically terminal basins.

  6. Geological records of redox change related to methane seepage in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, J.; Ryu, B.; Bahk, J.; Choi, J.; Riedel, M.

    2012-12-01

    The sediment mounds related to columnar seismic blanking zone have been reported in the basin plain, reflecting the presence of near-surface gas hydrate and authigenic carbonates in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea. The mounds commonly consist of hemipelagic sediments and buried authigenic carbonates. Recently, exposed carbonate mound (~5 m wide and 2 -3 m high) was found in the site UBGH2-11 at water depth of ~2092 m. Six push cores (70-cm-long) were collected around the area of the exposed carbonate mound using ROV manipulators. The total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), and their carbon dioxide (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values of core sediments were measured to identify the spatial distribution of organic matter related to methane seepages. The trace and rare earth elements of core sediments were analyzed to determine the redox conditions in seafloor sedimentary environments around the area of cold vents. Higher TOC contents (4-8%) were observed in three cores in the area around the exposed carbonate mound, whereas TOC contents ranged from 2-3% in other three cores, about 50 m away from the exposed carbonate mound. Highly negative δ13C values (-40 to -28 ‰) of organic matters show only one core located at the side of exposed carbonate mound. Higher Mn/Ti ratios suggest that the topmost parts of the core sediments outside the exposed carbonate mound were influenced by the effects of oxygenated bottom water. At other locations, there is no evidence of oxygenated bottom water. It suggests that the surface sediments formed under oxygen-depleted condition. Variation of Mo/Al and Co/Al ratios explains by fluctuation of redox conditions around the exposed carbonate mound in the site UBGH2-11. These results indicate that redox conditions of seafloor environments were locally influenced by methane seepages of cold vents associated with columnar seismic blanking zone in the Ulleung Basin.

  7. Groundwater quality assessment/corrective action feasibility plan. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, G.F.

    1989-11-15

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Seepage Basins are located in the northeastern section of the 700 Area at the Savannah River Site. Currently the four basins are out of service and are awaiting closure in accordance with the Consent Decree settled under Civil Act No. 1:85-2583. Groundwater monitoring data from the detection monitoring network around the SRL Basins was recently analyzed using South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.92 methods to determine if groundwater in the immediate vicinity of the SRL Basins had been impacted. Results from the data analysis indicate that the groundwater has been impacted by both volatile organic constituents (VOCs) and inorganic constituents. The VOCs, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, are currently being addressed under the auspices of the SRS Hazardous Waste Permit Application (Volume III, Section J.6.3). The impacts resulting from elevated levels of inorganic constituent, such as barium, calcium, and zinc in the water table, do not pose a threat to human health and the environment. In order to determine if vertical migration of the inorganic constituents has occurred three detection monitoring wells are proposed for installation in the upper portion of the Congaree Aquifer.

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of Base Materials for Neutralization of the Contaminated Aquifer at the F-Area Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2001-09-11

    Laboratory studies were performed to support field-testing of base injection into the F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater. The general purpose of these experiments is to provide information to guide the test of base injection and to identify potential adverse effects.

  9. F-area seepage basins groundwater monitoring report. Volume 1. First and second quarters 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Groundwater at the F-Area Seepage Basins (FASB) is monitored in compliance with Module 111, Section C, of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SCl-890-008-989, effective November 2, 1992. The monitoring well network is composed of 86 FSB wells and well HSB 85A. These wells are screened in the three hydrostratigraphic Units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the FASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1900. Data from 9 FSL wells are included in this report only to provide additional information for this area; the FSL wells are not part of Permit SCl-890-008-989. Monitoring results are compared to the SCDHEC Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS), which is specified in the approved F-Area Seepage Basins Part B permit (November 1992). Historically and currently, gross alpha, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the FASB during the first half of 1995, notably aluminum, iodine-129, pH, strontium-90, and zinc. The elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contain elevated levels of constituents. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Geologic cross sections indicate both the extent and depth of contamination of the primary contaminants in all of the hydrostratigraphic units during the first half of 1995.

  10. Petroleum biodegradation studied in sediment-flow-through systems simulating natural oil seepage in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sonakshi; Wefers, Peggy; Steeb, Philip; Schmidt, Mark; Treude, Tina

    2014-05-01

    The natural biodegradation of hydrocarbons depends on several environmental factors like nutrients, salinity, temperature, pressure, redox-conditions and composition of crude oil. Petroleum migrating from depth into marine surface sediments at natural seep sites could be subjected to a sequence of different kind of microbial processes which is controlled by a strong redox gradient within a thin sediment segment. Most studies on microbial degradation of petroleum have focused either only on selected hydrocarbon fractions or on cultured microbes. This study, however, attempts to investigate the natural microbial response of marine sediments to crude oil seepage with detailed analysis of sediment and porewater geochemistry, hydrocarbon degradation products, microbial activity, and microbial genetics. A sediment-oil-flow-through-system was established where crude oil migrated through the bottom of (approximately 30 cm long) intact marine sediment cores simulating a natural seepage scenario. Electron acceptor-rich oxic seawater was provided at the top of the core and anoxic conditions were established at the bottom of the cores. The intact sediment cores had been sampled from the Caspian Sea (near Baku) and the North Alex Mud Volcano in the Mediterranean Sea. The Caspian Sea and the North Alex Mud Volcano are both sites with active transport of hydrocarbons from depth by mud volcano activity. The geochemical changes in the sediment cores during oil seepage were monitored by using microelectrodes and porewater analyses. The geochemical analysis was later followed by hydrocarbon and molecular analyses at the end of the experiment by slicing the cores. First results based on the biogeochemistry of the sediment cores and hydrocarbon analyses are presented here. Porewater profiles of hydrogen sulfide and sulfate during the experimental runs gave first indications of microbial response and sulfate reduction due to the addition of crude oil. The core from North Alex Mud

  11. Vegetation concentration and inventory of metals and radionuclides in the old F-area seepage basin, 904-49G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Measured concentrations of radionuclides and toxic metals are used to calculate the total inventory of in the vegetation growing on the Old F-Area Seepage Basin. Air concentrations and inhalation doses from exposure to smoke from burning the vegetation are calculated to evaluate the effect of open air burning. Radionuclide inventory is one order of magnitude (10 x) less than those necessary to produce a 1 mrem dose. Air concentrations of toxic metals are less than one third the permissible occupational dose.

  12. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with the September 30, 1992, modification of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning first quarter 1993, the HASB`s Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS), established in Appendix 3D-A of the cited permit, became the standard for comparison. Historically as well as currently, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constitutents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the HASB (notably aluminum, iodine-129, strontium-90, technetium-99, and zinc) during the second half of 1993. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} and in the upper portion of Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1}. However, constituents exceeding standards also occurred in several wells screened in the lower portion of Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1} and Aquifer Unit 2A. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps include in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1993. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the HASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  13. Quantifying seepage using heat as a tracer in selected irrigation canals, Walker River Basin, Nevada, 2012 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Ramon C.; Smith, David W.

    2016-11-16

    The Walker River is an important source of water for western Nevada. The river provides water for agriculture and recharge to local aquifers used by several communities. Farmers began diverting water from the Walker River in the 1860s to support growing agricultural development. Over time, the reduced inflows into Walker Lake from upstream reservoirs and diversions have resulted in 170 feet of lake level decline and increased dissolved-solids concentrations to levels that threaten aquatic ecosystems, including survival of Lahonton cutthroat trout, a native species listed in the Endangered Species Act. Investigations of the water-budget components in the Walker River Basin have revealed uncertainty in the recharge to aquifers from irrigation canals. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an extensive field study from March 2012 through October 2013 to quantify seepage losses in selected canals in the Smith Valley, Mason Valley, and Walker Lake Valley irrigation areas.The seepage rates estimated for the 2012 and 2013 irrigation seasons in the Smith Valley transect sites (Saroni and Plymouth canals) ranged between 0.01 to 2.5 feet per day (ft/d) (0.01 to 0.68 cubic feet per second per mile [ft3/s-mi]). From 2012 to 2013, the average number of days the canals had flowing water decreased from 190 to 125 due to drier climate and lack of water available for diversion from the Walker River. The nearly 50-percent reductions in volumetric loss rates between 2012 and 2013 were associated with less than average diversions into canals from the Walker River and reductions in infiltration rates following routine canal maintenance.Models developed for the Saroni canal in 2012 were recalibrated in 2013 to evaluate changes in seepage as a result of siltation. Just prior to the 2012 irrigation season, nearly the entire length of the canal was cleared of vegetation and debris to improve flow conveyance. In 2013, following the first year of maintenance, a 90-percent

  14. Seepage carbonate mounds in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, M.; Calvo, J. P.; Scopelliti, G.; González-Acebrón, L.

    2016-04-01

    A number of carbonate mounds composed of indurate, strongly folded and/or brecciated calcite and dolomite beds occur interstratified in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin. Part of the fabric of the rock forming the carbonate mounds is composed of laminated to banded dolostone similar to the host rock but showing contrasted lithification. Moreover, the carbonate deposits of the mounds display aggrading neomorphism of dolomite, partial replacement of dolomite by calcite, calcite cementation, and extensive silicification, locally resulting in box-work fabric. Eight main lithofacies were distinguished in the carbonate mound deposits. In some lithofacies, chert is present as both microcrystalline to fibro-radial quartz and opal, the latter occurring mainly as cement whereas the former replace the carbonate and infill voids. Yet one of the carbonate mounds shows distinctive petrography and geochemical features thus suggesting a distinctive growth pattern. The carbon isotope compositions of calcite from the mound samples range from - 11.56 to - 5.15 δ‰ whilst dolomite is depleted in 13C, with values of - 12.38 to 3.02 δ‰. Oxygen isotopic compositions vary from - 9.42 to - 4.64 δ‰ for calcite and between - 6.68 and 8.19 δ‰ for dolomite. Carbonate in the mounds shows significant enrichment in Co, Cr, Ni and Pb content, especially in the strongly deformed (F-2-2 lithofacies) and brecciated carbonate (F-4). The carbonate deposits show depletion in REE and Y in contrast to that determined in lutite. The formation of the carbonate mounds was related to local artesian seepage thermal water flows of moderate to relative high temperatures. Pressure differences between the low permeability host rock and the circulating fluids accounted for dilational fracturing and brecciation of the host sediment packages, which combined with precipitation of new carbonate and silica mineral phases. Locally, some carbonate mounds developed where groundwater

  15. Removal Site Evaluation Report to the C-Reactor Seepage Basins (904-066, -067 and -068G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Removal Site Evaluation Reports are prepared in accordance with Section 300.410 of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and Section X of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). The C-Reactor Seepage Basins (904-066G,-067G,-068G) are listed in Appendix C, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Units List, of the FFA. The purpose of this investigation is to report information concerning conditions at this unit sufficient to assess the threat (if any) posed to human health and the environment and to determine the need for additional CERCLA action. The scope of the investigation included a review of past survey and investigation data, the files, and a visit to the unit.Through this investigation unacceptable conditions of radioactive contaminant uptake in on-site vegetation were identified. This may have resulted in probable contaminant migration and become introduced into the local ecological food chain. As a result, the SRS will initiate a time critical removal action in accordance with Section 300.415 of the NCP and FFA Section XIV to remove, treat (if required), and dispose of contaminated vegetation from the C-Reactor Seepage Basins. Erosion in the affected areas will be managed by an approved erosion control plan. further remediation of this unit will be conducted in accordance with the FFA.

  16. Gas seepage from Tokamachi mud volcanoes, onshore Niigata Basin (Japan): Origin, post-genetic alterations and CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etiope, G., E-mail: etiope@ingv.it [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, via V. Murata 605, 00143 Roma (Italy); Nakada, R. [Dept. of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University (Japan); Tanaka, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University (Japan); Yoshida, N. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Tokamachi gas shows signals of subsurface hydrocarbon biodegradation. {yields} Hydrocarbon molecular fractionation depends on gas flux. {yields} Substantial gas emission from mud volcanoes is from invisible diffuse seepage. {yields} Global mud volcano methane emission is likely higher than 10 Mt a{sup -1}. - Abstract: Methane and CO{sub 2} emissions from the two most active mud volcanoes in central Japan, Murono and Kamou (Tokamachi City, Niigata Basin), were measured in from both craters or vents (macro-seepage) and invisible exhalation from the soil (mini- and microseepage). Molecular and isotopic compositions of the released gases were also determined. Gas is thermogenic ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4} from -32.9 per mille to -36.2 per mille), likely associated with oil, and enrichments of {sup 13}C in CO{sub 2} ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub CO2} up to +28.3 per mille) and propane ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub C3H8} up to -8.6 per mille) suggest subsurface petroleum biodegradation. Gas source and post-genetic alteration processes did not change from 2004 to 2010. Methane flux ranged within the orders of magnitude of 10{sup 1}-10{sup 4} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} in macro-seeps, and up to 446 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} from diffuse seepage. Positive CH{sub 4} fluxes from dry soil were widespread throughout the investigated areas. Total CH{sub 4} emission from Murono and Kamou were estimated to be at least 20 and 3.7 ton a{sup -1}, respectively, of which more than half was from invisible seepage surrounding the mud volcano vents. At the macro-seeps, CO{sub 2} fluxes were directly proportional to CH{sub 4} fluxes, and the volumetric ratios between CH{sub 4} flux and CO{sub 2} flux were similar to the compositional CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} volume ratio. Macro-seep flux data, in addition to those of other 13 mud volcanoes, supported the hypothesis that molecular fractionation (increase of the 'Bernard ratio' C{sub 1}/(C{sub 2} + C{sub 3})) is inversely

  17. Oil production in the Orinoco basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borregales, C.J.

    1980-02-01

    With an extension of 42,000 sq km, the Orinoco basin is one of the largest petroliferous zones in the world which contains high viscosity and low API gravity crude. Results from production tests performed in the central and southern parts of the basin indicate that its productive potential is similar to that in Morichal, Pilon and Jobo fields, and reveals that the heaviest oil existing in the Orinoco basin could be economically exploited by conventional methods of primary oil recovery. It is estimated that the oil recovery could be 5% of the total oil-in-place by using primary recovery methods, 8% by using alternate steam injection, and 20% by secondary recovery methods (continuous steam injection). However, if the compaction phenomenon takes place, an estimate of 5% to 15% additional oil recovery could be possible. Geology, fluid properties, results from production tests, and recovery methods in the Orinoco basin are presented.

  18. Assessment of tree toxicity near the F- and H-Area seepage basins of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C. (ed.) (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); Richardson, C.J. (ed.); Greenwood, K.P.; Hane, M.E.; Lander, A.J. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Areas of tree mortality, originating in 1979, have been documented downslope of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. The basins were used as discharge areas for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive waste. Preliminary studies indicated that there are three possible causes of stress: altered hydrology; hazardous chemicals; and nonhazardous chemicals. It was originally hypothesized that the most likely hydrological stressors to Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora were flooding where water levels cover the lenticels for more than 26 percent of the growing season, resulting in low oxygen availability, and toxins produced under anaerobic conditions. In fact, trees began to show stress only flowing a drought year (1977) rather than a wet year. Dry conditions could exacerbate stress by concentrating contaminants, particularly salt. Study of the soil and water chemical parameters in the impacted sites indicated that salt concentrations in the affected areas have produced abnormally high exchangeable sodium percentages. Furthermore, significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals were found in each impacted site, although no one metal was consistently elevated. Evaluation of the concentrations of various chemicals toxic to Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora revealed that aluminum was probably the most toxic in the F-Area. Manganese, cadmium, and zinc had concentrations great enough to be considered possible causes of tree mortality in the F-Area. Aluminum was the most likely cause of mortality in the H-Area. Controlled experiments testing metal and salt concentration effects on Nyssa sylvatica would be needed to specifically assign cause and effect mortality relationships.

  19. Massive asphalt deposits, oil seepage, and gas venting support abundant chemosynthetic communities at the Campeche Knolls, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahling, Heiko; Borowski, Christian; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Gaytán-Caballero, Adriana; Hsu, Chieh-Wei; Loher, Markus; MacDonald, Ian; Marcon, Yann; Pape, Thomas; Römer, Miriam; Rubin-Blum, Maxim; Schubotz, Florence; Smrzka, Daniel; Wegener, Gunter; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Hydrocarbon seepage is a widespread process at the continental margins of the Gulf of Mexico. We used a multidisciplinary approach, including multibeam mapping and visual seafloor observations with different underwater vehicles to study the extent and character of complex hydrocarbon seepage in the Bay of Campeche, southern Gulf of Mexico. Our observations showed that seafloor asphalt deposits previously only known from the Chapopote Knoll also occur at numerous other knolls and ridges in water depths from 1230 to 3150 m. In particular the deeper sites (Chapopopte and Mictlan knolls) were characterized by asphalt deposits accompanied by extrusion of liquid oil in form of whips or sheets, and in some places (Tsanyao Yang, Mictlan, and Chapopote knolls) by gas emission and the presence of gas hydrates in addition. Molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of gaseous hydrocarbons suggest their primarily thermogenic origin. Relatively fresh asphalt structures were settled by chemosynthetic communities including bacterial mats and vestimentiferan tube worms, whereas older flows appeared largely inert and devoid of corals and anemones at the deep sites. The gas hydrates at Tsanyao Yang and Mictlan Knolls were covered by a 5-to-10 cm-thick reaction zone composed of authigenic carbonates, detritus, and microbial mats, and were densely colonized by 1-2 m-long tube worms, bivalves, snails, and shrimps. This study increased knowledge on the occurrences and dimensions of asphalt fields and associated gas hydrates at the Campeche Knolls. The extent of all discovered seepage structure areas indicates that emission of complex hydrocarbons is a widespread, thus important feature of the southern Gulf of Mexico.

  20. Chemical Properties of Pore Water and Sediment at Three Wetland Sites Near the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.

    2001-05-15

    In 1980, vegetative stress and arboreal mortality in wetland plant communities down-gradient from the F- and H-Area seepage basins were detected using aerial imagery. By 1988, approximately six acres in H-Area and four acres in F-Area had been adversely impacted. Today, wetland plant communities have become well established at the H-Area tree-kill zone.

  1. Seepage Investigation for Selected River Reaches in the Chehalis River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D. Matthew; Frasl, Kenneth E.; Marshall, Cameron A.; Reed, Fred

    2008-01-01

    A study was completed in September 2007 in the Chehalis River basin to determine gain or loss of streamflow by measuring discharge at selected intervals within various reaches along the Chehalis River and its tributaries. Discharge was measured at 68 new and existing streamflow sites, where gains and losses were determined for 36 stream reaches. Streamflow gains were measured for 22 reaches and losses were measured for 13 reaches. No gain or loss was measured at the Chehalis River between the Newaukum and Skookumchuck Rivers. The Chehalis River exhibited a pattern of alternating gains and losses as it entered the area of wide, gentle relief known as the Grand Mound Prairie. The general pattern of tributary ground- and surface-water interaction was discharge to streams (gaining reaches) in the upper reaches and discharge to the ground-water system (losing reaches) as the tributaries entered the broad, flat Chehalis River valley.

  2. Oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. The other two basins, the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and westernmost Colorado, and the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah also contain large resources of oil shale in the Green River Formation, and these two basins will be assessed separately. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer a ssay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The estimated in-place nahcolite resource is about 43.3 billion short tons.

  3. Final Report for the Demonstration of Plasma In-situ Vitrification at the 904-65G K-Reactor Seepage Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blundy, R.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Zionkowki, P.G.

    1997-12-22

    The In-situ Vitrification (ISV) process potentially offers the most stable waste-form for containment of radiologically contaminated soils while minimizing personnel contamination. This is a problem that is extensive, and at the same time unique, to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Complex. An earlier ISV process utilized joule heating of the soil to generate the subsurface molten glass product. However previous test work has indicated that the Savannah river Site soils (SRS) may not be entirely suitable for vitrification by joule heating due to their highly refractory nature. The concept of utilizing a plasma torch for soil remediation by in-situ vitrification has recently been developed, and laboratory test work on a 100 kW unit has indicated a potentially successful application with SRS soils. The Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) conducted the first field scale demonstration of this process at the (904-65G) K-Reactor Seepage Basin in October 1996 with the intention of determining the applicability and economics of the process for remediation of a SRS radioactive seepage basin. The demonstration was successful in completing three vitrification runs, including two consecutive runs that fused together adjacent columns of glass to form a continuous monolith. This report describes the demonstration, documents the engineering data that was obtained, summarizes the process economics and makes recommendations for future development of the process and equipment.

  4. Analytical results, database management and quality assurance for analysis of soil and groundwater samples collected by cone penetrometer from the F and H Area seepage basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, D.R.; Johnson, W.H.; Serkiz, S.M.

    1994-10-01

    The Quantification of Soil Source Terms and Determination of the Geochemistry Controlling Distribution Coefficients (K{sub d} values) of Contaminants at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB) study was designed to generate site-specific contaminant transport factors for contaminated groundwater downgradient of the Basins. The experimental approach employed in this study was to collect soil and its associated porewater from contaminated areas downgradient of the FHSB. Samples were collected over a wide range of geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, conductivity, and contaminant concentration) and were used to describe the partitioning of contaminants between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at the site. The partitioning behavior may be used to develop site-specific transport factors. This report summarizes the analytical procedures and results for both soil and porewater samples collected as part of this study and the database management of these data.

  5. Massive asphalt deposits, oil seepage, and gas venting support abundant chemosynthetic communities at the Campeche Knolls, southern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sahling, Heiko; Borowski, Christian; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Gaytán-Caballero, Adriana; Hsu, Chieh-Wei; Loher, Markus; MacDonald, Ian; Marcon, Yann; Pape, Thomas; Römer, Miriam; Rubin-Blum, Maxim; Schubotz, Florence; Smrzka, Daniel; Wegener, Gunter; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbon seepage is a widespread process at the continental margins of the Gulf of Mexico. We used a multidisciplinary approach, including multibeam mapping and visual seafloor observations with different underwater vehicles to study the extent and character of complex hydrocarbon seepage in the Bay of Campeche, southern Gulf of Mexico. Our observations showed that seafloor asphalt deposits previously only known from the Chapopote Knoll also occur at numerous other knolls...

  6. Massive asphalt deposits, oil seepage, and gas venting support abundant chemosynthetic communities at the Campeche Knolls, southern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sahling, Heiko; Borowski, Christian; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Gaytán-Caballero, Adriana; Hsu, Chieh-Wei; Loher, Markus; MacDonald, Ian; Marcon, Yann; Pape, Thomas; Römer, Miriam; Rubin-Blum, Maxim; Schubotz, Florence; Smrzka, Daniel; Wegener, Gunter; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbon seepage is a widespread process at the continental margins of the Gulf of Mexico. We used a multidisciplinary approach, including multibeam mapping and visual seafloor observations with different underwater vehicles to study the extent and character of complex hydrocarbon seepage in the Bay of Campeche, southern Gulf of Mexico. Our observations showed that seafloor asphalt deposits previously only known from the Chapopote Knoll also occur at numerous other knolls and ridges in wat...

  7. The distribution rule and seepage effect of the fractures in the ultra-low permeability sandstone reservoir in east Gansu Province,Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the impact of the fractures on development in the ultra-low permeability sandstone reservoir of the Yangchang Formation of the Upper Triassic in the Ordos Basin,data on outcrops,cores,slices,well logging and experiments are utilized to analyze the cause of the formation of the fractures,their distribution rules and the control factors and discuss the seepage flow effect of the fractures. In the studied area developed chiefly high-angle tectonic fractures and horizontal bedding fractures,inter-granular fractures and grain boundary fractures as well. Grain boundary fractures and intragranular fractures serve as vital channels linking intragranular pores and intergranular solution pores in the reservoir matrix,thus providing a good connectivity between the pores in the ultra-low perme-ability sandstone reservoir. The formation of fractures and their distribution are influenced by such external and internal factors as the palaeo-tectonic stress field,the reservoir lithological character,the thickness of the rock layer and the anisotropy of a layer. The present-day stress field influences the preservative state of fractures and their seepage flow effect. Under the tec-tonic effect of both the Yanshan and Himalayan periods,in this region four sets of fractures are distributed,respectively assuming the NE-SW,NW-SE,nearly E-W and nearly S-N orientations,but,due to the effect of the rock anisotropy of the rock formation,in some part of it two groups of nearly orthogonal fractures are chiefly distributed. Under the effect of the present-day stress field,the fractures that assume the NE-SW direction have a good connectivity,big apertures,a high permeability and a minimum starting pressure,all of which are main advantages of the seepage fractures in this region. With the development of oilfields,the permeability of the fractures of dif-ferent directions will have a dynamic change.

  8. Oil Resources Potential and Exploration of Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hua; Luo Anxiang; Fu Jinhua; Xi Shengli

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ordos Basin has experienced nearly a century of oil-gas exploration since China's first oil exploratory well (Yan-1 well) was drilled in 1907 in Yanchang County, Shaanxi Province. A good prospect for sustained and steady development of oil and gas was thereby opened based on the efforts made by generations of petroleum geologists and oil workers.

  9. Oil shale resources of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation of the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado. The oil shale interval was subdivided into eighteen roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and each interval was assessed for variations in gallons per ton, barrels per acre, and total barrels in each township. The Radial Basis Function extrapolation method was used to generate isopach and isoresource maps, and to calculate resources. The total inplace resource for the Uinta Basin is estimated at 1.32 trillion barrels. This is only slightly lower than the estimated 1.53 trillion barrels for the adjacent Piceance Basin, Colorado, to the east, which is thought to be the richest oil shale deposit in the world. However, the area underlain by oil shale in the Uinta Basin is much larger than that of the Piceance Basin, and the average gallons per ton and barrels per acre values for each of the assessed oil shale zones are significantly lower in the depocenter in the Uinta Basin when compared to the Piceance Basin. These relations indicate that the oil shale resources in the Uinta Basin are of lower grade and are more dispersed than the oil shale resources of the Piceance Basin.

  10. Bottom Simulating Reflector and Gas Seepage in Okinawa Trough: Evidence of Gas Hydrate in an Active Back-Arc Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luan Xiwu; Kelin Wang; Roy Hyndman; Eleanor Willoughby

    2008-01-01

    To look for gas hydrate, 22 multi-channel and 3 single-channel seismic lines on the East China Sea (ECS) shelf slope and at the bottom of the Okinawa Trough were examined. It was found that there was indeed bottom simulating reflector (BSR) occurrence, but it is very rare. Besides several BSRs, a gas seepage was also found. As shown by the data, both the BSR and gas seepage are all related with local geological structures, such as mud diapir, anticline, and fault-controlled graben-like structure. However, similar structural "anomalies" are quite common in the tectonically very active Okinawa Trough region, but very few of them have developed BSR or gas seepage. The article points out that the main reason is probably the low concentration of organic carbon of the sediment in this area. It was speculated that the rare occurrence of gas hydrates in this region is governed by structure-controlled fluid flow. Numerous faults and fractures form a network of high-permeability channels in the sediment and highly fractured igneous basement to allow fluid circulation and ventilation. Fluid flow in this tectonic environment is driven primarily by thermal buoyancy and takes place on a wide range of spatial scales. The fluid flow may play two roles to facilitate hydrate formation:to help gather enough methane into a small area and to modulate the thermal regime.

  11. Hydrocarbon Degradation in Caspian Sea Sediment Cores Subjected to Simulated Petroleum Seepage in a Newly Designed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Treude

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbial community response to petroleum seepage was investigated in a whole round sediment core (16 cm length collected nearby natural hydrocarbon seepage structures in the Caspian Sea, using a newly developed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through (SOFT system. Distinct redox zones established and migrated vertically in the core during the 190 days-long simulated petroleum seepage. Methanogenic petroleum degradation was indicated by an increase in methane concentration from 8 μM in an untreated core compared to 2300 μM in the lower sulfate-free zone of the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective decrease in the δ13C signal of methane from -33.7 to -49.5‰. The involvement of methanogens in petroleum degradation was further confirmed by methane production in enrichment cultures from SOFT sediment after the addition of hexadecane, methylnapthalene, toluene, and ethylbenzene. Petroleum degradation coupled to sulfate reduction was indicated by the increase of integrated sulfate reduction rates from 2.8 SO42-m-2 day-1 in untreated cores to 5.7 mmol SO42-m-2 day-1 in the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective accumulation of sulfide from 30 to 447 μM. Volatile hydrocarbons (C2–C6 n-alkanes passed through the methanogenic zone mostly unchanged and were depleted within the sulfate-reducing zone. The amount of heavier n-alkanes (C10–C38 decreased step-wise toward the top of the sediment core and a preferential degradation of shorter (C30 was seen during the seepage. This study illustrates, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time the development of methanogenic petroleum degradation and the succession of benthic microbial processes during petroleum passage in a whole round sediment core.

  12. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  13. Hydrothermal dolomitization of the Bekhme formation (Upper Cretaceous), Zagros Basin, Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Record of oil migration and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurbeg, Howri; Morad, Daniel; Othman, Rushdy; Morad, Sadoon; Ceriani, Andrea; Al-Aasm, Ihsan; Kolo, Kamal; Spirov, Pavel; Proust, Jean Noel; Preat, Alain; Koyi, Hemin

    2016-07-01

    The common presence of oil seepages in dolostones is widespread in Cretaceous carbonate successions of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. This integrated field, petrographic, chemical, stable C, O and Sr isotopes, and fluid inclusion study aims to link dolomitization to the origin and geochemical evolution of fluids and oil migration in the Upper Cretaceous Bekhme carbonates. Flux of hot basinal (hydrothermal) brines, which is suggested to have occurred during the Zagros Orogeny, resulted in dolomitization and cementation of vugs and fractures by coarse-crystalline saddle dolomite, equant calcite and anhydrite. The saddle dolomite and host dolostones have similar stable isotopic composition and formed prior to oil migration from hot (81-115 °C) basinal NaCl-MgCl2-H2O brines with salinities of 18-22 wt.% NaCl eq. The equant calcite cement, which surrounds and hence postdates saddle dolomite, has precipitated during oil migration from cooler (60-110 °C) NaCl-CaCl2-H2O brines (14-18 wt.% NaCl eq). The yellowish fluorescence color of oil inclusions in the equant calcite indicates that the oil had API gravity of 15-25° composition, which is lighter than present-day oil in the reservoirs (API of 10-17°). This difference in oil composition is attributed to oil degradation by the flux of meteoric water, which is evidenced by the low δ13C values (- 8.5‰ to - 3.9‰ VPDB) as well as by nil salinity and low temperature in fluid inclusions of late columnar calcite cement. This study demonstrates that linking fluid flux history and related diagenesis to the tectonic evolution of the basin provides important clues to the timing of oil migration, degradation and reservoir evolution.

  14. Geochemistry and genesis of heavy oil in the Erlian Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jie; GU Lianxing

    2005-01-01

    Heavy oil is commonly distributed in the Erlian Basin, North China. It can be divided into two genetic types: the primary and the secondary. Primary heavy oil is generated directly by Cretaceous immature or low-mature hydrocarbon sources, or is derived from differentiation of crude oil during migration. Oil of this type has viscosity vagrees, is resultant from a combination of biodegradation, water-leaching and oxidation of primary heavy oil. Based upon a large number of determinations on the physical properties of crude oil, GC analyses of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and GC-MS analyses of steranes and terpanes, the characteristics of heavy oil of various types have been described. Differences in inspissation degree have made it possible the grouping of heavy oil of the Erlian Basin inspissation, the products vary from common heavy to over-heavy oil. Slope and uplifted areas inside a reservoir basin are most favorable to the inspissation and formation of heavy oil. Interaction of several mechanisms of inspissation has resulted in a widespread distribution of heavy oil within the Erlian Basin.

  15. Lower Paleozoic oil relationships within Williston Basin, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen L.Bend; Mauri C.Smith

    2004-01-01

    The Williston Basin is a significant petroleum province, containing oil production zones that include the Middle Cambrian to Lower Ordovician, Upper Ordovician, Middle Devonian, Upper Devonian and Mississippian and within the Jurassic and Cretaceous. The oils of the Williston Basin exhibit a wide range of geochemical characteristics defined as "oil families", although the geochemical signature of the Cambrian Deadwood Formation and Lower Ordovician Winnipeg reservoired oils does not match any "oil family". Despite their close stratigraphic proximity, it is evident that the oils of the Lower Palaeozoic within the Williston Basin are distinct. This suggests the presence of a new "oil family" within the Williston Basin. Diagnostic geochemical signatures occur in the gasoline range chromatograms, within saturate fraction gas chromatograms and biomarker fingerprints. However, some of the established criteria and cross-plots that are currently used to segregate oils into distinct genetic families within the basin do not always meet with success, particularly when applied to the Lower Palaeozoic oils of the Deadwood and Winnipeg Formation.

  16. BASIN PEAT SORBTION CAPACITY IMPROVEMENT FOR OIL SPILL RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUKHAREVA N.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the investigation of basin peat sorption capacity in Tomsk field. Experimental results showed the thermal treatment efficiency of sorbent production for oil spill response.

  17. Passive acoustic derived bubble flux and applications to natural gas seepage in the Mackenzie Delta, NWT, Canada and Coal Oil Point, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culling, D.; Leifer, I.; Dallimore, S.; Alcala, K.

    2012-12-01

    Minnaert equation predicts. Furthermore, bubbles from a cohesive media escaped in pulses of multiple bubbles, which caused significant inter-bubble acoustic coupling and mud-bubble interaction. The acoustic signature of subsurface bubble migration and concurrent sediment movements, including bubble pinch off, presented additional complexities. Use of passive acoustic derived flux was applied to natural gas seepage in the Mackenzie Delta in the North West Territories, Canada as well as offshore Coal Oil Point (COP), CA. Video data were used to calibrate the COP acoustic observations and showed a strong current impact for non-cohesive sediments. Seepage flux in the delta (cohesive sediments) was calibrated using a custom turbine tent that directly measured flux. Further applications of passive acoustic-derived seep fluxes include monitoring of marine pipelines for leaks, and studying biogenic wetlands ebullition as well as thermogenic and hydrate seepage.

  18. Oil-shale mining in Maoming basin of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell-Tapping, H.J.

    1989-03-01

    The Maoming basin in Guangdong Province is one of the major oil-shale mining areas of China and is situated about 300 km southwest of Hong Kong. This Tertiary basin produces oil from shales mined from a 5-km long open-faced pit on the crest of an anticline in the center of an uplifted and tilted graben. The oil shale extends about 30 km in a northwest-southeast line, and the beds dip as much as 10/degree/ toward metamorphic mountains to the northeast. In the surrounding area are numerous oil seeps, especially in ponds, water wells, and at the foundations of buildings. Holes with oil shows, made to test the extent of the oil shale, have been drilled to a depth of 1000 m. At the base of the mine face is a limestone hardground on top of which is a coal seam about 0.5 m thick that can be traced throughout the basin. Atop this Paleocene coal bed are Eocene oil-shale and thin sandstone beds in five repeated sections, each about 15 m thick, called the Youganwou formation. All kinds of freshwater fossils - fish, insects, plants, turtles, and tree trunks - are found in a near-perfect state of preservation in these oil-rich shales and coal sections. The estimated oil content of the rock is about 8% of good-quality oil with plenty of light ends.

  19. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-02-17

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM is developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA (see upcoming REV 02 of CRWMS M&O 2000 [153314]), which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model (see BSC 2003 [161530]). The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross Drift to obtain the permeability structure for the seepage model; (3) to use inverse modeling to calibrate the SCM and to estimate seepage-relevant, model-related parameters on the drift scale; (4) to estimate the epistemic uncertainty of the derived parameters, based on the goodness-of-fit to the observed data and the sensitivity of calculated seepage with respect to the parameters of interest; (5) to characterize the aleatory uncertainty of

  20. Characteristics of Oil-gas Resources in Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Longhui

    2006-01-01

    @@ Sichuan Basin, a large and old oil-bearing superimposed basin in western China, has an acreage of190 thousand square kilometers. Its superimposed strata are composed of 7000-12000 meters of sedimentary rock from the Sinian to the Quaternary, in which the strata are mainly marine carbonate below the Middle Triassic and terrestrial clastic rock above the Upper Triassic. For more than 50 years, CNPC has been working in the basin for oil-gas exploration and development and has discovered so far 106 gas fields and 14 oil fields with proven gas reserves achieving 840 billion cubic meters (bcm)and annual gas and crude production reaching 12 bcm and 145 thousand tons respectively. Oil/gas fields in Sichuan Province is currently China's largest gas-producing region. Recent exploration and development practices show that gas reserves and production of the basin are still in the upsoaring stage and an understanding of oilgas distribution in the basin is of vital importance for a sustainable development of natural gas in the basin.

  1. Multiple oil families in the west Siberian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, K.E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Lee, C.Y. [Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States); Kontorovich, A.Eh. [Siberian Scientific Research Institute for Geology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Moldowan, J.M. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, Richmond, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Two major oil families are identified in the West Siberian basin. Twenty-six of 32 analyzed oils occur in Jurassic and cretaceous reservoirs and are derived from anoxic marine Upper Jurassic Bazhenov source rock. These oils are widely distributed both north and immediately south of the Ob River, and their biomarker ratios indicate a wide range of source rock thermal maturity from early to middle oil window (Van-Egan, Russkoye, Samotlor, Sovninsko-Sovyet, Olyenye, Ozynornoye, and Kogolym), to peak oil window (Srednekhulym, Yem-Yegov, Vostochno-Surgut, Khokhryakov, Fedorov, and Urengoi), to late oil window (Salym). Some of these oils have been mildly (e.g., Fedorov 75) to heavily (e.g., Russkoye) biodegraded in the reservoir. The Bazhenov-sourced oils show different compositions that support regional variations of organic facies in the source rock. Six nonbiodegraded, highly mature oils show geochemical characteristics that suggest they were derived from clastic-rich lacustrine or nearshore marine source rocks dominated by terrigenous higher plant input like those in the Lower to Middle Jurassic Tyumen Formation, although no correlation was observed between the oils and single rock sample (Yem-Yegov 15) from the formation. The six oils occur in the Tyumen (Taitym, Geologiche, and Cheremshan) and fractured basement/Paleozoic (Gerasimov, Yagyl Yakh, and Verchnekombar) reservoirs in positions readily accessible to any oil migrating from the Tyumen source rock. For example, at the Gerasimov locations, the Tyumen Formation lies unconformably on weathered basement-Paleozoic reservoir rocks. Most of the probable Tyumen-sourced oils are from south of the Ob River, but the occurrence of Geologiche oil to the north suggests that related oils may be widespread in the basin.

  2. Plate tectonic setting and genetic types of gas (oil)-bearing basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一伟; 陈发景; 陆克政; 漆家福

    1997-01-01

    The plate tectonic setting and genetic types of the gas (oil)-bearing basins in China are studied. Based on the history of break-up and amalgamation of Pangea, the three tectonic evolutionary megastages can be divided and the sedimentary basins in China are classified as Palaeozoic and Meso-Cenozoic basins. The Palaeozoic gas(oil)-bearing basins are mainly located in intracratonic basins, on which different types of Meso-Cenozoic basins are superimposed, and located in cratonic marginal basins and aulacogens destroyed with a slight degree, (n contrast, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic gas (oil)-bearing basins mainly formed in extensional foreland and intracontmental shortening flexural basins.

  3. The Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea: chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taviani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The geo-biological exploration of a pockmark field located at ca. 800 m below sea level in the Gela basin (Strait of Sicily, Central Mediterranean provided a relatively diverse chemosymbiotic community and methane-imprinted carbonates. To date, this is the first occurrence of such a type of specialised deep-water cold-seep communities recorded from this key region, before documented in the Mediterranean as rather disjunct findings in its eastern and westernmost basins. The thiotrophic chemosymbiotic organisms recovered from this area include empty tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., loose and articulated shells of lucinids (Lucinoma kazani, Myrtea amorpha, vesicomyids (Isorropodon perplexum, and gastropods (Taranis moerchii. A callianassid decapod (Calliax sp. was consistently found alive in large numbers in the pockmark mud. Their post-mortem calcified parts mixed with molluscs and subordinately miliolid foraminifers form a distinct type of skeletal assemblage. Carbonate concretions display δ13C values as low as −40‰ PDB suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the seeping fluids. Since none of the truly chemosymbiotic organisms was found alive, although their skeletal parts appear at times very fresh, some specimens have been AMS-14C dated to shed light on the historical evolution of this site. Lamellibrachiav and Lucinoma are two of the most significant chemosymbiotic taxa reported from various Mediterranean cold seep sites (Alboran Sea and Eastern basin. Specimens from station MEDCOR78 (pockmark #1, Lat. 36°46´10.18" N, Long. 14°01´31.59" E, 815 m below sea level provided ages of 11736 ± 636 yr cal BP (Lamellibrachia sp., and 9609.5 ± 153.5 yr cal BP (L. kazani. One shell of M. amorpha in core MEDCOR81 (pockmark #6, Lat 36°45´38.89" N, Long 14°00´07.58" E, 822 m below sea level provided a sub-modern age of 484 ± 54 yr cal BP. These ages document that fluid seepage at this pockmark site has been

  4. Oil and gas bearing in Norwegian Sea basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabanbark, A.

    2013-07-01

    The Norwegian passive continental margin is represented by an extensive gentle shelf and continental slope. On the continental slope, there are the isolated Vøring, Møre and Ras basins, the Halten Terrace is situated to the east of them at the shelf, then the Nordland submarine ridge and the Trondelag Platform at the seaboard. There are Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in its sections. Two complex structures are clearly distinguished in the sedimentary section: the lower stage (up to the Upper Cretaceous), reflecting the rifting structure of the basins, broken by a system of dislocations to a series of horsts, grabens, and separated blocks; and the upper stage, poorly dislocated, like a mantle covering the lower stage, with erosion and sharp unconformity. The Halten Terrace is the principal oil and gas production basin. At present, there are more than 50 oil, gas, and condensate fields in it. The following particularities have been discovered: than the field lays in the deepwater, than the age of the hydrocarbon pay is younger. It is also interesting that all gas fields are situated in the Vøring and Møre basins and western part of the Halten Terrace; the oil and gas fields, mainly at the center of the Halten Terrace; but pure oil fields, in the north of the terrace. In conformity with discovering the particularities, it is possible to say that the prospects of oil and gas bearing in the Norwegian Sea are primarilyt related to the Halten Terrace and the Vøring and Møre basins, especially the territories situated at the boundary of the two basins, where it is possible to discover large hydrocarbon accumulations like the Ormen-Lange field, because the Paleocene-Upper Cretaceous productive turbidite thick at the boundary of these basins is on the continental slope, which is considered promising a priori.

  5. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Finsterle

    2004-09-02

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM was developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). This Model Report has been revised in response to a comprehensive, regulatory-focused evaluation performed by the Regulatory Integration Team [''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Evaluation of Analysis and Model Reports Supporting the TSPA-LA'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169653])]. The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross-Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA [''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167652])], which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model [see ''Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170338])]. The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross-Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross

  6. Tarim Basin: China's Potential Oil Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Baolin

    1996-01-01

    @@ Tarim Basin has an area of 560,000 square kilometers.Taklamakan Desert, the world's second largest shifting desert, is located in the hinterland of the basin. The desert is equal to Germany in area. The desert is called "Desert of No Return" for its harsh and adverse environments. A 522-kilometer highway crossing the desert from north to south was opened to the traffic in 1995 because an oilfield with the reserves of more than 100 million tons was discovered in the central part of the basin. The local traffic and ecological conditions have been much improved in the recent years.

  7. Methane seepage in a Cretaceous greenhouse world as evidenced by a peculiar carbonate deposit in the Tarfaya Basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrzka, Daniel; Zwicker, Jennifer; Kolonic, Sadat; Birgel, Daniel; Little, Crispin; Marzouk, Akmal; Hassane Chellai, El; Wagner, Thomas; Peckmann, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    The Cretaceous was characterized by major episodes of oceanic anoxic conditions and the large scale deposition of marine black shales rich in organic carbon. Several oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) have been documented during the Cretaceous including the Cenomanian to Turonian OAE 2, which is among the best studied examples to date. This study reports on a large limestone body that occurs within a black shale succession exposed in a coastal section of the Tarfaya Basin, Morocco. The black shales were deposited in the aftermath of OAE 2 in a shallow continental sea. To decipher the mode and causes of carbonate growth in black shales, we use a combination of element geochemistry, palaeontology, thin section petrography, stable isotope geochemistry and lipid biomarker patterns. 13C-depleted biphytanic diacids reveal that the carbonate deposit resulted, at least in part, from microbially-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane in the shallow subseafloor at a hydrocarbon seep. The lowest obtained δ13C carbonate values of -23.5‰ are not low enough to exclude other carbon sources than methane apart from admixed marine carbonate, indicating a potential contribution from in situ remineralization of organic matter contained in the black shales. Nannofossil and trace metal inventories of the black shales and the macrofaunal assemblage of the carbonate body reveal that environmental conditions became less reducing during the deposition of the background shales that enclose the carbonate body, but the palaeoenvironment was overall mostly characterized by high productivity and episodically euxinic bottom waters. This study provides an insight into the evolution of a hydrocarbon seep that was situated within a shallow continental sea in the aftermath of OAE 2, and sheds light on how these environmental factors influenced carbonate formation and the ecology at the seep site.

  8. PRELIMINARY DATA REPORT: HUMATE INJECTION AS AN ENHANCED ATTENUATION METHOD AT THE F-AREA SEEPAGE BASINS, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millings, M.

    2013-09-16

    A field test of a humate technology for uranium and I-129 remediation was conducted at the F-Area Field Research Site as part of the Attenuation-Based Remedies for the Subsurface Applied Field Research Initiative (ABRS AFRI) funded by the DOE Office of Soil and Groundwater Remediation. Previous studies have shown that humic acid sorbed to sediments strongly binds uranium at mildly acidic pH and potentially binds iodine-129 (I-129). Use of humate could be applicable for contaminant stabilization at a wide variety of DOE sites however pilot field-scale tests and optimization of this technology are required to move this technical approach from basic science to actual field deployment and regulatory acceptance. The groundwater plume at the F-Area Field Research Site contains a large number of contaminants, the most important from a risk perspective being strontium-90 (Sr-90), uranium isotopes, I-129, tritium, and nitrate. Groundwater remains acidic, with pH as low as 3.2 near the basins and increasing to the background pH of approximately 5at the plume fringes. The field test was conducted in monitoring well FOB 16D, which historically has shown low pH and elevated concentrations of Sr-90, uranium, I-129 and tritium. The field test included three months of baseline monitoring followed by injection of a potassium humate solution and approximately four and half months of post monitoring. Samples were collected and analyzed for numerous constituents but the focus was on attenuation of uranium, Sr-90, and I-129. This report provides background information, methodology, and preliminary field results for a humate field test. Results from the field monitoring show that most of the excess humate (i.e., humate that did not sorb to the sediments) has flushed through the surrounding formation. Furthermore, the data indicate that the test was successful in loading a band of sediment surrounding the injection point to a point where pH could return to near normal during the study

  9. Historical and geochemical outlines of the oil-gas seepage near Turzovka town; Flysch belt, NW Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Macek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Small oil deposits located in Korňa near the town of Turzovka in north-western Slovakia and other small deposits located in the Miková region of northern-eastern Slovakia were the first oil deposits discovered and exploited in these parts of the Western Carpathians. Small volumes of oil, natural gas and water rises to the surface on a northern slope in Korňa and several tenths of metres further on these descends into the soil cover and entered the local Kornianka creek. Korňa and its broader surrounds are geologically part of the Magura Nappe of the Carpathian Flysch Belt. The preliminary gas chromatography results indicate weakly biodegraded mature oil with a prevailing aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Weak biodegradation and continuous outflow over 100 years following its discovery in 1901 indicate its connection with a deeper oil reservoir. Although methane is the dominant component of this natural gas, the presence of higher gaseous hydrocarbons with the methane carbon isotopic composition indicates a methane gas associated with the main stage of oil generation.

