WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil residues remaining

  1. Evaluation of PAH depletion of subsurface Exxon Valdez oil residues remaining in Prince William Sound in 2007-2008 and their likely bioremediation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R. [Louisville Univ., Louisville, KY (United States); Bragg, J.R. [Creative Petroleum Solutions LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the extent of oil weathering at the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) sites and estimated the bioremediation potential for shoreline segments by examining the depletion of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) relative to an estimated applicability threshold of 70 per cent. The distribution of oil was examined by location and current ratios of nitrogen and non-polar oil in order to assess if biodegradation rates were nutrient-limited. The impact of sequestration on the effectiveness of bioremediation was also studied. Results of the study showed that the EVOS residues are patchy and infrequently found on sites that were heavily oiled in 1989. Only 0.4 per cent of the oil originally stranded in 1989 remained. The remaining EVOS residues are sequestered under boulder and cobble armour in areas with limited contact with flowing water. The study also showed that concentrations of nitrogen and dissolved oxygen in pore waters within strata adjacent to the sequestered oil can support biodegradation. Most remaining EVOS residues are highly weathered and biodegraded. It was concluded that nutrients added to the shorelines are unlikely to effectively contact the sequestered oil. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  2. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. HYDROTHERMAL CRACKING OF RESIDUAL OILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The hydrothermal cracking of heavy oils, such as Canadian oil sand bitumen and Arabian heavy vacuum residue, as well as their model compound were performed over sulfided Ni/Al2O3 and NiMo/Al2O3 catalysts under 663~703 K and 6.0~8.0 MPa of hydrogen pressure in a batch autoclave reactor. According to the reaction mechanism of hydrothermal cracking, a small amount of free redical initiators, such as di-tert-peroxide, sulfur, etc., was added into the feed to generate free redicals at lower temperature, and obviously showed promotional effect on the conversion of hydrocarbons. The reaction mechanisms of hydrothermal cracking as well as the enhancing effect of initiators were studied by a probe reaction with 1-phenyldodecane as a model compound. The hydrothermal cracking of hydrocarbon proceeded via free redical mechanism and hydrogenating quench. The initiators might easily generate free redicals under reaction temperature, these redicals might abstract H from hydrocarbon molecule and reasonably initiate the chain reactions, therefore, promote the conversion of hydrocarbon even at lower reaction temperature.

  4. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  5. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X; Brogaard, Nicholas L; Rigét, Frank F; Kristensen, Paneeraq; Jomaas, Grunde; Boertmann, David M; Wegeberg, Susse; Gustavson, Kim

    2016-08-15

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified. To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil.

  6. Characteristics of remaining oil viscosity in water-and polymer-flooding reservoirs in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of 21 crude oil samples shows a good correlation between high molecular-weight hydrocarbon components (C 40+) and viscosity.Forty-four remaining oil samples extracted from oil sands of oilfield development coring wells were analyzed by high-temperature gas chromatography (HTGC),for the relative abundance of C 21-,C 21-C 40 and C 40+ hydrocarbons.The relationship between viscosity of crude oil and C 40+ (%) hydrocarbons abundance is used to expect the viscosity of remaining oil.The mobility characteristics of remaining oil,the properties of remaining oil,and the next displacement methods in reservoirs either water-flooded or polymer-flooded are studied with rock permeability,oil saturation of coring wells,etc.The experimental results show that the hydrocarbons composition,viscosity,and mobility of remaining oil from both polymer-flooding and water-flooding reservoirs are heterogeneous,especially the former.Relative abundance of C 21- and C 21-C 40 hydrocarbons in polymer-flooding reservoirs is lower than that of water-flooding,but with more abundance of C 40+ hydrocarbons.It is then suggested that polymer flooding must have driven more C 40- hydrocarbons out of reservoir,which resulted in relatively enriched C 40+,more viscous oils,and poorer mobility.Remaining oil in water-flooding reservoirs is dominated by moderate viscosity oil with some low viscosity oil,while polymer-flooding mainly contained moderate viscosity oil with some high viscosity oil.In each oilfield and reservoir,displacement methods of remaining oil,viscosity,and concentration by polymer-solution can be adjusted by current viscosity of remaining oil and mobility ratio in a favorable range.A new basis and methods are suggested for the further development and enhanced oil recovery of remaining oil.

  7. Micro-mechanisms of residual oil mobilization by viscoelastic fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lijuan; Yue Xiang'an; Guo Fenqiao

    2008-01-01

    Four typical types of residual oil, residual oil trapped in dead ends, oil ganglia in pore throats,oil at pore comers and oil film adhered to pore walls, were studied. According to main pore structure characteristics and the fundamental morphological features of residual oil, four displacement models for residual oil were proposed, in which pore-scale flow behavior of viscoelastic fluid was analyzed by a numerical method and micro-mechanisms for mobilization of residual oil were discussed. Calculated results indicate that the viscoelastic effect enhances micro displacement efficiency and increases swept volume. For residual oil trapped in dead ends, the flow field of viscoelastic fluid is developed in dead ends more deeply, resulting in more contact with oil by the displacing fluid, and consequently increasing swept volume. In addition, intense viscoelastic vortex has great stress, under which residual oil becomes small oil ganglia, and finally be carried into main channels. For residual oil at pore throats, its displacement mechanisms are similar to the oil trapped in dead ends. Vortices are developed in the depths of the throats and oil ganglia become smaller. Besides, viscoelastic fluid causes higher pressure drop on oil ganglia, as a driving force, which can overcome capillary force, consequently, flow direction can be changed and the displacing fluid enter smaller throats. For oil at pore comers, viscoelastic fluid can enhance displacement efficiency as a result of greater velocity and stress near the comers. For residual oil adhered to pore wall,viscoelastic fluid can provide a greater displacing force on the interface between viscoelastic fluid and oil,thus, making it easier to exceed the minimum interfacial tension for mobilizing the oil film.

  8. 33 CFR 157.17 - Oil residue (sludge) tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tons or more must have a tank that receives and holds oil residue resulting from purification of fuel... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oil residue (sludge) tank. 157.17...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK...

  9. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B; Bolten, Alan B; Tucker, Anton D; Hart, Kristen M; Lamont, Margaret M; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J; Addison, David S; Mansfield, Katherine L; Phillips, Katrina F; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A

    2016-10-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  10. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  11. Study on combustion characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu [and others

    1997-07-01

    Petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) is one of prospect substitute of oil burned in many industrial boilers and utilities in China. It is a mixture of pulverized petroleum coke, residual oil and slurry oil. We carried out a series of experiments to study its ignition and combustion mechanism. Experimental results show that the ignition temperature of petroleum coke is higher than normal anthracite and meager coal, and it is difficult to be burned in oil-fired furnace directly. The petroleum coke`s combustion property is improved greatly after mixing with residual oil and slurry oil. The combustion process of POS can be divided into three phases: preheating, kindling and homogenous combustion, burning of the petroleum coke residue. The combustion condition of POS is close to bituminous and coal-oil-mixture (COM).

  12. Lubrication Oil Condition Monitoring and Remaining Useful Life Prediction With Particle Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the costs of wind energy, it is necessary to improve the wind turbine availability and reduce the operational and maintenance costs. The reliability and availability of a functioning wind turbine depend largely on the protective properties of the lubrication oil for its drive train subassemblies such as gearbox and means for lubrication oil condition monitoring and degradation detection. The wind industry currently uses lubrication oil analysis for detecting gearbox and bearing wear but cannot detect the functional failures of the lubrication oils. The main purpose of lubrication oil condition monitoring and degradation detection is to determine whether the oils have deteriorated to such a degree that they no longer fulfill their functions. This paper describes a research on developing online lubrication oil health condition monitoring and remaining useful life prediction with particle filtering technique using commercially available online sensors. The paper first presents a survey on current state-of-the-art online lubrication oil condition monitoring solutions and their characteristics along with the classification and evaluation of each technique. It is then followed by an investigation on wind turbine gearbox lubrication oil health condition monitoring and degradation detection using online viscosity and dielectric constant sensors. In particular, the lubricant performance evaluation and remaining useful life prediction of degraded lubrication oil with viscosity and dielectric constant data using particle filtering are presented. A simulation case study is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed technique.

  13. Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Keywords: Palm kernel shell; Mesocarp fibre; Briquette; Biomass solid fuel; proximate analysis.

  14. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil grease formulation shows superior tribological performance when compared to the commercial grease. On the basis of physico-chemical characterization and tribological performance the vegetable residual oil was found to have good potential for use as biodegradable multipurpose lubricating grease. In addition, the base oils are biodegradable and non toxic.

  15. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the

  16. Biodiesel production from residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yi-Pin; Chang, James I. [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, 1, University Blvd., Yenchao, Kaohsiung (China)

    2010-01-15

    This work was to study technical and economic feasibilities of converting residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth generated at soybean oil refineries into useable biodiesel. Experimental results showed that fatty acids in the SBE residual oil were hexadecenoic acid (58.19%), stearic acid (21.49%) and oleic acid (20.32%), which were similar to those of vegetable oils. The methyl ester conversion via a transesterification process gave a yield between 85 and 90%. The biodiesel qualities were in reasonable agreement with both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. A preliminary financial analysis showed that the production cost of biodiesel from SBE oils was significantly lower than the pre-tax price of fossil diesel or those made of vegetable oils or waste cooking oils. The effects of the crude oil price and the investment on the production cost and the investment return period were also conducted. The result showed that the investment would return faster at higher crude oil price. (author)

  17. Alcohol biodiesel from frying oil residues; Biodiesel etilico a partir de oleo de fritura residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, Brunna Simoes; Marques, Luiz Guilherme da Costa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Inst. Virtual Internacional de Mudancas Globais], E-mail: lguilherme@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the reaction optimization and production of biodiesel through the use of frying residual oil made available by the restaurant placed at the PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES-RJ), using ethanol, so that to permit the production of sustainable bio diesel. The environmental gains obtained by the utilization of residual oil, avoiding that this oil be released in the nature, and the economic gains coming from the generation and utilization of ethanol allowing the production of biodiesel be an viable alternative. The obtained results during laboratory tests shown that biodiesel produced from the transesterification in alkaline medium, of the frying residual oil collected presented a reaction yield of approximately 80% considering in mass.

  18. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    -oil was around 525 °C to 550 °C for all straw moisture contents. It was investigated how differences in biomass composition influence pyrolysis products yields and the composition of char and bio-oils. Details about this investigation are explained in Paper II (Chapter 3). The used pine wood had a low ash...... at reactor temperatures ranging from 475 to 575 oC. It was observed that the formation of char and gas is affected by the biomass alkali content. Increasing biomass alkali content caused an increased feedstock conversion at low temperature, a lower maximum liquid organic yield temperature and a lower maximum......This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction...

  19. Characterization of residual oils for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Antonio Canesin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results suggesting that it is possible to take advantage of these residues for biodiesel production as the obtained products were approved according to the rules established by the National Association of Petroleum (ANP; the bovine samples were the exception regarding moisture and acidity.

  20. Applying the Dynamic Two-Step Method to Forecast Remaining Oil Distribution of Lower Series, Xiaermen Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of remaining oil is often described qualitatively. The remaining oil distributed in the whole reservoir is calculated according to the characteristics of the space distribution of the saturation of remaining oil. Logging data are required to accomplish this. However, many such projects cannot be completed. Since the old study of remaining oil distribution could not be quantified efficiently,the "dynamic two-step method" is presented. Firstly, the water cut of every flow unit in one well at one time is calculated according to the comprehensive water cut of a single well at one time. Secondly, the remaining oil saturation of the flow unit of the well at one time is calculated based on the water cut of the flow unit at a given time. The results show that "dynamic two-step method" has characteristics of simplicity and convenience, and is especially suitable for the study of remaining oil distribution at high water-cut stage. The distribution of remaining oil presented banding and potato form, remaining oil was relatively concentrated in faultage neighborhood and imperfect well netting position, and the net thickness of the place was great. This proposal can provide an effective way to forecast remaining oil distribution and enhance oil recovery, especially applied at the high water-cut stage.

  1. A water and hydrocarbon emulsion for extracting residual oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verderevskiy, Yu.L.; Abramzon, A.A.; Gusev, V.I.; Kulikov, Yu.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Starosud, A.N.; Tavrin, A.Ye.; Zheranin, V.L.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve the oil displacing properties of the composition in conditions of high mineralization of the stratum waters and to reduce the cost of the emulsion. To do this, the water and hydrocarbon emulsion for extracting residual oil, which includes water, liquid hydrocarbons, water and oil soluble surfacants (PAV), contains oxyethylated alkylphenol of the OP-10 type as the water soluble surfacant and contains oxytehylated alkylphenol of the OP-4 type as the oil soluble surfacant in the following component relationship (percent by mass): oxyethylated alkylphenol of the OP-4 type, 3.9 to 5.5; oxyethylated alkylphenol of the OP-10 type, 0.1 to 0.2; liquid hydrocargon, 40 to 41 and water, the remainder.

  2. 7-lump kinetic model for residual oil catalytic cracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ou-guan; SU Hong-ye; MU Sheng-jing; CHU Jian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a novel 7-lump kinetic model is proposed to describe residual oil catalytic cracking, in which coke is lumped separately for accurate prediction. The reactor block is modeled as a combination of an ideal pipe flow reactor (PFR)and a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Unit factors are designed to correct the deviation between model predictions and practical plant data and tuned by modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The parameters estimated are reliable and good agreement between the model predictions and plant observations is observed. The model helps us get good insight into the performance of an industrial riser reactor that would be useful for optimization of residual oil catalytic cracking.

  3. Adsorption of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent using rubber powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Ahmad

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic rubber powder was used to adsorb the residual oil in palm oil mill effluent (POME. POME is the wastewater produced by the palm oil industry. It is a colloidal suspension which is 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids including 2-4% suspended solids originating in the mixing of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater. POME contains 4,000 mg dm-3 of oil and grease, which is relatively high compared to the limit of only 50 mg dm-3 set by the Malaysian Department of Environment. A bench-scale study of the adsorption of residual oil in POME using synthetic rubber powder was conducted using a jar test apparatus. The adsorption process was studied by varying parameters affecting the process. The parameters were adsorbent dosage, mixing speed, mixing time and pH. The optimum values of the parameters were obtained. It was found that almost 88% removal of residual oil was obtained with an adsorbent dosage of 30 mg dm-3 and mixing speed of 150 rpm for 3 hr at a pH 7. Adsorption equilibrium was also studied, and it was found that the adsorption process on the synthetic rubber powder fit the Freundlich isotherm model.

  4. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  5. Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on oil palm residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwised, A.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to use oil palm residues to cultivate the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most important mushrooms cultivated worldwide. Spawn was prepared on sorghum seeds and inoculated on substrate in plastic bags. Oil palm fronds were cut and used to grow Pleurotus ostreatus. The first fructification occurred 20 days after waterring. The biological efficiency reached at 28.6%. When sawdust of para rubber logs was added to the cut oil palm fronds at the rate of 1:1 (vol : vol., the biological efficiency reached at 39.3%.Supplementary material at the rate of 5% was also added into the combination of cut oil palm frond and sawdust. The result showed that rice bran, corn meal or oil palm-kernel meal give yields between 142.2-165.0 g/bag (B.E. = 42.8-49.6, which were not statistically different. Oil palm pericarp waste was also used as main substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation. The average yield obtained during 40 days havesting period was 112.6 g/bag (B.E. = 64.3%. Addition of sawdust or rice bran into pericarp waste decreased the yield of the basidiocarps. Palm-kernel meal at the rate of 5-20% was used as a supplement material. Addition of 20% palmkernel meal into sawdust supported higher yield. The biological efficiency reached 55.8%. From the above results, four formulae of the substrate were prepared. Treatment of oil palm pericarp waste + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca(OH2 supported higher yield of the basidiocarps. The average yield obtained from 950 g of substrate was 190.2 g during 60 days havesting (B.E. = 57.2%. Using 6% palm-kernel substitute 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal supported the same yield (B.E. = 56.2% Using sawdust as the main substrate, the yield achieved was less than that obtained with oil palm pericarp waste. The average yield from treatment of sawdust + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 154.0 g/bag (B.E. = 46.3% while treatment of sawdust + 6% palm-kernel meal + 0

  6. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States. Appendix, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This volume contains appendices for the following: Overview of improved oil recovery methods (enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced secondary recovery methods); Benefits of improved oil recovery, selected data for the analyzed states; and List of TORIS fields and reservoirs.

  7. Tar mats and residual oil distribution in a giant oil field offshore Abu Dhabi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, Bernard [Institut Francais du Petrole and 4 Av. de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Arab, Hani [ZADCO P.O. Box 46808, Abu Dhabi(United Arab Emirates); Pluchery, Eric; Chautru, Jean-Marc [Beicip-Franlab 232, Av. Napoleon Bonaparte, BP 213, 92502 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France)

    2007-09-15

    This paper describes how geochemical data (Rock Eval analysis, SARA composition) combined with wireline log interpretation allows for the recognition of the distribution and continuity of bitumens in a main reservoir of an offshore giant field in Abu Dhabi. The integration of new geochemical data with data and field information provided by the oil company ZADCO allows for the recognition of two types of bitumen rich levels in the main reservoir of the field: (a) one corresponding to bitumen rich main reservoir intervals associated with high resistivity and high oil saturation, these intervals can be called 'tar mats', (b) the other corresponding to low oil saturated intervals, and can be classified as 'heavy residual oil'. In terms of lateral and vertical distribution, the tar mats are found at the crestal area of the Present-day structure and are located at the base of the reservoir unit above a tight limestone which plays a role of being a vertical permeability barrier. The tar mats seem to be independent of the Present-day OWC and are not related to biodegradation processes. The heavy residual oil is mainly located in the Northeast and the Southeast parts of the field and close to the OWC but it is also present all around the field except (1) in the west, in the area of the spill point and (2) in the Northwest area where direct contact between mobile oil and water is detected. Study of the structural evolution demonstrates that a tilting of the field began at Dammam age time (Eocene). The tilting of the structure led to a reduction of the structural closure in the West followed by the leakage of part of the originally trapped oil. Numerical modeling of such a geological scenario leads to a distribution of fluids (water, movable oil and residual oil) very close to the one observed at Present-day time in the field. This modeling allows a prediction of the extension and distribution of the residual heavy oil within the studied reservoir and can

  8. Steam foam studies in the presence of residual oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.A.; Demiral, B.; Castanier, L.M.

    1992-05-01

    The lack of understanding regarding foam flow in porous media necessitates further research. This paper reports on going work at Stanford University aimed at increasing our understanding in the particular area of steam foams. The behavior of steam foam is investigated with a one dimensional (6 ft. {times} 2.15 in.) sandpack under residual oil conditions of approximately 12 percent. The strength of the in-situ generated foam, indicated by pressure drops, is significantly affected by injection procedure, slug size, and steam quality. The surfactant concentration effect is minor in the range studied. In the presence of residual oil the simultaneous injection of steam and surfactant fails to generate foam in the model even though the same procedure generates a strong foam in the absence of oil. Nevertheless when surfactant is injected as a slug ahead of the steam using a surfactant alternating (SAG) procedure, foam is generated. The suggested reason for the success of SAG is the increased phase mixing that results from steam continually having to reestablish a path through a slug of surfactant solution.

  9. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Appendix. Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    Volume ten contains the following appendices: overview of improved oil recovery methods which covers enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced secondary recovery methods; the benefits of improved oil recovery, selected data for the analyzed states; and list of TORIS fields and reservoirs.

  10. Storage of Residual Fuel Oil in Underground Unlined Rock Caverns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Francaise des Petroles BP, Elf Union, Shell Francaise, and Compagnie Francaise de Raffinage (Total). The company and its subsidiaries were formed with...DEC 80 D C BANKS UNCLASSIFIED WES/NP/S4.-8O-19 ti. LE VEL MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-80-19 31 STORAGE OF RESIDUAL FUEL OIL IN UNDERGROUND UNLINED ROCK...Ruimaia.~ indl a riiirI( le ol Air in1 wi r’ hve en coIit’Icted to enc1ouraige muiliriershnpl I[I the i 5kRM. 1) By Innf t-Ii .fi’ I ’I.]%- I "W

  11. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  12. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana and Texas. Volume 3, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Louisiana and Texas. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS).

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-10

    The 100-D-9 site is the former location of an underground storage tank used for holding fuel for the 184-DA Boiler House. Results of soil-gas samples taken from six soil-gas probes in a rectangle around the site the tank had been removed from concluded that there were no volatile organic compounds at detectable levels in the area. The 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Well logging evaluation of water-flooded layers and distribution rule of remaining oil in marine sandstone reservoirs of the M oilfield in the Pearl River Mouth basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiongyan; Qin, Ruibao; Gao, Yunfeng; Fan, Hongjun

    2017-03-01

    In the marine sandstone reservoirs of the M oilfield the water cut is up to 98%, while the recovery factor is only 35%. Additionally, the distribution of the remaining oil is very scattered. In order to effectively assess the potential of the remaining oil, the logging evaluation of the water-flooded layers and the distribution rule of the remaining oil are studied. Based on the log response characteristics, the water-flooded layers can be qualitatively identified. On the basis of the mercury injection experimental data of the evaluation wells, the calculation model of the initial oil saturation is built. Based on conventional logging data, the evaluation model of oil saturation is established. The difference between the initial oil saturation and the residual oil saturation can be used to quantitatively evaluate the water-flooded layers. The evaluation result of the water-flooded layers is combined with the ratio of the water-flooded wells in the marine sandstone reservoirs. As a result, the degree of water flooding in the marine sandstone reservoirs can be assessed. On the basis of structural characteristics and sedimentary environments, the horizontal and vertical water-flooding rules of the different types of reservoirs are elaborated upon, and the distribution rule of the remaining oil is disclosed. The remaining oil is mainly distributed in the high parts of the structure. The remaining oil exists in the top of the reservoirs with good physical properties while the thickness of the remaining oil ranges from 2–5 m. However, the thickness of the remaining oil of the reservoirs with poor physical properties ranges from 5–8 m. The high production of some of the drilled horizontal wells shows that the above distribution rule of the remaining oil is accurate. In the marine sandstone reservoirs of the M oilfield, the research on the well logging evaluation of the water-flooded layers and the distribution rule of the remaining oil has great practical significance

  15. Will Forests Remain in the Face of Oil Palm Expansion? Simulating Change in Malinau, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Sandker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The severe tensions between conservation and development are illustrated by events in Malinau Dstrict (Kalimantan, Indonesia. Conservationists decry proposed plans for logging and conversion of pristine tropical forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis. Although the local government is willing to declare the district a "conservation district," at the same time, it shows interest in oil palm conversion. This article explores the impact of the potential conversion of 500 000 ha of forest to oil palm on forest cover, in-migration, and the local economy in Malinau. The simulation model was developed using STELLA® software, and relies on a combination of empirical data, data from the literature, and stakeholder perceptions. If a company were to clear the forest for timber without planting oil palm (as commonly happens, poverty levels are likely to rise rather than decline over the long term. If large-scale oil palm plantations were to be established, they could yield significant benefits to local authorities. However, such development would induce massive employment-driven migration, with wide-ranging consequences for the current inhabitants of the region. By visualizing and quantifying these trade-offs between conservation and development, the model stimulates debate and information exchange among conservationists, development actors, and district authorities so that well-informed choices can be made.

  16. Possibilities of the use of heating oil residues. Moeglichkeiten der Verwertung von Heizoelresten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froebel, J. (DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)); Kaiser, G. (DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany))

    1994-08-01

    An industrial-scale experiment is described in which residues of heating oil produced by brown coal liquefaction were added to raw brown coal and combusted in grate furnaces satisfactory results. The problem of heating oil residues has its origines in the energy policy of the former GDR; methods of disposal are therefore of interest especially in the new East German states. (orig.)

  17. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas` known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  18. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RyoheiTanaka; LehCheuPeng; WanRosliWanDaud

    2004-01-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world's largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country's economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10-15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia. Here we would like to introduce recent situation of palm oil and oil palm lignocellulosic residues at the first part of this paper. In the second part, our recent studies on the preparation of pulps for different purposes will be summarized.

  19. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN GREEK VIRGIN OLIVE OIL: LEVELS, DIETARY INTAKE AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoutsi, Charoula; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Hela, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the occurrence of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and metabolite residues was investigated in 167 samples of Greek virgin olive oil during a two-year (2004–2005) sampling campaign. A total of 30.5% of samples contained detectable residues while only one sample contained dimethoate residues higher than the maximum residue limits. Among the seven detected OPs, fenthion and fenthion sulfoxide residues were detected in 10.8% and 14.4% of the samples...

  20. Facilitating the enzymatic saccharification of pulped bamboo residues by degrading the remained xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Li, Xin; Min, Douyong; Yong, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    Kraft pulping was performed on bamboo residues and its impact on the chemical compositions and the enzymatic digestibility of the samples were investigated. To improve the digestibility of sample by degrading the xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes (LCCs), xylanase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) were supplemented with cellulase. The results showed more carbohydrates were remained in the samples pulped with low effective alkali (EA) charge, compared to conventional kraft pulping. When 120 IU/g xylanase and 15 IU/g AF were supplemented with 20 FPU/g cellulase, the xylan degradation yield of the sample pulped with 12% EA charge increased from 68.20% to 88.35%, resulting in an increased enzymatic saccharification efficiency from 58.98% to 83.23%. The amount of LCCs in this sample decreased from 8.63/100C9 to 2.99/100C9 after saccharification with these enzymes. The results indicated that degrading the remained xylan and LCCs in the pulp could improve its enzymatic digestibility.

  1. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Illinois: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Illinois. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Illinois oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Illinois and the nation as a whole.

  2. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Texas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Texas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Texas` known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Texas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Texas and the nation as a whole.

  3. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Peijun; Wilke, B M; Alef, Kassem

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soil properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soil, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth of A. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oil addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oil in the soils was proved by the soil organic carbon content.

  4. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were...... liquid organics yield. In addition, the chemical compositions of the bio-oils and the chars of the investigated feedstocks were also analyzed. The utilization of the pyrolysis oil in static combustion equipments such as boilers and turbine have shown that the suitability of the pyrolysis oil...... to substitute fossil fuel. However, several limitations still arise due to the instability of the pyrolysis oil that may cause problems with transport and storage. Pyrolysis oil contains more than hundred of chemical compounds and has a wide range of volatility (different boiling points). The stability...

  5. Study of Oil/Water Interfacial Tension of Vacuum Residual Fractions from Iranian Light Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭勃; 李明远; 赵锁奇; 吴肇亮; JohanSjoblom; HaraldHoiland

    2003-01-01

    The vacuum residual from Iranian Light crude oil are separated into a series of 16 narrow fractions according to the molecular weight by the supercritical fluid extraction and fractional (SFEF) technology. The chemical element and the UV spectrum of each fraction are analyzed. The effects of several factors on the interfacial tension are investigated, which are the fraction concentration in oil phase, the ratio of oil component, the salts dissolved in the water phase and the pH value. The interfacial tension decreases rapidly as the concentration of the residual fraction in the oil increases, showing a higher interfacial activity of the fraction. The interfacial tension changes, as the amount of absorption or the state of the fractions in the interface changes resulting from different ratios of oil, different kinds or concentrations of salts in water, and different pH values. It is concluded that the intrfacial tension changes regularly, corresponding to the regular molecular parameters of the vacuum residual fractions.

  6. NMR and Chemometric Characterization of Vacuum Residues and Vacuum Gas Oils from Crude Oils of Different Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Parlov Vuković

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available NMR spectroscopy in combination with statistical methods was used to study vacuum residues and vacuum gas oils from 32 crude oils of different origin. Two chemometric metodes were applied. Firstly, principal component analysis on complete spectra was used to perform classification of samples and clear distinction between vacuum residues and vacuum light and heavy gas oils were obtained. To quantitatively predict the composition of asphaltenes, principal component regression models using areas of resonance signals spaned by 11 frequency bins of the 1H NMR spectra were build. The first 5 principal components accounted for more than 94 % of variations in the input data set and coefficient of determination for correlation between measured and predicted values was R2 = 0.7421. Although this value is not significant, it shows the underlying linear dependence in the data. Pseudo two-dimensional DOSY NMR experiments were used to assess the composition and structural properties of asphaltenes in a selected crude oil and its vacuum residue on the basis of their different hydrodynamic behavior and translational diffusion coefficients. DOSY spectra showed the presence of several asphaltene aggregates differing in size and interactions they formed. The obtained results have shown that NMR techniques in combination with chemometrics are very useful to analyze vacuum residues and vacuum gas oils. Furthermore, we expect that our ongoing investigation of asphaltenes from crude oils of different origin will elucidate in more details composition, structure and properties of these complex molecular systems.

  7. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Zongqiang; LI Peijun; B.M.Wilke; Kassem Alef

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soft for a remediation purpose, with some of the oft remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soft was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soft properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soft, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth ofA. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oft addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oft in the soils was proved by the soft organic carbon content.

  8. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryohei Tanaka; Leh Cheu Peng; Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world′s largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country′s economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10~15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia.

  9. Residual oil aerosol measurements on refrigerators and liquefiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflueckhahn, D.; Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-01

    The purity of the process gas is essential for the reliability of refrigerators and liquefiers. Filtration and adsorption of impurities like water, nitrogen, and oil result in a major effort, cost, and maintenance in the helium process. Expensive impurity monitors for moisture, nitrogen, and hydrocarbon contents are required to identify filter failures and leakage immediately during the operation. While water and nitrogen contaminants can be detected reliably, the measurement of oil aerosols at the ppb-level is challenging. We present a novel diagnostic oil aerosol measurement system able to measure particles in the sub-μm range. This unit enabled us to evaluate and improve the oil separation system on a LINDE TCF 50 helium liquefier.

  10. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  11. Oil residue contamination of continental shelf sediments of the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, V; Camp, J; Morgan, L J; Gryko, J

    2016-12-15

    We have investigated the distribution of a heavy oil residue in the coastal sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. The amount of the contamination was determined by high-temperature pyrolysis coupled with the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) of air-dried sediments. The pyrolysis products contain straight-chain saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as dodecane and 1-dodecene, resulting in a very characteristic pattern of double peaks in the GCMS. Hydrocarbons containing 8 to 23 carbon atoms were detected in the pyrolysis products. Using thermal pyrolysis we have found that the sediment samples collected along Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi shores contain no detectable traces of oil residue, but most of the samples collected along Alabama and Florida shores contain ~200ppm of heavy oil residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MODEL FOR THE CORRECTION OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF BIODIESEL FROM RESIDUAL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aparecida Rosa da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a important fuel with economic benefits, social and environmental. The production cost of the biodiesel can be significantly lowered if the raw material is replaced by a alternative material as residual oil. In this study, the variation of specific gravity with temperature increase for diesel and biodiesel from residual oil obtained by homogeneous basic catalysis. All properties analyzed for biodiesel are within specification Brazil. The determination of the correction algorithm for the specific gravity function of temperature is also presented, and the slope of the line to diesel fuel, methylic biodiesel (BMR and ethylic biodiesel (BER from residual oil were respectively the values -0.7089, -0.7290 and -0.7277. This demonstrates the existence of difference of the model when compared chemically different fuels, like diesel and biodiesel from different sources, indicating the importance of determining the specific algorithm for the operations of conversion of volume to the reference temperature.

  13. Effect of residual oil saturation on hydrodynamic properties of porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zheng, Xilai; Chen, Lei; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-07-01

    To understand the effect of residual oil on hydraulic properties and solute dispersive behavior of porous media, miscible displacement column experiments were conducted using two petroleum products (diesel and engine oil) and a sandy soil. The effective water permeability, effective water-filled porosity, and dispersivity were investigated in two-fluid systems of water and oil as a function of residual oil saturation (ROS). At the end of each experiment, the distribution of ending ROS along the sand column was determined by the method of petroleum ether extraction-ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Darcy’s Law was used to determine permeability, while breakthrough curves (BTCs) of a tracer, Cl-, were used to calibrate effective porosity and dispersivity. The experimental results indicate that the maximum saturated zone residual saturation of diesel and engine oil in this study are 16.0% and 45.7%, respectively. Cl- is found to have no sorption on the solid matrix. Generated BTCs are sigmoid in shape with no evidence of tailing. The effective porosity of sand is inversely proportional to ROS. For the same level of ROS, the magnitude of reduction in effective porosity by diesel is close to that by engine oil. The relative permeability of sand to water saturation decreases with increasing amount of trapped oil, and the slope of the relative permeability-saturation curve for water is larger at higher water saturations, indicating that oil first occupies larger pores, which have the most contribution to the conductivity of the water. In addition, the reduction rate of relative permeability by diesel is greater than that by engine oil. The dispersivity increases with increasing ROS, suggesting that the blockage of pore spaces by immobile oil globules may enhance local velocity variations and increase the tortuosity of aqueous-phase flow paths.

  14. Catalyst systems in the production of biodiesel from residual oil; Sistemas cataliticos na producao de biodiesel por meio de oleo residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Carlos Alexandre de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The vegetable oils and fat animals appear like an alternative for substitution the diesel oil in ignition engines for compression. Submitting the oil on transesterification reaction, we obtain a fuel with same characteristics as diesel, called biodiesel. Generally, 85 per cent of biodiesel cost is from the oil production. Through transesterification vegetable oil can be transformed in a mixture of esters of fatty acids. The residual oil from frying has been used as a possibility of raw materials of biodiesel, due to its easy acquisition and the viability of not being discarded as waste. (author)

  15. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohy, M. Z.; Badr, E. H.; Perifanova-Nemska, M.; Khadjiski, T. S.

    1993-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5) 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S), temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed t...

  16. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5) 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S), temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed t...

  17. Nutrient intake and digestibility of the lipid residue of biodiesel from palm oil in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina Barra Raiol

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of lipid residue of biodiesel originated in the processing of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in the diet on the digestibility of feedlot lambs. Twenty-five crossbred male castrated lambs, weighing 20±1.61 kg, were distributed in randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The experimental period lasted 22 days; 15 for diet adaptation, 2 for the adaptation to the indicator LIPE (lignin from Eucalyptus grandis isolated, purified and enriched, UFMG, Minas Gerais and 5 for fecal sampling. Diets were formulated with 64% concentrate based on corn and soybean meal, 31% Massai grass (Panicum maximum cv. Massai hay and 5% lipid supplementation from increasing levels of substitution of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of palm oil for biodiesel oil from palm residue. The lambs were offered two meals a day, at 7h00 and 16h00. There was linear effect of inclusion of the residue from palm oil biodiesel on dry matter intake. There was no change in digestibility of nutrients except for ether extract. The use of biodiesel from palm oil residue up to 100% replacement for the lipid supplementation of sheep positively influences the consumption without altering the digestibility of nutrients.

  18. Economics of industrial cogeneration with a residual-oil-fired low-speed diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Belak, F.J.; Bernard, M.J.; Stodolsky, F.; Suchy, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    The only residual-oil-fired low speed diesel cogeneration facility in the US has been in operation for a year at the Hoffman-LaRoche Vitamin C plant in Belvidere, NJ. Operating data for this grid-connected 23 MW facility are used to construct a generic evaluation of the economic desirability of such systems for industrial electric/thermal applications and industrial-thermal/commercial-electrical applications made possible by recent US legislation (PURPA). The post 1980 changes in relative electrical and residual oil prices are shown to have made oil fired on-site generation more attractive. The likely 1985-2005 movements of electricity and residual oil prices are discussed, along with risks of error in projections. The system is evaluated as a whole and on an incremental basis. Incremental analysis includes (1) the economics of steam and hot water use given the diesel and (2) the economics of system generation given industrial electric, steam and hot water loads. The sensitivity of the economics of the system to the full range of US electricity and residual oil prices is estimated. The effect of variation in system loads is examined. The economic desirability of the system is often great but is also highly variable geographically, largely as a function of local evaded electricity charges.

  19. Remaining oil distribution in Ng33 bottom water reservoir of Lin 2-6 fault-block in Huimin depression and potential tapping in horizontal well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Zuo-zhen; YANG Ren-chao; FAN Ai-ping; CHEN Qing-chun; SHAO Yun-tang

    2009-01-01

    Oil reservoirs with secondary bottom water in Ng33 members (in Guantao formation, Paleogene system) of Lin2-6 fault block in Huimin depression (Bohai Bay Basin) have entered the late stage of ultra-high water-containing-exploitation. Oil exploita-tion from vertical wells is becoming more and more inefficient. The reservoir type, with water displacing oil and the remaining oil distribution are specifically studied in order to improve the efficiency of the recovery ratio. An integrated scheme for adjusting horizontal wells has been designed and the key technique of the scheme optimized. The study shows that: 1) the positive rhythm of fluvial depositional features is the internal cause of the flooding of oil reservoirs while water injection, injection-production patterns and accumulative petroleum production are the external causes; 2) oil-water driving patterns have transferred from edge water ad-vancing to bottom-water-coning; distribution of the remaining oil mainly concentrates in the upper rhythm and top of the middle rhythm in Ng33 members; 3) a great deal of remaining oil is enriched in high positions of faults, in axes of tiny structures, in stagna-tion areas among water-injection wells and oil-wells and in tectonic saddle areas with sparse wells. Compared with vertical wells, horizontal wells have advantages such as high recovery, high off-take potential, high critical output, large controlling areas and long time of bottom-water breakthrough.

  20. Risk of weathered residual Exxon Valdez oil to pink salmon embryos in Prince William Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Ernest L; Collins, Keya M; Cronin, Mathew A; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R; Wilson, William

    2007-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that pink salmon eggs incubating in intertidal streams transecting Prince William Sound (PWS) beaches oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill were exposed to lethal doses of dissolved hydrocarbons. Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in the incubation gravel were too low to cause mortality, the allegation is that dissolved high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (HPAH) leaching from oil deposits on the beach adjacent to the streams were the source of toxicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we placed pink salmon eggs in PWS beach sediments containing residual oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and in control areas without oil. We quantified the hydrocarbon concentrations in the eggs after three weeks of incubation. Tissue PAH concentrations of eggs in oiled sediments were generally < 100 ppb and similar to background levels on nonoiled beaches. Even eggs in direct contact with oil in the sediment resulted in tissue PAH loads well below the lethal threshold concentrations established in laboratory bioassays, and very low concentrations of HPAH compounds were present. These results indicate that petroleum hydrocarbons dissolved from oil deposits on intertidal beaches are not at concentrations that pose toxic risk to incubating pink salmon eggs. The evidence does not support the hypothesis that interstitial pore water in previously oiled beaches is highly toxic.

  1. LCA METHODS TO COMPARE TREATMENT OPTIONS ON BIOMASS RESIDUES PRODUCED IN A PALM-OIL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Bessou, Cécile; Heijungs, Reinout; de Snoo, Geert

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Palm oil systems generate large amounts of biomass residues. According to best agri-cultural practices, they are supposed to be returned back to plantation to maintain soil fertility. However, there are variations in practice. Differences in economic status and treatment options on biomass residues cause variations on the preference to perform LCA, leading to divergence in results that complicate interpretation. Difficulties found in comparing LCA results based on lite...

  2. Residual oil monitoring in pressurised air with SnO2-based gas sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Papamichail, Nikos

    2004-01-01

    The doctoral thesis at hand describes the investigations undertaken in order to develop a newly invented procedure for the monitoring of residual oil in pressurised air. The problem of this application lies on the one hand in the state of aggregation of the oil, most of it is liquid and forms aerosols, and on the other hand in the general challenge to measure a small concentration in a changing matrix by means of unspecific sensors. The oil origins from the compressors, which typically us...

  3. Experimental investigation of wettability alteration on residual oil saturation using nonionic surfactants: Capillary pressure measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Amirpour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the novel technique for enhancing oil recovery from available petroleum reservoirs is one of the important issues in future energy demands. Among of all operative factors, wettability may be the foremost parameter affecting residual oil saturation in all stage of oil recovery. Although wettability alteration is one of the methods which enhance oil recovery from the petroleum reservoir. Recently, the studies which focused on this subject were more than the past and many contributions have been made on this area. The main objective of the current study is experimentally investigation of the two nonionic surfactants effects on altering wettability of reservoir rocks. Purpose of this work is to change the wettability to preferentially the water-wet condition. Also reducing the residual oil saturation (Sor is the other purpose of this work. The wettability alteration of reservoir rock is measured by two main quantitative methods namely contact angle and the USBM methods. Results of this study showed that surfactant flooding is more effective in oil-wet rocks to change their wettability and consequently reducing Sor to a low value. Cedar (Zizyphus Spina Christi is low priced, absolutely natural, and abundantly accessible in the Middle East and Central Asia. Based on the results, this material can be used as a chemical surfactant in field for enhancing oil recovery.

  4. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bi-modal particulate size distribution (PSD) with...

  5. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    The increase in the demand of renewable energy such as biomass is significantly growing worldwide [1] [2]. Biomass is used in various forms and as fuel for energy utilisation. Generally ... Pellets were produced from oil palm residues i.e. Palm.

  6. Study on Residual Oil HDS Process with Mechanism Model and ANN Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chengguo; Weng Huixin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Residual Oil Hydrodesulfurization Treatment Unit (S-RHT), the n-order reaction kinetic model for residual oil HDS reactions and artificial neural network (ANN) model were developed to determine the sulfur content of hydrogenated residual oil. The established ANN model covered 4 input variables, 1 output variable and 1 hidden layer with 15 neurons. The comparison between the results of two models was listed. The results showed that the predicted mean relative errors of the two models with three different sample data were less than 5% and both the two models had good predictive precision and extrapolative feature for the HDS process. The mean relative error of 5 sets of testing data of the ANN model was 1.62%-3.23%, all of which were smaller than that of the common mechanism model (3.47%-4.13%). It showed that the ANN model was better than the mechanism model both in terms of fitting results and fitting difficulty. The models could be easily applied in practice and could also provide a reference for the further research of residual oil HDS process.

  7. Residual frying oil in the diets of sheep: intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lucas Terra Peixoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal ammonia nitrogen in lambs of diets containing different levels of residual frying oil. Methods Levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg dry matter (DM base of residual frying oil in the diets of lambs were evaluated. Five castrated lambs with initial body weights of 36.8±3.3 kg, distributed in a Latin square (5×5 design, were used. Results There was a decreasing linear effect on the intake of DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TCH, and nonfibrous carbohydrates (NFC. There was an increased linear intake of ether extract (EE. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, TCH, and NFC, as well as urine nitrogen excretion, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters, were not influenced by different levels of residual frying oil in the diet. EE digestibility presented a crescent linear effect. Conclusion It can be concluded that the addition of residual frying oil to the diets of sheep can affect nutrient intake without affecting the digestibility of most nutrients (with the exception of EE, nitrogen balance and ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration.

  8. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  9. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill: residual crude-derived hydrocarbons and potential AhR-mediated activities in coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Jinsoon; Song, Sung Joon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Choi, Kyungho; Ji, Kyunghee; Seo, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Lee, Woojin; Choi, Yeyong; Lee, Kyu Tae; Kim, Chan-Kook; Shim, Won Joon; Naile, Jonathan E; Giesy, John P

    2012-02-07

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred in December 2007 approximately 10 km off the coast of Taean, South Korea, on the Yellow Sea. However, the exposure and potential effects remain largely unknown. A total of 50 surface and subsurface sediment samples were collected from 22 sampling locations at the spill site in order to determine the concentration, distribution, composition of residual crudes, and to evaluate the potential ecological risk after two years of oil exposure. Samples were extracted and analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 alkyl-PAHs, 15 aliphatic hydrocarbons, and total petroleum hydrocarbons using GC-MSD. AhR-mediated activity associated with organic sediment extracts was screened using the H4IIE-luc cell bioassay. The response of the benthic invertebrate community was assessed by mapping the macrobenthic fauna. Elevated concentrations of residual crudes from the oil spill were primarily found in muddy bottoms, particularly in subsurface layers. In general, the bioassay results were consistent with the chemistry data in a dose-dependent manner, although the mass-balance was incomplete. More weathered samples containing greater fractions of alkylated PAHs exhibited greater AhR activity, due to the occurrence of recalcitrant AhR agonists present in residual oils. The macrobenthic population distribution exhibits signs of species-specific tolerances and/or recolonization of certain species such as Batillaria during weathering periods. Although the Hebei Spirit oil spill was a severe oil exposure, it appears the site is recovering two years later.

  11. Strength Properties of Bio-composite Lumbers from Lignocelluloses of Oil Palm Fronds Agricultural Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sukhairi Mat Rasat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and strength properties of bio-composite lumbers from agricultural residues of oil palm fronds were studied. Resins of phenol formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde were used as the binders. The oil palm fronds were obtained from an oil palm plantation in Kota Belud, Sabah. The fronds were segregated into three (3 groups of matured, intermediate and young of oil palm fronds. The leaflets and the epidermis were removed from the fronds before they were sliced longitudinally into thin layers. The layers were then compressed into uniform thickness of 2 - 3 mm. The layers were air-dried and later mixed with resins using 12-15% of phenol and urea formaldehyde and recompressed with other layers forming the bio-composite lumbers. The bio-composite lumbers were then tested for their physical and strength properties. Testing was conducted in accordance to the International Organization for standardization (ISO standard. The result on the physical and strength properties shows that the oil palm fronds bio-composite lumbers to be at par with solid rubberwood. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences between bio-composite lumbers made from each groups and portion, but no differences were observed in the type of resin used. The bio-composite lumbers from oil palm fronds agricultural residues has potential to be used as an alternative to wood to overcome the shortage in materials in the wood industry.

  12. Displacement of polymer solution on residual oil trapped in dead ends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立娟; 岳湘安

    2008-01-01

    For waterflooding reservoir,oil trapped in pore’s dead ends is hardly flushed out,and usually becomes one typical type of residual oil.The microscopic displacement characteristics of polymer solution with varied viscoelastic property were studied by numerical and experimental method.According to main pore structure characteristics and rheological property of polymer solution through porous media,displacement models for residual oil trapped in dead ends were proposed,and upper-convected Maxwell rheological model was used as polymer solution’s constitutive equation.The flow and stress field was given and displacement characteristic was quantified by introducing a parameter of micro swept coefficient.The calculated and experimental results show that micro swept coefficient rises with the increase of viscoelasticity;for greater viscoelasticity of polymer solution,vortices in the dead end have greater swept volume and displacing force on oil,and consequently entraining the swept oil in time.In addition,micro swept coefficient in dead end is function of the inclination angle(θ) between pore and dead end.The smaller of θ and 180-θ,the flow field of viscoelastic fluid is developed in dead ends more deeply,resulting in more contact with oil and larger swept coefficient.

  13. Study of weathering effects on the distribution of aromatic steroid hydrocarbons in crude oils and oil residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu; Guo, Ping; Zhao, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    The composition and distribution of triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons in oil residues after biodegradation and photo-oxidation processes were detected, and the diagnostic ratios for oil spill identification were developed and evaluated based on the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the repeatability limit. The preferential loss of C27 methyl triaromatic steranes (MTAS) relative to C28 MTAS and C29 MTAS was shown during the photo-oxidation process. In contrast to the photochemical degradation, the MTAS with the original 20R biological configuration was preferentially degraded during the biodegradation process. The RSD of most of the diagnostic ratios of MTAS ranged from 9 to 84% during the photo-oxidation process. However, the RSDs of such ratios derived from MTAS were all hydrocarbons retained their molecular compositions after biodegradation and photo-oxidation and most of the diagnostic ratios derived from them could be efficiently used in oil spill identification.

  14. Prediction of long and short residue properties of crude oils from their infrared and near-infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Peinder, P.; Petrauskas, D.D.; Singelenberg, F.; Salvatori, F.; Visser, T.; Soulimani, F.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Research has been carried out to determine the feasibility of chemometric modeling of infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra of crude oils to predict the long residue (LR) and short residue (SR) properties of these samples. A novel method is described to predict short residue properties at di

  15. Asphalts tests using onshore drilling oil wells residues; Ensaios asfalticos utilizando residuos de perfuracao onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Adriano Elisio de F.L.; Rodrigues, John Kennedy G.; Ferreira, Heber Carlos; Lucena, Leda Christiane de F.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Lucena, Luciana de F.L. [Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais Aplicada (FACISA), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The drilling cuttings are one of the residues produced by the oils industries in large amounts during the drilling of oil wells. An alternative of final disposal of the drilling cutting residue is its utilization in asphalt mixtures. Based on this alternative, it was realized chemical and granulometric analysis and tests (Marshall and indirect tensile strength), on the asphaltic mixture using the residue from the oil drilling wells (well: 1-POTI-4-RN, located at Governador DIX-Sept Rosado - RN - Brazil). The achieved results to Marshall test indicated that for the analyzed mixture, the ideal content of residue that can be incorporated to the asphaltic composition and attend at the DNIT-ES 31 (2006) is 5%. To the indirect tensile strength test, the results showed a strength value higher than the minimum limit requested by the DNIT (0,65 MPa). The achieved results indicated the possibility of the utilization of the drilling cuttings in asphaltic pavements as fine aggregate, obeying the percentage limits, as an alternative to the final disposal. (author)

  16. Characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geum-Ju; Seo, Yong-Chil; Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, In-Tae

    2010-07-01

    An attempt has been made to recover high-calorific fuel gas and useful carbonaceous residue by the electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil. The characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil were investigated in this study. The produced gas was mainly composed of hydrogen (35-40%), acetylene (13-20%), ethylene (3-4%) and other hydrocarbons, whereas the concentration of CO was very low. Calorific values of gas ranged from 11,000 to 13,000 kcal kg(-1) and the concentrations of toxic gases, such as NO(x), HCl and HF, were below the regulatory emissions limit. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of liquid-phase residues showed that high molecular-weight hydrocarbons in waste lubricating oil were pyrolyzed into low molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Dehydrogenation was found to be the main pyrolysis mechanism due to the high reaction temperature induced by electric arc. The average particle size of soot as carbonaceous residue was about 10 microm. The carbon content and heavy metals in soot were above 60% and below 0.01 ppm, respectively. The utilization of soot as industrial material resources such as carbon black seems to be feasible after refining and grinding.

  17. Preparation of Three-Dimensional Chitosan-Graphene Oxide Aerogel for Residue Oil Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Qu, Lijun; Zhu, Shifeng; Tian, Mingwei; Zhang, Xiansheng; Sun, Kaikai; Tang, Xiaoning

    2016-08-01

    Graphene oxide has been used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. However, the hydrophily and dispersibility in aqueous solution limit its practical application in environmental protection. In this paper, a novel, environmentally friendly adsorbent, chitosan and chitosan-graphene oxide aerogels with a diverse shape, large specific surface area, and unique porous structure were prepared by a freeze-drying method. The structure of the adsorbents was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD); the specific surface area and swelling capability were also characterized. In addition, removal of diesel oil from seawater by chitosan aerogel (CSAG) and chitosan-graphene oxide aerogel (AGGO-1 and AGGO-2) was studied and batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of different adsorbent dosages (0-6 g), contact time (0-120 minutes), pH (3-9), and initial concentrations of oil residue (3-30 g/L) to determine the optimum condition for the adsorption of residue oil from seawater. The results showed that the chitosan-graphene oxide aerogels were more effective to remove diesel oil from seawater compared with pure chitosan aerogel. A removal efficiency ≥ 95% of the chitosan-graphene oxide aerogels could be achieved easily at the initial concentrations of 20 g/L, which indicated that the chitosan-graphene oxide aerogels can be used to treat the industrial oil leakage or effluent in the natural water.

  18. Ecological effects of crude oil residues on the functional diversity of soil microorganisms in three weed rhizospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian-ru; ZHOU Qi-xing; REN Li-ping; ZHU Yong-guan; SUN Shu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Ecological effects of crude oil residues on weed rhizospheres are still vague. The quantitative and diversity changes and metabolic responses of soil-bacterial communities in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), jemsalem artichoke (Silphium perfoliatum L.) and evening primrose (A calypha australis L.) rhizospheric soils were thus examined using the method of carbon source utilization. The results indicated that there were various toxic effects of crude oil residues on the growth and reproduction of soil bacteria, but the weed rhizospheres could mitigate the toxic effects. Total heterotrophic counting colony-forming units (CFUs) in the rhizospheric soils were significantly higher than those in the non-rhizospheric soils. The culturable soil-bacterial CFUs in the jerusalem artichoke (S. perfoltatum) rhizosphere polluted with 0.50 kg/pot of crude oil residues were almost twice as much as those with 0.25 kg/pot and without the addition of crude oil residues. The addition of crude oil residues increased the difference in substrate evenness, substrate richness, and substrate diversity between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of T. officinale and A. australis,but there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the Shannon's diversity index between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of S.perfoliatum. The rhizospheric response of weed species to crude oil residues suggested that S. perfoliatum may be a potential weed species for the effective plant-microorganism bioremediation of contaminated soils by crude oil residues.

  19. Ecological effects of crude oil residues on the functional diversity of soil microorganisms in three weed rhizospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-ru; Zhou, Qi-xing; Ren, Li-ping; Zhu, Yong-guan; Sun, Shu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Ecological effects of crude oil residues on weed rhizospheres are still vague. The quantitative and diversity changes and metabolic responses of soil-bacterial communities in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), jerusalem artichoke (Silphium perfoliatum L.) and evening primrose (Acalypha australis L.) rhizospheric soils were thus examined using the method of carbon source utilization. The results indicated that there were various toxic effects of crude oil residues on the growth and reproduction of soil bacteria, but the weed rhizospheres could mitigate the toxic effects. Total heterotrophic counting colony-forming units (CFUs) in the rhizospheric soils were significantly higher than those in the non-rhizospheric soils. The culturable soil-bacterial CFUs in the jerusalem artichoke (S. perfoliatum) rhizosphere polluted with 0.50 kg/pot of crude oil residues were almost twice as much as those with 0.25 kg/pot and without the addition of crude oil residues. The addition of crude oil residues increased the difference in substrate evenness, substrate richness, and substrate diversity between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of T. officinale and A. australis, but there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the Shannon's diversity index between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of S. perfoliatum. The rhizospheric response of weed species to crude oil residues suggested that S. perfoliatum may be a potential weed species for the effective plant-microorganism bioremediation of contaminated soils by crude oil residues.

  20. Study of oil and residual fractions in products of thermal destruction of bitumen beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diskina, D.Ye.; Kadyrov, M.U.; Shabalina, T.N.; Soldatova, V.G.; Tokareva, R.V.; Tyshchenko, N.Ye.; Usacheva, G.M.; Vigdergauz, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation of average and heavy fractions derived from thermodestruction products in the bitumen bed at Mordovo-Karmal in Tatariya. Composition of average fractions is characterized by presence of unsaturated and a certain volume of oxygen-containing compounds, as well as high content of S and a low congelation temp. With respect to content of aromatic compounds, these fractions are similar to fractions of sulphurous oils. Residual fractions (..-->..350/sup 0/) were studied by conversion chromatography; these have low values of viscosity, density, content of S (in comparison with the same fractions of Mordovo-Karmal oil). Examines potential directions for utilizing these fractions.

  1. Influence of Oil Contamination on Geotechnical Properties of Basaltic Residual Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfahmi A. Rahman

    2010-01-01

    Cu values for uncontaminated soils of both grades were 126 and 106 kPa and then dropped to very close values of 35 and 32 kPa at oil content of 16%. Conclusion: The results showed that the addition of oil has adverse effects to the geotechnical properties of the studied residual soil. Contaminated residual soils might be used for geotechnical purposes and these results will benefit to engineers or decision makers in recycling or re-using of contaminated soils.

  2. Residual and ovicidal efficacy of essential oil-based formulations in vitro against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, B; Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils have shown good experimental potential as novel veterinary ectoparasiticides. However, if they are to be used as veterinary products, they must be available in formulations that are suitable for practical application against specific ectoparasites. Here, the efficacies of formulations containing 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oil, in combination with two emulsifiers [a surfactant, 5% (w/v) N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt (SLS), and a soluble polymer, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)], with or without 10% coconut oil, were tested in contact bioassays against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Residual activity was quantified in open and closed containers; ovicidal efficacy was also examined. Exposure to either of 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oils with SLS or PVP resulted in louse mortality of 100%, but when coconut oil was included as an excipient, significantly lower efficacy was recorded. However, the formulations became significantly less effective after 2 h in open containers and 40 h in closed containers. The results confirm that the residual activity of essential oils is relatively transitory and the addition of 10% coconut oil does not prolong the period of insecticidal activity by slowing essential oil evaporation. Too short a period of residual activity is likely to be a significant impediment to the effective practical use of essential oils. However, unlike many synthetic pediculicides, the essential oils tested here were highly ovicidal, which suggests that prolonged residual activity may not be essential to kill newly hatched nymphs after treatment.

  3. Pesticide and plasticizer residues in bergamot essential oils from Calabria (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Saitta, Marcello; La Pera, Lara; Alfa, Maria; Dugo, Giacomo

    2004-08-01

    Organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides, phosphorated plasticizers, chloroparaffins and phthalate esters contamination in bergamot essential oils produced in Calabria in the crop years 1999-2000 was studied by HRGC in connection with detectors FPD, ECD, MS. Residues of dicofol and tetradifon were found in oils from both crop years. The mean dicofol concentration was 0.26 mg/l in samples from 1999 and 0.20 mg/l in those from 2000; the mean tetradifon content was 0.06 mg/l for both the crop years. Among plasticizers, residues of diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were found in samples from crop years 1999 and 2000, the mean content were 1.22 and 1.23 mg/l, 1.51 and 1.65 mg/l, 1.38 and 1.42 mg/l respectively.

  4. A tale of two recent spills--comparison of 2014 Galveston Bay and 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fang; Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Managing oil spill residues washing onto sandy beaches is a common worldwide environmental problem. In this study, we have analyzed the first-arrival oil spill residues collected from two Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beach systems following two recent oil spills: the 2014 Galveston Bay (GB) oil spill, and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. This is the first study to provide field observations and chemical characterization data for the 2014 GB oil spill. Here we compare the physical and chemical characteristics of GB oil spill samples with DWH oil spill samples and present their similarities and differences. Our field observations indicate that both oil spills had similar shoreline deposition patterns; however, their physical and chemical characteristics differed considerably. We highlight these differences, discuss their implications, and interpret GB data in light of lessons learned from previously published DWH oil spill studies. These analyses are further used to assess the long-term fate of GB oil spill residues and their potential environmental impacts.

  5. A tale of two recent spills--comparison of 2014 Galveston Bay and 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yin

    Full Text Available Managing oil spill residues washing onto sandy beaches is a common worldwide environmental problem. In this study, we have analyzed the first-arrival oil spill residues collected from two Gulf of Mexico (GOM beach systems following two recent oil spills: the 2014 Galveston Bay (GB oil spill, and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill. This is the first study to provide field observations and chemical characterization data for the 2014 GB oil spill. Here we compare the physical and chemical characteristics of GB oil spill samples with DWH oil spill samples and present their similarities and differences. Our field observations indicate that both oil spills had similar shoreline deposition patterns; however, their physical and chemical characteristics differed considerably. We highlight these differences, discuss their implications, and interpret GB data in light of lessons learned from previously published DWH oil spill studies. These analyses are further used to assess the long-term fate of GB oil spill residues and their potential environmental impacts.

  6. Degradability of n-alkanes during ex situ natural bioremediation of soil contaminated by heavy residual fuel oil (mazut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramadan Mohamed Muftah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that during biodegradation of oil in natural geological conditions, or oil pollutants in the environment, a degradation of hydrocarbons occurs according to the well defined sequence. For example, the major changes during the degradation process of n-alkanes occur in the second, slight and third, moderate level (on the biodegradation scale from 1 to 10. According to previous research, in the fourth, heavy level, when intensive changes of phenanthrene and its methyl isomers begin, n-alkanes have already been completely removed. In this paper, the ex situ natural bioremediation (unstimulated bioremediation, without addition of biomass, nutrient substances and biosurfactant of soil contaminated with heavy residual fuel oil (mazut was conducted during the period of 6 months. Low abundance of n-alkanes in the fraction of total saturated hydrocarbons in the initial sample (identification was possible only after concentration by urea adduction technique showed that the investigated oil pollutant was at the boundary between the third and the fourth biodegradation level. During the experiment, an intense degradation of phenanthrene and its methyl-, dimethyl-and trimethyl-isomers was not followed by the removal of the remaining n-alkanes. The abundance of n-alkanes remained at the initial low level, even at end of the experiment when the pollutant reached one of the highest biodegradation levels. These results showed that the unstimulated biodegradation of some hydrocarbons, despite of their high biodegradability, do not proceed completely to the end, even at final degradation stages. In the condition of the reduced availability of some hydrocarbons, microorganisms tend to opt for less biodegradable but more accessible hydrocarbons.

  7. Catalytic gasification of oil-extracted residue biomass of Botryococcus braunii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Li, Dalin; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi; Watanabe, Makoto M

    2015-09-01

    Catalytic gasification of the oil-extracted residue biomass of Botryococcus braunii was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale continuous feeding dual bed reactor. Steam gasification at 1023 K over Ni-Fe/Mg/Al catalyst can completely reform tar derived from pyrolysis of the residue biomass into C1 gases and hydrogen, and has achieved 91%-C conversion to gaseous product (CO+CO2+CH4). Composition of product gas has higher contents of CO and H2 with their ratio (H2/CO) of around 2.4 which is slightly H2-rich syngas. Maximum hydrogen yield of 74.7 mmol g-biomass(-1) obtained in this work is much higher than that from gasification of other algal biomass reported in literature. The residue biomass of B. braunii can be a superior renewable source of syngas or hydrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Remaining Oil Saturation Logging Instrument and Its Progress%油田剩余油饱和度测试仪器及其进展∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 张乃禄; 仵杰; 杨妮

    2015-01-01

    With the development of oilfield,remaining oil saturation logging technology is getting more and more attention. This paper focus on remaining oil saturation logging instruments,covering measurement principles,characteristics and applicability. Through the analysis of these instruments,this article gives a comprehensive summary of present situation and discussed some new instruments. At the same time,in-strument selection demand combined with the requirements of oil field geological characteristics and further development were discussed. And also the development trend of remaining oil saturation logging instrument is elaborated.%随着油田开发的不断深入,剩余油饱和度测试越来越受到重视。文章通过分析剩余油饱和度测试仪器的测量原理、方法特点及其适用性,总结了目前应用较为广泛的剩余油饱和度测试仪器及结合油田地质特点和深度开发的要求进行测试仪器选择,讨论了剩余油饱和度测试仪器的新进展,并阐述其发展趋势。

  9. Upgraded bio-oil production via catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of waste cooking oil and tea residual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Zhong, Zhaoping; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Kuan; Xue, Zeyu; Deng, Aidong; Ruan, Roger

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis (co-CFP) offers a concise and effective process to achieve an upgraded bio-oil production. In this paper, co-CFP experiments of waste cooking oil (WCO) and tea residual (TR) with HZSM-5 zeolites were carried out. The influences of pyrolysis reaction temperature and H/C ratio on pyrolytic products distribution and selectivities of aromatics were performed. Furthermore, the prevailing synergetic effect of target products during co-CFP process was investigated. Experimental results indicated that H/C ratio played a pivotal role in carbon yields of aromatics and olefins, and with H/C ratio increasing, the synergetic coefficient tended to increase, thus led to a dramatic growth of aromatics and olefins yields. Besides, the pyrolysis temperature made a significant contribution to carbon yields, and the yields of aromatics and olefins increased at first and then decreased at the researched temperature region. Note that 600°C was an optimum temperature as the maximum yields of aromatics and olefins could be achieved. Concerning the transportation fuel dependence and security on fossil fuels, co-CFP of WCO and TR provides a novel way to improve the quality and quantity of pyrolysis bio-oil, and thus contributes bioenergy accepted as a cost-competitive and promising alternative energy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biohydrogen production from forest and agricultural residues for upgrading of bitumen from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Susanjib; Kumar, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    In this study, forest residues (limbs, tops, and branches) and straw (from wheat and barley) are considered for producing biohydrogen in Western Canada for upgrading of bitumen from oil sands. Two types of gasifiers, namely, the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) gasifier are considered for biohydrogen production. Production costs of biohydrogen from forest and agricultural residues from a BCL gasification plant with a capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day are 1.17 and 1.29/kg of H{sub 2}, respectively. For large-scale biohydrogen plant, GTI gasification is the optimum technology. The delivered-biohydrogen costs are 2.19 and 2.31/kg of H{sub 2} at a plant capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day from forest and agricultural residues, respectively. Optimum capacity for biohydrogen plant is 3000 dry tonnes/day for both residues in a BCL gasifier. In a GTI gasifier, although the theoretical optimum sizes are higher than 3000 dry tonnes/day for both feedstocks, the cost of production of biohydrogen is flat above a plant size of 3000 dry tonnes/day. Hence, a plant at the size of 3000 dry tonnes/day could be built to minimize risk. Carbon credits of 119 and 124/tonne of CO{sub 2} equivalent are required for biohydrogen from forest and agricultural residues, respectively. (author)

  11. Physico-chemical Characteristics of Oil and Seed Residues of Bauhinia variegata and Bauhinia linnaei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfraz Arain

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical characteristics of two Bauhinia seed varieties (B. variegata and B. linnaei, were evaluated for commercial exploration. Physico-chemical characteristics of the oils for both varieties were demonstrated and mean values found to be refractive index (40 °C 1.4589 and 1.4588, peroxide value 1.9 and 2.4 (meq O2 / kg of oil, iodine value 84.5 and 92.2 (g of I2/100g of oil, saponification number 191.3 and 195.5 (mg of KOH /g of oil, free fatty acids 0.6% and 0.9%, unsaponifiable matter 0.9% and 1.2% and color (1 in. cell, 2.2-2.9R + 30.0-25.0Y, respectively. Linoleic 42.1 and 45.8 %, oleic 13.4 and 12.6%, stearic 17.5 and 18.8% and palmitic 22.1 and 16.8% were the main fatty acids in the crude seed oils. Minor amounts of palmitoleic, margaric, linolenic, arachidic, behenic, eicosapentaenoic and nervonic acid were also identified. The composition of defatted seed residue of B. variegata and B. linnaei were found as: protein 41.9% and 38.6%, oil 18.0%, and 17.4% ash 4.8% and 4.2%, moisture 6.7% and 6.3%, fiber 6.9% and 7.3% and total carbohydrate 28.4% and 33.8%, respectively. Proximate and fatty acid composition of both Bauhinia varieties were found to be almost similar. It was concluded that Bauhinia seed is a rich source of linoleic acid and could be explored for commercial uses.

  12. Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2012-01-01

    on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas energy......This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments...

  13. Exposure of sea otters and harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to shoreline oil residues 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jerry M; Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    We assessed whether sea otters and harlequin ducks in an area of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA (PWS), oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil residues 20 years after the spill. Spilled oil has persisted in PWS for two decades as surface oil residues (SOR) and subsurface oil residues (SSOR) on the shore. The rare SOR are located primarily on the upper shore as inert, nonhazardous asphaltic deposits, and SSOR are confined to widely scattered locations as small patches under a boulder/cobble veneer, primarily on the middle and upper shore, in forms and locations that preclude physical contact by wildlife and diminish bioavailability. Sea otters and harlequin ducks consume benthic invertebrates that they collect by diving to the bottom in the intertidal and subtidal zones. Sea otters also dig intertidal and subtidal pits in search of clams. The three plausible exposure pathways are through the water, in oil-contaminated prey, or by direct contact with SSOR during foraging. Concentrations of PAH in near-shore water off oiled shores in 2002 to 2005 were at background levels (<0.05 ng/L). Median concentrations of PAH in five intertidal prey species on oiled shores in 2002 to 2008 range from 4.0 to 34 ng/g dry weight, indistinguishable from background concentrations. Subsurface oil residues are restricted to locations on the shore and substrate types, where large clams do not occur and where sea otters do not dig foraging pits. Therefore, that sea otters and harlequin ducks continue to be exposed to environmentally significant amounts of PAH from EVOS 20 years after the spill is not plausible.

  14. Preparation of H-oleoyl-carboxymethyl-chitosan and the function as a coagulation agent for residual oil in aqueous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang-zheng SUN; Xi-guang CHEN; Yan-yan LI; Bo ZHENG; Zheng-hui GONG; Jian-jun SUN; Heng CHEN; Jie LI; Wen-xing LIN

    2008-01-01

    In this study, H-form oleoyl-carboxymethyl-chitosan (H-O-CMCS) was prepared as a coagulation agent to clean up the residual oil from the waste-water of oil extraction (WWOE). The Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra confirmed the formation of an amide linkage between amino groups of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) and carboxyl groups of oleic acid. The adsorp-tion capacities of four absorbents (H-O-CMCS, chitosan, activated carbon and polyaluminium chloride (PAC)) for the residual oil were investigated. Compared with chit-osan, activated carbon and PAC, H-O-CMCS was more effective in removing the residual oil from WWOE, which could successfully wash up almost 99% of residual oil from WWOE at the dosage of 0.2 g/L, the mixing time of 3 min, 500 rpm, and a broader range of pH (the system temperature ≤ 45℃). In similar conditions, com-paratively, chitosan, activated carbon and PAC could wash 90%, 82% and 92% of residual oil from WWOE, respectively.

  15. Influence of lubricant oil residual fraction on recycled high density polyethylene properties and plastic packaging reverse logistics proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Moraes Martins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To recycle post-consumer HDPE contaminated with waste lubricating oils, companies include prior washing and drying in the process. This consumes large amounts of water and energy, generates significant effluent requiring treatment. This study assesses lubricating oil influence on HDPE properties to evaluate the feasibility of its direct mechanical recycling without washing. The current lubricating oil packaging reverse logistics in Rio de Janeiro municipality is also analyzed. HDPE bottle samples were processed with seven oil contents ranging from 1.6-29.4 (wt%. The results indicated the possibility to reprocess the polymer with oily residue not exceeding 3.2%. At higher levels, the external oil lubricating action affects the plastic matrix processing in the extruder and injection, and the recycled material has a burnt oil odor and free oil on the surface. Small residual oil amounts retain the plastic properties comparable to the washed recycled polymer and exhibited benefits associated with the oil plasticizer action. However, oil presence above 7.7% significantly changes the properties and reduces the elasticity and flexural modulus and the plastic matrix crystallinity.

  16. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  17. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulators and thermal cracking of heavy oil and ultraheavy residues using microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardini, Andre L.; Bineli, Aulus R.R.; Viadana, Adriana M.; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering; Medina, Lilian C.; Gomes, Alexandre de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Barros, Ricardo S. [University Foundation Jose Bonifacio (FUJB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the design of microreactor with microfluidics channels has been carried out in Computer Aided Design Software (CAD) and constructed in rapid prototyping system to be used in chemical reaction processing of the heavy oil fractions. The flow pattern properties of microreactor (fluid dynamics, mixing behavior) have been considered through CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations. CFD calculations are also used to study the design and specification of new microreactor developments. The potential advantages of using a microreactor include better control of reaction conditions, improved safety and portability. A more detailed crude assay of the raw national oil, whose importance was evidenced by PETROBRAS/CENPES allows establishing the optimum strategies and processing conditions, aiming at a maximum utilization of the heavy oil fractions, towards valuable products. These residues are able to be processed in microreactor, in which conventional process like as hydrotreating, catalytic and thermal cracking may be carried out in a much more intensified fashion. The whole process development involves a prior thermal study to define the possible operating conditions for a particular task, the microreactor design through computational fluid dynamics and construction using rapid prototyping. This gives high flexibility for process development, shorter time, and costumer/task oriented process/product development. (author)

  18. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  19. Bio-oil production via fast pyrolysis of biomass residues from cassava plants in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattiya, Adisak

    2011-01-01

    Biomass residues from cassava plants, namely cassava stalk and cassava rhizome, were pyrolysed in a fluidised-bed reactor for production of bio-oil. The aims of this work were to investigate the yields and properties of pyrolysis products produced from both feedstocks as well as to identify the optimum pyrolysis temperature for obtaining the highest organic bio-oil yields. Results showed that the maximum yields of the liquid bio-oils derived from the stalk and rhizome were 62 wt.% and 65 wt.% on dry basis, respectively. The pyrolysis temperatures that gave highest bio-oil yields for both feedstocks were in the range of 475-510 °C. According to the analysis of the bio-oils properties, the bio-oil derived from cassava rhizome showed better quality than that derived from cassava stalk as the former had lower oxygen content, higher heating value and better storage stability.

  20. Structural Characterisation of Asphaltenes during Residue Hydrotreatment with Light Cycle Oil as an Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several atmospheric residues (AR of Kuwaiti crude, in the absence, or in the presence, of light cycle oil (LCO as an aromatic additive, were hydrotreated in an experimental plant. Asphaltenes (precipitated from Kuwaiti AR, a hydrotreated AR, and a hydrotreated blend of AR and LCO were characterised by chemical structure and changes during residue hydrotreatment. The average structural parameters of these asphaltenes, obtained from a combined method of element analysis, average molecular weight, X-ray diffraction, and NMR, demonstrate that, after hydrotreatment, the aromatic cores of the asphaltenes become more compact and smaller whereas the peripheral alkyl branches are decreased in number and shortened. The influence of LCO on residue hydrotreating is also studied in terms of structural changes in the asphaltenes. The findings imply that LCO added to AR during hydrotreating improves the degree of aromatic substitution, the total hydrogen/carbon atomic ratio per average molecule, the distance between aromatic sheets and aliphatic chains, and so forth, by modifying the colloidal nature and microstructure of asphaltene: this is beneficial for the further hydroprocessing of AR. Three hypothetical average molecules are proposed to represent the changes undergone by such asphaltenes during hydrotreatment as well as the effects of additive LCO.

  1. Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments...... on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas energy...... extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production...

  2. Process design of in situ esterification-transesterifica tion for biodiesel production from residual oil of spent bleaching earth (SBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, A.; Mubarok, Z.; Suprihatin; Romli, M.; Yunira, E. N.

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is the largest producer of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) in the world. CPO refining process produces spent bleaching earth (SBE), which still contains 20-30% oil. This residual oil is very potential to be developed as a biodiesel feedstock. The purpose of this research was to develop an in situbiodiesel production process of residual oil of SBE, which covered stirring speed of esterification and transesterification and also transesterification time to produce biodiesel with the best characteristics. The production was conducted in a 100 L reactor. The stirring speeds applied were 650 rpm and 730 rpm, and the transesterification time varied at 60, 90 and 120 minutes. The combination of 730 rpm stirring speed for 90 minutes transesterification resulted in the best biodiesel characteristics with the yield of 85%, the specific energy of 6,738 kJ/kg and the heater efficiency of 48%. The physico-chemical properties of biodiesel was in conformity with the SNI of Biodiesel.

  3. Coagulation-Sedimentation-Extraction Pretreatment Methods for The Removal of Suspended Solids and Residual Oil From Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Ahmad, Norliza Ibrahim , Suzylawati Ismail and Subhash Bhatia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspended solids and residual oil removal in a liquid are relevant to numerous research areas and industry. The suspended solid cannot be removed completely by plain settling. Large and heavy particles can settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. Because of this, it requires efficient physical-chemical pretreatment methods.   Our current research is to study the pretreatment methods in the removal of suspended solids and residual oil content in POME. Preliminary analysis shows that POME contains 40,000 mg/L suspended solid and 4,000 mg/L oil and grease content that relatively very high compared to the maximum allowable limit by the Malaysian Department of Environment which are only 400 mg/L and 50 mg/L respectively. The methods chosen were coagulation-sedimentation method for suspended solids removal and solvent extraction for residual oil removal.  Jar test apparatus was used as the standard procedure for bench-scale testing and alum was used as the coagulant. Parameters studied were alum dosage, mixing time, mixing speed, sedimentation time and pH. For removal of residual oil, six different organic solvents; n-hexane, n-heptane, benzene, petroleum ether, pentane and petroleum benzene were used. For every solvent the effect of solvent ratio, mixing time, mixing speed and pH were analyzed. The results show that the optimum conditions in removal of suspended solid from POME were at pH 4.11, sedimentation time of 100 minutes and 150 rpm mixing speed with 1.5 hr mixing time. N-hexane give the best performance in extracting residual oil from POME with solvent to POME ratio of 6:10. It was estimated about 0.54 grams of oil and grease can be extracted with optimum variables at pH 4, mixing speed of 200 rpm, and 20 minutes mixing time.  Key Words: palm oil mill effluent, coagulation, suspended solid, residual oil, solvent extraction.

  4. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Residual Oil Recovered from Spent Bleaching Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Mat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, semi-refined and refined vegetable oils are used as a feedstock in biodiesel production. However, due to competition with conventional fossil fuel, economic reasons, shortage supply of food and its social impact on the global scale has somewhat slowed the development of biodiesel industry. Studies have been conducted to recover oil from mill palm oil operation especially from the spent bleaching earth. Hence, the study was to investigate the potential recovery of oil from spent bleaching earth to be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The effect of different types of catalysts (sodium hydroxide alkali and sulfuric acid catalysts on biodiesel yield was studied. In addition, the effect of volume addition of methanol to the weight of spent bleaching earth on the product yield was also studied. Furthermore, the effect of ratio of hexane to methanol was also carried out to determine its product yield. The studies were carried out in an in-situ biodiesel reactor system and the biodiesel product was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Result shows that the use of alkali catalyst produced the highest yield of biodiesel and the most optimum biodiesel yield was obtained when the methanol to spent bleaching earth ratio was 3.2:1 (gram of methanol: gram of SBE and hexane to methanol ratio of 0.6:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol. © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 19th December 2010, Revised: 10th May 2011; Accepted: 18th May 2011[How to Cite: R. Mat, O.S. Ling, A. Johari, M. Mohamed. (2011. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Residual Oil Recovered from Spent Bleaching Earth. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6(1: 53-57. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.678.53-57][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.678.53-57 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/678 ] | View in 

  5. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yuan Chiou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM reduced nitric oxide (NO production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  6. Study on vacuum pyrolysis of coffee industrial residue for bio-oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanwei; Ren, Jie; Ye, Ziwei; Xu, Qizhi; Liu, Jingyong; Sun, Shuiyu

    2017-03-01

    Coffee industrial residue (CIR) is a biomass with high volatile content (64.94 wt.%) and heating value (21.3 MJ·kg-1). This study was carried out to investigate the pyrolysis condition and products of CIR using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and vacuum tube furnace. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, time, pressure and heating rate on the yield of pyrolysis products were discussed. There was an optimal pyrolysis condition: CIR was heated from normal temperature to 400 °C for 60 min, with 10 °C·min-1 heating rate and a pressure of 30 kPaabs. In this condition, the yields of bio-oil, char and non-condensable gas were 42.29, 33.14 and 24.57 wt.%, respectively. The bio-oil contained palmitic acid (47.48 wt.%), oleic acid (17.45 wt.%), linoleic acid (11.34 wt.%), octadecanoic acid (7.62 wt.%) and caffeine (5.18 wt.%).

  7. Pyrolysis of Woody Residue Feedstocks: Upgrading of Bio-Oils from Mountain-Pine-Beetle-Killed Trees and Hog Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacher, Alan H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Preto, Fernando; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-12-01

    Liquid transportation fuel blend-stocks were produced by pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of woody residue biomass. Mountain pine beetle killed wood and hog fuel from a saw mill were pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed reactor and subsequently upgraded to hydrocarbons in a continuous fixed bed hydrotreater. Upgrading was performed by catalytic hydrotreatment in a two-stage bed at 170°C and 405°C with a per bed LHSV between 0.17 and 0.19. The overall yields from biomass to upgraded fuel were similar for both feeds: 24-25% despite the differences in bio-oil (intermediate) mass yield. Pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was 61% from MPBK wood, and subsequent upgrading of the bio-oil gave an average mass yield of 41% to liquid fuel blend stocks. Hydrogen was consumed at an average of 0.042g/g of bio-oil fed, with final oxygen content in the product fuel ranging from 0.31% to 1.58% over the course of the test. Comparatively for hog fuel, pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was lower at 54% due to inorganics in the biomass, but subsequent upgrading of that bio-oil had an average mass yield of 45% to liquid fuel, resulting in a similar final mass yield to fuel compared to the cleaner MPBK wood. Hydrogen consumption for the hog fuel upgrading averaged 0.041 g/g of bio-oil fed, and the final oxygen content of the product fuel ranged from 0.09% to 2.4% over the run. While it was confirmed that inorganic laded biomass yields less bio-oil, this work demonstrated that the resultant bio-oil can be upgraded to hydrocarbons at a higher yield than bio-oil from clean wood. Thus the final hydrocarbon yield from clean or residue biomass pyrolysis/upgrading was similar.

  8. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture.

  9. Oil crop biomass residue-based media for enhanced algal lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaochen; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Chen, Paul; Shi, Jian; Wang, Qin; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of hydrolysates from acid hydrolysis of four different oil crop biomass residues (OCBR) as low cost culture media for algae growth. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to design a series of experiments to optimize the acid hydrolysis conditions through examining the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonia nitrogen in the hydrolysates. The optimal conditions were found to be using 3% sulfuric acid and hydrolyzing residues at 90 °C for 20 h. The hydrolysates (OCBR media) produced under the optimal conditions were used to cultivate the two algae strains, namely UM258 and UM268. The results from 5 days of cultivation showed that the OCBR media supported faster algae growth with maximal algal biomass yield of 2.7 and 3 g/L, respectively. Moreover, the total lipids for UM258 and UM268 were 54 and 35%, respectively, after 5 days of cultivation, which suggested that the OCBR media allowed the algae strains to accumulate higher lipids probably due to high C/N ratio. Furthermore, over 3% of omega-3 fatty acid (EPA) was produced for the two algae strains. In conclusion, OCBR media are excellent alternative for algae growth and have a great potential for large-scale production of algae-based ingredients for biodiesel as well as high-value food and pharmaceutical products.

  10. Characterization of hams added with nut residual pastes from the mechanical extraction of oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Luna Guevara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuts contain in their composition nutrients and bioactive compounds that when consumed in sufficient amounts may provide health benefits. In this study was evaluated the influence of the addition of residual pastes (10%, obtained from the extraction of oil from walnut (Juglans regia L., pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, variety Western Shley, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea, on the modification of some textural, proximate, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of cooked hams. Hams were stored at 4 ° C for 21 days. Hams containing pastes significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05 the protein, fat, and total fiber content. Hams added with paste presented a less rigid structures (P ≤ 0.05. The color parameters (L*, a*, and b* of hams decrease slightly during the storage time, except for the ham added with walnut paste, which was darker. The nut pastes contributed significantly (P ≤ 0.05 to decrease the shelf life of hams. However, the yeast and mold counts in ham were less than 10 CFU/g at 21 days of storage. aw and pH decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 and syneresis increased during storage. Hams added with residual pastes were well sensory accepted regarding color, aroma, taste, appearance, and overall acceptability.

  11. Biodegradation of oil refinery residues using mixed-culture of microorganisms isolated from a landfarming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Beraldo de Morais

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential for using an inoculum composed of a mixed-culture of bacteria and fungi, isolated from a landfarming at the Paulínia Oil Refinery, Brazil, to degrade oil residues generated in the process of petroleum refinement was investigated. The isolation of these microorganisms was carried out beforehand, assuming that they would be better adapted to petroleum hydrocarbons, as the landfarming consisted of an area impacted by the deposit of such compounds. The Bartha and Pramer respirometric test was used to measure the rate of biodegradation of the hydrocarbons by the mixed-culture of microorganisms via the evolution of CO2. The results obtained with respect to the efficiency of biodegradation showed no significant differences (P>0.05, indicating no increase in the biodegradation process using the inoculum. The addition of nutrients (N, P, K also did not contribute to an increase in biodegradation of the oil residue studied.Neste estudo foi investigado o potencial de um inóculo composto de cultura mista de bactérias e fungos, isolados do landfarming da Refinaria de Paulínia, Brasil, em degradar resíduos oleosos gerados no processo de refinamento de petróleo. O isolamento desses microrganismos foi realizado previamente, supondo-se que estejam melhor adaptados aos hidrocarbonetos de petróleo uma vez que o landfarming consiste em área impactada por deposição de tais compostos. Utilizou-se o teste respirométrico de Bartha e Pramer no intuito de verificar a taxa de biodegradação dos hidrocarbonetos pela cultura mista de microrganismos através da evolução de CO2. Os resultados obtidos para a eficiência da biodegradação não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa (P>0.05 indicando que não houve aumento do processo de biodegradação com o uso do inóculo. A adição de nutrientes (N, P, K tampouco contribuiu para aumentar a biodegradação do resíduo oleoso estudado.

  12. COMPARISON OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS AND ELEMENTAL PARTITIONING FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL AND RESIDUAL FUEL OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of experimental efforts in which three coals and a residual fuel oil were combusted in three different systems simulating process and utility boilers. Particloe size distributions (PSDs) were determined using atmospheric and low-pressure impaction, electr...

  13. Decrease of noxious emissions in the residual fuel oil combustion; Disminucion de emisiones nocivas en la combustion de aceite combustible residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandoki W, Jorge [Econergia S. de R. L. de C. V. Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The residual fuel oil combustion emits noxious substances such as carbonaceous particulate, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur trioxide at unacceptable levels. Water emulsified in the fuel substantially reduces such emissions, achieving besides, in most of the cases, a net saving in the fuel consumption. The beneficial effects are shown in burning the residual fuel oil as a water emulsion, as well as the method to produce an adequate emulsion. The emulsified fuel technology offers a low cost option to reduce air pollution. The fuel oil quality has been declining during the last decades due to: 1. Increase in the production of crude heavy oils, generally with higher content of asphaltens and sulfur. 2. Less availability of vacuum distillation residues due to its conversion into greater value products. 3. More intensive conversion processes such as catalytic cracking, visbreaking, etc. that increase the asphaltenes concentration in the bottoms, causing instability problems. 4. The increase in the vanadium and other metals content as the concentration of asphaltenes increases. The use of emulsified fuel oil provides an efficient and economical method to substantially reduce the noxious emissions to the atmosphere. The emulsion contains water particles in a diameter between 2 and 20 microns, uniformly distributed in the fuel oil, generally in a proportion generally of 5 to 10%; besides, it contains a tensioactive agent to assure a stable emulsion capable of withstanding the shearing forces of the pumping and distribution systems. When the atomized oil drops get into the combustion chamber, the emulsified water flashes into high pressure steam, originating a violent secondary atomization. The effect of this secondary atomization is the rupture of the oil drops of various hundred microns, producing drops of 5 to 15 microns in diameter. Since the necessary time for combustion is an exponential function of the drop diameter, a very substantial improvement in the combustion is

  14. Decrease of noxious emissions in the residual fuel oil combustion; Disminucion de emisiones nocivas en la combustion de aceite combustible residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandoki W, Jorge [Econergia S. de R. L. de C. V. Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The residual fuel oil combustion emits noxious substances such as carbonaceous particulate, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur trioxide at unacceptable levels. Water emulsified in the fuel substantially reduces such emissions, achieving besides, in most of the cases, a net saving in the fuel consumption. The beneficial effects are shown in burning the residual fuel oil as a water emulsion, as well as the method to produce an adequate emulsion. The emulsified fuel technology offers a low cost option to reduce air pollution. The fuel oil quality has been declining during the last decades due to: 1. Increase in the production of crude heavy oils, generally with higher content of asphaltens and sulfur. 2. Less availability of vacuum distillation residues due to its conversion into greater value products. 3. More intensive conversion processes such as catalytic cracking, visbreaking, etc. that increase the asphaltenes concentration in the bottoms, causing instability problems. 4. The increase in the vanadium and other metals content as the concentration of asphaltenes increases. The use of emulsified fuel oil provides an efficient and economical method to substantially reduce the noxious emissions to the atmosphere. The emulsion contains water particles in a diameter between 2 and 20 microns, uniformly distributed in the fuel oil, generally in a proportion generally of 5 to 10%; besides, it contains a tensioactive agent to assure a stable emulsion capable of withstanding the shearing forces of the pumping and distribution systems. When the atomized oil drops get into the combustion chamber, the emulsified water flashes into high pressure steam, originating a violent secondary atomization. The effect of this secondary atomization is the rupture of the oil drops of various hundred microns, producing drops of 5 to 15 microns in diameter. Since the necessary time for combustion is an exponential function of the drop diameter, a very substantial improvement in the combustion is

  15. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from sunflower seed oil residue via microwave assisted K2CO3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2011-10-01

    Sunflower seed oil residue, a by-product of sunflower seed oil refining, was utilized as a feedstock for preparation of activated carbon (SSHAC) via microwave induced K(2)CO(3) chemical activation. SSHAC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and elemental analysis. Surface acidity/basicity was examined with acid-base titration, while the adsorptive properties of SSHAC were quantified using methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 15 (AB). The monolayer adsorption capacities of MB and AB were 473.44 and 430.37 mg/g, while the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, Langmuir surface area and total pore volume were 1411.55 m(2)/g, 2137.72 m(2)/g and 0.836 cm(3)/g, respectively. The findings revealed the potential to prepare high surface area activated carbon from sunflower seed oil residue by microwave irradiation.

  16. Liquid oil and residual characteristics of printed circuit board recycle by pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-04-30

    Non-metal fractions of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were thermally treated (200-500°C) under nitrogen atmosphere. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen were determined by elemental analyzer, bromine by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), phosphorus by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), and 29 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for raw material and pyrolysis residues. Organic compositions of liquid oil were identified by GC (gas chromatography)-MS, trace element composition by ICP system, and 12 water-soluble ions by IC (ionic chromatography). Elemental content of carbon was >450 mg/g, oxygen 300 mg/g, bromine and hydrogen 60 mg/g, nitrogen 30 mg/g, and phosphorus 28 mg/g. Sulfur was trace in PCBs. Copper content was 25-28 mg/g, iron 1.3-1.7 mg/g, tin 0.8-1.0mg/g and magnesium 0.4-1.0mg/g; those were the main metals in the raw materials and pyrolytic residues. In the liquid products, carbon content was 68-73%, hydrogen was 10-14%, nitrogen was 4-5%, and sulfur was less than 0.05% at pyrolysis temperatures from 300 to 500°C. Phenol, 3-bromophenol, 2-methylphenol and 4-propan-2-ylphenol were major species in liquid products, accounting for >50% of analyzed organic species. Bromides, ammonium and phosphate were the main species in water sorption samples for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Valorization of palm oil (mill) residues. Identifyin and solving the challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2013-01-01

    This report explains in brief how the palm oil production system is set-up and how by-products of palm oil extraction (Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Mesocarp Fibre, Shells and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)) are generated in the Palm oil Mill and what the composition of each stream is. Then the options ar

  18. Investigation of petroleum residues and microbial PLFA in Barataria Bay sediments one year after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, S.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Mahmoudi, N.; Silliman, B. R.; Slater, G. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon spill released crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico over a period of 3 months in 2010. Barataria Bay, Louisiana was among the most heavily impacted and extensively oil-contaminated coastlines. Studies conducted in the marshes show significant ecological and geologic effects from oil residues that reached the bay. Observation of the presence of an oil sheen associated with sediment disturbance raised the question as to whether petroleum residues were also present in the sediments of Barataria Bay. In order to address this question, six sediment cores were collected from non-oiled (#1 & 2) and oiled (#3-6) portions of Barataria Bay approximately one year after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Concentrations of n-alkanes, unresolved complex material (UCM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were determined in these upper sediments. In addition, concentrations of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were determined to assess variations in microbial community abundance. Alkane concentrations ranged from 134 to 747 ng/g with chain lengths from C12 to C35. Most cores showed an odd over even preference (carbon preference index of 1.2 to 4.3) with highest concentrations of long chain compounds between C24 and C35 (average chain length 29 to 39), consistent with a terrestrial carbon source such as plant waxes. Core #6 however, in the southwest portion of the bay, had the lowest concentrations of alkanes, and shorter n-alkane chain lengths overall. Despite this difference, the core maintains a relatively high carbon preference index and average chain length compared to that which would be expected from oil contaminated sediments. Measured PAH concentrations were highly variable ranging from undetectable to 436 ng/g. These values are several orders of magnitude lower than what is generally seen in highly contaminated sediments. Further, UCM concentrations were negligible in the cores from the oiled regions. These findings suggest only a minimal presence of

  19. Residual shale-oil/diesel-engine operating compatibility program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, M.; Derbidge, C.; Kuby, W.; Niven, H.; Richard, R.