  10. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  11. Molecular correlation of free oil and inclusion oil of reservoir rocks in the Junggar Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changchun Pan; Jiamo Fu; Guoying Sheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangdong (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry; Jianqiang Yang [Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Xinjiang (China)

    2003-03-01

    Free oils and inclusion oils (oil-bearing fluid inclusions) of 12 samples collected from the sandstone reservoir formations in the central, eastern and northern areas of the Junggar Basin, northwest China, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Analytical results indicate very similar biomarker distributions within each of the free oils and their associated inclusion oils in the two samples collected, respectively, from the northwestern and eastern border of the Junggar Basin. The free oil and inclusion oil of sample MD1-1, collected from the northwestern border, correlate well with the Permian source rock of the Fencheng Formation, while those of sample DN1-1 from the eastern border correlate with the Permian source rock of the Pingdiquan Formation. In contrast, in the central area, the free and inclusion oils vary significantly in most cases, which suggests variations of sources for oil charges during the filling process. These data, and the correlation between the free and inclusion oils, are consistent with the field and seismic data, which show that in areas where samples MD1-1 and DN1-1 are located, only one available source rock exists, while in the central area, multiple source rocks are present. (author)

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Regions of Oil and Gas Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Regions of high or low potential for oil and gas resources in the Powder River Basin generally indicate where continuous oil and gas resources are more or less...

  13. Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen Resources in Geological Basins of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy oil and natural bitumen are oils set apart by their high viscosity (resistance to flow) and high density (low API gravity). These attributes reflect the invariable presence of up to 50 weight percent asphaltenes, very high molecular weight hydrocarbon molecules incorporating many heteroatoms in their lattices. Almost all heavy oil and natural bitumen are alteration products of conventional oil. Total resources of heavy oil in known accumulations are 3,396 billion barrels of original oil in place, of which 30 billion barrels are included as prospective additional oil. The total natural bitumen resource in known accumulations amounts to 5,505 billion barrels of oil originally in place, which includes 993 billion barrels as prospective additional oil. This resource is distributed in 192 basins containing heavy oil and 89 basins with natural bitumen. Of the nine basic Klemme basin types, some with subdivisions, the most prolific by far for known heavy oil and natural bitumen volumes are continental multicyclic basins, either basins on the craton margin or closed basins along convergent plate margins. The former includes 47 percent of the natural bitumen, the latter 47 percent of the heavy oil and 46 percent of the natural bitumen. Little if any heavy oil occurs in fore-arc basins, and natural bitumen does not occur in either fore-arc or delta basins.

  14. Third One-million-ton Oil Field in Junggar Basin Will Come into Being

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Jun; Li Songguo

    2002-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Xinjiang Oil FieldCompany is accelerating its efforts for construction of the third 1-million-ton oil field in Junggar basin - Luliang oil field located in the hinterland of the basin, which was found in 2000.

  15. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  16. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package

  17. Geochemical characteristics of crude oils from the Cuyo Basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, H.J. (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Puettmann, W. (RWTH, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle)

    1990-01-01

    Crude oils from the Triassic Cuyo Basin are thought to be derived from a fresh-water lacustrine source rock, mainly the Upper Triassic organic-rich shales of Cacheuta Fm. By means of GC and GC-MS methods, the oils were analysed for characteristics compounds which may reflect biological input to the source sediments and maturity variations. Pristane/phytane ratios, distributions of n-alkanes, and the presence of significant amounts of bacteriohopanoid-derived compounds (hopanes, 8,14-secohopanes, 8,14-monoaromatic secohopanoids, benzohopanes) together with bicyclic sesquiterpanes in all the samples studied, are taken as an indication of possible reworking of algal organic matter by bacteria. Sterane distributions were consistent with a lacustrine origin of the oils. (author)

  18. Recultivation work in the oil shale basin of Estonia, USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luik, H.

    1980-01-01

    Soviet Estonia is situated in the northwestern part of the Soviet Union. The most important mineral resources are oil shale, phosphorite, peat and construction materials. Oil shale production is about 30 x 10/sup 6/ tonnes a year. The oil shale is partly surface mined but the majority is deep mined. Recultivation of exhausted oil shale pits started in 1959 and has proceeded at an average of 150 ha per annum. In the course of recultivation a process of selective mining is adopted, this is followed quickly by physical recontouring and cultivation work. Particular attention is given to the maintenance and improvement of soil fertility. Afforestation is the main form of biological recultivation with more than 2450 ha of exhausted oil shale workings having been planted. The most successful trees have been Pinus sylvestris, Betula verrucosa, Larix europea and Larix japonica. The development of mining and land use in the oil shale basin is closely regulated. To ensure efficient mining development and to maximise nature conservation and recreation potential a scheme of functional zoning has been drawn up and a policy of progressive recultivation has been adopted.

  19. Seepage Anisotropy of Heterogeneous Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ore dumps are heterogeneous bodies with anisotropic seepage characteristics because of the ore segregation.In an indoor experiment, a dump was constructed with three strata, where the horizontal and vertical seepage experiments were carried out.Horizontals flow are regarded as phreatic plan flows without penetration.Its seepage law satifies the Dupuit equation.With parallel lay seepage model, the equivalent seepage coefficient in the horizontal flow was obtained and was equivalent to the weighted mean of the seepage coefficient of each stratum.An unsaturated flow appeared in the vertical experiment, with a hydraulic gradient of 1.The vertical flow was equivalent to the seepage model that moved in vertical bedding; its equivalent seepage coefficient depended on the stratum with the minimum seepage coefficient.That the experiment showed clear anisotropy in a heterogeneous body was obvious with an anisotropic coefficient between 63 and 155, which is 25 to 100 times larger than that of a homogeneous body.

  20. Group classification of mixed oils in central Junggar Basin, Northwest China and their migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xulong; SHI Xinpu; CAO Jian; LAN Wenfang; TAO Guoliang; HU Wenxuan; YAO Suping

    2010-01-01

    The produced oils in central Junggar Basin are commonly mixed in origin. In this paper, in order to reveal this complexity and thereby provide valuable clues to the study of oil source and formation mechanism, genetic groups of the mixed oils were classified and their migration/accumulation was investigated. Based on the artificial oil mixing experiments, some representative biomarkers of the mixed oils showed varying tendencies according to mixing ratios of the oils. Hence, these biomarkers are useful for determining the origin of the mixed oils. According to the criteria, oils in the area were divided into four basic groups, i.e., the Lower Permian Fengcheng oil, the Middle Permian Lower Wuerhe oil, the Jurassic source derived oil, and the mixed oil (including the Lower and Middle Permian mixed oil and the Permian and Jurassic mixed oil). Oil migration and accumulation were discussed in combination with the geological background.

  1. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10`` to 20`` API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  2. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  3. Crude oil geochemistry of the southern Songliao Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Taiming; Rullkoetter, J.; Radke, M.; Schaefer, R.G.; Welte, D.H.

    1987-08-01

    Twenty-three crude oils from the southern Songliao Basin, Heilongjiang Province (People's Republic of China), were characterized by various organic geochemical techniques to have a very uniform bulk and molecular composition in terms of source characteristics (type I kerogen) but to vary significantly in thermal maturity. Two middle Cretaceous source rocks, i.e. the Members 1 of the Qingshankou (Qn/sub 1/) and Nenjiang (Nen/sub 1/) Formations, were considered to be the most likely origin of the oils investigated, but a Jurassic source cannot be fully excluded for the Nang'An oils. Molecular maturation indicators including carbon preference indices, sterane isomerisation, conversion of mono- into triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons, relative concentration of diasteranes and the 18..cap alpha..(H)-22,29,30-trisnorneohopane/17..cap alpha..(H)-22,29,30-trisnorhopane ratio showed that there is a positive correlation between thermal maturity of the oils and the age of their reservoirs. This was interpreted as an indication of limited cross-stratigraphic migration and further evidence for the generation in the Qn/sub 1/ and Nen/sub 1/ source rocks.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2017-05-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 4.2 billion barrels of oil and 3.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil resources in the Wolfcamp shale of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Lillis, Paul G.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-11-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 20 billion barrels of oil and 16 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin part of the Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  6. Origin and Distribution of Hydrogen Sulfide in Oil-Bearing Basins, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guangyou; ZHANG Shuichang; LIANG Yingbo

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of hydrogen sulfide gas (H_2S) varies greatly in the oil-bearing basins of China, from zero to 90%. At present, oil and gas reservoirs with high H_2S concentration have been discovered in three basins, viz. the Bohai Bay Basin, Sichuan Basin and the Tarim Basin, whereas natural gas with low H_2S concentration has been found in the Ordos Basin, the Songiiao Basin and the Junggar Basin. Studies suggest that in China H_2S origin types are very complex. In the carbonate reservoir of the Sichuan Basin, the Ordos Basin and the Tarim Basin, as well as the carbonate-dominated reservoir in the Luojia area of the Jiyang depression in the Bohai Bay Basin, Wumaying areas of the Huanghua depression, and Zhaolanzhuang areas of the Jizhong depression, the H_2S is of Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction (TSR) origin. The H_2S is of Bacterial Sulphate Reduction (BSR) origin deduced from the waterflooding operation in the Changheng Oiifieid (placanticline oil fields) in the Songliao Basin. H_2S originates from thermal decomposition of sulfur-bearing crude oil in the heavy oil area in the Junggar Basin and in the Liaohe heavy oil steam pilot area in the western depression of the Bohai Bay Basin. The origin types are most complex, including TSR and thermal decomposition of sulfcompounds among other combinations of causes. Various methods have been tried to identify the origin mechanism and to predict the distribution of H_2S. The origin identification methods for H_2S mainly comprise sulfur and carbon isotopes, reservoir petrology, particular biomarkers, and petroleum geology integrated technologies; using a combination of these applications can allow the accurate identification of the origins of H_2S. The prediction technologies for primary and secondary origin of H_2S have been set up separately.

  7. Panorama of Oil and Gas Exploration in Turpan-Hami Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wuhe

    1997-01-01

    @@ Turpan-Hami Basin (abbreviated to Tuha Basin) is one of the three largest petroliferous basins in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China with a total area of 53500km2. Its reserves and production of oil and gas have rapidly increased since 1990. By the end of 1995, the reserves of about 200 million tons of oil and 70 billion cubic meters of gas have been proved, with the annual oil productivity reaching three million tons. A new area of oil/gas fields has risen in East Xinjiang.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Bonaparte Basin, Browse Basin, Northwest Shelf, and Gippsland Basin Provinces, Australia, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 4.7 billion barrels of undiscovered oil and 227 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in three major offshore petroleum basins of northwest Australia and in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia.

  9. Oils and source rocks from the Anadarko Basin: Final report, March 1, 1985-March 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, R. P. [School of Geology and Geophysics, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The research project investigated various geochemical aspects of oils, suspected source rocks, and tar sands collected from the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. The information has been used, in general, to investigate possible sources for the oils in the basin, to study mechanisms of oil generation and migration, and characterization of depositional environments. The major thrust of the recent work involved characterization of potential source formations in the Basin in addition to the Woodford shale. The formations evaluated included the Morrow, Springer, Viola, Arbuckle, Oil Creek, and Sylvan shales. A good distribution of these samples was obtained from throughout the basin and were evaluated in terms of source potential and thermal maturity based on geochemical characteristics. The data were incorporated into a basin modelling program aimed at predicting the quantities of oil that could, potentially, have been generated from each formation. The study of crude oils was extended from our earlier work to cover a much wider area of the basin to determine the distribution of genetically-related oils, and whether or not they were derived from single or multiple sources, as well as attempting to correlate them with their suspected source formations. Recent studies in our laboratory also demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight components(C{sub 4}-C{sub 80}) in oils and waxes from drill pipes of various wells in the region. Results from such a study will have possible ramifications for enhanced oil recovery and reservoir engineering studies.

  10. Basic features of oil and gas content of the Dnieper-Donets Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dem' yanchuk, V.G.; Ponomareva, S.V.; Soldatenko, Y.I.

    1981-01-01

    North rim zone, central part of the basin, Priluskiy oil extracting region, southern rim zone, northern edge of the Donbas, northwest part of the basin are discussed. Brief characteristics of the oil and gas content of each of these regions are given. The basic oil reserves are concentrated in the Priluskiy region, the gas in the central part of the basin, in its southeast half adjoining the Donbass. Both the gas and the oil deposits are primarily arranged in depths up to 3,000 m, in places up to 4,000 m and more. In each region, the main oil and (or) gas reserves are associated with some one, less often two lithological-strategraphic complexes. In order to evaluate the outlook for oil and gas content in Dnieper-Donts Basin, one should take into consideration the distribution features of the oil and gas deposits both in a spatial respect, and over the section. This is especially important in selecting facilities for oil and gas deposit searches associated with zones of outcropping and variance, as well as for searching for deposits at great depths. In the Dnieper-Donets Basin where over a hundred oil and gas fields have currently been found, several local regions are isolated according to the nature of oil and gas content.

  11. Potential evaluation of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery of tight oil reservoir in the Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Linsong; Cao, Renyi; Zhang, Miaoyi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Carbon -di-oxide (CO2) is regarded as the most important greenhouse gas to accelerate climate change and ocean acidification. The Chinese government is seeking methods to reduce anthropogenic CO2 gas emission. CO2 capture and geological storage is one of the main methods. In addition, injecting CO2 is also an effective method to replenish formation energy in developing tight oil reservoirs. However, exiting methods to estimate CO2 storage capacity are all based on the material balance theory. This was absolutely correct for normal reservoirs. However, as natural fractures widely exist in tight oil reservoirs and majority of them are vertical ones, tight oil reservoirs are not close. Therefore, material balance theory is not adaptive. In the present study, a new method to calculate CO2 storage capacity is presented. The CO2 effective storage capacity, in this new method, consisted of free CO2, CO2 dissolved in oil and CO2 dissolved in water. Case studies of tight oil reservoir from Ordos Basin was conducted and it was found that due to far lower viscosity of CO2 and larger solubility in oil, CO2 could flow in tight oil reservoirs more easily. As a result, injecting CO2 in tight oil reservoirs could obviously enhance sweep efficiency by 24.5% and oil recovery efficiency by 7.5%. CO2 effective storage capacity of Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Longdong area was 1.88 x 10(7) t. The Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Ordos Basin was estimated to be 6.38 x 10(11) t. As tight oil reservoirs were widely distributed in Songliao Basin, Sichuan Basin and so on, geological storage capacity of CO2 in China is potential.

  12. Re-evaluation of Oil/Gas Exploration in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhaocai

    1997-01-01

    @@ Industrial oil flow was discovered in Well Shacan No.2ten years ago. This breakthrough has attracted a great attention from various industrial sectors, thus promoting the formulation of the policy of "prospecting and developingnew oil/gas fields in West China". The breakthrough and the subsequent oil production in areas of Lunnan, Tazhong and Shaxi, and especially, the geographical location of Tarim Basin, have aroused much interest from petroleum geologists as well as oil corporations, big or small, in the world.

  13. Formation and Identification of Unresolved Complex Mixtures in Lacustrine Biodegraded Oil from Nanxiang Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Pengfei Guo; Sheng He; Shukui Zhu; Derong Chai; Shiyan Yin; Wei Dai; Wanfeng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS) method has been developed for the formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) in lacustrine biodegraded oils that with the same source rock, similar maturity, and increasing degradation rank from Nanxiang Basin, China. Normal alkanes, light hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, steranes, and terpanes are degraded gradually from oil B330 to oil G574. The compounds in biodegraded oil ...

  14. Evolution of the Moxizhuang Oil Field, Central Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Huayao; Zhang Yuanchun; Liu Jianzhang; Shi Jiannan

    2008-01-01

    Current oil saturation in the Moxizhuang (莫西庄) Oil Field in central Janggar (准噶尔) basin was evaluated by logging interpretation and measured on core samples, and the paleo-oil saturation in both the pay zones and water zones was investigated by graln-containing-oil inclusion (GOI) analysis.The pay zones in this field have low oil saturation and display low resistivity and small contrast between pay zones and water zones, and are classified as low-porosity, low oil saturation, and low resistivity reservoirs. Both the current low oil-saturation pay zones and the water zones above 4 365 m have high GOI values (up to 38%), suggesting high paleo-oil saturation. The significant difference between current oil saturation from both logging interpretation and core sample measurement and paleo-oil saturation indicated by GOI analysis suggests that this low oil-saturation field evolved from a high oil-saturation pool. Lateral re-migration and spill of formally trapped oil owing to changes in structural configuration since Neogene was the most plausible mechanism for oil loss in the Moxizhuang Oil Field.The combined effects of differential accumulation in the charge phase and the differential re-migration and spill of accumulated oil in Neogene are responsible for the complicated correlation between residual oil saturation and porosity/permeability of the reservoir sandstones and the distribution of low oil-saturation pay zones and paleo-oil zones (current water zones).

  15. Oil geochemistry of the northern Llanos Basin, Colombia. A model for migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramon, J.C. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)); Dzou, L. (Baseline Resolution, Dallas, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    The chemical composition of 23 crude oils and one oil seep from Llanos Basin, Colombia were studied in detail by geochemical methods in order to understand their genetic relationship. A filling history model is proposed to explain the observed composition variations in Llanos Basin oils. Geochemical fingerprinting indicates that there are six families of crude oils. The biomarker compositions have been used to identify characteristics of the source rocks. The Llanos oils contain marine algal- derived [open quotes]C30 steranes[close quotes] (i.e., 24-n-propylcholestanes), which are diagnostic for oils generated from marine Cretaceous source rocks. A significant HC-contribution from a Tertiary source is also indicated by the presence of high concentration of the [open quotes]flowering plant[close quotes]-markers oleanane, bicadinanes and oleanoids. Low DBT/Phen, %sulfur values and high diasteranes concentration indicate that the source rock is clay-rich. Biomarker maturity parameters indicate a wide range of source-rock thermal maturities from early to late oil window. Heavy biodegradation has been particularly common among the first oils to fill reservoirs in central Llanos oil fields. The older altered heavy oils were mixed with a second pulse of oil explaining the wide range of oil gravities measured in the central Llanos Basin.

  16. Oil geochemistry of the northern Llanos Basin, Colombia. A model for migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramon, J.C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Dzou, L. [Baseline Resolution, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The chemical composition of 23 crude oils and one oil seep from Llanos Basin, Colombia were studied in detail by geochemical methods in order to understand their genetic relationship. A filling history model is proposed to explain the observed composition variations in Llanos Basin oils. Geochemical fingerprinting indicates that there are six families of crude oils. The biomarker compositions have been used to identify characteristics of the source rocks. The Llanos oils contain marine algal- derived {open_quotes}C30 steranes{close_quotes} (i.e., 24-n-propylcholestanes), which are diagnostic for oils generated from marine Cretaceous source rocks. A significant HC-contribution from a Tertiary source is also indicated by the presence of high concentration of the {open_quotes}flowering plant{close_quotes}-markers oleanane, bicadinanes and oleanoids. Low DBT/Phen, %sulfur values and high diasteranes concentration indicate that the source rock is clay-rich. Biomarker maturity parameters indicate a wide range of source-rock thermal maturities from early to late oil window. Heavy biodegradation has been particularly common among the first oils to fill reservoirs in central Llanos oil fields. The older altered heavy oils were mixed with a second pulse of oil explaining the wide range of oil gravities measured in the central Llanos Basin.

  17. Oil shale in the Piceance Basin: an analysis of land use issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenson, D.; Pei, R.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to a framework for establishing policies to promote efficient use of the nation's oil shale resources. A methodology was developed to explain the effects of federal leasing policies on resource recovery, extraction costs, and development times associated with oil shale surface mines. This report investigates the effects of lease size, industrial development patterns, waste disposal policies, and lease boundaries on the potential of Piceance Basin oil shale resource. This approach should aid in understanding the relationship between federal leasing policies and requirements for developing Piceance Basin oil shale. 16 refs., 46 figs. (DMC)

  18. Rock doughnut and pothole structures of the Clarens Fm. Sandstone in the Karoo Basin, South Africa: Possible links to Lower Jurassic fluid seepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab, Stefan; Svensen, Henrik

    2011-08-01

    South Africa has a wealth of sandstone landforms, yet many of these have not been examined in detail to expand knowledge on their morphology and process origins. Here we present data on primary morphological statistics, rock hardness, surface roughness and petrographic investigations of rock doughnuts and associated pothole structures in Golden Gate Highlands National Park (GGHNP) and in the Witkop III complex, with the aim of using such data and field observations to argue their likely origins. Schmidt hammer R-values indicate consistently harder doughnut rims (mean = 48.7; n = 150) than the enclosed potholes (mean = 37.8; n = 150) and surrounding sandstone platform (mean = 39.7; n = 250). The petrography of Clarens Fm. Sandstone shows that the typical whitish sandstone is affected by intense chemical weathering. Pothole rims and the irregular reddish crust typical of the Witkop III outcrops show a secondary cementation by microcrystalline silica. Although preservation of old land surfaces is difficult to prove, small and circular pipe structures filled with calcite-cemented sand are present locally surrounding the Witkop III hydrothermal complex, and represent conduits for fluidized sand. Based on the morphologies of the Witkop III summit with the associated potholes and pipes, we hypothesize that they are remnants of morphologies created by Jurassic fluid seepage, with a superimposed and secondary silica cementation. Given that fluidization structures evidently occur in Clarens Fm. Sandstone, as is the case at Witkop, such mechanisms could possibly have contributed to the observed rock doughnut structures elsewhere on Clarens Fm. Sandstones, such as at the GGHNP where the rock doughnut morphological attributes are typical to landforms originating from fluid venting.

  19. Geological conditions of coal and gas(oil)-bearing basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tingbin

    2005-01-01

    There are various types of coal basins in China. Indosinian movement can be regarded as their evolutionary limit, and the basins can be divided into two developmental stages, three structural patterns and two sedimentary environments. However, only those coal measure strata that have been deeply buried in the earth are possible to be converted into coal and gas (oil)-bearing basins. Among which, only part of the coal measures possess the essential geological conditions to the formation of commercial humic oil. However, humic gas will be the major exploration target for natural gas in China. Among various coal basins, foreland basins have the best prospect for humic gas. Rift (faulted) basins accumulate the most abundance of humic gas, and are most favorable to generate humic oil. Craton basins have relatively low abundance of humic gas, but the evolution is rather great. The three kinds of coal basins mentioned above constitute China's three primary accumulation areas of humic gas: western, central and offshore areas. The major basins for humic gas field exploration include Tarim, Ordos, Sichuan, East China Sea and Yingqiong basins.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.

    2016-11-04

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 121 million barrels of oil and 212 billion cubic feet of gas in the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal.

  1. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Cooper Basin, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2016-07-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 482 million barrels of oil and 29.8 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper Basin of Australia.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-09-19

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 164 million barrels of oil and 24.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 236 million barrels of oil and 112 billion cubic feet of associated gas in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina.

  4. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Perth Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 223 million barrels of oil and 14.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Perth Basin Province, Australia.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-05-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  6. Distribution of major hydrocarbon source rocks in the major oil-gas-bearing basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Luofu; ZHAO Suping; CHEN Lixin; HUO Hong

    2005-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of major hydrocarbon source rocks in the major oil-gas-bearing basins in China were discussed in this paper, and differences between the East and the West basins in tectonic setting, age, lithology, sedimentary environment, and hydrocarbon generation feature and potential were also studied. Considering the Lüliang Mountains-Dalou Mountains as the boundary, source rocks in the East basins are distributed mainly in three NNE-trend subsiding belts, and those in the West basins are distributed in the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains and Qilian Mountains. They are mainly NWW trending and can be divided into four basin groups.

  7. Origin of Crude Oil in the Lunnan Region,Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sumei; PANG Xiongqi; YANG Haijun; XIAO Zhongyao; GU Qiaoyuan; ZHANG Baoshou; WANG Haijiang

    2010-01-01

    The oil source of the Tarim Basin has been controversial over a long time.This study characterizes the crude oil and investigates the oil sources in the Lunnan region,Tarim Basin by adopting compound specific isotopes of n-aikanes and biomarkers approaches.Although the crude oil has a good correlation with the Middle-Upper Ordovician (02+3) source rocks and a poor correlation with the Cambrian-Lower Ordovician (∈-O1) based on biomarkers,the δ13C data of n-alkanes of the Lunnan oils show an intermediate value between ∈-O1 and O2+3 genetic affinity oils,which suggests that the Lunnan oils are actually of an extensively mixed source.A quantification of oil mixing was performed and the results show that the contribution of the Cambrian-Lower Ordovician source rocks ranges from 11% to 70% (averaging 36%),slightly less than that of the Tazhong uplift.It is suggested that the inconsistency between the biomarkers and δ13C in determining the oil sources in the Lunnan Region results from multiple petroleum charge episodes with different chemical components in one or more episode(s) and different sources.The widespread marine mixed-source oil in the basin indicates that significant petroleum potential in deep horizons is possible.To unravel hydrocarbons accumulation mechanisms for the Lunnan oils is crucial to further petroleum exploration and exploitation in the region.

  8. Paleofluid-flow circulation within a Triassic rift basin: Evidence from oil inclusions and thermal histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, H.-Y.; Burruss, R.C.; Onstott, T.C.; Omar, G.

    1999-01-01

    The migration of subsurface fluid flow within continental rift basins has been increasingly recognized to significantly affect the thermal history of sediments and petroleum formation. To gain insight into these paleofluid flow effects, the thermal history of the Taylorsville basin in Virginia was reconstructed from fluid-inclusion studies, apatite fission-track data, and vitrinite reflectance data. Models of thermal history indicate that the basin was buried to the thermal maximum at 200 Ma; a cooling event followed during which the eastern side of the basin cooled earlier and faster than the western side, suggesting that there was a differential uplift and topographically driven fluid flow. This hypothesis is supported by analyses of secondary oil and aqueous inclusions trapped in calcite and quartz veins during the uplift stage. Gas chromatograms of inclusion oils exhibit variable but extensive depletion of light molecular-weight hydrocarbons. The relative abundance of n-alkanes, petrographic observations, and the geological data indicate that the alteration process on these inclusion oils was probably neither phase separation nor biodegradation, but water washing. Water:oil ratios necessary to produce the observed alteration are much greater than 10000:1. These exceedingly high ratios are consistent with the migration of inclusion oils along with fluid flow during the early stages of basin evolution. The results provide significant evidence about the role of a subsurface flow system in modifying the temperature structure of the basin and the composition of petroleum generated within the basin.

  9. Clay Mineral Distribution Patterns of Tertiary Continental Oil-bearing Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xingyuan

    1996-01-01

    @@ Induction This paper studies the clay mineral distribution patterns of Tertiary continental oil-bearing basins in China. More than 9 000 shale samples from Paleogene (E) to Neogene (N) Series distributed in Bohai Gulf, Subei, Jianghan,Nanxiang, Zhoukou, Sanshui, Beibu Bay, East China Sea,Hetao, Juiquan, Qaidam and Tarim basins, and so on.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Ventura Basin Province, California, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-10-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in the part of the Ventura Basin Province that lies onshore or within State waters (within 3 miles of the shoreline) of California (fig. 1). Conventional oil and gas resources are those that have migrated upward into structural or stratigraphic traps from deep zones where the oil and gas is generated; water is present below the oil or gas. Continuous accumulations, in contrast, are those in which oil or gas is pervasively present in essentially all wells that penetrate them, that may not be structurally or stratigraphically trapped, and that typically lack oil-water or gas-water contacts. They are commonly produced with well-stimulation technology, such as hydraulic fracturing, referred to as “unconventional.” The same stimulation technology, however, is also used in many conventionally trapped accumulations. We estimated both the likely range of oil and gas volumes remaining to be discovered in accumulations similar to existing conventional oil and gas fields in the Ventura Basin Province (previously assessed by Keller [1995] as 1,060 million barrels of oil [MMBO], 1,900 billion cubic feet of gas [BCFG], and 60 million barrels of natural gas liquids [MMBNGL]), and the potential for oil and gas that might be present in a continuous accumulation at extreme depth in the floor of the basin.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Paris Basin, France, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phoung A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 222 million barrels of unconventional oil; 2,092 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas; 18 million barrels of conventional oil; and 47 billion cubic feet of conventional gas resources in the Paris Basin of France.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Taoudeni Basin Province, Mali and Mauritania, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2016-03-31

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 160 million barrels of conventional oil, 1,880 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 602 million barrels of shale oil, and 6,395 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Taoudeni Basin Province in Mali and Mauritania.

  13. Geochemical characteristics of oils from the Chaidamu, Shanganning and Jianghan Basins, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, R. P.; Fan, P.; Lewis, C. A.; Zhu, H.; Wang, H.

    Thirty oil samples from the Shanganning, Jianghan and Chaidamu Basins in China have been examined by a number of geochemical techniques. The techniques included gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry using a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS/MS), stable isotope mass spectrometry. There were several reasons for undertaking this study. Firstly was the attempted oil-source rock correlation studies within the individual basins. Secondly was the continuing quest for novel, or sets of, biomarkers that could be assigned to saline and hypersaline environments and subsequently used to characterize other similar depositional environments. Thirdly was the desire to compare and contrast results obtained from these three basins with those from a similar study being undertaken on the South Florida Basin and the Anadarko Basin in the U.S.A. Whereas the Chinese basins are lacustrine, those in the U.S.A. are marine. For the purposes of this paper, only the results from the three Chinese basins will be discussed. In addition to examining the results from the biomarker distributions as determined by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, the results are correlated with those obtained from the δ 13C isotropic determinations. For example, three oils in the Shanganning Basin showed anomalous isotopic data, which immediately suggested that they should be examined in greater detail than the remaining oils, all of which correlated quite closely with each other. A combination of results used in this way is far more valuable than the biomarker data alone. In summary, the results demonstrate that various families of oils in the three basins can be distinguished on the basis of geochemical data and in many cases on the basis of the carbon isotopic composition alone. The oils from the Shanganning Basin had the lightest values, around -32%, whereas the Chaidamu were the heaviest in the -26% region. The Jianghan oils had values intermediate to

  14. Geological characteristics and resource potentials of oil shale in Ordos Basin, Center China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunlai, Bai; Yingcheng, Zhao; Long, Ma; Wu-jun, Wu; Yu-hu, Ma

    2010-09-15

    It has been shown that not only there are abundant oil, gas, coal, coal-bed gas, groundwater and giant uranium deposits but also there are abundant oil shale resources in Ordos basin. It has been shown also that the thickness of oil shale is, usually, 4-36m, oil-bearing 1.5%-13.7%, caloric value 1.66-20.98MJ/kg. The resource amount of oil shale with burial depth less than 2000 m is over 2000x108t (334). Within it, confirmed reserve is about 1x108t (121). Not only huge economic benefit but also precious experience in developing oil shale may be obtained in Ordos basin.

  15. Fundamental challenges of the location of oil and gas in the South Caspian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliev, I. S.; Kerimov, V. Yu.; Mustaev, R. N.

    2016-11-01

    Subvertical and subhorizontal bodies were identified in the South Caspian Basin. They are a new class of geological structures with a complicated form, which can serve as migration pathways and hydrocarbon accumulation zones. The basin incorporates a few autonomous sources of oil and gas occurrences with their own distribution areas and spatial-temporal evolution. HC generation sources are displaced relative to each other. The lower boundary of the oil and gas occurrence reaches depths of more than 12-15 km, while the upper boundary of the "oil window" is confined to hypsometric depths of 5-7 km.

  16. The Linguado, Carapeba, Vermelho, and Marimba giant oil fields, Campos basin, offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stank, C.V.; Esteves, F.R.; Martins, C.C.; Cruz, W.M.; Da Silva Barroso, A.; Horschutz, P.M.C. (Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1990-09-01

    About 40 hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered in the Campos basin in the period 1978-1984, including four giant fields in shallow to moderate water depths. The Linguado oil field is located on the extreme south of the producing area of the Campos basin. The pool was discovered in May 1978. The reservoir rocks occur between 1,700 and 3,000 m, and are constituted by fractured Neocomian basalts, Barremian pelecypod coquinas, Albian oolitic calcarenites, and, secondarily, by some Cretaceous turbidite sandstones. The main reservoir is formed by coquinas, which contain 76% of the total recoverable oil volume estimated at 104.6 million bbl. The field is located on a regional high and the accumulation is strongly controlled by stratigraphic and diagenetic factors. High-quality oil is produced through a floating producing system (FPS), and the cumulative oil production amounts to 63.8 million bbl. The Carapeba and Vermelho oil fields are situated in the northern limit of the Campos basin producing area and, together with the smaller Pargo field, make up the so-called Northeast Pole of Campos basin. Carapeba field was discovered in February 1982, and has an estimated recoverable oil volume of 127.8 million bbl. Production comes mainly from two Upper Cretaceous turbidite sandstone reservoirs. The Vermelho field in December 1982, and its main reservoir is formed by a massive Eocene turbidite sandstone. The estimated recoverable oil volume amounts to 119.7 million bbl. Both Carapeba and Vermelho fields are structural traps associated with the development of subtle anticlines caused by salt movements. The fields are gradually being put on stream through five fixed platforms installed in water depths ranging from 70 to 90 m. The Marimba field, discovered in March 1984, drilled in a water depth of 383 m, is considered the first deep-water oil strike in the Campos basin. The field has an estimated recoverable oil volume of 115 million bbl of good-quality oil.

  17. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.J.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Gautier, D.L.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Pittman, J.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal program. Geologically, the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular-shaped cratonic block bounded by the northeast-southwest trending Ural Mountains and the northwest-southeast trending Timan Ridge. The northern boundary is shared with the South Barents Sea Province (fig.1). The Timan-Pechora Basin Province has a long history of oil and gas exploration and production. The first field was discovered in 1930 and, after 75 years of exploration, more than 230 fields have been discovered and more than 5,400 wells have been drilled. This has resulted in the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  18. Enhancement of the TORIS data base of Appalachian basin oil fields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-31

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System, or TORIS, was developed by the Department of Energy in the early 1980s with a goal of accounting for 70% of the nation`s original oil in place (OOIP). More than 3,700 oil reservoirs were included in TORIS, but coverage in the Appalachian basin was poor. This TORIS enhancement project has two main objectives: to increase the coverage of oil fields in the Appalachian basin; and to evaluate data for reservoirs currently in TORIS, and to add, change or delete data as necessary. Both of these objectives have been accomplished. The geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia have identified 113 fields in the Appalachian basin to be included in TORIS that collectively contained 80% of the original oil in place in the basin. Furthermore, data in TORIS at the outset of the project was checked and additional data were added to the original 20 TORIS oil fields. This final report is organized into four main sections: reservoir selection; evaluation of data already in TORIS; industry assistance; and data base creation and validation. Throughout the report the terms pool and reservoir may be used in reference to a single zone of oil accumulation and production within a field. Thus, a field is composed of one or more pools at various stratigraphic levels. These pools or reservoirs also are referred to as pay sands that may be individually named sandstones within a formation or group.

  19. Formation Models and Distribution of Oil and Gas Pools in Tarim Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Shengxiang

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the main formation models and distribution of the oil and gas pools in Tarim basin,China,including (I) occurrence of the found oil and gas pools,(2) main formation models of oil and gas pools,and (3) distribution law of oil/gas pools.Petroleum is distributed widely in the strata of Tarim basin from the Sinian at the bottom to the Neogene at the top.However,the found oil and gas fields are mainly distributed in Shaya (沙雅) uplift,Tazhong (塔中) uplift,and Kuche (库车)depression.This article presents 4 main formation models,namely,early formation and long-term preservation,early formation and late reformation,middle-late multiphase-multisource formation,late single-stage formation.Tarim basin is very rich in petroleum resources.Long-term inherited intrabasinal paleohighs and slope zones are the most favorable areas for accumulation of hydrocarbons,but the types of oil and gas pools are different from area to area.The control of unconformities and faults on hydrocarbon accumulating is prominent in Tarim basin.Preservation conditions are of utmost importance.Formation of some oil and gas pools is the result of reforming and re-accumulating of early accumulated hydrocarbons.

  20. Geological Conditions Favourable for High-Wax Oil Enrichment in Damintun Depression,Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Fangbing

    2009-01-01

    The Damintun (大民屯) depression,a small (about 800 km2 in area) subunit in the Bohai (渤海) Bay basin,hosts nearly 2×108t of high-wax oils with wax contents up to 60%. The high-wax oils have high consolidation temperatures and viscosities.The high-wax oils were generated from the fourth member of the Shahejie Formation (Es4),which is also important source rocks for oils in other subunits of the Bohai Bay basin.Yet high-wax oils have not been found in significant volumes elsewhere in the Bohai Bay basin.Geological conditions favourable for high-wax oil enrichment were studied.This study shows that the unusual concentrations of high-wax oils in the depression seem to result from at least three different factors: (1) the presence of organic-matter rich source rocks which were prone to generate wax-rich hydrocarbons; (2) the formation of early overpressures which increased the expulsion efficiency of waxy hydrocarbons; and (3) reductions in subsidence rate and basal heat flows,which minimized the thermal cracking of high molecular-weight (waxy) hydrocarbons,and therefore prevented the high-wax oils from being transformed into less waxy equivalents.

  1. Detecting trap leakage with ALF, the airborne laser fluorosensor; contrasting results from contrasting basin settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alan [World Geoscience, Perth (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The majority of the world`s onshore oil fields leak very small quantities of petroleum to the earth`s surface as seepage. In new basins such seeps mark the ends of migration pathways and indicate the presence of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations. In many offshore petroliferous basins, the seeped oil forms such thin films that they are invisible to the naked eye or to other airborne or satellite-mounted detectors. ALF, the Airborne Laser Fluorosensor, however, can detect oil films down to a thickness of 0.005 microns and also provides information on hydrocarbon phase. ALF has detected such low levels of seepage - microseepage - in three contrasting basin settings: the Gulf of Mexico Slope, a structured (diapiric) passive margin where normal gravity oils and condensates are the dominant hydrocarbon phase; the Dampier Basin, Northwest Shelf of Australia, a relatively unstructured passive margin where light oils and condensates are typical; the Faeroes Basin, West of Shetlands, a Tertiary passive margin overlying a failed Mesozoic rift where both heavy oils and condensates are trapped. In each case, ALF results are contributing important new information on the limits of the play-fairways and the phase of the trapped hydrocarbons. (author). 7 refs

  2. Piceance Basin Oil Shale Data: Assays, Boreholes and Formation Tops

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This database contains Oil Shale Assays, Borehole Locations and Formation Tops that were used in support of the 2009 Oil Shale Assessment (Survey Fact Sheet...

  3. Diagenetic and oil migration history of the Kimmeridgian Ascla Formation, Maestrat Basin, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, C.; Marfil, R.; Pena, J.A. de la; Caja, M.A. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Petrologia y Geoquimica; Goldstein, R.H. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geology; Salas, R.; Permanyer, A. [Universidad de Barcelona (Spain). Departamento de Geoquimica; Benito, M.I. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Estratigrafia

    2001-03-01

    The marine limestones of the Kimmeridgian Ascla Formation in the Maestrat Basin reached more than 3500 m in burial depth during the Cretaceous era. Despite containing organic-rich intervals, mature in parts of the basin, its potential as oil source-rock has been either overlooked or questioned. A petrographic, geochemical and fluid-inclusion (Fl) study of the cements of the Ascla was performed in order to unravel its diagenetic and thermal evolution. We particularly sought evidence of oil migration and its timing. Three sequences of cement were distinguished. Sequence 1 fills the primary porosity and began with Fe-poor calcites with geochemistry and FIs consistent with precipitation from marine-derived waters during shallow burial. These calcites were followed by burial cements, including ferroan calcite, dolomite, and minor celestite and barite. Sequence 2 consists of Mg-rich, fracture-filling calcite cement zones. The earlier ones are ferroan and contain primary aqueous and oil FIs with homogenization temperatures suggesting precipitation at temperatures as high as 117{sup o}C. Sequence 3 is dominated by fracture-filling calcites with geochemistry and FIs indicating precipitation at low temperatures (less than {approx} 50{sup o}C) from meteoric waters. Cross-cutting relationships with compressional microstructures indicate that Sequence 3 formed after the Eocene Oligocene tectonic inversion of the basin. Oil FIs in Sequence 2 provide evidence that light oils migrated through the Ascla Formation via fractures and microfractures. These oils were likely generated in the organic-rich marls of the basal part of the Ascla. The paragenetic sequence and burial history are consistent with oil generation when the Ascla was at or close to maximum burial depth, but before the Eocene Alpine tectonism, which likely formed the structural traps in the basin. Oil generation and migration occurred long before this event. Therefore, it is probable that early traps were breached by

  4. Assessment of continuous oil resources in the Wolfcamp shale of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.

    2017-03-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous petroleum resources in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin part of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas. This is the first U.S. Geological Survey evaluation of continuous resources in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin. Since the 1980s, the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin has been part of the “Wolfberry” play. This play has traditionally been developed using vertical wells that are completed and stimulated in multiple productive stratigraphic intervals that include the Wolfcamp shale and overlying Spraberry Formation. Since the shift to horizontal wells targeting the organic-rich shale of the Wolfcamp, more than 3,000 horizontal wells have been drilled and completed in the Midland Basin Wolfcamp section. The U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 20 billion barrels of oil and 16 trillion cubic feet of associated gas in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin.

  5. A geochemical appraisal of oil generation in the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killops, S.D.; Woolhouse, A.D.; Weston, R.J.; Cook, R.A. (Institute of Geology and Nuclear Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand). Hydrocarbon Resources and Basin Studies Group)

    1994-10-01

    From a basin-wide evaluation of organic geochemical data, it has been possible to characterize and differentiate various source rock units and to establish the genetic relationships of oils. Most of the oils are primarily terrestrially sourced, and it is possible to recognize varying contributions from source rocks within the Paleogene Kapuni Group and late Cretaceous Pakawau Group. This distinction is attributable to the rise to dominance of angiosperm over gymnosperms in coastal plain swamp communities by the Eocene. Apart from the Maui family oils, the inferred relative contributions from the main source rock types generally correlate with the relative proportions of suitably thick and mature units near reservoirs, given that most Cretaceous-sourced oil appears to have escaped prior to trap development. Maui family oils do appear to be primarily sourced by Rakopi Formation (late Cretaceous) coals. In the northern part of the Taranaki Peninsula, where heat flows are highest, Mangahewa/Kaimiro formation (Eocene) coals are the chief sources of oils. Farther south, in the Kapuni and Kupe south fields, Farewell Formation (Paleocene) coals appear to be the main oil source rocks. Biomarkers suggest that the onset of oil expulsion from coals occurs at a maturity level corresponding to a vitrinite reflectance of ca. 0.8%R[sub 0], and may be aided by the evolution of large volumes of carbon dioxide. The terrestrial influence on Paleogene source rocks diminishes to the north-northwest of the basin and increasing marine contributions to oils are observed. A large Paleocene marine black shale is the source of oil in the Kora volcanic structure. It is possible that shales interbedded with coals, reflecting periodic marine incursions of coastal flood plains, also contribute to oil generation throughout much of the basin.

  6. OIL RESOURCES EXPLORATION AND POTENTIAL OF QAIDAM BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Chengming; Jiang Bo; Han Qinpeng; Wu Jianfeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Located in the northern Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Qaidam Basin is surrounded by the East Kunlun Mountains in the south, Qilian Mountains in the north, and Altun Mountains in the west. With an area of 121,000 square kilometers (km2), Qaidam Basin is about 850 kilometers (km) long from east to west and 150~300 km wide from south to north.

  7. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A.; Engle, Mark A.; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F. Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  8. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  9. Quantitative calculation of GOR of complex oil-gas-water systems with logging data: A case study of the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field in the Qaidam Basin

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field of the Qaidam Basin, multiple suites of oil-gas-water systems overlie each other vertically, making it difficult to accurately identify oil layers from gas layers and calculate gas-oil ratio (GOR). Therefore, formation testing and production data, together with conventional logging, NMR and mud logging data were integrated to quantitatively calculate GOR. To tell oil layers from gas layers, conventional logging makes use of the excavation effect of compensated ne...

  10. Geochemical evaluation of oils and source rocks from the Western Siberian basin, U. S. S. R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, K.E.; Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)); Moldowan, J.M. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Kontorovich, A.E.; Stasova, O. (Siberian Scientific Research Institute for Geology, Geophysics and Mineral Resources, Novobsibirsk (Russian Federation)); Demaison, G.J.

    1991-03-01

    Although the Western Siberian basin is among the most prolific in the world, there has been disagreement among Soviet geoscientists on the origin of the petroleum within this basin. Screening geochemical analyses were used to select several oils and potential source rocks for a preliminary study using detailed biomarker and supporting geochemistry. Possible sources for this petroleum include rocks of Middle Jurassic, Upper Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous age. Results indicate that most of the analyzed Western Siberian oils, occurring in reservoirs from Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous in age, are derived from the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation. The locations of the samples in the study generally correspond to the distribution of the most effective oil-generative parts of the Bazhenov Formation. Analyses show that the Bazhenov rock samples contain abundant marine algal and bacterial organic matter, preserved under anoxic depositional conditions. Biomarkers show that thermal maturities of the samples range from the early to late oil-generative window and that some are biodegraded. For example, the Salym No. 114 oil, which flowed directly from the Bazhenov Formation, shows a maturity equivalent to the late oil window. The Van-Egan no. 110 oil shows maturity equivalent to the early oil window and is biodegraded. This oil shows preferential microbial conversion of lower homologs of the 17{alpha}, 21{beta}(H)-hopanes to 25-nor-17{alpha}(H)-hopanes.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  12. Geochemistry and familial association of crude oils from the Birdbear Formation in southeastern Saskatchewan, Williston Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermajer, M.; Osadetz, K.G.; Fowler, M.G.; Snowdon, L.R. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the geochemical composition of 9 crude oils from a subset of Upper Devonian Birdbear reservoirs in the Canadian Williston Basin. The geochemical signatures of these oils are compared with those of family D2 oils produced from the Middle Devonian Winnipegosis Formation. Also included in the sample set are 1 Birdbear- and 1 Winnipegosis-reservoired oil samples from the American Williston Basin. While considering a larger set of samples than that originally analyzed in the literature, emphasis is placed on the variations of gasoline range and saturated hydrocarbons. Following oil-oil correlation, a possible relationship between Birdbear-reservoired oils and Devonian source rocks is briefly introduced. Crude oils in the Upper Devonian Birdbear Formation have a distinctive geochemical composition and appear to belong to a separate compositional oil family. An oil-oil correlation with Winnipegosis-reservoired oils shows that not only is their stratigraphic occurrence different, but also that they have variable gasoline range characteristics, and different saturate biomarket compositions. Both stratigraphically restricted groups of oils have different Paraffin Indices and `Mango` parameters, different C13-C30 normal alkane profiles, different relative concentrations of acyclic isoprenoids and resulting Pr/Ph, Pr/nC17 and Ph/nC18 ratios. Although the distributions of terpane biomarkers show some similarities, Birdbear-reservoired oils have less pronounced C34 hopane predominance and Ts/Tm ratios typically less than 1.0. The sterane biomarker signatures are quite different with high concentrations of diasteranes and prominent C21 regular steranes in the Birdbear oil samples, and a very different relative abundance of C27, C28, and C29 regular steranes. There is no evidence for a maturity effect. These compositional differences may be genetic in nature showing a different source rock for oils found in the Birdbear Formation and

  13. Controls on alkylphenol occurrence and distribution in oils from lacustrine rift basins in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU ShuQing; HUANG HaiPing

    2008-01-01

    Oils from two lacustrine rift basins in east China are thoroughly investigated using geochemical method to understand controls on alkylphenol occurrence and distribution in oils. Oils in the Lujiapu Depression,Kailu Basin are derived from the Cretaceous source rocks,and those in the Dongying Depression,Bohai Bay Basin,from the Tertiary source rocks. All oils are experienced relatively short distance of migration and have similar maturity in each basin. Differences in homologue distributions from different oilfields are most likely caused by organic facies variation of source rocks. The oils in the Lujiapu Depression are characterized by high proportion of C3 alkylphenols (prefixes refer to the number of alkylcarbons joined to the aromatic ring of the phenol molecule) and low proportion of cresols and C2 alkylphenols compared to oils from the Dongying Depression. Alkylphenol isomer distribution is possibly affected by depositional environment especially for C3 alkylphenols. Dysoxic freshwater environment is favorable for the formation of propyl or isopropyl substituted C3 alkylphenols,while highly reducing saline water is more suitable for trimethyl substituted C3 alkylphenols. Variations in alkylphenol concentrations within a petroleum system are controlled mainly by secondary migration processes with alkylphenol concentrations decreasing along migration direction. Interestingly,coupled with geological factors,a subtle change of alkylphenol concentrations can be applied to differentiate carrier systems. When oil migrates through sandy beds,concentrations of total alkylphenols decrease dramatically with migration distance,while such change is less significant when oil migrates vertically along faults. However,most isomer ratios potentially related to migration distance are not as effective as those alkylcarbazoles in migration diagnosis due to complicated affecting factors.

  14. Controls on alkylphenol occurrence and distribution in oils from lacustrine rift basins in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Oils from two lacustrine rift basins in east China are thoroughly investigated using geochemical method to understand controls on alkylphenol occurrence and distribution in oils. Oils in the Lujiapu Depression, Kailu Basin are derived from the Cretaceous source rocks, and those in the Dongying De- pression, Bohai Bay Basin, from the Tertiary source rocks. All oils are experienced relatively short distance of migration and have similar maturity in each basin. Differences in homologue distributions from different oilfields are most likely caused by organic facies variation of source rocks. The oils in the Lujiapu Depression are characterized by high proportion of C3 alkylphenols (prefixes refer to the number of alkylcarbons joined to the aromatic ring of the phenol molecule) and low proportion of cre- sols and C2 alkylphenols compared to oils from the Dongying Depression. Alkylphenol isomer distri- bution is possibly affected by depositional environment especially for C3 alkylphenols. Dysoxic fresh- water environment is favorable for the formation of propyl or isopropyl substituted C3 alkylphenols, while highly reducing saline water is more suitable for trimethyl substituted C3 alkylphenols. Variations in alkylphenol concentrations within a petroleum system are controlled mainly by secondary migration processes with alkylphenol concentrations decreasing along migration direction. Interestingly, coupled with geological factors, a subtle change of alkylphenol concentrations can be applied to differentiate carrier systems. When oil migrates through sandy beds, concentrations of total alkylphenols decrease dramatically with migration distance, while such change is less significant when oil migrates vertically along faults. However, most isomer ratios potentially related to migration distance are not as effective as those alkylcarbazoles in migration diagnosis due to complicated affecting factors.

  15. Characterization of asphaltic oil occurrences from the southeastern margin of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Marín, P.; Márquez, G.; Gallego, J. R.; Permanyer, A.

    2014-01-01

    A geochemical investigation has been undertaken on biodegraded hydrocarbons in outcropping reservoirs of the south-eastern margin of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (Álava sector). The aims of the study were the characterization of the geochemical features and biodegradation level of these hydrocarbons, and the evaluation of their resemblance to oils from the Ayoluengo onshore oil field by means of isotopic analyses and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Most of the samples lack n-a...

  16. Spores and Pollen in Oil From Igneous Rock Petroleum Pool and Petroleum Origin of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江德昕; 杨惠秋

    1994-01-01

    Ninety-six species of fossil spores and pollen referred to 55 genera found in crude oil fromthe Beisantai igneous rock petroleum pool of the southeastern part of the Junggar Basin in Xinjiang have beenstudied.Based on the investigation of the spores and pollen in crude oil,the petroleum source rocks of thepetroliferous province are identified,the petroleum origin theory is discussed and the organic petroleum ori-gin theory is confirmed.

  17. The Main Origins of High Quality Reservoir in Feixianguan Formation in Northeast Sichuan Basin: Atmospheric Water Eluviation and Seepage-reflux Dolomitization%川东北地区孤立台地飞仙关组优质储层形成主控因素——大气淡水淋滤及渗透回流白云石化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建勇; 周进高; 潘立银; 王小芳; 王芳; 郝毅; 谷明峰; 张润合; 陈薇

    2013-01-01

    The depositional environment was isolated restricted platform and a lot of depositional cycles of shallow upward oolite shoal existed at the stage from Member 1 to 2 of Feixianguan Formation of Lower Triassic in the northeast Sichuan basin,especially gypsum lagoon at the Member 2 of Feixianguan Formation in the isolated restricted platform. On the isolated restricted platform geologic setting,the main lithol-ogy of reservoir includes remnant oolitic dolomite and finely crystalline dolomite. On the shallow upward o-olite shoal geologic setting,the atmospheric water eluviation results in the lithology sequence from top to bottom is tight micrite dolomite,intragranular pore or moldic pore residual oolith micritic or powder crystalline dolomite,intragranular pore residual oolith powder or finely crystalline dolomite,and intercrystalline pore dolomite. Petrology and geochemistry of reservoir show that the reservoir dolomite underwent two stages of dolomitization. The first stage is seepage-reflux dolomitization and the second is burial dolomitiza-tion. The seepage-reflux dolomitization make an important role in preservation of early pores and increase rock strength, inhibit pressure solution and cementation, but the buried dolomitization partially fill pore space. It can be recognized two types of buried dissolution. The first stage happened after seepage reflux dolomitization and before crude oil filling and it is correlated with dissolution by organic acid. The second occurred in the deep buried environment,it is correlated with acid generated by TSR. The buried dissolution can not generate reservoir porosity,but increases permeability. Based on comprehensive studies of geologic settings,reservoir petrology and geochemistry,it is concluded that the atmospheric water eluviation is prerequisite condition for reservoir porosity generation and the seepage-reflux dolomitization is necessary condition for reservoir porosity preservation.%川东北地区在三叠系飞仙

  18. Successful International Symposium on Oil & Gas Exploration in Lacustrine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry Katz

    1996-01-01

    @@ A Joint American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)-Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau research symposium entitled "Lacustrine Basin Exploration in China and Southeast Asia" was held in Dongying City,People's Republic of China, October 16-20, 1995.

  19. Generation and expulsion of oils from Permian coals of the Sydney Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.; Volk, H.; George, S.C.; Faiz, M.; Stalker, L. [CSIRO Petrology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    Organic geochemical and petrological assessment of coals/coaly shales and fine grained sediments, coupled with organic geochemical analyses of oil samples, all from Permo-Triassic sections of the Southern Sydney Basin (Australia), have enabled identification of the source for the widely distributed oil shows and oil seeps in this region. The Permian coals have higher hydrogen indices, higher liptinite contents, and much higher total organic matter extract yields than the fine grained sediments. A variety of source specific parameters obtained from n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids, terpanes, steranes and diasteranes indicate that the oil shows and seeps were generated and expelled predominantly from higher plant derived organic matter deposited in oxic environments. The source and maturity related biomarkers and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions of the oils are similar to those of the coals. The oil-coal relationship also is demonstrated by similarities in the carbon isotopic composition of the total oils, coal extracts, and their individual n-alkanes. Extracts from the Permo-Triassic fine grained sediments, on the other hand, have organic geochemical signatures indicative of mixed terrestrial and prokaryotic organic matter deposited in suboxic environments, which are significantly different from both the oils and coal extracts. The molecular signatures indicating the presence of prokaryotic organic matter in some of the coal extracts and oils may be due to thin sections of possibly calcareous lithologies interbedded within the coal measures. The genetic relationship between the oils and coals provides new evidence for the generation and expulsion of oils from the Permian coals and raises the possibility for commercial oil accumulations in the Permian and Early Triassic sandstones, potentially in the deeper offshore part of the Sydney Basin.

  20. Hindcast oil spill simulations from the existing offshore wells in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2017-04-01

    Following the expansion of the exploration and exploitation of the hydrocarbons in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin during the last 5 years, oil spill simulations for 20 existing offshore platforms/wells were carried out based on new and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The oil spill simulations were carried out using the well known MEDSLIK oil spill model, with the use of high temporal and spatial resolution data for 3D sea currents, winds and waves, provided by the CYCOFOS forecasting system, downscaled from the Copernicus Marine environment monitoring service (CMEMS). The hindcast oil spill simulations from the 20 potential oil spill sources have been prepared for a period of four years, presenting the movement of the spills and the area affected, the fate parameters, the first impact on the coast and the extend of the affected coastline from each location every week. The modeled oil spills took into account the oil spill scenario following the REMPEC MEDEXPOL 2013 experiment. Moreover, a qualitative analysis of the seabed morphology has been applied to examine the direction of the oil slick expansion, shown that the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. The oil spill simulations from the existing offshore wells/platforms, show a clear trend for east and northeast movement of the oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin, with the first impact at the coast in a time interval between 1 to 20 days after the first oil spilled at sea, depending on the location of the platforms/wells and of the intensity and direction of the meteo-ocean data.

  1. Evolution of Hydrodynamic Field, Oil-Gas Migration and Accumulation in Songliao Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼章华; 朱蓉; 金爱民; 孙毛明; 蔡希源; 迟元林

    2004-01-01

    The oil-gas migration and accumulation in the Songliao Basin were analyzed in the view of fluid dynamics by the authors. The key point of fluid dynamics is hydrodynamics. Oil-gas migration and accumulation are related closely with formation and evolution of hydrodynamic field. Based on abundant data, initial formation pressure and other parameters, such as water head were studied. They can be used to understand the present distribution of hydrodynamic field and its hydrochemical features. Generally, the hydrodynamic field in the basin is obviously asymmetrical. In its north and east part, there are the areas of centripetal flow caused by topographic relief when meteoric water permeate downwards. Its south part is an evaporation-concentration area. The central depression is an area of centrifugal flow driven by sediment compaction and its cross-formational flow area. Only at the basin margin and in the local uplifted and denudated area are the meteoric water permeating downwards areas. The centrifugal flow driven by sediment compaction is the main dynamic factor that induces oil-gas migration and accumulation and its formation period corresponding to the main stage of oil-gas migration and accumulation. Moreover, the evolution of hydrodynamic field has the cyclic property, which results in phased oil-gas migration by stages, and further dominates the terraced annular oil and gas distribution, concentric with their corresponding sags.

  2. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carter Sandstone, North Blowhorn Creek oil unit and vicinity, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.

    1992-05-01

    This report presents accomplishments made in completing Task 3 of this project which involves development of criteria for recognizing reservoir heterogeneity in the Black Warrior basin. The report focuses on characterization of the Upper Mississippian Carter sandstone reservoir in North Blowhorn Creek and adjacent oil units in Lamar County, Alabama. This oil unit has produced more than 60 percent of total oil extracted from the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The Carter sandstone in North Blowhorn Creek oil unit is typical of the most productive Carter oil reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report synthesizes data derived from geophysical well logs and cores from North Blowhorn Creek oil unit to develop a depositional model for the Carter sandstone reservoir. The second part of the report describes the detrital and diagenetic character of Carter sandstone utilizing data from petrographic and scanning electron microscopes and the electron microprobe. The third part synthesizes porosity and pore-throat-size-distribution data determined by high-pressure mercury porosimetry and commercial core analyses with results of the sedimentologic and petrographic studies. The final section of the report discusses reservoir heterogeneity within the context of the five-fold classification of Moore and Kugler (1990).

  3. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  4. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

  5. Exploration Potential of Atectonic Oil-gas Pools in the Northern Shelf Basin of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuWeilin; WangZhenfeng; LvMing

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale oil exploration has been done and large quantities of oil-gas fields have been found in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea for more than 20 years. The tectonic oil-gas pools are the main type. With the exploration to be deepened, looking for atectonic oil-gas pools is listed in China's exploration strategy. There are advantages for the forming of atectonic oil-gas pools in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea. Because the level of water has been frequently changing within all historical periods, lithozones are changed alternately in both vertical and lateral directions and formed lithologic deposition especially at low water level stages, such as the low-lying fans of basin-floor fans and slope fans. Due to frequent tectonic movement within all historical periods, many structural surfaces and structural unconformities were formed. At the same time, they also formed many kinds of structural unconformity oil-gas pools. According to our exploration and research, the promising areas of atectonic reservoirs within marine basins include: (1) the basin-floor fan of the deep water district, such as the central depression of the Southeast Qiong basin and Baiyun sag in the Zhujiangkou basin; (2) the frontal area of the large ancient delta, such as the Lingao structural belt in the Yingge Sea basin and Huizhou sag in the Zhujiangkou basin; (3) the unconformity pinchout belt or denudation belt in the slope area and the uplift area, for instance, the Yingdong slope belt in the Yingge Sea basin and Yacheng 13-1 structural belt in the southeast Qiong basin. All this proves that the prospects for atectonic oil-gas pools in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea are very broad.

  6. Assessment of Permian tight oil and gas resources in the Junggar basin of China, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-04-05

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 764 million barrels of oil and 3.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in tight reservoirs in the Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar basin of northwestern China.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the North Sakhalin Basin Province of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  8. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  9. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-11-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  10. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Pannonian Basin Province, Hungary, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-06-29

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 119 million barrels of oil and 944 billion cubic feet of gas in the Hungarian part of the Pannonian Basin Province.

  11. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-09-22

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 0.45 billion barrels of oil and 1.0 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia.

  12. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 78 million barrels of oil and 8.9 trillion cubic feet of gas in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina.

  13. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the South Sumatra Basin Province, Indonesia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2016-12-09

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 689 million barrels of continuous shale oil and 3.9 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the South Sumatra Basin Province in Indonesia.

  14. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-11-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  15. Geologic seepage of methane and light alkanes in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doezema, L. A.; Chang, K.; Baril, R.; Nwachuku, I.; Contreras, P.; Marquez, A.; Howard, D.

    2013-12-01

    Natural geologic seepage of methane from underground oil and natural gas reservoirs has been suggested to be an underreported part of the global methane budget. Other light alkanes are also given off in combination with the methane seepage, making it possible that geologic seepage is also a potentially significant global source of these light alkanes. This study reports C1-C5 findings from geologic seepage made in the Los Angeles region. Microseepage, invisible escape of gases, was measured primarily at Kenneth Hahn Regional Park, while macroseepage, the visible release of gases, was measured at the La Brea Tar Pits. Samples were collected using stainless steel canisters and flux chambers and were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID). Average microseepage flux rates of 0.95 μg m-2 h-1 for ethane and 0.51 μg m-2 h-1 were found for propane, while average macroseepage rates for methane, ethane, and propane were 664, 19.8, and 18.1 mg m-2 h-1 respectively. Relationships between microseepage flux rate and location of underground oil and natural deposit and earthquake fault lines are presented. Additionally, the relative importance of findings in context with global budgets and local air quality is discussed.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-30

    Using a geology-based methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil and 2,643 billion cubic feet of natural gas in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces of Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland.

  17. Radial seepage model and verification for oil in oilseeds processing by cylinder press%油料冷态预榨过程的油脂径向渗流模型及验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汝宽; 柯佳见; 肖志红; 李培旺; 张爱华; 李昌珠

    2016-01-01

    law and the Terzaghi consolidation theory, 4 assumptions were raised: material layer of oilseeds was saturated by oil; gravity of the oil was ignored and oil flowed only in radial direction in cake pores; material of solid particles could be compressed while its volume and true density would not change, and the oil inside the pores could be incompressible; oilseeds remained in the state of saturation when squeezed and the flow of oil obeyed the Darcy seepage law. The influencing factors, including inner diameter, height of material layer, pressing pressure, pressing time, viscosity of oil, and porosity of oilseeds, were determined to establish the percolation model. Cylinder radius was one of the important factors for hydraulic pressing. The oil yield efficiencies were almost invariant with the increase of cylinder radius at first, and then decreased because oils inside pores could not flow out in time. Meanwhile pressure of hydraulic pressing would decrease with the increase of cylinder radius, leading to a difficulty for oil flow. Results of testing experiments of oil yield efficiency under different barrel diameters showed that the maximum error of the model was 2.10%, reflecting a relatively high accuracy of prediction. In practical pressing, the pressing pressure and time could be easily controlled, and the oils’ viscosity and the cake porosity could be changed by setting the pressing parameters, while the size of the cylinder was not easy to be changed once chosen, leading to the importance of cylinder radius. Based on the model for oil yield efficiency deduced in this paper, the analysis results of the relationship between oil yield efficiency and cylinder radius show that radius of cylinder should not be too large.

  18. Origins of oil seepages in the southern Guizhou Depression, SW China: Evidence from carbon isotopes, sulfur isotopes and biomarkers%黔南坳陷油苗来源:碳、硫同位素及生物标志物证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺训云; 蔡春芳; 姚根顺; 熊湘华; 沈安江; 向雷; 吴敬武

    2013-01-01

    为明确黔南坳陷不同层位油苗来源,在广泛采集不同层位烃源岩、油苗样品的基础上,采用GC、GC-MS及GC-IRMS等方法对其碳、硫同位素及生物标志物特征进行系统分析,进而开展了油源对比.结果表明:油苗的δ13C值为-33.04‰~-31.63‰,平均-32.26‰(n=18);δ34S值为+16.06‰~+23.06‰,平均+18.99‰(n=4);油苗遭受不同程度生物降解,常规甾、萜烷面貌特征差异较大,但普遍含有较丰富的三环萜烷、伽玛蜡烷、三芳甾烷、芳基类异戊二烯烃、惹烯和硫芴;C25三环萜烷/C24四环萜烷值、二苯并噻吩/菲与Pr/Ph相关图表明油苗为典型海相原油;Ts/(Ts +Tm)、C29甾烷20S/(20S+ 20R)及甲基菲指数等均表明油苗为成熟-高熟原油.研究区下寒武统牛蹄塘组黑色泥岩干酪根δ13C值为-35.79‰~-29.88‰,平均-32.85‰(n=35),与油苗相关性良好,而泥盆系、石炭系和二叠系烃源岩δ13C值显著偏重,均大于-29‰;下寒武统牛蹄塘组黑色泥岩干酪根δ34S值为+ 14.78‰~+ 17.60‰,平均+16.32‰(n=4),与油苗具有很好的可比性,而下、中泥盆统黑色泥岩干酪根δ34S值分别为-9.10‰~-6.78‰和+0.63‰~ +7.93‰,二叠系煤系地层有机质δ34S值为-7.40‰~+4.00‰,均显著偏轻.此外,下寒武统黑色泥岩普遍含有较丰富的伽玛蜡烷、三芳甾烷、芳基类异戊二烯烃和惹烯,三芴系列中硫芴含量极高,其它几套黑色泥岩则不合或贫含三芳甾烷和惹烯,伽玛蜡烷和硫芴含量亦较低.综合认为油苗具相同来源,且均与研究区下寒武统黑色泥岩具有较好亲缘关系.%An oil-source rock correlation method based on carbon isotopes, sulfur isotopes and biomarkers is described for potential source rocks and oil seepages in the southern Guizhou Depression to elucidate the origins of oil seepages. The results show that the oil seepages have bulk δ13C values from -33. 04‰ to -31. 63‰, average -32

  19. Oil spill contamination probability in the southeastern Levantine basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ron; Biton, Eli; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit; Levin, Noam

    2015-02-15

    Recent gas discoveries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea led to multiple operations with substantial economic interest, and with them there is a risk of oil spills and their potential environmental impacts. To examine the potential spatial distribution of this threat, we created seasonal maps of the probability of oil spill pollution reaching an area in the Israeli coastal and exclusive economic zones, given knowledge of its initial sources. We performed simulations of virtual oil spills using realistic atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The resulting maps show dominance of the alongshore northerly current, which causes the high probability areas to be stretched parallel to the coast, increasing contamination probability downstream of source points. The seasonal westerly wind forcing determines how wide the high probability areas are, and may also restrict these to a small coastal region near source points. Seasonal variability in probability distribution, oil state, and pollution time is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oil and Gas Well locations, Upper Colorado River Basin, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Federal onshore lands contain an estimated 20 percent of the oil and 25 percent of the undiscovered natural gas resources in the United States (U.S. Bureau of Land...

  1. Recultivation work in the oil shale basin of Estonia, USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luik, H.

    1980-01-01

    Soviet Estonia, situated in northwestern USSR has important mineral resources of oil shale, the majority of which is deep-mined. Recultivation of exhausted oil shale pits, begun in 1959, has proceeded at an average of 150 ha/yr. Selective mining is adopted, followed quickly by physical recontouring and cultivation work. Maintenance and improvement of soil fertility is emphasized. Afforestation is the main form of biological recultivation. The most successful trees have been Pinus sylvestris, Betula verrucosa, Larix europea, and Larix japonica.

  2. Formation mechanisms of heavy oils in the Liaohe Western Depression,Bohai Gulf Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Liaohe Oilfield in the Liaohe Western Depression of the Bohai Gulf Basin is the third-largest oil producing province and the largest heavy oil producing oilfield in China. A total of 65 oil samples,35 rock samples and 36 reservoir sandstone samples were collected and analyzed utilizing conventional geochemical and biogeochemical approaches to unravel the mechanisms of the formation of the heavy oils. Investigation of the oils with the lowest maturity compared with the oils in the Gaosheng and Niuxintuo oilfields indicates no apparent relation between the maturity and physical properties of the heavy oils. It is suggested that the heavy oil with primary origin is not likely the main mechanism re-sponsible for the majority of the heavy oils in the Liaohe Western Slope. The absence and/or depletion of n-alkanes etc.,with relatively low molecular weight and the occurrence of 25-norhopane series in the heavy oils as well as the relatively high acidity of the oils all suggest that the majority of the heavy oils once experienced secondary alteration. The fingerprints of the total scanning fluorescence (TSF) of the inner adsorbed hydrocarbons on the reservoir grains and the included hydrocarbons in fluid inclusions are similar to that of the normal oils in the area but are different from the outer adsorbed and reser-voired free oils at present,further indicating that most of the heavy oils are secondary in origin. Analyses of bacteria (microbes) in 7 oil samples indicate that anaerobic and hyperthermophilic Ar-chaeoglobus sp. are the dominant microbes relevant to oil biodegradation,which coincides with the shallow commercial gas reservoirs containing anaerobic bacteria derived gas in the Gaosheng and Leijia teotonic belts. The biodegradation most likely occurs at the water/oil interface,where the forma-tion water is essential for microbe removal and nutrient transportation. We think that biodegradation,water washing and oxidization are interrelated and are the main

  3. The Deep-Sea Microbial Community from the Amazonian Basin Associated with Oil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana E. Campeão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of oil production is the possibility of unplanned accidental oil spills; therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential of indigenous microorganisms (both prokaryotes and eukaryotes from different oceanic basins to degrade oil. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial response during the biodegradation process of Brazilian crude oil, both with and without the addition of the dispersant Corexit 9500, using deep-sea water samples from the Amazon equatorial margin basins, Foz do Amazonas and Barreirinhas, in the dark and at low temperatures (4°C. We collected deep-sea samples in the field (about 2570 m below the sea surface, transported the samples back to the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions (5°C in the dark and subsequently performed two laboratory biodegradation experiments that used metagenomics supported by classical microbiological methods and chemical analysis to elucidate both taxonomic and functional microbial diversity. We also analyzed several physical–chemical and biological parameters related to oil biodegradation. The concomitant depletion of dissolved oxygen levels, oil droplet density characteristic to oil biodegradation, and BTEX concentration with an increase in microbial counts revealed that oil can be degraded by the autochthonous deep-sea microbial communities. Indigenous bacteria (e.g., Alteromonadaceae, Colwelliaceae, and Alcanivoracaceae, archaea (e.g., Halobacteriaceae, Desulfurococcaceae, and Methanobacteriaceae, and eukaryotic microbes (e.g., Microsporidia, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota from the Amazonian margin deep-sea water were involved in biodegradation of Brazilian crude oil within less than 48-days in both treatments, with and without dispersant, possibly transforming oil into microbial biomass that may fuel the marine food web.

  4. The Deep-Sea Microbial Community from the Amazonian Basin Associated with Oil Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeão, Mariana E; Reis, Luciana; Leomil, Luciana; de Oliveira, Louisi; Otsuki, Koko; Gardinali, Piero; Pelz, Oliver; Valle, Rogerio; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane C

    2017-01-01

    One consequence of oil production is the possibility of unplanned accidental oil spills; therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential of indigenous microorganisms (both prokaryotes and eukaryotes) from different oceanic basins to degrade oil. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial response during the biodegradation process of Brazilian crude oil, both with and without the addition of the dispersant Corexit 9500, using deep-sea water samples from the Amazon equatorial margin basins, Foz do Amazonas and Barreirinhas, in the dark and at low temperatures (4°C). We collected deep-sea samples in the field (about 2570 m below the sea surface), transported the samples back to the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions (5°C in the dark) and subsequently performed two laboratory biodegradation experiments that used metagenomics supported by classical microbiological methods and chemical analysis to elucidate both taxonomic and functional microbial diversity. We also analyzed several physical-chemical and biological parameters related to oil biodegradation. The concomitant depletion of dissolved oxygen levels, oil droplet density characteristic to oil biodegradation, and BTEX concentration with an increase in microbial counts revealed that oil can be degraded by the autochthonous deep-sea microbial communities. Indigenous bacteria (e.g., Alteromonadaceae, Colwelliaceae, and Alcanivoracaceae), archaea (e.g., Halobacteriaceae, Desulfurococcaceae, and Methanobacteriaceae), and eukaryotic microbes (e.g., Microsporidia, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota) from the Amazonian margin deep-sea water were involved in biodegradation of Brazilian crude oil within less than 48-days in both treatments, with and without dispersant, possibly transforming oil into microbial biomass that may fuel the marine food web.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and Pripyat Basin Province, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 84 million barrels of crude oil, 4.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 130 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and 39 million barrels of crude oil, 48 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Pripyat Basin Province. The assessments are part of a program to estimate these resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  6. Molecular fossils and oil-source rock correlations in Tarim Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of "molecular fossils" (biomarkers) of steroid compounds in extracts from some specific geologic age in the Tarim Basin have been analyzed and are used as the fingerprints for the oil-source rock correlation. Having been affected by maturation, migration, phase fractionation and biodegradation, not any molecular fossils related to source and environment can be used as the fingerprints for oil-source rock correlation. Some special biomarkers widely existed in the extracts from Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in the Tarim Basin and showed obvious difference in each stratum, including dinosteranes (C30), 4-methyl-24-ethyl-cholestanes (C30) and their aromatized steroids, C24-norcholestanes and C28 steranes originated from dinoflagellates and diatom. Few oils such as the heavy oil drilled in the Cambrian reservoir from Tadong 2 well (TD2) correlated well with the extracts from the Cambrian. The amazing similarity of the relative contents of these compounds between the marine oils produced in Tazhong and Tabei uplifts and the extracts from the Upper Ordovician suggests that the Middle-Upper Ordovician is the very likely main source for the marine oils.

  7. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through

  8. Formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures in lacustrine biodegraded oil from Nanxiang Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pengfei; He, Sheng; Zhu, Shukui; Chai, Derong; Yin, Shiyan; Dai, Wei; Zhang, Wanfeng

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS) method has been developed for the formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) in lacustrine biodegraded oils that with the same source rock, similar maturity, and increasing degradation rank from Nanxiang Basin, China. Normal alkanes, light hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, steranes, and terpanes are degraded gradually from oil B330 to oil G574. The compounds in biodegraded oil (oil G574) have fewer types, the polarity difference of compounds in different types is minor, and the relative content of individual compounds is similar. All the features make the compounds in biodegraded oil coelute in GC analysis and form the raised "baseline hump" named UCMs. By injecting standard materials and analyzing mass spectrums of target compounds, it is shown that cyclic alkanes with one to five rings are the major components of UCMs. Furthermore, UCMs were divided into six classes. Classes I and II, composed of alkyl-cyclohexanes, alkyl-naphthanes, and their isomers, are originated from the enrichment of hydrocarbons resistant to degradation in normal oils. Classes III ~ VI, composed of sesquiterpenoids, tricyclic terpanes, low molecular steranes, diasteranes, norhopanes, and their isomers, are probably from some newly formed compounds during the microbial transformation of oil.

  9. Formation and Identification of Unresolved Complex Mixtures in Lacustrine Biodegraded Oil from Nanxiang Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS method has been developed for the formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs in lacustrine biodegraded oils that with the same source rock, similar maturity, and increasing degradation rank from Nanxiang Basin, China. Normal alkanes, light hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, steranes, and terpanes are degraded gradually from oil B330 to oil G574. The compounds in biodegraded oil (oil G574 have fewer types, the polarity difference of compounds in different types is minor, and the relative content of individual compounds is similar. All the features make the compounds in biodegraded oil coelute in GC analysis and form the raised “baseline hump” named UCMs. By injecting standard materials and analyzing mass spectrums of target compounds, it is shown that cyclic alkanes with one to five rings are the major components of UCMs. Furthermore, UCMs were divided into six classes. Classes I and II, composed of alkyl-cyclohexanes, alkyl-naphthanes, and their isomers, are originated from the enrichment of hydrocarbons resistant to degradation in normal oils. Classes III ~ VI, composed of sesquiterpenoids, tricyclic terpanes, low molecular steranes, diasteranes, norhopanes, and their isomers, are probably from some newly formed compounds during the microbial transformation of oil.

  10. Characteristics of Oil Sources from the Chepaizi Swell,Junggar Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Luofu; MENG Jianghui; ZHOU Jieli; LIU Guodong; KUANG Jun; WANG Ping; CHEN Zhijun; WANG Weibin; ZHAO Yande; WU Lin; JIN Jun; WANG Weili

    2010-01-01

    So far there has been no common opinion on oil source of the Chepaizi swell in the Junggar Basin.Therefore,it is difficult to determine the pathway system and trend of hydrocarbon migration,and this resulted in difficulties in study of oil-gas accumulation patterns.In this paper,study of nitrogen compounds distribution in oils from Chepaizi was carried out in order to classify source rocks of oils stored in different reservoirs in the study area.Then,migration characteristics of oils from the same source were investigated by using nitrogen compounds parameters.The results of nitrogen compounds in a group of oil/oil sand samples from the same source indicate that the oils trapped in the Chepaizi swell experienced an obvious vertical migration.With increasing migration distance,amounts and indices of carbazoles have a regular changing pattern(in a fine linear relationship).By using nitrogen compounds techniques,the analyzed oil/oil sand samples of Chepaizi can be classified into two groups.One is the samples stored in reservoir beds of the Cretaceous and Tertiary,and these oils came from mainly Jurassic source rock with a small amount of Cretaceous rock; the other is those stored in the Jurassic,Permian and Carboniferous beds,and they originated from the Permian source.In addition,a sample of oil from an upper Jurassic reservoir(Well Ka 6),which was generated from Jurassic coal source rock,has a totally different nitrogen compound distribution from those of the above-mentioned two groups of samples,which were generated from mudstone sources.Because of influence from fractionation of oil migration,amounts and ratios of nitrogen compounds with different structures and polarities change regularly with increasing migrating distance,and as a result the samples with the same source follow a good linear relationship in content and ratio,while the oil samples of different sources have obviously different nitrogen compound distribution owing to different organic matter types

  11. 大连地下石油储备库洞室群围岩稳定性及渗流场分析%ANALYSES OF SURROUNDING ROCK STABILITY OF CAVERN GROUP AND SEEPAGE FIELD AT DALIAN UNDERGROUND OIL STORAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于崇; 李海波; 周庆生

    2012-01-01

    为分析水封式大连地下石油储备库洞室群围岩稳定性及渗流场特征,首先基于现场地应力实测结果的回归分析,利用Fish语言编写函数,反演初始地应力场.其次,采用三维离散元程序3DEC生成三维节理网络模型,反演库区初始渗流场的各向异性特征.最后,利用应力与渗流耦合模块实施开挖仿真计算,获取围岩应力场、位移场变化特征.考虑平行、垂直层理面不同材料特性,基于带有抗拉的Mohr-Coulomb强度储备型点安全系数,定量评价洞室群的稳定性.借鉴国外水封效果评价标准,分别从地下水位线和垂直水力坡降2个方面,分析渗流场变化特征.研究表明:在洞室周边平行层理面点安全系数为1.02~1.25,垂直层理面点安全系数为1.95~2.00.在补水隧道及注水孔组成的人工水幕系统作用下,建设期内地下水位下降3~5 m,地下水位距洞室顶55 m.开挖洞室附近平均垂直水力坡降大于1.0,满足设计规范及密封性要求.%Aiming at analyses of surrounding rock stability of cavern group and seepage field characteristics at Dalian water-tight underground oil storage, firstly, based on regression analysis of in-situ stress testing data, initial in-situ stress field inversion is conducted with functions defined with program language Fish. Secondly, after three-dimensional random joint networks with different sizes are generated with 3DEC. a new method of calculating the anisotropy permeability is proposed. Finally, stress field and displacement field of surrounding rocks are gained using coupled fluid and mechanical excavation calculations. Based on point safety factor, whose criterion is the Mohr-Coulomb one with the tensile strength, cavern group stability is quantitatively evaluated considering parallel and vertical bedding planes owing to different materials characteristics. Referring to ideas from abroad, seepage field is analyzed by groundwater table and vertical

  12. Biodegradation and origin of oil sands in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shuqing; Huang Haiping; Liu Yuming

    2008-01-01

    The oil sands deposits in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) comprise of at least 85% of the total immobile bitumen in place in the world and are so concentrated as to be virtually the only such deposits that are economically recoverable for conversion to oil.The major deposits are in three geographic and geologic regions of Alberta: Athabasca,Cold Lake and Peace River.The bitumen reserves have oil gravities ranging from 8 to 12° API,and are hosted in the reservoirs of varying age,ranging from Devonian (Grosmont Formation) to Early Cretaceous (Mannville Group).They were derived from light oils in the southern Alberta and migrated to the north and east for over 100 km during the Laramide Orogeny,which was responsible for the uplift of the Rocky Mountains.Biodegradation is the only process that transforms light oil into bitumen in such a dramatic way that overshadowed other alterations with minor contributions.The levels of biodegradation in the basin increasing from west (non-biodegraded) to east (extremely biodegraded) can be attributed to decreasing reservoir temperature,which played the primary role in controlling the biodegradation regime.Once the reservoir was heated to approximately 80 ℃,it was pasteurized and no biodegradation would further occur.However,reservoir temperature could not alone predict the variations of the oil composition and physical properties.Compositional gradients and a wide range of biodegradation degree at single reservoir column indicate that the water-leg size or the volume ratio of oil to water is one of the critical local controls for the vertical variations of biodegradation degree and oil physical properties.Late charging and mixing of the fresh and degraded oils ultimately dictate the final distribution of compositions and physical properties found in the heavy oil and oil sand fields.Oil geochemistry can reveal precisely the processes and levels that control these variations in a given field,which opens the

  13. Geochemistry of selected oils and rocks from the central portion of the West Siberian basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, K.E.; Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)); Kontorovich, A.Eh.; Andrusevich, V.E. (Inst. of Geology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Moldowan, J.M. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Demaison, G.J. (Petroscience Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)); Stasova, O.F. (NPO SIBGEO, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation))

    1993-05-01

    Six analyzed oils, produced from Middle jurassic to Upper Cretaceous strata in the Middle Ob region of the West Siberian basin, show biomarker and stable carbon isotope compositions indicating an origin from the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation. The chemical compositions of these oils are representative of more than 85% of the reserves in West Siberia (Kontorovich et al., 1975). Bazhenov-sourced oil in Cenomanian strata in the Van-Egan field underwent biodegradation in the reservoir, resulting in a low API gravity, an altered homohopane distribution, and the appearance of 25-norhopanes without alteration of the steranes. High API gravity oil from the Salym field has surpassed the peak of the oil window, consistent with abnormally high temperatures and pressures in the Bazhenov source rock from which it is produced. The remaining oils are very similar, including samples from Valanginian and Bathonian-Callovian intervals in a sequence of stacked reservoirs in the Fedorov field. Bazhenov rock samples from the study area contain abundant oil-prone, marine organic matter preserved under anoxic conditions. While the Upper Jurassic Vasyugan Formation shows lower oil-regenerative potential than the Bazhenov Formation, it cannot be excluded as a source rock because insufficient sample was available for biomarker analysis. Core from the Lower to Middle Jurassic Tyumen Formation in the YemYegov 15 well was compared with the oils because it is thermally mature and shows TOC and HI values, indicating slightly more favorable oil-generative characteristics than the average for the formation (2.75 wt. % for 270 samples; 95 mg HC/g TOC for 25 samples). The core contains terrigenous, gas-prone organic matter that shows no relationship with the analyzed oils. 59 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Sequential extraction and compositional analysis of oil-bearing fluid inclusions in reservoir rocks from Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The free oils, adsorbed oils and oil-bearing fluid inclusions have been extracted separately and analyzed by GC and GC-MS in reservoir rock samples collected from the Kuche Depression. The results demonstrate that the molecular compositions of oil-bearing fluid inclusions are significantly different from those of the free oils (the current oils). Compared with the current oil, the oil-bearing fluid inclusions are characterized by relatively high values of parameters Pr/nC17and Ph/nC18, low values of Pr/Ph, hopanes/steranes, C30-diahopane/C30-hopane and Ts/Tm, low content of C29Ts terpane and high maturities as indicated by C29 steranes 20S/(20R+20S). In addition, the oil-bearing fluid inclusions correlate very well with the oils in northern and central Tarim Basin, which were derived from Cambrian-Ordovician marine source rocks. The adsorbedoils appear to be an intermediate type between free oils and oil-bearing fluid inclusions. The above analytical data indicate that there are at least two oil-charging episodes for these reservoir rock samples. The early charging oils were derived from Cambrian-Ordovician marine source rocks, and the later charging oils, from Triassic-Jurassic terrestrial source rocks. The primary marine oils were overwhelmingly diluted by the following terrestrial oils.

  15. Asphalts, heavy oils, ozocerite and gases in the Dead Sea basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.; Goldberg, M.

    1980-10-01

    Solid, liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons occur throughout the Dead Sea Basin (Israel and Jordan) both in surface exposures and in drillings. The unaltered asphalts and heavy oils are characterized by very high sulfur content (ca. 11%) low content of n-paraffins, pristane to phytane ratio of 0.5 and by containing almost exclusively VO-porphyrins. The distribution of n-paraffins in samples from deep sources shows a smooth envelope maximizing at C/sub 15-20/. Surface and shallow samples show clear evidence of biodegradation. The ozokerite, known only from the east side of the basin, is composed primarily of long chain n-paraffins with a maximum at C/sub 39/. The gases known from the southern margin of the basin are composed mostly of methane. Two hypotheses concerning the source for the bitumens are discussed. Refs.

  16. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  17. Kinetics of oil-cracking for different types of marine oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anlai Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The C1–C5 gas and carbon isotope ratios generated during the cracking of heavy, normal and high-waxy marine oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China, using a closed-gold tube system under high pressure were presented. The three types of oil tested resulted in a similar gas-generation process. The C2–C5 range initially increased its yield with the application of pyrolysis temperature and thereafter decreased, while the C1 yield increased with the same application. High-waxy oil had the highest C1–C5 yield of 510 mg/goil, whereas heavy oil had the lowest C1–C5 yield of 316 mg/goil. The δ13C1 value was low at first, but gradually became higher as the pyrolysis temperature increased. However, the δ13C2 and δ13C3 values gradually became higher when the temperature was greater than 420 °C. The kinetic parameters of the C1–C5 gas generation for the different types of marine oils were then calculated using KINETIC software. This calculation resulted in a frequency factor of about 1.78 × 1014 s−1, while the distribution of the activation energy of the C1–C5 gas mass generated was relatively narrow with a range from 56 to 66 kcal/mol. Among the three types of oil tested, heavy oil had the widest activation energy distribution and the lowest major frequency of activation energy. The maximum temperature at which oil could be preserved as a separate oil phase varied from about 178 °C at a slow geological heating rate to 206 °C at a fast geological heating rate. This result is based on the kinetic parameters determined and in combination with the fractional conversion (C of oil to gas. Testing conducted at the volatile Middle Cambrian reservoir of well Zhongshen 1 in the Tazhong Uplift strongly supported this conclusion.

  18. Geochemical Study of Oils and Oil Source Rock from the Eastern Drava and Slavonija-Srijem Depressions, Pannonian Basin, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    A. Alajbeg, Anđa; A. Moldowan, Michael; J. Demaison, Gerard; Jelaska, Vladimir; Brodić-Jakupak, Željka; Svilković, Dubravko; J. Huizinga, Bradley

    1996-01-01

    A Middle Miocene oil source rock has been identified by geochemicallogging of exploration wells in the Eastern Drava depression (EDD) and in the Slavonija-Srijem depression (SSD) at the south-east margin of the Pannonian Basin, Croatia. The source rock contains Type II to II/III kerogen and reaches early maturity stage at depths of about 2400 m. The Mesozoic sequences were found either to be absent or to be poor in organic matter within the analysed wells.According to C27-C28-C29 sterane and ...

  19. Oil exploration and development in Marib/Al Jawf basin, Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maycock, I.D.

    1988-02-01

    In 1981, Yemen Hunt Oil Company (YHOC) negotiated a production-sharing agreement covering 12,600 km/sup 2/ in the northeast part of the Yemen Arab Republic. A reconnaissance seismic program of 1864 km acquired in 1982 revealed the presence of a major half graben, designated the Marib/Al Jawf basin by YHOC. A sedimentary section up to 18,000 ft thick has been recognized. Geologic field mapping identified Jurassic carbonates covered by Cretaceous sands overlying Permian glaciolacustrine sediments, Paleozoic sandstones, or Precambrian basement. The first well, Alif-1, drilled in 1984, aimed at a possible Jurassic carbonate objective, encountered hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition between 5000 and 6000 ft. Appraisal and development drilling followed. The Alif field is believed to contain in excess of 400 million bbl of recoverable oil. Subsequent wildcat drilling has located additional accumulations while further amplifying basin stratigraphy. Rapid basin development took place in the Late Jurassic culminating with the deposition of Tithonian salt. The evaporites provide an excellent seal for hydrocarbons apparently sourced from restricted basin shales and trapped in rapidly deposited clastics.

  20. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  1. Evolution of overpressured and underpressured oil and gas reservoirs, Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma, Texas, and Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Phillip H.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Departures of resistivity logs from a normal compaction gradient indicate that overpressure previously extended north of the present-day overpressured zone. These indicators of paleopressure, which are strongest in the deep basin, are mapped to the Kansas-Oklahoma border in shales of Desmoinesian age. The broad area of paleopressure has contracted to the deep basin, and today the overpressured deep basin, as determined from drillstem tests, is bounded on the north by strata with near normal pressures (hydrostatic), grading to the northwest to pressures that are less than hydrostatic (underpressured). Thus the pressure regime in the northwest portion of the Anadarko Basin has evolved from paleo-overpressure to present-day underpressure. Using pressure data from drillstem tests, we constructed cross sections and potentiometric maps that illustrate the extent and nature of present-day underpressuring. Downcutting and exposure of Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian strata along, and east of, the Nemaha fault zone in central Oklahoma form the discharge locus where pressure reaches near atmospheric. From east to west, hydraulic head increases by several hundred feet in each rock formation, whereas elevation increases by thousands of feet. The resulting underpressuring of the aquifer-supported oil and gas fields, which also increases from east to west, is a consequence of the vertical separation between surface elevation and hydraulic head. A 1,000-ft thick cap of Permian evaporites and shales isolates the underlying strata from the surface, preventing re-establishment of a normal hydrostatic gradient. Thus, the present-day pressure regime of oil and gas reservoirs, overpressured in the deep basin and underpressured on the northwest flank of the basin, is the result of two distinct geologic events-rapid burial and uplift/erosion-widely separated in time.

  2. Depositional Environment of the Sangkarewang Oil Shale, Ombilin Basin, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Anggayana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Five samples from 56 m long drill core of lacustrine Sangkarewang oil shale have been studied by means of petrography and organic geochemistry to investigate the organic matter composition and depositional environments of the shale. The organic matter consists of abundant lamalginite (30%, v/v and very limited amount of vitrinite, suggesting aquatic depositional environments with minor terrestrial influence. Organic geochemical analysis exhibits the dominance of pristane, phytane, and generally n-alkanes compounds. These compounds might originate mostly from aquatic photosynthetic organisms. The oil shale was likely deposited in anoxic lake environments, suggested by the presence of framboidal pyrite (6%, v/v and preserved organic matter with total organic carbon (TOC about 4.9%. The pristane/phytane ratio is relatively high about 3.9 and thought as source sensitive rather than redox sensitive. Hopanoid and aryl isoprenoid compounds are present in minor amounts. The latter compounds are interpreted to be derived from green sulfur bacteria dwelling in anoxic and the presence of H2S in bottom water.

  3. Geochemical Characteristics and its Geological Significance of Oil Shale from the Youganwo Formation, Maoming Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Nansheng

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical elements of oil shale in the Maoming Basin were analyzed to discuss provenance attribute and depositional environment of the Youganwo formation. Experimental date of the major elements, trace elements and rare earth elements of 24 samples from the Maoye 1 well were examined.The analyzed oil shale samples were characterized by enrichment of Th, U, Pb and LREE, depleted of Zr, Cr and Hf,negative Eu and Ce anomalies, indicating that these samples were originated from continental crust. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) values and the Zr/Sc-Th/Sc diagrams indicate that source rocks had undergone intense chemical weathering and deposition recirculation. Based on the La/Th-Hf and La/Yb-∑REE diagrams and the negative anomaly of Eu element, the oil shale in the Maoming Basin has diverse sources, which mainly came from felsic source region of the upper crust or the mixture of felsic volcanic rocks, granite and sedimentary rocks. Ratios of the Sr/Cu, MgO/CaO suggest that oil shale was formed in fresh water under warm and humid climate, shallow water column became deeper during the middle and late sedimentary period. The depositional environment is interpreted to be limnetic with weak reduction at the early stage and gradually turned into semi-deep to deep lacustrine.

  4. Micellar-polymer for enhanced oil recovery for Upper Assam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Das

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major enhanced oil recovery (EOR processes is chemical flooding especially for the depleted reservoirs. Chemical flooding involves injection of various chemicals like surfactant, alkali, polymer etc. to the aqueous media. Bhogpara and Nahorkatiya are two depleted reservoirs of upper Assam basin where chemical flooding can be done to recover the trapped oil that cannot be recovered by conventional flooding process. Micellar-polymer (MP flooding involves injection of micelle and polymer to the aqueous phase to reduce interfacial tension and polymer is added to control the mobility of the solution, which helps in increasing both displacement and volumetric sweep efficiency and thereby leads to enhanced oil recovery. This work represents the use of black liquor as micelle or surfactant that is a waste product of Nowgong Paper Mills, Jagiroad, Assam, which is more efficient than the synthetic surfactants. The present study examines the effect of MP flooding through the porous media of two depleted oil fields of upper Assam basin i.e. Bhogpara and Nahorkatiya for MP EOR. This work also compares the present MP flood with the earlier work done on surfactant (S flooding. It was experimentally determined that the MP flood is more efficient EOR process for Bhogpara and Nahorkatiya reservoirs. The study will pertain to the comprehensive interfacial tension (IFT study and the displacement mechanism in conventional core samples.