    1983-10-01

    As part of a DOE study to determine the effective utilization of alternate fuels in medium-speed diesel engines, a residual shale oil (RSO) was fired in an APE-Allen, 1000-rpm, 9.5-in. bore diesel engine. Various fuel injection modes were considered. Based on a fuel characterization study and go/no-go tests, it was determined that the direct firing of 100 percent RSO gave performance comparable with that using No. 2 diesel fuel; consequently, performance/endurance tests were performed using 100 percent RSO. Conclusions of this test program are: Laboratory tests showed low levels of corrosion and deposit-causing elements. Therefore, corrosion and wear of engine components, when using RSO, should be no worse than for standard diesel fuel. The high wax content of RSO requires heating for supply, handling, and injection systems. Laboratory tests showed that the cetane number of RSO was equivalent to No. 2 diesel; hence, no engine modifications should be needed to burn RSO. The engine performance on RSO was essentially similar to standard diesel fuel. The thermal efficiency was slightly lower and Bosch smoke and particulates were slightly higher, especially at low load. Soft carbon deposits, formed on injectors when using RSO, did not affect performance. The 115-hour endurance test showed no significant performance deterioration. The deposit accumulation in combustion chambers and ports was not severe but was greater than standard diesel fuel would produce. Longer endurance tests are required to fully establish this conclusion. 41 figures, 21 tables.

  20. Optimization of the protein concentration process from residual peanut oil-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayol, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the best process conditions for preparing protein concentrate from residual peanut oil-cake (POC. The study was carried out on POC from industrial peanut oil extraction. Different protein extraction and precipitation conditions were used: water/ flour ratio (10:1, 20:1 and 30:1, pH (8, 9 and 10, NaCl concentration (0 and 0.5 M, extraction time (30, 60 and 120 min, temperature (25, 40 and 60 °C, extraction stages (1, 2 and 3, and precipitation pH (4, 4.5 and 5. The extraction and precipitation conditions which showed the highest protein yield were 10:1 water/flour ratio, extraction at pH 9, no NaCl, 2 extraction stages of 30 min at 40 °C and precipitation at pH 4.5. Under these conditions, the peanut protein concentrate (PC contained 86.22% protein, while the initial POC had 38.04% . POC is an alternative source of protein that can be used for human consumption or animal nutrition. Therefore, it adds value to an industry residue.El objetivo de este trabajo fue encontrar las mejores condiciones para obtener un concentrado de proteínas a partir de la torta residual de maní (POC. El estudio se llevó a cabo en POC provenientes de la extracción industrial de aceite de maní. Se utilizaron distintas condiciones para la extracción y precipitación de proteínas: relación agua / harina (10:1, 20:1 y 30:1, pH de extracción (8, 9 y 10, concentración de NaCl (0 y 0,5 M, tiempo de extracción (30, 60 y 120 min, temperatura (25, 40 y 60 °C, número de etapas de extracción (1, 2 y 3, y el pH de precipitación (4, 4,5 y 5. Las condiciones de extracción y de precipitación que mostraron mayor rendimiento de proteína fueron: relación de 10:1 en agua / harina, pH de extracción de 9, en ausencia de NaCl, 2 etapas de extracción de 30 min cada una a 40 °C y el pH de precipitación de 4,5. En estas condiciones, el concentrado de proteína de maní (PC fue de 86,22%, mientras que el porcentaje de proteínas de

  1. 半封闭边水油藏特高含水期剩余油分布特征%Predicting Remaining Oil Distribution of Semi-Enclosed Edge Water Reservoir in Extra High Water Cut Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙全力; 冯文光; 姚昌宇

    2011-01-01

    双河油田437块Ⅱ4-6层系是一个典型的半封闭边水油藏,边水活跃,目前油藏进入特高含水期,单元采出程度45.82%,综合含水率高达97.8%.根据储层地质资料,采用协同克里金确定性建模方法建立了双河油田437块Ⅱ4-6层系的三维地质模型.利用三维地质建模成果,结合储层地质特征、地层流体性质以及油藏生产动态资料,采用油藏数值模拟的方法,得出目前双河油田437块Ⅱ4-6层系剩余油的分布特征及剩余油富集区域,为开发方案调整,高含水期剩余油挖潜提供了可靠的依据.%Shuanghe Oilfield 437II4-6 is a typical semi-closed edge water reservior. Edge wate is active in this area, and reservoir is now in the development phase of extra high water cut period currently. The unit recovery efficiency is 45.82%, and water percentage 97.8%. By using reservoir numerical simulation method and according to reservoir geology, 3D geological model of Shuanghe oilfield 437II4-6 is established, and the distribution data of remaining oil and residual oil region of Shuanghe Oilfield 437II4-6 are obtained. The basis for adjusting development plan and for digging the potential of remaining oil in high water cut period was provided.

  2. Integrated project: Microbiological and physiological studies on the presence of residual concentrations in mineral-oil-contaminated soils after rehabilitation. Final report. Pt. 2; Mikrobiologische und physiologische Untersuchungen zur Frage der Restkonzentration bei der Sanierung mineraloelkontaminierter Boeden. Abschlussbericht. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miethe, D.; Riis, V.; Stimming, M.

    1996-01-04

    It has been known for a long time that microorganisms are able to utilise mineral oils. Today various methods are practised which exploit autochthonous microorganisms` ability to utilise mineral oils. The main problem of microbial decomposition of hydrocarbons is that mineral oil residues remain. The aim of the present research project was therefore to determine the limits of the metabolisability of the substrate and find out why residues remain. Mineral oils and residual fractions differ markedly in their decomposability. Intermediate distillates are easily decomposed to a degree of 95-97% by well-adapted consorts. For high-boiling mineral oils (bp>400 C) the degree of decomposition is approx. 60%. Extracts from contaminated sites range from 40 to 60% in their degree of decomposability. The incomplete microbial decomposition of mineral oils is mainly due to their structure. There remain chemically and thermally extremely, inert hydrocarbons (mainly aliphatic and aromatic fused-ring systems) which are either hardly metabolisable or not at all. An important factor in soils or at other contaminated sites is that some of the substrate is not available because it is bound to the matrix thus increasing the proportion of residue. The next task after examining and presenting the causes of incomplete decomposition is to minimise residual mineral oil concentrations remaining after microbial decomposition. Here the use of special surfactants or of auxiliary substrates could point a way. Project applications to this end have already been submitted to the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. (orig.) [Deutsch] Dass Mikroorganismen in der Lage sind, Mineraloele zu verwerten, ist seit langem bekannt. Verfahren, die das Potential autochthoner Mikroorganismen zur Verwertung von Mineraloelen nutzen sind Praxis. Hauptproblem beim mikrobiellen Abbau der Kohlenwasserstoffe ist das Verbleiben von Mineraloelresten. Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens war die Ermittlung der Grenzen

  3. Investigation of biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms that enhance residue oil recovery in an oil reservoir after polymer flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Yue-Hui; Zhang, Fan; Xia, Jing-Jing; Kong, Shu-Qiong; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Shu, Fu-Chang; Hu, Ji-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Three biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms (XDS1, XDS2, XDS3) were isolated from a petroleum reservoir in the Daqing Oilfield (China) after polymer flooding. Their metabolic, biochemical, and oil-degradation characteristics, as well as their oil displacement in the core were studied. These indigenous microorganisms were identified as short rod bacillus bacteria with white color, round shape, a protruding structure, and a rough surface. Strains have peritrichous flagella, are able to produce endospores, are sporangia, and are clearly swollen and terminal. Bacterial cultures show that the oil-spreading values of the fermentation fluid containing all three strains are more than 4.5 cm (diameter) with an approximate 25 mN/m surface tension. The hydrocarbon degradation rates of each of the three strains exceeded 50%, with the highest achieving 84%. Several oil recovery agents were produced following degradation. At the same time, the heavy components of crude oil were degraded into light components, and their flow characteristics were also improved. The surface tension and viscosity of the crude oil decreased after being treated by the three strains of microorganisms. The core-flooding tests showed that the incremental oil recoveries were 4.89-6.96%. Thus, XDS123 treatment may represent a viable method for microbial-enhanced oil recovery.

  4. Larvicidal activity of Myrtaceae essential oils and their components against Aedes aegypti, acute toxicity on Daphnia magna, and aqueous residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Byung-Seok; Yang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Gil-Hah; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2011-03-01

    The larvicidal activity of 11 Myrtaceae essential oils and their constituents was evaluated against Aedes aegypti L. Of the 11, Melaleuca linariifolia Sm., Melaleuca dissitiflora F. Muell., Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake, and Eucalyptus globulus Labill oils at 0.1 mg/ml exhibited > or = 80% larval mortality. At this same concentration, the individual constituents tested, allyl isothiocyanate, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, (+)-limonene, (-)-limonene, gamma-terpinene, and (E)-nerolidol, resulted in > or = 95% mortality. We also tested the acute toxicity of these four active oils earlier mentioned and their constituents against Daphnia magna Straus. M. linariifolia and allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic to D. magna. Twodays after treatment, residues of M. dissitiflora, M. linariifolia, M. quinquenervia, and E. globulus oils in water were 55.4, 46.6, 32.4, and 14.8%, respectively. Less than 10% of allyl isothiocyanate, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, (-)-limonene, (+)-limonene, and gamma-terpinene was detected in the water at 2 d after treatment. Our results indicated that oils and their constituents could easily volatilize in water within a few days after application, thus minimizing their effect on the aqueous ecosystem. Therefore, Myrtaceae essential oils and their constituents could be developed as control agents against mosquito larvae.

  5. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of the timeline of chronic exposure of Barrow's goldeneyes to residual Exxon Valdez oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, B.E.; Trust, K.A.; Iverson, S.A.; Reed, J.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.; McAdie, M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Wilson, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined hepatic EROD activity, as an indicator of CYP1A induction, in Barrow's goldeneyes captured in areas oiled during the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. We found that average EROD activity differed between areas during 2005, although the magnitude of the difference was reduced relative to a previous study from 1996/1997, and we found that areas did not differ by 2009. Similarly, we found that the proportion of individuals captured from oiled areas with elevated EROD activity (-2 times unoiled average) declined from 41% in winter 1996/1997 to 10% in 2005 and 15% in 2009. This work adds to a body of literature describing the timelines over which vertebrates were exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil and indicates that, for Barrow's goldeneyes in Prince William Sound, exposure persisted for many years with evidence of substantially reduced exposure by 2 decades after the spill. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Micro-remaining oil distribution simulation test of fan delta reservoir%扇三角洲储层微观剩余油分布模拟试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘太勋; 徐怀民

    2011-01-01

    利用图像分析系统对大港油田孔南地区某断块孔店组一段扇三角洲储层不同岩相单元样品进行微观孔隙结构的刻画,制作光刻模型,分别采用恒压注水和变压注水的方式开展微观剩余油分布模拟试验,对试验过程进行录像及图像采集,定性和定量地研究微观剩余油的分布,分析不同岩相单元中水驱油过程及微观剩余油分布模式,探讨剩余油分布的控制因素.研究结果表明:扇三角洲储层中剩余油微观分布形态主要有不连通孔隙中由于阻断现象形成的孤岛状剩余油(占剩余油总量的75%)、小孔喉区由于卡断现象形成的剩余油(占剩余油总量的20%)以及珠状、膜状剩余油(不超过剩余油总量的5%);控制不同岩相单元中驱油效率和剩余油分布的因素主要为孔隙结构、驱油压力、驱替流量及流速,孔隙结构类型是影响恒压条件下驱油效率的根本因素,驱油压力和驱油方式是影响驱油效率的关键因素,提高驱油压力、采用变压不稳定注水方式能够使驱油效率提高1倍.%Microscopic pore structure in different types of lithofacies units of fan delta reservoir io the first member of Kongdi-an group was characterized! By photo lithography model and image analysis system in a block of Kongnan area, Dagang Oilfield. Hie distribution of micro-remaining oil was simulated by constant pressure water injection and pressure-swing water injection. The experimental progresses were recorded and the pictures were taken. The distribution modes of tniero-remaining oil in different types of lithofacies units during the wateiflood test were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, thus the controlling factors for remaining oil distribution were discussed. The results show that the distribution shapes of ancle-remaining oil in fan delta reservoir mainly include island remaining oil by blocking in the disconnected pore,accounting far about 75% of all

  7. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery, offshore North Sea: carbon accounting, residual oil zones and CO2 storage security

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Robert Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, projects have maximised oil recovery and not CO2 storage. While the majority of onshore CO2EOR projects to date have used CO2 from natural sources, CO2EOR is now more and more being considered as a storage option for captured anthropogenic CO2. In the N...

  8. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery, offshore North Sea: carbon accounting, residual oil zones and CO2 storage security

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Robert Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, projects have maximised oil recovery and not CO2 storage. While the majority of onshore CO2EOR projects to date have used CO2 from natural sources, CO2EOR is now more and more being considered as a storage option for captured anthropogenic CO2. In the N...

  9. Weathering patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained in submerged Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues when re-exposed to sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Gerald F; Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2016-12-15

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill event released a large amount of sweet crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). An unknown portion of this oil that arrived along the Alabama shoreline interacted with nearshore sediments and sank forming submerged oil mats (SOMs). A considerable amount of hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were trapped within these buried SOMs. Recent studies completed using the oil spill residues collected along the Alabama shoreline have shown that several PAHs, especially higher molecular weight PAHs (four or more aromatic rings), are slowly weathering compared to the weathering levels experienced by the oil when it was floating over the GOM. In this study we have hypothesized that the weathering rates of PAHs in SOMs have slowed down because the buried oil was isolated from direct exposure to sunlight, thus hindering the photodegradation pathway. We further hypothesized that re-exposing SOMs to sunlight can reactivate various weathering reactions. Also, SOMs contain 75-95% sand (by weight) and the entrapped sand could either block direct sunlight or form large oil agglomerates with very little exposed surface area; these processes could possibly interfere with weathering reactions. To test these hypotheses, we completed controlled experiments to study the weathering patterns of PAHs in a field recovered SOM sample after re-exposing it to sunlight. Our experimental results show that the weathering levels of several higher molecular weight PAHs have slowed down primarily due to the absence of sunlight-induced photodegradation reactions. The data also show that sand particles in SOM material could potentially interfere with photodegradation reactions.

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF A OIL RESIDUE FROM PETROLEUM ON DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF Pinus sp. (Pinus AND Mimosa scabrella Bentham (Bracatinga WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Florian da Costa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In search for alternative uses of a petroliferous oily residue known as “LCO” (Liquid Cycle Oil, its capacity to improve the dimensional stability of the wood was evaluated using Pinus sp. (pinus and Mimosa scabrella Bentham (bracatinga. The LCO was tested in its original composition and also diluted in different proportions into a commercial kerosene. The dimensional stability in the three anatomic axis, volumetric changes, shrinkage and anisotropy coefficients, basic density and 12% relative humidity density changes were evaluated, in different stages during the investigation process. The results show no significant differences in maximum swelling and shrinkage between treated and untreated wood blocks at 5% probability level for both species. However, a reduction in the shrinkage coefficient was observed with the increase of LCO concentration, for both species. In general, pinus showed lowest values in all parameter evaluated. The shrinkage and anisotropy coefficient were higher for bracatinga than pinus, nevertheless, no significant differences were observed between treated and untreated wood blocks. These results indicated that changes between tangential and radial faces were minimal, possible due to a poor penetration of LCO into the cell walls. This result, as a consequence, could be associated with a weak performance of the tested chemical, which could not improve the dimensional stability of wood for both species. The increasing LCO concentrations increased the density of both species at 12% relative humidity. This result could be associated to the presence of part of the chemical remaining in the walls of the cellular lumen and the resiniferous channels. Besides, the external aspect of the treated wood was also other restrictive factor to the use of LCO.

  11. Downdraft gasification of pellets made of wood, palm-oil residues respective bagasse: Experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlich, Catharina; Fransson, Torsten H. [Department of Energy Technology, School of Industrial Technology and Management (ITM), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-03-15

    The downdraft gasification technology has an increased interest among researchers worldwide due to the possibility to produce mechanical and electrical power from biomass in small-scale to an affordable price. The research is generally focused on improvement of the performance and optimizing of a certain gasifier, on testing different fuels, on increasing the user-friendliness of the gasifier and on finding other uses for the product gas than in an IC-engine, for example liquid fuel production. The main objective with the gasification tests presented here is to further contribute in the field by studying the impact of the char bed properties such as char bed porosity and pressure drop on the gasification performance as well as the impact of fuel particle size and composition on the gasification process in one and the same gasifier. In addition, there is very little gasification data available in literature of ''before disregarded'' fuels such as sugar cane bagasse from sugar/alcohol production and empty fruit bunch (EFB) from the palm-oil production. By pelletizing these residues, it is possible to introduce them into downdraft gasification technology which has been done in this study. The results show that one and the same reactor can be used for a variety of fuels in pellet form, but at varying air-fuel ratios, temperature levels, gas compositions and lower heating values. Gasification of wood pellets results in a richer producer gas while EFB pellets give a poorer one with higher contents of non-combustible compounds. In this gasification study, there is almost linear relation between the air-fuel ratio and the cold-gas efficiency for the studied fuels: Higher air-fuel ratios result in better efficiency. The pressure drop in the char bed is higher for more reactive fuels, which in turn is caused by low porosity char beds. (author)

  12. Effects of compression ratio on variation of stresses and residual oil of cake in pressing process of castor beans and its curve fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汝宽; 许方雷; 肖志红; 李昌珠; 李辉; 曾凡涛; 叶红齐

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among compression ratio and stress, compression ratio and residual oil of cake in pressing process of castor beans were studied using the test equipment under different states of oilseeds and ways of pressing manners. The results show that variation of stress increases nonlinearly and residual oil rate decreases with the increase of compression ratio. Lower residual oil of cake was obtained by pressing gently and frequently. Curve fitting on both relationships had been built and parameters for the model were obtained by least square procedure and deepening research on pressing process of the castor beans for castor oil. By assuming that the value of oil production is equivalent to the value of energy consumption, the critical compression ratio of intact seeds is 6.2 while that of crushed seeds is 3.6.

  13. The comparison of solid phase microextraction-GC and static headspace-GC for determination of solvent residues in vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2008-02-01

    The objective of these investigations has been the determination of volatile organic compounds including residue solvents present in vegetable oil samples. Some olive oil, rape oil, sunflower oil, soy-bean oil, pumpkin oil, grape oil, rice oil as well as hazel-nut oil samples were analysed. Among residue solvents the following compounds have been mentioned: acetone, n-hexane, benzene, and toluene. Some experiments for the solid phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-flame ionisation detection (FID) were performed to examine extraction conditions such as fiber exposure time, temperature of extraction, and temperature of desorption. Various SPME fibers such as polydimethylsiloxane, Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene coatings were used for the isolation of tested compounds from vegetable oil samples. After optimisation of SPME, real vegetable oil samples were examined using SPME-GC/MS. Based on preliminary experiments the qualitative and quantitative analyses for the determination of acetone, n-hexane, benzene and toluene were performed by SPME-GC-FID and static head-space (SHS)-GC-FID methods. The regression coefficients for calibration curves for the examined compounds were R(2) > or = 0.992. This shows that the used method is linear in the examined concentration range (0.005-0.119 mg/kg for SPME-GC-FID and 0.003-0.728 mg/kg for SHS-GC-FID). Chemical properties of analysed vegetable oils have been characterised by chemometric procedure (cluster analysis).

  14. Characterisation of crude palm oil O/W emulsion produced with Tween 80 and potential in residual oil recovery of palm pressed mesocarp fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, N. H.; Zakaria, R.; Naim, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Surfactant-assisted aqueous extraction has been proposed as a “green” alternative to hexane extraction for the recovery of oil from plant matters. An efficient aqueous surfactant extraction system usually use an extended type of ionic surfactant with the ability to produce Winsor type III microemulsion, reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) between plant oil and surfactant solution to an ultralow level (10-3 mN/m). However, the safe used of this surfactant in food processing is uncertain leading to non-food application of the recovered oil. In the present study, the potential of Tween 80, a commercial food-grade non-ionic surfactant, was evaluated in the recovery of residual oil from palm-pressed mesocarp. The emulsion produced between Tween 80 and crude palm oil (CPO) was characterised in terms of IFT, droplet size, viscosity and phase inversion temperature (PIT). The effect of surfactant concentration, electrolyte (NaCl) and temperature were studied to determine whether a Winsor Type III microemulsion can be produced. Results shows that although these parameters were able to reduce the IFT to very low values, Winsor type III microemulsion was not produced with this single surfactant. Emulsion of CPO and Tween 80 solution did not produce a PIT even after heating to 100°C indicating that middle phase emulsion was not able to be formed with increasing temperature. The highest percentage of oil extraction (38.84%) was obtained at the concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Tween 80 and CPO, which was at 0.5 wt% Tween 80 with 6% NaCl, and temperature of 60°C. At this concentration, the IFT value is 0.253 mN/m with a droplet size of 4183.8 nm, and a viscosity of 7.38 cp.

  15. Biodiesel Production from Residual Palm Oil Contained in Spent Bleaching Earth by In Situ Trans-Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Fahmil QRM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE is an industrial solid waste of vegetable oil industry that has a high residual oil to be potentialy converted to biodiesel. This study aims at developing a biodiesel production process technology by utilizing residual palm oil contained in SBE and to test the use of hexane in the trans-esterification process. Optimization process was done by using the Response Surface Method (RSM. The variables studied included catalyst concentration and reaction time. On the other hand, the deoiled SBE resulted from biodiesel production was tested as an adsorbent on biodiesel purification after being reactivated. The method used in the biodiesel production included an in situ acid catalysed esterification followed by in situ base catalysed trans-esterification. The results of RSM showed that the optimum process was obtained at NaOH concentration of 1.8% and reaction time of 104.73 minutes, with a predicted response rate of 97.18% and 95.63% for validation results. The use of hexane could also increase the yield of biodiesel which was obtained on the ratio of hexane to methanol of 0.4:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol. On the other hand, the reactivated bleaching earth was effective as an adsorbent in biodiesel production, which was still conform with the Indonesian National Standard.

  16. Impact of biochar produced from post-harvest residue on the adsorption behavior of diesel oil on loess soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu Feng; Sun, Hang; Yves, Uwamungu J; Li, Hong; Hu, Xue Fei

    2016-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar, produced from wheat residue at different temperatures, on the adsorption of diesel oil by loess soil. Kinetic and equilibrium data were processed to understand the adsorption mechanism of diesel by biochar-affected loess soil; dynamic and thermodynamic adsorption experiments were conducted to characterize this adsorption. The surface features and chemical structure of biochar, modified at varying pyrolytic temperatures, were investigated using surface scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The kinetic data showed that the adsorption of diesel oil onto loess soil could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with the rate-controlling step being intraparticle diffusion. However, in the presence of biochar, boundary layer control and intraparticle diffusion were both involved in the adsorption. Besides, the adsorption equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich isothermal model. The saturated adsorption capacity weakened as temperature increased, suggesting a spontaneous exothermic process. Thermodynamic parameter analysis showed that adsorption was mainly a physical process and was enhanced by chemical adsorption. The adsorption capacity of loess soil for diesel oil was weakened with increasing pH. The biochar produced by pyrolytic wheat residue increased the adsorption behavior of petroleum pollutants in loess soil.

  17. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region.

  18. Characterization of fast-pyrolysis bio-oil distillation residues and their potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    A typical petroleum refinery makes use of the vacuum gas oil by cracking the large molecular weight compounds into light fuel hydrocarbons. For various types of fast pyrolysis bio-oil, successful analogous methods for processing heavy fractions could expedite integration into a petroleum refinery fo...

  19. Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil with Oils Residuals through Bioaugmentation and Natural Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitê Carla Deon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential for soil contamination by oil spills is growing, due to heavy industrialization and economic development of countries. Due to this fact, the bioremediation has become an alternative to remediate areas through the use of biological agents. Two microorganisms, isolated from a lipid-rich effluent, were used in the bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with diesel oil, lubricating oil and soybean oil. Natural attenuation tests were conducted as controls. The removal of diesel fuel at the time of 21 d were of 18.5%, 7.30% and 11.38%, respectively, for the bioaugmentation with isolated I1 and I2 and natural attenuation. The removal of lubricating oil were 41.6%, 14.16% and 6.91% respectively for the bioaugmentation with the isolated I1 and I2 and natural attenuation, while for soybean oil removals were of 87 8%, 73.9% and 49.4%. Considering the processes of bioaugmentatiom and natural attenuation, the bioaugmentation with the isolated I1 showed better results, possibly due to the production of compounds capable of reducing the surface tension during the preparation of bioaugmentation.

  20. Insecticides authorized for use on olive trees and the relationship between their registration and residues in olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lentza-Rizos, Ch.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to eliminate losses due to insect attack, several insecticides are used on olive trees. Their residues in olive oil constitute an important parameter of its quality and must be monitored regularly and kept as low possible in order to ensure consumer protection. In this paper the insecticides authorized for use on olive trees are listed and their ADIs and Codex Alimentarius MRLs reported. The existing registrations are discussed from the point of view of their residues in oil.

    Diversos insecticidas son usados para eliminar las pérdidas debidas al ataque de insectos en olivos. Sus residuos en el aceite de oliva constituyen un parámetro importante de su calidad y deben ser controlados con regularidad y mantenidos tan bajos como sea posible en orden a asegurar la protección del consumidor. En este artículo se incluyen los distintos insecticidas autorizados para su uso en olivos así como los valores de ingesta diaria aceptable para el hombre y los límites máximos autorizados de los mismos. Los registros existentes se discuten desde el punto de vista de sus residuos en el aceite.

  1. Application of environmental management system for a energetic plant with oil residual biomass; Aplicacion de un sistema de gestion medio ambiental a una planta generadora de energia que utiliza la biomasa residual del olivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linan Veganzones, M.J.; Soca Olazabal, N.; Pizarro Camacho, D

    1998-12-01

    Being the alpechin one of the most contaminant residues by the mediterranean agrarian industry, as of today there is no integral depuration procedure. In this paper we show the innovative approach being used to eliminate the alpechin along with the oil miller residual biomass. What it more, the only agroindustrial complex which has introduced such approach is using an EMAS so that actual achievements could be realistically measured. (Author) 12 refs.

  2. Effects of alternate fuels. Report No. 6. Analysis of low-alumina castable refractory degraded by residual oil combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G. C.; Tennery, V. J.

    1978-07-01

    This is the sixth of a series of reports on analyses of several types of refractories used in industrial furnaces with fuels considered alternate to natural gas. Analyses were performed on a low-alumina castable used for only two months in the roof of a residual-oil-fired boiler. The maximum hot-face temperature during operation was about 1530/sup 0/K. The original microstructure of the castable, which consisted of mullite aggregate bonded with iron-containing gehlenite (2 CaO . Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ . SiO/sub 2/), quartz and cristobalite, was totally altered during service in regions close to the hot face. At room temperature the altered microstructure consisted of corundum and gehlenite in a new oxide glass phase containing the elements Na, K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Al, Ni, and Si. The reactions of the fuel oil impurities Na, Fe, and Ni with mullite, quartz, and cristobalite in the original castable refractory caused the rapid degradation at the hot face during service in the boiler. Increasing the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content of the castable by replacing mullite aggregate with alumina aggregate and using gehlenite with less iron impurity as the bonding material should improve the performance of this castable refractory or retard reactions of the castable with fuel oil combustion products including Na, Fe, and Ni.

  3. Simulation of residual oil displacement in a sinusoidal channel with the lattice Boltzmann method

    CERN Document Server

    Otomo, Hiroshi; Hazlett, Randy; Li, Yong; Staroselsky, Ilya; Zhang, Raoyang; Chen, Hudong

    2016-01-01

    We simulate oil slug displacement in a sinusoidal channel in order to validate computational models and algorithms for multi-component flow. This case fits in the gap between fully realistic cases characterized by complicated geometry and academic cases with simplistic geometry. Our computational model is based on the lattice Boltzmann method and allows for variation of physical parameters such as wettability and viscosity. The effect of variation of model parameters is analyzed, in particular via comparison with analytical solutions. We discuss the requirements for accurate solution of the oil slug displacement problem.

  4. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  5. Fine study on single sand body and measures for tapping the potential of residual oil during polymer flooding in Pubei reservoir of Daqing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Y. J.

    2016-08-01

    In order to effectively guide the narrow channel sand body oil fields to exploit, according to the sand body distribution characteristics and geological genesis of narrow channel sand body oil fields, the type of single sand body is clarified. By means of identification of logging curves and correlation of well-tie profile, the internal structure of single sand body is recognized. and then the remaining oil genesis, distribution characteristics and the potential areas for polymer flooding are clarified by combining numerical simulation technology and dynamic analysis technology, and the remaining oil potential tapping method is designed by taking into consideration various factors including the characteristics of the remaining oil, reservoir property and product dynamic character. The result shows that the single sand body is divided into five types including multiphase channel superposition, distributary channel, single channel, sheet sand and lenticular sand. Potential remaining oil mainly are distributed in thick oil layers of multiphase channel superposition type and distributary channel type in which channel sands were developed and sedimentary environment are stable inner front facies and lake regressive inner front facies. The remaining oil is developed by optimizing the parameters of polymer flooding and combining many different measures. The study provides technical support for the efficient exploration for polymer flooding.

  6. Identification of oil residues in Roman amphorae (Monte Testaccio, Rome): a comparative FTIR spectroscopic study of archeological and artificially aged samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Gabriele; Nunziante Cesaro, Stella; Campanella, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy to the analysis of oil residues in fragments of archeological amphorae (3rd century A.D.) from Monte Testaccio (Rome, Italy) is reported. In order to check the possibility to reveal the presence of oil residues in archeological pottery using microinvasive and\\or not invasive techniques, different approaches have been followed: firstly, FTIR spectroscopy was used to study oil residues extracted from roman amphorae. Secondly, the presence of oil residues was ascertained analyzing microamounts of archeological fragments with the Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, the external reflection analysis of the ancient shards was performed without preliminary treatments evidencing the possibility to detect oil traces through the observation of the most intense features of its spectrum. Incidentally, the existence of carboxylate salts of fatty acids was also observed in DRIFT and Reflectance spectra of archeological samples supporting the roman habit of spreading lime over the spoil heaps. The data collected in all steps were always compared with results obtained on purposely made replicas.

  7. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation......, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition......, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture....

  8. Flaxseed oil supplementation manipulates correlations between serum individual mol % free fatty acid levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics. Insulin resistance and percent remaining pancreatic β-cell function are unaffected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, D E; Mizier-Barre, K A; Griscti, O; Hafez, K

    2016-10-01

    Elevated total serum free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations have been suggested, controversially, to enhance insulin resistance and decrease percent remaining β-cell function. However, concentrations of individual serum FFAs have never been published in terms of their relationship (correlation) to homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and percent remaining β-cell function (HOMA-%β) in the type 2 diabetics (T2Ds). Alpha-linolenic acid consumption has a negative correlation with the insulin resistance, which in turn is negatively correlated with the remaining β-cell function. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there would be different relationship (correlation) between the blood serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β in T2D. The secondary objective was to test the hypothesis that flaxseed oil, previously being shown to be ineffective in the glycemic control in T2Ds, may alter these correlations in a statistically significant manner as well as HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β. Patients were recruited via a newspaper advertisement and two physicians have been employed. All the patients came to visit one and three months later for a second visit. At the second visit, the subjects were randomly assigned (double blind) to flaxseed or safflower oil treatment for three months, until the third visit. Different statistically significant correlations or trends towards among some serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and HOMA-%β, pre- and post-flaxseed and safflower oil supplementation were found. However, flaxseed oil had no impact on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β despite statistically significant alterations in correlations compared to baseline HOMA-IR. The obtained data indicate that high doses of flaxseed oil have no statistically significant effect on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β in T2Ds, probably due to the additive effects of negative and positive correlations.

  9. Determination of essential oils residues on zucchini fruits by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Filomena; Donnarumma, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the use of essential oils (EOs) derived from aromatic plants as low-risk fungicides has increased considerably owing to their interest with organic growers and environmentally conscious consumers. The proposed method, based upon liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, is suitable for monitoring main components of EOs on zucchini fruits after protection treatments to control crop disease. The aim of this work is to find a rapid, simple and cheap procedure for screening analysis such as quality control of crops' edible portion.

  10. Partial least squares modeling of combined infrared, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra to predict long residue properties of crude oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Peinder, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325810818; Visser, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110288327; Petrauskas, D.D.; Salvatori, F.; Soulimani, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313889449; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2009-01-01

    Research has been carried out to determine the potential of partial least squares (PLS) modeling of mid-infrared (IR) spectra of crude oils combined with the corresponding 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data, to predict the long residue (LR) properties of these substances. The study

  11. Antifungal impact of volatile fractions of Peumus boldus and Lippia turbinata on Aspergillus section Flavi and residual levels of these oils in irradiated peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passone, María Alejandra; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2014-01-03

    To investigate the antifungal properties of essential oil (EO) vapors from boldo and poleo on Aspergillus section Flavi and the residual levels of the oils in peanut, irradiated peanuts conditioned at three water activities (0.98, 0.95, 0.93) were treated with 2 and 3 μL/g of boldo and 3 and 5 μL/g of poleo. EO treatments produced the greatest impact on fungal growth parameters, followed by oil concentrations and aW levels. The three main components in peanut exposed to oil vapors were piperitone oxide, α-terpinene and eucalyptol for boldo and β-caryophyllene epoxide, limonene and piperitenone for poleo. Residues of boldo and poleo EO were significantly decreased from 24.7 to 100% and from 26.6 to 99.7% at the end of the incubation period, respectively. The application of nontoxic boldo oil as fumigant in the control of Aspergillus section Flavi may represent a potential alternative antifungal treatment, without significant residues after 35 days. © 2013.

  12. Isolation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose from oil palm biomass residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Haafiz, M K; Eichhorn, S J; Hassan, Azman; Jawaid, M

    2013-04-02

    In this work, we successfully isolated microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber-total chlorine free (TCF) pulp using acid hydrolysis method. TCF pulp bleaching carried out using an oxygen-ozone-hydrogen peroxide bleaching sequence. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that acid hydrolysis does not affect the chemical structure of the cellulosic fragments. The morphology of the hydrolyzed MCC was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showing a compact structure and a rough surface. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of the surface indicates the presence of spherical features. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the MCC produced is a cellulose-I polymorph, with 87% crystallinity. The MCC obtained from OPEFB-pulp is shown to have a good thermal stability. The potential for a range of applications such as green nano biocomposites reinforced with this form of MCC and pharmaceutical tableting material is discussed.

  13. Production of bio-oil rich in acetic acid and phenol from fast pyrolysis of palm residues using a fluidized bed reactor: Influence of activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Yong; Lee, Uen-Do; Chang, Won-Seok; Jeong, Soo-Hwa

    2016-11-01

    In this study, palm residues were pyrolyzed in a bench-scale (3kg/h) fast pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and bio-oil separation system for the production of bio-oil rich in acetic acid and phenol. Pyrolysis experiments were performed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature and the types and amounts of activated carbon on the bio-oil composition. The maximum bio-oil yield obtained was approximately 47wt% at a reaction temperature of 515°C. The main compounds produced from the bio-oils were acetic acid, hydroxyacetone, phenol, and phenolic compounds such as cresol, xylenol, and pyrocatechol. When coal-derived activated carbon was applied, the acetic acid and phenol yields in the bio-oils reached 21 and 19wt%, respectively. Finally, bio-oils rich in acetic acid and phenol could be produced separately by using an in situ bio-oil separation system and activated carbon as an additive.

  14. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Claisse

    Full Text Available When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes. "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  15. 伊朗轻质原油减渣馏分油水界面张力的研究%Study of Oil/Water Interfacial Tension of Vacuum Residual Fractions from Iranian Light Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭勃; 李明远; 赵锁奇; 吴肇亮; Johan Sjoblom; Harald Hoiland

    2003-01-01

    The vacuum residual from Iranian Light crude oil are separated into a series of 16 narrow fractions according to the molecular weight by the supercritical fluid extraction and fractional(SFEF)technologY.The chemical element and the UV spectrum of each fraction are analyzed.The efiects of severalfactors on the interfacial tension are investigated,which are the fraction concentration in oil phase,the ratio of oil component,the salts dissolved in the water phase and the pH valne.The interfacial tension decreazes rapidly as the concentration of the residual fraction in the oil increases,showing a higher interfacial activity ofthe fraction.The interfacial tension changes,as the amount of absorption or the state ofthe fractions in the interface changes resulting from difierent ratios of oil,difierent kinds or concentratiohs of salts in water,and difierent pH values.It is concluded that the interfacial tension changes regularly,corresponding to the regular molecular parameters of the vacuum residual fractions.

  16. Ex situ bioremediation of a soil contaminated by mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)--a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana; Milić, Jelena; Ilić, Mila; Miletić, Srdjan; Solević, Tatjana; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2011-03-01

    Mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)-polluted soil was exposed to bioremediation in an ex situ field-scale (600 m(3)) study. Re-inoculation was performed periodically with biomasses of microbial consortia isolated from the mazut-contaminated soil. Biostimulation was conducted by adding nutritional elements (N, P and K). The biopile (depth 0.4m) was comprised of mechanically mixed polluted soil with softwood sawdust and crude river sand. Aeration was improved by systematic mixing. The biopile was protected from direct external influences by a polyethylene cover. Part (10 m(3)) of the material prepared for bioremediation was set aside uninoculated, and maintained as an untreated control pile (CP). Biostimulation and re-inoculation with zymogenous microorganisms increased the number of hydrocarbon degraders after 50 d by more than 20 times in the treated soil. During the 5 months, the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of the contaminated soil was reduced to 6% of the initial value, from 5.2 to 0.3 g kg(-1) dry matter, while TPH reduced to only 90% of the initial value in the CP. After 150 d there were 96%, 97% and 83% reductions for the aliphatic, aromatic, and nitrogen-sulphur-oxygen and asphaltene fractions, respectively. The isoprenoids, pristane and phytane, were more than 55% biodegraded, which indicated that they are not suitable biomarkers for following bioremediation. According to the available data, this is the first field-scale study of the bioremediation of mazut and mazut sediment-polluted soil, and the efficiency achieved was far above that described in the literature to date for heavy fuel oil.

  17. The use tracer radioactive in the station of treatment residual of in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damera, A.; Ramos, K. [Center of Attention to the Nuclear Activity, City of Camaguey (Cuba); Ferreira, A.; Magalhaes, A. [Centro of Development of Nuclear Technology, Mines Gerais (Brazil); Derivet, M. [Cuban Institute of Sugar Investigations, Havana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The industry of the petroleum comes being in you finish them decades, an user of the Nuclear Techniques, overalls starting from the II World War, when sources radioactive and new techniques passed the investigators' disposition and technicians of the civil sector. Due to the amplification of activities in some of the technical and economic characteristics of this industry the possibilities of application of the nuclear techniques are proportionally bigger and more important than in many other sectors of the economy. This work was carried out in the Station of Treatment of Residual Industrial (ETDI) in PETROBRAS (Brazil). The ETDI has the function of receiving, to store and to try the you discard liquids and gassy coming from diverse points of the refinery avoiding this way the contamination of the environment. The work consisted on the determination of the time of residence inside the flocculators and the floats, for it was used it the nuclear technique of radioactive radiotracer, concretely the Technetium 99 m. This has a great economic and environmental importance, because when obtaining the time of real.. residence experimentally in the flocculators and the floats, you can compare with those obtained theoretically and to influence on the system, optimizing their operation. (authors)

  18. Sources and Utilization of Oil Shale Residue%油页岩灰渣的来源及综合利用技术磁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建敏; 牛显春

    2013-01-01

    In this paper ,oil shale and oil shale ash utilization technology are reviewed .The comprehensive utilization of oil shale were sum-marized ,and the oil shale residue in the preparation of construction materials ,fine chemical products ,agricultural fertilizer and waste gas and waste water treatment and other areas of current research status and prospect are analyzed .The comprehensive utilization of the oil shale residue can bring the well benefit in resource ,environment ,economy and society ,and there is great significance for realizing sustainable development .%  对油页岩的特和油页岩灰渣利用技术进行了概述,重点对油页岩的综合利用进行了综述,并对油页岩渣在制备建筑材料、精细化工产品、农业肥料和废气和废水处理等领域的研究现状和前景进行了分析和论述。油页岩渣的综合利用能取得良好的资源、环境、经济及社会效益,对于实现资源的可持续发展具有重大意义。

  19. Compositions and Diagnostic Ratios of Heavily Degraded Crude Oil Residues in Contaminated Soil in Oilfields%油田污染土壤残油组成与特征参数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坚; 张旭; 李广贺

    2012-01-01

    为揭示石油在土壤中的降解规律、残油组分特征,筛选土壤残油的生物降解性评价参数,选取大庆、胜利、百色3个油田区共18个深度降解的石油污染土样,利用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)分析了土壤残油中链烷烃(正烷烃+姥鲛烷+植烷)、多环芳烃(PAHs)、萜烷、甾烷及三芳甾烃等5类超过100种石油烃单体.结果表明,经长期降解后残留在土壤残油中总烷烃残留率低于10%,总PAHs残留率低于30%,而萜烷、甾烷及三芳甾烃等生物标志物较难降解.正烷烃降解性随碳数增加有下降的趋势,但碳数〈37的正烷烃降解率平均值〉80%;PAHs中2~4环PAHs降解率平均值〉70%,5~6环PAHs较难生物降解;萘系列、菲系列、系列及苯并[e]芘系列中随烷基取代数增多而残留率增高.残油中可被GC-MS识别的组分〈3%,主要为碳数高于20的正烷烃、烷基取代萘和菲、萜烷、甾烷及三芳甾烃等生物标志物.基于烷烃及多环芳烃组成特征,筛选出6个由易降解组分含量与总油或难降解组分含量的比值构成的标准残油的特征参数,可用于判断污染土壤中石油污染物的生物降解性.%The aims of this study were to determine the rate of degradation of crude oil in soil,to reveal the fingerprints of residual oil after long-term biodegradation,and to screen parameters for evaluation of the biodegradability residual oil.A total of 18 contaminated soil samples containing heavily degraded crude oil residuals from Daqing,Shengli and Baise oilfields were analyzed.More than 100 individual target compounds including straight-and branched-chain alkanes(n-alkanes,pristane and phytane),polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs),terpanes,steranes and triaromatic steranes(TAS) in residual oil were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).For all the soil samples,less than 10% and 30% of alkanes and PAHs remained in the residual

  20. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and aromatic contaminants adsorption behavior of magnetic biochar derived from pyrolysis oil distillation residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Mahyoub, Samah Awadh Ali; Liao, Wenjie; Xia, Shuqian; Zhao, Hechuan; Guo, Mengya; Ma, Peisheng

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic biochars were easily fabricated by thermal pyrolysis of Fe(NO3)3 and distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil at 400, 600 and 800°C. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics of magnetic biochars as well as adsorption capacity for aromatic contaminants (i.e., anisole, phenol and guaiacol) were investigated carefully. The degree of carbonization of magnetic biochars become higher as pyrolysis temperature increasing. The magnetic biochar reached the largest surface area and pore volume at the pyrolysis temperature of 600°C due to pores blocking in biochar during pyrolysis at 800°C. Based on batch adsorption experiments, the used adsorbent could be magnetically separated and the adsorption capacity of anisole on magnetic biochars was stronger than that of phenol and guaiacol. The properties of magnetic biochar, including surface area, pore volume, aromaticity, grapheme-like-structure and iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) particles, showed pronounced effects on the adsorption performance of aromatic contaminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodegradation pattern of hydrocarbons from a fuel oil-type complex residue by an emulsifier-producing microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievas, M L; Commendatore, M G; Esteves, J L; Bucalá, V

    2008-06-15

    The biodegradation of a hazardous waste (bilge waste), a fuel oil-type complex residue from normal ship operations, was studied in a batch bioreactor using a microbial consortium in seawater medium. Experiments with initial concentrations of 0.18 and 0.53% (v/v) of bilge waste were carried out. In order to study the biodegradation kinetics, the mass of n-alkanes, resolved hydrocarbons and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) hydrocarbons were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Emulsification was detected in both experiments, possibly linked to the n-alkanes depletion, with differences in emulsification start times and extents according to the initial hydrocarbon concentration. Both facts influenced the hydrocarbon biodegradation kinetics. A sequential biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC was found for the higher hydrocarbon content. Being the former growth associated, while UCM biodegradation was a non-growing process showing enzymatic-type biodegradation kinetics. For the lower hydrocarbon concentration, simultaneous biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC were found before emulsification. Nevertheless, certain UCM biodegradation was observed after the medium emulsification. According to the observed kinetics, three main types of hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, biodegradable UCM and recalcitrant UCM) were found adequate to represent the multicomponent substrate (bilge waste) for future modelling of the biodegradation process.