  5. Multivariate statisticalmethods applied to interpretation of saturated biomarkers (Velebit oil field, SE Pannonian Basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA SOLEVIC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five crude oils originating from the Velebit oil field (SE Pannonian Basin, the most important oil field in Serbia, were investigated. Saturated biomarkers (n-alkanes, isoprenoids, steranes and triterpanes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Based on the distribution and abundance of these compounds, a large number of source and maturation parameters were calculated, particularly those most often used in correlation studies of oils. The examined samples were classified according to their origin and level of thermal maturity using factor, cluster and discriminant analyses. According to the source and maturation parameters, combined factor and cluster analyses using the Ward method enabled the categorization of the investigated oils into three groups. The cluster Ward analysis was shown to be of greater susceptibility and reliability. However, in addition to the two aforementioned methods, K-Means cluster analysis and discriminant analysis were shown to be necessary for a more precise and detailed categorization in the case of a large number of samples in one group. Consequently, it was concluded that factor and cluster K-Means andWard analyses can generally be used for the interpretation of saturated biomarkers in correlation studies of oils, but the observed results have to be checked, i.e., confirmed by discriminant analysis.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  7. Lithostratigraphy of oil-bearing tertiary bioherms in the Sirte Basin, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumati, Y.D. (UAE Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-07-01

    In the early Palaeocene, a carbonate platform existed in the southern part of the Sirte Trough (a NW-trending depression in the eastern Sirte Basin), and a shale basin in the north. A major transgression occurred during the early Palaeocene, and part of the platform subsided, resulting in the formation of a basinal re-entrant within the carbonate province. A positive northerly-trending ridge, which was active in the early Palaeocene, persisted within the re-entrant during the late Palaeocene. This positive element provided a platform on which isolated bioherms grew, surrounded by shale deposits in the subsiding basin. The bioherms began as foraminiferal banks that built-out on local mounds in shallow water. Sparse coral growth bound coralline detritus, until richer coral development resulted in a large coral reef. A barrier reef surrounding the re-entrant developed during the late Palaeocene and grew basinwards, advancing over its own talus. A second major transgression closed the Palaeocene epoch, and clastic deposition over the Sirte Trough terminated reef growth and carbonate deposition. The reef, back-reef and basinal environments are each characterized by distinctive lithologies and fauna. The bioherms form excellent hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Intisar A and D fields, which are probably sourced by the Sirte and Hagfa Shales. Six bioherms, some in excess of 300 m in thickness, have been discovered, and some contain commercial oil accumulations. (author)

  8. Biological marker and conventional organic geochemistry of oil sands/heavy oils, Western Canada Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, P.W.; Fowler, M.G.; Macqueen, R.W. (Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Alberta (Canada))

    1988-01-01

    Forty-three samples of oil sands/heavy oils from most of the major Cretaceous deposits and the Upper Devonian Grosmont Formation of the underlying carbonate trend, have been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Major organic geochemical differences observed between samples/deposits include the presence or absence on n-alkanes and isoprenoid alkanes, together with changes in the distributions of biological marker compounds. These differences reflect the degree of biodegradation suffered by the deposits. Three geochemical factors demonstrate that at least the Cretaceous samples are strikingly similar to one another, once the effects of biodegradation are discounted. These factors are the carbon number distribution of steroidal alkanes (C{sub 27}, C{sub 28}, and C{sub 29} diasteranes); the presence of 28,30-bisnorhopanes; and the relative abundance of 28,30-bisnorhopanes and gammacerane as compared with the ubiquitous 17{alpha}(H)-hopanes. These distinctive biomarker compositions and ratios indicate that the same or very similar sources generated the Cretaceous oil sands/heavy oils, despite the enormous volumes and their widespread geographic and stratigraphic distribution. The extent of isomerization of regular steranes and hopanes indicates that the bitumens show the same general level of maturity. All these data suggest that the Cretaceous bitumens were derived from a mature, conventional oil which was in turn derived from a presently unknown source facies. This oil must have migrated over large distances, suffering extensive biodegradation in place and possibly during migration.

  9. STABILITY ANALYSIS OF RIVERBANK SUBJECT TO SEEPAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LU; Yongjun LU; Xingnong ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    The stability of riverbanks subject to seepage is studied experimentally and theoretically in this paper. By including seepage in a 3-dimensional theoretical analysis, the study first shows how the critical slope or angle of repose of a cohesionless material is related to the ratio of the hydraulic gradient of seepage to its critical value under the fluidization condition. The critical stable slope is shown to be related to not only the hydraulic gradient but also the seepage direction. Measured laboratory data reasonably fit well with the theoretical relationship for the case of injection and suction. The data reveal that the slope is reduced with injection and increased with suction, respectively. Additionally, the study identifies the seepage direction which results in a minimum critical stable slope for a certain hydraulic gradient of seepage.

  10. Depletion and biodegradation of hydrocarbons in dispersions and emulsions of the Macondo 252 oil generated in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd G; Daling, Per S; Faksness, Liv-G; Almås, Inger K; Vang, Siv-H; Syslak, Line; Leirvik, Frode

    2014-07-15

    Physically and chemically (Corexit 9500) generated Macondo 252 oil dispersions, or emulsions (no Corexit), were prepared in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin at 30-32 °C, and studies of oil compound depletion performed for up to 15 days. The use of Corexit 9500 resulted in smaller median droplet size than in a physically generated dispersion. Rapid evaporation of low boiling point oil compounds (C⩽15) appeared in all the experiments. Biodegradation appeared to be an important depletion process for compounds with higher boiling points in the dispersions, but was negligible in the surface emulsions. While n-alkane biodegradation was faster in chemically than in physically dispersed oil no such differences were determined for 3- and 4-ring PAH compounds. In the oil dispersions prepared by Corexit 9500, increased cell concentrations, reduction in bacterial diversity, and a temporary abundance of bacteria containing an alkB gene were associated with oil biodegradation.

  11. Hydrodynamism, crude oil distribution and geochemistry of the stratigraphic column in a transect of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallango, O.; Escandon, M.; Alberdi, M. (Intevep, S.A. Caracas (Venezuela)); Parnaud, F.; Pascual, J.C. (Beicip, Rueil Malmaison (France))

    1992-01-01

    The hydrocarbon accumulation history in a transect of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin is closely related to the generation and migration process as a consequence of the stratigraphic, structural and tectonic evolution of the basin during the Cretaceous and Cenozoic times. Thermal maturity assessment based on kinetic parameters using the appropriate software indicates that the generation of oil from the marine facies of the Querecual and San Antonio source rocks in the northern part of the basin took place during early Paleocene to early Miocene times prior to the start of thrusting, while the second and third phase occurred during middle Miocene to recent times in zones beneath the principal thrust in the Maturing area. The third phase of oil generation is associated with the latter thrusts which are out of sequence. Taking into consideration the development of the oil and gas kitchen through time, the hydrodynamism, the characteristics and distribution of the hydrocarbons, the migration of oil and gas have been outlined. The major differences observed among the oils, are due to maturity and post-accumulation processes such as oil mixing and biodegradation. A wide range of thermal maturity was observed in the oils, which is mainly due to the thermal stress experienced by the source rock. Association of light crudes with meteoric waters have been observed, as well as heavy to extra-heavy crudes with connate waters at greater depth. These unusual associations of crudes and formation waters are related to the hydrodynamical regime in the basin.

  12. Revegetation research on oil shale lands in the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Satisfactory stands of vegetation failed to establish on unleached retorted shale during two successive years of seeding. All seedings with soil over retorted shale were judged to be successful at the end of three growing seasons, but deep-rooted shrubs that depend upon subsoil moisture may have their growth hampered by the retorted shale substrate. Natural revegetation on areas with various degrees of disturbance shows that natural invasion and succession was slow at best. Invasion of species on disturbed topsoil plots showed that after three years introduced seed mixtures were more effective than native mixtures in occupying space and closing the community to invading species. Fertilizer appears to encourage the invasion of annual plants even after the third year following application. Long-term storage of topsoil without vegetation significantly decreases the mycorrhizal infection potential and, therefore, decreases the relative success of aboveground vegetation and subsequent succession. Ecotypic differentation related to growth and competitive ability, moisture stress tolerance, and reproductive potential have been found in five native shrub species. Germplasm sources of two grasses and two legumes, that have shown promise as revegetation species, have been collected and evaluated for the production of test seed. Fertilizer (nitrogen) when added to the soil at the time of planting may encourage competition from annual weeds to the detriment of seeded species.

  13. Relationship between deep structure and oil-gas in the eastern Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changqing; Qu, Chen; Han, Jianguang

    2017-04-01

    The Tarim Basin is a large composite superimposed basin which developed in the Presinian continental basement. It is an important area for oil and gas replacement in China. In the eastern part of Tarim Basin, the exploration and research degree is very low and less system, especially in the study of tectonic evolution and physical property change. Basing on the study of geophysics, drilling and regional geological data in this area, analysis of comprehensive geophysical, geological and geophysical analysis comparison are lunched by new methods and new technology of geophysical exploration. Fault, tectonic evolution and change of deep character in the eastern Tarim Basin are analyzed in system. Through in-depth study and understanding of the deep structure and physical changes of the eastern region, we obtain the fault characteristics in the study area and the deep structure and physical change maps to better guide the oil and gas exploration in this area. The east area is located in the eastern Tarim Basin, west from the Garr Man depression, Well Kunan 1 - Well Gucheng 4 line to the East, north to Kuruketage uplift group near Qunke 1 wells, south to Cherchen fault zone, east to Lop Nor depression, an area of about 9 * 104 square kilometres, Including the East of Garr Man sag, Yingjisu depression, Kongquehe slope, Tadong low uplift and the Lop Nor uplift, five two grade tectonic units. The east area of Tarim is belonging to Tarim plate. It changes with the evolution of the Tarim plate. The Tarim plate is closely related to the collision between the Yining - the Junggar plate, the Siberia plate and the southern Qiangtang - the central Kunlun plate. Therefore, it creates a complex tectonic pattern in the eastern Tarim basin. Earth electromagnetic, gravity, deep seismic and other geophysical data are processed by a new generation of geophysical information theory and method, including multi-scale inversion of potential field inversion (Hou and Yang, 2011), 3D

  14. A seepage erosion sediment transport function and geometric headcut relationships for predicting seepage erosion undercutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepage erosion is an important factor in hillslope instability and failure. However, predicting erosion by subsurface flow or seepage and incorporating its effects into stability models remain a challenge. Limitations exist with all existing seepage erosion sediment transport functions, including n...

  15. Effective Stress-Porosity Relationship above and Within the Oil Window in the North Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Okiongbo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effective stress - porosity relationship above and within the oil window in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF in the North Sea Basin (UK using effective stress and porosity determined from wireline logs and pore pressure data. Porosity was determined from an empirical porosity - sonic transit - time transform, calibrated using shale and mudstone core porosity measurements from Jurassic shales in the North Sea. Effective stress was determined from the total overburden stress and pore pressure. The total overburden stress was calculated by integration of the density log. The results show that porosity range between ~11-20% in the pre-generation zone but decreased to <5% within the oil window. Compaction coefficient ($ values above the oil window vary from ~0.08-0.09 M/Pa, but vary from ~0.05-0.06 M/Pa within the oil window implying that deeper burial and a high degree of chemical precipitation and cementation has created a stiff matrix giving rise to low $ values. The effective stress-porosity relationship above and within the oil window reflects a possible decrease in effective stress occasioned by increase in porosity in the pregeneration zone.

  16. Three-dimensional oil dispersion model in the Campos Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bernardo Lopes Almeida de; Netto, Theodoro Antoun; Assad, Luiz Paulo de Freitas

    2017-03-09

    This paper presents the physical and mathematical formulation of a three-dimensional oil dispersion model that calculates the trajectory from the seafloor to the sea surface, its assumptions and constraints. It was developed by researchers who are familiar with oil spill dispersion and mathematical analysis. Oil dispersion is calculated through two computational routines. The first calculates the vertical dispersion along the water column and resamples the droplets when the oil reaches the surface. The second calculates the surface displacement of the spill. This model is based on the Eulerian approach, and it uses numerical solution schemes in time and in space to solve the equation for advective-diffusive transport. A case study based on an actual accident that happened in the Campos Basin, in Rio de Janeiro state, considering the instant spill of 1000 m(3) was used to evaluate the proposed model. After calculating the vertical transport, it was estimated that the area covered by the oil spill on the surface was about 35,685 m². After calculating the dispersion at the surface, the plume area was estimated as 20% of the initial area, resulting in a final area of 28,548 m².

  17. High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Peter M.; Brown, Steven S.; Roberts, James M.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Banta, Robert M.; Degouw, Joost A.; Dubé, William P.; Field, Robert A.; Flynn, James H.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Graus, Martin; Helmig, Detlev; Koss, Abigail; Langford, Andrew O.; Lefer, Barry L.; Lerner, Brian M.; Li, Rui; Li, Shao-Meng; McKeen, Stuart A.; Murphy, Shane M.; Parrish, David D.; Senff, Christoph J.; Soltis, Jeffrey; Stutz, Jochen; Sweeney, Colm; Thompson, Chelsea R.; Trainer, Michael K.; Tsai, Catalina; Veres, Patrick R.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Warneke, Carsten; Wild, Robert J.; Young, Cora J.; Yuan, Bin; Zamora, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts

  18. High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Peter M; Brown, Steven S; Roberts, James M; Ahmadov, Ravan; Banta, Robert M; deGouw, Joost A; Dubé, William P; Field, Robert A; Flynn, James H; Gilman, Jessica B; Graus, Martin; Helmig, Detlev; Koss, Abigail; Langford, Andrew O; Lefer, Barry L; Lerner, Brian M; Li, Rui; Li, Shao-Meng; McKeen, Stuart A; Murphy, Shane M; Parrish, David D; Senff, Christoph J; Soltis, Jeffrey; Stutz, Jochen; Sweeney, Colm; Thompson, Chelsea R; Trainer, Michael K; Tsai, Catalina; Veres, Patrick R; Washenfelder, Rebecca A; Warneke, Carsten; Wild, Robert J; Young, Cora J; Yuan, Bin; Zamora, Robert

    2014-10-16

    The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts

  19. Oil exploration and development in Marib/Al Jawf basin, Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maycock, I.D.

    1986-07-01

    In 1981, Yemen Hunt Oil Company (YHOC) negotiated a production-sharing agreement covering 12,600 km/sup 2/ in the northeast part of the Yemen Arab Republic. A reconnaissance seismic program of 1864 km acquired in 1982 revealed the presence of a major half graben, designated the Marib/Al Jawf basin by YHOC. A sedimentary section up to 18,000 ft thick has been recognized. Geologic field mapping identified Jurassic carbonates covered by Cretaceous sands overlying Permian glaciolacustrine sediments, Paleozoic sandstones, or Precambrian basement. The first well drilled in 1984, aimed at a possible Jurassic carbonate objective, encountered hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition between 5000 and 6000 ft. A successful appraisal drilling program has demonstrated satisfactory lateral reservoir continuity. Further wildcat drilling demonstrates macro-unit correlation within the eastern part of the basin. Rapid basin development apparently commenced in the late Kimmeridgian, culminating with the deposition of Tithonian evaporites. Available geochemical analysis indicates sourcing from restricted-basin sediments. Excellent traps, reservoirs, and source beds underlying the Tithonian evaporites indicate that a significant new petroliferous province is present.

  20. Microfossils and molecular records in oil shales of the Songliao Basin and implications for paleo-depositional environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Several oil shale beds, over 10 m thick, occur at the base of the first member of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1) in the Songliao Basin. They act both as excellent source rocks for conventional oil and as potential oil deposit for shale oil production. Here we combine micropaleon-tology with organic geochemistry to investigate the paleo-depositional environment and organic source characteristics of the oil shales and black shales. Our results indicate that algal remains are dominant microfossils in K2qn1 oil shales, and their relatively high abundance suggests a major algal thriving event during the oil shale deposition. The presence of fresh water and brackish water species, Sentusidinium, Vesperopsis and Nyktericysta, and marine or brackish water deltaic and lagoonal species such as Kiokansium and Dinogymniopsis demonstrate that this paleo-continental lake was influenced by marine transgressions at the time of K2qn1 oil shale formation. The extremely low pristine/phytane ratios, relatively high abundance of gammacerane and 4-methyl steranes, and low δ 13C values of C14-C37 n-alkanes in the oil shale organic extracts indicate the deposition of oil shales in anoxic and highly stratified water columns and the significant contribution of lacustrine algae to sedimentary organic matter. High molecular-weight paraffinic hydrocarbons with unusually high abundance of nC43, nC45, and nC47 may be related to special algal species associated with marine transgression events. The giant water body of Songliao paleo-lake and the change in the organic and chemical environment (such as nutrition source and water column salinity) associated with seawater transgression into the lake are among the most important reasons for oil shales in the Songliao Basin being different from mudstone and oil shale in other rifted basins.

  1. Genesis and distribution of hydrogen sulfide in deep heavy oil of the Halahatang area in the Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyou Zhu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As the largest oil-and-gas-bearing basin in China, the Tarim Basin contains rich oil and gas resources buried deep underground. In recent years, large oil fields have been discovered in the Halahatang area of the northern Tarim Basin. The reservoir is buried 6000–7300 m underground. This reservoir is dominated by the Ordovician carbonate rocks, and the crude oil is mainly heavy oil. As a crude oil-associated gas, the natural gas generally contains hydrogen sulfide (H2S. The heavy oil in this region is the deepest buried heavy oil found in the world. H2S is also associated with the deepest buried natural gas. The burial, preservation and degree of biodegradation of a paleo-reservoir can be used to predict the distribution of H2S. According to research findings, there is a clear planar distribution pattern of H2S content: high in the east and north, and low in the west and south. We compared the physical properties of crude oil and the analysis of the composition of natural gas and isotopes, biomarker compounds of crude oil and groundwater. We find that the content of H2S in natural gas bears some relation to the physical properties and degree of biodegradation of crude oil. Crude oil density, sulfur content, colloid, and asphaltene have positive correlations with H2S content in natural gas. The formation of H2S is controlled by the degradation and densification of crude oil. Crude oil densification can lead to an increase of the sulfur content. The rise in the temperature of the reservoir resulting from the depth of burial causes the thermal decomposition of sulfur compounds to produce H2S. The generation of H2S by the thermal decomposition of sulfur compounds is confirmed by data on sulfur isotopes. The distribution of H2S can then be predicted based on the burial conditions of the paleo-reservoir and the degree of biodegradation. In the south Rewapu of the Halahatang area, the thick cap rock of the Ordovician oil reservoir was preserved well

  2. Geochemical Characteristics and Origins of the Crude Oil of Triassic Yanchang Formation in Southwestern Yishan Slope, Ordos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker compounds that derived from early living organisms play an important role in oil and gas geochemistry and exploration since they can record the diagenetic evolution of the parent materials of crude oil and reflect the organic geochemical characteristics of crude oil and source rocks. To offer scientific basis for oil exploration and exploitation for study area, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method is applied to study the biomarker compounds of crude oil in Southwestern Yishan Slope of Ordos Basin, through qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing separated materials. The crude oil of Yanchang Formation and the source rocks of Yan’an and Yanchang Formation were collected in order to systematically analyze the characteristics of the biomarker compounds in saturated hydrocarbon fractions and clarify the organic geochemical characteristics of crude oil. The distribution and composition of various types of hydrocarbon biomarker compounds in crude oil suggest that the parent materials of crude oil are composed of hydrobiont and terrigenous plants, and the crude oil is mature oil which is formed in the weak reducing fresh water environment. Oil source correlation results show that the crude oil of Yanchang Formation in Yishan Slope is sourced from the source rocks of Chang 7 subformation.

  3. Assessment of In-Place Oil Shale Resources of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pantea, Michael P.; Self, Jesse G.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a reassessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of richness, in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado. A considerable amount of oil-yield data has been collected after previous in-place assessments were published, and these data were incorporated into this new assessment. About twice as many oil-yield data points were used, and several additional oil shale intervals were included that were not assessed previously for lack of data. Oil yields are measured using the Fischer assay method. The Fischer assay method is a standardized laboratory test for determining the oil yield from oil shale that has been almost universally used to determine oil yields for Green River Formation oil shales. Fischer assay does not necessarily measure the maximum amount of oil that an oil shale can produce, and there are retorting methods that yield more than the Fischer assay yield. However, the oil yields achieved by other technologies are typically reported as a percentage of the Fischer assay oil yield, and thus Fischer assay is still considered the standard by which other methods are compared.

  4. Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    San, S.; Armstrong, B; Cordoba, J.; Stephens, C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine environmental exposure and incidence and mortality of cancer in the village of San Carlos surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.
METHODS—Water samples of the local streams were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A preliminary list of potential cancer cases from 1989 to 1998 was prepared. Cases were compared with expected numbers of cancer morbidity and mortality registrations from a Quito reference population.
RESULTS—Water analysis showe...

  5. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM APPROACH FOR PLAY PORTFOLIOS TO IMPROVE OIL PRODUCTION IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverly Seyler; John Grube

    2004-12-10

    Oil and gas have been commercially produced in Illinois for over 100 years. Existing commercial production is from more than fifty-two named pay horizons in Paleozoic rocks ranging in age from Middle Ordovician to Pennsylvanian. Over 3.2 billion barrels of oil have been produced. Recent calculations indicate that remaining mobile resources in the Illinois Basin may be on the order of several billion barrels. Thus, large quantities of oil, potentially recoverable using current technology, remain in Illinois oil fields despite a century of development. Many opportunities for increased production may have been missed due to complex development histories, multiple stacked pays, and commingled production which makes thorough exploitation of pays and the application of secondary or improved/enhanced recovery strategies difficult. Access to data, and the techniques required to evaluate and manage large amounts of diverse data are major barriers to increased production of critical reserves in the Illinois Basin. These constraints are being alleviated by the development of a database access system using a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach for evaluation and identification of underdeveloped pays. The Illinois State Geological Survey has developed a methodology that is being used by industry to identify underdeveloped areas (UDAs) in and around petroleum reservoirs in Illinois using a GIS approach. This project utilizes a statewide oil and gas Oracle{reg_sign} database to develop a series of Oil and Gas Base Maps with well location symbols that are color-coded by producing horizon. Producing horizons are displayed as layers and can be selected as separate or combined layers that can be turned on and off. Map views can be customized to serve individual needs and page size maps can be printed. A core analysis database with over 168,000 entries has been compiled and assimilated into the ISGS Enterprise Oracle database. Maps of wells with core data have been generated

  6. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Terriary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    1998-04-08

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO -) 2 flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. Two activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of productive carbonate buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) diagenetic characterization of project field reservoirs, and (2) technology transfer.

  7. Source rock contributions to the Lower Cretaceous heavy oil accumulations in Alberta: a basin modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesi, Luiyin Alejandro; di Primio, Rolando; Anka, Zahie; Horsfield, Brian; Higley, Debra K.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the immense oil sand deposits in Lower Cretaceous reservoirs of the Western Canada sedimentary basin is still a matter of debate, specifically with respect to the original in-place volumes and contributing source rocks. In this study, the contributions from the main source rocks were addressed using a three-dimensional petroleum system model calibrated to well data. A sensitivity analysis of source rock definition was performed in the case of the two main contributors, which are the Lower Jurassic Gordondale Member of the Fernie Group and the Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Exshaw Formation. This sensitivity analysis included variations of assigned total organic carbon and hydrogen index for both source intervals, and in the case of the Exshaw Formation, variations of thickness in areas beneath the Rocky Mountains were also considered. All of the modeled source rocks reached the early or main oil generation stages by 60 Ma, before the onset of the Laramide orogeny. Reconstructed oil accumulations were initially modest because of limited trapping efficiency. This was improved by defining lateral stratigraphic seals within the carrier system. An additional sealing effect by biodegraded oil may have hindered the migration of petroleum in the northern areas, but not to the east of Athabasca. In the latter case, the main trapping controls are dominantly stratigraphic and structural. Our model, based on available data, identifies the Gordondale source rock as the contributor of more than 54% of the oil in the Athabasca and Peace River accumulations, followed by minor amounts from Exshaw (15%) and other Devonian to Lower Jurassic source rocks. The proposed strong contribution of petroleum from the Exshaw Formation source rock to the Athabasca oil sands is only reproduced by assuming 25 m (82 ft) of mature Exshaw in the kitchen areas, with original total organic carbon of 9% or more.

  8. Quantification of Seepage in Groundwater Dependent Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Beven, Keith; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2017-01-01

    Restoration and management of groundwater dependent wetlands require tools for quantifying the groundwater seepage process. A method for determining point estimates of the groundwater seepage based on water level observations is tested. The study is based on field data from a Danish rich fen....... Therefore secondly a much simpler mass balance approach is used with lumped descriptions of the most important hydrological processes controlling water level and groundwater inflow to the system. The water level dynamics are here described and bracketed nicely and a dynamic description of the seepage rate...... the dynamic description of groundwater seepage can be very useful in future studies of the links between seepage, soil water chemistry and vegetation in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems....

  9. Oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales in the Eocene Green River in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. This CD-ROM includes reports, data, and an ArcGIS project describing the assessment. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. Total in-place resources for the three assessed units in the Green River Formation are: (1) Tipton Shale Member, 362,816 million barrels of oil (MMBO), (2) Wilkins Peak Member, 704,991 MMBO, and (3) LaClede Bed of the Laney Member, 377,184 MMBO, for a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place. This compares with estimated in-place resources for the Piceance Basin of Colorado of 1.53 trillion barrels and estimated in-place resources for the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado of 1.32 trillion barrels.

  10. GIS-based Geospatial Infrastructure of Water Resource Assessment for Supporting Oil Shale Development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Minnick, Matthew D [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Mattson, Earl D [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Cilvil and Environmental Engineering; Murray, Kyle E. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States) Oklahoma Geological Survey

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological Characterization of the basin. This endeavor

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Azov-Kuban Basin Province, Ukraine and Russia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 218 million barrels of crude oil, 4.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 94 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Azov-Kuban Basin Province as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  12. Accumulation conditions of outside source heavy oil in Nepa-Botuoba Sub-basin,Russia and prediction of distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jianhua; SHAN Xuanlong; DU Shang; HE Wentong; LIANG Ye

    2016-01-01

    In terms of tectonic evolution and petroleum geological conditions of the Nepa-Botuoba Sub-basin and its adjacent sub-basins,the accumulation conditions of the heavy oil were analyzed.The studied area had plenty of oil and gas accumulation,but there were no developed source rocks.It is a typical outside source accumula-tion,whose origins from thick high-quality source rock deposited in the adjacent sub-basins.The shallow layer has favorable heavy oil reservoir conditions and poor sealing conditions,which benefits the thickening of hydro-carbon.The multi-periods of structural compression not only uplifted the studied area drastically,but also crea-ted a series of fault zones and large-scale slope belt.The structural compression also provided channel and suffi-cient power for migration of hydrocarbon to shallow layers.Based on these conditions,the favorable accumula-tion zone of heavy oil was predicted,which provided direction for heavy oil exploration in Nepa-Botuoba Sub-basin.

  13. Evaluating Non-potable Water Usage for Oil and Gas Purposes in the Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, K.; Pedrazas, M.; Suydam, S.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oil and gas company water usage is currently an area of extreme concern in the water stressed Western United States. 87% of the wells in Permian Basin are being drilled in areas of high or extreme water stress. Using recycled produced water or groundwater that does not meet the USDW drinking water standards for oil and gas purposes could assist in relieving both water stress and tension between oil and gas companies and the public. However, non-USDW drinking water (TDS over 10,000 ppm), has the potential to react with formation water causing mineral precipitation, reducing the permeability of the producing formation. To evaluate the potential of non-potable water usage in the Permian Basin, available groundwater chemistry data was compiled into a database. Data was collected from the NETL-run NATCARB database, the USGS Produced Water Database, and the Texas Railroad Commission. The created database went through a system of quality assurance and control for pH, TDS, depth and charge balance. Data was used to make a set of waters representative of Permian Basin groundwater based on TDS, Ca/Mg ratio and Cl/SO 4 ratio. Low, medium and high of these three characteristics; representing the 25 th , 50 th and 75 th percentile respectively; was used to make a matrix of 27 waters. Low TDS is 64,660 ppm, medium TDS is 98,486 ppm, and high TDS is 157,317 ppm. Ca/Mg ratios range from 1.98 to 7.26, and Cl/SO 4 ratios range from 32.96 to 62.34. Geochemical models of the mixing of these 27 waters with an average water were used to evaluate for possible precipitation. Initial results are positive, with the highest total precipitation being 2.371 cm 3 of dolomite and anhydrite in 2000 cm 3 of water with high TDS, high Ca/Mg ratio and low Cl/SO 4 ratio. This indicates a maximum of approximately 0.12% of porosity would be filled with mineral precipitation during the mixing of chosen Permian Basin waters.

  14. Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Li; C. Tsang

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in

  15. Palm oil production in Peruvian Amazon Basin. A case study of current effects and emerging localized alternatives in Loreto district

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Charlotte Bratberget

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of palm oil production in the Peruvian Amazon basin was carried out in a systemic way, as part of a whole, with its complexities. With an agroecological perspective, the social, ecological and economic effects of this production are discussed. Additionally, alternatives that could better fulfil the necessities of farmers were explored. The oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, originally from West Africa, is a common plant in an enormous industry that is extensive in South East Asia, ma...

  16. The distribution of dimethylcarbazoles in oils from the Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chunming; ZHAO Hongjing; GAO Kunshun; YANG Shaokun

    2007-01-01

    C2-carbazole isomers have been investigated in crude oils from the Hui-Liu Structure Ridge (HLSR) in the Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB), South China Sea. The NH shielded isomer, as well as the NH partially shielded isomers, was detected in high abundance and the NH exposed isomers in lower abundance. A small-enrichment trend of 1,8-dimethylcarbazole (DMC) was observed in crude oils along the western part of HLSR (WPHLSR), which may indicate little effect of migration on the C2-carbazole distributions. Two strikingly different distribution patterns of NH partially shielded isomers were observed in the reservoirs along the WPHLSR: one with a preference of 1,3- and 1,6-DMCs and the other with a preference of 1,4- and 1,5-DMCs. All of the oils occurring in the Upper reservoirs have a preference of 1,3- and 1,6-DMCs, whereas those trapped in the Lower reservoirs show a preference of 1,4- and 1,5-DMCs, which may indicate there are two petroleum migration systems in the WPHLSR.

  17. Incidence of childhood leukemia and oil exploitation in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether there was any difference in childhood leukemia incidence rates between populations living in the proximity to oil fields and those living in areas free from oil exploitation in the Amazon basin of Ecuador, 91 cancer cases among children (0-14 years) from the provinces of Sucumbios, Orellana, Napo, and Pastaza during the period 1985-2000 were studied. The relative risks for all leukemias indicated significantly elevated levels in the youngest age group (0-4 years), both genders combined (RR 3.48, 95% CI 1.25-9.67), and in all age groups (0-14 years) combined for females (RR 2.60, 95% CI 1.11-6.08) and both genders combined (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.35-4.86). There was no significant difference between the two groups in all other cancer sites combined. Study results are compatible with a relationship between childhood leukemia incidence and living in the proximity of oil fields in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

  18. Oil reservoirs in grainstone aprons around Bryozoan Mounds, Upper Harrodsburg Limestone, Mississippian, Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobe, H. [UNOCAL Energy Resources, Sugar Land, TX (United States); Saller, A. [UNOCAL Energy Resources, Brea, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Several oil pools have been discovered recently in the upper Harrodsburg Limestone (middle Mississippian) of the Illinois basin. A depositional model for bryozoan mound complexes has allowed more successful exploration and development in this play. In the Johnsonville area of Wayne County, Illinois, three lithofacies are dominant in the upper Harrodsburg: (1) bryozoan boundstones, (2) bryozoan grainstones, and (3) fossiliferous wackestones. Bryozoan boundstones occur as discontinuous mounds and have low porosity. Although bryozoan boundstones are not the main reservoir lithofacies, they are important because they influenced the distribution of bryozoan grainstones and existing structure. Bryozoan grainstones have intergranular porosity and are the main reservoir rock. Bryozoan fragments derived from bryozoan boundstone mounds were concentrated in grainstones around the mounds. Fossiliferous wackestones are not porous and form vertical and lateral seals for upper Harrodsburg grainstones. Fossiliferous wackestones were deposited in deeper water adjacent to bryozoan grainstone aprons, and above grainstones and boundstones after the mounds were drowned. Upper Harrodsburg oil reservoirs occur where grainstone aprons are structurally high. The Harrodsburg is a good example of a carbonate mound system where boundstone cores are not porous, but adjacent grainstones are porous. Primary recovery in these upper Harrodsburg reservoirs is improved by strong pressure support from an aquifer in the lower Harrodsburg. Unfortunately, oil production is commonly decreased by water encroaching from that underlying aquifer.

  19. Characteristics of Abnormal Pressure Systems and Their Responses of Fluid in Huatugou Oil Field, Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaozhi; XU Hao; TANG Dazhen; ZHANG Junfeng; HU Xiaolan; TAO Shu; CAI Yidong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive study of core samples, well testing data, and reservoir fluid properties, the construction and the distribution of the abnormal pressure systems of the Huatugou oil field in Qaidam Basin are discussed. The correlation between the pressure systems and hydrocarbon accumulation is addressed by analyzing the corresponding fluid characteristics. The results show that the Huatugou oil field as a whole has low formation pressure and low fluid energy; therefore, the hydrocarbons are hard to migrate, which facilitates the forming of primary reservoirs. The study reservoirs, located at the Xiayoushashan Formation (N_2~1) and the Shangganchaigou Formation (N_1) are relatively shallow and have medium porosity and low permeability. They are abnormal low-pressure reservoirs with an average formation pressure coefficient of 0.61 and 0.72 respectively. According to the pressure coefficient and geothermal anomaly, the N_1 and N_2~1 Formations belong to two independent temperature-pressure systems, and the former has slightly higher energy. The low-pressure compartments consist of a distal bar as the main body, prodeita mud as the top boundary, and shore and shallow lake mud or algal mound as the bottom boundary. They are vertically overlapped and horizontally paralleled. The formation water is abundant in the Cl~- ion and can be categorized as CaCl_2 type with high salinity, which indicates that the abnormal low-pressure compartments are in good sealing condition and beneficial for oil and gas accumulation and preservation.

  20. Quantitative calculation of GOR of complex oil-gas-water systems with logging data: A case study of the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field in the Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Liqiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field of the Qaidam Basin, multiple suites of oil-gas-water systems overlie each other vertically, making it difficult to accurately identify oil layers from gas layers and calculate gas-oil ratio (GOR. Therefore, formation testing and production data, together with conventional logging, NMR and mud logging data were integrated to quantitatively calculate GOR. To tell oil layers from gas layers, conventional logging makes use of the excavation effect of compensated neutron log, NMR makes use of the different relaxation mechanisms of light oil and natural gas in large pores, while mud logging makes use of star chart of gas components established based on available charts and mathematical statistics. In terms of the quantitative calculation of GOR, the area ratio of the star chart of gas components was first used in GOR calculation. The study shows that: (1 conventional logging data has a modest performance in distinguishing oil layers from gas layers due to the impacts of formation pressure, hydrogen index (HI, shale content, borehole conditions and invasion of drilling mud; (2 NMR is quite effective in telling oil layers from gas layers, but cannot be widely used due to its high cost; (3 by contrast, the star chart of gas components is the most effective in differentiating oil layers from gas layers; and (4 the GOR calculated by using the area ratio of star chart has been verified by various data such as formation testing data, production data and liquid production profile.

  1. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Maracaibo Basin Province of Venezuela and Colombia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phoung A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean continuous resources of 656 million barrels of oil and 5.7 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Maracaibo Basin Province, Venezuela and Colombia.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Paradox Basin Province, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 560 million barrels of undiscovered oil, 12,701 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, and 490 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Monterey Formation, Los Angeles Basin Province, California, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Le, Phuong A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil, 22 billion cubic feet of gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Monterey Formation of the Los Angeles Basin Province, California.

  4. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Neuquén Basin Province, Argentina, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Janet K. Pitman,; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2017-05-23

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean continuous resources of 14.4 billion barrels of oil and 38 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Neuquén Basin Province, Argentina.

  5. Research on the direction of secondary migration of oil by making use of nitrogen compounds as tracers in the No. 6 area of the Melut Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Youjun; WEN Zhigang; DOU Lirong; XU Youde

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the direction of secondary migration of oil in the No. 6 area of the Melut Basin by making use of nitrogen compounds as secondary oil migration tracers. From the results, we have found that the occurrence and compositional characteristics of isomeric-nitrogen compounds in crude oil precisely manifest the fractionation effect of oil migration: with increasing secondary migration distance, the absolute concentrations tend to decrease, and the ratio of nitrogen-shielded isomers to nitrogenexposed isomers tends to increase. It is considered that the main direction of oil migration in the No. 6 area of the Melut Basin is from north to south.

  6. Dibenzofuran Series in Terrestrial Source Rocks and Crude Oils and Applications to Oil-Source Rock Correlations in the Kuche Depression of Tarim Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景贵; 李梅; 王兆云

    2004-01-01

    Ten series of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (biphenyl, naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, retene, chrysene, benzoanthracene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, dibenzothiophene) isolated from seven Triassic and Jurassic lacustrine mudstone samples and three swamp coal samples, as well as five crude oil samples collected in the Kuche depression of the Tarim Basin, NW China, have been analysed by GC-MS techniques. It is found that the relative abundances of dibenzofuran series are higher in the three swamp coal samples than those in the lacustrine mudstone samples. Based on the similar relative abundances of dibenzofuran series, especially dibenzofuran compound, in the TICs of aromatic hydrocarbons, crude oils from wells SA3 (K), YTK5 (E, K) and QL1 (E) are thought to have been derived predominantly from the coals of the Lower Jurassic Yangxia Formation or Middle Jurassic Kezilenuer Formation, whereas those from wells YM7 (O) and YH1 (E) were derived mainly from Triassic and Jurassic lacustrine mudstones in the Kuche depression. This is the first report about how to distinguish coal-generated oils from lacustrine mudstone-generated oils in the Kuche depression in terms of the dibenzofuran series. The present paper has enlightening and directive significance for further oil-source rock correlations and oil and/or gas exploration in the Kuche depression of the Tarim Basin.

  7. Response of rock-fissure seepage to snowmelt in Mount Taihang slope-catchment, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiansheng; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Wanjun

    2013-01-01

    The complex physiographic and hydrogeological systems of mountain terrains facilitate intense rock-fissure seepages and multi-functional ecological interactions. As mountain eco-hydrological terrains are the common water sources of river basins across the globe, it is critical to build sufficient understanding into the hydrological processes in this unique ecosystem. This study analyzes infiltration and soil/rock-fissure seepage processes from a 65 mm snowfall/melt in November 2009 in the typical granitic gneiss slope catchment in the Taihang Mountains. The snowfall, snowmelt and melt-water processes are monitored using soil-water time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes and tipping bucket flowmeters. The results suggest that snowmelt infiltration significantly influences soil/rock water seepage in the 0-100 cm soil depth of the slope-catchment. It is not only air temperature that influences snowmelt, but also snowmelt infiltration and rock-fissure seepage. Diurnal variations in rock-fissure seepage are in close correlation with air temperature (R(2) > 0.7). Temperature also varies with soil/rock water viscosity, which element in turn influences soil/rock water flow. Invariably, water dynamics in the study area is not only a critical water supply element for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses, but also for food security and social stability.

  8. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the U.S. portion of the Michigan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Swezey, Christopher S.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Hayba, Daniel O.; Repetski, John E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Anderson, Christopher P.; Schenk, Christopher J.; East, Joseph A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the U.S. portion of the Michigan Basin. For this assessment, the Michigan Basin includes most of the State of Michigan, as well as parts of Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The assessment was based on the geologic elements of each of the six total petroleum systems defined in the basin, including (1) hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), (2) reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and (3) hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS estimated mean technically recoverable undiscovered continuous and conventional resources that total 990 million barrels of oil, 11.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 219 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  9. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael Vanden; Anderson, Paul; Wallace, Janae; Morgan, Craig; Carney, Stephanie

    2012-04-30

    Saline water disposal is one of the most pressing issues with regard to increasing petroleum and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah. Conventional oil fields in the basin provide 69 percent of Utah?s total crude oil production and 71 percent of Utah?s total natural gas, the latter of which has increased 208% in the past 10 years. Along with hydrocarbons, wells in the Uinta Basin produce significant quantities of saline water ? nearly 4 million barrels of saline water per month in Uintah County and nearly 2 million barrels per month in Duchesne County. As hydrocarbon production increases, so does saline water production, creating an increased need for economic and environmentally responsible disposal plans. Current water disposal wells are near capacity, and permitting for new wells is being delayed because of a lack of technical data regarding potential disposal aquifers and questions concerning contamination of freshwater sources. Many companies are reluctantly resorting to evaporation ponds as a short-term solution, but these ponds have limited capacity, are prone to leakage, and pose potential risks to birds and other wildlife. Many Uinta Basin operators claim that oil and natural gas production cannot reach its full potential until a suitable, long-term saline water disposal solution is determined. The enclosed project was divided into three parts: 1) re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer in the Uinta Basin, 2) creating a detailed geologic characterization of the Birds Nest aquifer, a potential reservoir for large-scale saline water disposal, and 3) collecting and analyzing water samples from the eastern Uinta Basin to establish baseline water quality. Part 1: Regulators currently stipulate that produced saline water must be disposed of into aquifers that already contain moderately saline water (water that averages at least 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids). The UGS has re-mapped the moderately saline water boundary

  10. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Permian Basin Province of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Harry E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas and southeast New Mexico. The assessment was geology based and used the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system are petroleum source rocks (quality, source rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). This study assessed potential for technically recoverable resources in new field discoveries only; field growth (or reserve growth) of conventional oil and gas fields was not included. Using this methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 41 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 1.3 billion barrels of undiscovered oil in the Permian Basin Province.

  11. Iron speciation and mineral characterization of upper Jurassic reservoir rocks in the Minhe Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiangxian; Zheng, Guodong; Xu, Wang; Liang, Minliang; Fan, Qiaohui; Wu, Yingzhong; Ye, Conglin; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2016-12-01

    Six samples from a natural outcrop of reservoir rocks with oil seepage and two control samples from surrounding area in the Minhe Basin, northwestern China were selectively collected and analyzed for mineralogical composition as well as iron speciation using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Iron species revealed that: (1) the oil-bearing reservoir rocks were changed by water-rock-oil interactions; (2) even in the same site, there was a different performance between sandstone and mudstone during the oil and gas infusion to the reservoirs; and (3) this was evidence indicating the selective channels of hydrocarbon migration. In addition, these studies showed that the iron speciation by Mössbauer spectroscopy could be useful for the study of oil and gas reservoirs, especially the processes of the water-rock interactions within petroleum reservoirs.

  12. Iron speciation and mineral characterization of upper Jurassic reservoir rocks in the Minhe Basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiangxian; Zheng, Guodong, E-mail: gdzhbj@mail.iggcas.ac.cn; Xu, Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province / Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics (China); Liang, Minliang [Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Institute of Geomechanics, Key Lab of Shale Oil and Gas Geological Survey (China); Fan, Qiaohui; Wu, Yingzhong; Ye, Conglin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province / Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics (China); Shozugawa, Katsumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki [The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Six samples from a natural outcrop of reservoir rocks with oil seepage and two control samples from surrounding area in the Minhe Basin, northwestern China were selectively collected and analyzed for mineralogical composition as well as iron speciation using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Iron species revealed that: (1) the oil-bearing reservoir rocks were changed by water-rock-oil interactions; (2) even in the same site, there was a different performance between sandstone and mudstone during the oil and gas infusion to the reservoirs; and (3) this was evidence indicating the selective channels of hydrocarbon migration. In addition, these studies showed that the iron speciation by Mössbauer spectroscopy could be useful for the study of oil and gas reservoirs, especially the processes of the water-rock interactions within petroleum reservoirs.

  13. Interactions between basalts and oil source rocks in rift basins: CO2 generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Basalts interbedded with oil source rocks are discovered frequently in rift basins of eastern China, where CO2 is found in reservoirs around or within basalts, for example in the Binnan reservoir of the Dongying Depression. In the reservoirs, CO2 with heavy carbon isotopic composition (δ13C>-10‰ PDB) is in most cases accounts for 40% of the total gas reserve, and is believed to have resulted from degassing of basaltic magma from the mantle. In their investigations of the Binnan reservoir, the authors suggested that the CO2 would result from interactions between the source rocks and basalts. As the source rocks around basalts are rich in carbonate minerals, volcanic minerals, transition metals and organic matter, during their burial history some of the transition metals were catalyzed on the thermal degradation of organic matter into hydrocarbons and on the decomposition of carbonate minerals into CO2, which was reproduced in thermal simulations of the source rocks with the transition metals (Ni and Co). This kind of CO2 accounts for 55%-85% of the total gas reserve generated in the process of thermal simulation, and its δ13C values range from -11‰- -7.2‰ PDB, which are very similar to those of CO2 found in the Binnan reservoir. The co-generation of CO2 and hydrocarbon gases makes it possible their accumulation together in one trap. In other words, if the CO2 resulted directly from degassing of basaltic magma or was derived from the mantle, it could not be accumulated with hydrocarbon gases because it came into the basin much earlier than hydrocarbon generation and much earlier than trap formation. Therefore, the source rocks around basalts generated hydrocarbons and CO2 simultaneously through catalysis of Co and Ni transition metals, which is useful for the explanation of co-accumulation of hydrocarbon gases and CO2 in rift basins in eastern China.

  14. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  15. Quantitative prediction of mixed-source crude oils and its significance for understanding oils accumulation in subtle pools in the Dongying Depression,Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sumei; Liu Keyu; Pang Xiongqi; Li Maowen; Jiang Zhenxue; Qiu Guiqiang; Gao Yongjin

    2008-01-01

    Conventional geochemical approaches were utilized in the quantitative prediction of the proportions of mixed-source crude oils derived from the Es3 and Es4 members of the Paleogene Shahejie Formation.The mixed-source oils are accumulated in the middle interval of the Es3 member(EsM3)in the Niuzhuang Sag,which is one of the sags where subtle traps are primarily of lenticular basin-floor turbidite sands within mudstones mostly developed in the Dongying Depression,Bohai Bay Basin.The result showed that about 18-92% of the mixed-source oils were derived from the Es4 source rocks with an average of 55-60%.Reservoirs associated with deep faults appear to have much more Es4 genetic affinity oils.A high proportion of the Es4-derived oils discovered in the Es3M subtle lithological traps in the Niuzhuang Sag have long migration distances.This suggests that surrounding source rocks might not necessarily control the hydrocarbon supply for subtle traps.Subtle migration pathway may play an important role in the vertical oil migration.The traditional concept of hydrocarbons accumulation in these lenticular turbidite sandstone traps within a short migration distance from the surrounding source rocks is not supported by this study.The present result is also consistent with our previous findings that immature oils in the Bamianhe Oilfield in the south slope of the Niuzhuang Sag were actually mixed-source oils mostly sourced from the Es4 in the depocenter of the Niuzhuang Sag,and the petroleum potential of the Es4 member in the Dongying Depression should therefore be re-evaluated.

  16. Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Sebastián, M; Armstrong, B; Córdoba, J A; Stephens, C

    2001-08-01

    To examine environmental exposure and incidence and mortality of cancer in the village of San Carlos surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Water samples of the local streams were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A preliminary list of potential cancer cases from 1989 to 1998 was prepared. Cases were compared with expected numbers of cancer morbidity and mortality registrations from a Quito reference population. Water analysis showed severe exposure to TPHs by the residents. Ten patients with cancer were diagnosed while resident in the village of San Carlos. An overall excess for all types of cancer was found in the male population (8 observed v 3.5 expected) with a risk 2.26 times higher than expected (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.97 to 4.46). There was an overall excess of deaths for all types of cancer (6 v 1.6 expected) among the male population 3.6 times higher than the reference population (95% CI 1.31 to 7.81). The observed excess of cancer might be associated with the pollution of the environment by toxic contaminants coming from the oil production.

  17. Seepage erosion mechanisms of bank collapse: three-dimensional seepage particle mobilization and undercutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepage flow initiates undercutting, similar to development and headward migration of internal gullies, by liquefaction of soil particles, followed by mass wasting of the bank. Although seepage erosion has three-dimensional characteristics, two-dimensional lysimeters have been used in previous resea...