  2. Validation of LED spectrofluorimeter for determination of both biodiesel and nontransesterified residual cooking oil in diesel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Marilena; Quintella, Cristina M.; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos; Pepe, Iuri M.; Ribeiro, Erika M. de O.; Silva, Weidson Leal; Cid, Alexandre Lopes Del; Guimarães, Alexandre Kamei

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of the validation of a LED spectrofluorimeter patented for the analysis of biodiesel in diesel and non-transesterified residual cooking oil (RCO) in diesel. Detection limit, quantification limit and sensitivity were determined from the regression lines. The spectrofluorimeter validated in this study was adequate for quantifying the amount of biodiesel in diesel in the range from 2% to 45% (B02-B45) with an R-squared value of 0.9962 and a detection limit of 3%. For the analysis of non-transesterified RCO in diesel, the linear range was from 2% to 20% with an R-squared value of 0.9872 and a detection limit of 2%. The accuracy of the equipment for the analysis of biodiesel in diesel and non-transesterified RCO in diesel was evaluated using Student's t-test for paired data. With 95% confidence level there was no significant difference between the actual values and those determined by the equipment.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body residues and lysosomal membrane destabilization in mussels exposed to the Dubai Star bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380) spill in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Stanton, Beckye; McBride, Toby; Anderson, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Following the spill of bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380, approximately 1500-3000 L) into San Francisco Bay in October 2009, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussels from moderately oiled areas increased up to 87 554 ng/g (dry wt) and, 3 mo later, decreased to concentrations found in mussels collected prior to oiling, with a biological half-life of approximately 16 d. Lysosomal membrane destabilization increased in mussels with higher PAH body burdens.

  4. Kinetics of coffee industrial residue pyrolysis using distributed activation energy model and components separation of bio-oil by sequencing temperature-raising pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanwei; Ren, Jie; Ye, Ziwei; Xu, Qizhi; Liu, Jingyong; Sun, Shuiyu

    2016-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the kinetics of coffee industrial residue (CIR) pyrolysis, the effect of pyrolysis factors on yield of bio-oil component and components separation of bio-oil. The kinetics of CIR pyrolysis was analyzed using distributed activation energy model (DAEM), based on the experiments in thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and it indicated that the average of activation energy (E) is 187.86kJ·mol(-1). The bio-oils were prepared from CIR pyrolysis in vacuum tube furnace, and its components were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among pyrolysis factors, pyrolysis temperature is the most influential factor on components yield of bio-oil, directly concerned with the volatilization and yield of components (palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, octadecanoic acid and caffeine). Furthermore, a new method (sequencing temperature-raising pyrolysis) was put forward and applied to the components separation of bio-oil. Based on experiments, a solution of components separation of bio-oil was come out.

  5. Characterization of oil-palm trunk residue degradation enzymes derived from the isolated fungus, Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kok Chang; Arai, Takamitsu; Ibrahim, Darah; Deng, Lan; Murata, Yoshinori; Mori, Yutaka; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study characterizes crude enzymes derived from Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL, a mesophilic fungus isolated from the local soil of Malaysia. Prior to enzyme activity evaluation, P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL was inoculated into a broth medium containing oil-palm trunk residues for the preparation of crude enzymes. Oil-palm trunk residues were optimally hydrolysed at pH5.0 and 50°C. P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived crude enzymes displayed higher thermal stability compared with the commercial enzymes, Celluclast 1.5 L and Acellerase 1500. Moreover, the hydrolysing activities of the P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived crude enzymes (xylan, arabinan, and laminarin) were superior compared to that of Celluclast 1.5 L and Acellerase 1500, and exhibit 2- to 3-fold and 3- to 4-fold higher oil-palm trunk residues-hydrolysing specific activity, respectively. This higher hydrolysis efficiency may be attributed to the weak 'lignin-binding' ability of the P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived enzymes compared to the commercial enzymes.

  6. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  7. Residual Effect of Chemical and Animal Fertilizers and Compost on Yield, YieldComponents, Physiological Characteristics and Essential Oil Content of Matricaria chamomilla L. under Drought Stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Ahmadian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The residual effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers on growth and yield of plants is one of the important problems in nutrition. This study was conducted to determine the residual effect of different fertilizers on yield, yield components, physiological parameters and essential oil percentage of Matricaria chamomilla under drought stress. A split plot arrangement based on randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replication was conducted in 2009, at the University of Zabol. Treatments included W1 (non stress, W2 (75% FC and W3 (50% FC as main plot and three types of residual’s fertilizers: F1 (non fertilizer, F2 (chemical fertilizer, F3 (manure fertilizer and F4 (compost as sub plot. Results showed that water stress at W3 treatment reduced dry flower yield. Low water stress increased essential oil percentage and the highest oil was obtained in W2. In this experiment, free proline and total soluble carbohydrate concentration were increased under water stress. The residual’s manure and compost enhanced flower yield, percentage and yield of essential oil of chamomile at the second year. At a glance, animal manure application and light water stress (75% FC was recommended to obtain best quantitative and qualitative yield. Keywords: Water Stress, Fertilizer, Carbohydrate, Proline, Chamomile

  8. Carcinogenicity of residual fuel oils by nonbiological laboratory methods: annotated bibliography. Part I. Laboratory methods of analysis. Part II. Analysis results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichorz, R. S.

    1976-04-09

    Recent emphases have been directed by Federal government regulatory agencies and other research groups on the carcinogenic effects of certain aromatic hydrocarbon components in naturally occurring petroleum products. These are used in plant operations, and underline the importance of evaluating environments. Since Rocky Flats Plant uses large quantities of fuel oil, the author was prompted to undertake a search of the chemical literature. Articles and accounts of studies were reviewed on nonbiological laboratory methods for determining the carcinogenicity of residual fuel oils and related high-boiling petroleum fractions. The physical and chemical methods involve the separation or measurement (or both) of polynuclear aromatic constituents which generally are responsible for the carcinogenic effects. Thus, the author suggests that the total carcinogenic activity of any petroleum product may not be due to a specific potent carcinogen, but rather to the cumulative effect of several individually weak carcinogens. The literature search is presented as an annotated bibliography, current as of January 1, 1975, and includes significant parts of the studies along with the total number of other references found when the citation was examined in its entirety. Part I deals with laboratory chemical and physical methods of determining carcinogenicity or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (or both) in residual fuel oils and contains ten entries. Part II includes the results of testing specific fuel oils for carcinogenic constituents and contains eleven entries. An author index and subject categories are included.

  9. 污染土壤残油的臭氧氧化研究%Removal of residual oil in contaminated soil by ozonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坚

    2013-01-01

    Residual oil after bioremediation in crude oil contaminated soil could be hardly biodegraded.In this study, column experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of ozonation of residual oil. Maximum of removal efficiency(0.3mg oil/mg O3)was reached when ozone dosage was about 20 mg/g soil.Under this condition,population of petroleum degrading bacteria was reduced only by 1 order of magnitude.Among the four fractions of oil,aromatics showed highest removal,followed by saturates,and resins and asphaltenesincreased after ozonation.Ozonation was able to remove residual oil with all range of molecular weight, resulting in a slight decrease of average molecular weight of residual oil.GC-MS results indicated that ozone removal rate of different types of contaminants showed following sequence: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs)>steranes> hopanes>alkyl cyclohexanes>n-alkanes.Ozonation did not change biomarker parameters.Increase of C15~C22n-alkanes,C17~C20 alkyl cyclohexanes and C8~C22carboxylic acids and production of C11~C25aldehydes were observed after ozonation. Removal rate for biodegradation of ozonated residual oil was twice of the control,indicating that bioavailability of residual oil was improved by ozonation.%本研究探讨了臭氧氧化对石油污染土壤生物修复后难降解的残油的去除效应。臭氧投加剂量约20 mg O3/g 土时,臭氧氧化效率最高,达0.3 mg总油/mgO3,且土壤石油烃降解菌数量仅下降一个数量级。臭氧作用下残油四组分中芳香烃降解率最高,其次为饱和烃,胶质和沥青质含量升高。臭氧对残油各分子量组分均有降解作用,氧化后残油分子量略有下降。GC-MS结果表明臭氧对各类物质氧化的容易顺序为多环芳烃>甾烷>藿烷>烷基环己烷>正烷烃;臭氧未改变生物标志物参数;氧化后C8~C22脂肪酸、C15~C22正烷烃和C17~C20烷基环己烷含量增加,并出现了C11~C25脂肪醛,臭氧氧化后残

  10. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  11. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, T; Magnani, N D; Paz, M L; Vanasco, V; Tasat, D; González Maglio, D H; Alvarez, S; Evelson, P A

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation.

  12. Role of metal-induced reactive oxygen species generation in lung responses caused by residual oil fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anthony B Lewis; Michael D Taylor; Jenny R Roberts; Stephen S Leonard; Xianglin Shi; James M Antonini

    2003-02-01

    Inhalation of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) increases pulmonary morbidity in exposed workers. We examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ROFA-induced lung injury. ROFA was collected from a precipitator at Boston Edison Co., Everett, MA, USA. ROFA (ROFA-total) was suspended in saline, incubated for 24 h at 37°C, centrifuged, and separated into its soluble (ROFA-sol.) and insoluble (ROFA-insol.) fractions. Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with saline or ROFA-total or ROFA-sol. or ROFA-insol. (1 mg/100 g body wt.). Lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells were harvested at 4, 24, and 72 h after instillation. Chemiluminescence (CL) of recovered cells was measured as an index of ROS production, and tissue-lipid-peroxidation was assessed to determine oxidative injury. Significant amounts of Al, Fe, and Ni were present in ROFA-sol., whereas ROFA-insol. contained Fe, V, and Al. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), significantly more hydroxyl radicals were measured in ROFA-sol. as compared to ROFA-insol. None of the ROFA samples had an effect on CL or lipid peroxidation at 4 h. Treatment with ROFA-total and ROFA-insol. caused significant increases in both CL (at 24 h) and lipid peroxidation (at 24 and 72 h) when compared to saline control value. ROFA-sol. significantly reduced CL production at 72 h after treatment and had no effect on lipid peroxidation at any time point. In summary, ROFA, particularly its soluble fraction, generated a metal-dependent hydroxyl radical as measured by a cell-free ESR assay. However, cellular oxidant production and tissue injury were observed mostly with the ROFA-total and ROFA-insol. particulate forms. ROS generated by ROFA-sol. as measured by ESR appear not to play a major role in the lung injury caused after ROFA exposure.

  13. 双河油田核三段沉积微相特征及与剩余油分布%The Sedimentary Microfacies Characteristic and the Distribution of the Remaining Oil of the Formation of 3rd Member of Hetaoyuan Formation in Shuanghe Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊自立

    2011-01-01

    双河油田位于泌阳凹陷南部,紧邻生油中心的双河鼻状构造上.含油层位主要为下第三系核桃园组,以核三段为主.通过岩心及测井曲线进行测井相精细研究分析,划分为水下分流河道、河口坝、前缘席状砂、水下溢岸砂体、重力流砂体5种砂体微相,它们具有不同的几何规模、物性和平面分布特征.这些特征控制了油层的平面油水运动、吸水和产液能力,进而控制了剩余油分布特征,从而指导油田开发后期剩余油开采的重点方向.%Shuanghe oilfieM is located in the southern of Biyang depression, closing to the Shuanghe nose structure which is the oil-forming centre. The main oil-bearing layer is the Eogene system Hetaoyuan Formation, by the third member primarily. Through the core and log can be done the fine analysis and research to the electrofacies, containing five sand microfacies, that is the under water distributary channel , the mouth bar, the front sand sheet, the under water overbank sand and the density sand. They have different geometric size, physical property and plane distribution. These characteristics control the plane oil and water sports of the oil layer, absorbing and liquid producing capacity, thereby control the distribution of the remaining oil, thus guiding the key direction of the remaining oil exploitation in the later stage of the oil filed development.

  14. Obtaining fuel oils from the low temperature conversion of biomass waste; Obtencao de oleo combustivel a partir da conversao a baixa temperatura de biomassa residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Cinelli, Leonardo Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Romeiro, Gilberto Alves; Damasceno, Raimundo Nonato [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail: gilbertoromeiro@ig.com.br; Senra, Paulo Mauricio de Albuquerque [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao]. E-mail: paulo.senra@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper refers to the characterization and application of oil obtained through the 'Low Temperature Conversion Process' applied to industrial waste generated in the treatment of effluent from the petrochemical industry. Physical and chemical parameters, such as viscosity, density, sulfur content, flash point, point of fluidity were obtained. The characterization of the oil obtained indicates the possibility of classifying it as oil fuel. Also, studying the application of the oil in engines. Developed from studies on the feasibility of producing biodiesel from sludge of sewage treatment plants in Germany of the 1980s, the 'Low Temperature Conversion-LTC' technique, is a thermo chemical process, whose main goal is to extend the life of liabilities environment. The LTC is being applied in various biomass of urban, industrial and agricultural origin, looking up through the thermal conversion transform them into products of potential commercial value. Depending on the type of biomass used in the process, are obtained a fraction lipophilic and a carbonaceous solid waste in a varying of proportions, plus a fraction hydrophilic and conversion gas. The lipophilic fraction is targeted to studies about the feasibility of its application as fuel or other compounds with possible commercial application (such as greases, oils, resins, etc.), while the carbonaceous residue is directed to studies about its activation for the used as activated charcoal, in addition to the possible direct use as energy.

  15. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  16. The efficacy of the Self-Adjusting File versus WaveOne in removal of root filling residue that remains in oval canals after the use of ProTaper retreatment files: A cone-beam computed tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajinkya M Pawar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current ex vivo study compared the efficacy of removing root fillings using ProTaper retreatment files followed by either WaveOne reciprocating file or the Self-Adjusting File (SAF. Materials and Methods: Forty maxillary canines with single oval root canal were selected and sectioned to obtain 18-mm root segments. The root canals were instrumented with WaveOne primary files, followed by obturation using warm lateral compaction, and the sealer was allowed to fully set. The teeth were then divided into two equal groups (N = 20. Initial removal of the bulk of root filling material was performed with ProTaper retreatment files, followed by either WaveOne files (Group 1 or SAF (Group 2. Endosolv R was used as a gutta-percha softener. Preoperative and postoperative high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT was used to measure the volume of the root filling residue that was left after the procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test. Results: The mean volume of root filling residue in Group 1 was 9.4 (±0.5 mm 3 , whereas in Group 2 the residue volume was 2.6 (±0.4 mm 3 , (P < 0.001; t-test. Conclusions: When SAF was used after ProTaper retreatment files, significantly less root filling residue was left in the canals compared to when WaveOne was used.

  17. Enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakma, A.; Rafiq Islam, M.; Berruti, F.

    1991-01-01

    Some forty to sixty percent of the original oil in place typically remains trapped in the reservoir after primary and secondary recoveries. Enhanced oil recovery refers to the recovery of the residual oil by different techniques. Many of the existing and proposed enhanced oil recovery techniques require sound understanding of basic chemical engineering principles such as fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, interfacial phenomena etc. Chemical EOR techniques require a good understanding of interfacial phenomena, chemical reaction, multicomponent absorption. Understanding of the fundamentals of the various EOR processes is not adequate. EOR is increasingly attracting a growing number of chemical engineers and, as a result, some of the fundamental aspect of EOR are now being investigated. However, much more remains to be done and chemical engineers can play an important role in providing a better understanding of EOR fundamentals. This volume presents selected papers on EOR presented at AICHE meetings.

  18. Dual-fuel production from restaurant grease trap waste: bio-fuel oil extraction and anaerobic methane production from the post-extracted residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Maeda, Kouji; Tsuji, Tomoya; Xu, Kaiqin

    2014-10-01

    An effective way for restaurant grease trap waste (GTW) treatment to generate fuel oil and methane by the combination of physiological and biological processes was investigated. The heat-driven extraction could provide a high purity oil equivalent to an A-grade fuel oil of Japanese industrial standard with 81-93 wt% of extraction efficiency. A post-extracted residue was treated as an anaerobic digestion feedstock, and however, an inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) was still a barrier for high-rate digestion. From the semi-continuous experiment fed with the residual sludge as a single substrate, it can be concluded that the continuous addition of calcium into the reactor contributed to reducing LCFA inhibition, resulting in the long-term stable operation over one year. Furthermore, the anaerobic reactor performed well with 70-80% of COD reduction and methane productivity under an organic loading rate up to 5.3g-COD/L/d. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 心滩砂体内部构型及其剩余油分布特征研究%Internal Architecture Structure and Remained Oil of the Channel Bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚涛

    2011-01-01

    喇嘛甸油田PI23沉积单元为辫状河沉积,主要发育辫状河道、心滩、河漫滩三种沉积微相,其中心滩砂体内部构型相对复杂,控制的剩余油较多.以4-4#站高浓度试验区储层为例,运用Mail提出的储层建筑结构界面分析方法,通过小井距井之间的连井剖面和测井曲线对比定义了6级界面.在沉积模式指导下得出了平面相组合模式,印平面以河道充填和心滩沉积为主.在明确心滩砂体沉积环境及形成机理基础上得出了沉积特征及识别方法,并对心滩内部构型进行了解剖,实现了垂积体追踪与预测.利用试验区内新钻井的测井解释结果,一方面完善了心滩砂体内部构型,另一方面新井解释的含油饱和度,水淹特征等信息直接揭示了高浓度聚合物对辫状河心滩的动用规律,位于心滩内部的新井解释结果表明,心滩中部水淹以高、中为主,而心滩两翼岩性夹层多、渗透性差,低、未水淹比例大,剩余油多.%The type of sedimentation unit P123 in Lamadian Oil field is the braided fluvial river sedimentary environment which concludes three sedimentary microfacies: braided channel, channel bar,flood plain. The inner structure of the channel bar which contains more remaining oil is far more complicated than others. Taking the stratum of 4-4 station in the pilot site of high concentration for example, this paper divided the stratum of Lamadian oil field into six stratifications based on the principle of architecture-element analysis which is put forward by Mail and comparison of the correlation of cross sections and well logs. Based on the model of sedimentary, we have the composite pattern of planar phasing, which is the channel fill and channel bar mainly. Based on the cognition of the sedimentary environment of channel bar and the forming mechanism,this paper also discusses the characteristics of sedimentary and identification method. And it realizes the tracking and

  20. Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis; Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de residuos solidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose E.; Leao, Alcides L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], emails: evaristo@fca.unesp.br, alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Sartori, Maria M.P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], email: msartori@btu.flash.tv.br

    2009-07-01

    The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW). With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above 15% showed large increase in ash content. Therefore, the treatment that fulfilled the requirements for combustion versus ash content and mechanical resistance was of at least 15% of MSW, since the source of the ash is unidentified. Considering the net energy content, the best treatment was 25% of MSW, with 17,175 kJ kg{sup -1}. Nevertheless, it is strongly advised that further studies related to gas emissions are necessary. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the toxicity of the weathered crude oil used at the Newfoundland Offshore Burn Experiment (NOBE) and the resultant burn residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blenkinsopp, S.; Sergy, G. [Environment Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Conservation and Protection; Doe, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. [Environment Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Conservation and Protection; Li, K.; Fingas, M [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div.

    1997-10-01

    Toxicity of the weathered crude oil Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend (ASMB) used at the Newfoundland Offshore Burn Experiment (NOBE), and the resultant burn residue was evaluated using the newly developed Environment Canada water-accomodated fraction (WAF) method and exposure protocol. Rainbow trout, three-spine stickleback and gametes of sea urchins were exposed to saltwater WAF prepared from both weathered ASMB and burn residue. Gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry headspace analysis of 28 analytes showed low levels of volatile hydrocarbons after 96 hours of exposure (except for sea urchins, in which case the test was only 20 minutes in duration). All samples were found to be not toxic to all species tested. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production.

  3. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki, E-mail: ebitani@jaist.ac.jp [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Miyazato, Akio [Nanotechnology Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H{sub 2}O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, {sup 13}C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously.

  4. Use of residues and by-products of the olive-oil production chain for the removal of pollutants from environmental media: A review of batch biosorption approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Massas, Ioannis; Ehaliotis, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    Residues and by-products of the olive-oil production chain have been widely studied as biosorbents for the removal of various pollutants from environmental media due to their significant adsorption properties, low cost, production at local level and renewability. In this review, adsorbents developed from olive-tree cultivation residues and olive-oil extraction by-products and wastes are examined, and their sorption characteristics are described and discussed. Recent information obtained using batch sorption studies is summarized and the adsorption mechanisms involved, regarding various aquatic and soil pollutants (metal ions, dyes, radionuclides, phenolic compounds, pesticides) are presented and discussed. It is evident that several biosorbents show the potential to effectively remove a wide variety of pollutants from aqueous solutions, especially Pb and Cd. However, there is need to (a) develop standardized batch study protocols, and potentially reference materials, for effective cross-evaluation of biosorbents of similar nature and for improved understanding of mechanisms involved and (b) investigate scaling-up and regeneration issues that hold back industry-level application of preselected adsorbents.

  5. Effect of cyclodextrin and transformer oil amendments on the chemical extractability of aged [14C]polychlorinated biphenyl and [14C]polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doick, Kieron J; Burauel, Peter; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T

    2005-09-01

    Sequestration of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in soils limits chemical and biological availability. Concerns exist regarding the long-term stability of sequestered contaminants in the environment, and stability needs to be demonstrated if bioavailability considerations are to be adopted into the risk assessment and remediation of contaminated land. The aim of the present study was to test the short-term influence of two organic amendments on the chemical extractability of HOC residues that had been present in soils for more than 12 years. The amendments investigated were cyclodextrin and transformer oil (a light, nonaqueous phase liquid [LNAPL]). The contaminants investigated were fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in one soil and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 28 and 52 in a second soil. The addition of cyclodextrin to the soils did not result in a significant increase in chemical extractability of the residues after a 36-d contact time. The addition of transformer oil resulted in an increase in chemical extractability of the PCBs after a 14-d soil-LNAPL contact time and a further increase after a 36-d contact time. The present study demonstrates that the chemical availability of aged HOCs in soil may be influenced by the presence of other chemicals and has implications for the long-term management of contaminated land.

  6. The atomization and the flame structure in the combustion of residual fuel oils; La atomizacion y estructura de flama en la combustion de combustibles residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado Estandia, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    In this article a research on the combustion of heavy residual fuel oils is presented. The type of flames studied were obtained by means of the burning of sprays produced by an atomizer designed and calibrated specially for the research purpose. The flame characteristics that were analyzed are its length, its luminosity, the temperature, the distribution of the droplets size and mainly the burning regime of the droplets in the flame. The experimental techniques that were used for these studies were shadow micro-photography, suction pyrometry and of total radiation, laser diffraction, 35 mm photography, and impact push. The analysis of the experimental results, together with the results of the application of a mathematical model, permitted to establish two parameters, that quantitatively related determine the burning regime of the droplets in a flame of sprays of residual heavy fuel oil. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una investigacion sobre la combustion de combustibles residuales pesados. El tipo de flamas estudiadas se obtuvieron mediante el quemado de sprays producidos por un atomizador disenado y calibrado especialmente para el proposito de la investigacion. Las caracteristicas de flama que se analizaron son la longitud, la luminosidad, la temperatura, la distribucion de tamano de gotas y, principalmente, el regimen de quemado de gotas en la flama. Las tecnicas experimentales que se usaron para estos estudios fueron microfotografia de sombras, pirometria de succion y de radiacion total, difraccion laser, fotografia de 35 mm y empuje de impacto. El analisis de resultados experimentales, junto con los resultados de la aplicacion de un modelo matematico, permitio establecer dos parametros, que relacionados cuantitativamente, determinan el regimen de quemado de gotas en una flama de sprays de combustible residual pesado.

  7. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos madeireiros contendo 12% de umidade. Os parâmetros analisados para a escolha da melhor mistura, foram: análise de combustibilidade x cinzas, resistência e energia utilizável. Os briquetes com até 10% de RRSU se mostraram com baixa resistência e os acima de 15% apresentaram grande aumento no teor de cinzas; portanto, os que melhor atenderam aos requisitos combustibilidade x cinzas e resistência mecânica, foram aqueles com 15% de RRSU, pois não se conhece a procedência das cinzas. Considerando-se a energia utilizável, o briquete com 25% de RRSU é o que apresenta maior poder calorífico útil na ordem de 17.175 kJ kg-1 motivo pelo qual se indica a produção de briquetes com adição RRSU; ressalta-se, porém, a necessidade de estudos sobre a emissão de gases.The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW. With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above

  8. Y-TOOL Joint Logging Technique and Quantitative Evaluation of Remaining Oil Distribution%Y-TOOL生产井联合测井与剩余油分布定量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范乐元

    2011-01-01

    Y-TOOL joint logging technique, which is combined with ESP (Electric Submersible Pump)and BYPASS sections, has been successfully applied in production well A of X oilfield in Sudan. Qualified CBL (Cement Bond Tool), ECOS (Resistivity Logging after Casing), PLT (Production Log Tool) and PNN (Pulsed Neutron-Neutron) logging data have been comprehensively studied in this well. Flooded zones are confirmed and dynamic producing situation in the borehole of well A is analyzed. Moreover, oil producing degree is used to evaluate the main producing zones and potential zones in order to provide potential targets for the following development plan based on quantitative evaluation of remaining oil saturation. Besides, qualified ECOS and PNN logging data, acquired together from one same well, shows consistent results between each other based on back-to-back data analysis, which verifies the validity and reliability of ECOS and PNN logging techniques.%以苏丹×油田1口生产井A井为例,采用SLP潜油电泵机组与ZENITH的Y-TOOL井下工具配套进行测井.综合运用采集到的固井质量资料、过套管电阻率资料、产液剖面生产测井资料和脉冲中子-中子测井资料,识别和确认了A井的水淹层位,分析和评价了该井的井下生产动态.在定量评价A井剩余油饱和度的基础上,引入油层采出程度的参数.深入分析研究该井开发动态中的油层采出程度,有效区分了主力产层和未动用层,指明了该井后续的剩余油开发层位.通过对脉冲中子-中子测井资料和过套管电阻率测井资料进行分析,其解释结果既相互吻合,又互为佐证.实现了在同一口井中检验过套管电阻率测井和PNN测井技术的可靠性、一致性和有效性.

  9. Pyrolysis thermocatalytic of the residues generated in the process of oil refining; Pirolise termocatalitica de residuos gerados no processo de refino de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Lima, Cicero de Souza; Araujo, Aruzza Mabel de Morais; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The pyrolysis process is a catalytic thermal defined as the degradation of waste which occurs by the action of temperature and presence of catalysts. Thus promoting disruption of the original molecular structure of a given compound by the catalytic action in an environment with little or no oxygen. Investigations have been developed in the pyrolysis due to be a promising technique, due to the application of catalytic materials. In this work, the catalyst used Al/MCM-41 was synthesized in a ratio Si / Al = 50 by the hydrothermal method. Being in this promising oil industry because of their structural characteristics. This material was characterized by XRD analysis, which was observed three major peaks typical of mesoporous materials. The analysis of the adsorption / desorption of nitrogen this material was performed to determine the textural parameters, which are peculiar to the mesoporous materials. The residue samples were characterized with a view to meet some properties such as through elemental analysis of the compounds and saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. The pyrolysis reaction system catalytic thermal residue is mounted to test the pyrolysis of residue pure and the Al-MCM-41. For both pyrolysis liquid fractions were obtained, gaseous and solid. And only the liquid fractions were characterized by chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Thus, there was an increase in the range hydrocarbons (C6-C12 and C13-C17) for products obtained from the pyrolysis catalyst. (author)

  10. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives.

  11. Controlled residual stresses introduction to improve fatigue resistance of rotary shouldered connections used in oil drilling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korin, I., E-mail: ikorin@uncoma.edu.a [CONICET/San Antonio Internaciona. Instituto de Tecnologia Prof. J. A. Sabato (USAM/CNEA) - Grupo Mecanica de Fractura, UN Comahue. Buenos Aires 1200, Neuquen (CP8300) (Argentina); Perez Ipina, J. [CONICET/UNComa. Grupo Mecanica de Fractura, UN Comahue. Buenos Aires 1200, Neuquen (CP8300) (Argentina)

    2010-12-15

    An innovative technique is proposed with the aim of increasing the fatigue strength of rotary shouldered connections. The objective is to generate controlled compressive residual stresses at the most stressed zones (i.e., the threat root regions) to delay fatigue crack nucleation. The residual stresses are introduced through controlled application of an over-make-up torque of the joint and then returning to the nominal torque. The adequacy of the method was demonstrated through two experimental arrangements at laboratory scale, which employed specimens of reduced size. Results suggest that significant increases in the fatigue life of joints can be achieved applying this technique.

  12. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  13. Natural attenuation of heavy oil on a coarse sediment beach : results from Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia, Canada over 35 years following the Arrow oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, E.H. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA (United States); Prince, R.C. [ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc., Annandale, NJ (United States); Taylor, R.B. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2008-07-01

    In 1970, the tanker Arrow spilled bunker C oil into Black Duck Cove on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia. The coarse sediment beaches provided an accessible natural laboratory for the study of the long-term fate and persistence of stranded oil in a coastal marine environment. Although the site is well known to the oil spill scientific community, it has not been studied systematically and much remains to be learned regarding the physical and chemical processes that have been ongoing. More information is needed pertaining to the character of the oil residues and the reasons for their persistence. This paper summarized the knowledge that has been acquired collectively over the last 35 years. The focus was primarily on coarse sediments, including cobbles and boulders. All tidal zones at the site have both surface and subsurface oil deposits. The sediments whose pore spaces remain filled with oil are examples of stable oil-sediment deposits. Wave action is slowly eroding these asphalt pavements. Intertidal pore-filled sediments are resistant to physical processes, and sequestered subsurface residues coat the cobble-boulder sediments below the zone of sediment redistribution. The subsurface oils will probably remain until the sediment is disturbed by major storms or by landward barrier migration. Although the surface oil is highly biodegraded, the subsurface oil remains similar to that of the spilled material. It was concluded that subsurface residues will likely remain sequestered and unaltered for the foreseeable future. 26 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  15. Assessment of bioethanol yield by S. cerevisiae grown on oil palm residues: Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Mohd Dinie Muhaimin; Mat Don, Mashitah

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm trunk (OPT) sap was utilized for growth and bioethanol production by Saccharomycescerevisiae with addition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as nutrients supplier. Maximum yield (YP/S) was attained at 0.464g bioethanol/g glucose presence in the OPT sap-POME-based media. However, OPT sap and POME are heterogeneous in properties and fermentation performance might change if it is repeated. Contribution of parametric uncertainty analysis on bioethanol fermentation performance was then assessed using Monte Carlo simulation (stochastic variable) to determine probability distributions due to fluctuation and variation of kinetic model parameters. Results showed that based on 100,000 samples tested, the yield (YP/S) ranged 0.423-0.501g/g. Sensitivity analysis was also done to evaluate the impact of each kinetic parameter on the fermentation performance. It is found that bioethanol fermentation highly depend on growth of the tested yeast.

  16. Bubble column reactor fluid dynamic study at pilot plant scale for residue and extra heavy crude oil upgrading technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardella, R.; Medina, H. [Infrastructure and Upgrading Department PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela); Zacarias, L.; Paiva, M. [Refining Department. PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Bubble column reactors are used in several applications because of their simplicity and low cost; a new technology was developed to convert extra heavy crude oil into upgraded crude using a bubble column reactor. To design this kind of reactor, a lot of parameters like flow regime, gas hold up and dispersion coefficient have to be taken into account. This study aimed at determining the fluid dynamic behaviour of a bubble column working under Aquaconversion operating conditions. Experiments were undertaken on air-tap water and air-light oil systems under atmospheric conditions with various gas superficial velocities and liquid flowrates. Results showed that gas hold up increases with superficial gas velocity but is independent of liquid flowrate and that both systems tested work at the same flow regimes. This paper showed that under the experimental conditions used, this reactor tends to be a complete mixing reactor.

  17. Comparative study of residue pellets from cane sugar and palm-oil industries with commercial wood pellets, applied in downdraft gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlich, Catharina

    2009-10-15

    While biomass utilization for energy conversion in the industrialized nations is being largely developed, highly efficient and environmentally friendly, many tropical countries still use biomass at low efficiencies and high emission levels. The main reasons for these gaps are both political and technological: the energy markets are different, the Gross National Product (GDP) differs widely, and the feedstock differs in form and conversion behaviour. By implementing newer technologies adapted for tropical biomass feedstock, there would be a large potential in these countries for increased energy services since access to modern energy still is an essential step for improving the GDP for a country. Two dominant and tropically placed industries available for energy improvements are the cane sugar and palm-oil industries, which both produce an abundant amount of biomass residues. One step towards enhanced utilization of the residues, which would not require large investment costs in the power plant section nor in the processes of these industries, would be to install a pelletizing unit in the industry area to make fuel out of the excess residues for sale to the nearby villages. The pellets could be used both for cooking/heating and for small-scale power generation in a gasification-IC engine plant. The overall objective of this study is to experimentally evaluate the biomass residues in pellet form from the cane sugar and palm oil industries during conversion to useful energy in small-scale systems. The thesis is built upon five publications which include experimental analysis on flaming pyrolysis and rapid heating of pellets (paper I), pyrolysis in oxygen-free atmosphere and slow heating with subsequent steam gasification (paper II), global pelletizing data such as relative energy consumption, temperature levels, particle size and moisture content for successful pelletizing process (paper III), downdraft gasification evaluation including reactor temperature

  18. Exploration of a mechanism for the production of highly unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. at low temperature grown on oil crop residue based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinghan; Li, Kun; Li, Jingjing; Han, Pei; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang

    2017-11-01

    The ability of algae to produce lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids varies with strains and culture conditions. This study investigates the effect of temperature on the production of unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. grown on oil crop residue based medium. At low temperature (10°C), synthesis of lipids compromising of high contents of unsaturated fatty acids took place primarily in the early stage while protein accumulation mainly occurred in the late stage. This stepwise lipid-protein synthesis process was found to be associated with the contents of acetyl-CoA and α-KG in the algal cells. A mechanism was proposed and tested through simulation experiments which quantified the carbon flux allocation in algal cells at different cultivation stages. It is concluded that low culture temperature such as 10°C is suitable for the production of lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Component Analysis of GRASSE Rose Residue Oil%格拉斯玫瑰花渣精油的成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永来; 张静菊; 郭锋; 马顺

    2012-01-01

    The rose oil extracted from GRASSE rose residue after steam distillation by molecular distillation technique is rich in many kinds of chemical constituents, and it was analyzed by GC-MS method. The results showed, there were 101 kinds of constituents identified which total content was 99. 91%, including esters, alkenes, followed by alkanes and acids. The main constituents were phenylethanol and geraniol, which account to 21.82% and 7.22% respectively. Through comparative analysis, we found, the citronellol of rose flowers mainly existed in rose oil by steam distillation, and phenylethanol mainly existed in rose residue.%用分子蒸馏技术从经水蒸气蒸馏提油后的格拉斯玫瑰花渣中提取玫瑰精油.其所含化学成分的种类较为丰富,采用GC/MS方法对此格拉斯玫瑰花渣精油进行分析,共检测出101种成分,总含量达99.91%.其中酯类、烯类最多,其次为烷类和酸类.主要成分为苯乙醇和香叶醇,苯乙醇含量为21.82%,香叶醇含量为7.22%.通过成分对比分析发现,玫瑰鲜花中的香茅醇主要存在于采用水蒸气蒸馏提取的玫瑰油中,苯乙醇主要存在于花渣中.

  20. Larvicidal activity of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils and blends of their constituents against mosquito, Aedes aegypti , acute toxicity on water flea, Daphnia magna , and aqueous residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Hye-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-06-13

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 20 plant essential oils and components from ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils against the mosquito, Aedes aegypti . Of the 20 plant essential oils, ajowan and Peru balsam oils at 0.1 mg/mL exhibited 100 and 97.5% larval mortality, respectively. At this same concentration, the individual constituents, (+)-camphene, benzoic acid, thymol, carvacrol, benzyl benzonate, and benzyl trans-cinnamate, caused 100% mortality. The toxicity of blends of constituents identified in two active oils indicated that thymol and benzyl benzoate were major contributors to the larvicidal activity of the artificial blend. This study also tested the acute toxicity of these two active oils and their major constituents against the water flea, Daphnia magna . Peru balsam oil and benzyl trans-cinnamate were the most toxic to D. magna. Two days after the treatment, residues of ajowan and Peru balsalm oils in water were 36.2 and 85.1%, respectively. Less than 50% of benzyl trans-cinnamate and thymol were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. The results show that the essential oils of ajowan and Peru balsam and some of their constituents have potential as botanical insecticides against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae.

  1. Supercritical Extraction from Vinification Residues: Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, and Phenolic Compounds in the Oil Seeds from Different Varieties of Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agostini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel, harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40% in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%, 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives.

  2. Non-isothermal and isothermal TG study of sub-zone R4 of Taraya`s oil shale residual carbon under a reactive atmosphere (N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub v})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabih, K.; Boukhari, A. [Universite Mohammed 5, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de la Chimie du Solide Appliquee; Cordero, T.; Rodriguez-Mirasol, J. [Malaga Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica Inorganica

    1997-12-31

    Non-isothermal and isothermal analysis of Tarfaya`s oil shale residual carbon has been studied under a reactive atmosphere (mixture of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O). The non-isothermal results show that the reactive atmosphere enhances the decomposition of the residual carbon much more than nitrogen and that this decomposition depends on the heating rate used to generate this residual carbon. The kinetics analysis indicates the possibility of two consecutive first order reactions. The isothermal weight change determination was carried out under the same atmosphere at different temperatures and reveals also the presence of two consecutive first order decomposition reactions. (orig.)

  3. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from oil-extracted microalgae residues via two-step H2/CH4 or H2/butanol anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Shu-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Algae-based biodiesel is considered a promising alternative energy; therefore, the treatment of microalgae residues would be necessary. Anaerobic processes can be used for treating oil-extracted microalgae residues (OMR) and at the same time for recovering bioenergy. In this study, anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of recovering bioenergy, in the forms of butanol, H2, or CH4, from pretreated OMR. Using pretreated OMR as the only substrate, a butanol yield of 0.086 g/g-carbohydrate was obtained at carbohydrate of 40 g/L. With supplemented butyrate, a highest butanol yield of 0.192 g/g-carbohydrate was achieved at pretreated OMR containing 25 g/L of carbohydrate with 15 g/L of butyrate addition, attaining the highest energy yield of 3.92 kJ/g-OMR and energy generation rate of 0.65 kJ/g-OMR/d. CH4 production from pretreated OMR attained an energy yield of 8.83 kJ/g-OMR, but energy generation rate required further improvement. H2 production alone from pretreated OMR might not be attractive regarding energy yield, but it attained a superb energy generation rate of 0.68 kJ/g-OMR/d by combining H2 production from pretreated OMR and butanol production from pretreated OMR with supplementary butyrate from H2 fermentation supernatant. This study demonstrated an integrated system as an option for treating OMR and recovering bioenergy.

  4. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, So Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery. PMID:28154606

  5. 强边水普通稠油断块油藏挖潜研究%Study of residual oil tapping of heavy oil reservoir fault with strong edge water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤启东

    2014-01-01

    针对Z43断块普通稠油强边水油藏目前开发中存在的问题,开展了剩余油挖潜技术研究。在控油断层、微构造、隔夹层等地质精细研究的基础上,建立了三维地质模型。开展普通稠油油藏高含水期剩余油分布研究,制定了挖潜方案,提出了常规井、侧钻井继续落实控油断层,短井段水平井挖潜剩余油的思路,现场实施取得了较好的效果。该断块类型油藏的成功挖潜对类似油藏后期开发具有一定的指导意义。%Aiming at the existing problems in developing normal heavy reservoirs in fault Z43, remaining oil potential tapping tech-nique of fault block Z43 was researched. On the basis of detailed study of oil-controlling fault, micro structure, interlayer and so on, 3D geological model was built to study the remaining oil distribution during high water cut stage of normal heavy reservoir, make plans of potential tapping and put forward the ideas of continue to implement the oil tomography of regular wells and side-tracking wells and potential tapping of horizontal wells with short section. Site implementation obtained great result. The success of potential tapping of this reservoir block type has significance for the later development of similar reservoirs.

  6. 茶树油清除豇豆农药残留的效果%Effects of tea tree oils on removing pesticide residue in cowpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽静; 程盛华; 李积华; 黄茂芳; 唐永富; 朱德明

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used as an insurance policy against devastating crop losses from pests and diseases. Excessive usage of pesticides may lead to contamination of the crop and the environment, eventually posing a risk of pesticide-related illnesses to humans. Previous literature has shown that water washing is only partially effective in removing pesticides, and in the case of liposoluble pesticides, a cosolvent must be used as an adjuvant. Recently, naturally occurring adjuvants are gaining prominence over synthetic chemical compounds. Tea tree oil (TTO, the oil of Melaleuca alternifolia), a natural, volatile essential oil, is mainly extracted by steam distillation from the fresh leaves and terminal branchlets of the plant. It has attracted significant interest due to its antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial bioactivities. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are fewer experimental data evaluating its efficacy in the removal of pesticide residues. In this study, the effects of TTO on removing pesticide residue were carried out in the cowpea. Volume:volume (v:v) concentrations of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% of TTO and water soluble tea tree oil (WTTO) in water were used to remove a standardized pesticide mixture (organophosphorus, pyrethroid, and carbamate compounds) from cowpeas. Sample pretreatment (pesticide application to cowpeas) was performed according to agricultural industry standards. The objective pesticide residues in cowpeas were assayed by gas chromatography (GC) and chromatography-mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS), and then the clearance rate was calculated. The results showed that TTO was able to remove the three kinds of pesticides from cowpeas. Moreover, the removal efficiency increased with increasing concentration of TTO. The effect of clearing organophosphate was much more obvious than that of either pyrethroid or carbamate. It was suggested that small liposoluble molecules of TTO rapidly infiltrate the cowpea surface to

  7. Congener specific determination of toxaphene residues in fish liver oil using gas chromatography coupled to ion trap MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, F J Guzmán; Fernández, M A; González, M J

    2005-10-01

    A new approach to the determination of six toxaphene congeners in edible stuff has been accomplished. The analytical procedure presented in this paper involves a single-step cleanup process prior to the analysis. A solution containing three (13)C labelled polychlorinated biphenyls was used as internal standard and tetrachloronaphtalene was used as injection standard. The analytical technique used was gas chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry detector in MS/MS mode. The parameters affecting the successive fragmentations were discussed and optimized. The limits of detection ranged from 2 to 49pg microl(-1). The toxaphene congeners were determined in two different fish liver oil pills sold in Spain as a supplementary vitamin support.

  8. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for petroleum oils (CAS 92062-35-6 according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance petroleum oils (CAS 92062-35-6. Considering that this active substance is no longer authorised within the European Union, that no MRLs are established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and that no import tolerances were notified to EFSA, residues of petroleum oils (CAS 92062-35-6 are not expected to occur in any plant or animal commodity. Available data were also not sufficient to derive a residue definition or an LOQ for enforcement against potential illegal uses.

  9. Experimental application of ultrasound waves to improved oil recovery during waterflooding

    OpenAIRE

    Emad Alhomadhi; Mohammad Amro; Mohammad Almobarky

    2014-01-01

    In oil reservoirs about 40% of the original oil in place is produced and the rest remains as residual oil after primary and secondary oil recovery due to geological and physical factors. Additional oil can be mobilized by applying some improved oil recovery methods. However, there is no universal IOR method to be implemented in any reservoir. Efforts are made to develop IOR methods with lower risk. One of these methods is the application of sound/ultrasound waves in the reservoirs to overcome...

  10. Effects of Fe2+, Co2+and Ni2+Ions on Biological Methane Production from Residual Heavy Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chunshuang; Ma Wenjuan; Zhao Dongfeng; Jia Kuili; Zhao Chaocheng

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of single factor tests, the effect of trace elements—Fe2+, Co2+and Ni2+ions—on biological methane production from heavy oil was investigated by the response surface method. A three-level Box-Behnken design was em-ployed to study the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable by applying initial Fe2+, Co2+and Ni2+concentration as the independent variables (factors) and using the methane production after 270 days of cultivation as the dependent variable (response). A prediction model of quadramatic polynomial regression equation was obtained. The results showed that the methane production could be as high as 240.69 µmol after optimization compared with 235.74 µmol obtained under un-optimized condition. Furthermore, the microbial communities before and after biodegradation were ana-lyzed by PCR-DGGE method. The dominant bands were recovered and sequenced. Three strains were obtained;the strain T1 has 97%similarity with Bacillus thermoamylovorans, the strain H3 has 97%similarity with Bacillus thermoamylovorans and the strain H4 has 99%similarity with Bacillus vietnamensis.