  18. OIL RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CO2 INJECTION MONITORING IN THE PERMIAN BASIN WITH CROSSWELL ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Wilt

    2004-02-01

    Substantial petroleum reserves exist in US oil fields that cannot be produced economically, at current prices, unless improvements in technology are forthcoming. Recovery of these reserves is vital to US economic and security interests as it lessens our dependence on foreign sources and keeps our domestic petroleum industry vital. Several new technologies have emerged that may improve the situation. The first is a series of new flooding techniques to re-pressurize reservoirs and improve the recovery. Of these the most promising is miscible CO{sub 2} flooding, which has been used in several US petroleum basins. The second is the emergence of new monitoring technologies to track and help manage this injection. One of the major players in here is crosswell electromagnetics, which has a proven sensitivity to reservoir fluids. In this project, we are applying the crosswell EM technology to a CO{sub 2} flood in the Permian Basin oil fields of New Mexico. With our partner ChevronTexaco, we are testing the suitability of using EM for tracking the flow of injected CO{sub 2} through the San Andreas reservoir in the Vacuum field in New Mexico. The project consisted of three phases, the first of which was a preliminary field test at Vacuum, where a prototype system was tested in oil field conditions including widely spaced wells with steel casing. The results, although useful, demonstrated that the older technology was not suitable for practical deployment. In the second phase of the project, we developed a much more powerful and robust field system capable of collecting and interpreting field data through steel-cased wells. The final phase of the project involved applying this system in field tests in the US and overseas. Results for tests in steam and water floods showed remarkable capability to image between steel wells and provided images that helped understand the geology and ongoing flood and helped better manage the field. The future of this technology is indeed bright

  19. Controlling mechanism of sedimentation-burial historyon oil-gas maturation history——A case study in Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈显杰; 汪缉安; 张菊明; 杨淑贞; 沈继英

    1995-01-01

    Three types of practical data are used for basin simulation: stratigraphic column thicknesses interpreted in the light of the common seismic reflecting layers, the percentage of mudy rocks in the column and the statistical heat flow values. A mesh point data read-in technique is used for the region covered by Tertiary strata in the basin A B-T-M computer software is developed for simulating the burial, thermal and oil-gas maturation histories on 703 mesh points. Furthermore, five typical types of oil-gas evolution trends are summarized on the basis of the characteristics of B-T-M evolution graph of each single mesh point. A careful analysis shows that the sedimentation-burial history through differentiated stratum thermal history in the different parts of the basin ultimately controls the temporal sequence and the threshold temperature and depth of oil-gas maturation, as well as the whole evolutionary process of petroleum formation of oil-source rocks from low-maturation, high-maturation through over-ma

  20. RESEARCH ON SEEPAGE MONITORING MODEL OF EARTH-ROCK DAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    With the characteristics of seepage flow in earth-rock dams, a seepage monitoring model was established based on the finite element method for 3-D seepage flow together with observed data and was used to analyze and monitor the seepage of dams. In order to find out and monitor the seepage status of the whole dam, the separation of seepage amount for dam body, dam foundation and side banks was made theoretically by using the model. Practical example shows that the accuracy of computed results is satisfactory and the separation results are more objective.

  1. Organic geochemistry of oils and condensates in the Kekeya field, southwest depression of the Tarim Basin (China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maowen Li; Snowdon, L.R. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary (Canada); Renzi Lin; Peirong Wang [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China); Yongsheng Liao; Peilong Li [Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau, Shandong (China)

    1999-07-01

    This study shows that the oils and condensates in the Kekeya Field in the Tarim Basin, NW China, belong to a single family, most likely derived from marine shale source rocks deposited under oxic-suboxic conditions with mixed terrigenous and algal-bacterial organic inputs. The maturity data clearly indicate that the paraffinic condensates were not formed by thermal cracking of oil during late catagenesis (R{sub o} > 1.2%). Both the oils and condensates were generated within the normal oil window, whereas addition of gaseous hydrocarbons from a separate source resulted in migration fractionation and hence spuriously high heptane indices. Age specific biomarkers show that the oils and condensates were not generated from the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata, but from the Carboniferous-Permian sections. 1D basin modelling results are consistent with this interpretation, suggesting that the Mesozoic-Eocene strata are currently immature with respect to hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. Deep-seated faults may have provided routes for upward fluid migration at the time of active deformation during several pulses of the Himalayan orogeny. The favoured targets for further petroleum exploration in front of the Kunlun Mountains include the deep structures within the Carboniferous-Permian strata for indigenous petroleum accumulations and anticlines and stratigraphic traps within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sections that are cut by deep-seated thrust faults where secondary petroleum accumulations most likely occurred. (author)

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Anadarko Basin Province of Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, and Colorado, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, D.K.; Gaswirth, S.B.; Abbott, M.M.; Charpentier, R.R.; Cook, T.A.; Ellis, G.S.; Gianoutsos, N.J.; Hatch, J.R.; Klett, T.R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Pearson, O.N.; Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geoscience-based assessment methodology, estimated mean technically-recoverable undiscovered continuous and conventional resources that total 495 million barrels of oil, 27.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 410 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Anadarko Basin Province; this assessment includes the Las Animas arch area of southeastern Colorado. The province is at a mature stage of exploration and development for conventional resources. Mean undiscovered continuous resources are estimated at 79 percent of oil, 90 percent of natural gas, and 81 percent of natural gas liquids in the province.

  3. SEDIMENTARY PATTERN OF PROTOTYPE BASIN IN THE DEPOSITION PERIOD OF LAIYANG FORMATION AND THE ADVANTAGEOUS AREAS FOR OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION OF JIAOLAI BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhiping; LI Ling; LI Wei; ZHOU Yaoqi

    2004-01-01

    Laiyang formation of Jiaolai Basin is the target stratum for oil and gas exploration. By measuring several field sections, the authors find that Laiyang formation reveals the whole processes from development to death of the lake basin and its sedimentary facies differ in different structural locations.Analyses about sedimentary facies and paleocurrent orientations in association with researches about the positive tectonic units such as Dayetou horseback and Chaigou horst indicate that Laiyang sag is a relatively independent sedimentary unit that shows great water depth typical of deep lake or semideep lake and was controlled by Wulongcun fault during the deposition period of Laiyang formation. Its sediments mainly originated from Jiaobei uplift area and Dayetou horseback. Gaomi-Zhucheng sag was a fast-filled basin controlled by Wurong fault and Yishu fault zone, being high in the northeast and low in the northwest and characterized by the development of pluvial facies and fluvial facies in most areas, and with the development of lake facies being limited to local low-lying regions. Selection of advantageous hydrocarbon reservoir areas for exploration purpose mainly relies on the sedimentation pattern of prototype basin and conservation conditions. The central-west area of Laiyang sag covered by overlying Laiyang formation is the most advantageous exploration area.

  4. Research Progress and Development on Seepage Mechanics%渗流力学进展与前沿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明川; 姚军; 葛家理

    2012-01-01

    Based on the well-known Darcy seepage theory of France H. Darcy engineer in 1856, the Paper reviewed the cavalcade: from Darcy to non-Darcy seepage, from Newtonian fluid to non-Newtonian fluid seepage and from continuum to discontinuous of seepage mechanics. Summarization induces the applied developing course in petroleum industry: reservoir of migration, gathering and formation in exploration activity; reservoir of recognition, exploitation and recreation in oil/gas field development; oil/gas house of geologic framework, water pollution, alkaline soil and 3rd production in oil/gas preservation and transportation. Prospects research the leading edge and challenge of multi-field coupling seepage, macro- microscopic seepage and multi-scale seepage on seepage mechanics binding traditional seepage theory and burgeoning science and technology called on the advanced methods of physics and mathematics. With the science and technology hasty development, more modernism and technology will prompt the theory of seepage mechanics more evaluative.%基于1856年法国工程师H.Darcy的著名Darcy渗流理论,回顾了渗流力学由达西渗流朝向非达西渗流、牛顿流体渗流朝向非牛顿渗流、连续介质渗流朝向非连续介质渗流方向的发展进程.总结归纳了渗流力学在石油工业中的应用发展历程:渗流力学在油气运移、聚集和形成油藏的油气勘探中的应用;渗流力学在认识、开发及改造油气藏的油气田开发的应用;渗流力学在油气库的地质结构、水污染、盐碱化以及三次采油的油气储运中的应用.展望了借助于先进的物理、数学方法,将传统的渗流力学理论与新兴科学技术融合发展起来的多场耦合渗流、宏微渗流和多尺度渗流理论的研究前沿与挑战.随着科学技术的飞速发展,更多现代方法和技术将会推动着渗流力学理论进一步发展.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  6. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-11-02

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  7. The effects of biodegradation on the compositions of aromatic hydrocarbons and maturity indicators in biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By the aid of GC-MS technique,a series of sequentially biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin have been analyzed. The results show that the concentrations and relative compositions of various aromatic compounds in the biodegraded crude oils will change with increasing biodegradation degree. The concentrations of alkyl naphthalenes,alkyl phenanthrenes,alkyl dibenzothiophene are decreased,and the concentration of triaromatic steroids will increase with increasing biodegradation degree in biodegraded oils. Those phenomena indicate that various aromatic compounds are more easily biodegraded by bacteria like other kinds of hydrocarbons such as alkanes,but different series of aromatic compounds have a varied ability to resistant to biodegradation. The ratios of dibenzothiophene to phenenthrene(DBTH/P) and methyl dibenzothiophene to methyl phenanthrene(MDBTH/MP) are related to the features of depositional environment for source rocks such as redox and ancient salinity. However,in biodegraded oils,the two ratios increase quickly with the increase of the biodegradation degree,indicating that they have lost their geochemical significance. In this case,they could not be used to evaluate the features of depositional environment. Methyl phenanthrene index,methyl phenanthrene ratio and methyl dibenzoyhiophene ratio are useful aromatic maturity indicators for the crude oils and the source rocks without vitrinite. But for biodegraded oils,those aromatic maturity indicators will be affected by biodegradation and decrease with the increase of the biodegradation degree. Therefore,those aromatic molecular maturity indicators could not be used for biodegraded oils.

  8. An organic geochemical correlation study of some Drmno depresssion crude oils (southern part of the Pannonian Basin, Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. VITOROVIC

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation of crude oils originating from the Sirakovo and Bradarac-Maljurevac localities (southern part of the Pannonian Basin are reported in this paper. The aim was to estimate the organic geochemical similarity of the crude oils from the Drmno (Kostolac depression oil fields. The nine selected samples originated from reservoir rocks of various depths. Reliable source and organic geochemical maturation parameters served as the basis for the correlation studies. The similar origin of the investigated Drmno depression crude oils was corroborated, characterized by a significant participation of terrestrial precursor biomass. They were shown to be of relatively low maturity and to have been formed during the earlier stages of the diagenet- ic-catagenetic sequence of processes leading to the formation of crude oils, most probably in source rocks ofTertiary age, corresponding to vitrinite reflectances between Ro = 0.70 % and Ro = 0.80 %. The crude oils from Bradarac-Maljurevac seemed to be somewhat less homogeneous with respect to organic geochemical parameters compared to Sirakovo crude oils.

  9. Geochemical features and genesis of the natural gas and bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs of Nanpanjiang Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MengJun; ZHANG ShuiChang; ZHAO Lin; DA Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Bitumen from the Nanpanjiang Basin occurs mainly in the Middle Devonian and Upper Permian reef limestone paleo-oil reservoirs and reserves primarily in holes and fractures and secondarily in minor matrix pores and bio-cavities. N2 is the main component of the natural gas and is often associated with pyrobitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs. The present study shows that the bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs was sourced from the Middle Devonian argillaceous source rock and belongs to pyrobitumen by crude oil cracking under high temperature and pressure. But the natural gas with high content of N2 is neither an oil-cracked gas nor a coal-formed gas generated from the Upper Permian Longtan Formation source rock, instead it is a kerogen-cracked gas generated at the late stage from the Middle Devonian argillaceous source rock. The crude oil in paleo-oil reservoirs completely cracked into pyrobitumen and methane gas by the agency of hugely thick Triassic deposits. After that, the abnormal high pressure of methane gas reservoirs was completely destroyed due to the erosion of 2000-4500-m-thick Triassic strata. But the kerogen-cracked gas with normal pressure was preserved under the relatively sealed condition and became the main body of the gas shows.

  10. Geochemical features and genesis of the natural gas and bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs of Nanpanjiang Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bitumen from the Nanpanjiang Basin occurs mainly in the Middle Devonian and Upper Permian reef limestone paleo-oil reservoirs and reserves primarily in holes and fractures and secondarily in minor matrix pores and bio-cavities. N2 is the main component of the natural gas and is often associated with pyrobitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs. The present study shows that the bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs was sourced from the Middle Devonian argillaceous source rock and belongs to pyrobitumen by crude oil cracking under high temperature and pressure. But the natural gas with high content of N2 is neither an oil-cracked gas nor a coal-formed gas generated from the Upper Permian Longtan Formation source rock, instead it is a kerogen-cracked gas generated at the late stage from the Middle Devonian argilla- ceous source rock. The crude oil in paleo-oil reservoirs completely cracked into pyrobitumen and methane gas by the agency of hugely thick Triassic deposits. After that, the abnormal high pressure of methane gas reservoirs was completely destroyed due to the erosion of 2000--4500-m-thick Triassic strata. But the kerogen-cracked gas with normal pressure was preserved under the relatively sealed condition and became the main body of the gas shows.

  11. Quantification of Seepage in Groundwater Dependent Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Beven, Keith; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2017-01-01

    Restoration and management of groundwater dependent wetlands require tools for quantifying the groundwater seepage process. A method for determining point estimates of the groundwater seepage based on water level observations is tested. The study is based on field data from a Danish rich fen...... to investigate the uncertainties of parameters and model results. Two different model structures are presented. One is using the physically based model code HYDRUS nek et al. 2009) which solves the 1D unsaturated flow problem. In this case five parameters from the Van Genuchten retention model are examined...... has been predicted. Both models suffer from the fundamental problem that no reliable observations for the predicted variable (seepage rate) exist. Thus the trust in the model therefore depends on the ability to reproduce water level observations. Assuming that the results can be fully validated...

  12. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  13. On leakage and seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Unger, A.J.A.; Hepple, R.P.; Jordan, P.D.

    2002-07-18

    Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy for reducing the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ) concentrations (IEA, 1997; Reichle, 2000). As used here, the term geologic carbon sequestration refers to the direct injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} deep into subsurface target formations. These target formations will typically be either depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or brine-filled permeable formations referred to here as brine formations. Injected CO{sub 2} will tend to be trapped by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) permeability trapping, for example when buoyant supercritical CO{sub 2} rises until trapped by a confining caprock; (2) solubility trapping, for example when CO{sub 2} dissolves into the aqueous phase in water-saturated formations, or (3) mineralogic trapping, such as occurs when CO{sub 2} reacts to produce stable carbonate minerals. When CO{sub 2} is trapped in the subsurface by any of these mechanisms, it is effectively sequestered away from the atmosphere where it would otherwise act as a greenhouse gas. The purpose of this report is to summarize our work aimed at quantifying potential CO{sub 2} seepage due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites. The approach we take is to present first the relevant properties of CO{sub 2} over the range of conditions from the deep subsurface to the vadose zone (Section 2), and then discuss conceptual models for how leakage might occur (Section 3). The discussion includes consideration of gas reservoir and natural gas storage analogs, along with some simple estimates of seepage based on assumed leakage rates. The conceptual model discussion provides the background for the modeling approach wherein we focus on simulating transport in the vadose zone, the last potential barrier to CO{sub 2} seepage (Section 4). Because of the potentially wide range of possible properties of actual future geologic sequestration sites, we carry out sensitivity analyses by

  14. Phase I Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (904-83G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the completed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS) for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (LAOCB)/L-Area Acid Caustic Basin (9LAACB) Solid Waste Management Unit/Operable Unit (SWMU/OU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  15. The significance of 24-norcholestanes, triaromatic steroids and dinosteroids in oils and Cambrian-Ordovician source rocks from the cratonic region of the Tarim Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijun; Wang, T.-G.; Lillis, Paul G.; Wang, Chunjiang; Shi, Shengbao

    2012-01-01

    Two oil families in Ordovician reservoirs from the cratonic region of the Tarim Basin are distinguished by the distribution of regular steranes, triaromatic steroids, norcholestanes and dinosteroids. Oils with relatively lower contents of C28 regular steranes, C26 20S, C26 20R + C27 20S and C27 20R regular triaromatic steroids, dinosteranes, 24-norcholestanes and triaromatic dinosteroids originated from Middle–Upper Ordovician source rocks. In contrast, oils with abnormally high abundances of the above compounds are derived from Cambrian and Lower Ordovician source rocks. Only a few oils have previously been reported to be of Cambrian and Lower Ordovician origin, especially in the east region of the Tarim Basin. This study further reports the discovery of oil accumulations of Cambrian and Lower Ordovician origin in the Tabei and Tazhong Uplifts, which indicates a potential for further discoveries involving Cambrian and Lower Ordovician sourced oils in the Tarim Basin. Dinosteroids in petroleum and ancient sediments are generally thought to be biomarkers for dinoflagellates and 24-norcholestanes for dinoflagellates and diatoms. Therefore, the abnormally high abundance of these compounds in extracts from the organic-rich sediments in the Cambrian and Lower Ordovician and related oils in the cratonic region of the Tarim Basin suggests that phytoplankton algae related to dinoflagellates have appeared and might have flourished in the Tarim Basin during the Cambrian Period. Steroids with less common structural configurations are underutilized and can expand understanding of the early development history of organisms, as well as define petroleum systems.

  16. Ruthenium-ion-catalyzed oxidation of asphaltenes and oil-source correlation of heavy oils from the Lunnan and Tahe oilfields in the Tarim Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Anlai; ZHANG Shuichang; ZHANG Dajiang; JIN Zhijun; MA Xiaojuan; CHEN Qingtang

    2005-01-01

    The identification of marine source rocks in the Tarim Basin is debated vigorously. The intention of this paper is to investigate the asphaltenes in heavy oils from the Lunnan and Tahe oilfields and Well TD2 with ruthenium-ions-catalyzed oxidation technique (RICO), in order to explore its role in oil-oil and oil-source correlations. The RICO products included n-alkanoic acids, α, ω-di-n-alkanoic acids, branched alkanoic acids, tricyclic terpanoic acids, hopanoic acids, gammacerane carboxylic acid , regular sterane carboxylic acids and 4-methylsterane carboxylic acids. The n-alkyl chains and biomarkers bounded on the asphaltenes were of unsusceptibility to biodegradation. The distribution and absolute concentrations of n-alkanoic acids in the RICO products of heavy oils from the Lunnan and Tahe oilfields are different from those of Well TD2. The biomarkers bounded on the asphaltenes, especially steranes, have a distribution trend similar to that of the counterparts in saturates. The sterane carboxylic acids and 4-methylsterane carboxylic acids in the RICO products of heavy oils from the Lunnan and Tahe oilfields, dominated by C30 sterane and C31 4-methylsterane carboxylic acids, respectively, are significantly different from those of the heavy oils of Well TD2, whose dominating sterane and 4-methylsterane carboxylic acids are C2s sterane and C29 4-methylsterane acids, respectively. The RICO products of the asphaltenes further indicate that the Middle-Upper Ordovician may be the main source rocks for heavy oils from the Lunnan and Tahe oilfields.

  17. Spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Green River Formation using Fischer assay, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado was studied in detail using some 321,000 Fischer assay analyses in the U.S. Geological Survey oil-shale database. The oil-shale section was subdivided into 17 roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and the distribution of water in each interval was assessed separately. This study was conducted in part to determine whether water produced during retorting of oil shale could provide a significant amount of the water needed for an oil-shale industry. Recent estimates of water requirements vary from 1 to 10 barrels of water per barrel of oil produced, depending on the type of retort process used. Sources of water in Green River oil shale include (1) free water within clay minerals; (2) water from the hydrated minerals nahcolite (NaHCO3), dawsonite (NaAl(OH)2CO3), and analcime (NaAlSi2O6.H20); and (3) minor water produced from the breakdown of organic matter in oil shale during retorting. The amounts represented by each of these sources vary both stratigraphically and areally within the basin. Clay is the most important source of water in the lower part of the oil-shale interval and in many basin-margin areas. Nahcolite and dawsonite are the dominant sources of water in the oil-shale and saline-mineral depocenter, and analcime is important in the upper part of the formation. Organic matter does not appear to be a major source of water. The ratio of water to oil generated with retorting is significantly less than 1:1 for most areas of the basin and for most stratigraphic intervals; thus water within oil shale can provide only a fraction of the water needed for an oil-shale industry.

  18. Petroleum migration and mixing in the northwestern Junggar Basin (NW China): constraints from oil-bearing fluid inclusion analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Cao; Suping Yao [Nanjing University (China). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Zhijun Jin [Exploration and Production Research Institute, Beijing (CN)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    Abundant oil-bearing fluid inclusions are present in four reservoir sandstone samples from the slope and fault zone areas in the northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin (NW China). Free oil in intergranular pores, adsorbed oil on grain surfaces, and petroleum in inclusions hosted by mineral grains of these samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytical results indicate similar biomarker distributions in the three bitumen fractions of the samples collected from the slope area, which correlate well with characteristic of the source rocks in the Lower Permian Fengcheng Formation. This is in contrast to the fault zone, where the three bitumen fractions vary significantly in their geochemical signatures, suggesting that all of the three Permian source sequences rocks (including the Lower Permian Jiamuhe and Fengcheng formations, and the Middle Permian Lower Wuerhe Formation) have been mature and contributed to the oils in the fault zone. The presence of an unresolved hydrocarbon hump and a full range of unaltered n-alkanes in the gas chromatograms of samples collected from the fault zone indicate an earlier hydrocarbon biodegradation and subsequent injection of fresh oils, distinctly different from that in the slope area. Petrographic and microthermometric investigations of oil-bearing fluid inclusions suggest a single oil charge in the slope area (to the Lower Triassic reservoir, occurring during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic time). In the fault zone, oil migration and mixing took place mainly during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic and Cretaceous, followed by gas migration in the Tertiary period. The different petroleum migration and mixing histories in the slope and fault zones are attributed to the effect of fault-controlled oil and gas migration. (author)

  19. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Permian Basin Province, Val Verde Basin, Canyon Sandstones Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  20. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Permian Basin Province, Midland Basin, Wolfcamp Shale Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  1. Oil biodegradation by Bacillus strains isolated from the rock of an oil reservoir located in a deep-water production basin in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte da Cunha, C.; Rosado, A.S.; Seldin, L.; Weid, I. von der [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia Geral; Sebastian, G.V. [CENPES, Petrobras, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-12-15

    Sixteen spore forming Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from the rock of an oil reservoir located in a deep-water production basin in Brazil. These strains were identified as belonging to the genus Bacillus using classical biochemical techniques and API 50CH kits, and their identity was confirmed by sequencing of part of the 16S rRNA gene. All strains were tested for oil degradation ability in microplates using Arabian Light and Marlin oils and only seven strains showed positive results in both kinds of oils. They were also able to grow in the presence of carbazole, n-hexadecane and polyalphaolefin (PAO), but not in toluene, as the only carbon sources. The production of key enzymes involved with aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation process by Bacillus strains (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase) was verified spectrophotometrically by detection of cis,cis-muconic acid and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, and results indicated that the ortho ring cleavage pathway is preferential. Furthermore, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were obtained when the DNA of seven Bacillus strains were screened for the presence of catabolic genes encoding alkane monooxygenase, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, and/or catechol 2,3-dioxygenase. This is the first study on Bacillus strains isolated from an oil reservoir in Brazil. (orig.)

  2. Modeling of Microwave Reflection from the Surface of Water Basins with Spills of Water-Cut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotikov, V. D.; Pelushenko, S. A.; Rakut', I. V.; Savelyev, V. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    We consider specific features of reflection of microwaves from the surface of a water basin for the two-layer model of oil spills, which are determined by a water-cut-oil film. Within the spill model, the dielectric properties of water were allowed for in accordance with the Debye theory, and the dielectric properties of the water-cut oil, in accordance with the theory developed for binary systems. The data about variations in the values of reflection coefficients depending on the frequency, viewing angle, thickness of the oil film, and moisture content in the film are obtained. The dependences of reflection coefficients on the film thickness are determined for various values of volume content of the water fraction in oil. Complex values of the dielectric permittivity of oil-water emulsions with preset volume moisture content are found. Describing the obtained dependences of the complex dielectric permittivity of the emulsion on the volume moisture content requires application of asymmetrical formulas for the mixture of polar and nonpolar fluids.

  3. Organic geochemical study of the ''W'' oil-gas field in the Yugoslav part of the Pannonian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, M.M. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Chemistry Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Jovancicevic, B.S.; Glumicic, T. (Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Saracevic, S. (Nafta-gas, Novi Sad (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    The naphthenic crude oil from the ''W'' oil-gas field differs from almost all other, paraffinic base oils discovered until now in the Yugoslav part of the Pannonian basin. In order to explain this difference, some geological and organic geochemical investigations were carried out. On the basis of the bulk and biomarker parameters, determined in oil samples taken from 13 producing wells located at different parts of the field, it is concluded that the crude oil throughout the field has an almost uniform composition. (author)

  4. Geology of tight oil and potential tight oil reservoirs in the lower part of the Green River Formation, Uinta, Piceance, and Greater Green River Basins, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2016-05-02

    The recent successful development of a tight oil play in the Eocene-age informal Uteland Butte member of the lacustrine Green River Formation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, using modern horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques has spurred a renewed interest in the tight oil potential of lacustrine rocks. The Green River Formation was deposited by two large lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. These three basins contain the world’s largest in-place oil shale resources with recent estimates of 1.53 trillion, 1.33 trillion, and 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place in the Piceance, Uinta, and Greater Green River Basins, respectively. The Uteland Butte member was deposited during an early freshwater stage of the lake in the Uinta Basin prior to deposition of the assessed oil shale intervals. This report only presents information on the early freshwater interval and overlying brackish-water interval in all three basins because these intervals are most likely to have tight oil potential. Burial histories of the three basins were reconstructed to study (1) variations in subsidence and lake development, and (2) post deposition burial that led to the development of a petroleum system in only the Uinta Basin. The Uteland Butte member is a successful tight oil play because it is thermally mature for hydrocarbon generation and contains organic-rich shale, brittle carbonate, and porous dolomite. Abnormally high pressure in parts of the Uteland Butte is also important to production. Variations in organic richness of the Uteland Butte were studied using Fischer assay analysis from oil shale assessments, and pressures were studied using drill-stem tests. Freshwater lacustrine intervals in the Piceance and Greater Green River Basins are immature for hydrocarbon generation and contain much less carbonate than the Uteland Butte member. The brackish-water interval in the Uinta Basin is thermally mature for

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  6. Drift-Scale THC Seepage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R. Bryan

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this report (REV04) is to document the thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) seepage model, which simulates the composition of waters that could potentially seep into emplacement drifts, and the composition of the gas phase. The THC seepage model is processed and abstracted for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Post-Processing Analysis for THC Seepage) Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172761]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertaining to the technical scope, content, and management of this report. The plan for validation of the models documented in this report is given in Section 2.2.2, ''Model Validation for the DS THC Seepage Model,'' of the TWP. The TWP (Section 3.2.2) identifies Acceptance Criteria 1 to 4 for ''Quantity and Chemistry of Water Contacting Engineered Barriers and Waste Forms'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) as being applicable to this report; however, in variance to the TWP, Acceptance Criterion 5 has also been determined to be applicable, and is addressed, along with the other Acceptance Criteria, in Section 4.2 of this report. Also, three FEPS not listed in the TWP (2.2.10.01.0A, 2.2.10.06.0A, and 2.2.11.02.0A) are partially addressed in this report, and have been added to the list of excluded FEPS in Table 6.1-2. This report has been developed in accordance with LP-SIII.10Q-BSC, ''Models''. This report documents the THC seepage model and a derivative used for validation, the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC submodel. The THC seepage model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral

  7. Authigenic carbonates related to gas seepage structures in the sea of Okhotsk NE offshore Sakhalin : results from the Chaos project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, A.; Hachikubo, A.; Minami, H.; Nunokawa, Y.; Shoji, H. [Kitami Inst. of Technology, Kitami (Japan); Logvina, E.; Mazurenko, L.; Matveeva, T. [VNIIOkeangeologia, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Obzhirov, A. [V.I. Il' ichev Pacific Oceanological Inst. of FEB RAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Jin, Y.K. [Korea Polar Research Inst., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    The Derugin Basin in Russia contains large deposits of gas hydrates. This paper presented isotopic and mineralogical analyses of authigenic carbonates from gas hydrate seepage structures in the Derugin Basin. Carbonate samples were taken from 20 sites located in 17 seepage structures in the basin. The mineralogy and isotope geochemistry of the authigenic carbonates were then compared in order to illustrate the processes associated with gas seepage to the seafloor, and to characterize the precipitation of authigenic carbonates at different seeps. Samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction analyses. Results of the study demonstrated the existence of 4 different morphological types of carbonates comprised mainly of magnesium (Mg) calcite. Carbonates were poorly consolidated and fragile during the initial stage of carbonate concretion formation. In later stages, the carbonates became denser with a dendritic, or elongated shape, or rounded with subangular dense concretions. The final type was a tubicolous carbonate formed by the substitution of Polychaeta worms or burrows. The carbonates were light due to the presence of carbon from microbial methane. A mathematical model of the carbon-enriched samples was used to characterize carbonate precipitation caused by methanogenesis. A comparison between the model and samples obtained during field tests showed that the calculated equilibrium of the carbonates corresponded with the measured values. It was concluded that the basic mechanism of carbonate formation within the seepage structures was anaerobic methane oxidation via sulfate reduction. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Overpressure development and oil charging in the central Junggar Basin,Northwest China:Implication for petroleum exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Junggar Basin is one of the largest and most petroliferous superimposed petroleum basins in China. The central depression area has become the frontier field for petroleum exploration. The characteristics of potential source rocks and reservoir sandstones, and the pressure regime in the central Junggar Basin were studied. Permian shales are dominated by hydrogen-rich, oil-prone algal organic matter, and Jurassic mudstones are dominated by hydrogen-poor, higher-plant derived organic matter. These source rocks are widespread and have been mature for hydrocarbon generation, suggesting good to excellent exploration potential, both for crude oils and for natural gases. The deeply buried Jurassic sandstones usually have low porosity and permeability. However, sandstones beneath the Jurassic/Cretaceous unconformity display relatively high porosity and permeability, suggesting that meteoric water leaching had improved the quality of the sandstones. Overpressure developed over much of the central Junggar Basin. The overpressured rocks are characterized by slightly increased interval transit time, low sandstone permeability, increased organic matter maturity, and high relative hydrocarbon-gas contents. Mudstones in the overpressured system have quite the same clay mineral compositions as mudstones in the lower part of the normally pressured system. Overpressure generation in the central Junggar Basin is best to be explained as the result of hydrocarbon generation and fluid retention in low-permeability rocks. Petroleum generated from Permian and Jurassic source rocks could migrate laterally through preferential petroleum migration pathways and accumulated in structural traps or lithological traps in the overpressured system, or migrate vertically through faults/ hydraulic fractures into the overlying, normally pressured system and accumulate in structural or lithological traps. Therefore, commercial petroleum reservoirs could be potentially found in both the overpressured

  9. Overpressure development and oil charging in the central Junggar Basin,Northwest China:Implication for petroleum exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI XiYuan

    2009-01-01

    The Junggar Basin is one of the largest and most petroliferous superimposed petroleum basins in China.The central depression area has become the frontier field for petroleum exploration.The characteristics of potential source rocks end reservoir sandstones,and the pressure regime in the central Junggar Basin were studied.Permian shales are dominated by hydrogen-rich,oil-prone algal organic matter,and Jurassic mudstones are dominated by hydrogen-poor,higher-plant derived organic matter.These source rocks are widespread and have been mature for hydrocarbon generation,suggesting good to excellent exploration potential,both for crude oils and for natural gases.The deeply buried Jurassic sandstones usually have low porosity and permeability.However,sandstones beneath the Jurassic/Cretaceous unconformity display relatively high porosity and permeability,suggesting that meteoric water leaching had improved the quality of the sandstones.Overpressure developed over much of the central Junggar Basin.The overpressured rocks are characterized by slightly increased interval transit time,low sandstone permeability,increased organic matter maturity,and high relative hydrocarbon-gas contents.Mudstones in the overpressured system have quite the same clay mineral compositions as mudstones in the lower part of the normally pressured system.Overpressure generation in the central Junggar Basin is best-to be explained as the result of hydrocarbon generation and fluid retention in low-permeability rocks.Petroleum generated from Permian and Jurassic source rocks could migrate laterally through preferential petroleum migration pathways and accumulated in structural traps or lithological traps in the overpressured system,or migrate vertically through faults/hydraulic fractures into the overlying,normally pressured system and accumulate in structural or lithological traps.Therefore,commercial petroleum reservoirs could be potentially found in both the overpressured system,and in the normally

  10. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

    1997-10-15

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide- (CO{sub 2}-) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  11. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M. Lee; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas

    1999-11-03

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million bbl of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO-) flood 2 project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  12. The geochemical characteristics and genetic types of crude oils in the western depression of the Liaohe Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Guoyan; ZHONG Ningning; LIU Bao; ZHANG Ning; XU Guangjie

    2009-01-01

    The physical properties and group compositions of crude oils in the western depression of the Liaohe Basin possess such characteristics as to increase gradually in density, viscosity and wax contents, and decrease in saturated hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon and bitumen contents from the deep level to the shallow level and from the center of the depression to its boundary. Saturated hydrocarbons have various spectra, such as single peak and double peak patterns, front peak and rear peak patterns, and smooth peak and serated peak patterns, as well as the chromatograms of biodegraded n-alkanes. The ratios of Pr/Ph in crude oils from the southern part of the depression are generally higher than those in the northern part. The distribution of regular steranes C27-C29 is predominantly of the ramp type, and only a few samples have relatively high C28 contents in the southern part of the depression. As viewed from their physical properties and geochemical characteristics, crude oils in the study area can be divided into two types (I and II) based on oil-generating sources and sedimentary environments, and then further divided into three sub-types (Ia, Ib and Ic:IIa, IIb and IIIc, respectively) based on their degrees of maturation and secondary transformation. This will provide the reliable basis for oil-source correlation and petroleum exploration and prediction.

  13. Carbon isotopic compositions of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene in marine oil asphaltenes from the Tarim Basin: Evidence for the source formed in a strongly reducing environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA WangLu; PENG PingAn; XIAO ZhongYao

    2008-01-01

    Although 1-alkyl-2,3,6-trimethylbenzenes and a high relative amount of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene have been detected in marine oils and oil asphaltenes from Tabei uplift in the Tarim Basin, their biological sources are not determined. This paper deals with the molecular characteristics of typical marine oil asphaltenes from Tabei and Tazhong uplift in the Tarim Basin and the stable carbon isotopic signatures of individual compounds in the pyrolysates of these asphaltenes using flash pyrolysis-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (PY-GC-MS) and gas chromatograph-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-C-IRMS), respectively. Relatively abundant 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene is detected in the pyrolysates of these marine oil asphaltenes from the Tarim Basin. δ13C values of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene in the pyrolysates of oil asphaltenes vary from -19.6‰ to -24.0‰, while those of n-alkanes in the pyrolysates show a range from -33.2‰ to -35.1‰. The 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene in the pyrolysates of oil asphaltenes proves to be significantly enriched in 13C relative to n-alkanes in the pyrolysates and oil asphaltenes by 10.8‰-15.2%. and 8.4‰-13.4‰, respectively. This result indicates a contribution from photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria Chlorobiaceae to relatively abundant 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene in marine oil asphaltenes from the Tarim Basin. Hence, it can be speculated that the source of most marine oil asphaltenes from the Tarim Basin was formed in a strongly reducing water body enriched in H2S under euxinic conditions.

  14. The effects of biodegradation on biomarker maturity indicators in sequentially biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By aid of gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry(GC-MS) ,the distributions and the compositions of biomarkers in a set of sequentially biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin,China,have been quantitatively analyzed,and it has been found that during the biodegradation process of crude oils,the molecular maturity parameters such as Ts/Tm,homohopane C31 22S/(22S+22R) and sterane C29 20S/(20S+20R) ratios will be affected to different extent. The results show that except homohopane C31 22S/(22S+22R) ratio,Ts/Tm ratio will decrease with increasing biodegradation,but for C29 20S/(20S+20R) ratio,it will almost remain constant in slightly and moderately biodegraded oils,and then will increase quickly in severely biodegraded oils. The main reason is that there are some differences in the ability of resistant biodegradation for different isomer of biomarkers with different stereo configuration,resulting in the fact that destroying rate by bacteria for those biomarkers with weak ability will be higher than those with strong ability in resistant biodegradation. For example,18α(H) -22,29,30-trisnorhopanes(Ts) will be destroyed more quickly than 17α(H) -22,29,30-trisnorshopanres(Tm) ,and 20R isomer is more quickly than 20S isomer for C29 sterane,resulting in the relative ratios changed with increasing biodegradation. Therefore,much more attention should be paid to the biodegradation extent of crude oils and the type of biomarker maturity indicators,when the distributions and the compositions of biomarkers in biodegraded oils are used to determine the maturity of biodegraded oils.

  15. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which

  16. Preliminary results of cooperative research efforts with Phillips Petroleum Company and Amax Oil and Gas Inc. , San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, T.L. (Resource Enterprises Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Gas production rates from Fruitland open-hole coalbed wells often are greater than those from offset hydraulic fracture-stimulated wells in similar geologic environments by a factor of three or more. GRI and Resource Enterprises Inc, entered into cooperative research agreements with Phillips Petroleum Company and Amax Oil and Gas Inc. to evaluate the effectiveness of recompletion techniques, compare hydraulically fractured and cavity-completed wells, and measure at various locations in the basin the critical reservoir characteristics that influence completion technique selection. The Phillips' wells that were studied are located in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, southeast of the productive Northeast Blanco Unit. Amax's cooperative research project is situated outside the fairway along the Northwestern basin boundary in La Plata County, Colorado, where Fruitland coals are relatively shallow. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Infiltration and Seepage Through Fractured Welded Tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Ghezzehei; P.F. Dobson; J.A. Rodriguez; P.J. Cook

    2006-06-20

    The Nopal I mine in Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico, contains a uranium ore deposit within fractured tuff. Previous mining activities exposed a level ground surface 8 m above an excavated mining adit. In this paper, we report results of ongoing research to understand and model percolation through the fractured tuff and seepage into a mined adit both of which are important processes for the performance of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Travel of water plumes was modeled using one-dimensional numerical and analytical approaches. Most of the hydrologic properly estimates were calculated from mean fracture apertures and fracture density. Based on the modeling results, we presented constraints for the arrival time and temporal pattern of seepage at the adit.

  18. Chapter 2. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley group, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System is defined for this assessment to include (1) Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation carbonates and calcareous shales and (2) Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group organic-rich shales. The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System includes four conventional Cotton Valley assessment units: Cotton Valley Blanket Sandstone Gas (AU 50490201), Cotton Valley Massive Sandstone Gas (AU 50490202), Cotton Valley Updip Oil and Gas (AU 50490203), and Cotton Valley Hypothetical Updip Oil (AU 50490204). Together, these four assessment units are estimated to contain a mean undiscovered conventional resource of 29.81 million barrels of oil, 605.03 billion cubic feet of gas, and 19.00 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The Cotton Valley Group represents the first major influx of clastic sediment into the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Major depocenters were located in south-central Mississippi, along the Louisiana-Mississippi border, and in northeast Texas. Reservoir properties and production characteristics were used to identify two Cotton Valley Group sandstone trends across northern Louisiana and east Texas: a high-permeability blanket-sandstone trend and a downdip, low-permeability massive-sandstone trend. Pressure gradients throughout most of both trends are normal, which is characteristic of conventional rather than continuous basin-center gas accumulations. Indications that accumulations in this trend are conventional rather than continuous include (1) gas-water contacts in at least seven fields across the blanket-sandstone trend, (2) relatively high reservoir permeabilities, and (3) high gas-production rates without fracture stimulation. Permeability is sufficiently low in the massive-sandstone trend that gas-water transition zones are vertically extensive and gas-water contacts are poorly defined. The interpreted presence of gas-water contacts within the Cotton Valley

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the San Juan Basin Province of New Mexico and Colorado, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 50.6 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas (TCFG), a mean of 19 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 148 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the San Juan Basin Province. Of the 50.6 TCFG of undiscovered gas at the mean, about 29.2 TCFG is estimated to be in the Fruitland Total Petroleum System; 80 percent of this 29.2 TCFG (23.5 TCFG) is Fruitland TPS coal-bed gas. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas in the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Bighorn Basin Province, which encompasses about 6.7 million acres in north-central Wyoming and southern Montana. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, petroleum generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined two total petroleum systems: (1) Phosphoria, and (2) Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite. Within these two systems, eight assessment units (AU) were defined, and undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated within each AU.

  1. Seepage characteristics of collapse column fillings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Boyang; Bai Haibo; Zhang Kai

    2016-01-01

    With concealment and hysteresis, water-inrush from Karst collapse column has become an important security hazard of lower group coal mining in North China. Based on the MTS815.02 seepage test system, we analyzed the impact of consolidation pressure, initial moisture content and confining pressure on the permeability of fillings in order to study the seepage characteristics of collapse column fillings. The results show that:(1) The permeability of collapse column fillings is of the order of 10?16–10?15 magni-tude and decreases with an increase in consolidation pressure and decrease in initial moisture content. (2) The essence of filling seepage law change is the change in porosity, and a power function relationship exists between the permeability ratio and porosity ratio. (3) With increasing confining pressure, the per-meability of fillings decreases. However, under low confining pressure (1.2–4 MPa), the change of confin-ing pressure has no obvious influence on the permeability.

  2. Process and mechanism for oil and gas accumulation, adjustment and reconstruction in Puguang Gas Field, Northeast Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the discoveries of a series of large gas fields in the northeast of Sichuan Basin, such as Puguang and Longgang gas fields, the formation mechanism of the gas reservoir containing high H2S in the ancient marine carbonate formation in superposition-basin becomes a hot topic in the field of petroleum geology. Based on the structure inversion, numerical simulation, and geochemical research, we show at least two intervals of fluid transfer in Puguang paleo-oil reservoir, one in the forepart of late Indo-Chinese epoch to early Yanshan epoch and the other in the metaphase of early Yanshan epoch. Oil and gas accumulation occurred at Puguang structure through Puguang-Dongyuezhai faults and dolomite beds in reef and shoal facies in Changxing Formation (P2ch) - Feixianguan Formation (T1f) in the northwest and southwest directions along three main migration pathways, to form Puguang paleo-oil reservoir. Since crude oil is pyrolysised in the early stage of middle Yanshan epoch, Puguang gas reservoir has experienced fluid adjusting process controlled by tectonic movement and geochemical reconstruction process controlled by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Middle Yan-shan epoch is the main period during which the Puguang gas reservoir experienced the geochemical reaction of TSR. On one hand, TSR can recreate the fluid in gas reservoir, which makes the gas drying index larger and carbon isotope heavier. On the other hand, the reciprocity between fluid regarding TSR (hydrocarbon, H2S, and water) and reservoir rock induces erosion of the reservoir rocks and anhydrite alteration, which improves reservoir petrophysical properties. Superimposed by later tectonic movement, the fluid in Puguang reservoir has twice experienced adjustment, one in the late Yanshan epoch to the early Himalayan epoch and the other time in late Himalayan epoch, after which Puguang gas reservoir is finally developed.

  3. Assessment of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the Late Cretaceous Mancos Shale of the Piceance Basin, Uinta-Piceance Province, Colorado and Utah, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Sarah J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Tom M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phoung A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-06-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of the continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the Late Cretaceous Mancos Shale within the Piceance Basin of the Uinta-Piceance Province (fig. 1). The previous USGS assessment of the Mancos Shale in the Piceance Basin was completed in 2003 as part of a comprehensive assessment of the greater UintaPiceance Province (U.S. Geological Survey Uinta-Piceance Assessment Team, 2003). Since the last assessment, more than 2,000 wells have been drilled and completed in one or more intervals within the Mancos Shale of the Piceance Basin (IHS Energy Group, 2015). In addition, the USGS Energy Resources Program drilled a research core in the southern Piceance Basin that provided significant new geologic and geochemical data that were used to refine the 2003 assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas in the Mancos Shale.

  4. Quantitative assessment of gas washing of oils in the Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin,Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Gas washing has been known in the Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin,but its quantitative assessment has not yet been reported.Here the influence of gas washing fractionation in the area was discussed based on the gas chromatogram data of 68 oils and the results of the mixing experiments of a black oil and a condensate.The results show that the intensity of gas washing fractionation decreased generally from northern to southern part and vertically from deep reservoirs to shallow reservoirs.The gas washing fractionation was mainly controlled by fault systems in this area,with the increase of n-alkane mass depletion positively correlated to the number and scale of faults.Gas washing fractionation appears to have affected the hydrocarbon property,and as a result the diversity of the crude oils is markedly controlled by gas washing.In addition,the occurrence of waxy oil in this area may be resulted from multiple factors including gas washing,mixed filling and migration fractionation.

  5. Total Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources in the Powder River Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, L. O.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Powder River Basin in 2006. The assessment of undiscovered oil and gas used the total petroleum system concept, which includes mapping the distribution of potential source rocks and known petroleum accumulations and determining the timing of petroleum generation and migration. Geologically based, it focuses on source and reservoir rock stratigraphy, timing of tectonic events and the configuration of resulting structures, formation of traps and seals, and burial history modeling. The total petroleum system is subdivided into assessment units based on similar geologic characteristics and accumulation and petroleum type. In chapter 1 of this report, five total petroleum systems, eight conventional assessment units, and three continuous assessment units were defined and the undiscovered oil and gas resources within each assessment unit quantitatively estimated. Chapter 2 describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD-ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  6. Quantitative assessment of gas washing of oils in the Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG ChuPeng; GENG AnSong; LIAO ZeWen; SUN YongGe; ZHANG LüHui

    2009-01-01

    Gas washing has been known in the Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin, but its quantitative assessment has not yet been reported. Here the influence of gas washing fractionation in the area was discussed based on the gas chromatogram data of 68 oils and the results of the mixing experiments of a black oil and a condensate. The results show that the intensity of gas washing fractionation decreased generally from northern to southern part and vertically from deep reservoirs to shallow reservoirs. The gas washing fractionation was mainly controlled by fault systems in this area, with the increase of n-alkane mass depletion positively correlated to the number and scale of faults. Gas washing fractionation ap-pears to have affected the hydrocarbon property, and as a result the diversity of the crude oils is markedly controlled by gas washing. In addition, the occurrence of waxy oil in this area may be re-sulted from multiple factors including gas washing, mixed filling and migration fractionation.

  7. Solution of AntiSeepage for Mengxi River Based on Numerical Simulation of Unsaturated Seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youjun Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lessening the leakage of surface water can reduce the waste of water resources and ground water pollution. To solve the problem that Mengxi River could not store water enduringly, geology investigation, theoretical analysis, experiment research, and numerical simulation analysis were carried out. Firstly, the seepage mathematical model was established based on unsaturated seepage theory; secondly, the experimental equipment for testing hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soil was developed to obtain the curve of two-phase flow. The numerical simulation of leakage in natural conditions proves the previous inference and leakage mechanism of river. At last, the seepage control capacities of different impervious materials were compared by numerical simulations. According to the engineering actuality, the impervious material was selected. The impervious measure in this paper has been proved to be effectible by hydrogeological research today.

  8. Quantifying wintertime boundary layer ozone production from frequent profile measurements in the Uinta Basin, UT, oil and gas region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Russell C.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Cullis, Patrick; Sterling, Chance; Hall, Emrys; Jordan, Allen; Helmig, Detlev; Petron, Gabrielle; Ahmadov, Ravan; Wendell, James; Albee, Robert; Boylan, Patrick; Thompson, Chelsea R.; Evans, Jason; Hueber, Jacques; Curtis, Abigale J.; Park, Jeong-Hoo

    2016-09-01

    As part of the Uinta Basin Winter Ozone Study, January-February 2013, we conducted 937 tethered balloon-borne ozone vertical and temperature profiles from three sites in the Uinta Basin, Utah (UB). Emissions from oil and gas operations combined with snow cover were favorable for producing high ozone-mixing ratios in the surface layer during stagnant and cold-pool episodes. The highly resolved profiles documented the development of approximately week-long ozone production episodes building from regional backgrounds of 40 ppbv to >165 ppbv within a shallow cold pool up to 200 m in depth. Beginning in midmorning, ozone-mixing ratios increased uniformly through the cold pool layer at rates of 5-12 ppbv/h. During ozone events, there was a strong diurnal cycle with each succeeding day accumulating 4-8 ppbv greater than the previous day. The top of the elevated ozone production layer was nearly uniform in altitude across the UB independent of topography. Above the ozone production layer, mixing ratios decreased with height to 400 m above ground level where they approached regional background levels. Rapid clean-out of ozone-rich air occurred within a day when frontal systems brought in fresh air. Solar heating and basin topography led to a diurnal flow pattern in which daytime upslope winds distributed ozone precursors and ozone in the Basin. NOx-rich plumes from a coal-fired power plant in the eastern sector of the Basin did not appear to mix down into the cold pool during this field study.