  11. 毛细管气相色谱法测定市售食用油中残留溶剂的研究%Determination of Residual Solvent Contents in Edible Oils by Capillary Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄韬睿; 王鑫

    2012-01-01

    6# solvent will residues in edible oils as the extraction solvent in process of Oil extraction.6# solvent has a lot of harm to quality of oil and health of human.Pressed oil should not contain 6# solvent because of the different process.So we can determine the quality of the pressed oil by detect the 6# solvent in the oil.In this research,Capillary Gas Chromatography detector is used to determine the residue of 6﹟ solvent in pressed oils which sold in Chengdu and Guangyuan market.The results of determine will provide a support in data to supervision of edible oils.%浸出法制油的过程中主要使用六号溶剂作为浸出溶剂,该方法难免造成六号溶剂在食用油中的残留,六号溶剂对食用油的品质以及人体健康都有诸多害处,而压榨油因为生产工艺不同,其中不应该含有六号溶剂的残留。顾可根据检测压榨油中是否含有六号溶剂判断压榨油中是否添加浸出油。本文建立了毛细管气相检测食用油中六号溶剂残留量的方法,并对成都和广元市场市售的压榨食用油进行了初步的检测,为两地食用油市场的监管提供初步的数据支持。

  12. Application of RMT Residual Oil Saturation Logging Technology in Tahe Oilfield%RMT剩余油饱和度测井技术在塔河油田的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡全发; 李晓宇; 郝身立; 王琳; 阚朝晖

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the principle of RMT residual oil saturation logging, focuses on the advantages of RMT residual oil satura-tion logging technology and its application in Tahe oilfield. The application of RMT logging can re-evaluate the various geological parameters of reservoir after waterflooding, and provide accurate porosity, residual oil saturation and other physical property and oily parameters for oil-field development.%文章介绍了RMT剩余油饱和度测井原理,着重分析了RMT剩余油饱和度测井技术优势及在塔河油田的应用,应用RMT测井新技术可对储层水淹后的各种地质参数进行重新评价,为油田后期开发提供准确的孔隙度,剩余油饱和度等物性和含油性参数,具有非常广的应用前景。

  13. Technology Study on Producing High Melting Point Microcrystalline Wax From Shenbei/Daqing Vacuum Residue Oil%沈北/大庆减压渣油生产高熔点微晶蜡工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秀英; 陈白莉; 杜晓敏; 王玉玲; 范燕

    2013-01-01

      沈北/大庆减压渣油中含有丰富的微晶蜡。将渣油亚临界丙烷脱沥青得到轻脱油,再经酮苯脱油-白土精制生产高熔点微晶蜡。说明大庆、沈北混合原油减压渣油经脱沥青等系列工艺处理生产光亮油和微晶蜡的技术可行性,提出了大庆、沈北混合原油减压渣油综合利用的途径。%There is abundant microcrystalline wax in Shenbei/Taqing vacuum residue oil. Light deasphalting oil is often obtained from vacuum residue oil by subcritical propane deasphalting process, then microcrystalline wax with high melting point can be produced by butanone-toluene solvent deoiling and clay-treated refining. In this paper,the technical and economic feasibility of producing bright stock and microcrystalline wax from the vacuum residue of Daqing and Shenbei mixed crude by deasphalting etc.processes was discussed according to the pilot plant test results .Utilization ways of vacuum residue of Daqing and Shenbei mixed crude were put forward.

  14. Materials balance on a chemically-dispersed oil and a whole oil exposed to an experimental beach front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, C.; Sumner, P.; Autenrieth, R. [Texas A and M Univ., Civil Engineering Dept., College Station, TX (United States); Bonner, J.; McDonald, T. [Texas A and M Univ., The Conrad Blucher Inst., Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A ten-day experiment simulating an oil spill and investigating the fate of both dispersed and whole oil in a near-shore environment was carried out at a wave tank facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. At one end of each tank, a sandy beach was configured and influent water was pumped from nearby Laguna Madre. The influent water flow was varied to simulate high and low tides, while the effluent rate was held constant. After oil application, time-dependent sediment and water column samples were taken throughout the ten-day experimental period, and materials balance on the oil was determined for both oil treatments using total petroleum hydrocarbon results from gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis. Results showed that after 10 days nearly half of the applied oil in the oiled treatment remained in the tank, either sorbed to sediments, tank surfaces or other available surfaces within the tanks. The remaining oil was removed via the effluent. In the case of the dispersed oil all of the oil was flushed from the tanks with no detectable oil remaining on the sediments, suggesting that in an environmental context the use of dispersants can reduce the accumulation of residual oil on a sandy beach. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Materials balance on a chemically-dispersed oil and a whole oil exposed to an experimental beach front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, C.; Sumner, P.; Autenrieth, R. [Texas A and M Univ., Civil Engineering Dept., College Station, TX (United States); Bonner, J.; McDonald, T. [Texas A and M Univ., The Conrad Blucher Inst., Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1999-08-01

    A ten-day experiment simulating an oil spill and investigating the fate of both dispersed and whole oil in a near-shore environment was carried out at a wave tank facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. At one end of each tank, a sandy beach was configured and influent water was pumped from nearby Laguna Madre. The influent water flow was varied to simulate high and low tides, while the effluent rate was held constant. After oil application, time-dependent sediment and water column samples were taken throughout the ten-day experimental period, and materials balance on the oil was determined for both oil treatments using total petroleum hydrocarbon results from gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis. Results showed that after 10 days nearly half of the applied oil in the oiled treatment remained in the tank, either sorbed to sediments, tank surfaces or other available surfaces within the tanks. The remaining oil was removed via the effluent. In the case of the dispersed oil all of the oil was flushed from the tanks with no detectable oil remaining on the sediments, suggesting that in an environmental context the use of dispersants can reduce the accumulation of residual oil on a sandy beach. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Residue determination and levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with oil palm plantation in Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ismail, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    Levels of glyphosate and its main metabolite were determined in surface water, soil and sediment samples from an oil palm plantation area located at Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia. The optimization analytical method has been developed for the determination of glyphosate herbicide and its metabolite amino-methyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA) in surface waters to a level of 0.1μg/L, while in sediments and soils to a level of 0.5μg/g with a good linearity in the calibration range of 1-100μg/L. The procedure involves a pre-columnderivatization step with 9-fluorenyl-methyl-chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) yielding highly fluorescent derivatives of the analytes which can be determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. In the field, levels of glyphosate in surface waters ranges from not detected to 1.0mg/L, while in soils and sediments were from not detected to 6.0mg/kg. For AMPA, the residues in surface waters were between not detected to 2.0mg/L, while in soil and sediment samples were from not detected to 5mg/kg. This variation of glyphosate and AMPA levels depended directly on time of pesticide application and the season.

  17. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.; Johnson, Charles B.; Garshelis, David L.; Parker, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001–2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI. PMID:20862194

  18. Preparation of a novel carbon-based solid acid from cassava stillage residue and its use for the esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingtao; Dong, Xiuqin; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Zhang, Minhua

    2014-04-01

    A novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of incompletely carbonized cassava stillage residue (CSR) with concentrated sulfuric acid, and employed to catalyze the esterification of methanol and free fatty acids (FFAs) in waste cooking oil (WCO). The effects of the carbonization and the sulfonation temperatures on the pore structure, acid density and catalytic activity of the CSR-derived catalysts were systematically investigated. Low temperature carbonization and high temperature sulfonation can cause the collapse of the carbon framework, while high temperature carbonization is not conducive to the attachment of SO3H groups on the surface. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity for esterification, and the acid value for WCO is reduced to below 2mg KOH/g after reaction. The activity of catalyst can be well maintained after five cycles. CSR can be considered a promising raw material for the production of a new eco-friendly solid acid catalyst. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Belmont, R; Carvajal, M

    1998-05-01

    The effects of 11 plant essential oils for maize kernel protection against Aspergillus flavus were studied. Tests were conducted to determine optimal levels of dosages for maize protection, effects of combinations of essential oils, and residual effects and toxicity of essential oils to maize plants. Principal constituents of eight essential oils were tested for ability to protect maize kernels. Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Ocimum basilicum (basil), Origanum vulgare (origanum), Teloxys ambrosioides (the flavoring herb epazote), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) caused a total inhibition of fungal development on maize kernels. Thymol and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde significantly reduced maize grain contamination. The optimal dosage for protection of maize varied from 3 to 8%. Combinations of C. zeylanicum with the remaining oils gave efficient control. A residual effect of C. zeylanicum was detected after 4 weeks of kernel treatment. No phytotoxic effect on germination and corn growth was detected with any of these oils.

  20. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Technological conditions of removing residual soap from alkali refined soybean oil%废白土脱除碱炼脱酸大豆油中残皂工艺条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑彦芳; 魏安池; 代红丽; 赵凯艳; 宋海东

    2015-01-01

    以废白土为吸附剂,对碱炼脱酸大豆油中残皂的脱除进行了研究。在单因素实验的基础上进行响应面优化实验设计,确定了脱皂的最佳工艺条件为:吸附温度82℃,废白土添加量0.5%,吸附时间20 min。在最佳条件下,脱皂大豆油中的残皂量为29.09 mg/kg,脱皂率达91.81%,且短时期(3 d)内存放的废白土脱皂率大于85%。%With waste clay as adsorbent, the removal of residual soap from alkali refined soybean oil was studied. Based on single factor experiment, the optimal conditions of removing residual soap were ob-tained by response surface methodology as follows: adsorption temperature 82℃, dosage of waste clay 0. 5% and adsorption time 20 min. The content of residual soap and the removal rate of residual soap were 29. 09 mg/kg and 91. 81% under these conditions, meanwhile the removal rate of residual soap with short time (3 d) saved waste clay was over 85%.

  2. Study on distribution of reservoir endogenous microbe and oil displacement mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ming; Zhu, Weiyao; Song, Zhiyong; Long, Yunqian; Song, Hongqing

    2017-02-01

    In order to research oil displacement mechanism by indigenous microbial communities under reservoir conditions, indigenous microbial flooding experiments using the endogenous mixed bacterium from Shengli Oilfield were carried out. Through microscopic simulation visual model, observation and analysis of distribution and flow of the remaining oil in the process of water flooding and microbial oil displacement were conducted under high temperature and high pressure conditions. Research has shown that compared with atmospheric conditions, the growth of the microorganism metabolism and attenuation is slowly under high pressure conditions, and the existence of the porous medium for microbial provides good adhesion, also makes its growth cycle extension. The microbial activities can effectively launch all kinds of residual oil, and can together with metabolites, enter the blind holes off which water flooding, polymer flooding and gas flooding can't sweep, then swap out remaining oil, increase liquidity of the crude oil and remarkably improve oil displacement effect.

  3. 石油套管偏磨后剩余强度的模拟分析∗%Simulation Analysis on Eccentric Wear and Remaining Strength of Oil Casing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于浩; 练章华; 冯智; 于文明; 刘永辉; 张强; 王付会

    2015-01-01

    基于钻柱接头与套管磨损试验结果,采用Dawson和White的能量损失磨损理论计算得到套管磨损系数。运用ABAQUS建立钻柱接头-套管偏磨的三维有限元模型,采用二次开发的Umeshmotion子程序和Arbitrary Lagrange⁃Euler自适应网格技术准确模拟钻进过程中的套管局部偏磨过程,并对磨损后的套管的剩余抗挤和抗内压强度进行分析。结果表明:套管磨损后的形状为“月牙形”,且磨损最大深度与磨损时间呈非线性关系,而套管剩余强度与磨损最大深度近似呈线性关系;套管磨损对剩余抗挤强度影响最大,当剩余壁厚小于50%时,套管失去抵抗外挤作用的能力,但仍然具有一定的抗内压强度;发生偏磨后的套管被外挤和内压载荷作用而破坏的形式分别为挤扁毁坏和拉断毁坏。%Based on the experimental data of friction and wear test of drill joint and casing,the joint⁃casing wear coeffi⁃cient was calculated by using the energy loss wear theory of Dawson and White.The three dimensional (3D) finite element model of joint⁃casing eccentric wear was constructed by using ABAQUS. The process of casing partial eccentric wear in drilling was exactly stimulated by using redevelopment Umeshmotion user subroutine and Arbitrary Lagrange⁃Euler adaptive meshing techniques to adjust the location of the wear node timely,and the remaining strength of collapse and burst of cas⁃ing after wear was analyzed.The result of research demonstrates that the shape of worn casing is crescent,and the maximum wear depth by numerical simulation presents non⁃linear relationship with the time.Moreover the remaining strength of cas⁃ing presents approximate linear relationship with the increasing of the maximum wear depth.Casing wear impacts the remai⁃ning collapse strength at most.When the remaining thickness is less than 50%,the casing will lost the load capacity of col⁃lapse but it still has

  4. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, Deborah R. [CESyMA, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Silvia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Evelson, Pablo, E-mail: pevelson@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  5. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 2. Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: residual oil determination; thermal methods; heavy oil-tar sands; technology transfer; and carbon dioxide flooding. Individual papers were processed.

  6. Caracterização dos óleos de algumas sementes de frutas como aproveitamento de resíduos industriais Characterization of some seed oils of fruits for utilization of industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Nanci Kobori

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade deste estudo foi caracterizar os óleos extraídos das sementes de laranja, maracujá, tomate e goiaba, como aproveitamento de resíduos industriais. Os óleos foram extraídos das sementes em um extrator Soxhlet, utilizando como solvente o éter de petróleo e a caracterização dos mesmos foi realizada por meio de métodos analíticos padrões para óleos e gorduras (ácidos graxos livres, índices de peróxidos, refração, iodo, saponificação, matéria insaponificável e estabilidade oxidativa. As análises realizadas indicaram que esses óleos possuem características físico-químicas semelhantes a alguns óleos comestíveis, podendo ser uma nova fonte de óleos para o consumo humano.The purpose of this study was to characterize the extracted oils of the seeds of tomato, orange, passion fruit and guava with the objective of using industrial residues. The oils were extracted from the seeds with a Soxhlet extractor, using petroleum ether as solvent, and were characterized by standard methods for oil and fat analysis (free fatty acids, peroxide value, refractive index, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and oxidative stability. The analyses accomplished indicate that these oils possess similar physicochemical characteristics as some edible oils, them they can be a new source of oils for human consumption.

  7. Elastic Waves Push Residual Organic Fluids From Saturated Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, I. A.; Vigil, R. D.; Li, W.

    2004-12-01

    With world oil reserves dwindling and production shifting to increasingly forbidding environments, the emphasis is greater than ever on the more efficient extraction of the existing oil. Yet typically up to two-thirds of the U. S. domestic oil is abandoned underground. Elastic waves have been observed to increase productivity of oil wells, although the reason for the vibratory motion mobilizing the residual organic fluids has remained unclear. Residual oil is entrapped as blobs or ganglia in narrow pore constrictions due to the resisting capillary forces that prevent free motion of non-wetting fluids driven by water. A finite external pressure gradient, exceeding an "unplugging" threshold, is needed to carry the residual ganglia through. We show that vibrations help overcome the resistance of capillary forces by adding an oscillatory inertial forcing to the external gradient; when the vibratory forcing acts along the gradient and the threshold is exceeded, instant "unplugging" occurs. This mechanism predicts the mobilization effect to be proportional to the amplitude and inversely proportional to the frequency of vibrations. We observe this dependence in a laboratory experiment, in which residual saturation of an organic fluid is created in a glass micromodel, and mobilization of the dyed ganglia is monitored using digital photography. We also directly demonstrate the release of an entrapped ganglion from a pore constriction by the application of vibrations in a computational fluid-dynamics simulation. The technologies that can utilize this phenomenon are not limited to enhanced oil recovery, but also apply to the remediation of groundwater contaminated by leaks from underground storage tanks and surface spills of organic fluids.

  8. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  9. Parasite remains in archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bouchet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefly surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  10. 重油残渣焦水蒸气气化反应特性的研究%Steam gasification reactivity of chars from heavy oil residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乾; 李庆峰; 房倚天; 张林仙

    2012-01-01

    The gasification reactivity of heavy oil residue chars in steam atmosphere was studied by Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) and micro-crystalite of the char was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of heating rate,pyrolysis temperature,residence time,gasification temperature and the partial pressure of steam were evaluated separately. The results show that at 950℃ and 60% partial steam pressure,gasification reactivity of chars formed at slow heating rate is lower than that formed at fast heating rate. With increasing pyrolysis temperature and residence time,the reactivity of char decreases. Gasification temperature is the main factor influencing the gasification rate. From 900 to 1 050℃ the gasification time is almost halved with the increasing temperature of 50℃. The increasing of steam partial pressure can improve the gasification rates greatly until the partial pressure comes to 60% ,and after that it has no significant effect. The homogeneous model and the shrinking core model were used to characterize the gasification kinetic parameters. The later model is better and the apparent activation energy is 195. 0 kJ/mol,the preexponentiol factor A0 is 2. 6×l07min-1.%采用常压热重分析仪,研究了重油残渣焦的水蒸气气化反应性,主要考察了热解温度、升温速率、停留时间及气化反应温度、气化剂分压对重油残渣焦水蒸气气化反应的影响,并借助XRD对残渣焦进行了分析表征.结果表明,气化温度950℃,60%水蒸气分压条件下,快速热解焦比慢速热解焦的气化反应性高;随制焦温度(500 ~ 900℃)的提高及停留时间的延长,焦的气化反应性降低.气化温度是影响重油残渣焦气化反应的主要因素,在900 ~1 050℃,温度每提高50℃,重油残渣焦气化反应时间几乎减半;随着水蒸气分压的提高,气化反应速率增加,但当气化剂分压高于60%时,其对气化反应影响较小.采用均相模型和缩核

  11. 稀碱预处理棕榈残渣制备纤维乙醇%Pretreatment of oil palm residues by dilute alkali for cellulosic ethanol production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 周玉杰; 李晋平; 戴玲妹; 刘德华; 张建安; Yuen May Choo; Soh Kheang Loh

    2013-01-01

    In the study, we used oil palm residues (empty fruit bunch, EFB) as raw material to produce cellulosic ethanol by pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Firstly, the pretreatment of EFB with alkali, alkali/hydrogen peroxide and the effects on the components and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose were studied. The results show that dilute alkali was the suitable pretreatment method and the conditions were first to soak the substrate with 1% sodium hydroxide with a solid-liquid ratio of 1:10 at 40 ℃ for 24 h, and then subjected to 121 ℃ for 30 min. Under the conditions, EFB solid recovery was 74.09%, and glucan, xylan and lignin content were 44.08%, 25.74% and 13.89%, respectively. After separated with alkali solution, the pretreated EFB was washed and hydrolyzed for 72 h with 5% substrate concentration and 30 FPU/g dry mass (DM) enzyme loading, and the conversion of glucan and xylan reached 84.44% and 89.28%, respectively. We further investigated the effects of substrate concentration and enzyme loading on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The results show that when enzyme loading was 30 FPU/g DM and substrate concentration was increased from 5% to 25%, ethanol concentration were 9.76 g/L and 35.25 g/L after 72 h fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (inoculum size 5%, V/V), which was 79.09% and 56.96% of ethanol theory yield.%以棕榈残渣(Empty fruit bunch,EFB)为原料,通过预处理、酶解、发酵等过程制备纤维乙醇.首先对比了碱、碱/过氧化氢等预处理条件对棕榈残渣组成及酶解的影响,结果表明稀碱预处理效果较好.适宜的稀碱预处理条件为:NaOH浓度为1%,固液比为1∶10,在40℃浸泡24 h后于121℃下保温30 min,在该条件下,EFB的固体回收率为74.09%,纤维素、半纤维素和木质素的含量分别为44.08%、25.74%和13.89%.对该条件下预处理后的固体样品,以底物浓度5

  12. A Promising Material by Using Residue Waste from Bisphenol A Manufacturing to Prepare Fluid-Loss-Control Additive in Oil Well Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The residues mixture from Bisphenol A manufacturing process was analyzed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were used to characterize the residues. The results indicated that the residues were complex mixture of several molecules. 3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl-1,1,3-trimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-ol and phenol were the main components of the residues. The technical feasibility of using it as phenol replacement in fluid-loss-control additive production was also investigated. The fluid-loss-control capacity of the novel additive was systematically investigated. It was discovered that the well fluid-loss performance of the prepared additive can be achieved, especially at high temperature.

  13. Organic Chemicals Remain High Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Phenol In early April 2007, China's phenol price remained bullish, and with the restart of phenol/acetone units in Sinopec Beijing Yanhua Petrochemical being ahead of schedule, there were few trading actions in the market, and the price of phenol dropped considerably afterwards.

  14. Optimization and microbial community analysis for production of biogas from solid waste residues of palm oil mill industry by solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksong, Wantanasak; Kongjan, Prawit; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Imai, Tsuyoshi; O-Thong, Sompong

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the improvement of biogas production from solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of oil palm biomass by optimizing of total solids (TS) contents, feedstock to inoculum (F:I) ratios and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratios. Highest methane yield from EFB, OPF and OPT of 358, 280 and 324m(3)CH4ton(-1)VS, respectively, was achieved at TS content of 16%, C:N ratio of 30:1 and F:I ratio of 2:1. The main contribution to methane from biomass was the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose. The highest methane production of 72m(3)CH4ton(-1) biomass was achieved from EFB. Bacteria community structure in SS-AD process of oil palm biomass was dominated by Ruminococcus sp. and Clostridium sp., while archaea community was dominated by Methanoculleus sp. Oil palm biomass has great potential for methane production via SS-AD.

  15. 核桃渣中油脂和蛋白的水剂法同步提取工艺%Study on Aqueous Synchronous Extraction of Oil and Protein from Walnut Milk Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彬球; 陈朝银; 葛锋; 刘迪秋; 段秀

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous synchronous extraction of oil and protein from walnut milk residues was investigated.Through single factor experiment,the best process conditions was: pH 11.5,ratio of solid to liquid 1∶8,lixiviated at 50℃ for 5h.Under the above conditions,the oil yield was 26.05%,the protein yield was 10.72%.Freezing and thawing demulsification was used to increased oil yield.The average yield of the free oilⅡ after demulsification was 43.05%.%对核桃渣中油脂和蛋白质进行了水剂法同步提取分离工艺研究。经单因素实验,获得了适宜的工艺条件为:兑水pH 11.5,料液比(g∶ml)1∶8,浸提温度50℃和浸提时间5 h。在此条件下,油脂得率为26.05%,蛋白质得率为10.72%。工艺过程中采用冻融法破乳增加油脂得率,破乳后的清油Ⅱ平均得率为43.05%以上。

  16. Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, A.L.

    1980-08-15

    The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

  17. Investigation effect of wettability and heterogeneity in water flooding and on microscopic residual oil distribution in tight sandstone cores with NMR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Pufu; Leng, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Hanmin; Sun, Linghui; Zhang, Haiqin; Mei, Shisheng; Zhang, Hanyu

    2017-08-01

    In order to explore the effect of wettability and pore throat heterogeneity on oil recovery efficiency in porous media, physical simulation experiment and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were conducted to investigate how crude oil residing in different sized pores are recovered by water flooding. Experimental results indicate that the recovery factor of water flooding is governed by spontaneous imbibition and also pore throat heterogeneity. It is found that intermediate wetting cores lead to the highest final recovery factor in comparison with water wet cores and weak oil wet cores, and the recovery oil difference in clay micro pore is mainly because of the wettability, the difference in medium pore and large pore is affected by pore throat heterogeneity. Water wet core has a lower recovery factor in medium and large pore due to its poor heterogeneity, in spite of the spontaneous imbibition effect is very satisfying. Intermediate wetting cores has significant result in different sized pore and throat, the difference in medium pore and large pore is affected by pore throat heterogeneity.

  18. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass and Algal Residues via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, T. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Beginning in 2010, UOP, along with the Department of Energy and other project partners, designed a pathway for an integrated biorefinery to process solid biomass into transportation fuel blendstocks. The integrated biorefinery (IBR) would convert second generation feedstocks into pyrolysis oil which would then be upgraded into fuel blendstocks without the limitations of traditional biofuels.

  19. Alarms Remain,Efforts Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ China must come to terms with the fact that it has quality problems in at least 1% of its products.Though there is no country in the world that can completely avoid problems,given the responsible role China plays on the intemational stage,China should stop to take a look at itself and find ways to improve.China must examine herself carefully,when looking at the production chain;we have to keep aware that some alarms still remain.

  20. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  1. Technological alternatives for the handling of high viscosity heavy crude oil and of petroleum residuals; Alternativas tecnologicas para el manejo de crudos pesados de alta viscosidad y residuales de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez S, Ramon; Peralta M, Maria Vita; Gonzalez Santalo, Jose M.; Herrera V, J. Ramon; Arriola M, Alejandro M.; Manzanares P, Emilio; Romo M, Cesar A.; Palacios L, Elvia M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the technological capacity that, through the years, has been developed in emulsions of heavy oil in water preparations, as well as the potential application that this technology has in the electrical sector and the problem reduction during the extraction and handling of high viscosity heavy oils. Within this technological development it first appears the process for the formation of emulsions of residual petroleum within lots, followed by the preparation of emulsions in a continuous way within a laboratory model, and finally the production in greater scale in a pilot plant, including more and more adequate tense-actives for the formation of emulsions. Also experimental systems are presented to execute static stability and dynamic tests in different conditions, pumping tests for the handling of these emulsions and burning tests for their combustion. All of this with the purpose of consolidating the technology of residual petroleum emulsions as a profitable alternative that replaces the heavy fuel oil and to solve specific problems of the oil industry, among other benefits. [Spanish] Este trabajo exhibe la capacidad tecnologica que, a traves de los anos, se ha desarrollado en la preparacion de emulsiones de aceites pesados en agua; asi como el potencial de aplicacion que tiene dicha tecnologia en el sector electrico y la reduccion de problemas durante la extraccion y manejo de aceites pesados de alta viscosidad. Dentro de este desarrollo tecnologico figura primero el proceso para la formacion de emulsiones de residuales de petroleo dentro de lotes, seguido por la preparacion de emulsiones en continuo dentro de un laboratorio modelo, y finalmente la produccion a mayor escala en una planta piloto, incluyendo cada vez mas adecuados tenso-activos para la formacion de las emulsiones. Tambien se presentan sistemas experimentales para ejecutar pruebas de estabilidad estatica y dinamica en diferentes condiciones, pruebas de bombeo para el manejo de estas

  2. Exploitation of a siderurgical waste oil in the sintering process; Aprovechamiento de un aceite residual siderurgico en el proceso de sinterizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cores, A.; Formoso, A.; Moro, A.; Maranon, P. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-06-01

    The exploitation of a waste oil (tinnol) previously used as a lubricant in the rolling process is studied. This waste oil, together with propane, is used as a fuel for the ignition in a sintering pilot plant. Tinnol and propane are simultaneously injected through separate feed lines and the combustion process is monitored by analysis of the levels of O{sub 2} CO and unburnt particles in the gases produced during the first three minutes of sintering. The combustion of tinnol is considered to be effective and its energy contribution to the process is demonstrated by a reduction in the consumption of propane as the rate at which tinnol is injected increases. (Author) 5 refs.

  3. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  4. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  5. EVALUATION OF BIODEGRADATION IN THE SOIL OF OIL RESIDUES FROM A PETROLEUM REFINARY = AVALIAÇÃO DA BIODEGRADAÇÃO NO SOLO DE RESÍDUOS GERADOS EM REFINARIA DE PETRÓLEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Tadeu Furlan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Innumerable types of treatment systems exist to promote the degradation of oil residues. One of the best known and most used systems is landfarming, which consists of the aerobic biodegradation of residues that are applied in the soil and incorporated into the superficial layers. The process of landfarming uses the activityof the microorganisms in the soil to degrade and/or to immobilize many components of the residues. This study was developed in the Superior Center for Technological Education - CESET/UNICAMP, with the objective of verifying the biodegradation of oily dregs resulting from the oil refinery process, and the biological sludge that results from the industrial effluent treatment process of the Refinery of Paulínia, SP, in landfarming soil. Through the analysis of the results obtained, it was verified that when oily dregs were added to the soil, the biodegradation was more efficient. Applying only thebiological sludge in the same rate as the oily dregs, the breathing that was caused by the biodegradation did not undergo quantitative differences. Mixing the application of oily dregs and biological sludge in a ratio of 1:1, an improvement was observed in the breathing efficiency, however this did not surpass that emitted by the ground when only the oily dregs were applied. It was concludedthat the landfarming system has indigenous microorganisms able to degrade several compounds existing in the residues of oil refinery. To improve the efficiency of the biodegradation, the rate of application of the residues in the ground is a limiting factor. = Existem inúmeros tipos de sistemas de tratamento para promover a degradação dos resíduos de petróleo. Entre os mais conhecidos e utilizados destaca-se o “landfarming”, que consiste na biodegradação aeróbia de resíduos que são aplicados no solo e incorporados nas camadas superficiais. O processo de “landfarming” utiliza a atividade dos microrganismos do solo para degradar e

  6. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  7. Predictive modeling of subsurface shoreline oil encounter probability from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-04-07

    To better understand the distribution of remaining lingering subsurface oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) along the shorelines of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, we revised previous modeling efforts to allow spatially explicit predictions of the distribution of subsurface oil. We used a set of pooled field data and predictor variables stored as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data to generate calibrated boosted tree models predicting the encounter probability of different categories of subsurface oil. The models demonstrated excellent predictive performance as evaluated by cross-validated performance statistics. While the average encounter probabilities at most shoreline locations are low across western PWS, clusters of shoreline locations with elevated encounter probabilities remain in the northern parts of the PWS, as well as more isolated locations. These results can be applied to estimate the location and amount of remaining oil, evaluate potential ongoing impacts, and guide remediation. This is the first application of quantitative machine-learning based modeling techniques in estimating the likelihood of ongoing, long-term shoreline oil persistence after a major oil spill.

  8. Separation and preparation of 6-gingerol from molecular distillation residue of Yunnan ginger rhizomes by high-speed counter-current chromatography and the antioxidant activity of ginger oils in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhilin; Liang, Zheng; Chen, Xiaosong; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yuxiao; Li, Mo; Ni, Yuanying

    2016-02-01

    Molecular distillation residue (MD-R) from ginger had the most total phenol content of 247.6mg gallic acid equivalents per gram (GAE/g) among the ginger oils. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) technique in semi-preparative scale was successfully performed in separation and purification of 6-gingerol from MD-R by using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:2:5:7, v/v/v/v). The target compound was isolated, collected, purified by HSCCC in the head-tail mode, and then analyzed by HPLC. A total of 90.38±0.53mg 6-gingerol was obtained from 600mg MD-R, with purity of 99.6%. In addition, the structural identification of 6-gingerol was performed by EI/MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Moreover, the orders of antioxidant activity were vitamin E (VE)>supercritical fluid extraction oleoresin (SFE-O)=MD-R=6-gingerol>molecular distillation essential oil (MD-EO) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)=VE>6-gingerol>MD-R=SFE-O>MD-EO, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and β-Carotene bleaching.

  9. Effect of physical and chemical properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch, decanter cake and sago pith residue on cellulases production by Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanirun, Zuraidah; Bahrin, Ezyana Kamal; Lai-Yee, Phang; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd-Aziz, Suraini

    2014-01-01

    The effect of cultivation condition of two locally isolated ascomycetes strains namely Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2 were compared in submerged and solid state fermentation. Physical evaluation on water absorption index, solubility index and chemical properties of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content as well as the cellulose structure on crystallinity and amorphous region of treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) (resulted in partial removal of lignin), sago pith residues (SPR) and oil palm decanter cake towards cellulases production were determined. Submerged fermentation shows significant cellulases production for both strains in all types of substrates. Crystallinity of cellulose and its chemical composition mainly holocellulose components was found to significantly affect the total cellulase synthesis in submerged fermentation as the higher crystallinity index, and holocellulose composition will increase cellulase production. Treated OPEFB apparently induced the total cellulases from T. asperellum UPM1 and A. fumigatus UPM2 with 0.66 U/mg FPase, 53.79 U/mg CMCase, 0.92 U/mg β-glucosidase and 0.67 U/mg FPase, 47.56 U/mg and 0.14 U/mg β-glucosidase, respectively. Physical properties of water absorption and solubility for OPEFB and SPR also had shown significant correlation on the cellulases production.

  10. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Hamidreza

    2011-04-15

    Primary oil recovery by reservoir pressure depletion and secondary oil recovery by waterflooding usually result in poor displacement efficiency. As a consequence there is always some trapped oil remaining in oil reservoirs. Oil entrapment is a result of complex interactions between viscous, gravity and capillary forces. Improving recovery from hydrocarbon fields typically involves altering the relative importance of the viscous and capillary forces. The potential of many EOR methods depends on their influence on fluid/rock interactions related to wettability and fluid/fluid interactions reflected in IFT. If the method has the potential to change the interactions favorably, it may be considered for further investigation, i.e. core flooding experiment, pilot and reservoir implementation. Enzyme-proteins can be introduced as an enhanced oil recovery method to improve waterflood performance by affecting interactions at the oil-water-rock interfaces. An important part of this thesis was to investigate how selected enzymes may influence wettability and capillary forces in a crude oil-brine-rock system, and thus possibly contribute to enhanced oil recovery. To investigate further by which mechanisms selected enzyme-proteins may contribute to enhance oil recovery, groups of enzymes with different properties and catalytic functions, known to be interfacially active, were chosen to cover a wide range of possible effects. These groups include (1) Greenzyme (GZ) which is a commercial EOR enzyme and consists of enzymes and stabilizers (surfactants), (2) The Zonase group consists of two types of pure enzyme, Zonase1 and Zonase2 which are protease enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze (breakdown) peptide bonds, (3) The Novozyme (NZ) group consists of three types of pure enzyme, NZ2, NZ3 and NZ6 which are esterase enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze ester bonds, and (4) Alpha-Lactalbumin ( -La) which is an important whey protein. The effect of

  11. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  12. La conversion des résidus et huiles lourdes : au carrefour du thermique et du catalytique Conversion of Residues and Heavy Oils At the Crossroads of Thermal Cracking and Catalytic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Page J. F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les diverses familles de procédés de conversion des résidus et huiles lourdes. Tous les résultats semblent converger pour accréditer l'idée que dans tous ces procédés, y compris les procédés dits catalytiques, l'essentiel de la conversion des espèces de poids moléculaire élevé, résines et asphaltènes, procède par mécanisme radicalaire : la clef de la conversion profonde, c'est paradoxalement la maîtrise de la condensation radicalaire de ces espèces. Hydrogène seul, hydrogène en présence de solvant donneur, d'additifs ou encore mieux de catalyseurs, sont les armes dont dispose tout raffineur pour affirmer cette maîtrise, dans la mesure où il ne tient pas à fabriquer du coke. Tous ces procédés de conversion des résidus donnent par ailleurs naissance à des produits craqués dont la nature et la distribution rappellent celles des produits de première distillation du pétrole brut dont est issu le résidu soumis au craquage. This article reviews the different families of conversion processes for residues and heavy oils. All the results seem to converge to support the idea that in all these processes, including so-called catalytic processes, most of the conversion of high-molecular-weight species (resins and asphaltenes operates by a radical mechanism. The key to in-depth conversion is, paradoxically, the mastery of the radical condensation of these species. Hydrogen alone, hydrogen in the presence of a donor solvent, of additives or, better yet, of catalysts, are the arms at the disposal of all refiners to assert this mastery, to the extent that they do not want to manufacture coke. All such conversion processes for residues also give rise to cracked products whose nature and distribution recall those of first-distillation products of crude oil, from which the residue comes that is subjected to cracking.

  13. Studies on crude oil removal from pebbles by the application of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wen-xiang; Xia, Yan; Li, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Dan-feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-02-15

    Oil residues along shorelines are hard to remove after an oil spill. The effect of biodiesel to eliminate crude oil from pebbles alone and in combination with petroleum degrading bacteria was investigated in simulated systems. Adding biodiesel made oil detach from pebbles and formed oil-biodiesel mixtures, most of which remained on top of seawater. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal efficiency increased with biodiesel quantities but the magnitude of augment decreased gradually. When used with petroleum degrading bacteria, the addition of biodiesel (BD), nutrients (NUT) and BD+NUT increased the dehydrogenase activity and decreased the biodegradation half lives. When BD and NUT were replenished at the same time, the TPH removal efficiency was 7.4% higher compared to the total improvement of efficiency when BD and NUT was added separately, indicating an additive effect of biodiesel and nutrients on oil biodegradation.

  14. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore Mohanty

    2012-03-31

    includes 1.5% of an alkali, 0.4% of a nonionic surfactant, and 0.48% of a polymer. The secondary waterflood in a 1D sand pack had a cumulative recovery of 0.61 PV in about 3 PV injection. The residual oil saturation to waterflood was 0.26. Injection of tertiary alkaline-surfactant-polymer slug followed by tapered polymer slugs could recover almost 100% of the remaining oil. The tertiary alkali-surfactant-polymer flood of the 330 cp oil is stable in three-dimensions; it was verified by a flood in a transparent 5-spot model. A secondary polymer flood is also effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. The secondary polymer flood recovered about 0.78 PV of oil in about 1 PV injection. The remaining oil saturation was 0.09. The pressure drops were reasonable (<2 psi/ft) and depended mainly on the viscosity of the polymer slug injected. For the heavy crude oil (of viscosity 10,000 cp), low viscosity (10-100 cp) oil-in-water emulsions can be obtained at salinity up to 20,000 ppm by using a hydrophilic surfactant along with an alkali at a high water-to-oil ratio of 9:1. Very dilute surfactant concentrations (~0.1 wt%) of the synthetic surfactant are required to generate the emulsions. It is much easier to flow the low viscosity emulsion than the original oil of viscosity 10,000 cp. Decreasing the WOR reverses the type of emulsion to water-in-oil type. For a low salinity of 0 ppm NaCl, the emulsion remained O/W even when the WOR was decreased. Hence a low salinity injection water is preferred if an oil-in-water emulsion is to be formed. Secondary waterflood of the 10,000 cp heavy oil followed by tertiary injection of alkaline-surfactants is very effective. Waterflood has early water breakthrough, but recovers a substantial amount of oil beyond breakthrough. Waterflood recovers 20-37% PV of the oil in 1D sand pack in about 3 PV injection. Tertiary alkali-surfactant injection increases the heavy oil recovery to 50-70% PV in 1D sand packs. As the salinity increased, the oil

  15. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore Mohanty

    2012-03-31

    includes 1.5% of an alkali, 0.4% of a nonionic surfactant, and 0.48% of a polymer. The secondary waterflood in a 1D sand pack had a cumulative recovery of 0.61 PV in about 3 PV injection. The residual oil saturation to waterflood was 0.26. Injection of tertiary alkaline-surfactant-polymer slug followed by tapered polymer slugs could recover almost 100% of the remaining oil. The tertiary alkali-surfactant-polymer flood of the 330 cp oil is stable in three-dimensions; it was verified by a flood in a transparent 5-spot model. A secondary polymer flood is also effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. The secondary polymer flood recovered about 0.78 PV of oil in about 1 PV injection. The remaining oil saturation was 0.09. The pressure drops were reasonable (<2 psi/ft) and depended mainly on the viscosity of the polymer slug injected. For the heavy crude oil (of viscosity 10,000 cp), low viscosity (10-100 cp) oil-in-water emulsions can be obtained at salinity up to 20,000 ppm by using a hydrophilic surfactant along with an alkali at a high water-to-oil ratio of 9:1. Very dilute surfactant concentrations (~0.1 wt%) of the synthetic surfactant are required to generate the emulsions. It is much easier to flow the low viscosity emulsion than the original oil of viscosity 10,000 cp. Decreasing the WOR reverses the type of emulsion to water-in-oil type. For a low salinity of 0 ppm NaCl, the emulsion remained O/W even when the WOR was decreased. Hence a low salinity injection water is preferred if an oil-in-water emulsion is to be formed. Secondary waterflood of the 10,000 cp heavy oil followed by tertiary injection of alkaline-surfactants is very effective. Waterflood has early water breakthrough, but recovers a substantial amount of oil beyond breakthrough. Waterflood recovers 20-37% PV of the oil in 1D sand pack in about 3 PV injection. Tertiary alkali-surfactant injection increases the heavy oil recovery to 50-70% PV in 1D sand packs. As the salinity increased, the oil

  16. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  17. REMAINED DENTAL PARTICLES IN THE JAWS OF EDENTULOUSPATIENTS (ISFAHAN. 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MOSHARRAF

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Remained teeth and other lesions such as cysts, abcesses and tumors is one of the important problems in edentulous patients. In a cross-sectional study, 330 edentulous patients were evaluated radiographically. The radiographic evaluation of patients revealed the presence of 86 residual roots in 58 radiographs. 17.58% of patients had residual roots & 5.8% of patients had Impacted teeth. 58.1% of residual roots and 45% of impacted teeth were in the maxilla and others were in mandible. Maximum Percentage of residual roots (58.1% and impacted teeth (70% were found in molar region. In this study revealed 23.3% of examined patients had remaining dental fragments. From these patients, 5.76% had impacted teeth and 17.58% had residual roots, and maximum percentage of rooth fragments (58.1% were found in molar region. In similar study by spyropoulus, maximum percentage of root fragments (45.6% reported in molar region and maximum percentage of impacted teeth were found in molar and canine region (41.2% in molar and 41.2 in canine region. In this study, 58.1% of root fragments and 45% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla but in spyropoulos" report, 71.9% of root fragments and 94.1% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla.

  18. OIL DISPLACEMENT IN MISCIBLE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Juttner

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available After primary oil recovery in reservoirs remains about 70% of unexploited oil. To improve the recovery of the remaining reserves, injection of a fluid provide the extra energy in a mchunical form. Oil displacement can he achieved by gas injection of lean natural gas, mainly methane, carbon dioxide etc. Oil displacement can be in immiscible or miscible conditions. This paper deals with mechanism of miscible gas drive. On the basis of simulation of the oil displacement process by gas injection into oil field Žutica the character of process, i. c. a degree of miscibility or immiscibility between the injected fluid and reservoir oil was determined.

  19. Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Richard B.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1980-09-01

    Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to μg/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100 th that of sunlight.

  20. 改性酱渣废油制备包膜氮肥及对玉米生长的影响%Preparation of coated nitrogen fertilizer from modified soy sauce residue oil and its influence on maize growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景旭东; 毛小云; 阎杰; 林海琳; 梁关生; 廖宗文

    2016-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to achieve recycling of soy sauce residue oil, reduce its environ-mental pollution, and expand the resources of slow-release fertilizer material. [Method]Coated nitrogen fertilizer was prepared by epoxy modification of soy sauce residue oil. The structure of the coated film was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, high-power microscope and scanning electron microscope. The fertiliz-er efficiency was examined in corn pot experiment.[Result]After epoxy modification of the soy sauce res-idue oil, its structure changed which promoted forming of film with dense net structure. In corn pot ex-periment, there were no significant differences in leaf number and chlorophyll content between the test group using coated nitrogen fertilizer ( T1 ) and the control group with normal fertilization ( CK2 ) . The fi-nal leaf area, stem girth and plant height of T1 were significantly different from those of the control group with no fertilization ( CK0 ) and the control group with only phosphorus and potassium but no nitrogen fer-tilization ( CK1 ) , and increased by 9. 5%, 4. 3% and 7. 3% at 60 days respectively compared with CK2. The corn plant fresh weight of T1 was significantly different from those of the other three groups. While the corn plant dry weight of T1 was not significantly different from that of CK2 , it significantly in-creased by 14. 2% and 5. 2% respectively compared to CK0 and CK1 . [Conclusion]Coated nitrogen fer-tilizer could promote maize growth, and is considered slow-releasing in soil.%【目的】解决酱渣废弃物的资源再利用问题,减少其对环境的污染,扩大缓释肥包膜材料的来源。【方法】采用酱渣废油经过一定程度环氧化改性之后制备包膜氮肥,利用红外光谱( FTIR)和高倍显微镜及扫描电镜( SEM)分析包膜层的结构,同时通过玉米盆栽试验进行肥效验证。【结果】酱渣废油改性后结构发生了改变,更利于成膜,且膜层出现致密的网状

  1. Simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and antioxidants in blended oil using a liquid-liquid extraction combined with dispersive solid phase extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Tian, Wen; Pei, Fei; Li, Peng; Shao, XiaoLong; Fan, Yan; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-08-15

    This article developed a method to detect two antioxidants (butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT)) and twelve pesticides (dichlorvos, pirimicarb, prothiofos, fenitrothion, ethoprophos, malathion, beta-Cypermethrin, profenofos, diazinon, propoxur, procymidon, captan) in blended oil samples after their extraction simultaneously. The establishment of the method was based on two-step process of screening and optimization experiment design. With a Plackett-Burman (PB) design, significant parameters were found by screening experiment and single factor experiment accompanied by a central composite design (CCD) experiment were used to make important parameters optimal. The coefficients of determination (r(2)) was between 0.9931 and 0.9996 while the limits of quantification (LOQs) and limits of detection (LODs) were found in scope of 0.002-0.04mg·kg(-1) and 0.0006-0.0012mg·kg(-1). Recovery values of analytes were above 74%, at the same time the relative standard deviations (RSDs) under 10% at the concentrations ranging from 0.05mg·kg(-1) to 0.20mg·kg(-1). To sum up, this method with shorter time and fewer consumption of reagents could be employed in various occasions to detect antioxidants and pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Co-composting of oil exhausted olive-cake, poultry manure and industrial residues of agro-food activity for soil amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, F; Jarboui, R; Hachicha, S; Medhioub, K; Ammar, E

    2008-03-01

    The co-composting of exhausted olive-cake with poultry manure and sesame shells was investigated. These organic solid wastes were watered by the confectionary wastewater which is characterized by its high content of residual sugars raising its COD. Four aerated windrows were performed to establish the effects of confectionary by-products on the compost process. Different mixtures of the agro-industrial wastes were used. During the composting process, physico-chemical parameters (temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, total carbon and total nitrogen) were studied. The stability of the biological system was noticed after 70 days. The final products were characterized by their relatively high organic matter content, and low C/N ratio of 14-17. The humidification of the windrows with the wastewater seemed to have accelerated the composting process in comparison to a windrow humidified with water. In addition, the organic matter degradation was enhanced to reach 55-70%. The application of the obtained composts to soil appeared to significantly improve the soil fertility. Indeed, field experiments showed an increase in potato yield; the production was 30.5-37.5 tons ha(-1), compared to 30.5 tons ha(-1) with farm manure.

  3. Study of pyrolysis performance of sulfur compounds in residual oil by pyrolysis-gas chromatography%PY-GC法研究渣油中硫化物的热裂解性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马少华; 孙宾宾

    2012-01-01

    High temperature pyrolysis gas chromatography ( PY- GO has been used to investigate the pyrolysis performance of sulfur compounds in residual oil. On the basis of optimization of a series of (PY-GC) experiment conditions, the pyrolysis chromatograms which could reflect the composition and structure of sulfides in residue were obtained. Then the pyrolysates were characterized by comparing to a series of standard sulfur compounds and referring to literature. It was found that the sulfur compounds in pyrolysates mainly consisted of H2S, thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene species of compounds. According to the (PY-GC) analysis result of model compounds, it was estimated that H2S was not only from the sulfide structure, but also from thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene structures. In addition, thiophene, BT and DBT series of compounds in the pyrolysates were mainly from the large molecules of thiophene, BT and DBT compounds of the heavy oil.%采用裂解气相色谱(PY-GC)方法研究渣油中的大分子硫化物的裂解性能.首先对(PY-GC)的实验条件进行优化,在此基础上,得到了可以反应渣油样品中硫化物组成和结构的裂解色谱图;通过标准物对比并结合文献对渣油裂解产物中硫化物的组成进行定性.研究发现,渣油高温裂解产物中的硫化物主要有:H2S、噻吩类、苯并噻吩类和二苯并噻吩类系列的化合物.根据模型化合物的裂锯色谱分析结果,推测出渣油裂解产物中的H2S不仅来源于重油分子中硫醚类结构的裂解,而且与重油分子中噻吩、苯并噻吩和二苯并噻吩类结构的裂解有关,而渣油裂解产物中的噻吩、BT和DBT系列化合物主要来白于重油中的大分子噻吩、BT和DBT类化合物的裂解.

  4. Theory and application of landfarming to remediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil-contaminated sediments: beneficial reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, J.; Rulkens, W.H.; Sims, R.C.; Rijtema, P.E.; Zweers, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    When applying landfarming for the remediation of contaminated soil and sediment, a fraction of the soil-bound contaminant is rapidly degraded; however, a residual concentration may remain, which slowly degrades. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mineral oil can be described

  5. Pyrolysis of agricultural residues. Part II. Yield and chemical composition of tars and oils produced from cotton stalks, and assessment of lignin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Y.; Mobarak, F.; Schweers, W.

    1982-01-01

    The pyrolysis of cotton stalks at 400-600 degrees resulted in the production of char and tar in highest yield, and the increase of temperature within this range decreased the yield of tar and phenolic compounds in the tar but increased the ratio of neutrals to acids in the tar. On decreasing the particle size of stalks, the total yield of tar remained almost constant regardless of pyrolysis temperature but that of phenols increased while that of neutrals and acids decreased. The distribution of syringol and guaiacol in phenolic products indicated that lignin in stalks belongs to the guaiacyl-syringyl type.

  6. 高分辨率层序地层划分在陆相油藏剩余油分布研究中的应用——以克拉玛依油田一东区克拉玛依组为例%Application of high resolution sequence stratigraphy on remaining oil distribution of continental reservoirs: case of Karamay formation of east Karamay oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩; 丁晓琪; 李学伟

    2013-01-01

    Because China has some of the most water-flooded oilfield in world, stable oil production relies on controlling water injection and increasing oil recovery. The sandstone stacked styles, heterogeneity, geometry of reservoirs can be studied by high resolution sequence stratigraphy with a kind of new vision, which closely links remaining oil distribution and extends new method for studying remaining oil distribution. This paper studies base level changing laws of different cycles based on detailed research of sedimentary mi-cro-facies of Karamay formation, then the short base level cycles of Karamay formation can be divided into 2 main classes and 12 small classes. The middle base level cycles control the development of short base level cycles, so the Karamay formation can be divided into 3 middle cycles and 14 short cycles, then the isochronous stratigraphic framework are built. The short base level cycles which are located in the middle base level cycles have different remaining oil distribution in isochronous stratigraphic framework. The result shows that the detailed sedimentary work is the base for studying sequence stratigraphy. The reservoirs that are deposited in the high accommodation can have good isochronous and low intraformational heterogeneity, so, the remaining oil distribute in thin, small, nonproduc-ing or low degree of water flooded area. Meanwhile, the reservoir that is distributed in low accommodation can have poor isochronous and high intraformational heterogeneity, and which are composed of noncontemporaneous deposit, so, the remaining oil is distributed in low permeable reservoirs in form of lens.%克拉玛依油田经过半个世纪注水开发,已进入开发后期,提高采收率的关键是明确剩余油的分布规律.在对研究区克拉玛依组沉积相研究的基础上,分析了不同类型剖面结构代表的基准面变化规律,将该组的短期基准面旋回划分为2大类12个小类.短期基准面旋回的规律性变化

  7. THE INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CHEMICAL MODIFIED AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xu; Runcang Sun; Huaiyu Zhan

    2004-01-01

    Various lignocellulosic materials such as wood,agricultural and forest residues has the potential to be valuable substitute for, or complement to,commercial sorbents for removing heavy metal ions or dyes from waste water or spilled oil from inland water or sea. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in china, which account for about 90% of the world′s total straw pulp. However,huge quantity of remain straw is not used as industrial raw material and is burnt in the fields or on the side of road. These resources can be chemical modified such as acetylation. Modified straws have the characteristics of low cost, high capacity, quick uptake, and easy to desorb. This paper reviews the current status of the technology for modified agricultural residues, which focus on hemicellulose and cellulose. The potential of these natural sorbents in main industry is also indicated.

  8. THE INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CHEMICAL MODIFIED AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengXu; RuncangSun; HuaiyuZhan

    2004-01-01

    Various lignocellulosic materials such as wood, agricultural and forest residues has the potential to be valuable substitute for, or complement to, commercial sorbents for removing heavy metal ions or dyes from waste water or spilled oil from inland water or sea. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in china, which account for about 90% of the world's total straw pulp. However, huge quantity of remain straw is not used as industrial raw material and is burnt in the fields or on the side of road. These resources can be chemical modified such as acetylation. Modified straws have the characteristics of low cost, high capacity, quick uptake, and easy to desorb. This paper reviews the current status of the technology for modified agricultural residues, which focus on hemicellulose and cellulose. The potential of these natural sorbents in main industry is also indicated.

  9. Management of industrial solid residues; Gerenciamento de residuos solidos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the management of industrial solid wastes, approaching the following subjects: classification of industrial solid residues; directives and methodologies for the management of industrial solid residues; instruments for the management of industrial solid residues; handling, packing, storage and transportation; treatment of industrial solid residues; final disposal - landfill for industrial residues; the problem of treatment and final disposer of domestic garbage in Brazil; recycling of the lubricant oils used in brazil; legislation.

  10. Research on Preparation of White Carbon Black from Oil Shale Residue by Chemical Way%化学法处理油页岩渣制备白炭黑的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛彦辉; 郭婷婷; 薛真

    2012-01-01

    White carbon black was prepared by acid leaching and alkali dissolving using oil shale residue as materials. When acid leaching was conducted,the iron aluminides were dissolved first,then the residue was treated by sodium hydroxide to get white carbon black. On the contrary, when alkali dissolving was conducted, alkali heating went first,dissolving the compounds of silicon dioxide and aluminum,then iron was recovered by acid. The experi-mental result showed that the technology of alkali dissolving is better than that of acid leaching,the leaching rate of acid leaching is 22.1% ,alkali 30.6%. Thus,the optimum technological condition by alkali dissolving was determined; the reaction temperature is 100t ,the reaction time is 4h,the ratio of NaOH to SiO2 is 4. Under this condition, the leaching rate of white carbon black can reach 48.5%. The oil shale residue can be utilized rationally .realizing waste recovery.%以油页岩渣为原料,分别用酸浸法和碱溶法制备了白炭黑.酸浸法主要是先用浓盐酸溶解其中的铁和铝的化合物,然后再用氢氧化钠处理剩下的残渣,得到白炭黑.而碱法与其相反,先用碱煮,将其中主要的二氧化硅和铝的化合物溶解,再用酸回收剩余的铁.试验结果表明酸法处理油页岩渣工艺的白炭黑提取率为22.1%,碱法处理油页岩渣工艺的白炭黑提取率为30.6%,碱法工艺比酸法工艺优越.进一步探讨了碱法处理油页岩渣制备白炭黑工艺的反应温度、反应时间以及碱浓度等对白炭黑提取率的影响,较佳工艺条件为:反应温度100℃、反应时间4.0h、NaOH/SiO2=4,该条件下白炭黑提取率可达48.5%.化学法处理油页岩渣制备白炭黑可使油页岩渣得到充分合理的利用,实现废物资源化.

  11. Creating value from waste: remediation of froth treatment tailings from oil sands mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Kevin [Titanium Corporation (Canada); Burdenie, B. [SNC-LAVALIN (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    As the world reserves of oil are depleting, most of the remaining oil is heavy oil from oil sands. Several methods based on water and solvent usage are used to recover this oil but they lead to the rejection of valuable compounds into tailings: heavy minerals, residual bitumen, water and solvent. The aim of this paper is to present the research and development program carried out by Titanium Corporation Inc., of Canada, to recover these compounds in Alberta. Pilot projects were conducted to test the developed technologies. Results showed performance meeting or exceeding expectations as well as a numerous environmental benefits including a significant reduction in water imports and emissions of CO2, NOx and volatile organic compounds. .

  12. In Situ Burning Restores the Ecological Function and Structure of an Oil-Impacted Coastal Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baustian, Joseph; Mendelssohn, Irving; Lin, Qianxin; Rapp, John

    2010-11-01

    As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and belowground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes.

  13. Fate of Deepwater Horizon oil in Alabama's beach system: understanding physical evolution processes based on observational data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayworth, Joel S; Prabakhar Clement, T; John, Gerald F; Yin, Fang

    2015-01-15

    The impact of MC252 oil on northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beaches from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) catastrophe was extensive along Alabama's beaches. While considerable amount of cleanup has occurred along these beaches, as of August 2014, DWH oil spill residues continue to be found as surface residual balls (SRBs), and also occasionally as submerged oil mats (SOMs). Four years of field observations informing the fate and transport of DWH SRBs in Alabama's beach system are presented here, along with a conceptual framework for describing their physical evolution processes. The observation data show that SRBs containing MC252 residues currently remain in Alabama's beach system, although their relationship to SOMs is not fully known. Based on our field observations we conclude that small DWH SRBs are likely to persist for several years along the Alabama shoreline.

  14. DISCARD OF THE PLASTIC BOTTLES AND DETERMINATION OF AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICANT OIL RESIDUES IN RIO CLARO-SP = DESCARTE DE EMBALAGENS E QUANTIFICAÇÃO DO VOLUME DE ÓLEO LUBRIFICANTE RESIDUAL NO MUNICÍPIO DE RIO CLARO-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edério Dino Bidóia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about environment conservation have grown in recent years, mainly in industrialized countries, due to growing awareness in these societies regarding the importance of environment quality as the basis for the preservation of future generations. Thus, rather than viewing the environment as a good to be consumed by the productive sector, it is seen as world heritage of humanity. Although lubricant oil represents a small percentage of the waste generated by humans, its impact is very great. One ton of lubricant oil dumped into water systems is equivalent to the pollution caused by 40,000 inhabitants. Thus, only one liter of oil is able to consume the oxygen of a million liters of water, forming, in few days, a fine layer on the surface of 1000 m2 which blocks the passage of air and light for the aquatic organisms. In this context, a study was carried out to collect empty plastic automotive lubricant oil bottles at various gasoline stations in Rio Claro-SP to verify the final destination and determine the volume of lubricant remaining in the bottles. = As preocupações com a conservação do meio ambiente têm crescido nos últimos anos, principalmente em países industrializados, devido à consciência que tem sido construída nessas sociedades sobre a importância da qualidade ambiental como base para a preservação da vida das futuras gerações. A sua carga poluidora é equivalente a 40.000 habitantes por tonelada de óleo despejada em corpos d’água. Apenas um litro de óleo é capaz de esgotar o oxigênio de um milhão de litros de água, formando, em poucos dias, uma fina camada sobre a superfície de 1.000 m2, o que bloqueia a passagem de ar e luz, impedindo a respiração e a fotossíntese. Neste contexto, foi realizada uma pesquisa nos centros de lubrificação e postos de combustíveis do município de Rio Claro-SP para verificar o destino final das embalagens já utilizadas, teoricamente vazias, e também houve coleta destas

  15. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  16. Hazelnut oil production using pressing and supercritical CO2 extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Stela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the hazelnut oil production it is very important to find an appropriate method to recover the oil from kernels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the oil extraction process from hazelnuts by screw pressing followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. The effects of temperature head presses, frequency and nozzle size in pressing experiments on oil temperature and recovery were monitored. The optimal pressing condition using response surface methodology was determined. In obtained hazelnut oil the following quality parameters were determined: peroxide value 0 mmol O2/kg, free fatty acids 0.23%, insoluble impurities 0.42%, moisture content 0.045%, iodine value 91.55 g I2/100 g, saponification value 191.46 mg KOH/g and p-anisidine value 0.19. Rosemary extract was the most effective in protecting the oil from oxidative deterioration. The residual oil that remained in the cake after pressing was extracted totally with supercritical CO2 and such defatted cake, free of toxic solvents, can be used further in other processes.

  17. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  18. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raudsepp, P.; Brüggemann, D.A.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis; Andersen, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during storage

  19. 40 CFR 279.47 - Management of residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.47 Section 279.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Management of residues. Transporters who generate residues from the storage or transport of used oil must...

  20. Scott's Lake Excavation Letters on Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is two letters written about the repatriation of Santee Indian human remains and funerary objects to Santee Sioux Tribe. Includes an inventory of human remains...

  1. Vegetable oil spills on salt marsh sediments; comparison between sunflower and linseed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M; Latchford, John

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a simulated spill of sunflower oil in salt marsh sediments were compared with an experiment with linseed oil. Sunflower and linseed oil penetrated the sediments at the same rates but different adsorption of the oils onto sediment particles resulted in the establishment of anaerobic conditions at shallower depths in sediments contaminated with linseed oil than with sunflower oil. The total lipid content of sunflower oil contaminated sediments remained almost stable for 6 months, whilst only 40% of linseed oil remained in the sediment after 2 months. Numbers of culturable heterotrophic bacteria and aerobic oil degrading bacteria in muddy sediment increased rapidly in response to the presence of the oils but bacterial numbers in sandy sediments increased more slowly for sunflower oil. Changes in fatty acid composition indicate similar degradation pathways for both oils but sunflower oil degraded more slowly than linseed oil and thus has the potential for longer lasting effects in marine environments.

  2. Critical assessment of extraction methods for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and mycotoxins in fruits, cereals, spices and oil seeds employing ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Ondrej; Zachariasova, Milena; Urbanova, Jana; Vaclavikova, Marta; Cajka, Tomas; Hajslova, Jana

    2012-11-01

    This study addresses a current trend in chemical food safety control represented by an effort to integrate analyses of various groups of food contaminants/toxicants into a single, high-throughput method. The choice of optimal sample preparation step is one of the key conditions to achieve good performance characteristics. In this context, we investigated the possibility to expand the scope of the three multi-analyte extraction procedures employed earlier in other studies for rapid isolation of either pesticides or mycotoxins from plant matrices. Following procedures were tested: A - aqueous acetonitrile extraction followed by partition (QuEChERS-like method), B - aqueous acetonitrile extraction, and C - pure acetonitrile extraction. On the list of target analytes, we had 288 pesticides (including 'troublesome' acidic, basic and base-sensitive compounds) together with 38 mycotoxins (including all EU regulated ones and many 'emerging' toxins on the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) list). The matrices selected for the experiments, apple baby food, wheat flour, spices and sunflower seeds, represented various composition categories in terms of moisture, fat and extractable compounds (e.g. pigments and essential oils) content. In preliminary experiments, acceptable recoveries (70-120%) for most of analytes were obtained by the analysis of spiked matrices, regardless which extraction procedure was used. However, when analysing dry samples with incurred pesticide residues/mycotoxins, the method C did not enable efficient extraction of some common contaminants. Procedure A, thanks to a higher matrix equivalent compared to the method B and relatively less pronounced matrix effects, enabled lower quantification limits for all analyte/matrix combinations, with the exception of polar mycotoxins and/or pesticides. Higher recoveries for the latter group of analytes could be achieved by the method B; on the other hand, extraction efficiency of non-polar pesticides from fatty

  3. Automotive shredder residue (ASR) characterization for a valuable management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Luciano; Santini, Alessandro; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano

    2010-11-01

    Car fluff is the waste produced after end-of-life-vehicles (ELVs) shredding and metal recovery. It is made of plastics, rubber, glass, textiles and residual metals and it accounts for almost one-third of a vehicle mass. Due to the approaching of Directive 2000/53/EC recycling targets, 85% recycling rate and 95% recovery rate in 2015, the implementation of automotive shredder residue (ASR) sorting and recycling technologies appears strategic. The present work deals with the characterization of the shredder residue coming from an industrial plant, representative of the Italian situation, as for annual fluxes and technologies involved. The aim of this study is to characterize ASR in order to study and develop a cost effective and environmentally sustainable recycling system. Results show that almost half of the residue is made of fines and the remaining part is mainly composed of polymers. Fine fraction is the most contaminated by mineral oils and heavy metals. This fraction produces also up to 40% ashes and its LHV is lower than the plastic-rich one. Foam rubber represents around half of the polymers share in car fluff. Moreover, some chemical-physical parameters exceed the limits of some parameters fixed by law to be considered refuse derived fuel (RDF). As a consequence, ASR needs to be pre-treated in order to follow the energy recovery route.

  4. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  5. Residual strains in conduit arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, A; Greenwald, S E

    2003-05-01

    Residual strains and stresses are those that exist in a body when all external loads are removed. Residual strains in arteries can be characterized by the opening angle of the sector-like cross-section which arises when an unloaded ring segment is radially cut. A review of experimental methods for measuring residual strains and the main results about the variation of the opening angle with arterial localization, age, smooth muscle activity, mechanical environment and certain vascular pathologies are presented and discussed. It is shown that, in addition to their well-established ability to homogenize the stress field in the arterial wall, residual strains make arteries more compliant and thereby improve their performance as elastic reservoirs and ensure more effective local control of the arterial lumen by smooth muscle cells. Finally, evidence that, in some cases, residual strains remain in arteries even after they have been cut radially is discussed.

  6. Residual contaminants in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevijo Zdolec

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical agents are used during the whole production chain of milk and dairy products. Production of feedingstuffs is accompanied with pesticide usage, which may remain in environment, thus are transported through feeding into animals, animal products and finally in human organism. Preparation procedure and storage conditions of feed also influence on milk safety in the sense of mycotoxins entering into the food chain. Chemical agents are, on daily basis, used on dairy farms either as detergents or disinfections. The residuals of cleaning agents might remain in milk if the cleaning agents and its dosage are not performed adequately. Besides already mentioned agents, a great influence in milk production can bee seen through veterinary drugs usage, particularly antibacterial drugs (mastitis. Proper application of drugs and by following legal recommendation, a by-reactions can be avoided such as allergic reaction in humans, development of resisting bacteria or even undesirable influence on starter cultures in dairy products manufacture. The maximum residue limits, monitoring plan as well as sampling procedures are set up within the harmonization of Croatian and European legislation, in order to provide official control of residues in foodstuffs of animal origin.

  7. Biodiesel etílico filtrado de óleo residual de soja: desempenho de um trator agrícola na operação de gradagem = Filtered ethyl ester biodiesel from residual soybean oil: performance of an agricultural tractor in the disk harrow operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Naves Dos Reis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este teste foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho de um trator agrícola utilizando mistura de biodiesel com diesel de petróleo como combustível. O experimento foi realizado na FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, e utilizou-se um trator 4x2 TDA de 73,6 kW (100 cv @ 2.300 rpm de potência no motor e grade aradora. O biodiesel utilizadofoi do tipo etílico, filtrado, produzido à base de óleo residual. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial (4x5, com quatro repetições, em que foram combinadas cinco proporções de mistura biodiesel e diesel de petróleo (0 e 100%, 25 e 75%, 50 e 50%, 75 e 25% e 100 e 0% com quatro marchas de deslocamento. As variáveis analisadas foram potência na barra de tração, rotação do motor e velocidade de deslocamento. Os resultados evidenciaram que a proporção de mistura (biodiesel e diesel depetróleo não comprometeu o desempenho do trator até o limite de 50%.This test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an agricultural tractor using a mixture of biodiesel and petroleum diesel. The experiment was conducted at FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal, using a 4x2 AFWD tractor with 73.6 kW (100 hp @ 2,300 rpm of power in the motor, pulling a disk harrow. The biodiesel used was of the ethyl type, filtered, and produced from residual soybean oil. The experimental design was completed randomized in factorial scheme (4x5, with 20 treatments and 4 repetitions, in which 5 ratios of biodiesel and petroleum diesel mixtures were combined (0 and 100%, 25 and 75%, 50 and 50%, 75 and 25% and 100 and 0%, with 4 displacement runs. The analyzed variables were traction bar power, enginerotation and displacement speed. The results evidenced that the mixture ratio (biodiesel and petroleum diesel did not compromise tractor performance until the limit of 50%.

  8. Integrated assessment of oil pollution using biological monitoring and chemical fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ceri; Guitart, Carlos; Pook, Chris; Scarlett, Alan; Readman, James W; Galloway, Tamara S

    2010-06-01

    A full assessment of the impact of oil and chemical spills at sea requires the identification of both the polluting chemicals and the biological effects they cause. Here, a combination of chemical fingerprinting of surface oils, tissue residue analysis, and biological effects measures was used to explore the relationship between spilled oil and biological impact following the grounding of the MSC Napoli container ship in Lyme Bay, England in January 2007. Initially, oil contamination remained restricted to a surface slick in the vicinity of the wreck, and there was no chemical evidence to link biological impairment of animals (the common limpet, Patella vulgata) on the shore adjacent to the oil spill. Secondary oil contamination associated with salvage activities in July 2007 was also assessed. Chemical analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons and terpanes in shell swabs taken from limpet shells provided an unequivocal match with the fuel oil carried by the ship. Corresponding chemical analysis of limpet tissues revealed increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dominated by phenanthrene and C1 to C3 phenanthrenes with smaller contributions from heavier molecular weight PAHs. Concurrent ecotoxicological tests indicated impairment of cellular viability (p oiled animals. These results illustrate the value of combining biological monitoring with chemical fingerprinting for the rapid identification of spilled oils and their sublethal impacts on biota in situ.

  9. 渣油硫模拟蒸馏方法研究及在渣油固定床加氢处理过程应用%Simulated Distillation Method of Sulfur in Residual Oil and Its Application in Fixed Bed Residue Hydrogenation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁岩; 马波; 凌凤香; 高波; 刘淑琴; 路正攀; 王跃

    2013-01-01

      用气相色谱技术,采用高温模拟蒸馏软件,优化了色谱条件,建立高温模拟蒸馏法测定渣油中硫的新方法,此方法的准确度和精密度满足工作要求;并考察不同工艺条件下,渣油中硫含量的变化趋势.结果表明:在柱温:初始温度为40℃,保持0 min,以25℃/min 升至430℃,保持5 min;载气:高纯氦气,流速为20 mL/min;进样量:0.5μL的色谱条件下,方法的精密度和准确度好.同温度下,随着加氢深度的增大,同沸点区间内的硫含量逐渐降低;在同一加氢过程中,随着沸点增加,硫含量先增加后随之降低,在530~610℃沸点区间内硫含量最大.同一加氢深度下,温度升高,同沸点区间内的硫含量降低;在同一温度下,随沸点增加,硫含量先增加后降低,在530~610℃沸点区间内硫含量最大.%Chromatography conditions were optimized by using gas chromatography and the high temperature simulated distillation software, high temperature simulation distillation method was established to determine sulfur content in residual oil. The changing of sulfur content in residual oil under various process conditions was investigated. The results show that the best chromatography conditions are as follows:initial column temperature of 40 ℃, keeping 0 min, increasing to 430 ℃ by 25 ℃/min,maintaining 5 min; high purity helium as the carrier, velocity of 20 mL/min; injection volume of 0.5μL , the method has good precision and accuracy. At the same temperature, with the increase of hydrogenation depth, sulfur content in the same boiling point interval gradually reduces. In the same hydrogenation process, along with increasing of the boiling point, sulfur content first increases and then decreases. When the boiling point interval is in the range of 530~610 ℃, sulfur content is largest. Under the same hydrogenation depth, with the increase of temperature, sulfur content in the boiling point interval gradually reduces

  10. 基于油液光谱分析和粒子滤波的发动机剩余寿命预测研究%Research on Engine Remaining Useful Life Prediction Based on Oil Spectrum Analysis and Particle Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊; 贾云献; 蔡丽影; 林国语; 赵劲松

    2013-01-01

    The spectrometric oil analysis(SOA) is an important technique for machine state monitoring,fault diagnosis and prognosis,and SOA based remaining useful life(RUL) prediction has an advantage of finding out the optimal maintenance strategy for machine system.Because the complexity of machine system,its health state degradation process can't be simply cbaracterized by linear model,while particle filtering(PF) possesses obvious advantages over traditional Kalman filtering for dealing nonlinear and non-Gaussian system,the PF approach was applied to state forecasting by SOA,and the RUL prediction technique based on SOA and PF algorithm is proposed.In the prediction model,according m the estimating result of system's posterior probability,its prior probability distribution is realized,and the multi-step ahead prediction model based on PF algorithm is estahlished.Finally,the practical SOA data of some engine was amlyzed and forecasted by the above method,and the forecasting result was compared with that of traditional Kalman filtering method.The result fully shows the superiority and effectivity of the new method.%油液光谱分析是机械磨损状态监测、故障诊断与故障预测的重要技术,基于光谱数据的机械状态剩余寿命预测有利于实现机械系统的最优维修决策.由于机械设备越来越复杂,其健康状态的退化过程很难用线性模型来表示,而粒子滤波(particle filter,PF)对非线性非高斯系统的处理能力,与经典Kalman滤波相比具有明显的优势,文章将PF预测方法运用于光谱分析,提出了基于PF和油液光谱分析技术的设备剩余寿命预测方法.在预测模型中实现了根据设备后验分布的估计值预测其先验分布概率,建立了基于PF的多步向前长期预测模型.最后,对某发动机实际的光谱分析数据进行了预测和分析,并与传统Kalman滤波方法的预测结果进行了比较,结果充分表明了本方法的有效性和优越性.

  11. How does the connectivity of open-framework conglomerates within multi-scale hierarchical fluvial architecture affect oil sweep efficiency in waterflooding?

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenzon, Naum I; Ritzi, Robert W; Dominic, David F; Keefer, Don; Shaffer, Eric; Storsved, Brynne

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects on oil sweep efficiency of the proportion, hierarchical organization, and connectivity of high-permeability open-framework conglomerate (OFC) cross-sets within the multi-scale stratal architecture found in fluvial deposits. Utilizing numerical simulations and the RVA/Paraview open-source visualization package, we analyzed oil production rate, water breakthrough time, and spatial and temporal distribution of residual oil saturation. The effective permeability of the reservoir exhibits large-scale anisotropy created by the organization of OFC cross-sets within unit bars, and the organization of unit bars within compound bars. As a result oil sweep efficiency critically depends on the direction of the pressure gradient. When pressure gradient is oriented normal to paleoflow direction, the total oil production and the water breakthrough time are larger, and remaining oil saturation is smaller. This result is found regardless of the proportion or connectivity of the OFC cross-sets, within th...

  12. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  13. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  14. Bio-oil deoxygenation by catalytic pyrolysis: new catalysts for the conversion of biomass into densified and deoxygenated bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Aimaro; Andrésen, John M

    2012-10-01

    This work proposes an innovative catalytic pyrolysis process that converts bio-refinery residues, such as spent grains, into intermediate bio-oil with improved properties compared to traditional bio-oils, which allows the use of existing crude-oil refinery settings for bio-oil upgrading into fuels. The integration of bio-oil into a crude-oil refinery would decrease the economic disadvantage of biomass compared to fossil fuels. The catalytic pyrolysis was able to produce bio-oil with a lower O and N content and high levels of aliphatics and H by using activated serpentine and olivine at 430-460 °C. The activated materials seem to be beneficial to the bio-oil energy content by increasing it from less than 20 MJ kg(-1) in the original biomass to 26 MJ kg(-1). Approximately 70-74 % of the starting energy remains in the bio-oil using activated olivine (ACOL) and activated serpentine (ACSE) at 430 °C, whereas only 52 % is retained using alumina (ALU) at the same temperature. There was a strong reduction of the O content in the bio-oils, and the deoxygenation power decreased in the following order: ACOL>ACSE>ALU. In particular, ACOL at 430-460 °C was able to reduce the O content of the bio-oil by 40 %. The oxygenated bio-oil macromolecules interact in the catalyst's active sites with the naturally present metallic species and undergo decarboxylation with the formation of C(5)-C(6) O-depleted species. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  16. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  17. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah; van de Goot, Frank; Ruijter, Jan; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof Jan

    2017-01-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered

  18. Mammalian Remains from Indian Sites on Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1960-01-01

    Mr. H. R. VAN HEEKEREN and Mr. C. J. DU RY, of the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde at Leiden, entrusted me with the identification of some animal remains collected from Indian sites on Aruba by Professor J. P. B. DE JOSSELIN DE JONG in 1923. These remains relate for the most part to marine turtles (Che

  19. Tracer monitoring of enhanced oil recovery projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleven R.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In enhanced oil recovery (EOR, chemicals are injected into the oil reservoir, either to increase macroscopic sweep efficiency, or to reduce remaining oil saturation in swept zones. Tracers can be used to identify reservoirs that are specifically suited for EOR operations. Injection of a selection of partitioning tracers, combined with frequent sample analysis of produced fluids, provides information suited for estimation of residual oil saturation. Tracers can also be used to evaluate and optimize the application of EOR chemicals in the reservoir. Suitable tracers will follow the EOR chemicals and assist in evaluation of retention, degradation or trapping. In addition to field applications, tracers also have a large potential as a tool to perform mechanistic studies of EOR chemicals in laboratory experiments. By labelling EOR chemicals with radioactive isotopes of elements such as H, C and S, detailed studies of transport mechanisms can be carried out. Co-injection of labelled compounds in dynamic flooding experiments in porous media will give information about retention or separation of the unique compounds constituting the chemical formulation. Separation of such compounds may be detrimental to obtaining the EOR effect expected. The paper gives new information of specific methods, and discusses current status for use of tracers in EOR operations.

  20. Fe(CO)5-catalyzed coprocessing of coal and heavy oil vacuum residue using syngas-water as a hydrogen source; Fe(CO)5 shokubai ni yoru gosei gas-mizu wo suisogen to suru sekitan-jushitsuyu no coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, K.; Wada, K.; Mitsudo, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Improvement in efficiency and profitability of hydrogenation reaction of heavy hydrocarbon resources is the most important matter to be done. In this study, coprocessing of coal and heavy oil vacuum residue was conducted using syngas-water as a hydrogen source. For the investigation of effect of the reaction temperature during the coprocessing of Wandoan coal and Arabian heavy vacuum residue using Fe(CO)5 as a catalyst, the conversion, 66.0% was obtained at 425{degree}C. For the investigation of effect of reaction time, the yield of light fractions further increased during the two stage reaction at 400{degree}C for 60 minutes and at 425{degree}C for 60 minutes. Finally, almost 100% of THF-soluble matter was obtained through the reaction using 2 mmol of Fe(CO)5 catalyst at 400{degree}C for 60 minutes, and hydrogenation of heavy oil was proceeded simultaneously. When comparing coprocessing reactions using three kinds of hydrogen sources, i.e., hydrogen, CO-water, and syngas-water, the conversion yield and oil yield obtained by using syngas-water were similar to those obtained by using hydrogen, which demonstrated the effectiveness of syngas-water. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Alveolar macrophages stimulated with titanium dioxide, chrysotile asbestos, and residual oil fly ash upregulate the PDGF receptor-alpha on lung fibroblasts through an IL-1beta-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, P M; Coin, P G; Badgett, A; Morgan, D L; Bonner, J C

    1997-03-01

    Enhanced proliferation of fibroblasts is a primary characteristic of lung fibrosis. Macrophage-secreted platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent mitogen and chemoattractant for lung fibroblasts. The magnitude of the fibroblast PDGF response is dependent on the number of PDGF receptor alpha (PDGF-R alpha) relative to PDGF-R beta at the cell surface. We recently reported that upregulation of the PDGF-R alpha subtype by interleukin (IL)-1beta results in enhanced lung fibroblast proliferation in response to PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, and PDGF-BB whereas transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 has the opposite effect. Both IL-1beta and TGF-beta1 are produced by particle-activated macrophages in vivo and in vitro. We studied the net effect of macrophage conditioned medium (MOCM), which contains both IL-1beta and TGF-beta1, on the expression of the lung fibroblast PDGF receptor system. MOCM obtained from unstimulated, titanium dioxide (TiO2)-, chrysotile asbestos-, or residual oil fly ash (ROFA)-exposed macrophages in vitro increased [125I]PDGF-AA binding 3-, 6-, 6-, and 20-fold, respectively. These increases correlated with increased PDGF-R alpha mRNA and protein expression as shown by northern and western assays. PDGF-AB and -BB-stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation by fibroblasts was enhanced 5-, 5-, 10-, and 20-fold by pretreatment with MOCM from unstimulated, TiO2-, asbestos-, and ROFA-exposed macrophages, respectively. [125I]PDGF-AA binding experiments using the IL-1 receptor antagonist blocked the upregulatory effect of all MOCM samples. Latent TGF-beta1 present in MOCM was activated by acid treatment, inhibiting upregulation by approximately 60%, a result similar to experiments with IL-1beta and TGF-beta1 mixtures. Treatment with a TGF-beta neutralizing antibody restored full upregulatory activity to acidified MOCM. Thus activated macrophages increase lung fibroblast PDGF-R alpha primarily due to the secretion of IL-1beta. Intratracheal instillation of ROFA

  2. Treatment of Lignin and Waste residues by Flash Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    Lignin, sewage sludge and macroalg ae (nonconventional biomasses) fast pyrolysis properties has been studied through experimental investigations on a la boratory Pyrolysis Centrifugal Reactor (PCR) and a model on lignin pyrolysis have been developed. Fu rthermore the nonconventional biomass...... ethanol plant a bio-oil can be produced with oil yields of 36% (daf) and an oil en ergy recovery of 45%. This is a relatively low bio-oil yield compared to other feedstock’s, however, it may increase the value of the lignin residual product, such that the lignin char is used for combustion on the ethanol...... plant, and the bio-oil is sold for use on heavy oil burners. The macroalgae is a promising feedstock w ith a high bio-oil yield of 54 wt% daf and an energy recovery of 76 % in the liquid oil. Detailed characteriza tion of the pyrolysis products in the form of bio-oil, gas and char has been performed...

  3. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  4. WEO-2006 Fact Sheet: Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    We have revised upwards our assumptions for oil prices in this Outlook, reflecting current market conditions. Globally, fossil fuels will remain the dominant source of energy to 2030 in both scenarios. Rising oil and gas demand and imports, if unchecked, would accentuate the consuming countries' vulnerability to a severe supply disruption and resulting price shock. The growing insensitivity of oil demand to price accentuates the potential impact on international oil prices of such a disruption.

  5. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. DESIGN: Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden...... was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. SETTING: Nationwide register-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1...... to September 30, 2008. MEASUREMENTS: Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. RESULTS: At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent...

  6. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  7. 40 CFR 180.34 - Tests on the amount of residue remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Carrots, garden beets, sugar beets, horseradish, parsnips, radishes, rutabagas, salsify roots, turnips..., barley, oats, rice, rye (each in grain form). (25) Alfalfa, Bermuda grass, bluegrass, brome...

  8. A case of recurrent gallstone ileus: the fate of the residual gallstone remains unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Jamil; Patel, Prashant; Odogwu, Steve

    2014-04-19

    Gallstone ileus is a serious complication of cholelithiasis where mechanical small bowel obstruction occurs. The recurrence of gallstone ileus is rare. The 67-year-old woman in this case report had three known gallstones transit her small bowel with two causing obstruction and the third causing a 'tumbling phenomenon'. As we have an ageing population, and gallstone ileus has a higher incidence in the over 65 age group, associated with increased comorbidities and hence greater mortality rates, it is imperative to establish the best surgical intervention for it. This case report highlights the difference CT of the abdomen has made to the diagnosis of gallstone ileus and the pros and cons of the surgical management options.

  9. High CJD infectivity remains after prion protein is destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Emmerling, Kaitlin; Manuelidis, Laura

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis that host prion protein (PrP) converts into an infectious prion form rests on the observation that infectivity progressively decreases in direct proportion to the decrease of PrP with proteinase K (PK) treatment. PrP that resists limited PK digestion (PrP-res, PrP(sc)) has been assumed to be the infectious form, with speculative types of misfolding encoding the many unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agent strains. Recently, a PK sensitive form of PrP has been proposed as the prion. Thus we re-evaluated total PrP (sensitive and resistant) and used a cell-based assay for titration of infectious particles. A keratinase (NAP) known to effectively digest PrP was compared to PK. Total PrP in FU-CJD infected brain was reduced to ≤0.3% in a 2 h PK digest, yet there was no reduction in titer. Remaining non-PrP proteins were easily visualized with colloidal gold in this highly infectious homogenate. In contrast to PK, NAP digestion left 0.8% residual PrP after 2 h, yet decreased titer by >2.5 log; few residual protein bands remained. FU-CJD infected cells with 10× the infectivity of brain by both animal and cell culture assays were also evaluated. NAP again significantly reduced cell infectivity (>3.5 log). Extreme PK digestions were needed to reduce cell PrP to report on maximal PrP destruction and titer. It is likely that one or more residual non-PrP proteins may protect agent nucleic acids in infectious particles.

  10. Maize growth influenced by conjugated sauce residue oil-coated fertilizer and coating structure analysis%共轭酱渣废油包膜肥对玉米生长的影响及膜层结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景旭东; 刘源; 林海琳; 阎杰; 梁关生

    2016-01-01

    To utilize sauce residue litter and increase the sources of slow⁃release fertilizer material, the oil extracted from sauce residue was conjugated and used to manufacture slow⁃release coated fertilizer. The actual efficiency and coating structure of the fertilizer were studied through field pot experiment and by infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ) and scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) . The maize plant height and stem girth in coated fertilizer treatment ( T1 ) increased significantly by 9�5% and 3�9% respectively compared with conventional fer⁃tilizer treatment ( CK1 ) and showed significant difference with CK1 and no fertilizer treatment ( CK0) ( P<0�05) . There were abundant differences in maize leaf area and chlorophyll con⁃tent among three treatments, and the leaf area and chlorophyll content in T1 treatment increased by 2�7% and 3�0% com⁃pared to those in CK1 ( P<0�05) . Leaf number in three treatments were close. Fresh weight, dry weight and ear weight of single maize plant in T1 treatment were 26�6%, 28�0% and 13�9% higher than those in CK0, and 2�3% and 4�3% higher than those in CK1, indicating the yield⁃raising effect of coated fertilizer. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen and alkali⁃hydro⁃lyzable nitrogen differed in three treatments after 30 d ( P<0�05) , suggesting that conjugated oil was biodegradable and in⁃creased the content of organic matter in the soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR) revealed C�C conjugated double bonds opened and formed polymer macromolecules after film solidified, which shortened the curing time. The coating surface was smooth under scanning electron microscope, with hydrophobic channel in the cross section to deliver nutrients, which improved the water resistance and slow⁃release properties.%为了更好地利用酱渣废弃物,同时增加缓释包膜肥材料的来源,从酱渣中提取废油,共轭改性后用于制备具有缓释功能的包膜肥,通

  11. Study on Application of Bi-directional Combination Technology Integrating Residue Hydrotreating with Catalytic Cracking RICP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Chuanfeng; Gao Yongcan; Dai Lishun; Li Dadong

    2008-01-01

    After analysing the disadvantages of the traditional residue hydrotreating-catalytic cracking combination process, RIPP has proposed a bi-directional combination technology integrating residue hydrotreating with catalytic cracking called RICP which does not further recycles the FCC heavy cycle oil (HCO) inside the FCC unit and delivers HCO to the residue hydrotreating unit as a diluting oil for the residue that is concurrently subjected to hydrotreating prior to being used as the FCC feed oil. The RICP technology can stimulate residue hydrotreating reactions through utilization of HCO along with an increased yield of FCC light distillate, resulting in enhanced petroleum utilization and economic benefits of the refinery.

  12. Challenges in Modelling and Control of Offshore De-oiling Hydrocyclone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdevic, Petar; Pedersen, Simon; Yang, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    Offshore de-oiling installations are facing an increasing challenge with regards to removing oil residuals from produced water prior to discharge into the ocean. The de-oiling of produced water is initially achieved in the primary separation processes using gravity-based multi-phase separators, which can effectively handle large amounts of oil-well fluids but may struggle with the efficient separation of small dispersed oil particles. Thereby hydrocyclone systems are commonly employed in the downstream Produced Water Treatment (PWT) process for further reducing the oil concentration in the produced water before it can be discharged into the ocean. The popularity of hydrocyclone technology in the offshore oil and gas industry is mainly due to its rugged design and low maintenance requirements. However, to operate and control this type of system in an efficient way is far less simple, and alternatively this task imposes a number of key control challenges. Specifically, there is much research to be performed in the direction of dynamic modelling and control of de-oiling hydrocyclone systems. The current solutions rely heavily on empirical trial-and-error approaches. This paper gives a brief review of current hydrocyclone control solutions and the remaining challenges and includes some of our recent work in this topic and ends with a motivation for future work.

  13. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  14. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah S; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Ruijter, Jan M; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-07-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.

  15. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  16. Insecticidal activity of Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. essential oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Torres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a worldwide key pest of stored products. Usually contact insecticides or fumigants are used against it, but problems as toxic residues, human intoxications, and resistance have triggered the search for alternative control methods as the use of essential oils. The objective of this research was to assess under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. essential oil against S. zeamais. In contact toxicity bioassay assessed treatments were 0 (control, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain and 0 (control, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 175 μL essential oil L-1 air in fumigant toxicity tests. The highest toxicity by contact activity was reached by concentrations higher than 10 mL essential oil kg-1 grain (100% mortality. The same treatments totally inhibit F1. The dose of 175 μL essential oil L-1 air showed a significant toxicity by fumigant activity causing 72.5% of dead insects. The other treatments did not surpass 5% mortality. In offspring effect (F1 bioassay, all treatments had an insect emergence significantly lower than the control but concentrations equal or higher than 10 mL essential oil kg-1 grain prevented the emergence of F1 during the 7 wk of bioassay. The residual effect of contact toxicity remained by 15 d. The treatments based on essential oil lead to a weight grain loss lower than control and germination was not affected. All assessed treatments showed repellent effect. The essential oil of L. sempervirens has promissory perspectives to maize weevil control.

  17. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  18. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  19. Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Matthew J.; Zhang, Tao; Woyke, Tanja; Speller, Camilla F.; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Yang, Dongya Y.; Derevianko, Anatoly; Rubin, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of ancient DNA have been hindered by the preciousness of remains, the small quantities of undamaged DNA accessible, and the limitations associated with conventional PCR amplification. In these studies, we developed and applied a genomewide adapter-mediated emulsion PCR amplification protocol for ancient mammalian samples estimated to be between 45,000 and 69,000 yr old. Using 454 Life Sciences (Roche) and Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) technologies, we examined over 100 megabases of DNA from amplified extracts, revealing unbiased sequence coverage with substantial amounts of nonredundant nuclear sequences from the sample sources and negligible levels of human contamination. We consistently recorded over 500-fold increases, such that nanogram quantities of starting material could be amplified to microgram quantities. Application of our protocol to a 50,000-yr-old uncharacterized bone sample that was unsuccessful in mitochondrial PCR provided sufficient nuclear sequences for comparison with extant mammals and subsequent phylogenetic classification of the remains. The combined use of emulsion PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing allows for the generation of large quantities of DNA sequence data from ancient remains. Using such techniques, even small amounts of ancient remains with low levels of endogenous DNA preservation may yield substantial quantities of nuclear DNA, enabling novel applications of ancient DNA genomics to the investigation of extinct phyla. PMID:18426903

  20. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  1. The case for fencing remains intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D

    2013-11-01

    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered.