  9. Increased Oil Production and Reserves From Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, C.D.; Deo, M.D.

    1998-04-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Colton (Wasatch) Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in the ancestral Lake Uinta. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1000 to 3000 vertical ft (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. Completion techniques used in the Bluebell field were discussed in detail in the Second Annual Report (Curtice, 1996). The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more

  10. Oil and gas presence perspectives of weathering layer reservoir of Nurol'ka mega-basin according to data of geothermics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luneva, T.; Lobova, G.; Fomin, A.

    2016-09-01

    Oil perspective areas of the Nurol'ka mega-basin (south-east of Western Siberia) through the M formation (Permian-Triassic weathering crust) on the basis of the results application of geothermometry were identified. Accumulating power distribution and quality of the M formation collectors were taken into account. The priority area for research are weathering layer reservoirs and its development that cover the South beads of Kulan-Igayskaya and Tamradskaya basins and its insulation joint were proposed. Glukhov's oil field that is located in this area approve its high prospectivity.

  11. Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47

  12. Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the North Cuba Basin. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of the total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and petroleum traps (Trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Total Petroleum System in the North Cuba Basin Province. Within this TPS, three assessment units were defined and assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  13. Analyses of hydrocarbons in BLM sediment intercalibration sample from Santa Barbara basin and spiked with API South Louisiana crude oil. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrington, J W; Tripp, B W; Sass, J

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary report is made of a BLM intercalibration sediment sample from the Santa Barbara basin spiked with South Louisiana crude oil. The two subsamples reported were analyzed by a procedure described in the appendix for which a separate abstract was written. Because of the high oil content of the sediment the usual thin layer chromatography procedure resulted in an overloaded plate. An appendix was indexed separately. (JSR)

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirshbaum, Mark; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 84,198 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 3,379 million barrels in the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province. All this resource occurs in continuous accumulations. In 2011, the USGS completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province of the eastern United States. The Appalachian Basin Province includes parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The assessment of the Marcellus Shale is based on the geologic elements of this formation's total petroleum system (TPS) as recognized in the characteristics of the TPS as a petroleum source rock (source rock richness, thermal maturation, petroleum generation, and migration) as well as a reservoir rock (stratigraphic position and content and petrophysical properties). Together, these components confirm the Marcellus Shale as a continuous petroleum accumulation. Using the geologic framework, the USGS defined one TPS and three assessment units (AUs) within this TPS and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered oil and gas resources within the three AUs. For the purposes of this assessment, the Marcellus Shale is considered to be that Middle Devonian interval that consists primarily of shale and lesser amounts of bentonite, limestone, and siltstone occurring between the underlying Middle Devonian Onondaga Limestone (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the Needmore Shale and Huntersville Chert) and the overlying Middle Devonian Mahantango Formation (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the upper Millboro Shale and middle Hamilton Group).

  15. Geological emission of methane from the Yakela condensed oil/gas field in Talimu Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Junhong; BAO Zhengyu; XIANG Wu; GOU Qinghong

    2008-01-01

    A static flux chamber method was applied to study natural emissions of methane into the atmosphere in the Yakela condensed oil/gas field in Talimu Basin, Xinjiang, China. Using an online method, which couples a gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/MS) together, the 13C/12C ratios of methane in the flux chambers were measured. The results demonstrated that methane gases were liable to migrate from deep oil/gas reservoir to the surface through microseepage and pervasion, and that a part of the migrated methane that remained unoxidized could emit into the atmosphere. Methane emission rates varied less in the oil/gas field because the whole region was homogeneous in geology and geography, with a standard deviation of less than 0.02 mg/(m2·h). These were the differences in methane emission flux in the day and at night in the oil/gas field. The maximum methane emission flux reached 0.15 mg/(m2·h) at 5:00-6:00 early in the morning, and then decreased gradually. The minimum was shown 0.10 mg/(m2·h) at 17:00-18:00 in the afternoon, and then increased gradually. The daily methane released flux of the study area was 2.89 mg/(m2·d), with a standard deviation of 0.43 mg/(m2·d), using the average methane flux of every hour in a day for all chambers. δ13C of methane increased with the increase of methane concentration in the flux chambers, further indicating that the pyrogenetic origin of methane was come from deep oil/gas reservoirs.

  16. A Prediction Model of Oil Cracked Gas Resources and Its Application in the Gas Pools of Feixianguan Formation in NE Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongshan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of oil cracked gas resources is necessary and urgent in the gas exploration of these basins at high to over stage in China. A marine crude oil sample was pyrolyzed using sealed gold tubes system in our study. The pyrolysates including gas, liquid, and solid were quantitatively analyzed. Based on the pyrolysis data and kinetic calculation, the yield correlativity among gas, liquid, and solid products was regressed with high correlative coefficients to establish a prediction model suitable for the resource estimation of oil cracked gas. The verification formula for this model was also established on the principle of mass conservation. The affecting factors and the application preconditions of this model were discussed. Finally the model was extrapolated to the prediction of oil cracked gas resources of Feixianguan formation in NE Sichuan basin, SW China. The prediction value of oil cracked resources is about 6.84×1012 m3, and generation intensity of oil cracked gas is about 97.5×108 m3/km2, and the paleo-oil reserves is about 97×108 t. The verifying value for this prediction is approximately equal to 1, indicating the model is reliable in the resource estimation of oil cracked gas.

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Slack Lineaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents lineaments in the Powder River Basin as identified in the following publication: Slack, P. B., 1981, Paleotectonics and hydrocarbon...

  18. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Anna Lineaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents lineaments in the Powder River Basin as identified in the following U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper: Anna, L.O., 1986, Geologic...

  19. Prospect of Oil/Gas Exploration in Beach Area of Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gansheng; Dou Lirong; Yuan Lingling; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction Located in beach zone along Bohai Bay, the beach area of Bohai Bay basin is restricted between coastline and water depth of 5 m, stretching from Bayuquan to Huludao, Liaoning Province and Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province to Weihekou, Shandong Province.

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Structural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents lineaments in the Powder River Basin as identified in the following publication: Anna, L.O., 1986, Geologic framework of the ground water...

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Maughan and Perry Lineaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents lineaments in the Powder River Basin as identified in the following publication: Maughan, E.K., and Perry, W.J., Jr., 1986, Lineaments and...

  2. Metals in water, sediments, and biota of an offshore oil exploration area in the Potiguar Basin, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, L D; Campos, R C; Santelli, R E

    2013-05-01

    Metal concentrations were evaluated in water, bottom sediments, and biota in four field campaigns from 2002 to 2004 in the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil, where offshore oil exploration occurs. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Total metal concentrations in water (dissolved + particulate) and sediments were in the range expected for coastal and oceanic areas. Abnormally high concentrations in waters were only found for Ba (80 μg l(-1)) and Mn (12 μg l(-1)) at the releasing point of one of the outfalls, and for the other metals, concentrations in water were found in stations closer to shore, suggesting continental inputs. In bottom sediments, only Fe and Mn showed abnormal concentrations closer to the effluent releasing point. Metal spatial distribution in shelf sediments showed the influence of the silt-clay fraction distribution, with deeper stations at the edge of the continental shelf, which are much richer in silt-clay fraction showing higher concentrations than shallower sediments typically dominated by carbonates. Metal concentrations in estuarine (mollusks and crustaceans) and marine (fish) organisms showed highest concentrations in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae). Fish tissues metal concentrations were similar between the continental shelf influenced by the oil exploration area and a control site. The results were within the range of concentrations reported for pristine environments without metals contamination. The global results suggest small, if any, alteration in metal concentrations due to the oil exploration activity in the Potiguar Basin. For monitoring purposes, the continental inputs and the distribution of the clay-silt fraction need to be taken into consideration for interpreting environmental monitoring results.

  3. Tectonic Features and Its Control Over Oil and Gas in Beibuwan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Dianzhong

    1995-01-01

    @@ Main part of Beibuwan Basin located in Beibuwan Bay, South China Sea, is a Cenozoic basin with mainly of Tertiary sedimentation. It is dissected into tectonic framework of interchange of multi-sag and multiuplift units by two groups of big riff with NE and NW trend. The fault sags resulted from the fault dissection are Weixinan, Wushi, Maichen, Fushan (on Hainan Island )etc. (Fig. 1).

  4. Seepage and stress analysis of anti-seepage structures constructed with different concrete materials in an RCC gravity dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-chao Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study used the finite element method (FEM to analyze the stress field and seepage field of a roller-compacted concrete (RCC dam, with an upstream impervious layer constructed with different types of concrete materials, including three-graded RCC, two-graded RCC, conventional vibrated concrete (CVC, and grout-enriched vibrated RCC (GEVR, corresponding to the design schemes S1 through S4. It also evaluated the anti-seepage performance of the imperious layer in the four design schemes under the normal water level and flood-check level. Stress field analysis of a retaining section and discharge section shows that the maximum tensile stress occurs near the dam heel, the maximum compressive stress occurs near the dam toe, and the stress distributions in the four schemes can satisfy the stress control criteria. Seepage field analysis shows that the uplift pressure heads in schemes S3 and S4 descend rapidly in the anti-seepage region, and that the calculated results of daily seepage flow under the steady seepage condition in these two schemes are about 30% to 50% lower than those in the other two schemes, demonstrating that CVC and GEVR show better anti-seepage performance. The results provide essential parameters such as the uplift pressure head and seepage flow for physical model tests and anti-seepage structure selection in RCC dams.

  5. Land use change effects of oil palm expansion on ecosystem services in Tapi river basin, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Hein, L.G.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, Warit

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have shown a strong increase in oil palm production in Thailand. This is increasingly leading to land conversion including loss of forest habitat. However the specific direct and indirect land use effects of oil palm expansion in Thailand are as yet insufficiently understood. We sel

  6. Geographic information system (GIS)-based maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields: Chapter C.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Kinney, Scott A.; Suitt, Stephen E.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more recent maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields (and the adjoining Black Warrior basin) is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compilation by Mast and others (1998) (see Trippi and others, this volume, chap. I.1). This map is part of a larger oil and gas field map for the conterminous United States that was derived by Mast and others (1998) from the Well History Control System (WHCS) database of Petroleum Information, Inc. (now IHS Energy Group). Rather than constructing the map from the approximately 500,000 proprietary wells in the Appalachian and Black Warrior part of the WHCS database, Mast and others (1998) subdivided the region into a grid of 1-mi2 (square mile) cells and allocated an appropriate type of hydrocarbon production (oil production, gas production, oil and gas production, or explored but no production) to each cell. Each 1-mi2 cell contains from 0 to 5 or more exploratory and (or) development wells. For example, if the wells in the 1-mi2 cell consisted of three oil wells, one gas well, and one dry well, then the cell would be characterized on the map as an area of oil and gas production. The map by Mast and others (1998) accurately shows the distribution and types of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Appalachian and Black Warrior basins, but it does not show the names of individual fields. To determine the locality and name of individual oil and gas fields, one must refer to State oil and gas maps (for example, Harper and others, 1982), which are generally published at scales of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 (see References Cited), and (or) published journal articles.

  7. Outcomes of pregnancy among women living in the proximity of oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Sebastián, Miguel; Armstrong, Ben; Stephens, Carolyn

    2002-01-01

    Oil companies have released billions of gallons of untreated wastes and oil directly into the environment of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This cross-sectional study investigated the environmental conditions and reproductive health of women living in rural communities surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin and in unexposed communities. Water from local streams was analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The women, aged 17 to 45 years, had resided for at least three years in the study communities. Socioeconomic and reproductive histories of the last three pregnancies were obtained from interviews. Information from the questionnaire was available for 365 exposed and 283 non-exposed women. The study was conducted from November 1998 to April 1999. Streams of exposed communities had TPH concentrations above the allowable limit. After adjustment for potential confounders, the pregnancies of women in exposed communities were more likely to end in spontaneous abortion (OR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.61-3.79; p pollution in the area is needed.

  8. Characterization of the Spatial Variability of Methane, Ozone, and Carbon Dioxide in Two Oil and Gas Production Basins Via a Spatial Grid of Continuous Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, J. G.; Collier, A. M.; Hannigan, M.; Piedrahita, R.; Vaughn, B. H.; Sherwood, O.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, aided by the advent of horizontal drilling used in conjunction with hydraulic fracturing, oil and gas production in basins around the United States has increased significantly. A study was conducted in two oil and gas basins during the spring and summer of 2015 to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of several atmospheric trace gases that can be influenced by oil and gas extraction including methane, ozone, and carbon dioxide. Fifteen air quality monitors were distributed across the Denver Julesburg Basin in Northeast Colorado, and the San Juan Basin, which stretches from Southwest Colorado into Northwest New Mexico in Four Corners Region. Spatial variability in ozone was observed across each basin. The presence of dynamic short-term trends observed in the mole fraction of methane and carbon dioxide indicate the extent to which each site is uniquely impacted by local emission sources. Diurnal trends of these two constituents lead toward a better understanding of local pooling of emissions that can be influenced by topography, the planetary boundary layer height, atmospheric stability, as well as the composition and flux of local and regional emissions sources.

  9. Reservoir geochemistry of the Tazhong oilfield in the Tarim Basin, China, Part Ⅰ. Geochemical characteristics and genetic classification of crude oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min; HUANG Guanghui; HU Guoyi

    2006-01-01

    According to the assemblage characteristics of saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers in crude oils and their geochemical implications, this study has proposed, for the first time, the criteria for the genetic classification of crude oils in the Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin, China. Crude oils from the area studied are classified as three genetic types: type-Ⅰ is characterized by the low contents of C29 norhopane, extremely abundant contents of gammacerane, low contents of rearranged sterane and relatively high contents of regular C28 sterane; the geochemical properties of type-Ⅱ crude oils are opposite to those of type-Ⅰ crude oils; the parameters for type-Ⅲ crude oils are intermediate between type-Ⅰ and type-Ⅱ. Results of oil correlation indicated that type-Ⅰ crude oils were derived from Cambrian-Lower Ordovician hydrocarbon source rocks, type-Ⅱ curde oils originated from Middle-Upper Ordovician hydrocarbon source rocks and type-Ⅲ crude oils are of mixed origin.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Mississippian Sunbury shale and Devonian–Mississippian Chattanooga shale in the Appalachian Basin Province, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.; Rouse, William A.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Trippi, Michael H.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Drake, Ronald M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Doolan, Colin; Le, Phuong A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2016-11-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources that total 464 million barrels of oil and 4.08 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Lower Mississippian Sunbury Shale and Middle Devonian–Lower Mississippian Chattanooga Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and shale-gas resources in the Bazhenov Formation of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-10

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 12 billion barrels of oil and 75 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bazhenov Formation of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered shale gas and shale oil resources in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-12-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 53 trillion cubic feet of shale gas, 172 million barrels of shale oil, and 176 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Barnett Shale of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of Texas.

  13. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of Solimões, Amazonas, and Parnaíba Basin Provinces, Brazil, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean continuous resources of 5 billion barrels of oil and 47 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Paleozoic Solimões, Amazonas, and Parnaíba Basin Provinces, Brazil. 

  14. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered shale gas and shale oil resources in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-12-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 53 trillion cubic feet of shale gas, 172 million barrels of shale oil, and 176 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Barnett Shale of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of Texas.

  16. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louw, de P.G.B.; Eeman, S.; Siemon, B.; `Voortman, B.R.; Gunnink, J.; Baaren, E.S.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, freshwater availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and

  17. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Louw, Perry G.B.; Eeman, Sara; Siemon, Bernhard; Voortman, Bernard R.; Gunnink, Jan; Van Baaren, Esther S.; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, fresh water availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence an

  18. Petroleum systems and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Anadarko Basin Province, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas: USGS Province 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides research results and related data in support of the U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas resource potential of the Anadarko Basin Province of western Oklahoma and Kansas, northern Texas, and southeastern Colorado. This province area includes the Las Animas arch of southeastern Colorado, part of the Palo Duro Basin of Texas, and the Anadarko Basin. Results of the geologic analysis and resource assessment are based on the geologic elements of each defined total petroleum system, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphic and petrophysical properties), hydrocarbon traps (trapping mechanisms and timing), and seals. Using this geologic framework, the U.S. Geological Survey defined 2 total petroleum systems, the Woodford Composite total petroleum system and Pennsylvanian Composite total petroleum system and 12 included assessment units, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered oil and gas resources within these conventional and continuous (unconventional) AUs.

  19. Computer-assisted basin analysis and regionalization aid the search for oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harff, J.; Springer, J. (Academy of Science of the GDR, Potsdam (East Germany)); Eiserbeck, W.; Hoth, K.

    1990-06-01

    Personal computer software has been developed for determining the potential of a region for the occurrence of hydrocarbons, using assessment criteria based on expert appraisals, exploration data, and the results of basin modeling. The first two must be supplied by experienced geologists. The third is provided by the software, which reconstructs past conditions within a basin by simulating sedimentary processes, including subsidence, compaction, structural deformation, and geothermal and geochemical processes. The assessment criteria are interpreted simultaneously using multivariate regionalization models. The region of investigation is divided into homogeneous subregions reflecting different favorabilities, based on an adaptation of the theory of classification of geological objects developed in the Soviet Union. Regionalization aids in decision making for such costly exploration activities as seismic profiling and drilling. The method has been applied successfully to the search for gas in the North German Basin.

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Eastern Great Basin Province (019) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Denver Basin Province (039) Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS as a method for illustrating the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution...

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin Province (045) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Joaquin Basin Province (010) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Juan Basin Province (022) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Anadarko Basin Province (058) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Hanna, Laramie, Shirley Basins Province (030) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  7. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Hanna, Laramie, Shirley Basins Province (030) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  8. Oil and Gas Wells in the Wyoming Basins (8/31/2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A complete set of wells associated with oil, natural gas, and coal bed natural gas development in the western states as of August 31, 2005. This is a static dataset...

  9. Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, Oil Shale Geodatabase (Compiled from 3 legacy publications)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase is a digital reproduction of three legacy USGS oil shale publications--MF-958 (Pitman and Johnson, 1978), MF-1069 (Pitman, 1979), and OC-132 (Pitman...

  10. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Sacramento Basin Province Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of production...

  11. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Paradox Basin (021) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Wind River Basin Province Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  13. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Juan Basin Province (022) Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS as a method for illustrating the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution...

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Michigan Basin Province (063) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  15. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Illinois Basin Province (064) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  16. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Denver Basin Province (039) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  18. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Williston Basin Province (031) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  19. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Appalachian Basin Province (067) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Williston Basin Province (031) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Illinois Basin Province (064) Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of production...

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Michigan Basin Province (063) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Juan Basin Province (022) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Illinois Basin Province (064) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Denver Basin Province (039) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  7. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province (041) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  8. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Bighorn Basin (5034) Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of production...

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS as a method for illustrating the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution...

  10. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Michigan Basin Province (063) Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of production...

  11. Hydrocarbon charging histories of the Ordovician reservoir in the Tahe oil field, Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纯泉; 陈红汉; 李思田; 张希明; 陈汉林

    2004-01-01

    The Ordovician reservoir of the Tahe oil field went through many tectonic reconstructions, and was characterized by multiple hydrocarbon chargings. The aim of this study was to unravel the complex charging histories. Systematic analysis of fluid inclusions was employed to complete the investigation. Fluorescence observation of oil inclusions under UV light, and microthermometry of both oil and aqueous inclusions in 105 core samples taken from the Ordovician reservoir indicated that the Ordovician reservoir underwent four oil chargings and a gas charging. The hydrocarbon chargings occurred at the late Hercynian, the Indo-Sinian and Yanshan, the early Himalaya, the middle Himalaya, and the late Himalaya,respectively. The critical hydrocarbon charging time was at the late Hercynian.

  12. Hydrocarbon charging histories of the Ordovician reservoir in the Tahe oil field, Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纯泉; 陈红汉; 李思田; 张希明; 陈汉林

    2004-01-01

    The Ordovician reservoir of the Tahe oil field went through many tectonic reconstructions, and was charac-terized by multiple hydrocarbon chargings. The aim of this study was to unravel the complex charging histories. Systematicanalysis of fluid inclusions was employed to complete the investigation. Fluorescence observation of oil inclusions underUV light, and microthermometry of both oil and aqueous inclusions in 105 core samples taken from the Ordovician reservoirindicated that the Ordovician reservoir underwent four oil chargings and a gas charging. The hydrocarbon chargings oc-curred at the late Hercynian, the Indo-Sinian and Yanshan, the early Himalaya, the middle Himalaya, and the late Himalaya,respectively. The critical hydrocarbon charging time was at the late Hercynian.

  13. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Eastern Great Basin Province (019) Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS as a method for illustrating the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution...

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Appalachian Basin (067) Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS as a method for illustrating the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution...

  15. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Eastern Great Basin (019) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  16. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Sacramento Basin Province (009) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Joaquin Basin Province (010) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  18. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Bighorn Basin Province (034) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  19. High mobilization of arsenic, metals and rare earth elements in seepage waters driven by respiration of old allochthonous organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiske, Arndt; Schaller, Jörg; Hegewald, Tilo; Machill, Susanne; Werner, Ingo; Dudel, E Gert

    2013-12-01

    Metal and metalloid mobilization processes within seepage water are of major concern in a range of water reservoir systems. The mobilization process of arsenic and heavy metals within a dam and sediments of a drinking water reservoir was investigated. Principle component analysis (PCA) on time series data of seepage water showed a clear positive correlation of arsenic with iron and DOC (dissolved organic carbon), and a negative correlation with nitrate due to respiratory processes. A relationship of reductive metal and metalloid mobilization with respiration of old carbon was shown. The system is influenced by sediment layers as well as a recent DOC input from degraded ombrotrophic peatbogs in the catchment area. The isotopic composition ((12)C, (13)C and (14)C) of DOC is altered along the path from basin to seepage water, but no significant changes in structural parameters (LC-OCD-OND, FT-IR) could be seen. DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) in seepage water partly originates from respiratory processes, and a higher relationship of it with sediment carbon than with the DOC inventory of infiltrating water was found. This study revealed the interaction of respiratory processes with metal and metalloid mobilization in sediment water flows. In contrast to the presumption that emerging DOC via respiratory processes mainly controls arsenic and metal mobilization it could be shown that the presence of aged carbon compounds is essential. The findings emphasize the importance of aged organic carbon for DOC, DIC, arsenic and metal turnover.

  20. Utilizing geophysical methods for asessment and characterization of canal seepage in El Paso's lower valley irrigation delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegon, Amanda Brooke

    El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 (EPCWID No.1) delivers the Rio Grande water for agricultural production and urban uses through numerous networked irrigation canals. Of the nearly 86 billion gallons of water released annually for irrigation uses in Texas, billions are lost due to evaporation and seepage in unlined canals with 56 million gallons of the billions are lost in Franklin Canal annually due to improper lining and sediment variation of the canals. To characterize seepage patterns and identify areas of high seepage, Electrical Resistivity, Ground Truthing via soil sample analysis were used along three, half-mile long sectioned canals during irrigation and non-irrigation seasons. The data lines acquired were processed in EARTHIMAGER 2D to create 2D vertical resistivity inversion profiles to locate potential areas of high seepage/high resistivity. The research results will help El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 to develop management strategies to conserve water and improve the delivery efficiency systems which leads to economic growth in the Rio Grande Basin.

  1. Genesis Types and Diagenesis Compaction Mechanisms of Sandstone Rreservoirs in Dynamic Environments in Oil/Gas Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou Jianfeng; Si Chunsong; Wang Xin

    2006-01-01

    The diversity of sandstone diagenesis mechanisms caused by the complex geological conditions of oil/gas basins in China could hardly be reasonably explained by the traditional concept of burial diagenesis. Three genesis types of thermal diagenesis, tectonic diagenesis and fluid diagenesis are presented on the basis of the dynamic environment of the oil/gas basins and the controlling factors and mechanisms of sandstone diagenesis. Thermal diagenesis of sandstone reservoirs is related not only to the effect of formation temperature on diagenesis, but also to the significant changes in diagenesis caused by geothermal gradients. The concept of thermal compaction is presented. Thermal compaction becomes weaker with increasing depth and becomes stronger at a higher geothermal gradient. At the same formation temperature, the sandstone porosity in the region with a lower geothermal gradient is e0.077+0.0042T times higher than that in the region with a higher geothermal gradient. Both sudden and gradual changes are observed in diagenetic evolution caused by structural deformation. Average sandstone compaction increased by 0.1051% for every 1.0MPa increase of lateral tectonic compressional stress, while late tectonic napping helped to preserve a higher porosity of underlying sandstone reservoir. Fluid diagenesis is a general phenomenon. The compaction caused by fluid properties is significant. The coarser the grain size, the stronger the fluid effect on compaction. The greater the burial depth, the weaker the fluid effect on compaction for the specific reservoir lithology and the greater the difference in the fluid effects on compaction between different grain sizes.

  2. Groundwater methane in relation to oil and gas development and shallow coal seams in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Rogers, Jessica D.; Lackey, Greg; Burke, Troy L.; Osborn, Stephen G.; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development has generated intense public concerns about potential impacts to groundwater quality. Specific pathways of contamination have been identified; however, overall rates of contamination remain ambiguous. We used an archive of geochemical data collected from 1988 to 2014 to determine the sources and occurrence of groundwater methane in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of northeastern Colorado. This 60,000-km2 region has a 60-y-long history of hydraulic fracturing, with horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing beginning in 2010. Of 924 sampled water wells in the basin, dissolved methane was detected in 593 wells at depths of 20–190 m. Based on carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes and gas molecular ratios, most of this methane was microbially generated, likely within shallow coal seams. A total of 42 water wells contained thermogenic stray gas originating from underlying oil and gas producing formations. Inadequate surface casing and leaks in production casing and wellhead seals in older, vertical oil and gas wells were identified as stray gas migration pathways. The rate of oil and gas wellbore failure was estimated as 0.06% of the 54,000 oil and gas wells in the basin (lower estimate) to 0.15% of the 20,700 wells in the area where stray gas contamination occurred (upper estimate) and has remained steady at about two cases per year since 2001. These results show that wellbore barrier failure, not high-volume hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells, is the main cause of thermogenic stray gas migration in this oil- and gas-producing basin. PMID:27402747

  3. Groundwater methane in relation to oil and gas development and shallow coal seams in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Owen A; Rogers, Jessica D; Lackey, Greg; Burke, Troy L; Osborn, Stephen G; Ryan, Joseph N

    2016-07-26

    Unconventional oil and gas development has generated intense public concerns about potential impacts to groundwater quality. Specific pathways of contamination have been identified; however, overall rates of contamination remain ambiguous. We used an archive of geochemical data collected from 1988 to 2014 to determine the sources and occurrence of groundwater methane in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of northeastern Colorado. This 60,000-km(2) region has a 60-y-long history of hydraulic fracturing, with horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing beginning in 2010. Of 924 sampled water wells in the basin, dissolved methane was detected in 593 wells at depths of 20-190 m. Based on carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes and gas molecular ratios, most of this methane was microbially generated, likely within shallow coal seams. A total of 42 water wells contained thermogenic stray gas originating from underlying oil and gas producing formations. Inadequate surface casing and leaks in production casing and wellhead seals in older, vertical oil and gas wells were identified as stray gas migration pathways. The rate of oil and gas wellbore failure was estimated as 0.06% of the 54,000 oil and gas wells in the basin (lower estimate) to 0.15% of the 20,700 wells in the area where stray gas contamination occurred (upper estimate) and has remained steady at about two cases per year since 2001. These results show that wellbore barrier failure, not high-volume hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells, is the main cause of thermogenic stray gas migration in this oil- and gas-producing basin.

  4. Oils from different depth in the Alagoas sub-basin distribution and concentration; Oleos em diferentes profundidades na sub-bacia Alagoas: distribuicao e econcentracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboucas, Lucia M.C.; Sant' Ana, Antonio E.G.; Sabino, Adilson R.; Nogueira, Fred A.R.; Moraes, Reinaldo J.R.; Crispim, Alessandre [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia . Lab. de Analises de Biomarcadores e Semioquimicos]. E-mail: lmcr@qui.ufal.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the distribution and the concentration of n-alkane homologue series and the HPA compounds in 22 oils from Alagoas sub-basin, Pilar Field, Brazil. The n-alkane profile of whole oil gas chromatograms (CG-FID) to light, medium and heave oils represented no-biodegraded oils. The light and medium oils have n-alkane distribution with a maximum in nC{sub 10} and nC{sub 17}. The ration pristine/phytane (P/F) between 1,5 and 2,7 suggest Lacustrine origin. The nalkane distribution from the heavy oils show two maximum between nC{sub 15} and nC{sub 23}. The concentrations of n-alkane are different to all the 22 oils. The F2 fraction classified as light (API>39), medium (36oils show that they can be readily distinguished to three or four oil families in each oil class. Therefore, it seems that the same oil can belong to different family accord to abundance of n-alkane or to the HPA, F2 fraction, compounds. By the F2 fraction we can suggest different families or different migration route. The oils show by GC-MS (characteristic ion m/z to each class) abundant fluorenone and alkylfluorenones compounds. Other HPA homologue series compounds as: naphthalene, biphenyl, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran, chrysene, mono- and triaromatic steroid, benzohopane and their alkyl derivates, were identified in the oils. (author)

  5. Estimation of VOC emissions from produced-water treatment ponds in Uintah Basin oil and gas field using modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H.; Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; O'Neil, T.; Jones, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions from produced-water treatment ponds are poorly characterized sources in oil and gas emission inventories that play a critical role in studying elevated winter ozone events in the Uintah Basin, Utah, U.S. Information gaps include un-quantified amounts and compositions of gases emitted from these facilities. The emitted gases are often known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which, beside nitrogen oxides (NOX), are major precursors for ozone formation in the near-surface layer. Field measurement campaigns using the flux-chamber technique have been performed to measure VOC emissions from a limited number of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah. Although the flux chamber provides accurate measurements at the point of sampling, it covers just a limited area of the ponds and is prone to altering environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure). This fact raises the need to validate flux chamber measurements. In this study, we apply an inverse-dispersion modeling technique with evacuated canister sampling to validate the flux-chamber measurements. This modeling technique applies an initial and arbitrary emission rate to estimate pollutant concentrations at pre-defined receptors, and adjusts the emission rate until the estimated pollutant concentrations approximates measured concentrations at the receptors. The derived emission rates are then compared with flux-chamber measurements and differences are analyzed. Additionally, we investigate the applicability of the WATER9 wastewater emission model for the estimation of VOC emissions from produced-water ponds in the Uintah Basin. WATER9 estimates the emission of each gas based on properties of the gas, its concentration in the waste water, and the characteristics of the influent and treatment units. Results of VOC emission estimations using inverse-dispersion and WATER9 modeling techniques will be reported.

  6. Effects of thermal maturation and thermochemical sulfate reduction on compound-specific sulfur isotopic compositions of organosulfur compounds in Phosphoria oils from the Bighorn Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Said-Ahamed, Ward; Lillis, Paul G.; Shawar, Lubna; Amrani, Alon

    2017-01-01

    Compound-specific sulfur isotope analysis was applied to a suite of 18 crude oils generated from the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the Bighorn Basin, western USA. These oils were generated at various levels of thermal maturity and some experienced thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). This is the first study to examine the effects of thermal maturation on stable sulfur isotopic compositions of individual organosulfur compounds (OSCs) in crude oil. A general trend of 34S enrichment in all of the studied compounds with increasing thermal maturity was observed, with the δ34S values of alkyl-benzothiophenes (BTs) tending to be enriched in 34S relative to those of the alkyl-dibenzothiophenes (DBTs) in lower-maturity oils. As thermal maturity increases, δ34S values of both BTs and DBTs become progressively heavier, but the difference in the average δ34S value of the BTs and DBTs (Δ34S BT-DBT) decreases. Differences in the isotopic response to thermal stress exhibited by these two compound classes are considered to be the result of relative differences in their thermal stabilities. TSR-altered Bighorn Basin oils have OSCs that are generally enriched in 34S relative to non-TSR-altered oils, with the BTs being enriched in 34S relative to the DBTs, similar to the findings of previous studies. However, several oils that were previously interpreted to have been exposed to minor TSR have Δ34S BT-DBT values that do not support this interpretation. The δ34S values of the BTs and DBTs in some of these oils suggest that they did not experience TSR, but were derived from a more thermally mature source. The heaviest δ34S values observed in the OSCs are enriched in 34S by up to 10‰ relative to that of Permian anhydrite in the Bighorn Basin, suggesting that there may be an alternate or additional source of sulfate in some parts of the basin. These results indicate that the sulfur isotopic composition of OSCs in oil provides a sensitive indicator for the extent of TSR

  7. Methane gas seepage - Disregard of significant water column filter processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Schmale, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Marine methane seepage represents a potential contributor for greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and is discussed as a driver for climate change. The ultimate question is how much methane is released from the seafloor on a global scale and what fraction may reach the atmosphere? Dissolved fluxes from methane seepage sites on the seabed were found to be very efficiently reduced by benthic microbial oxidation, whereas transport of free gas bubbles from the seabed is considered to bypass the effective benthic methane filter. Numerical models are available today to predict the fate of such methane gas bubble release to the water column in regard to gas exchange with the ambient water column, respective bubble lifetime and rise height. However, the fate of rising gas bubbles and dissolved methane in the water column is not only governed by dissolution, but is also affected by lateral oceanographic currents and vertical bubble-induced upwelling, microbial oxidation, and physico-chemical processes that remain poorly understood so far. According to this gap of knowledge we present data from two study sites - the anthropogenic North Sea 22/4b Blowout and the natural Coal Oil point seeps - to shed light into two new processes gathered with hydro-acoustic multibeam water column imaging and microbial investigations. The newly discovered processes are hereafter termed Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism. Spiral Vortex describes the evolution of a complex vortical fluid motion of a bubble plume in the wake of an intense gas release site (Blowout, North Sea). It appears very likely that it dramatically changes the dissolution kinetics of the seep gas bubbles. Bubble Transport Mechanism prescribes the transport of sediment-hosted bacteria into the water column via rising gas bubbles. Both processes act as filter mechanisms in regard to vertical transport of seep related methane, but have not been considered before. Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism represent the

  8. Benzene Variability in a Region of Oil and Gas Extraction in the DJ Basin During DISCOVER-AQ/FRAPPE 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, H.; Wisthaler, A.; Thompson, A. M.; Mikoviny, T.; Müller, M.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 DISCOVER-AQ/FRAPPE experiment was an opportunity for aircraft and ground-based sampling of trace gases in the Denver-Julesburg Basin. We measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) in July and August of 2014 at NOAA's Platteville Atmospheric Observatory (40.1815 / -104.7268), a site in close proximity to multiple facilities for extraction, storage, transportation, processing and distribution of oil and gas. On selected days, continuous ground-based measurements were complemented by airborne PTR-MS measurements from NASA P-3B aircraft vertical profiles over Platteville. The spirals were further supported by pressurized canister samples analyzed by a GC-MS for a suite of VOCs. The data were used to characterize the variability of benzene at the collection site. Exceptionally high measurements of benzene from the southwest constrain a gas field benzene source that has been observed in previous studies. The chemistry at the site is heavily influenced by oil and gas activity, with local sources of benzene creating mixing ratios comparable to benzene measured over the Denver urban area.

  9. Temporal variation in groundwater quality in the Permian Basin of Texas, a region of increasing unconventional oil and gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Kadjo, Akinde F; Clark, Adelaide; Usenko, Sascha; Hamilton, Jason S; Mach, Phillip M; Verbeck, Guido F; Hudak, Paul; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-08-15

    The recent expansion of natural gas and oil extraction using unconventional oil and gas development (UD) practices such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has raised questions about the potential for environmental impacts. Prior research has focused on evaluations of air and water quality in particular regions without explicitly considering temporal variation; thus, little is known about the potential effects of UD activity on the environment over longer periods of time. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in an area of increasing UD activity over a period of 13months. We analyzed samples from 42 private water wells located in three contiguous counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Permian Basin in Texas. This area has experienced a rise in UD activity in the last few years, and we analyzed samples in four separate time points to assess variation in groundwater quality over time as UD activities increased. We monitored general water quality parameters as well as several compounds used in UD activities. We found that some constituents remained stable over time, but others experienced significant variation over the period of study. Notable findings include significant changes in total organic carbon and pH along with ephemeral detections of ethanol, bromide, and dichloromethane after the initial sampling phase. These data provide insight into the potentially transient nature of compounds associated with groundwater contamination in areas experiencing UD activity.

  10. Coupled Seepage and Heat Transfer Intake Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Junhua; YOU Shijun; ZHANG Huan; LI Haishan

    2009-01-01

    In the beach well intake system, heat is transferred from soil to fluid when seawater is filtered through the aquifer, providing higher temperature source water to the seawater source heat pump (SWHP) system in winter. A 3-D coupled seepage and heat transfer model for studying beach well intake system is established by adopting the computer code FLUENT. Numerical results of this model are compared with the experimental results under the same conditions. Based on the experiment-verified coupled model, numerical simulation of the supply water temperature is studied over a heating season. Results show that the minimum temperature of supply water is 275.2 K when this intake system continuously provides seawater with flow rate of 35 m3/h to SWHP. Results also indicate that the supply water temperature is higher than seawater, and that the minimum temperature of supply water lags behind seawater, ensuring effective and reliable operation of SWHP.

  11. Identifying Oil Exploration Leads using Intergrated Remote Sensing and Seismic Data Analysis, Lake Sakakawea, Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, Willistion Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott R. Reeves; Randal L. Billingsley

    2004-02-26

    The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, inhabited by the Arikara, Mandan and Hidatsa Tribes (now united to form the Three Affiliated Tribes) covers a total area of 1530 mi{sup 2} (980,000 acres). The Reservation is located approximately 15 miles east of the depocenter of the Williston basin, and to the southeast of a major structural feature and petroleum producing province, the Nesson anticline. Several published studies document the widespread existence of mature source rocks, favorable reservoir/caprock combinations, and production throughout the Reservation and surrounding areas indicating high potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. This technical assessment was performed to better define the oil exploration opportunity, and stimulate exploration and development activities for the benefit of the Tribes. The need for this assessment is underscored by the fact that, despite its considerable potential, there is currently no meaningful production on the Reservation, and only 2% of it is currently leased. Of particular interest (and the focus of this study) is the area under the Lake Sakakawea (formed as result of the Garrison Dam). This 'reservoir taking' area, which has never been drilled, encompasses an area of 150,000 acres, and represents the largest contiguous acreage block under control of the Tribes. Furthermore, these lands are Tribal (non-allotted), hence leasing requirements are relatively simple. The opportunity for exploration success insofar as identifying potential leads under the lake is high. According to the Bureau of Land Management, there have been 591 tests for oil and gas on or immediately adjacent to the Reservation, resulting in a total of 392 producing wells and 179 plugged and abandoned wells, for a success ratio of 69%. Based on statistical probability alone, the opportunity for success is high.

  12. In-place oil shale resources in the saline-mineral and saline-leached intervals, Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Dietrich, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A recent U.S. Geological Survey analysis of the Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado shows that about 920 and 352 billion barrels of oil are potentially recoverable from oil shale resources using oil-yield cutoffs of 15 and 25 gallons per ton (GPT), respectively. This represents most of the high-grade oil shale in the United States. Much of this rich oil shale is found in the dolomitic Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation and is associated with the saline minerals nahcolite and halite, or in the interval where these minerals have been leached by groundwater. The remaining high-grade resource is located primarily in the underlying illitic Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation. Of the 352 billion barrels of potentially recoverable oil resources in high-grade (≥25 GPT) oil shale, the relative proportions present in the illitic interval, non-saline R-2 zone, saline-mineral interval, leached interval (excluding leached Mahogany zone), and Mahogany zone were 3.1, 4.5, 36.6, 23.9, and 29.9 percent of the total, respectively. Only 2 percent of high-grade oil shale is present in marginal areas where saline minerals were never deposited.

  13. Study of CO/sub 2/ recovery and tertiary oil production enhancement in the Los Angeles Basin. Final report, September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, R.P.; Wittmeyer, E.E.; Sharp, S.D.; Griep, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of stuides conducted to evaluate carbon dioxide sources in the Los Angeles Basin, determine the requirements for upgrading and transmitting the gas, write the necessary material specifications, and determine where carbon dioxde may be effectively utilized as an enhanced recovery agent in oil fields, estimate recovery performance, and evaluate potential economic benefits. Study results show that there are two major sources of CO/sub 2/ in the Los Angeles Basin. Six oil refineries and one ammonia plant (all near Los Angeles Basin oil fields), have hydrogen plants with by-product streams of concentrated CO/sub 2/. The total available (uncommitted) CO/sub 2/ from these streams is about 3,000 tons per day. Six major electric power plants, all near L.A. Basin oil fields, discharge a combined total of 70,000 tons per day of CO/sub 2/ from 27 large boilers. Average CO/sub 2/ concentration in the flue gas is about 14 percent on a dry basis. CO/sub 2/ processing recommendations include modification of the existing hydrogen-CO/sub 2/ separation system, so that nitrogen is not used for stripping and therefore does not need to be removed, use propylene carbonate absorption, and use low-temperature separation. For CO/sub 2/ extraction from flue gas, monoethanolamine (MEA) absorption is recommended. Several reservoirs have been identified and are listed as prime candidates for CO/sub 2/ injection, using the major criteria of high oil saturation in the reservoir, suitable depth of the reservoir, and a good potential for zone control. (JRD)

  14. Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins of active continental margin of Southeast Russia: palaeography, tectonics, and coal-oil-gas presence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillova, G.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Tectonics and Geophysics

    2003-04-01

    Various settings took place during the Late Mesozoic: divergent, convergent, collisional, and transform. After mid-Jurassic collision of the Siberian and Chinese cratons, a latitudinal system of post-collision troughs developed along the Mongol-Okhotsk suture (the Uda, Torom basins and others), filled with terrigenous coal-bearing molasse. The dispersion of Pangea, creation of oceans during the Late Jurassic is correlated to the emergence of the East Asian submeridional rift system with volcano-terrigenous coal-bearing deposits (the Amur-Zeya basin). At that time, to the east there existed an Andean-type continental margin. Foreland (Upper Bureya, Partizansk, and Razdolny) and flexural (Sangjiang-Middle Amur) basins were formed along the margin of the rigid massifs during the Late Jurassic to Berriasian. During the Valanginian-mid-Albian an oblique subduction of the lzanagi plate beneath the Asian continent occurred, producing a transform margin type, considerable sinistral strike slip displacements, and formation of pull-apart basins filled with turbidites (the Sangjiang- Middle Amur basin). The Aptian is characterized by plate reorganization and formation of epioceanic island arcs, fore-arc and back-are basins in Sakhalin and the Sikhote-Alin (the Alchan and Sangjiang-Middle Amur basins), filled with volcanoclastics. During the mid-Albian a series of terranes accreted to the Asian continental margin. By the end of the Albian, the East Asian marginal volcanic belt began to form due to the subduction of the Kula plate beneath the Asian continent. During the Cenomanian-Coniacian shallow marine coarse clastics accumulated in the fore-arc basins, which were followed by continental deposits in the Santonian-Campanian. From the Coniacian to the Maastrichtian, a thermal subsidence started in rift basins, and continental oil-bearing clastics accumulated (the Amur-Zeya basin). Widespread elevation and denudation were dominant during the Maastrichtian. This is evidenced by

  15. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  16. Reserve and Pressure Change of Paleo-oil Reservoir in Puguang Area,Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yuanchun; Zou Huayao; Wang Cunwu; Li Pingping

    2008-01-01

    The Puguang (普光) gas field is the largest gas field found in marine carbonates in China.The Feixiangnan (飞仙关) and Changxing (长兴) reservoirs are two such reservoirs that had been buried to a depth of about 7 000 m and experienced maximum temperature of up to 220 ℃ before uplift to the present-day depth of 5 000-5 500 m,with present-day thermal maturity between 2.0% and 3.0% equivalent vitrinite reflectance (Ro).Bitumen staining is ubiquitous throughout the Feixianguan and Changxing formations,with the greatest concentrations in zones with the highest porosity and permeability,suggesting that the solid bitumen is the result of in-situ cracking of oil.According to the distribution of bitumen in the core,the paleo-oil boundary can be approximately determined.The paleo-oil resource is calculated to be about (0.61-0.92)×109 t (average 0.76×109 t),and the cracked gas volume is about (380.80-595.80)×109 m3 (average 488.30×109 m3); at least 58.74% of cracked gas is preserved in Puguang gas field.The study area experienced not only the cracking of oil but also thermochemical sulfate reduction,resulting in large quantities of nonhydrocarbon gas,with about 15.2% H2S and 8.3% CO2,together with the structural reconfiguration.During the whole process,the great change of volume and pressure compels the PVTsim modeling software to simulate various factors,such as the cracking of oil,the thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) and the tectonic uplift in both isolated and open geological conditions,respectively.The results show that although any one of these factors may induce greater pressure changes in an isolated system than in a closed system,the oil cracking and C3+involving TSR lead to overpressure during the early stage of gas reservoir.Therefore,the tectonic uplift and the methane-dominated TSR,as well as the semi-open system contribute to the reducing pressure resulting in the current normal formation pressure.

  17. Airborne Trace Gas and Aerosol Measurements in Several Shale Gas Basins during the SONGNEX (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) Campaign 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Oil and natural gas from tight sand and shale formations has increased strongly over the last decade. This increased production has been associated with emissions of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and other trace gases to the atmosphere, which are concerns for air quality, climate and air toxics. The NOAA Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) aircraft campaign took place in 2015, when the NOAA WP-3 aircraft conducted 20 research flights between March 19 and April 27, 2015 in the following shale gas regions: Denver-Julesberg, Uintah, Upper Green River, San Juan, Bakken, Barnett, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Woodford, and Permian. The NOAA P3 was equipped with an extensive set of gas phase measurements, including instruments for methane, ethane, CO, CO2, a new H3O+CIMS, canister and cartridge samples for VOCs, HCHO, glyoxal, HNO3, NH3, NOx, NOy, PANs, ozone, and SO2. Aerosol number and size distributions were also measured. This presentation will focus on an overview of all the measurements onboard the NOAA WP-3 aircraft and discuss the differences between the shale gas regions. Due to a drop in oil prices, drilling for oil decreased in the months prior to the mission, but nevertheless the production of oil and natural gas were near the all-time high. Many of the shale gas basins investigated during SONGNEX have quite different characteristics. For example, the Permian Basin is a well-established field, whereas the Eagle Ford and the Bakken saw an almost exponential increase in production over the last few years. The basins differ by the relative amounts of natural gas versus oil that is being produced. Previous work had shown a large variability in methane emissions relative to the production (leak rate) between different basins. By including more and qualitatively different basins during SONGNEX, the study has provided an extensive data set to address how emissions depend on raw gas composition, extraction techniques and regulation. The influence of these

  18. Appalachian basin oil and natural gas: stratigraphic framework, total petroleum systems, and estimated ultimate recovery: Chapter C.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The most recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Appalachian basin was completed in 2002 (Milici and others, 2003). This assessment was based on the total petroleum system (TPS), a concept introduced by Magoon and Dow (1994) and developed during subsequent studies such as those by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (2000) and by Biteau and others (2003a,b). Each TPS is based on specific geologic elements that include source rocks, traps and seals, reservoir rocks, and the generation and migration of hydrocarbons. This chapter identifies the TPSs defined in the 2002 Appalachian basin oil and gas assessment and places them in the context of the stratigraphic framework associated with regional geologic cross sections D–D′ (Ryder and others, 2009, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.1) and E–E′ (Ryder and others, 2008, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.2). Furthermore, the chapter presents a recent estimate of the ultimate recoverable oil and natural gas in the basin.

  19. Fracture Distribution Characteristics within Low-Permeability Reservoirs:Cases Studies from Three Types of Oil-bearing Basins,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Lianbo

    2006-01-01

    The permeability or/and porosity in low-permeability reservoirs mainly depends on fracture system.Wthin this kind of low-permeability reservior, fractures play a very important role on exploration and development. Because there are so many differences, such as basin properties and tectonic characteristics,among the eastern, western and central basins, the types and distribution characteristics of fractures are also obviously different. Quantitative information on fracture distribution is very important. Through the contrastive study of 7 oilfield, the differences and distribution characteristics of fractures in three types of oil-bearing basins are summarized.Due to the different geological conditions and stress state during the formation of fractures, the fracture systems in three types of basins are also different. Fractures are mainly composed of tectonic fractutres related to normal faultes in eastern basins, related to folds and reverse faultes in western basins, and regional fractures which widely distributed not only in outcrops but also at depth of the relatively undeformed strata in central basins. So, besides jointed-fractures, we can often see faulted-fractures similar to normal faults in eastern basins and similar to reverse faults in western basins.According to statistical data, fracture spacing generally has a lognormal distribution and is linearly proportional to layer thickness. The development degree of fractures is controlled by lithology, bed thickness,sedimentary microfacies and faults or folds, etc. The permeability, aperture and connectedness of fractures are related to the modern stress field. Though there are 3-4 sets of fractures in a oilfield, the fractures parallel to the maximum principal stress direction are main for the pattern arrangement of low-permeability reservoirs.

  20. Seepage investigation of the Rio Grande from below Leasburg Dam, Leasburg, New Mexico, to above American Dam, El Paso, Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briody, Alyse C.; Robertson, Andrew J.; Thomas, Nicole

    2016-03-22

    Seepage investigations have been conducted annually by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1988 to 1998 and from 2004 to the present (2014) along a 64-mile reach of the Rio Grande from below Leasburg Dam, Leasburg, New Mexico, to above American Dam, El Paso, Texas, as part of the Mesilla Basin monitoring program. Results of the investigation conducted in 2014 are presented in this report. The 2014 seepage investigation was conducted on February 11, 2014, during the low-flow conditions of the non-irrigation season. During the 2014 investigation, discharge was measured at 23 sites along the main-stem Rio Grande and 19 inflow sites within the study reach. Because of extended drought conditions affecting the basin, many sites along the Rio Grande (17 main-stem and 9 inflow) were observed to be dry in February 2014. Water-quality samples were collected during the seepage investigation at sites with flowing water as part of a long-term monitoring effort in the region.Net seepage gain or loss was computed for each subreach (the interval between two adjacent measurement locations along the river) by subtracting the discharge measured at the upstream location from the discharge measured at the closest downstream location along the river and then subtracting any inflow to the river within the subreach. An estimated gain or loss was determined to be meaningful when it exceeded the cumulative measurement uncertainty associated with the net seepage computation. The cumulative seepage loss in the 64-mile study reach in 2014 was 16.0 plus or minus 2.9 cubic feet per second.

  1. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico was a cost-shared field demonstration project in the U.S. Department of Energy Class III Program. A major goal of the Class III Program was to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques were used at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP) project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The objective of the project was to demonstrate that a development program, which was based on advanced reservoir management methods, could significantly improve oil recovery at the NDP. Initial goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to other oil and gas producers. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description was used as a risk reduction tool to identify 'sweet spots' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir. An

  2. Oil development and health in the Amazon basin of Ecuador: the popular epidemiology process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Sebastián, Miguel; Hurtig, Anna Karin

    2005-02-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an increasing corporate access to and control over natural resources resulting in environmental degradation, inequalities and ill health. Since 1972, oil companies have extracted more than two billion barrels of crude oil from the Ecuadorian Amazon. During this process, millions of gallons of untreated toxic wastes, gas and oil have been released into the environment. Indigenous federations, peasant's movements and environmental groups have claimed that contamination has caused widespread damage to both people and the environment. This article tells the story of how the relationship between local organisations and research institutions developed around an epidemiological study constructed to address communities' concerns. Local organisations set the agenda of the research: they were involved in the hypothesis formulation, consulted in each step during the study and responsible of the dissemination of the findings. This process is known as popular epidemiology. Practical and personal issues and dilemmas faced during the research process are discussed with emphasis on the communication and dissemination of the findings. The article concludes the need of alliances between communities and researchers in order to protect health and environment. Popular epidemiology is an essential approach for public health researchers to reaffirm their roots in improving public health as a primary value.

  3. Hydrogen isotopic compositions, distributions and source signals of individual n-alkanes for some typical crude oils in Lunnan Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Hong; LI; Chao; SUN; Yongge; PENG; Ping'an

    2005-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of carbon-bound hydrogen in individual n-alkanes from several typical crude oil samples from Lunnan Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China, were firstly measured using newly developed gas chromatography-thermal conversion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The similar range of δD of individual n-alkanes of crude oils among reservoirs of different geological times reflects that hydrocarbons are all derived from the same marine depositional environment. Compared to the theoretic value (-150‰) and the reported δD values (nC13―nC27, -160‰―-90‰) of individual n-alkanes for Ordovician-sourced crude oils in the Canadian Williston Basin, the hydrogen isotopic composition of individual n-alkanes in crude oils from Lunnan Oilfield is characterized by heavy hydrogen isotopic values (nC12―nC27, -120‰―-60‰). In terms of the factors that control the fractionation of hydrogen isotopes, relatively saline depositional environment and higher thermal maturation were attributed to the heavy δD values of individual n-alkanes in crude oils from Lunnan Oilfield.

  4. A three-step model to assess shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills: the South Aegean (Crete) as an analogue for confined marine basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George

    2014-09-15

    This study combines bathymetric, geomorphological, geological data and oil spill predictions to model the impact of oil spills in two accident scenarios from offshore Crete, Eastern Mediterranean. The aim is to present a new three-step method of use by emergency teams and local authorities in the assessment of shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills. The three-step method comprises: (1) real-time analyses of bathymetric, geomorphological, geological and oceanographic data; (2) oil dispersion simulations under known wind and sea current conditions; and (3) the compilation of final hazard maps based on information from (1) and (2) and on shoreline susceptibility data. The results in this paper show that zones of high to very-high susceptibility around the island of Crete are related to: (a) offshore bathymetric features, including the presence of offshore scarps and seamounts; (b) shoreline geology, and (c) the presence near the shore of sedimentary basins filled with unconsolidated deposits of high permeability. Oil spills, under particular weather and oceanographic conditions, may quickly spread and reach the shoreline 5-96 h after the initial accident. As a corollary of this work, we present the South Aegean region around Crete as a valid case-study for confined marine basins, narrow seaways, or interior seas around island groups.

  5. modelingthe effect the effect of contact and seepage forces of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    NIGERIA. 2 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA. ... This research work has investigated the contribution of contact force and seepage force to the .... iii Operational and maintenance failures. With the ...

  6. Three-dimensional stochastic seepage field for embankment engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-jun WANG

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the complexity of geo-engineering seepage problems influenced by different random factors, three-dimensional simulation and analysis of the stochastic seepage field plays an important role in engineering applications. A three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous steady random seepage model was developed on the basis of the finite element method. A statistical analysis of the distribution characteristics of soil parameters sampled from the main embankment of the Yangtze River in the Southern Jingzhou zone of China was conducted. The Kolomogorov-Smirnov test verified the statistical hypothesis that the permeability coefficient tensor has a Gaussian distribution. With the help of numerical analysis of the stochastic seepage field using the developed model, various statistical and random characteristics of the stochastic seepage field of the main embankment of the Yangtze River in the Southern Jingzhou zone of China were investigated. The model was also examined with statistical testing. Through the introduction of random variation of the upstream and downstream water levels into the model, the effects of the boundary randomness due to variation of the downstream and upstream water levels on the variation of simulated results presented with a vector series of the random seepage field were analyzed. Furthermore, the combined influence of the variation of the soil permeability coefficient and such seepage resistance measures as the cut-off wall and relief ditch on the hydraulic head distribution was analyzed and compared with the results obtained by determinate analysis. Meanwhile, sensitivities of the hydraulic gradient and downstream exit height to the variation of boundary water level were studied. The validity of the simulated results was verified by stochastic testing and measured data. The developed model provides more detail and a full stochastic algorithm to characterize and analyze three-dimensional stochastic seepage field problems

  7. NONUNIFORM OPEN CHANNEL FLOW WITH UPWARD SEEPAGE THROUGH LOOSE BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhasish DEY

    2003-01-01

    The Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are important parameters in fluvial hydraulics. Steadynonuniform flow in open channels with streamwise sloping beds having upward seepage through loose beds is theoretically analyzed to estimate the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress. Equations of the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are developed, assuming a modified logarithmic velocity distribution law due to upward seepage, and using the Reynolds and continuity equations of twodimensional flow in open channels.

  8. Three-dimensional stochastic seepage field for embankment engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-jun WANG; Wo-hua ZHANG; Chang-yu WU; Da-chun REN

    2009-01-01

    Owing to the complexity of get-engineering seepage problems influenced by different random factors, three-dimensional simulation and analysis of the stochastic seepage field plays an important role in engineering applications. A three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous steady random seepage model was developed on the basis of the finite element method. A statistical analysis of the distribution characteristics of soil parameters sampled from the main embankment of the Yangtze River in the Southern Jingzhou zone of China was conducted. The Kolomogorov-Smimov test verified the statistical hypothesis that the permeability coefficient tensor has a Gaussian distribution. With the help of numerical analysis of the stochastic seepage field using the developed model, various statistical and random characteristics of the stochastic seepage field of the main embankment of the Yangtze River in the Southern Jingzhou zone of China were investigated. The model was also examined with statistical testing. Through the introduction of random variation of the upstream and downstream water levels into the model, the effects of the boundary randomness due to variation of the downstream and upstream water levels on the variation of simulated results presented with a vector series of the random seepage field were analyzed. Furthermore, the combined influence of the variation of the soil permeability coefficient and such seepage resistance measures as the cut-off wall and relief ditch on the hydraulic head distribution was analyzed and compared with the results obtained by determinate analysis. Meanwhile, sensitivities of the hydraulic gradient and downstream exit height to the variation of boundary water level were studied. The validity of the simulated results was verified by stochastic testing and measured data. The developed model provides more detail and a full stochastic algorithm to characterize and analyze three-dimensional stochastic seepage field problems.

  9. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  10. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, C.D.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin wells is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project. Technical progress for this quarter are discussed for subsurface and engineering studies.

  11. High temperature annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Nancy D.; Crowley, Kevin D.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Reaves, Chris M.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Annealing of fission tracks is a kinetic process dependent primarily on temperature and to a laser extent on time. Several kinetic models of apatite annealing have been proposed. The predictive capabilities of these models for long-term geologic annealing have been limited to qualitative or semiquantitative at best, because of uncertainties associated with (1) the extrapolation of laboratory observations to geologic conditions, (2) the thermal histories of field samples, and (3) to some extent, the effect of apatite composition on reported annealing temperatures. Thermal history in the Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California, is constrained by an exceptionally well known burial history and present-day temperature gradient. Sediment burial histories are continuous and tightly constrained from about 9 Ma to present, with an important tie at 3.4 Ma. No surface erosion and virtually no uplift were recorded during or since deposition of these sediments, so the burial history is simple and uniquely defined. Temperature gradient (???40??C km-1) is well established from oil-field operations. Fission-track data from the Santa Fe Springs area should thus provide one critical field test of kinetic annealing models for apatite. Fission-track analysis has been performed on apatites from sandstones of Pliocene to Miocene age from a deep drill hole at Santa Fe Springs. Apatite composition, determined by electron microprobe, is fluorapatite [average composition (F1.78Cl0.01OH0.21)] with very low chlorine content [less than Durango apatite; sample means range from 0.0 to 0.04 Cl atoms, calculated on the basis of 26(O, F, Cl, OH)], suggesting that the apatite is not unusually resistant to annealing. Fission tracks are preserved in these apatites at exceptionally high present-day temperatures. Track loss is not complete until temperatures reach the extreme of 167-178??C (at 3795-4090 m depth). The temperature-time annealing relationships indicated by the new data

  12. Electrofacies vs. lithofacies sandstone reservoir characterization Campanian sequence, Arshad gas/oil field, Central Sirt Basin, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burki, Milad; Darwish, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    The present study focuses on the vertically stacked sandstones of the Arshad Sandstone in Arshad gas/oil field, Central Sirt Basin, Libya, and is based on the conventional cores analysis and wireline log interpretation. Six lithofacies types (F1 to F6) were identified based on the lithology, sedimentary structures and biogenic features, and are supported by wireline log calibration. From which four types (F1-F4) represent the main Campanian sandstone reservoirs in the Arshad gas/oil field. Lithofacies F5 is the basal conglomerates at the lower part of the Arshad sandstones. The Paleozoic Gargaf Formation is represented by lithofacies F6 which is the source provenance for the above lithofacies types. Arshad sediments are interpreted to be deposited in shallow marginal and nearshore marine environment influenced by waves and storms representing interactive shelf to fluvio-marine conditions. The main seal rocks are the Campanian Sirte shale deposited in a major flooding events during sea level rise. It is contended that the syn-depositional tectonics controlled the distribution of the reservoir facies in time and space. In addition, the post-depositional changes controlled the reservoir quality and performance. Petrophysical interpretation from the porosity log values were confirmed by the conventional core measurements of the different sandstone lithofacies types. Porosity ranges from 5 to 20% and permeability is between 0 and 20 mD. Petrophysical cut-off summary of the lower part of the clastic dominated sequence (i. e. Arshad Sandstone) calculated from six wells includes net pay sand ranging from 19.5‧ to 202.05‧, average porosity from 7.7 to 15% and water saturation from 19 to 58%.

  13. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation (Devonian) of the Michigan Basin using horizontal drains. Final report, April 28, 1994--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J.R.; Pennington, W.D.

    1998-09-01

    Total hydrocarbon production in the Michigan Basin has surpassed 1 billion barrels (Bbbls) and total unrecovered reserves are estimated at 1--2 BBbls. However, hydrocarbon production in Michigan has fallen from 35 MMbbls/yr in 1979 to about 10 MMbbls/yr in 1996. In an effort to slow this decline, a field demonstration project designed around using a horizontal well to recover bypassed oil was designed and carried out at Crystal Field in Montcalm County, MI. The project had two goals: to test the viability of using horizontal wells to recover bypassed oil from the Dundee Formation, and to characterize additional Dundee reservoirs (29) that are look alikes to the Crystal Field. As much as 85 percent of the oil known to exist in the Dundee Formation in the Michigan Basin remains in the ground as bypassed oil. Early production techniques in the 137 fields were poor, and the Dundee was at risk of being abandoned, leaving millions of barrels of oil behind. Crystal Field in Montcalm County, Michigan is a good example of a worn out field. Crystal Field was once a prolific producer which had been reduced to a handful of wells, the best of which produced only 5 barrels per day. The demonstration well drilled as a result of this project, however, has brought new life to the Crystal Field. Horizontal drilling is one of the most promising technologies available for oil production. The new well was completed successfully in October of 1995 and has been producing 100 barrels of oil per day, 20 times better than the best conventional well in the field.

  14. The distribution of the oil derived from Cambrian source rocks in Lunnan area, the Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are great differences in biomarks between Cambrian oil and Middle-Upper Ordoviclan oil. In this stuty, the authors analyzed 40 oils found in Lunnan area by GC-MS and calculated the content of Cambrian oil in the 40 oils according to the steroid indexes of typical oil mixture and match experiment. The results show that it is a general phenomenon in Ordovician reservoir that the oil derived from Cambrian source rock mixed with the oil derived from Middle-Upper Ordovician source rock in Lunnan area, the mixture degree of the two oils is lower in Carboniferous reservoir than in Ordovician reservoir, and the oils kept in Triassic reservoir have single source, Middle-Upper Ordovician source rock. The mixture oils mainly composed of Cambrian oil (>50%) distributed in Sangtamu fault zone, and the oils found in Lunnan fault zone are Middle-Upper Ordovician oil. This distribution of oils in Lunnan area is owing to that Lunnan fault zone is located in anticline axis part, Lunnan fault zone underwent serious erosion, and the oils from Cambrian source rock accumulated in Lunnan fault zone were degraded completely during Caledonian-Hercynian movement. But the Cambrian oil accumulated in Sangtamu fault zone was not degraded completely and some of them were left for the location of Sangtamu fault zone is lower than Lunnan fault zone. Later, the oil derived from Middle-Upper Ordovician source rock mixed with the remained Cambrian oil, and the mixture oil formed in Sangtamu fault zone.

  15. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, mule, Blue Hogan, heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The reservoir engineering component of the work completed to date included analysis of production data and well tests, comprehensive laboratory programs, and preliminary mechanistic reservoir simulation studies. A comprehensive fluid property characterization program was completed. Mechanistic reservoir production performance simulation studies were also completed.

  16. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Final technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-01-15

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Five activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of carbonate mound buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) regional facies evaluation, (2) evaluation of outcrop analogues, (3) field-scale geologic analysis, (4) reservoir analysis, and (5) technology transfer.

  17. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; William Raatz; Cari Breton; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans; Mark H. Holtz

    2003-04-01

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest petroleum-producing basin in the US. Approximately 1300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl of oil through 2000. Of these major reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. On a preliminary basis, 32 geologic plays have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs and assignment of each of the 1300 major reservoirs to a play has begun. The reservoirs are being mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonardian Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  18. Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins of active continental margin of Southeast Russia: Paleogeography, tectonics, and coal-oil-gas presence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillova, G.L. [Russian Academy of Science, Khabarovsk (Russian Federation). Far Eastern Branch

    2003-04-01

    After mid-Jurassic collision of the Siberian and Chinese cratons. a latitudinal system of post-collision troughs developed along the Mongol-Okhotsk suture, filled with terrigenous coal-bearing molasse. The dispersion of Pangea and creation of oceans during the Late Jurassic are correlated to the emergence of the East Asian submeridional rift system with volcano-terrigenous coal-bearing deposits. Foreland and flexural basins were formed along the margin of the rigid massifs during the Late Jurassic to Berriasian. During the Valanginian-mid-Albian an oblique subduction of the Izanagi plate beneath the Asian continent occurred, producing a transform margin type, considerable sinistral strike slip displacements, and formation of pull-apart basins filled with turbidites. The Aptian is characterized by plate reorganization and formation of epioceanic island arcs, fore-arc and back-arc basins in Sakhalin and the Sikhote-Alin, filled with volcanoclastics. By the end of the Albian, the East Asian marginal volcanic belt began to form due to the subduction of the Kula plate beneath the Asian continent. During the Cenomanian-Coniacian shallow marine coarse clastics accumulated in the fore-arc basins, which were followed by continental deposits in the Santonian-Campanian. From the Coniacian to the Maastrichtian, a thermal subsidence started in rift basins, and continental oil-bearing clastics accumulated. Widespread elevation and denudation were dominant during the Maastrichtian. This is evidenced by thick sediments accumulated in the Western Sakhalin fore-arc basin. During the Cenozoic, an extensive rift belt made up of a system of grabens, which were filled with lacustrine-alluvial coal-and oil-bearing deposits, developed along the East Asian margin.

  19. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Skalak, Katherine; Kent, D.B.; Engle, Mark A.; Benthem, Adam J.; Mumford, Adam; Haase, Karl B.; Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David; Nagel, S. C.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Orem, William H.; Akob, Denise M.; Jaeschke, Jeanne B.; Galloway, Joel M.; Kohler, Matthias; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Jolly, Glenn D.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4 M L (million liters) of wastewater (300 g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030 mg/L) and bromide (7.8 mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11 mg/L and < 0.4 mg/L, respectively). Lithium (0.25 mg/L), boron (1.75 mg/L) and strontium (7.1 mg/L) were present downstream at 5–10 times upstream concentrations. Light hydrocarbon measurements indicated a persistent thermogenic source of methane in the stream. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons indicative of oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1 km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that

  20. Geographical differences in cancer incidence in the Amazon basin of Ecuador in relation to residence near oil fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Since 1972, oil companies have extracted more than 2 billion barrels of crude oil from the Ecuadorian Amazon, releasing billions of gallons of untreated wastes and oil directly into the environment...

  1. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico was a cost-shared field demonstration project in the U.S. Department of Energy Class III Program. A major goal of the Class III Program was to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques were used at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP) project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The objective of the project was to demonstrate that a development program, which was based on advanced reservoir management methods, could significantly improve oil recovery at the NDP. Initial goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to other oil and gas producers. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description was used as a risk reduction tool to identify 'sweet spots' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir. An

  2. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-02-24

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a cost-shared field demonstration project in the US Department of Energy Class II Program. A major goal of the Class III Program is to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geologic, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description is being used as a risk reduction tool to identify ''sweet spots'' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well simulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  3. Hierarchy of maturation parameters in oil-source rock correlations. Case study. Drmno depression, Southeastern Pannonian Basin, Serbia and Montenegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovic, Ksenija [IChTM, Chemistry Centre, Njegoseva 12, 11001 Belgrade (Czechoslovakia); Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Visegradska 26, 11000 Belgrade (Czechoslovakia); Jovancicevic, Branimir; Vitorovic, Dragomir [IChTM, Chemistry Centre, Njegoseva 12, 11001 Belgrade (Czechoslovakia); Faculty of Chemistry,University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11001 Belgrade (Czechoslovakia); Golovko, Julia; Pevneva, Galina; Golovko, Anatoly [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, 3, Academichesky Ave., 634055, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-02-15

    Hierarchy of triterpane, sterane, naphthalene and phenanthrene maturation parameters in oil-source rock correlations (Drmno depression, southeastern part of the Pannonian Basin, Serbia and Montenegro) was evaluated. Different triterpane and sterane parameters were found to be very similar in all investigated samples. Phenanthrene and naphthalene maturation parameters demonstrated much less uniformity, and thus higher applicability. In order to establish a detailed hierarchy of these maturation parameters, the factor analysis was used. Parameters based on isomerization reactions ({alpha} {yields} {beta}) of methylnaphthalenes and methylphenanthrenes, having high loadings, defined the statistically most significant factor 1. Parameters based on dealkylation processes of dimethyl- and trimethylphenanthrenes into methylphenanthrenes, having extremely high loadings values, determined factor 2. In the last significant, factor 3, high loadings were observed with triterpane and sterane parameters. The factor analysis involving just the phenanthrene and naphthalene isomerization parameters, classified methylphenanthrene isomerization parameters into factor 1. Among the naphthalene isomerization maturation parameters a certain hierarchy was also observed, which depended on whether the parameters represented isomer ratios which differed on the position of one or two alkyl groups. General conclusion based on factor analysis is in agreement with theoretical presumptions concerning the transformations of phenanthrene and naphthalene isomers. (author)

  4. Characteristics of Oil and Gas Accumulation in Yong'an-Meitai Area of the Fushan Depression, Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Meijun; Wang Tieguan; Liu Ju; Zhang Meizhu; Lu Hong; Ma Qinglin; Gao Lihui

    2007-01-01

    The Yong'an-Meitai area is the focus of the present exploration in the Fushan Depression, Beibuwan Basin,South China Sea. All oils from this area are geochemically characterized by higher Pr/Ph ratio, higher proportion of heavy molecular weight hydrocarbons, and higher proportion of C29 regular steranes, which indicate that the organic matter of source rocks might have been deposited in an oxidizing palaeoenvironment and be dominated by higher plant organic matter input. The oil from E3w2 (the second member of Weizhou Fm. of the Oligocene) has a much higher density,relatively higher Pr/nC17 and Ph/nC18 ratios, and a "UCM-unresolved complex mixture" on gas chromatograms, which indicate that it has been slightly biodegraded. CPI and other terpane and sterane isomer ratios suggest they are all mature oils. The timing of oil charging in E3w2 and E2l1 (the first member of the Liushagang Fm. of the Eocene) determined by the homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions and thermal evolution history are from 9-3 Ma and 8-3 Ma,respectively. Thus, the interpretation of E3w2 as a secondary reservoir is unlikely. The timing of oil charging is later than that of hydrocarbon generating and expulsion of Liushagang Fm. source rocks and trap formation, which is favorable for oil accumulation in this area. All molecular parameters that are used for tracing oil filling direction decrease with shallower burial depth, which suggests vertical oil migration. The widely occurring faults that penetrate through the source rocks of the Liushagang Fm. may serve as a fine oil charging conduit.

  5. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  6. Co-pyrolsis of polyethylene waste with the Campos basin heavy oil; Co-pirolise de residuos de polietileno com gasoleo pesado da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Debora da S.; Marques, Monica R. da C. [Laboratorio de Tecnologia Ambiental, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: monica@pesquisador.cnpq.br

    2011-07-01

    In this study, four mixtures of LDPE post consumer with heavy gas from the Campos Basin, in different proportions, were subjected to pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere at 550 deg C. The pyrolytic liquids were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Pyrolysis of pure diesel supplied large amounts of waste oil and only 4% in the range of diesel. On the other hand, the pyrolysis of LDPE mixture of diesel (at the ratio 1/0,5 m/m) provided 20% of light hydrocarbons with high production of pyrolytic oil (96%). The formation of high levels of paraffins and olefins in the range of diesel oil during the co-pyrolysis suggests a promising technology for recycling of plastic waste. (author)

  7. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan

    2016-04-01

    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  8. Age, distribution, and stratigraphic relationship of rock units in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 5 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The San Joaquin Basin is a major petroleum province that forms the southern half of California’s Great Valley, a 700-km-long, asymmetrical basin that originated between a subduction zone to the west and the Sierra Nevada to the east. Sedimentary fill and tectonic structures of the San Joaquin Basin record the Mesozoic through Cenozoic geologic history of North America’s western margin. More than 25,000 feet (>7,500 meters) of sedimentary rocks overlie the basement surface and provide a nearly continuous record of sedimentation over the past ~100 m.y. Further, depositional geometries and fault structures document the tectonic evolution of the region from forearc setting to strike-slip basin to transpressional margin. Sedimentary architecture in the San Joaquin Basin is complicated because of these tectonic regimes and because of lateral changes in depositional environment and temporal changes in relative sea level. Few formations are widespread across the basin. Consequently, a careful analysis of sedimentary facies is required to unravel the basin’s depositional history on a regional scale. At least three high-quality organic source rocks formed in the San Joaquin Basin during periods of sea level transgression and anoxia. Generated on the basin’s west side, hydrocarbons migrated into nearly every facies type in the basin, from shelf and submarine fan sands to diatomite and shale to nonmarine coarse-grained rocks to schist. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources and future additions to reserves in the San Joaquin Valley of California (USGS San Joaquin Basin Province Assessment Team, this volume, chapter 1). Several research aims supported this assessment: identifying and mapping the petroleum systems, modeling the generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons, and defining the volumes of rock to be analyzed for additional resources. To better understand the three dimensional

  9. Gas seepage in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilde Ferrante, Giulia; Donda, Federica; Volpi, Valentina; Tinivella, Umberta

    2017-04-01

    In the Northern Adriatic Sea, the occurrence of gas seepage has been widely documented. However, the origin of seeping gas was not clearly constrained. Geophysical data with different scale of resolution, i.e. multichannel seismic profiles, CHIRP and morpho-bathymetry data collected in 2009 and 2014 by OGS reveal that several the gas-enriched fluid vents are deeply rooted. In fact, the entire Plio-Quaternary succession is characterized by widespread seismic anomalies represented by wipe-out zones and interpreted as gas chimneys. They commonly root at the base of the Pliocene sequence but also within the Paleogene succession, where they appear to be associated to deep-seated, Mesozoic-to-Paleogene faults. These chimneys originate and terminate at different stratigraphic levels; they also commonly reach the seafloor, where rock outcrops interpreted as authigenic carbonate deposits have been recognized. In places, gas is then capable to escape in the water column as shown by numerous gas flares. On going studies are addressed to: 1. re-examining the structural setting of the study area, in order to verify a possible structural control on chimney distribution and gas migration; 2. performing geochemical analysis on gas which have been sampled in some key emission points; 3. a quantitative analysis of some selected boreholes well logs (made available through the public VidePi database (www.videpi.com)) aimed to estimate the amount of gas present in sediments. This work presents the preliminary results regarding the latter aspect of our research. In a first instance, for each selected borehole the geophysical logs have been digitized. This procedure consists in a manual picking of curves, in a set system of reference. Static corrections for vertical offset are made at this stage. Logs are then divided by type and converted in common scales, amplifications and units. Every log is resampled in order to cut high frequencies not useful in the comparison with seismic data

  10. A research on grey numerical imitation and modeling of groundwater seepage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on grey set, grey numbers and their operation properties, the grey numerical model of groundwater seepage system was set up for the first time, the whole grey solving method of the model was given and it was proved that the common solving method of the model was only a special case of the grey solving methods. At the same time, the grey solving method was compared widely with common solving method, classical numerical method. The study shows that the grey solving method is better in depicting the procedure of transporting grey data of groundwater system. On the basis of the theoretical study, two basic kinds of cases about groundwater seepage were selected: the prediction of pit yield and the evaluation of groundwater resources on a groundwater basin. In the cases, systematical analyses were made for generalization and greylization of the hydrogeologic conditions, setting up of the grey model, identification and correction of the model as well as its prediction and evaluation. It was pointed out that when the grey numerical model is used to predict pit yield, the upper limit of the “grey band” of groundwater level cannot be higher than planed safe groundwater level, when evaluating the groundwater resource, the lower limit of the “grey band” of groundwater level cannot be lower than controlled level of groundwater.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE DETECTION METHODS ON THE FORT PECK RESERVATION, NORTHEAST MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence M. Monson

    2003-06-30

    Surface exploration techniques have been employed in separate study areas on the Fort Peck Reservation in northeastern Montana. Anomalies associated with hydrocarbon seepage are documented in all three areas and a variety of surface exploration techniques can be compared. In a small area with established production, Head Gas and Thermal Desorption methods best match production; other methods also map depletion. In a moderate-size area that has prospects defined by 3D seismic data, Head Gas along with Microbial, Iodine, and Eh soil anomalies are all associated with the best hydrocarbon prospect. In a large area that contains many curvilinear patterns observed on Landsat images, that could represent micro-seepage chimneys, results are inconclusive. Reconnaissance mapping using Magnetic Susceptibility has identified a potential prospect; subsequent Soil Gas and Head Gas surveys suggest hydrocarbon potential. In the final year of this project the principle contractor, the Fort Peck Tribes, completed a second survey in the Wicape 3D Seismic Prospect Area (also known as Area 6 in Phase I of the project) and sampled several Landsat image features contained in the Smoke Creek Aeromag Anomaly Area (also known as Area 1 in Phase II of the project). Methods determined to be most useful in Phases I and II, were employed in this final Phase III of the study. The Southwest Wicape seismic anomaly was only partially confirmed. The abundant curvilinears proposed to be possible hydrocarbon micro-seepage chimneys in the Smoke Creek Area were not conclusively verified as such. Insufficient sampling of background data precludes affirmative identification of these mostly topographic Landsat features as gas induced soil and vegetation anomalies. However relatively higher light gas concentrations were found associated with some of the curvilinears. Based on the findings of this work the Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation intend to utilize surface hydrocarbon

  12. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1996--February 8, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The Anasazi field was selected for the initial geostatistical modeling and reservoir simulation. A compositional simulation approach is being used to model primary depletion, waterflood, and CO{sub 2}-flood processes. During this second year of the project, team members performed the following reservoir-engineering analysis of Anasazi field: (1) relative permeability measurements of the supra-mound and mound-core intervals, (2) completion of geologic model development of the Anasazi reservoir units for use in reservoir simulation studies including completion of a series of one-dimensional, carbon dioxide-displacement simulations to analyze the carbon dioxide-displacement mechanism that could operate in the Paradox basin system of reservoirs, and (3) completion of the first phase of the full-field, three-dimensional Anasazi reservoir simulation model, and the start of the history matching and reservoir performance prediction phase of the simulation study.

  13. Cruise summary for P-1-02-SC: acoustic imaging of natural oil and gas seeps and measurement of dissolved methane concentration in coastal waters near Pt. Conception, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Ussler, William; Paull, Charles K.

    2003-01-01

    Water-column acoustic anomalies and methane concentrations were documented in coastal waters surrounding Pt. Conception, California, in March 2002. The purpose of this survey, supported by the Minerals Management Service, was to locate active oil and gas seeps in the area as a background for further studies to determine hydrocarbon flux, mainly oil, into the environment. Objectives in reaching this goal are to (1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seeps within the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin; (2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential sources, both onshore and offshore, in this region; (3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; (4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; (5) attempt to predict transport pathways of oil from seep sources to the coastline and; (6) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. This survey, addressing objective 1, focused on the area from offshore Surf Beach to the north and Gaviota to the south in water depths ranging from 20 to 500m. In addition, nine stations were sampled outside this area to provide a regional context. Water-column methane concentrations were measured in water samples collected from the R/V Point Sur with Niskin bottles from various depths. A total of 724 water samples from 94 stations were collected.

  14. Extraction and Chemical Composition of Seed Kernel Oil from Irvingia smithii of Congo Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Loumouamou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a wider program on the development of oilseeds in the Congo Basin and its aim was to contribute to the knowledge of Irvingia smithii kernel by studying his chemical composition following the example of those of Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombulu. Irvingia smithii kernel, like those of Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombulu is multipurpose, however, less known than the latter. The assessment of oilseeds of the kernel of Irvingia smithii showed that it is oleaginous with fat contents of about 55%. The fatty acid profile established by gas chromatography showed that the lauric acid content is higher than that of myristic acid (% C12: 0>% C14: 0 and both have a percentage of the total fatty acid content of nearly 90%. Palmitic acid (C16: 0, the third major constituent has nearly 5%. Oleic (C18: 1 and capric (C10: 0 acids have significant levels and palmitoleic (C16: 1 and stearic (C18: 0 acids are to trace. Triacylglycerol profile established by liquid chromatography coupled to the Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (ELSD has three major TAG (% LaLaM >% LAMM >% LaLaLa, one minor TAG (MMM and two TAG to trace (CLaLa and MMP. Fats of Irvingia smithii studied have levels of unsaponifiables ranging from 1.25 to 2.97% with the major components such as beta-sitosterol (36% and stigmasterol (18%. For macronutrients, the most abundant element is Magnesium While the Iron is the least abundant with the following decreasing profile: Mg>P>Ca>Fe. Spectrometric assessment of color led to the remarkable presence of the peaks relating to the absorption of carotenoids and chlorophyll pigments located between 630 and 670 nm.

  15. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  16. Water resources and potential hydrologic effects of oil-shale development in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskov, K.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed oil-shale mining in northeastern Utah is expected to impact the water resources of a 3,000-square-mile area. This report summarizes a comprehensive hydrologic investigation of the area which resulted in 13 published reports. Hydrologic information obtained during 1974-80 was used to evaluate the availability of water and to evaluate potential impacts of an oil-shale industry on the water resources.The study area is the southeastern part of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado, where the hydrology is extremely variable. The normal annual precipitation averages 11 inches and varies with altitude. It ranges from less than 8 inches at altitudes below 5,000 feet along the White and Green Rivers to more than 20 inches where altitudes exceed 9,000 feet on the Roan Plateau.The White and Green Rivers are large streams that flow through the area. They convey an average flow of 4.3 million acre-feet per year from outside drainage areas of about 34,000 square miles, which is more than 150 times as much flow as that originating within the area. Streams originating in areas where precipitation is less than 10 inches are ephemeral. Mean annual runoff from the study area is about 28,000 acre-feet and ranges from less than 0.1 to 1.6 inches, depending on the location. At any given site, runoff varies greatly-from year to year and season to season. Potential evapotranspiration is large, exceeding precipitation in all years. Three major aquifers occur in the area. They are alluvial deposits of small areal extent along the major stream valleys; the bird's-nest aquifer of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, which is limited to the central part of the study area; and the Douglas Creek aquifer of the Douglas Creek Member of the Green River Formation, which underlies most of the area. Total recoverable water in storage in the three aquifers is about 18 million acre-feet. Yields of individual wells and interference between wells limit the maximum practical

  17. Seepage investigation of the Rio Grande from below Leasburg Dam, Leasburg, New Mexico, to above American Dam, El Paso, Texas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briody, Alyse C.; Robertson, Andrew J.; Thomas, Nicole

    2016-03-22

    Seepage investigations have been conducted annually by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1988 to 1998 and from 2004 to the present (2015) along a 64-mile reach of the Rio Grande from below Leasburg Dam, Leasburg, New Mexico, to above American Dam, El Paso, Texas, as part of the Mesilla Basin monitoring program. Results of the investigation conducted in 2015 are presented in this report. The 2015 seepage investigation was conducted on February 10, 2015, during the low-flow conditions of the non-irrigation season. During the 2015 investigation, discharge was measured at 23 sites along the main-stem Rio Grande and 19 inflow sites within the study reach. Because of extended drought conditions affecting the basin, many sites along the Rio Grande (17 main-stem and 10 inflow) were observed to be dry in February 2015.

  18. Bifurcation and catastrophe of seepage flow system in broken rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Xie-xing; LI Shun-cai; CHEN Zhan-qing

    2009-01-01

    The study of dynamical behavior of water or gas flows in broken rock is a basic research topic among a series of key projects about stability control of the surrounding rocks in mines and the prevention of some disasters such as water inrush or gas outburst and the protection of the groundwater resource. It is of great theoretical and engineering importance in respect of promo-tion of security in mine production and sustainable development of the coal industry. According to the non-Darcy property of seepage flow in broken rock dynamic equations of non-Darcy and non-steady flows in broken rock are established. By dimensionless transformation, the solution diagram of steady-states satisfying the given boundary conditions is obtained. By numerical analysis of low relaxation iteration, the dynamic responses corresponding to the different flow parameters have been obtained. The stability analysis of the steady-states indicate that a saddle-node bifurcaton exists in the seepage flow system of broken rock. Consequently, using catastrophe theory, the fold catastrophe model of seepage flow instability has been obtained. As a result, the bifurcation curves of the seepage flow systems with different control parameters are presented and the standard potential function is also given with respect to the generalized state variable for the fold catastrophe of a dynamic system of seepage flow in broken rock.

  19. Petroleum systems of the San Joaquin Basin Province -- geochemical characteristics of gas types: Chapter 10 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Paul G.; Warden, Augusta; Claypool, George E.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The San Joaquin Basin Province is a petroliferous basin filled with predominantly Late Cretaceous to Pliocene-aged sediments, with organic-rich marine rocks of Late Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene age providing the source of most of the oil and gas. Previous geochemical studies have focused on the origin of the oil in the province, but the origin of the natural gas has received little attention. To identify and characterize natural gas types in the San Joaquin Basin, 66 gas samples were analyzed and combined with analyses of 15 gas samples from previous studies. For the purpose of this resource assessment, each gas type was assigned to the most likely petroleum system. Three general gas types are identified on the basis of bulk and stable carbon isotopic composition—thermogenic dry (TD), thermogenic wet (TW) and biogenic (B). The thermogenic gas types are further subdivided on the basis of the δ13C values of methane and ethane and nitrogen content into TD-1, TD-2, TD-Mixed, TW-1, TW-2, and TW-Mixed. Gas types TD-1 and TD-Mixed, a mixture of biogenic and TD-1 gases, are produced from gas fields in the northern San Joaquin Basin. Type TD-1 gas most likely originated from the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene Moreno Formation, a gas-prone source rock. The biogenic component of the TD-Mixed gas existed in the trap prior to the influx of thermogenic gas. For the assessment, these gas types were assigned to the Winters- Domengine Total Petroleum System, but subsequent to the assessment were reclassified as part of the Moreno-Nortonville gas system. Dry thermogenic gas produced from oil fields in the southern San Joaquin Basin (TD-2 gas) most likely originated from the oil-prone source rock of Miocene age. These samples have low wetness values due to migration fractionation or biodegradation. The thermogenic wet gas types (TW-1, TW-2, TW-Mixed) are predominantly associated gas produced from oil fields in the southern and central San Joaquin Basin. Type TW-1 gas most likely

  20. Executive summary--2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 1 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province (5022), New Mexico and Colorado (fig. 1). Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  1. The Gulf of Mexico ecosystem, six years after the Macondo oil well blowout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, Samantha B.; Bracco, Annalisa; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Grosell, Martin; MacDonald, Ian R.; Cordes, Erik E.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Passow, Uta

    2016-07-01

    The Gulf of Mexico ecosystem is a hotspot for biological diversity and supports a number of industries, from tourism to fishery production to oil and gas exploration, that serve as the economic backbone of Gulf coast states. The Gulf is a natural hydrocarbon basin, rich with stores of oil and gas that lie in reservoirs deep beneath the seafloor. The natural seepage of hydrocarbons across the Gulf system is extensive and, thus, the system's biological components experience ephemeral, if not, frequent, hydrocarbon exposure. In contrast to natural seepage, which is diffuse and variable over space and time, the 2010 Macondo oil well blowout, represented an intense, focused hydrocarbon infusion to the Gulf's deepwaters. The Macondo blowout drove rapid shifts in microbial populations and activity, revealed unexpected phenomena, such as deepwater hydrocarbon plumes and marine ;oil snow; sedimentation, and impacted the Gulf's pelagic and benthic ecosystems. Understanding the distribution and fate of Macondo oil was limited to some degree by an insufficient ability to predict the physical movement of water in the Gulf. In other words, the available physical oceanographic models lacked critical components. In the past six years, much has been learned about the physical oceanography of the Gulf, providing transformative knowledge that will improve the ability to predict the movement of water and the hydrocarbons they carry in future blowout scenarios. Similarly, much has been learned about the processing and fate of Macondo hydrocarbons. Here, we provide an overview of the distribution, fate and impacts of Macondo hydrocarbons and offer suggestions for future research to push the field of oil spill response research forward.

  2. 金衢盆地的原型及其含油气前景%The Prototype of Jinhua-Quzhou Basin and Its Gas and Oil Foreground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖辅平; 舒良树; 沈骥千; 李成

    2011-01-01

    evolution history and filling history of Southeast China and even the whole South China,guiding denotation on the aspect of oil and gas exploration activity. Jinhua-Quzhou Basin is one of the late Mesozoic rifted basins in Southeast China.It developed on the Pre-mesozoic metamorphosed fold basement,mainly including three structural units of northern shallow depression zone,central uplift belt and southern hollow zone.Making use of analytic approach of basin prototype,tectonic events,deep seated structure,provenance,subsiding history,depocenter,basin boundary structure and cessation of deposition,and so on,were studied.J-Q basin had undergone several evolutionary phases of early intracontinental compressing,late early Crataceous extending and drafting,late Crataceous depression,suppression of last stage of Crataceous and reformation of later stage.From research above,basin filling material was coming from ablation due to incipient fold and uplift of Pre-Mesozoic formation and weathering denudation of mountain mass with the background of late period drafting,confirming that J-Q basin had experienced uplifting and denuding events attributing to the mechanism conversion from extruding to pulling.These events had important affection on the shaping of rifting and half graben-like basin.Sedimentation and subsidence center was in the vicinity of Quzhou with more or less translational migration during the three palaeo-lithofacies stages.From the study above,we can see that J-Q basin has favorable oil and gas foreground,and these four structural traps of Qianjia,Shuiting,Yangtang and Jiangtang have major prospecting potentiality. It is the property of local area that Jinhua-Quzhou basin has tectonic framework of "one uplift and two depressions" with the northeastern strike direction.Being combined with the territorial structural framework,Jinhua-Quzhou basin was controlled by west-eastern basement tectonics of age-old Asian domain and restrained by deep seated structure

  3. Major factors controlling fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation tight oil reservoir, Junggar Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhu, Deyu; Luo, Qun; Liu, Luofu; Liu, Dongdong; Yan, Lin; Zhang, Yunzhao

    2017-09-01

    Natural fractures in seven wells from the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar Basin were evaluated in light of regional structural evolution, tight reservoir geochemistry (including TOC and mineral composition), carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcite-filled fractures, and acoustic emission (AE). Factors controlling the development of natural fractures were analyzed using qualitative and/or semi-quantitative techniques, with results showing that tectonic factors are the primary control on fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation of the Junggar Basin. Analyses of calcite, dolomite, and TOC show positive correlations with the number of fractures, while deltaic lithofacies appear to be the most favorable for fracture development. Mineral content was found to be a major control on tectonic fracture development, while TOC content and sedimentary facies mainly control bedding fractures. Carbon and oxygen isotopes vary greatly in calcite-filled fractures (δ13C ranges from 0.87‰ to 7.98‰, while δ18O ranges from -12.63‰ to -5.65‰), indicating that fracture development increases with intensified tectonic activity or enhanced diagenetic alteration. By analyzing the cross-cutting relationships of fractures in core, as well as four Kaiser Effect points in the acoustic emission curve, we observed four stages of tectonic fracture development. First-stage fractures are extensional, and were generated in the late Triassic, with calcite fracture fills formed between 36.51 °C and 56.89 °C. Second-stage fractures are shear fractures caused by extrusion stress from the southwest to the northeast, generated by the rapid uplift of the Tianshan in the Middle and Late Jurassic; calcite fracture fills formed between 62.91 °C and 69.88 °C. Third-stage fractures are NNW-trending shear fractures that resulted from north-south extrusion and thrusting in a foreland depression along the front of the Early Cretaceous Bogda Mountains. Calcite fracture

  4. Tectonic evolution of the Changling fault basin and its relationship to oil and gas accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianqiang; Yang Guang; Xue Linfu; Zhang Jianwei; Bai Ye; Li Wenbo

    2011-01-01

    The Changling fault depression passed through three stages of evolution:a period of faulting,a period of subsidence,and an inversion period.The fault lifted the whole area and the formation was eroded during the late Yingcheng formation,the late Nenjiang formation,and the late Mingshui formation.The denudation quantity of eight wells located in the study area is estimated by the interval transit time method and by the formation trend extension method using seismic and drilling data.Inversion back stripping technology with de-compaction correction was used to restore the original sedimentary thickness step by step and to recover the burial history at a single well.Two profiles were selected for the recovery and study of the tectonic evolution.The study confirmed that the primary major gas bearing structure formed due to thermal shrinkage lifting during the late Yingcheng formation.Successive development in a pattern during the late Mingshui formation led to the formation of the primary gas pool.Vertical differential uplift during the late Nenjiang formation formed the Fulongquan structure during the late Paleogene.At this same time a secondary gas pool formed.A large scale reverse developed late in the Mingshui formation that provided the impetus for formation of a secondary gas pool.It is thought that the migration and accumulation of oil and gas was controlled by lithologic character,fracture,and structure.The local uplift in the vicinity of the hydrocarbon recession is most conducive to the collection of hydrocarbon gas.

  5. Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-01-13

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest onshore petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Approximately 1,300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000. Of these significant-sized reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. There are 32 geologic plays that have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs, and each of the 1,300 major reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. The final reservoir shapefile for each play contains the geographic location of each reservoir. Associated reservoir information within the linked data tables includes RRC reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are smaller than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production of >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl [5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]). Detailed studies of three reservoirs

  6. Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

    2014-01-01

    Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of –34.9 to –66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as –19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

  7. Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

    2014-06-01

    Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of -34.9 to -66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as -19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

  8. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-07-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone

  9. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/teritiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Four activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization: (1) interpretation of outcrop analogues; (2) reservoir mapping, (3) reservoir engineering analysis of the five project fields; and (4) technology transfer.

  10. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-04-30

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}-)flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  11. Groundwater flow and heterogeneous discharge into a seepage lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmierczak, Jolanta; Müller, Sascha; Nilsson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater discharge into a seepage lake was investigated by combining flux measurements, hydrochemical tracers, geological information, and a telescopic modeling approach using first two-dimensional (2-D) regional then 2-D local flow and flow path models. Discharge measurements and hydrochemical...... with the lake remained under seemingly steady state conditions across seasons, a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the discharge to the lake was observed. The results showed that part of the groundwater flowing from the west passes beneath the lake and discharges at the eastern shore, where groundwater...... springs and high discharge zones (HDZs) are observed at the lake bottom and at seepage faces adjacent to the lake. In the 2-D cross section, surface runoff from the seepage faces delivers 64% of the total groundwater inputs to the lake, and a 2 m wide offshore HDZ delivers 13%. Presence of HDZs may...