  2. Removing the remaining ridges in fingerprint segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU En; ZHANG Jian-ming; YIN Jian-ping; ZHANG Guo-min; HU Chun-feng

    2006-01-01

    Fingerprint segmentation is an important step in fingerprint recognition and is usually aimed to identify non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions and exclude them as background so as to reduce the time expenditure of image processing and avoid detecting false features. In high and in low quality ridge regions, often are some remaining ridges which are the afterimages of the previously scanned finger and are expected to be excluded from the foreground. However, existing segmentation methods generally do not take the case into consideration, and often, the remaining ridge regions are falsely classified as foreground by segmentation algorithm with spurious features produced erroneously including unrecoverable regions as foreground. This paper proposes two steps for fingerprint segmentation aimed at removing the remaining ridge region from the foreground. The non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions are removed as background in the first step, and then the foreground produced by the first step is further analyzed for possible remove of the remaining ridge region. The proposed method proved effective in avoiding detecting false ridges and in improving minutiae detection.

  3. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  4. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  5. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  6. Desempenho dinâmico de um trator agrícola utilizando biodiesel destilado de óleo residual Dynamic performance of an agricultural tractor utilizing distilled biodiesel from spent oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Soranso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o desempenho dinâmico de um trator agrícola funcionando com biodiesel destilado (50% etílico + 50% metílico em função das proporções de biodiesel e diesel de petróleo (0 e 100%, 5 e 95%, 15 e 85%, 25 e 75%, 50 e 50%, 75 e 25% e 100 e 0% respectivamente. O experimento foi realizado na área do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, SP, localizado na latitude 21º 14' 28" S e longitude 48º 17'12" W. Utilizou-se um trator 4 x 2 TDA com potência de 73,6 kW (100 cv no motor e um trator de lastro. O biodiesel utilizado foi produzido à base de óleo residual de fritura de alimentos, o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC, com 7 tratamentos e 5 repetições, totalizando 35 observações, e os resultados evidenciaram que a mistura biodiesel e diesel de petróleo influenciou significativamente as variáveis consumo horário volumétrico, consumo horário mássico, consumo de combustível por área trabalhada e consumo específico. Quando o trator operou com 100% de biodiesel (B100 o consumo específico aumentou em média 18% em relação ao diesel (B0.The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamic performance of an agricultural tractor utilizing distilled biodiesel (50% ethylic + 50% methylic as a function of the proportion of biodiesel and diesel of petroleum (0 and 100%, 5 and 95%, 15 and 85%, 25 and 75%, 50 and 50%, 75 and 25% and 100 and 0%, respectively. This research was done in the area of the Department of Rural Engineering of the Paulista State University (UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, SP, located in the latitude 21º 14' 28" S and longitude 48º 17'12" W. A tractor 4 x 2 FWA was used, with a 73.6 kW (100 HP motor and a ballast tractor. The biodiesel used was produced from spent oil from food frying. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with 7 treatments and 5 repetitions, totaling 35 observations

  7. Remaining Phosphorus Estimate Through Multiple Regression Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. E. ALVES; A. LAVORENTI

    2006-01-01

    The remaining phosphorus (Prem), P concentration that remains in solution after shaking soil with 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 containing 60 μg mL-1 P, is a very useful index for studies related to the chemistry of variable charge soils. Although the Prem determination is a simple procedure, the possibility of estimating accurate values of this index from easily and/or routinely determined soil properties can be very useful for practical purposes. The present research evaluated the Premestimation through multiple regression analysis in which routinely determined soil chemical data, soil clay content and soil pH measured in 1 mol L-1 NaF (pHNaF) figured as Prem predictor variables. The Prem can be estimated with acceptable accuracy using the above-mentioned approach, and PHNaF not only substitutes for clay content as a predictor variable but also confers more accuracy to the Prem estimates.

  8. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observ.......2% (19/54) and 35.4% (17/48) of the cases respectively. CONCLUSION: Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent. Clinicians should be aware of the hitherto unexplored clinical association with facial dermatitis....

  9. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubigney, Jean-claude

    2014-01-01

    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  10. Terminology for houses and house remains

    OpenAIRE

    Rosberg, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain lucidity, it is essential to choose adequate terminology when speaking of prehistoric houses. The understanding of house construction requires a terminology with a focus on construction. Very often, archaeologists instead use a terminology with a focus on the remains, and use an inadequate terminology for constructions, indicating that they do not fully consider how the constructions work. The article presents some suggestions for adequate construction terminology.

  11. Why do some cores remain starless ?

    CERN Document Server

    Anathpindika, S

    2016-01-01

    Physical conditions that could render a core starless(in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. The density profile of a typical core extracted from an earlier simulation developed to study core-formation in a molecular cloud was used for the purpose. We demonstrate - (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of $\\sim 10^{5}$ years. Those that remained starless did briefly acquire a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the density profile of a unstable Bonnor Ebert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three of our test cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16 and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. On the contrary B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other cores viz. B68, ...

  12. Residual stresses in welded plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Edward L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a simple model which could be used to study residual stress. The mechanism that results in residual stresses in the welding process starts with the deposition of molten weld metal which heats the immediately adjacent material. After solidification of weld material, normal thermal shrinkage is resisted by the adjacent, cooler material. When the thermal strain exceeds the elastic strain corresponding to the yield point stress, the stress level is limited by this value, which decreases with increasing temperature. Cooling then causes elastic unloading which is restrained by the adjoining material. Permanent plastic strain occurs, and tension is caused in the region immediately adjacent to the weld material. Compression arises in the metal farther from the weld in order to maintain overall static equilibrium. Subsequent repair welds may add to the level of residual stresses. The level of residual stress is related to the onset of fracture during welding. Thus, it is of great importance to be able to predict the level of residual stresses remaining after a weld procedure, and to determine the factors, such as weld speed, temperature, direction, and number of passes, which may affect the magnitude of remaining residual stress. It was hoped to use traditional analytical modeling techniques so that it would be easier to comprehend the effect of these variables on the resulting stress. This approach was chosen in place of finite element methods so as to facilitate the understanding of the physical processes. The accuracy of the results was checked with some existing experimental studies giving residual stress levels found from x-ray diffraction measurements.

  13. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  14. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  15. Understanding the Impact of Open-Framework Conglomerates on Water-Oil Displacements: Victor Interval of the Ivishak Reservoir, Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenzon, Naum I; Ritzi, Robert W; Dominic, David F

    2014-01-01

    The Victor Unit of the Ivishak Formation in the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield is characterized by high net-to-gross fluvial sandstones and conglomerates. The highest permeability is found within sets of cross-strata of open-framework conglomerate (OFC). They are preserved within unit bar deposits and assemblages of unit bar deposits within compound (braid) bar deposits. They are thief zones limiting enhanced oil recovery. We incorporate recent research that has quantified important attributes of their sedimentary architecture within preserved deposits. We use high-resolution models to demonstrate the fundamental aspects of their control on oil production rate, water breakthrough time, and spatial and temporal distribution of residual oil saturation. We found that when the pressure gradient is oriented perpendicular to the paleoflow direction, the total oil production and the water breakthrough time are larger, and remaining oil saturation is smaller, than when it is oriented parallel to paleoflow. The pressure differe...

  16. Simultaneous Determination of 34 Pesticide Residues in Vegetable Oil by QuEChERS-on-line Gel Permeation Chromatography-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%QuEChERS-在线凝胶色谱-气相色谱-质谱法测定植物油中34种农药残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮华; 荣维广; 宋宁慧; 吉文亮; 刘华良; 马永建

    2014-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 34 pesticides in sunflower oil, soybean oil and corn oil was developed. The samples were extracted and purified by a modified QuEChERS method, and then the supernatant was analyzed by on-line gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GPC-GC-MS ) . The linear range was from 0 . 01 to 0 . 2 mg/L with a good correlation coefficients ( r≥0. 9913). The average recoveries of 31 pesticides (except p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDT. For detail, please reference to section 3 . 6 ) ranged from 70 . 3% to 115 . 4%, 69 . 5% to 112 . 6% and 70 . 2% to 116 . 1%spiked at 0. 05 μg/g and 0. 1 μg/g with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) less than 13. 3%, 13. 5% and 12. 1% in sunflower oil, soybean oil and corn oil samples, respectively. The LODs of this method ranged from 0. 0692 to 2. 28, 0. 0559 to 2. 01 and 0. 0584 to 2. 14μg/kg (S/N=3) in sunflower oil, soybean oil and corn oil samples respectively. The convenient operation and versatility of this method are suitable for the fast screening and detection of 34 pesticide residues in sunflower oil, soybean oil and corn oil.%建立了葵花油、大豆油和玉米油中34种中高毒农药的快速筛查方法。样品采用改进的QuEChERS方法进行提取净化,提取液采用在线GPC-GC-MS检测。结果表明,34种农药在0.01~0.2 mg/L范围内具有良好的线性关系,相关系数为0.9913~0.9997。除p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDT外的31种农药在葵花油、大豆油和玉米油中的检出限分别为0.0692~2.28μg/kg,0.0559~2.01μg/kg,0.0584~2.14μg/kg;在0.05和0.1μg/g添加水平的平均回收率分别为70.3%~115.4%,69.5%~112.6%,70.2%~116.1%;相对标准偏差(RSD, n=6)分别为2.9%~13.3%,3.9%~13.5%,4.2%~12.1%。本方法具有操作便捷、快速等特点,适用于葵花油、大豆油和玉米油中34种农药残留的快速筛查与检测。

  17. Interferometric Measurement Of Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Steven; Andonian, A. T.

    1990-01-01

    Stress averaged through thickness of plate measured nondestructively. Theory of elasticity combined with laser interferometric technique into technique for measurement of residual stresses in solid objects - usually in thin, nominally-flat plates. Measurements particularly useful in inspection of wafers of single-crystal silicon for making solar cells or integrated circuits, because stresses remaining after crystal-growing process cause buckling or fracture. Used to predict deflections of plates caused by known applied loads under specified boundary condition, or to infer applied loads that cause known deflections. Also used to relate known deflections to residual stresses equivalent to stresses produced by fictitious applied loads.

  18. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  19. Effects of Ultrasonic Treatment on Residue Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yudong; Zhang Qiang; Shi Honghong; Wang Xue; Liu Bo

    2013-01-01

    The changes in properties and structural parameters of four vacuum residue samples before and after ultrasonic treatment were analyzed. Ultrasonic treatment could increase the carbon residue value, decrease the average molecular weight and viscosity, which can barely inlfuence the density of vacuum residue. Meanwhile the constitution of residue can be varied including the decrease in the content of saturates, aromatics and asphaltenes, while the increase in the content of resins can lead to an increase in the total content of asphaltenes and resins. Among the four kinds of residue samples, there is a common trend that the more the content of asphaltenes in feedstock is, the more the increase in the content of resins, the more signiifcant decrease in the aromatic content and the less decrease in the saturates content after ultrasonic treatment of residue would be. Changes in the structure and content of asphaltenes caused by ultrasonic treatment have a signiifcant impact on the changes in residue properties. Ultrasonic treatment has changed the structural parameters of residue such as decrease in the total carbon number of average molecule (CTotal), the total number of rings (RT), the aromatic carbon number (CA),the aromatic rings number (RA) and the naphthenic rings number (RN) , and increase of characterization factor (KH). The study has indicated that ultrasonic treatment of vacuum residue can change the average structure of residue, and the changes in the content and structure of asphaltenes are the main cause leading to property changes. The results of residue hydrotreat-ing revealed that coke yield decreased, whereas the gas and light oil yield and conversion increased after ultrasonic treat-ment of vacuum residue.

  20. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-03-14

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  1. Hierarchically deflated conjugate residual

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Azusa

    2016-01-01

    We present a progress report on a new class of multigrid solver algorithm suitable for the solution of 5d chiral fermions such as Domain Wall fermions and the Continued Fraction overlap. Unlike HDCG \\cite{Boyle:2014rwa}, the algorithm works directly on a nearest neighbour fine operator. The fine operator used is Hermitian indefinite, for example $\\Gamma_5 D_{dwf}$, and convergence is achieved with an indefinite matrix solver such as outer iteration based on conjugate residual. As a result coarse space representations of the operator remain nearest neighbour, giving an 8 point stencil rather than the 81 point stencil used in HDCG. It is hoped this may make it viable to recalculate the matrix elements of the little Dirac operator in an HMC evolution.

  2. Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

  3. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  4. Biomass to energy : turning residue to revenue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, A. [DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A business overview of DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp. was presented. The company was founded in 1990 and has developed a fast pyrolysis process called BioTherm{sup TM}, which converts forest and agricultural biomass residue into char and a liquid fuel called BioOil. Fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor involves the rapid heating of biomass in the absence of oxygen. Feedstocks include bark and whitewood, sugar cane residue, wheat straw, and rice hulls. The environmental advantage of BioTherm technology is that it reduces undesirable emissions to the atmosphere and promotes the use of renewable energy, and waste product utilization. It has been predicted that biomass demand in the future will exceed gas, oil or coal. Other market drivers for the BioTherm process include energy security, energy cost, biomass residue management, and climate change objectives. BioOils can be used as an industrial fuel for boilers, kilns and for district heating. They can also be used as fuel for turbines in power generation. In time, BioOils can be used as a transportation fuel and in chemical refining. This paper described projects currently under development, project financing and output values. It also listed project development partners. 5 tabs., 12 figs.

  5. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  6. Exploitation of hazelnut, maize germ and sesame seed aqueous extraction residues in the stabilisation of sesame seed paste (tahini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evlogimenou, Anthi; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Kiosseoglou, Vassilios

    2017-01-01

    Sesame seed paste is a highly nutritious food product which, upon long-term storage, tends to exhibit undesirable phenomena of oiling-off and particle sedimentation. The ability of rich-in-fibre aqueous extraction powders originating from oleaginous raw materials to enhance the physical stability of sesame paste is investigated in this study. The extraction residues remaining after treating hazelnut, sesame seed or maize germ with aqueous media in order to extract and exploit their oil bodies, were collected, dehydrated and milled into fine powders. The powders were then incorporated at various levels into a commercially available sesame paste product to assess their potential as paste stabilisers against oil separation. The solids from maize germ exhibited the highest stabilising ability followed by the solids from hazelnut. In contrast, the solids originating from the sesame seed were less effective in stabilising the sesame paste. Shear stress-rate of shear measurements of sesame paste incorporating the extraction residue solids were conducted in an attempt to explain the different stabilising behaviour of the three powders. The intensity of interactions between the incorporated solids within the sesame paste structure may determine the rheological properties of the blend and hence its stability against oiling-off upon long-term storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Stabilization of sand dunes with oil residue:Application to civil engineering construction and environmental implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmail Aflaki; Alborz Hajiannia

    2015-01-01

    The present work ascertains the feasibility of oil residue treatment for stabilizing wind-blown sand dunes. Various combinations of natural collapsible saline from the Jandaq desert of Iran and oil residue from distillation towers of Iranian refineries were tested in laboratory experiments. Stabilized sands were evaluated in terms of geotechnical properties, permeability, and oil retention characteristics (i.e. bonding mechanisms, leaching and migrating behaviour of oil residue from the stabilized sands). Since the presence of oil residue in soils can pose an environmental threat, the optimum retention capacity of the stabilized sands is of critical concern. Relative to sand that was not augmented with oil residue, specimens made of 7% oil residues had the highest compressive strength, significantly higher cohesion and load bearing capacity, and considerably lower permeability. The effect of distilled water, saline water and municipal sewage on prepared specimens were also evaluated.

  8. Molecular detection of marine bacterial populations on beaches contaminated by the Nakhodka tanker oil-spill accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Y.; Kishira, H.; Syutsubo, K.; Harayama, S.

    2001-04-01

    In January 1997, the tanker Nakhodka sank in the Japan Sea, and more than 5000 tons of heavy oil leaked. The released oil contaminated more than 500 km of the coastline, and some still remained even by June 1999. To investigate the long-term influence of the Nakhodka oil spill on marine bacterial populations, sea water and residual oil were sampled from the oil-contaminated zones 10, 18, 22 and 29 months after the accident, and the bacterial populations in these samples were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments. The dominant DGGE bands were sequenced, and the sequences were compared with those in DNA sequence libraries. Most of the bacteria in the sea water samples were classified as the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum, {alpha}-Proteobacteria or cyanobacteria. The bacteria detected in the oil paste samples were different from those detected in the sea water samples; they were types related to hydrocarbon degraders, exemplified by strains closely related to Sphingomonas subarctica and Alcanivorax borkumensis. The sizes of the major bacterial populations in the oil paste samples ranged from 3.4 x 10{sup 5} to 1.6 x 10{sup 6} bacteria per gram of oil paste, these low numbers explaining the slow rate of natural attenuation. (Author)

  9. Molecular detection of marine bacterial populations on beaches contaminated by the Nakhodka tanker oil-spill accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Y; Kishira, H; Syutsubo, K; Harayama, S

    2001-04-01

    In January 1997, the tanker Nakhodka sank in the Japan Sea, and more than 5000 tons of heavy oil leaked. The released oil contaminated more than 500 km of the coastline, and some still remained even by June 1999. To investigate the long-term influence of the Nakhodka oil spill on marine bacterial populations, sea water and residual oil were sampled from the oil-contaminated zones 10, 18, 22 and 29 months after the accident, and the bacterial populations in these samples were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments. The dominant DGGE bands were sequenced, and the sequences were compared with those in DNA sequence libraries. Most of the bacteria in the sea water samples were classified as the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum, alpha-Proteobacteria or cyanobacteria. The bacteria detected in the oil paste samples were different from those detected in the sea water samples; they were types related to hydrocarbon degraders, exemplified by strains closely related to Sphingomonas subarctica and Alcanivorax borkumensis. The sizes of the major bacterial populations in the oil paste samples ranged from 3.4 x 10(5) to 1.6 x 10(6) bacteria per gram of oil paste, these low numbers explaining the slow rate of natural attenuation.

  10. Structure-activity relations of water-in-oil vaccine formulations and induced antigen-specific antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Schijns, Virgil E J C

    2005-01-11

    Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are known as most effective adjuvants to generate high and durable antibody responses to vaccine antigens following a single immunization. However, their structural requirements remain poorly understood. Here we addressed the significance of certain pharmaceutical characteristics including water/oil ratios--ranging from 60/40 to 30/70 (w/w(%))--droplet size and type of oil, i.e. non-metabolizable (mineral oil) versus metabolizable (Miglyol 840). Stability of emulsions was accomplished by the use of a polymeric emulsifier. Distinct W/O emulsions were formulated with inactivated (i) infectious bronchitis virus (iIBV) and Newcastle disease virus (iNDV), and evaluated in immunized chickens for magnitude and duration of in vivo antiviral antibody formation and local reactions. A high mineral oil content proved most effective for antibody response formation. In general, a larger droplet size evoked higher antibody responses for both oil types. Inoculum residues proved lower using biodegradable Miglyol, when compared to mineral oil, for all emulsion variants. Especially water-to-oil ratio and droplet size may provide useful parameters for improving (antiviral) antibody production by W/O emulsions.

  11. Did Millikan observe fractional charges on oil drops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbank, William M.; Franklin, Allan

    1982-05-01

    We have reanalyzed Millikan's 1913 data on oil drops to examine the evidence for charge quantization and for fractional residual charge. We find strong evidence in favor of charge quantization and no convincing evidence for fractional residual charges on the oil drops.

  12. Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL - Probabilistic Predictive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Suhir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability evaluations and assurances cannot be delayed until the device (system is fabricated and put into operation. Reliability of an electronic product should be conceived at the early stages of its design; implemented during manufacturing; evaluated (considering customer requirements and the existing specifications, by electrical, optical and mechanical measurements and testing; checked (screened during manufacturing (fabrication; and, if necessary and appropriate, maintained in the field during the product’s operation Simple and physically meaningful probabilistic predictive model is suggested for the evaluation of the remaining useful lifetime (RUL of an electronic device (system after an appreciable deviation from its normal operation conditions has been detected, and the increase in the failure rate and the change in the configuration of the wear-out portion of the bathtub has been assessed. The general concepts are illustrated by numerical examples. The model can be employed, along with other PHM forecasting and interfering tools and means, to evaluate and to maintain the high level of the reliability (probability of non-failure of a device (system at the operation stage of its lifetime.

  13. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  14. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  15. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  16. Turbidite plays` immaturity means big potential remains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettingill, H.S. [Repsol Exploracion SA, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-10-05

    The international exploration and production industry is increasingly focusing on deepwater plays. Turbidites are not the only reservoir type that occurs in deepwater frontiers, but they are the primary reservoir type of those plays. A worldwide data base assembled from published information on 925 fields and discoveries with deepwater clastic reservoirs (turbidites sensu lato) has been employed to investigate the large-scale exploration and production trends. Coverage of the Former Soviet Union, China, and the Indian subcontinent has been minor, but with the large data base of fields and discoveries from the rest of the world, the broad conclusions should remain valid. This article describes the global turbidite play in terms of: (1) basins of the world where turbidite fields have been discovered; (2) the five largest basins in terms of total discovered resources; and (3) a summary of trap type, which is a critical geological factor in turbidite fields. The second article will summarize a population of the world`s 43 largest turbidite fields and discoveries.

  17. Enhanced degradation of bioremediation residues in petroleum-contaminated soil using a two-liquid-phase bioslurry reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Sun, Shanshan; Wang, Qinfang; Zhong, Weizhang

    2009-09-01

    A study was performed to determine the potential of two-liquid-phase (TLP) bioslurry reactors using silicon oil as solvent for degradation of residual contaminants in petroleum-contaminated soil. The residues were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. This allowed for the identification of a mixture of residual biomarkers, metabolic byproducts, oxygenated and hetero-polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the contaminated soil. The removal amount of total extractable organics (TEO) was 15900mgkg(-1) soil in the TLP reactor within 12weeks. However, TEO remained intact in the bioslurry reactor without the addition of silicon oil for the duration of the experiment, due to high toxicity of metabolites to the microorganisms. The availability of TEO was calculated using a mild extraction with Triton X-100, and the amount of TEO extracted was in accord with the amount of biodegraded TEO. Significantly reduced toxicity in soil was observed at week 12 through TLP remediation. Dehydrogenase activity in the bioslurry reactor was strongly suppressed. Fluorescein diacetate was significantly hydrolyzed by the composition of bioremediation residues in the contaminated soil. Microbial adhesion to the solvent was revealed by the determination of microbial activity in the water-immiscible-liquid.

  18. DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E

    2009-01-12

    This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

  19. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  20. Case Studies of the ROZ CO2 Flood and the Combined ROZ/MPZ CO2 Flood at the Goldsmith Landreth Unit, Ector County, Texas. Using ''Next Generation'' CO2 EOR Technologies to Optimize the Residual Oil Zone CO2 Flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentham, Robert C. [Univ. of Texas, Midland, TX (United States); Melzer, L. Stephen [Univ. of Texas, Midland, TX (United States); Kuuskraa, Vello [Advanced Resources International, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Koperna, George [Advanced Resources International, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The technology for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2 EOR) has significantly advanced since the earliest floods were implemented in the 1970s. At least for the Permian Basin region of the U.S., the oil recovery has been now been extended into residual oil zones (ROZs) where the mobile fluid phase is water and immobile phase is oil. But the nature of the formation and fluids within the ROZs has brought some challenges that were not present when flooding the MPZs. The Goldsmith-Landreth project in the Permian Basin was intended to first identify the most pressing issues of the ROZs floods and, secondly, begin to address them with new techniques designed to optimize a flood that commingled the MPZ and the ROZ. The early phase of the research conducted considerable reservoir and fluid characterization work and identified both technical and commercial challenges of producing the enormous quantities of water when flooding the ROZs. It also noted the differing water compositions in the ROZ as compared to the overlying MPZs. A new CO2 gas lift system using a capillary string was successfully applied during the project which conveyed the CO2 to the deeper and differing ROZ reservoir conditions at Goldsmith and added a second capillary string that facilitated applying scale inhibitors to mitigate the scaling tendencies of the mixing ROZ and MPZ formation waters. The project also undertook a reservoir modeling effort, using the acquired reservoir characterization data, to history match both the primary and water flood phases of the MPZ and to establish the initial conditions for a modeling effort to forecast response of the ROZ to CO2 EOR. With the advantage of many profile logs acquired from the operator, some concentration on the original pattern area for the ROZ pilot was accomplished to attempt to perfect the history match for that area. Several optional scenarios for producing the ROZ were simulated seeking to find the

  1. Remaining phosphorus estimated by pedotransfer function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Cagliari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the determination of remaining phosphorus (Prem is simple, accurate values could also be estimated with a pedotransfer function (PTF aiming at the additional use of soil analysis data and/or Prem replacement by an even simpler determination. The purpose of this paper was to develop a pedotransfer function to estimate Prem values of soils of the State of São Paulo based on properties with easier or routine laboratory determination. A pedotransfer function was developed by artificial neural networks (ANN from a database of Prem values, pH values measured in 1 mol L-1 NaF solution (pH NaF and soil chemical and physical properties of samples collected during soil classification activities carried out in the State of São Paulo by the Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC. Furthermore, a pedotransfer function was developed by regressing Prem values against the same predictor variables of the ANN-based PTF. Results showed that Prem values can be calculated more accurately with the ANN-based pedotransfer function with the input variables pH NaF values along with the sum of exchangeable bases (SB and the exchangeable aluminum (Al3+ soil content. In addition, the accuracy of the Prem estimates by ANN-based PTF were more sensitive to increases in the experimental database size. Although the database used in this study was not comprehensive enough for the establishment of a definitive pedotrasnfer function for Prem estimation, results indicated the inclusion of Prem and pH NaF measurements among the soil testing evaluations as promising ind order to provide a greater database for the development of an ANN-based pedotransfer function for accurate Prem estimates from pH NaF, SB, and Al3+ values.

  2. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  3. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  4. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  5. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  6. Monitoring habitat recovery and toxicity reduction in an oiled freshwater wetland to determine remediation success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.; Cobanli, S.E.; Gauthier, J. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Inst., Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Venosa, A.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Doe, K.G.; Jackman, P.M. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada); Lee, L.E.J. [Wilfred Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Suidan, M.T.; Garcia-Blanco, S. [Cincinnati Univ., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Oil spill responders have suggested that there is a need to improve oil spill countermeasures in wetlands. A controlled experiment was performed in a tidal freshwater marsh located along the St. Lawrence River, Canada, in which a weathered light crude oil was spilled on 16 of 20 plots at a rate of 12 litres per plot. The objective was to evaluate the following remediation strategies: (1) natural attenuation, (2) nutrient amendment with granular ammonium nitrate and super triple phosphate, (3) an identical treatment with plants continuously cut back to evaluate the influence of plant growth on remediation, and (4) nutrient amendment with sodium nitrate and super triple phosphate. The remaining four unoiled plots were fertilized with ammonium nitrate and triple super phosphate to determine the effect of nutrient amendments. Sediment samples were recovered on a regular basis for a period of 65 weeks to acquire background data for chemical and toxicological analysis. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed that both physical and biological processes removed residual hydrocarbon components. Elevated nutrient levels were sustained within the interstitial porewater by occasional applications of the fertilizer formulations being evaluated. However, biomarkers showed that there was little or no change in the composition of the residual oil due to experimental treatments. The dominant plant species appeared to be tolerant to the oil and its growth was stimulated by the addition of nutrients. A variety of responses, from detrimental effects to enhanced recovery, was observed in a series of biotests with bacteria and invertebrates. It was concluded that the apparent differences may be due to a range of factors including intrinsic variations in species sensitivity, induced tolerance on exposure to contaminant hydrocarbons, changes in bioavailability of the residual oil as a result of vegetative growth, or detrimental effects of the nutrient amendment products used in

  7. Compositional Analysis of North Sea Oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandekar, Abhijit; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    on the paraffin-naphthene-aromatic distribution and its geographic origin. In this work we have performed the true TBP distillation of 7 stabilized North Sea oil samples. All the oils were distilled from carbon number 6 to 19 and the distillation was terminated at C20+, which was termed as the residue. We have...

  8. Dehulling of coriander fruit before oil extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as fresh green herb, spice or for its essential oil. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed fruit and the residue is utilized as feed or processed further to recover the triglyceride. The triglyc...

  9. A new heavy residue upgrading process to retrofit existing refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaedian, Maryam; Zarkesh, Jamshid [NIOC-Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (Russian Federation); Khadzhiev, S.; Kadiev, H. [Russian Academy of science (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Light crude oil reserves have declined and new fields being explored tend to be heavy oil, requiring processes to convert heavy residue to light products. The aim of this paper is to present the use of heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) to upgrade heavy residues in existing refineries. A case study was carried out on a refinery with 250,000 barrel per day capacity, two cases were examined: the base case and the HRH case. Results showed that HRH provides higher IRR and NPV than the base case for the same investment. The heavy residue hydroconversion process was proved to be a feasible and reliable alternative which could eliminate residue while creating added value in existing refineries.

  10. PYROLYSIS OF TOBACCO RESIDUE: PART 1. THERMAL

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The pyrolysis of two types of tobacco residue was carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures between 300 and 600 °C and a residence time of 1 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product distributions was investigated and the composition of the bio-oils identified. The variation in product distribution depended on both the temperature and the type of tobacco residues. The maximum liquid yields were obtained at 400°C for one sample and at 500°C for the ot...

  11. Response to Oil Sands Products Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Tailings ponds are an operating facility common to all types of surface mining. For oil sands, tailings consisting of water , sand, clay, and residual ...oil, are pumped to these basins—or ponds— where settling occurs and water is recycled for reuse in the process. When the ponds are no longer required...of crude oil transported by tank vessel in Washington waters . In a 2013 Bloomburg Business news article , Dan Murtaugh states, “The dock probably

  12. Desarrollo y validación de una metodología para la determinación de residuos de orto-fenilfenol en aceite esencial de frutas cítricas en Tucumán, R. Argentina Development and validation of a methodology for determining orto-phenylphenol residues in citrus essential oil in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Kamiya

    Full Text Available Los aceites esenciales de frutas cítricas constituyen mezclas complejas de compuestos orgánicos que interfieren en la cuantificación de residuos de plaguicidas. Siendo escasa la bibliografía encontrada para la determinación de orto-fenilfenol (OPP en estas matrices, este trabajo apunta a adaptar, desarrollar, validar y acreditar bajo Norma IRAM 301 (ISO/IEC 17025:2005, un método sencillo y de menor costo. Para dicha cuantificación, se tomaron como punto de partida metodologías aplicadas al análisis de frutas cítricas y se aprovechó el carácter ácido del OPP para separarlo mediante una extracción ácido-base. Posteriormente, fue detectado y cuantificado por cromatografía gaseosa (CG con detector de ionización de llama (FID. Se obtuvieron recuperaciones promedio de 89% a 104%, en el rango de 0,1 a 100 mg/kg, para aceite esencial de limón (AEL; de 93% a 103 % y de 90% a 114% entre 0,2 mg/kg y 10 mg/kg de OPP para aceite esencial de pomelo (AEP blanco y rosado, respectivamente. Los límites de detección fueron 0,05 mg/kg para AEL y 0,1 mg/kg para AEP blanco y rosado. Los límites de cuantificación fueron 0,1 mg/kg para AEL y 0,2 mg/kg para AEP. Además, se observaron una linealidad aceptable en los rangos evaluados e incertidumbres relativas de 24% para AEL, 14% para AEP blanco y 23% para AEP rosado.The essential oils of citric fruits constitute complex mixtures of organic compounds which interfere with pesticide residues quantitation. As there exists scarce bibliography on ortho-phenylphenol (OPP determination in this commodity, the present work aims to adapt, develop and validate a simple and cheaper method for determining phenylphenol residues in citrus essential oil, while certifying it under IRAM 301 standard (ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Citrus fruit analysis methods were used, taking advantage of OPP acidity for its extraction from the commodity by simple acid-base extraction. Later, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector

  13. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  14. Preliminaries studies of the technological development of biodiesel production from used frying oil; Estudos preliminares sobre desenvolvimento tecnologico da producao de biodiesel a partir de oleo residual de fritura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasner, Cecilia; Mayerhoff, Zea D.V.L. [Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martins, Humberto [Biomarca, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Sena, Denise R. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Espirito Santo (CEFETES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to use the technological information available in the patent system to evaluate the technological routes used in the biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The search for patent documents was performed in two steps: patent applications in Brazil and patent applications in others countries. The method is described in the following order: choice of the patent searching databases; data parameters definition; displaying results; quantitative and qualitative analysis of the results; and data treatment. The results allowed concluding that the technological process to obtain biodiesel from waste cooking oil mostly used was the esterification followed by transesterification. Methanol was the preferable alcohol, but, there were a great number of Brazilian patents documents using ethanol. Also, there were an increasing number of patent documents concerning the development of new catalysts. The results also showed a low number of patent documents related to the pre-treatment of waste cooking oil, what suggests the need of further research to improve and standardized the raw material quality and consequently overcome the different difficulties during the biodiesel process production. (author)

  15. Jojoba oil and derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniak, T.

    1977-01-01

    Jojoba oil differs from all known seed oils by its almost complete absence of glycerides, making it more a liquid wax than a fat. It has become important as a possible substitute for sperm-whale oil to produce lubricants, lubricant additives and other products. The plant occurs naturally in southern Arizona and N.W. Mexico and its oil has long been used by Indians for medicinal, culinary, ritual and other purposes. It tolerates extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and grows well under the difficult soil and moisture conditions of the region. In the first part of this review the plant and its uses are described, including its floral, fruit and seed anatomy and the use of liquid wax during germination. Stored coryledon wax is used up by the embryo as a linear function of time during the first 30 days of germination and growth. Before germination, seeds weight about 0.59 mg and contain about 54% wax. The second and greater part of the review deals with jojoba oil (its extraction, properties, molecular description, toxicity and composition), jojoba meal, which remains after the oil has been extracted, and the chemical modification of the oil.

  16. PYROLYSIS OF TOBACCO RESIDUE: PART 1. THERMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K. Akalin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis of two types of tobacco residue was carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures between 300 and 600 °C and a residence time of 1 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product distributions was investigated and the composition of the bio-oils identified. The variation in product distribution depended on both the temperature and the type of tobacco residues. The maximum liquid yields were obtained at 400°C for one sample and at 500°C for the other. The compositions of bio-oils from the pyrolysis of the two samples were found to be very similar. N-containing compounds were found to be the major compounds identified in ether extracts for both samples.

  17. 微波预处理水浸取茶籽油后茶粕中皂素的提取研究%Extraction of Tea Saponin from the Residue that after Extracted Oil of Camellia oleifera by Microwave Pretreatment Water Extraction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江国忠; 金晓鹏; 郑小非; 杨森兴

    2014-01-01

    以微波预处理水浸取茶籽油后的茶粕为原料,采用超声波-乙醇法,通过因素分析及正交试验,研究皂素的提取并获得了最佳工艺,为微波预处理水浸取茶籽油技术应用延伸提供理论依据,提升该技术的应用价值。%With the residue that after extracte d oil of C. oleifera seed by microwave pretreatment water extraction method as materials, by ultrasonic-ethanol extraction method, through single factors analysis and orthogonal test, the best extraction technology of saponin were obtained. It provided a theoretical basis for the extended application of the technology of microwave pretreatment water extraction method, and enhanced the application value of this technology.

  18. Bioremediation of marine oil spills: when and when not--the Exxon Valdez experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Ronald; Bragg, James

    2009-03-01

    In this article we consider what we have learned from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in terms of when bioremediation should be considered and what it can accomplish. We present data on the state of oiling of Prince William Sound shorelines 18 years after the spill, including the concentration and composition of subsurface oil residues (SSOR) sampled by systematic shoreline surveys conducted between 2002 and 2007. Over this period, 346 sediment samples were analysed by GC-MS and extents of hydrocarbon depletion were quantified. In 2007 alone, 744 sediment samples were collected and extracted, and 222 were analysed. Most sediment samples from sites that were heavily oiled by the spill and physically cleaned and bioremediated between 1989 and 1991 show no remaining SSOR. Where SSOR does remain, it is for the most part highly weathered, with 82% of 2007 samples indicating depletion of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Total PAH) of >70% relative to EVOS oil. This SSOR is sequestered in patchy deposits under boulder/cobble armour, generally in the mid-to-upper intertidal zone. The relatively high nutrient concentrations measured at these sites, the patchy distribution and the weathering state of the SSOR suggest that it is in a form and location where bioremediation likely would be ineffective at increasing the rate of hydrocarbon removal.

  19. Recovery of Waterflood Residual Oil Using Alkali, Surfactant and Polymer Slugs in Radial Cores Récupération d'huile résiduelle par injection d'eau améliorée de produits alcalins, de tensio-actifs et de polymères dans des carottes radiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-El-Din H. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study has been conducted to examine mobilization and recovery of waterflood residual oil in radial cores. Alkali, surfactant, and polymer slugs of various compositions, sizes and sequences were tested. Core flood experiments were conducted with unfired radial Berea sandstone disks at a flow rate of 8 cm3/h. David Lloydminster crude oil (total acid number of 0. 45 mg KOH/g oil was used. The results of the present work showed that the composition and sequence of the injected chemical slug play an important role in mobilization and recovery of residual oil. For slugs lacking either mobility control, or low interfacial tension, no oil bank was formed and tertiary oil recovery was less than 20% Sor. A significant oil bank and tertiary oil recovery up to 70 % Sor were obtained with slugs having mobility control and low interfacial tension. However, maximum oil cut, incre-mental oil recovery and surfactant propagation were found to be functions of the alkali content in the slug. The incremental oil recovery, oil cut and slug injectivity greatly improved as the alkali concentration (sodium carbonate in the combined slug was increased. A slight delay in surfactant breakthrough and a significantly slower rate of surfactant propagation were observed at higher sodium carbonate concentrations. Une étude expérimentale ayant pour but d'examiner la mobilisation et la récupération assistée d'huile résiduelle, à la suite d'un déplacement par l'eau en milieu poreux, a été conduite. Des bouchons de produit alcalin, de surfactant et de polymère, ayant des compositions, grosseurs et séquences d'injection variées, furent essayés. Les déplacements en milieu poreux furent conduits en utilisant des carottes de grès berea (non traités à haute température et un débit de 8,0 cm3/h. Pour ce faire, on utilisa de l'huile de David Lloydminster (ayant un nombre acide de 0,45 mg KOH/g d'huile. Les résultats de ce travail ont démontré que la

  20. Heterogeneity of sandy conglomerate reservoir and its influence on remaining oil distribution: A case study from Badaowan Formation in the mid-west of block Ⅱ in Karamay Oilfield%砂砾岩储层非均质性及其对剩余油分布的影响——以克拉玛依油田二中西区八道湾组为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何辉; 宋新民; 蒋有伟; 彭仕宓; 李彦兰; 孙景民

    2012-01-01

    At present,the voidage-injection imbalance,interlayer interference and in-layer interference leaded by the reservoir heterogeneity are extremely highlighted during the production tail of sandy conglomerate reservoir in the mid-fan of alluvial fan.Taking the Jurassic Badaowan Formation in mid-west of the block II in Karamay Oilfield as an example,this paper studied the reservoir heterogeneity of alluvial fan sandy conglomerate reservoir.Based on outcrop observation,core description,electrofacies analysis,the single sand body description technique was used to divide the reservoir into 4 types of microfacies-lithofacies single sand body.Combining with the macroscopic and microscopic heterogeneity in different single sand body,the remaining oil were divided into 3 enriched types: Ⅰ-type braided channel gritstone facies,which has mesopore and small throat texture;Ⅱ-type braided channel fine sandstone facies,which has small pore and small throat texture;Ⅲ-type braided channel sandy conglomerate facies,which has small pore and fine throat texture.It is concluded that the type Ⅲ has the best water flooding effect and should be the main object of stabilizing oil production and controlling water cut,and the type I and Ⅱ,where the properties are relatively worse and the heterogeneity is stronger,should be the next potential target.Using this method of"recognizing the reservoir hetero-geneity and resolving it" as the breakthrough point to analyze the single sand body and the heterogeneity,which can provide better reference for forecasting the distribution of remaining oil in the sandy conglomerate reservoir.%冲积扇扇中砂砾岩油藏开发后期储层强非均质性引起的注采不平衡、层间干扰矛盾及层内差异等问题极为凸显。以克拉玛依油田二中西区八道湾组冲积扇扇中砂砾岩油藏为例,开展了储层非均质性精细表征研究。运用野外露头观察、岩心描述、测井相分析等,以单砂体刻画

  1. Pyrolysis Oil Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Dietrich

    2017-03-14

    In biorefineries several conversion processes for biomasses may be applied to obtain maximum value from the feed materials. One viable option is the liquefaction of lignocellulosic feedstocks or residues by fast pyrolysis. The conversion technology requires rapid heating of the biomass particles along with rapid cooling of the hot vapors and aerosols. The main product, bio-oil, is obtained in yields of up to 75 wt% on a dry feed basis, together with by-product char and gas which are used within the process to provide the process heat requirements; there are no waste streams other than flue gas and ash. Bio-oils from fast pyrolysis have a great potential to be used as renewable fuel and/or a source for chemical feedstocks. Existing technical reactor designs are presented together with actual examples. Bio-oil characterization and various options for bio-oil upgrading are discussed based on the potential end-use. Existing and potential utilization alternatives for bio-oils are presented with respect to their use for heat and power generation as well as chemical and material use.

  2. Investigation of Swelling and Dissolution Process of Natural Rubber in Aromatic Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feng; Kuang Minming; Li Guanlong; Zhou Xiaolong; Li Chenglie

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic oil has been used to promote the properties of crumb rubber modiifed asphalt which is an ideal method to deal with the resource utilization of waste rubber tires and by-product of reifnery. Furfural extract oil (FEO) was sepa-rated into the light fraction and the heavy fraction. Swelling and dissolution process of natural rubber sheet in these three oil samples was investigated to shed light on the interaction mechanism. Crumb rubber also interacted on FEO and asphalt respectively. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of processed rubber. The chemical composition of processed oils and asphalt was investigated by using the hydrocarbon group analysis (SARA) and gel permeation chroma-tography. The results revealed that the swelling rate and mass loss of rubber in oils were much higher than those in asphalt and rose with an increasing processing temperature. The heavy fraction of FEO had more diffusion and dissolving capabil-ity than the light fraction, whilst compatibility was observed between the heavy fraction and the light fraction. Selective ab-sorption was not observed in the study and detachment of dissolved rubber was disseminated from the outside to the inside. The cross-linking degree of the residue rubber was unchanged with the processing time, and sulfur predominantly remained in the undissolved rubber. Dissolution of crumbed rubber in oils was attributed to devulcanization, while that in the asphalt was mainly attributed to depolymerization.

  3. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  4. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  5. Review and Outlook of China's Oil Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jinshuang

    2006-01-01

    @@ In the first half of 2006, growth of oil supply in China slowed down and the growth rate of actual consumption was kept stable. Oil imports and apparent consumption increased rapidly, and the oil price went up to the historical records. In the future, growth of oil supply in China will still be restrained and oil import will remain a relatively high growth rate in the latter half of 2006.Compared to actual consumption, which will still be stabilized, the growth rate of apparent consumption will be higher. The oil price will linger at high-level.

  6. From forest residue to energy commodities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guido, R. [DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A business overview of DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp. was presented. The company's main focus is to convert biomass to energy. Demand for renewables has been increasing steadily since the 1980 and will continue to do so for the next several decades. The DynaMotive process involves fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor. This is the rapid heating of biomass in the absence of oxygen. BioOil, one product of fast pyrolysis, is a condensed volatile, free flowing liquid fuel that is not derived from petroleum. It is an oxygenated organic compound and is miscible with ethanol. More than 70 different biomass materials have been tested and the results indicate that any biomass is suitable for this waste free process. The initial focus has been on problematic wood residues such as bark, sawdust, and branches, or agricultural residues such as sugar can bagasse or wheat straw. The environmental advantage of biotherm technology is that it reduces undesirable emissions to the atmosphere and promotes the use of renewable energy, and waste product utilization. BioOils can be used as an industrial fuel for boilers, kilns and for district heating. They can also be used for power generation in turbines. In time, BioOils can be used as a transportation fuel and in chemical refining. Canada's biomass reserves include 18 million tonnes each year from sawmill residue alone. 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  7. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret; Brüggemann, Dagmar A.; Lenferink, Aufried;

    2014-01-01

    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during stor...... simply diluting unsaturated triglycerides with saturated triglycerides is causing the oxidative stabilization observed for mixed mayonnaise and mixed oil mayonnaise. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during...... storage was lower in mixed mayonnaise compared to LSO mayonnaise, while in mixed oil mayonnaise the level of peroxides was constantly low. Mixed oil mayonnaise had a lower rate of oxygen consumption than mixed mayonnaise, LSO mayonnaise having the highest rate. The decay of water-soluble nitroxyl radicals...