  12. Research on borehole stability of shale based on seepage-stress-damage coupling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil drilling, one of the most complicated problems is borehole stability of shale. Based on the theory of continuum damage mechanics, a modified Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion according to plastic damage evolution and the seepage-stress coupling is established. Meanwhile, the damage evolution equation which is based on equivalent plastic strain and the permeability evolution equation of shale are proposed in this paper. The physical model of borehole rock for a well in China western oilfield is set up to analyze the distribution of damage, permeability, stress, plastic strain and displacement. In the calculation process, the influence of rock damage to elastic modulus, cohesion and permeability is involved by writing a subroutine for ABAQUS. The results show that the rock damage evolution has a significant effect to the plastic strain and stress in plastic zone. Different drilling fluid density will produce different damage in its value, range and type. This study improves the theory of mechanical mechanism of borehole collapse and fracture, and provides a reference for the further research of seepage-stress-chemical-damage coupling of wall rock.

  13. Distributions of air pollutants associated with oil and natural gas development measured in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Field

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diffusive sampler monitoring techniques were employed during wintertime studies from 2009 to 2012 to assess the spatial distribution of air pollutants associated with the Pinedale Anticline and Jonah Field oil and natural gas (O&NG developments in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming. Diffusive sampling identified both the extent of wintertime ozone (O3 episodes and the distributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx, and a suite of 13 C5+ volatile organic compounds (VOC, including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, allowing the influence of different O&NG emission sources to be determined. Concentration isopleth mapping of both diffusive sampler and continuous O3 measurements show the importance of localized production and advective transport. As for O3, BTEX and NOx mixing ratios within O&NG development areas were elevated compared to background levels, with localized hotspots also evident. One BTEX hotspot was related to an area with intensive production activities, while a second was located in an area influenced by emissions from a water treatment and recycling facility. Contrastingly, NOx hotspots were at major road intersections with relatively high traffic flows, indicating influence from vehicular emissions. Comparisons of observed selected VOC species ratios at a roadside site in the town of Pinedale with those measured in O&NG development areas show that traffic emissions contribute minimally to VOCs in these latter areas. The spatial distributions of pollutant concentrations identified by diffusive sampling techniques have potential utility for validation of emission inventories that are combined with air quality modeling.

  14. Atmospheric benzene observations from oil and gas production in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in July and August 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Hannah S.; Thompson, Anne M.; Wisthaler, Armin; Blake, Donald R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Müller, Markus; Eichler, Philipp; Apel, Eric C.; Hills, Alan J.

    2016-09-01

    High time resolution measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected using a proton-transfer-reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry (PTR-QMS) instrument at the Platteville Atmospheric Observatory (PAO) in Colorado to investigate how oil and natural gas (O&NG) development impacts air quality within the Wattenburg Gas Field (WGF) in the Denver-Julesburg Basin. The measurements were carried out in July and August 2014 as part of NASA's "Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality" (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaign. The PTR-QMS data were supported by pressurized whole air canister samples and airborne vertical and horizontal surveys of VOCs. Unexpectedly high benzene mixing ratios were observed at PAO at ground level (mean benzene = 0.53 ppbv, maximum benzene = 29.3 ppbv), primarily at night (mean nighttime benzene = 0.73 ppbv). These high benzene levels were associated with southwesterly winds. The airborne measurements indicate that benzene originated from within the WGF, and typical source signatures detected in the canister samples implicate emissions from O&NG activities rather than urban vehicular emissions as primary benzene source. This conclusion is backed by a regional toluene-to-benzene ratio analysis which associated southerly flow with vehicular emissions from the Denver area. Weak benzene-to-CO correlations confirmed that traffic emissions were not responsible for the observed high benzene levels. Previous measurements at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) and our data obtained at PAO allow us to locate the source of benzene enhancements between the two atmospheric observatories. Fugitive emissions of benzene from O&NG operations in the Platteville area are discussed as the most likely causes of enhanced benzene levels at PAO.

  15. Carbon isotopic compositions of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene in marine oil asphaltenes from the Tarim Basin:Evidence for the source formed in a strongly reducing environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Although 1-alkyl-2,3,6-trimethylbenzenes and a high relative amount of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene have been detected in marine oils and oil asphaltenes from Tabei uplift in the Tarim Basin, their bio-logical sources are not determined. This paper deals with the molecular characteristics of typical ma-rine oil asphaltenes from Tabei and Tazhong uplift in the Tarim Basin and the stable carbon isotopic signatures of individual compounds in the pyrolysates of these asphaltenes using flash pyrolysis-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (PY-GC-MS) and gas chromatograph-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-C-IRMS), respectively. Relatively abundant 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene is detected in the pyrolysates of these marine oil asphaltenes from the Tarim Basin. δ 13C values of 1,2,3,4-tetrame-thylbenzene in the pyrolysates of oil asphaltenes vary from-19.6‰ to-24.0‰, while those of n-alkanes in the pyrolysates show a range from-33.2‰ to-35.1‰. The 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene in the pyro-lysates of oil asphaltenes proves to be significantly enriched in 13C relative to n-alkanes in the pyro-lysates and oil asphaltenes by 10.8‰―15.2‰ and 8.4‰―13.4‰, respectively. This result indicates a contribution from photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria Chlorobiaceae to relatively abundant 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene in marine oil asphaltenes from the Tarim Basin. Hence, it can be speculated that the source of most marine oil asphaltenes from the Tarim Basin was formed in a strongly reducing water body enriched in H2S under euxinic conditions.

  16. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. B. de Louw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In deltaic areas with saline seepage, freshwater availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and size. Our findings are based on different types of field measurements and detailed numerical groundwater models applied in the south-western delta of the Netherlands. By combining the applied techniques we could extrapolate measurements at point scale (groundwater sampling, temperature and electrical soil conductivity (TEC-probe measurements, electrical cone penetration tests (ECPT to field scale (continuous vertical electrical soundings (CVES, electromagnetic survey with EM31, and even to regional scale using helicopter-borne electromagnetic measurements (HEM. The measurements show a gradual mixing zone between infiltrating fresh rainwater and upward flowing saline groundwater. The mixing zone is best characterized by the depth of the centre of the mixing zone Dmix, where the salinity is half that of seepage water, and the bottom of the mixing zone Bmix, with a salinity equal to that of the seepage water (Cl-conc. 10 to 16 g l−1. Dmix is found at very shallow depth in the confining top layer, on average at 1.7 m below ground level (b.g.l., while Bmix lies about 2.5 m b.g.l. The model results show that the constantly alternating upward and downward flow at low velocities in the confining layer is the main mechanism of mixing between rainwater and saline seepage and determines the position and extent of the mixing zone (Dmix and Bmix. Recharge, seepage flux, and drainage depth are the controlling factors.

  17. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Jiin-Shuh Jean; Chieh-Hou Yang; Ming-Jer Lee; Ming-Kuo Lee; Ming-Hung Chien

    2008-01-01

    Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks). More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surfac...

  18. Citronelle Dome: A giant opportunity for multizone carbon storage and enhanced oil recovery in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R.A.; Pashin, J.C.; Walsh, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Citronelle Dome is a giant, salt-cored anticline in the eastern Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of southern Alabama that is located near several large-scale, stationary, carbon-emitting sources in the greater Mobile area. The dome forms an elliptical, four-way structural closure containing opportunities for CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and large-capacity saline reservoir CO2 sequestration. The Citronelle oil field, located on the crest of the dome, has produced more than 169 million bbl of 42-46?? API gravity oil from sandstone bodies in the Lower Cretaceous Rodessa Formation. The top seal for the oil accumulation is a thick succession of shale and anhydrite, and the reservoir is underfilled such that oil-water contacts are typically elevated 30-60 m (100-200 ft) above the structural spill point. Approximately 31-34% of the original oil in place has been recovered by primary and secondary methods, and CO2-EOR has the potential to increase reserves by up to 20%. Structural contour maps of the dome demonstrate that the area of structural closure increases upward in section. Sandstone units providing prospective carbon sinks include the Massive and Pilot sands of the lower Tuscaloosa Group, as well as several sandstone units in the upper Tuscaloosa Group and the Eutaw Formation. Many of these sandstone units are characterized by high porosity and permeability with low heterogeneity. The Tuscaloosa-Eutaw interval is capped by up to 610 m (2000 ft) of chalk and marine shale that are proven reservoir seals in nearby oil fields. Therefore, the Citronelle Dome can be considered a major geologic sink where CO2 can be safely stored while realizing the economic benefits associated with CO2-EOR. Copyright ?? 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  19. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laura L.

    2001-04-19

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (40-80 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvania (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performances, and report associated validation activities.

  20. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laural L.

    2001-11-26

    The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities.

  1. Recent results and activities of the integrated petroleum resource potential and geoscience studies of the Bowser and Sustut Basins Project, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenchik, C.A. [Geological Survey of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Ferri, F. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, Victoria, BC (Canada). Oil and Gas Emerging Opportunities; Mustard, P.S. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Earth Sciences; McMechan, M.; Osadetz, K.G.; Stasiuk, L.; Wilson, N.S.F. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Enkin, R.J. [Geological Survey of Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada); Hadlari, T. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences; McNicoll, V.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Continental Geosciences Division

    2003-07-01

    This report presents the results of a collaborative research project aimed at increasing the economic opportunities of northern Canada by providing better geoscience knowledge and data that will promote renewed private sector investment. Previous petroleum assessment work of north-central British Columbia identified a significant petroleum potential. This study presents the results of recent research on energy resource potential of the Bowser and Sustut basins. The research involves identifying effective petroleum systems, increasing geographic coverage of thermal maturity data, initiating paleomagnetic studies, and geological mapping. New field work and sample analysis has characterized crude oil occurrences from the following four locations in Bowser and Sustut basins: (1) Tsatia Mountain, a breeched oil field in the Bowser Lake Group, (2) Tango Creek Formation in the Sustut Group, (3) Eaglenest deltaic assemblage of the Bowser Lake Group in the footwall of the Crescent Fault near the Buckinghorse Creek, and (4) south of Oweegee Dome, where an Amoco Ritchie well shows extensive oil stains. Analysis of the molecular composition of the oil stains and seepages has identified two distinct compositional families of crude oil. The report also identifies Stikinia sources and possible reservoirs in the Hazelton Group. New mapping in McConnell Creek area has revised the distribution of Upper Hazelton Group clastic rocks, and assigns lithofacies assemblages to the Bowser Lake Group strata. It also modifies Sustut Group map distribution. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1997--February 8, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr. [ed.] [comp.

    1998-03-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil are at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. This study utilized representative core and modern geophysical logs to characterize and grade each of the five fields for suitability of enhanced recovery projects. The typical vertical sequence or cycle of lithofacies from each field, as determined from conventional core, was tied to its corresponding log response. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found in the various hydrocarbon-bearing rocks of each field can be an indicator of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for water- and/or CO{sub 2}-flooding. Diagenetic histories of the various Desert Creek reservoirs were determined from 50 representative samples selected from the conventional cores of each field. Thin sections were also made of each sample for petrographic description.

  3. Introduction to the 2002 geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks: Chapter 2 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the United States. The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The last major USGS assessment of oil and gas of the most important oil and gas provinces in the United States was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). Since then a number of individual assessment provinces have been reappraised using new methodology. This was done particularly for those provinces where new information has become available, where new methodology was expected to reveal more insight to provide a better estimate, where additional geologic investigation was needed, or where continuous accumulations were deemed important. The San Juan Basin was reevaluated because of industry exploitation of new hydrocarbon accumulations that were not previously assessed and because of a change in application of assessment methodology to potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations. Several changes have been made in this study. The methodology is different from that used in 1995 (Schmoker, 2003; Schmoker and Klett, 2003). In this study the total petroleum system (TPS) approach (Magoon and Dow, 1994) is used rather than the play approach. The Chama Basin is not included. The team of scientists studying the basin is different. The 1995 study focused on conventional accumulations, whereas in this 2002 assessment, it was a priority to assess continuous-type accumulations, including coal-bed gas. Consequently we are presenting here an entirely new study and results for the San Juan Basin Province. The results of this 2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province (5022) are presented in this report within the geologic context of individual TPSs and their assessment units (AU) (table 1). Results

  4. Heterogeneous seepage at the Nopal I natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Cook, Paul J.; Rodríguez-Pineda, J. Alfredo; Villalba, Lourdes; de La Garza, Rodrigo

    2012-02-01

    A study of seepage occurring in an adit at the Nopal I uranium mine in Chihuahua, Mexico, was conducted as part of an integrated natural analogue study to evaluate the effects of infiltration and seepage on the mobilization and transport of radionuclides. An instrumented seepage collection system and local automated weather station permit direct correlation between local precipitation events and seepage. Field observations recorded between April 2005 and December 2006 indicate that seepage is highly heterogeneous with respect to time, location, and quantity. Seepage, precipitation, and fracture data were used to test two hypotheses: (1) that fast flow seepage is triggered by large precipitation events, and (2) that an increased abundance of fractures and/or fracture intersections leads to higher seepage volumes. A few zones in the back adit recorded elevated seepage volumes immediately following large (>20 mm/day) precipitation events, with transit times of less than 4 h through the 8-m thick rock mass. In most locations, there is a 1-6 month time lag between the onset of the rainy season and seepage, with longer times observed for the front adit. There is a less clear-cut relation between fracture abundance and seepage volume; processes such as evaporation and surface flow along the ceiling may also influence seepage.

  5. Fault-Related CO2 Degassing, Geothermics, and Fluid Flow in Southern California Basins--Physiochemical Evidence and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garven, Grant [Tufts University

    2015-08-11

    Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO2 degassing, such as might occur from stored CO2 reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.

  6. Process and.mechanism for oil and gas accumulation,adjustment and reconstruction in Puguang Gas Field,Northeast Sichuan Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU ChunGuo; HAO Fang; ZOU HuaYao; ZHU YangMing; CAI XunYu; WANG CunWu

    2009-01-01

    With the discoveries of a series of large gas fields in the northeast of Sichuan Basin,such as Puguang and Longgang gas fields,the formation mechanism of the gas reservoir containing high H2S in the ancient marine carbonate formation in superposition-basin becomes a hot topic in the field of petroleum geology.Based on the structure inversion,numerical simulation,and geochemical research,we show at least two intervals of fluid transfer in Puguang paleo-oil reservoir,one in the forepart of late Indo-Chinese epoch to early Yanshan epoch and the other in the metaphase of early Yanshan epoch.Oil and gas accumulation occurred at Puguang structure through Puguang-Dongyuezhai faults and dolomite beds in reef and shoal facies in Changxing Formation (P2ch) - Feixianguan Formation (T1f) in the northwest and southwest directions along three main migration pathways,to form Puguang paleo-oil reservoir.Since crude oil is pyrolysised in the early stage of middle Yanshan epoch,Puguang gas reservoir has experienced fluid adjusting process controlled by tectonic movement and geochemical reconstruction process controlled by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR).Middle Yanshan epoch is the main period during which the Puguang gas reservoir experienced the geochemical reaction of TSR.On one hand,TSR can recreate the fluid in gas reservoir,which makes the gas drying index larger and carbon isotope heavier.On the other hand,the reciprocity between fluid regarding TSR (hydrocarbon,H2S,and water) and reservoir rock induces erosion of the reservoir rocks and anhydrite alteration,which improves reservoir petrophysical properties.Superimposed by later tectonic movement,the fluid in Puguang reservoir has twice experienced adjustment,one in the late Yanshan epoch to the early Himalayan epoch and the other time in late Himalayan epoch,after which Puguang gas reservoir is finally developed.

  7. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-12-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing, vertical, field wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the third project year (April 6 through October 5, 2002). This work included capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pore casting on selected samples from Cherokee and Bug fields, Utah. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found at these fields are indicators of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for enhanced oil recovery via horizontal drilling. The reservoir quality of Cherokee and Bug fields has been affected by multiple generations of dissolution, anhydrite

  8. Geophysical investigation of seepage beneath an earthen dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikard, S J; Rittgers, J; Revil, A; Mooney, M A

    2015-01-01

    A hydrogeophysical survey is performed at small earthen dam that overlies a confined aquifer. The structure of the dam has not shown evidence of anomalous seepage internally or through the foundation prior to the survey. However, the surface topography is mounded in a localized zone 150 m downstream, and groundwater discharges from this zone periodically when the reservoir storage is maximum. We use self-potential and electrical resistivity tomography surveys with seismic refraction tomography to (1) determine what underlying hydrogeologic factors, if any, have contributed to the successful long-term operation of the dam without apparent indicators of anomalous seepage through its core and foundation; and (2) investigate the hydraulic connection between the reservoir and the seepage zone to determine whether there exists a potential for this success to be undermined. Geophysical data are informed by hydraulic and geotechnical borehole data. Seismic refraction tomography is performed to determine the geometry of the phreatic surface. The hydro-stratigraphy is mapped with the resistivity data and groundwater flow patterns are determined with self-potential data. A self-potential model is constructed to represent a perpendicular profile extending out from the maximum cross-section of the dam, and self-potential data are inverted to recover the groundwater velocity field. The groundwater flow pattern through the aquifer is controlled by the bedrock topography and a preferential flow pathway exists beneath the dam. It corresponds to a sandy-gravel layer connecting the reservoir to the downstream seepage zone.

  9. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiin-Shuh Jean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks. More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surface erosion. This paper suggests 17 antifreeze compounds potentially present in Martian seepage groundwater. Given their liquid state and physical properties, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and 1,3-propylene glycol are advanced as the most likely candidate compounds. This paper also explores how a mixing of glycol or glycerol with salts in the Martian seepage groundwater may have lowered water¡¦s freezing point and raised its boiling point, with consequences that created fluid gully and channel erosion. Ethylene glycol and related hydrocarbon compounds have been identified in Martian and other interstellar meteorites. We suggest that these compounds and their proportions to water be included for detection in future explorations.

  10. The analysis of physicochemical characteristics of pig farm seepage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dikonketso Matjuda

    based on the analyses of the physicochemical parameters of the adjacent environments. ... Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative ... store their seepage in lagoons for a long time and this ...... Correlation of soil physico-chemical factors with vam fungi distribution.

  11. Polymer flooding effect of seepage characteristics of the second tertiary combined model of L oilfield block B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan ZHAO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The second tertiary combined model is applied to develop the second and third type reservoirs which have more oil layer quantity and strong anisotropism, compared to the regular main reservoir with polymer injection, whose seepage characteristics of polymer-injection-after-water-drive shows a remarkable difference, in addition. This development appears to have a larger effect on the remaining oil development and production. Simulating the second tertiary combined model by reservoir numerical simulation under different polymer molecular weight, polymer concentration, polymer injection rate on the polymer injection period, conclusions of the influenced seepage characteristics of original and added perforated interval pressure and water saturation are drawn. The conclusion shows that the polymer molecular weight could influence water saturation of added perforated interval; polymer concentration makes a significant impact on reservoir pressure; polymer injection rate has a great influence on the separate rate of original and added perforated interval. This research provides firm science evidence to the theory of the second tertiary combined model to develop and enhance oil injection-production rate.

  12. 柴达木盆地近期勘探工作思考%Consideration about Recent Oil and Gas Exploration of Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付锁堂; 关平; 张道伟

    2012-01-01

    Qaidam basin, which is the seventh-largest petroliferous basins in China,is rich in oil and gas resources. Therefore, the basin possesses the conditions to be a large-scale oil and gas field. However, the strong Cenozoic Himalayan orogeny resulted in the complex structure of Qaidam basin. The source-reservoir-cap assemblage of the oil and gas field has been reformed intensively. And later reformations make the exploration become more difficult. For the petroleum enterprise,once faced a harsher circumstance to increase reserve and production. However,in recent years with the great support of the joint-stock company leadership, Qinghai Oilfield Company continues to emanci pate the mind. In terms of carefully and systematic analysis of the structure, deposition and petroleum geological conditions of Qaidam basin, explorationists changing the old exploration thoughts positively, and the exploration work obtains continuous breakthroughs. Two oil fields with 100 million ton reserves (Kunbei,Yingdong) and three oil fields with 50 million ton reserves (Hongliuquan,Wunan and Mabei) were sequentially discovered by Qinghai Oilfield Company. Natural gas risk exploration in deep zone of Eboliang III and Tainan reserves fields has also gains a major breakthrough progress. According to summarize the successful experience, we can sum up five guiding ide- ologies and four working principles. These ideas and principles play very important roles in making exploration work get breakthrough progress and successfully increasing reserves and production of Qaidam basin.%柴达木盆地是我国七大含油气盆地之一,油气资源丰富,具备建立大型油气田的资源基础。受新生代强烈的喜马拉雅造山运动的影响,盆地内构造十分复杂,油气田生、储、盖组合的后期改造非常严重,使得勘探难度很大,"增储上产"曾一度面临严峻的形势。但近年来青海油田公司通过解放思想,在认真系统地分析柴达木盆地构

  13. Analytical Modeling of Groundwater Seepages to St. Lucie Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Yeh, G.; Hu, G.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, six analytical models describing hydraulic interaction of stream-aquifer systems were applied to St Lucie Estuary (SLE) River Estuaries. These are analytical solutions for: (1) flow from a finite aquifer to a canal, (2) flow from an infinite aquifer to a canal, (3) the linearized Laplace system in a seepage surface, (4) wave propagation in the aquifer, (5) potential flow through stratified unconfined aquifers, and (6) flow through stratified confined aquifers. Input data for analytical solutions were obtained from monitoring wells and river stages at seepage-meter sites. Four transects in the study area are available: Club Med, Harbour Ridge, Lutz/MacMillan, and Pendarvis Cove located in the St. Lucie River. The analytical models were first calibrated with seepage meter measurements and then used to estimate of groundwater discharges into St. Lucie River. From this process, analytical relationships between the seepage rate and river stages and/or groundwater tables were established to predict the seasonal and monthly variation in groundwater seepage into SLE. It was found the seepage rate estimations by analytical models agreed well with measured data for some cases but only fair for some other cases. This is not unexpected because analytical solutions have some inherently simplified assumptions, which may be more valid for some cases than the others. From analytical calculations, it is possible to predict approximate seepage rates in the study domain when the assumptions underlying these analytical models are valid. The finite and infinite aquifer models and the linearized Laplace method are good for sites Pendarvis Cove and Lutz/MacMillian, but fair for the other two sites. The wave propagation model gave very good agreement in phase but only fairly agreement in magnitude for all four sites. The stratified unconfined and confined aquifer models gave similarly good agreements with measurements at three sites but poorly at the Club Med site. None of

  14. Source facies of the Paleozoic petroleum systems in the Tabei uplift, Tarim Basin, NW China: implications from aryl isoprenoids in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongge Sun; Shiping Xu; Hong Lu; Pingxia Cuai [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). SKLOG

    2003-04-01

    Aryl isoprenoids have been detected for the first time in crude oils from Paleozoic petroleum systems in the Tabei uplift, Tarim Basin, northwestern China. The principal compounds possess the 1-alkyl-2,3,6-trimethyl substitution pattern characteristic of diaromatic carotenoids found in the Chlorobiaceae family of photosynthetic sulfur bacteria, with a predominance of C{sub 13} - C{sub 23} homologues in these samples. Flash pyrolysates of the asphaltene fractions isolated from crude oils show an unusual abundance of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene, an indicator for a significant contribution of diaromatic carotenoids to the source kerogen of these oils. The wide distribution of these compounds in crude oils reveals that penetration of the photic zone by sulfidic waters during deposition enabled prolific growth of photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae). This suggests that the source rocks for the Paleozoic petroleum systems in the Tabei uplift were likely deposited under euxinic conditions with sulfate and sulfide-rich water bodies, which doesn't support previously published conclusions of a Middle-Upper Ordovician source that marks the slope facies at the margins of structural uplifts. (author)

  15. Low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoir conductive model --Dual water clay matrix conductive model in the north area of Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘和平; 王家映; 樊政军; 马勇; 柳建华; 李明强

    2001-01-01

    Shaly sands reservoir is one of the most distributive types of the oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs discovered in China, and low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs are mostly shaly sands reservoirs. Therefore, shaly sands reservoir conductive model is the key to evaluate low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs using logging information. Some defects were found when we studied the clay distribution type conductive model, dual-water conductive model, conductive rock matrix model, etc. Some models could not distinguish the conductive path and nature of microporosity water and clay water and some models did not consider the clay distribution type and the mount of clay volume. So, we utilize the merits,overcome the defects of the above models, and put forward a new shaly sands conductive model-dual water clay matrix conductive model (DWCMCM) in which dual water is the free water and the microporosity water in shaly sands and the clay matrix(wet clay) is the clay grain containing water. DWCMCM is presented here, the advantages of which can tell the nature and conductive path from different water (microporosity water and freewater), in consid-eration of the clay distribution type and the mount of clay volume in shaly sands. So, the results of logging interpretation in the oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs in the north of Tarim Basin area, China with DWCMCM are better than those interpreted by the above models.

  16. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of low-permeability oil-shales - Case study from HaShfela sub-basin, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Avihu; Gersman, Ronen

    2016-09-01

    Low permeability rocks are of great importance given their potential role in protecting underlying aquifers from surface and buried contaminants. Nevertheless, only limited data for these rocks is available. New appraisal wells drilled into the oil shale unit (OSU) of the Mt. Scopus Group in the HaShfela sub-basin, Central Israel, provided a one-time opportunity for detailed study of the hydrogeology and geochemistry of this very low permeability unit. Methods used include: slug tests, electrical logs, televiewer imaging, porosity and permeability measurements on core samples, chemical analyses of the rock column and groundwater analyses. Slug tests yielded primary indication to the low permeability of the OSU despite its high porosity (30-40%). Hydraulic conductivities as low as 10-10-10-12 m/s were calculated, using both the Hvorslev and Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos decoding methods. These low conductivities were confirmed by direct measurements of permeability in cores, and from calculations based on the Kozeny-Carman approach. Storativity was found to be 1 · 10-6 and specific storage - 3.8 · 10-9 m-1. Nevertheless, the very limited water flow in the OSU is argued to be driven gravitationally. The extremely slow recovery rates as well as the independent recovery of two adjacent wells, despite their initial large head difference of 214 m, indicate that the natural fractures are tight and are impermeable due to the confining stress at depth. Laboratory measured permeability is similar or even higher than the field-measured values, thereby confirming that fractures and bedding planes do not form continuous flow paths. The vertical permeability along the OSU is highly variable, implying hydraulic stratification and extremely low vertical hydraulic conductivity. The high salinity of the groundwater (6300-8000 mgCl/L) within the OSU and its chemical and isotopic compositions are explained by the limited water flow, suggesting long residence time of the water

  17. Impact of aquifer desaturation on steady-state river seepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J.; Miracapillo, Cinzia; Mehl, Steffen

    2016-02-01

    Flow exchange between surface and ground water is of great importance be it for beneficial allocation and use of the water resources or for the proper exercise of water rights. That exchange can take place under a saturated or unsaturated flow regime. Which regimes occur depend on conditions in the vicinity of the interactive area. Withdrawals partially sustained by seepage may not bring about desaturation but greater amounts eventually will. The problem considered in this paper deals only with the steady-state case. It is meant as a first step toward a simple, yet accurate and physically based treatment of the transient situation. The primary purpose of the article is to provide simple criteria for determination of the initiation of desaturation in an aquifer originally in saturated hydraulic connection with a river or a recharge area. The extent of the unsaturated zone in the aquifer will increase with increasing withdrawals while at the same time the seepage rate from the river increases. However the seepage increase will stop once infiltration takes place strictly by gravity in the aquifer and is no longer opposed by the capillary rise from the water table below the riverbed. Following desaturation simple criteria are derived and simple analytical formulae provided to estimate the river seepage based on the position of the water table mound below the clogging layer and at some distance away from the river bank. They fully account for the unsaturated flow phenomena, including the existence of a drainage entry pressure. Two secondary objectives were to verify that (1) the assumption of uniform vertical flow through a clogging layer and that (2) the approximation of the water table mound below the seepage area as a flat surface were both reasonably legitimate. This approach will be especially advantageous for the implementation of the methodology in large-scale applications of integrated hydrologic models used for management.

  18. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Todilto Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 3 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic-rich, shaly limestone beds, which contain hydrocarbon source beds in the lower part of the Jurassic Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation, and sandstone reservoirs in the overlying Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, compose the Todilto Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rock facies of the Todilto Limestone were deposited in a combined marine-lacustrine depositional setting. Sandstone reservoirs in the Entrada Sandstone were deposited in eolian depositional environments. Oil in Todilto source beds was generated beginning in the middle Paleocene, about 63 million years ago, and maximum generation of oil occurred in the middle Eocene. In the northern part of the San Juan Basin, possible gas and condensate were generated in Todilto Limestone Member source beds until the middle Miocene. The migration distance of oil from the Todilto source beds into the underlying Entrada Sandstone reservoirs was short, probably within the dimensions of a single dune crest. Traps in the Entrada are mainly stratigraphic and diagenetic. Regional tilt of the strata to the northeast has influenced structural trapping of oil, but also allowed for later introduction of water. Subsequent hydrodynamic forces have influenced the repositioning of the oil in some reservoirs and flushing in others. Seals are mostly the anhydrite and limestone facies of the Todilto, which thin to as little as 10 ft over the crests of the dunes. The TPS contains only one assessment unit, the Entrada Sandstone Conventional Oil Assessment Unit (AU) (50220401). Only four of the eight oil fields producing from the Entrada met the 0.5 million barrels of oil minimum size used for this assessment. The AU was estimated at the mean to have potential additions to reserves of 2.32 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 5.56 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 0.22 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  19. Nonlinear analysis for the coupled problem of temperature and seepage fields in cold regions tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖远明; 吴紫汪; 朱元林; 何春雄; 朱林楠

    1999-01-01

    The governing differential equations of the coupled problem of temperature and seepage fields with phase change are first derived from the theory of heat transfer and the theory of seepage. The finite element formulae of this problem are obtained from Galerkin’ s method. And considering the seepage influence, an illustrative example of thetemperature field in a cold-region tunnel is provided.The example shows that the influence of seepage on the frozen depth of the tunnel is very great, and thus the effect of the seepage factor should be taken into account in the engineering design.

  20. Accumulation characteristics and the main controlling factors of Lunnan multilayer oil province,Tarim Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Lunnan region is a large-scale paleohigh with many coexisting oil and gas bearing series.At present, about 2 billions tons of proved,probable and possible oil and gas reverses have been proved there.Eight oil and gas bearing series have been found in the Ordovician,Carboniferous,Triassic and Jurassic of Lunnan region,they all bear the characteristics of large-scale multilayer oil-gas province.Ordovician is the main reservoir series where over 0.8 billion tons of oil geologic reserves were discovered,and a super large-scale marine carbonate oil and gas field has formed.Reservoir space of the carbonate reservoirs is mainly composed of dissolved hole,dissolved pore and fracture in Lunnan paleo-burial hill.Generally, dissolved holes are widely distributed among them.Reservoir developments are mainly controlled by karstification and tectonic disruption.Due to the similar geochemical characters,the Ordovician,Carboniferous,Triassic and Jurassic oil and gas reservoirs present the same oil source rock of Mid-Upper Ordovician,the latter except Ordovician are mostly of secondary oil and gas reservoirs migrated vertically by faults during the process of multiple phase tectonic movement,adjustment and reconstruction. Lunnan composite oil and gas accumulation region is situated in the vicinity of large-scale hydrocarbon generation depressions in three directions,ample oil and gas from hydrocarbon generation depressions supplied the adjacent oil and gas reservoirs once.Hereby,the succeed paleohigh is the long-term hydrocarbon accumulation region,which is favor for the formations of high quality reservoirs,fault systems and huge-scale composite oil and gas accumulation.

  1. Chapter 3: Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in the Phosphoria Total Petroleum System of the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, M.A.; Lillis, P.G.; Roberts, L.N.R.

    2007-01-01

    The Phosphoria Total Petroleum System (TPS) encompasses the entire Wind River Basin Province, an area of 4.7 million acres in central Wyoming. The source rocks most likely are black, organic-rich shales of the Meade Peak and Retort Phosphatic Shale Members of the Permian Phosphoria Formation located in the Wyoming and Idaho thrust belt to the west and southwest of the province. Petroleum was generated and expelled during Jurassic and Cretaceous time in westernmost Wyoming and is interpreted to have migrated into the province through carrier beds of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone where it was preserved in hypothesized regional stratigraphic traps in the Tensleep and Permian Park City Formation. Secondary migration occurred during the development of structural traps associated with the Laramide orogeny. The main reservoirs are in the Tensleep Sandstone and Park City Formation and minor reservoirs are in the Mississippian Madison Limestone, Mississippian-Pennsylvanian Amsden Formation, Triassic Chugwater Group, and Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Sundance Formation. The traps are sealed by shale or evaporite beds of the Park City, Amsden, and Triassic Dinwoody Formations, Triassic Chugwater Group, and Jurassic Gypsum Spring Formation. A single conventional oil and gas assessment unit (AU), the Tensleep-Park City AU, was defined for the Phosphoria TPS. Both the AU and TPS cover the entire Wind River Basin Province. Oil is produced from 18 anticlinal fields, the last of which was discovered in 1957, and the possibility of discovering new structural oil accumulations is considered to be relatively low. Nonassociated gas is produced from only two fields, but may be underexplored in the province. The discovery of new gas is more promising, but will be from deep structures. The bulk of new oil and gas accumulations is dependent on the discovery of hypothesized stratigraphic traps in isolated carbonate reservoirs of the Park City Formation. Mean resource estimates for

  2. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Tenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-05-13

    The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin will is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil- bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch Formations in the Bluefell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project. Data (net pay thickness, porosity, and water saturation) of more than 100 individuals beds in he lower Green River and Wasatch Formations were used to generate geostatistical realization (numerical- representation) of the reservoir properties. The data set was derived from the Michelle Ute and Malnar Pike demonstration wells and 22 other wells in a 20 (52 km{sup 2}) square-mile area. Beds were studied independently of each other. Principles of sequential Gaussian simulations were used to generate geostatistical realizations of the beds.

  3. Magnetic, Geochemical and Mineralogical Charac-teristics of Soils in Qiangtang Basin, Tibet, China:Implications for Prospective Oil and Gas Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The alteration of iron-bearing minerals induced by hydrocarbon microseepage above oil/gas reservoirs has been evaluated using measurements of soil magnetic susceptibility κ, geochemical compositions (gas hydrocarbon and alteration carbonate ΔC), and composition and concentration of iron-bearing minerals. The analyses were performed along two profiles across the Qiangtang basin in Tibet, China: the Nuoermahu-Xuehuanhu profile (C) and the Mugari-Huochetoushan profile (E). Results show that three strong magnetic anomalies (C1, E1 and E2 anomalies) are related to the distribution of Neogene volcanic rocks on the surface in the Gangmacuo-Xiyaergang uplift. Two other anomalies (C2 and E4 anomalies), characterized by both moderately amplitude magnetic susceptibility and elevated soil gas hydrocarbons, occur near fault zones in the Cuoni-Donghu synclinorium. These latter anomalies display characteristics of hydrocarbon microseepage anomalies commonly associated with oil and gas accumulations. Their presence in the Cuoni-Donghu synclinorium suggests that parts of the Qiangtang basin may have significant petroleum potential.

  4. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-05-01

    The Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico has produced >30 Bbbl (4.77 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000, most of it from 1,339 reservoirs having individual cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}). These significant-sized reservoirs are the focus of this report. Thirty-two Permian Basin oil plays were defined, and each of the 1,339 significant-sized reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Associated reservoir information within linked data tables includes Railroad Commission of Texas reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are <1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. This report contains a summary description of each play, including key reservoir characteristics and successful reservoir-management practices that have been used in the play. The CD accompanying the report contains a pdf version of the report, the GIS project, pdf maps of all plays, and digital data files. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 from these significant-sized reservoirs was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl 5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres

  5. The controlling factors of oil and gas charging and accumulation of Puguang gas field in the Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Combined with oil and gas transport and accumulation, structure-Iithology evolution history, and with geochemistry and synthesizing geology methods, this paper studies the oil and gas discharge history of Puguang large scale gas field and the main controlling factors of oil accumulation. The natural gas in Puguang gas field is mainly coal-derived gas and oil-racked gas. The main hydrocarbon is Upper Permian coal mudstone and Lower Silurian mud shale with organic material. Puguang gas field has gone through discharge and adjustment 3 times, and it has favorable palaeostructure location, high quality dredge and effectively conserving conditions.

  6. Sequence boundaries and regularities in the oil-gas distribution of the low swelling slope belt in the continental rift basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Zongkui

    2011-01-01

    Where are the zones more enriched in sand deposits in the down slope and deep depression of the low swelling slope belt? Are there any screening conditions for oil and gas there? These are the chief geological problems to be solved during exploration of a region.Taking the Paleogene system developed along the east slope belt of Chengdao as an example the concepts of sequence stratigraphy and sedimentary sequenc are applied.A new research method likened to a way "to get a melon by following the vine"is proposed to determine the direction for exploring within un-drilled or less-drilled areas.This is the process:"the characteristics of the sequence boundary → the forming mechanism of the stratigraphic sequence → the conditions of oil and gas accumulation → the distribution zones of oil and gas".The relationship between the dynamic mechanism of stratigraphic sequence and the forming conditions for oil and gas accumulation establishes that the tectonic disturbance of the slope belt has significant responses as denudation and deposition.Above the stratigraphic sequence boundary there are large scale sand bodies of the low stand system tract (LST) that have developed in the low swelling slope belt and its deep depression.Below the sequence boundary there are the remaining sand bodies of the high stand system tract (HST).On the slope there is a convergence of mudstone layers of the extended system tract (EST)with the mudstone of the underlying strata,which constitutes the screening conditions for the reservoir of the down slope and deep depression.The distribution regularities in preferred sand bodies on the surface of the sequence boundary,and in the system tract,indicate the ordering of oil-gas deposits.From the higher stand down to the depth of the slope there are,in order,areas where exploration was unfavorable.major areas of stratigraphic overlap of oil-gas reservoirs,unconformity screened oil-gas reservoirs,and,finally,sandstone lens oil-gas reservoirs.The low

  7. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. B. de Louw

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In deltaic areas with saline seepage, fresh water availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and size. Our findings are based on different types of field measurements and detailed numerical groundwater models applied in the south-western delta of The Netherlands. By combining the applied techniques we could extrapolate in situ measurements at point scale (groundwater sampling, TEC (temperature and electrical soil conductivity-probe measurements, electrical cone penetration tests (ECPT to a field scale (continuous vertical electrical soundings (CVES, electromagnetic survey with EM31, and even to a regional scale using helicopter-borne electromagnetic measurements (HEM. The measurements show a gradual S-shaped mixing zone between infiltrating fresh rainwater and upward flowing saline groundwater. The mixing zone is best characterized by the depth of the centre of the mixing zone Dmix, where the salinity is half that of seepage water, and the bottom of the mixing zone Bmix, with a salinity equal to that of the seepage water (Cl-conc. 10 to 16 g l−1. Dmix manifests at very shallow depth in the confining top layer, on average at 1.7 m below ground level (b.g.l., while Bmix lies about 2.5 m b.g.l. Head-driven forced convection is the main mechanism of rainwater lens formation in the saline seepage areas rather than free convection due to density differences. Our model results show that the sequence of alternating vertical flow directions in the confining layer caused by head gradients determines the position of the mixing zone (Dmix and Bmix and that these flow directions are controlled by seepage flux, recharge and drainage depth.

  8. Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and THC Seepage) Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-05

    The purpose of this Model Report (REV02) is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) models used to evaluate the potential effects of coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes on UZ flow and transport. This Model Report has been developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) 2002 [160819]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertaining to the technical scope, content, and management of this Model Report in Section 1.12, Work Package AUZM08, ''Coupled Effects on Flow and Seepage''. The plan for validation of the models documented in this Model Report is given in Attachment I, Model Validation Plans, Section I-3-4, of the TWP. Except for variations in acceptance criteria (Section 4.2), there were no deviations from this TWP. This report was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models''. This Model Report documents the THC Seepage Model and the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model. The THC Seepage Model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral alteration on flow in rocks surrounding drifts. The DST THC model is a drift-scale process model relying on the same conceptual model and much of the same input data (i.e., physical, hydrological, thermodynamic, and kinetic) as the THC Seepage Model. The DST THC Model is the primary method for validating the THC Seepage Model. The DST THC Model compares predicted water and gas compositions, as well as mineral alteration patterns, with observed data from the DST. These models provide the framework to evaluate THC coupled processes at the drift scale, predict flow and transport behavior for specified thermal-loading conditions, and predict the evolution of mineral alteration and fluid chemistry around potential waste emplacement drifts. The

  9. A coupling model for gas diffusion and seepage in SRV section of shale gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusheng Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A prerequisite to effective shale gas development is a complicated fracture network generated by extensive and massive fracturing, which is called SRV (stimulated reservoir volume section. Accurate description of gas flow behaviors in such section is fundamental for productivity evaluation and production performance prediction of shale gas wells. The SRV section is composed of bedrocks with varying sizes and fracture networks, which exhibit different flow behaviors – gas diffusion in bedrocks and gas seepage in fractures. According to the porosity and permeability and the adsorption, diffusion and seepage features of bedrocks and fractures in a shale gas reservoir, the material balance equations were built for bedrocks and fractures respectively and the continuity equations of gas diffusion and seepage in the SRV section were derived. For easy calculation, the post-frac bedrock cube was simplified to be a sphere in line with the principle of volume consistency. Under the assumption of quasi-steady flow behavior at the cross section of the sphere, the gas channeling equation was derived based on the Fick's laws of diffusion and the density function of gas in bedrocks and fractures. The continuity equation was coupled with the channeling equation to effectively characterize the complicated gas flow behavior in the SRV section. The study results show that the gas diffusivity in bedrocks and the volume of bedrocks formed by volume fracturing (or the scale of fracturing jointly determines the productivity and stable production period of a shale gas well. As per the actual calculation for the well field A in the Changning–Weiyuan Block in the Sichuan Basin, the matrix has low gas diffusivity – about 10−5 cm2/s and a large volume with an equivalent sphere radius of 6.2 m, hindering the gas channeling from bedrocks to fractures and thereby reducing the productivity of the shale gas well. It is concluded that larger scale of volume fracturing

  10. Geochemical Variability and the Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste Water Coproduced with Oil from Permian Basin of the Southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. A.; Holguin, F. O.; Xu, P.; Engle, M.; Dungan, B.; Hunter, B.; Carroll, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. generates 21 billion barrels/year of coproduced water from oil and gas exploration, which is generally considered waste water. Growth in unconventional oil and gas production has spurred interest in beneficial uses of produced water, especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico, the largest U.S. tight oil producer. Produced waters have variable chemistries, but generally contain high levels of organics and salts. In order to evaluate the environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of produced water. In the present study, produced water samples were collected from 12 wells across the Permian Basin. Compositional analyses including coupled gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy were conducted. The samples show elevated benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene, alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene compared to other heteroaromatics; they also contain complex hydrocarbon compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Van Krevelen diagrams show an increase in the concentration of heteroaromatic hydrocarbons with increasing well depth. The salinity, dominated by sodium-chloride, also increases with depth, ranging from 37-150 g/L TDS. Depth of wells (or producing formation) is a primary control on predicting water quality for treatment and beneficial use. Our results suggest that partial treatment by removing suspended solids and organic contaminants would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse, bioenergy production, and other industrial uses. Due to the high salinity, conventional desalination processes are not applicable or very costly, making beneficial uses requiring low salinity not feasible.

  11. Effects of oil palm expansion through direct and indirect land use change in Tapi river basin, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Hein, Lars; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit

    2016-01-01

    The Thai government has ambitious plan to further promote the use of biodiesel. However, there has been insufficient consideration on the environmental effects of oil palm expansion in Thailand. This paper focuses on the effects of oil palm expansion on land use. We analysed the direct land use c

  12. Organic geochemistry of heavy/extra heavy oils from sidewall cores, Lower Lagunillas Member, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Basin, Venenzuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocco, R.; Alberdi, M. [PDVSA-Inteveo S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    2002-10-01

    The study of 22 oils from sidewall cores taken at different depths in the Lower Lagunillas Member, well LSJ-AB, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Lake is presented, with the purpose of predicting the intervals that present the best crude oil quality. Differences were detected in the biodegradation levels of the studied samples, which are correlated with the depth at which the sidewall core was taken. The API gravity was considered for the oils from each sidewall core and it was found that toward the top of the sequence, the oils have an API gravity of 10.6-11.2{sup o}C, while toward the base part of the sequence, the well produces extra heavy oils with an API gravity that varies between 8.2 and 8.7{sup o}. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Detection and Origin of Hydrocarbon Seepage Anomalies in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polteau, Stephane; Planke, Sverre; Stolze, Lina; Kjølhamar, Bent E.; Myklebust, Reidun

    2016-04-01

    We have collected more than 450 gravity cores in the Barents Sea to detect hydrocarbon seepage anomalies and for seismic-stratigraphic tie. The cores are from the Hoop Area (125 samples) and from the Barents Sea SE (293 samples). In addition, we have collected cores near seven exploration wells. The samples were analyzed using three different analytical methods; (1) the standard organic geochemical analyzes of Applied Petroleum Technologies (APT), (2) the Amplified Geochemical Imaging (AGI) method, and (3) the Microbial Prospecting for Oil and Gas (MPOG) method. These analytical approaches can detect trace amounts of thermogenic hydrocarbons in the sediment samples, and may provide additional information about the fluid phases and the depositional environment, maturation, and age of the source rocks. However, hydrocarbon anomalies in seabed sediments may also be related to shallow sources, such as biogenic gas or reworked source rocks in the sediments. To better understand the origin of the hydrocarbon anomalies in the Barents Sea we have studied 35 samples collected approximately 200 m away from seven exploration wells. The wells included three boreholes associated with oil discoveries, two with gas discoveries, one dry well with gas shows, and one dry well. In general, the results of this case study reveal that the oil wells have an oil signature, gas wells show a gas signature, and dry wells have a background signature. However, differences in results from the three methods may occur and have largely been explained in terms of analytical measurement ranges, method sensitivities, and bio-geochemical processes in the seabed sediments. The standard geochemical method applied by APT relies on measuring the abundance of compounds between C1 to C5 in the headspace gas and between C11 to C36 in the sediment extracts. The anomalies detected in the sediment samples from this study were in the C16 to C30 range. Since the organic matter yields were mostly very low, the

  14. Avian diversity and feeding guilds in a secondary forest, an oil palm plantation and a paddy field in riparian areas of the kerian river basin, perak, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Nur Munira; Latip, Nurul Salmi Abdul; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Khairuddin, Nurul Liyana

    2011-12-01

    The diversity and the feeding guilds of birds in three different habitats (secondary forest, oil palm plantation and paddy field) were investigated in riparian areas of the Kerian River Basin (KRB), Perak, Malaysia. Point-count observation and mist-netting methods were used to determine bird diversity and abundance. A total of 132 species of birds from 46 families were recorded in the 3 habitats. Species diversity, measured by Shannon's diversity index, was 3.561, 3.183 and 1.042 in the secondary forest, the paddy field and the oil palm plantation, respectively. The vegetation diversity and the habitat structure were important determinants of the number of bird species occurring in an area. The relative abundance of the insectivore, insectivore-frugivore and frugivore guilds was greater in the forest than in the monoculture plantation. In contrast, the relative abundance of the carnivore, granivore and omnivore guilds was higher in the plantation. The results of the study show that the conversion of forest to either oil palm plantation or paddy fields produced a decline in bird diversity and changes in the distribution of bird feeding guilds.

  15. Geochemical characteristics and accumulation of marine oil and gas around Halahatang depression,Tarim Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    There exists a petroleum system rich of oil and gas around Halahatang depression,where the oil and gas possess obvious local distinctions of properties in different parts.The research proved that the discovered crude oil and natural gas in the region derived mainly from O2+3 sourc