  8. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  9. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific

  10. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  11. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  12. All auto shredding: evaluation of automotive shredder residue generated by shredding only vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duranceau, C. M.; Spangenberger, J. S. (Energy Systems); (Vehicle Recycling Partnership, LLC); (American Chemistry Counsel, Plastics Division)

    2011-09-26

    A well developed infrastructure exists for the reuse and recycling of automotive parts and materials. At the end of a vehicle's useful life many parts are removed and sold for reuse and fluids are recovered for recycling or proper disposal. What remains is shredded, along with other metal bearing scrap such as home appliances, demolition debris and process equipment, and the metals are separated out and recycled. The remainder of the vehicle materials is call shredder residue which ends up in the landfill. As energy and natural resources becomes more treasured, increased effort has been afforded to find ways to reduce energy consumption and minimize the use of our limited resources. Many of the materials found in shredder residue could be recovered and help offset the use of energy and material consumption. For example, the energy content of the plastics and rubbers currently landfilled with the shredder residue is equivalent to 16 million barrels of oil per year. However, in the United States, the recovered materials, primarily polymers, cannot be recycled due to current regulatory barriers which preclude the re-introduction into commerce of certain materials because of residual contamination with substances of concern (SOCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The source of the PCBs is not well understood. Old transformers, capacitors, white goods and ballasts from lighting fixtures are likely contributing factors. The project was designed to evaluate whether vehicles of varying age and manufacturing origin contribute to the PCB content in shredder residue. Additionally, the project was designed to determine if there are any trends in material composition of the shredder residue from varied age and manufacturing groups. This information would aid in future material recovery facility strategy and design. The test utilized a newly installed shredder plant to shred four categories of automobiles. The categories were defined by vehicle age and the

  13. Mapping and quantification of organic agro-industrial residues in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and water ways, but, at the same time they constitute a large potential for production of bioenergy through anaerobic digestion as well as potential substrate for other biological fermentation processes. The utilization of these resources for production of valuable products would contribute significantly to: Improvement of the local energy supply, through production of bio-energy; Improvement of the economy of the East African agro-industry; Reduction of the environmental impact from the agro-industrial sector. Except for production of cane sugar, most agro-industrial residues are generated from cash crops, which are produced and processed in the developing countries and where the final products mainly are used for export. In the East-African Region the most important of these crops are: Sisal, coffee, Cashew nuts and Pineapple. In addition significant quantities of organic residues are generated from other food processing activities like breweries, consumption of bananas etc. The total potential methane production of the residues available for use in biomethanization systems in East Africa is 189.61 million m{sup 3} of methane per year. Converted to diesel oil equivalents and including the residues only feasible for combustion systems, the total bioenergy potential of agro-industrial residues in Eastern Africa is 279,176 TOE. If this potential was fully utilized for production of electricity, it would correspond to installed effects of 37,68 and 31 MW in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, respectively, equivalent to 10%, 11% and 18% of the currently installed effect is these countries. Residues from sisal and coffee processing constitute the main part of the bioenergy potential, on average approximately 75%, while the remaining 25% of the potential are formed by the

  14. Biomass energy from crop and forest residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, D; Moran, M A; Fast, S; Weber, G; Bukantis, R; Balliett, L; Boveng, P; Cleveland, C; Hindman, S; Young, M

    1981-06-05

    Residues remaining after the harvest of crop and forestry products are being proposed as a substantial energy source for the nation. An estimated 22 percent of the residues might be utilized, providing a renewable source of high-grade energy with the potential of supplying 1 percent of the current U.S. gasoline consumption as ethanol or 4 percent of the total electrical energy used. These net energy benefits are limited by high energy costs to collect, transport, and process the residues. Environmental threats include soil erosion, water runoff, and nutrient loss.

  15. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  16. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  17. A biological oil adsorption filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasila, Antti

    2004-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore.

  18. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we (HM found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO., or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1. Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of health oriented diet. Oxidized oils may eventually cause DNA cleavages, modification of proteins, RNA, and lipids, as well as cellular damage, or promote inflammation and carcinogenesis at later time [5-9]. These commercial oils of low antioxidant activity may be improved by adding functionally effective antioxidative components, by using dried vegetable-waste such as tomato-juice-waste-residues and wine-ferment-waste-residues. Their antioxiative components will be transferred into the functionally poor grade edible oils, and consequently, one can improve the quality of such functionally poor oils and thereby contributing human health [2,8,9]. The purpose of this paper is to report a practical procedure to fortify functionally low grade conventional edible oils to functionally enriched edible oils using dried vegetable-waste residues such as tomato juice waste, and wine-ferment-residues, or other vegetable-waste residues. Methods: (1 Preparation and measurements of lycopene and carotenoid enriched oils. To 5.0g or 1.0g of the dried residue of tomato juice waste, 100ml of commercial rape seed (canola oil was added respectively. Each mixture was incubated at room temperature in dark for several weeks. Amount of lycopene and carotenoids extracted into the oil was monitored by increase of absorption (400-550nm and fluorescence at 470nm of carotenoid. Grape-juice ferment (wine waste was similarly prepared after hot air drying, and immersed in canola oil. (2

  19. Effect-directed analysis and mixture effects of AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and coastal sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Gi Beum; Ha, Sung Yong; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jongseong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2015-04-01

    The major AhR-active PAHs were identified in crude oil and oil-contaminated sediments by use of effect-directed analysis. As part of the study, an enhanced potency balance analysis was conducted by establishing the novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs from the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Silica gel column fractionation of crude oil resulted in greater AhR-mediated potencies in fractions of aromatics (F2) and resins (F3), and such trend was also observed for field collected sediment samples. AhR-mediated potencies of six F2 sub-fractions from HPLC indicated that the majority of F2 responses were attributable to 3-4 ring aromatics. Target PAHs including C4-phenanthrene, C1-chrysene, and C3-chrysene in sediments explained ∼ 18% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs, however, the unknown AhR agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the AhR-potency and antagonistic potential of residual oil in sediment tended to decrease over time, thus monitoring of weathering process would be key for the post management of oil-contaminated sites.

  20. Unilever food safety assurance system for refined vegetable oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Duijn Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unilever Food Safety Assurance system for refined oils and fats is based on risk assessments for the presence of contaminants or pesticide residues in crude oils, and refining process studies to validate the removal of these components. Crude oil risk assessments were carried out by combining supply chain visits, and analyses of the contaminant and pesticide residue levels in a large number of crude oil samples. Contaminants like poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons of mineral origin, and pesticide residues can largely be removed by refining. For many years, this Food Safety Assurance System has proven to be effective in controlling contaminant levels in refined vegetable oils and fats.

  1. Russian oil exports : the Baltic Sea remains important route / Kari Liuhto

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liuhto, Kari

    2003-01-01

    Kui Venemaa jätkab naftatranspordi suurendamist Läänemere sadamate kaudu, siis paneb see EL-i ja Venemaa suhted tõsiselt proovile, leiab autor ning et keskkonnale kõige ohutum viis naftat Venemaalt läände eksportida oleks läbi Murmanski sadama Põhja-Jäämeres. Tabel: Venemaa toornafta eksport 2002. aastal.

  2. Russian oil exports : the Baltic Sea remains important route / Kari Liuhto

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liuhto, Kari

    2003-01-01

    Kui Venemaa jätkab naftatranspordi suurendamist Läänemere sadamate kaudu, siis paneb see EL-i ja Venemaa suhted tõsiselt proovile, leiab autor ning et keskkonnale kõige ohutum viis naftat Venemaalt läände eksportida oleks läbi Murmanski sadama Põhja-Jäämeres. Tabel: Venemaa toornafta eksport 2002. aastal.

  3. Recycling used automotive oil filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.

    1994-02-01

    Over 400 million used automotive oil filters are discarded in the United States each year, most of which are disposed of in landfills wasting valuable resources and risking contamination of ground- and surface-water supplies. This article summarizes U.S. bureau of Mines research evaluating scrap prepared from used automotive oil filters. Experimental results show that crushed and drained oil filters have a bulk density that is higher than many typical scrap grades, a chemical analysis low in residual elements (except tin due to use of tin plate in filters), and an overall yield, oil-filter scrap to cast steel, of 76% to 85%, depending on the method used to prepare the scrap.

  4. Processing-bioprocessing of oilseed rape in bioenergy production and value added utilization of remaining seed components

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Christian; Bellostas, Natalia; Jensen, Søren K.; Sørensen, Jens C.; Sørensen, Hilmer; Sørensen, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Cruciferous oilseed crops accumulate relatively high concentrations of oil, proteins and dietary fibres (DF) in their seeds, in addition to bioactive components as glucosinolates and myrosinase isoenzymes (thioglucohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.147). When mixed in the presence of moisture, myrosinase isoenzymes and associated components transform glucosinolates into various types of products, which reduces the value of the extracted oil and the remaining seed components, as well as producing unwanted e...

  5. BioWaste-to-Liquid. An ecologic-economic consideration of pyrolysis oil based on biogenic residual materials and wastes; BioWaste-to-Liquid. Oekologisch-oekonomische Betrachtung von Pyrolyseoel auf Basis biogener Rest- und Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liemen, Franziska; Zech, Konstantin; Kroeger, Michael [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The joint research project BioWaste-to-Liquid, which is carried out by Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum (DBFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), focuses on the provision of alternative fuels by means of fast pyrolysis. Alongside the various tests and technical analyses, an ecologic and economic assessment was carried out, that examines the performance of different raw materials in terms of GHG-emissions and production costs. The herein examined raw materials were Rape straw, Sunflower straw, residues of corn harvesting, hay, waste wood, bark and driftwood from river Rhine. The results show a good performance of waste wood and draft wood both in ecologic and economic terms, whilst especially Sunflower straw can be considered rather unsuitable since it is particularly affected by the negative effects of the compensatory fertilization. The other raw materials perform varyingly in the ecologic and economic assessments. (orig.)

  6. On the feasibility of inducing oil mobilization in existing reservoirs via wellbore harmonic fluid action

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Chanseok

    2011-03-01

    Although vibration-based mobilization of oil remaining in mature reservoirs is a promising low-cost method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), research on its applicability at the reservoir scale is still at an early stage. In this paper, we use simplified models to study the potential for oil mobilization in homogeneous and fractured reservoirs, when harmonically oscillating fluids are injected/produced within a well. To this end, we investigate first whether waves, induced by fluid pressure oscillations at the well site, and propagating radially and away from the source in a homogeneous reservoir, could lead to oil droplet mobilization in the reservoir pore-space. We discuss both the fluid pore-pressure wave and the matrix elastic wave cases, as potential agents for increasing oil mobility. We then discuss the more realistic case of a fractured reservoir, where we study the fluid pore-pressure wave motion, while taking into account the leakage effect on the fracture wall. Numerical results show that, in homogeneous reservoirs, the rock-stress wave is a better energy-delivery agent than the fluid pore-pressure wave. However, neither the rock-stress wave nor the pore-pressure wave is likely to result in any significant residual oil mobilization at the reservoir scale. On the other hand, enhanced oil production from the fractured reservoir\\'s matrix zone, induced by cross-flow vibrations, appears to be feasible. In the fractured reservoir, the fluid pore-pressure wave is only weakly attenuated through the fractures, and thus could induce fluid exchange between the rock formation and the fracture space. The vibration-induced cross-flow is likely to improve the imbibition of water into the matrix zone and the expulsion of oil from it. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Thermogravimetric investigation on the degradation properties and combustion performance of bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueyong; Meng, Jiajia; Moore, Andrew M; Chang, Jianmin; Gou, Jinsheng; Park, Sunkyu

    2014-01-01

    The degradation properties and combustion performance of raw bio-oil, aged bio-oil, and bio-oil from torrefied wood were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis. A three-stage process was observed for the degradation of bio-oils, including devolatilization of the aqueous fraction and light compounds, transition of the heavy faction to solid, and combustion of carbonaceous residues. Pyrolysis kinetics parameters were calculated via the reaction order model and 3D-diffusion model, and combustion indexes were used to qualitatively evaluate the thermal profiles of tested bio-oils for comparison with commercial oils such as fuel oils. It was found that aged bio-oil was more thermally instable and produced more combustion-detrimental carbonaceous solid. Raw bio-oil and bio-oil from torrefied wood had comparable combustion performance to fuel oils. It was considered that bio-oil has a potential to be mixed with or totally replace the fuel oils in boilers.

  8. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.; Jackson, B.E.; Stuadt, M.; Frey, W.

    2003-01-16

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  9. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.

  10. Studies on Catalytic Pyrolysis of Daqing Atmospheric Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥海; 徐春明; 张倩; 高金森

    2004-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of Daqing atmospheric residue on catalyst CEP-1 was investigated in a confined fluidized bed reactor. The results show that reaction temperature, the mass ratios of catalyst to oil and steam to oil have significant effects on product distribution and yields of light olefins. The yields of light olefins show the maxima with the increase of reaction temperature, the mass ratios of catalyst to oil and steam to oil, respectively. The optimized operating conditions were determined in the laboratory, and under that condition the yields of ethylene, propylene and total light olefins by mass were 15.9%, 20.7% and 44.3% respectively. The analysis of pyrolysis gas and pyrolysis liquid indicates that CEP-1 has good capacity of converting heavy oils into light olefins, and there is a large amount of aromatics in pyrolysis liquid.

  11. Determining the group hydrocarbon composition of oil distillates and residues using highly effective liquid chromatography. 2. A method for determining the calibrating coefficients based on the specific weight of a petroleum product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadas, M.; Yetsuro, N.

    1984-01-01

    The calibrating coefficients (F) for saturated hydrocarbons (Uv) and aromatic hydrocarbons (ArU) proceeding from data based on d 15/4 for the studied petroleum products were identified in order to evaluate the group hydrocarbon composition of petroleum distillates and residues using high resolution liquid chromatography (VEZhKh). The relationship between d 15/4 and deltan (the difference in the refraction index between d 15/4 and n-C6H14) for each type of hydrocarbon was used for this purpose. The relationships between the calibrating coefficients and deltan are studied for solutions of pure hydrocarbons in n-C6H14. (The calibrating coefficients are not proportional to delatn). The effect of the length of the tower and the packing on the relationship between the calibrating coefficients and deltan is also studied. Standard compounds are selected to determine the relationship between the calibrating coefficients and deltan. The relationship is expressed by the formula F = A(1 - Bexp(-Cdeltan)), where A, B and C are constants. Good agreement is observed for the values of the calibrating coefficients calculated by this method and measured by a known method.

  12. Surface modification of melamine sponges for pH-responsive oil absorption and desorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhiwen; Zhang, Guangzhao; Deng, Yonghong; Wang, Chaoyang

    2017-09-01

    Inspired by the development of smart oil/water separation materials, a pH responsive melamine sponge has been obtained by grafting poly (4-vinylpyridine) on the skeleton surface through atom transfer radical polymerization. Through scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the successful grafting of poly (4-vinylprridine) onto the melamine sponge has been confirmed. When contacting with different pH water droplets in air, the as-prepared product shows excellent switchable wettability between super-hydrophilicity (0°) and highly hydrophobicity (135°). Meanwhile, this responsive sponge also exhibits super-hydrophilic/oleophobic property underwater at pH = 1.0, and highly hydrophobic/super-oleophilic property in neutral solution at pH = 7.0. Furthermore, the excellent responsiveness is remained after five cycle water contact angle tests between two different pH stages at pH 1.0 and 7.0. The modified melamine sponges could not only absorb the oil from the oily water at pH = 7.0, but also quickly release the absorbed oil underwater at pH = 1.0 without leaving any residues and hurting the environment nearly, showing a good potential in controlled oil/water separation and oil recovery.

  13. Spectroscopic analysis of automotive engine oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Rachid; Gupta, Neelam

    2002-02-01

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology were combined to develop a portable spectrophotometer for use in engine oil analysis to identify and quantify oil contaminants and residue products, Preliminary measurements were taken with a field-portable AOTF-based spectrometer (2 to 4.5 micrometers ) and an FTIR spectrometer (2 to 25 micrometers ) for comparison. Absorption spectra of used and unused oil samples were measured and compared to determine absorption changes between the various samples resulting from oil degradation and any chemical reactions that might have taken place during high- temperature engine lubrication. These preliminary results indicate that IR spectroscopy can be used for oil quality monitoring in automotive engines, which will help predict and prevent engine failure and degradation. This work can be extended to other remote sensing applications, such as the monitoring of environmental oil spills.

  14. National Oil Companies and the Future of the Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the 1970s, a small number of national oil companies (NOCs) have dominated the world supply of oil and other hydrocarbons. Despite the huge influence that NOCs have on political economy, systematic scholarship remains surprisingly thin. I examine the factors that explain the wide variation in the strategy and performance of NOCs and survey the literature that has suggested the many ways in which NOCs play pivotal political and economic roles in resource-rich countries. As we look to...

  15. Wellhead application of new heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) process in heavy crude upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkesh, Jamshid; Samimi, A. Kh. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (Russian Federation); Khadzhiev, S.; Kadiev, H. [Russian Academy of science (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, the decline of light crude oil reserves and the price differential between intermediate and heavy oils have made upgrading processes attractive. A new nano catalytic process, the heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH), which converts heavy residue to light product has been developed. HRH is flexible as to feed type and catalyst is mainly recovered and recycled in the process. This study aimed at examining the feasibility of HRH to produce syncrude from heavy crude oil. Three cases of stand-alone HRH plants were investigated: a 20,000 bbl/d plant producing hydrogen from natural gas, another producing hydrogen from residue and a third with a high capacity of 30,000 bbl/d. Results showed that in all three cases the stand-alone HRH plant was economically feasible. This study demonstrated that stand-alone HRH plants are a good alternative for producing syncrude from heavy crude oils.

  16. China's National Oil Reserve Center was Born

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun; Yi

    2008-01-01

      Aseries of events that occurred in October 2007, are rewriting the history of China's energy industry: November 3 an Energy Law Committee asked the public for suggestions on improvements; forty top experts came together to form the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee on November 6; and the National Oil Reserve Center (NORC)became the nerve centre of oil reserves on November 18. Yet, behind the progress of these recent activities remains the fact that international oil prices still hover around a very high price of US$ 90/barrel, and China's oil imports are close to accounting for half of its total oil reserves.……

  17. China's National Oil Reserve Center was Born

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aseries of events that occurred in October 2007, are rewriting the history of China's energy industry: November 3 an Energy Law Committee asked the public for suggestions on improvements; forty top experts came together to form the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee on November 6; and the National Oil Reserve Center (NORC)became the nerve centre of oil reserves on November 18. Yet, behind the progress of these recent activities remains the fact that international oil prices still hover around a very high price of US$ 90/barrel, and China's oil imports are close to accounting for half of its total oil reserves.

  18. Nondestructive Testing Residual Stress Using Ultrasonic Critical Refracted Longitudinal Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunguang; Song, Wentao; Pan, Qinxue; Li, Huanxin; Liu, Shuai

    Residual stress has significant impacts on the performance of the mechanical components, especially on its strength, fatigue life and corrosion resistance and dimensional stability. Based on theory of acoustoelasticity, the testing principle of ultrasonic LCR wave method is analyzed. The testing system of residual stress is build. The method of calibration of stress coefficient is proposed in order to improve the detection precision. At last, through experiments and applications on residual stress testing of oil pipeline weld joint, vehicle's torsion shaft, glass and ceramics, gear tooth root, and so on, the result show that it deserved to be studied deeply on application and popularization of ultrasonic LCR wave method.

  19. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lewis R

    2010-06-01

    Two-thirds of the oil ever found is still in the ground even after primary and secondary production. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the tertiary methods purported to increase oil recovery. Since 1946 more than 400 patents on MEOR have been issued, but none has gained acceptance by the oil industry. Most of the literature on MEOR is from laboratory experiments or from field trials of insufficient duration or that lack convincing proof of the process. Several authors have made recommendations required to establish MEOR as a viable method to enhance oil recovery, and until these tests are performed, MEOR will remain an unproven concept rather than a highly desirable reality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  1. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immune system. Despite coconut oil's high calorie and saturated fat content, some people use it by mouth to ... Coconut oil is high in a saturated fat called medium chain triglycerides. These fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. However, research on the effects ...

  2. A study on the hydrotreating of coal hydro liquefaction residue and its kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Lu, X.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydro-conversion of coal hydro liquefaction residue obtained from a 6 t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydro liquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 {sup o}C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydro liquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydro liquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ-mol{sup -1}. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values. (authors)

  3. A Study on the Hydrotreating of Coal Hydroliquefaction Residue and its Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Gao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-conversion of coal hydroliquefaction residue obtained from a 6t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydroliquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 °C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydroliquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydroliquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ•mol-1. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values.

  4. Influence of pretreatment of agriculture residues on phytase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Various agriculture residues such as rice bran, de-oiled rice bran, wheat bran ... Protein concentration in the culture filtrate was determined by the method of Lowry et al. ... microbial phytase in soybean meal based broiler diets ...

  5. Optimized Combination of Residue Hydrodesulfurization and Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Junwu

    2003-01-01

    @@1 Introduction Combination of residue hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and resi-due fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) is a unique technologyfor processing high-sulfur residue. This paper discusses theoptimized combination of these two processes.

  6. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia, Jundika C.; Sachin V. Jangam; Saad Akhtar; Agus P. Sasmito; Mujumdar,Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet) which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further...

  7. The S-RHT(R) Technology for Residue Hydrotreating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Chongren; Wang Gang; Hu Changlu

    2001-01-01

    The S-RHT technology is developed by FRIPP for residue hydrotreating in the fixed bed in order to process the high sulfur crude and increase the yield of light distillates. The technology can be used for treating various kinds of atmospheric residues (AR) or vacuum residues (VR) with a total metal content less than 150 ppm under the operating conditions of a temperature ranging from 360-410℃, a hydrogen partial pressure of 14-15 MPa, a LHSV of 0.20-0.30h-1 and a hydrogen to oil ratio of 700-1000. A certain amount of light products can be obtained and the hydrotreated atmospheric residue can fully meet the needs for the feedstock to RFCC or a blending feedstock to FCC. Based on the S-RHT technology, a 2 Mt/a residue hydrotreating unit has been constructed and successfully started up at Maoming Petrochemical Company by the end of 1999.

  8. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  9. Transesterification of oil extracted from different species of algae for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    farooq

    ISSN 1996-0786 © 2013 Academic Journals ... Extracted oil was analyzed for water ... wt%) and water contents (15, 23 and 17 mg/kg) for C. vulgaris, R. hieroglyphicum and mixed algae .... The solvent was reused .... Residual biomass (g).

  10. Maersk navigator oil spill in the great channel (Andaman Sea) in January 1993 and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Shailaja, M.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Observations on oil slicks, tar residues and dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPH) shortly after the oil spill resulting from the tanker accident in January 1993 showed negligible impact on the Indian EEZ of the Great Channel (Andaman Sea). DPH...

  11. @iMaersk navigator@@ oil spill in the great channel (Andaman Sea) in January 1993 and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Shailaja, M.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Observations on oil slicks, tar residues and dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPH) shortly after the oil spill resulting from the tanker accident in January 1993 showed negligible impact on the Indian EEZ of the Great Channel (Andaman Sea). DPH...

  12. Modelling pesticides residues

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of a specific method to assess the presence of residues in agricultural commodities. The following objectives are formulated: to identify and describe main processes in environment — plant exchanges, to build of a model to assess the residue concentration at harvest in agricultural commodities, to understand the functioning of the modelled system, to characterise pesticides used in field crops and identify optimisation potentials in phytosanitary...

  13. New method for researching the distribution of residual oil in buried hill fracturd reservoirs——taken DSB reservoir as a%潜山裂缝油藏剩余油分布研究新方法——以DSB油田为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵靖康; 王姝; 李娟; 黄小荣

    2011-01-01

    DSB变质岩潜山油藏1983年投入开采以来,经历27年的开发,目前进入高含水开发后期。如何准确认识潜山裂缝内部油藏剩余油分布,改善油田开发效果,是目前油田开发中的主要问题。在裂缝建模技术的基础上,利用油藏水锥研究与双孔双渗油藏数值模拟相结合且互为验证,对DSB变质岩潜山油藏进行了研究,清晰展现油田剩余油空间分布,为油田调整挖潜提供依据。%DSB metamorphic hill reservoir was put into development in 1983.After 27 years development,later stage of high water-cut development has come,and the problem in this stage is how to make clear the distribution of residual oil in buried hill reservoir to i

  14. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs at South Texas. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtz, M.; Knox, P.; McRae, L. [and others

    1996-02-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion barrels of oil, yet it still contains about 1.6 billion barrels of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. Interwell-scale geologic facise models of Frio Fluvial-deltaic reservoirs are being combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume or unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Progress in the third year centered on technology transfer. An overview of project tasks is presented.

  15. Source apportionment in oil spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Jorge; Mudge, Stephen M; Loyola-Sepulveda, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Gonzalo; Bravo-Linares, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    A pipe rupture during unloading led to a spillage of 350-700 tonnes of Caño Limon, a light sweet crude oil, into San Vicente Bay in 2007. Initial clean-up methods removed the majority of the oil from the sandy beaches although some oil remained on the rocky shores. It was necessary for the responsible party to clean the spilled oil even though at this location there were already crude oil hydrocarbons from previous industrial activity. A biosolvent based on vegetable oil derivatives was used to solubilise the remaining oil and a statistical approach to source apportionment was used to determine the efficacy of the cleaning. Sediment and contaminated rock samples were taken prior to cleaning and again at the same locations two days after application of the biosolvent. The oil was extracted using a modified USEPA Method 3550B. The alkanes were quantified together with oil biomarkers on a GC-MS. The contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil hydrocarbons was calculated from a Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis using Caño Limon crude oil as the source. By the time the biosolvent was applied, there had already been some attenuation of the oil with all alkanes oil in this case and the contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil ranged from 0% to 74%. The total hydrocarbon concentrations were lower after cleaning indicating an efficacy of 90% although the reduction in Caño Limon oil was smaller. This was sufficient to make further remediation unnecessary.

  16. Bioenergy from Biofuel Residues and Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    This review includes works published in the general scientific literature during 2015 on the production of bioenergy and biofuel from waste residues generated during bioethanol and biodiesel production with a brief overview of current and emerging feedstocks. A section of this review summarizes literature on culturing algae for biofuels including bioreactors and open pond cultivation systems with the utilization of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients. New methods applicable to the mass culture of algae are highlighted. Algal cell harvesting and oil extraction techniques tested and developed for algae discussed alongwith policies and economics are also provided.

  17. Pyrolysis kinetics and residue characteristics of petrochemical industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, H L; Lo, J C; Tsai, J H; Chang, G M

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated the pyrolysis characteristics of sludge from wastewater treatment plants in the petrochemical industry and focused on the pyrolysis kinetics, elemental composition of residue, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of exhaust gas. As pyrolysis temperature increased to 773 K, the increasing rate of crude oil production tended to a stable condition. The result indicated that the optimal temperature of crude oil and water mixed production was 773 K. When pyrolysis temperature increased from 673 to 973 K, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen concentrations of residue decreased and the sulfur concentration of residue increased. The concentrations of benzene, toluene,ethylbenzene, and styrene increased by the increasing pyrolysis temperature. We found that the reaction order of sludge pyrolysis was 2.5 and the activation energy of the reaction was 11.06 kJ/mol. We believe that our pyrolysis system is transitional between devolatilization and combustion.

  18. Effects of Tillage Management Systems on Residue Cover and Decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZHIGUO; XUQI; 等

    1998-01-01

    The effects of tillage methods on percent surface residue cover remaining and decomposition rates of crop residues were evaluated in this study.The line transect method was used to measure residue cover percentage on continuumous corn(Zea mays L.) plots under no tillage (NT),Conventional tillage(CT),chisel plow(CH),and disk tillage (DT).Samples of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) were used for residue decompostion study,Results showed that the percentage of residue cover remaining was significantly higher for NT than for CH and DT and that for CT was the lowest(<10%),For the same tillage system ,the percent residue cover remaining was significantly higher in the higher fertilizer N rate treatments relative to the lower fertilizer N treatments.weight losses of rye and vetch residues followed a similar pattern under CT and DT ,and they were significantly faster in CT and DT than in NT system ,Alo ,the amounts of residue N remaining during the first 16 weeks were alway higher under NT than under CT and DT.

  19. Experimental Research on the Reusing & Recycling Technology of Oil Extraction Wastewater Treatment in Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    How to use water resource effectively is an important problem in developing industry. Three combined processes which are composed of oil separator+de-emulsification flocculation+sand filtration (SDF), oil separator +hydrolytic acidification+SBR (SAS) and oil separator+de-emulsification flocculation +SBR (SDS) are conducted in laboratory-scale experiment to treat oil extraction wastewater for an oil-field. The experimental results show that the removal rate of COD(chemistry oxygen demand) and oil treated by SDF process are 85% and 95% respectively, the residual oil in effluent can meet the discharge standard, but the residual COD can not. The removal rate of COD and BOD (biological oxygen demand) of the SAS effluent are 85% and 90% respectively, the BOD can meet but the COD can not meet discharge standard. So the further treatment is required in the process. The SDS effluent with removal rate of 95% and 90% are obtained for COD and BOD respectively, which can completely meet the national standards of oil wastewater discharge and refilling (China). The experimental result shows that oil extraction wastewater has turned into water resource after being treated by SDS.

  20. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  1. The Strategic Implications for U.S. - Persian Gulf Relations on Domestic and Worldwide Oil Production for Future U.S. Oil Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    46 X. U.S. Reserves of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Liquids ....... ................... .. 76 XI. Cuulative Crude Oil Production of...Military Oil Demand ....... .................. 54 9. Decline in Oil Price 1930 - 1931 ......... .. 69 10. U.S. Crude Oil Production (1919-1986...lists the cumulative crude oil production for 16 nations. The key question remaining, then, is taking into account the indicated and inferred reserves

  2. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-27

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994.

  3. Dissection of Koch's residual feed intake: implications for selection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aggrey, Samuel E; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2013-01-01

    For 50 yr, residual feed intake (RFI) has remained a black box even though many researchers have touted it as a more biological estimate of efficiency of feed utilization than feed conversion ratio (FCR...

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 100-F-38 Stained Soil Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-093

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-03-13

    The 100-F-38 Stained Soil site was an area of yellow stained soil that was discoverd while excavating a trench for the placement of electrical conduit. The 100-F-38 Stained Soil site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils and the contaminant concentrations remaining in the soil are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

    2003-11-01

    DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. Increased pressure gradients during oil flow decreased the oil permeability and the water permeability that was measured afterward. Lower pressure gradients that were applied subsequently moderately affected water permeabilities but did not affect oil permeabilities. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels.

  6. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deepwater Horizon well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. See a map showing the largest oil spills ... Hurricane Season Meet the New CAMEO Chemicals Mobile App Revised: Sep 25, 2017 10:35pm | Site Map | ...

  7. Influence of physical and chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery in formation microflora and properties of crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, A. G.; Altunina, L. K.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Ovsyannikova, V. S.; Filatov, D. A.; Chuikina, D. I.

    2015-10-01

    The results of the analyzes of crude oil and produced water from wells in the areas of pilot testing of new flow deflection and oil-displacing Compounds developed in the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry SB RAS. It was found that changes in the properties and Compound of the oil and water mainly occur in the redistribution of filtration flows and integration in the development of the previously unwashed areas, as well as in washing off the residual heavy oil from the reservoir rock, and in some wells - due to formation biocenosis, contributing to desorption of oil from the rock.

  8. Organism relics or kerogens in oils as oil-source rock correlation indicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚素平; 张景荣; 金奎励

    1997-01-01

    Organism relies or kerogens in oils are first observed by a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The complexes of kerogens in oils are characterized by the presence of a great variety of microfossils or macerals. These kerogens in oils are mainly the residues of the original organic substances from which oil formed, and minor kerogens from enclosing rocks enter the oils, therefore, the components and types of the kerogens in crude oils can serve as an indirect indicator of oil-source rock correlation. This method was applied to Jurassic oils in the Junggar Basin and the Turpan-Hami Basin, and there are two types of the kerogens in oils: one containing a lot of macerals from terrestrial plants may derive from coals, and the other, characterized by a high content of microscopic algae, fungus spores and Acritarch, may originate from Permian organic matter. In addition, the reflectance of the vitrodetrinites in oils can be used as an indicator of oil-source

  9. Calculation of shocks in oil reservoir modeling and porous flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concus, P.

    1982-03-01

    For many enhanced recovery methods propagating fronts arise that may be steep or discontinuous. One example is the waterflooding of a petroleum reservoir, in which there is forced out residual oil that remains after outflow by decompression has declined. In this paper high-resolution numerical methods to solve porous flow problems having propagating discontinuities are discussed. The random choice method can track solution discontinuities sharply and accurately for one space dimension. The first phase of this study adapted this method for solving the Buckley-Leverett equation for immiscible displacement in one space dimension. Extensions to more than one space dimension for the random choice method were carried out subsequently by means of fractional splitting. Because inaccuracies could be introduced for some problems at dicontinuity fronts propagating obliquely to the splitting directions, efforts are currently being directed at investigating alternatives for multidimensional cases.

  10. Low Viscosity Lubricating Oils with Superior Cold Properties,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention concerns low viscosity lubricating oils based on polyakylbenzenes. The patent claims the use of low boiling portions of the...distillation residues occurring in the alkylation of benzene with chloroparaffins or olefins of the C10 to C14 chain length, as low viscosity and low congealing lubricating oils or as congealing point lowering mix components.

  11. The Galeta Oil Spill. II. Unexpected Persistence of Oil Trapped in Mangrove Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K. A.; Garrity, S. D.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L.

    1994-04-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahı´a las Minas (Panamá) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills.

  12. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 2; Unexpected persistence of oil trapped in mangrove sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.A.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L. (Bermuda Biological Station, Ferry Reach (Bermuda)); Garrity, S.D. (Coastal Zone Analysis, Sopchoppy, FL (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahia las Minas (Panama) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills. (author)

  13. INFLUENCE OF REACTION TEMPERATURE AND REACTION TIME ON PRODUCT FROM HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF BIOMASS RESIDUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakaphong Kongpanya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is facing with problems associated with biomass residue such as palm oil residues (oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches, shells and fibers. Biomass is promising source for the production of an array of energy-related produts including, liquid, solid and gaseous fuels, heat, chemicals electricity and other materials. Therefore, the use of biomass for energy is not still fully utilization due to the high moisture content, lower heating value of the energy unit or low bulk density and the problems withtar. While Thailand has high potential because the reisa lot of biomass that has not been utilizedfor example biomass residues from palm oil industry. About 2 million tons of empty fruit bunches in Thailand have great potential. This amount will continue increase with the rapid growth in the Thailand, the largest crude palm oil producer in the world. This amount will continue increase with the rapid growth in the Thailand palm oil industry. Therefore, a better method to manage such biomass residues is highly desired. One of the potential ways for alternative utilization of biomass is thermo-chemical process. Hydrothermal treatment is a process for making a homogenizinged, carbon rich and energy-dense solid fuel, called hydrochar. The objective of the study was to identify the effect of reaction temperature and reaction time for hydrothermal treatment of Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB. Influence of temperature 100°C, 150°C and 200°C for 30 to 90 min and active biogas process on 1.00-15.538 bars, within 1,000 mL stainless steel 316 batch-type reactor with a stirrer and there is an automatic temperature controller. Results showed that the highest chemical and physical properties of hydrochar product was achieved when operated on 200°C for 90 min. Maximum heating value was found that 5678 cal/g for EFB9. The result showed that the chemical and physical properties increased progressively with higher temperature. The results was

  14. Covariant Residual Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, Veronika E

    2014-01-01

    A recently explored interesting quantity in AdS/CFT, dubbed 'residual entropy', characterizes the amount of collective ignorance associated with either boundary observers restricted to finite time duration, or bulk observers who lack access to a certain spacetime region. However, the previously-proposed expression for this quantity involving variation of boundary entanglement entropy (subsequently renamed to 'differential entropy') works only in a severely restrictive context. We explain the key limitations, arguing that in general, differential entropy does not correspond to residual entropy. Given that the concept of residual entropy as collective ignorance transcends these limitations, we identify two correspondingly robust, covariantly-defined constructs: a 'strip wedge' associated with boundary observers and a 'rim wedge' associated with bulk observers. These causal sets are well-defined in arbitrary time-dependent asymptotically AdS spacetimes in any number of dimensions. We discuss their relation, spec...

  15. Application of vegetable oils in the treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C L; Gan, S; Ng, H K

    2010-05-15

    A brief review is conducted on the application of vegetable oils in the treatment of PAH-contaminated soils. Three main scopes of treatment strategies are discussed in this work including soil washing by oil, integrated oil-biological treatment and integrated oil-non-biological treatment. For each of these, the arguments supporting vegetable oil application, the applied treatment techniques and their efficiencies, associated factors, as well as the feasibility of the techniques are detailed. Additionally, oil regeneration, the environmental impacts of oil residues in soil and comparison with other commonly employed techniques are also discussed.

  16. Bioinspired oil strider floating at the oil/water interface supported by huge superoleophobic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueli; Gao, Jun; Xue, Zhongxin; Chen, Li; Lin, Ling; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Shutao

    2012-06-26

    Oil pollution to aquatic devices, especially to those oil-cleaning devices and equipment-repairing robots during oil spill accidents, has drawn great attention and remains an urgent problem to be resolved. Developing devices that can move freely in an oil/water system without contamination from oil has both scientific and practical importance. In nature, the insect water strider can float on water by utilizing the superhydrophobic supporting force received by its legs. Inspired by this unique floating phenomenon, in this article, we designed a model device named "oil strider" that could float stably at the oil/water interface without contamination by oil. The floating capability of the oil strider originated from the huge underwater superoleophobic supporting force its "legs" received. We prepared the micro/nanohierarchical structured copper-oxide-coated copper wires, acting as the artificial legs of oil strider, by a simple base-corrosion process. The surface structures and hydrophilic chemical components of the coatings on copper wires induced the huge superoleophobic force at the oil/water interface, to support the oil strider from sinking into the oil. Experimental results and theoretical analysis demonstrate that this supporting force is mainly composed of three parts: the buoyancy force, the curvature force, and the deformation force. We anticipate that this artificial oil strider will provide a guide for the design of smart aquatic devices that can move freely in an oil/water system with excellent oil repellent capability, and be helpful in practical situations such as oil handling and oil spill cleanup.

  17. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  18. Spilled oil and infaunal activity - Modification of burrowing behavior and redistribution of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary

  19. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-07-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  20. Effects of pollution from oil shale mining in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallner, L. (AN Ehstonskoj SSR, Tallin (Estonia). Inst. Geologii); Sepp, K. (Taru Univ. (Estonia). Dept. of Geography)

    1993-01-01

    The largest commercially exploited oil shale deposit in the world is in northeast Estonia. The accumulation of solid residues by oil shale mines and processing plants has resulted in numerous dumps and ash hills, which are polluting the environment. The groundwater and streams are highly polluted by sulphates, phenols and oil products. A dump hill of radioactive wastes poses a serious threat to the Baltic Sea. Local people suffer from diseases more often than in other regions of Estonia. (author)

  1. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  2. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  3. Decomposition of residue currents

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Mats; Wulcan, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Given a submodule $J\\subset \\mathcal O_0^{\\oplus r}$ and a free resolution of $J$ one can define a certain vector valued residue current whose annihilator is $J$. We make a decomposition of the current with respect to Ass$(J)$ that correspond to a primary decomposition of $J$. As a tool we introduce a class of currents that includes usual residue and principal value currents; in particular these currents admit a certain type of restriction to analytic varieties and more generally to construct...

  4. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... allows policy makers to induce parties to undertake socially desirable care and activity levels. Traditionally, tort law systems have assigned residual liability either entirely on the tortfeasor or entirely on the victim. In this paper, we unpack the cheapest-cost-avoider principle to consider...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1291 - Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1291 Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the biochemical pesticide cold pressed neem oil are exempt from the requirement of a...

  6. M. V. sea transporter oil spill and its environmental impact assessment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singbal, S.Y.S.; Fondekar, S.P.; Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; D'Silva, C.; Ingole, B.S.; Sawkar, K.; Verlecar, X.N.; Sawant, S.S.; Sreepada, R.A.; Karim, S.A.; Mhamal, N.P.; Saldana, M.C.

    of residual oil. On 2 July 1994, due to gusty winds, a crack was developed on the starboard side, thus spilling oil from the ship. The amount of oil spilled was estimated around 2 tonnes. A team of scientists from National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) Goa...

  7. Discussion of oil pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Oil pollution in Argentina, at the port of Comodora Rivadavia showed signs of long-term oil pollution of a nature which would not be tolerated in relation to the exploitation of North Sea oil. The field is operated by Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (Argentine), produces 70,000 bbl/day of oil from onshore and offshore wells, and has been in operation since 1907. A very marked ''tideline'' of bituminous oil residues contaminates the harbor installations and completely covers the pebbles, boulders, and rocks in the intertidal region. This material is of a considerable thickness and has completely obliterated any form of littoral marine life in these habitats. The sandy beach does not show signs of accumulative oil, and it is used as an important recreational area. Since seriously oiled seabirds can be seen, it is surprising that Patagonian crested ducks, king cormorants, and kelp gulls occur in large numbers but show little sign of oil contamination. The Magellan penguin, which is much less abundant locally, may have been much more vulnerable to the oil.

  8. Methanogenic Oil Degradation in the Dagang Oil Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation is one of the main in situ oil transformation processes in subsurface oil reservoirs. Recent studies have provided evidence of biodegradation of residual oil constituents under methanogenic conditions. Methane, like other biogenic gases, may contribute to reduce the viscosity of oil and enhance its flow characteristics (making it more available) but it can also be used as a energy source. So the aim of the present study was to provide reliable information on in situ biotransformation of oil under methanogenic conditions, and to assess the feasibility of implementing a MEOR strategy at this site. For this reason, chemical and isotopic analyses of injection and production fluids of the Dagang oil field (Hebei province, China) were performed. Microbial abundances were assessed by qPCR, and clone libraries were performed to study the diversity. In addition, microcosms with either oil or 13C-labelled hydrocarbons were inoculated with injection or production waters to characterize microbial processes in vitro. Geochemical and isotopic data were consistent with in situ biogenic methane production linked to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: GC-MS profiles of petroleum samples were nearly devoid of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, and alkyltoluenes, and light PAH, confirming that Dagang oil is mostly highly weathered. In addition, carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane (δ13CCH4 and δDCH4, respectively), and the bulk isotopic discrimination (Δδ13C) between methane and CO2 (between 32 and 65 ) were in accordance with previously reported values for methane formation during hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, methane-producing Archaea and hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were abundant in produced oil-water samples. On the other hand, our laboratory degradation experiments revealed that autochthonous microbiota are capable of significantly degrade oil within several months, with biodegradation patterns resembling those

  9. Kinetics Study of Balanites Aegyptiaca Oil Transesterification for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User-PC

    In this study, transesterification of Balanites aegyptiaca oil employing a homogeneous ... some time due to being green, non-toxic, ... usually: vegetable oil, animal fat and used cooking oil. The triglyceride would be treated ... silica are some of the solids acid/base catalyst .... glycerol, CH3OH and remaining NaOH or HCl.

  10. Chemical changes in extra virgin argan oil after thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr Eddine; Guillaume, Dom; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters, measured every 6 hours, of extra virgin argan oil heated for 24 h at 180 degrees C were investigated and compared with those of five other edible oils treated in the same thermoxidative condition. Argan oil was found to be particularly stable at high temperature, its level of polar compounds remaining low even after 24 h of heating.

  11. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dashtban, Heidi Schraft, Wensheng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

  12. Comparison of oil removal in surfactant alternating gas with water alternating gas, water flooding and gas flooding in secondary oil recovery process

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Mehdi Mohammad; Safarzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Sahraei, Eghbal; Nejad, Seyyed Alireza Tabatabaei

    2014-01-01

    Growing oil prices coupled with large amounts of residual oil after operating common enhanced oil recovery methods has made using methods with higher operational cost economically feasible. Nitrogen is one of the gases used in both miscible and immiscible gas injection process in oil reservoir. In heterogeneous formations gas tends to breakthrough early in production wells due to overriding, fingering and channeling. Surfactant alternating gas (SAG) injection is one of the methods commonly us...

  13. Evolution of the Moxizhuang Oil Field, Central Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Huayao; Zhang Yuanchun; Liu Jianzhang; Shi Jiannan

    2008-01-01

    Current oil saturation in the Moxizhuang (莫西庄) Oil Field in central Janggar (准噶尔) basin was evaluated by logging interpretation and measured on core samples, and the paleo-oil saturation in both the pay zones and water zones was investigated by graln-containing-oil inclusion (GOI) analysis.The pay zones in this field have low oil saturation and display low resistivity and small contrast between pay zones and water zones, and are classified as low-porosity, low oil saturation, and low resistivity reservoirs. Both the current low oil-saturation pay zones and the water zones above 4 365 m have high GOI values (up to 38%), suggesting high paleo-oil saturation. The significant difference between current oil saturation from both logging interpretation and core sample measurement and paleo-oil saturation indicated by GOI analysis suggests that this low oil-saturation field evolved from a high oil-saturation pool. Lateral re-migration and spill of formally trapped oil owing to changes in structural configuration since Neogene was the most plausible mechanism for oil loss in the Moxizhuang Oil Field.The combined effects of differential accumulation in the charge phase and the differential re-migration and spill of accumulated oil in Neogene are responsible for the complicated correlation between residual oil saturation and porosity/permeability of the reservoir sandstones and the distribution of low oil-saturation pay zones and paleo-oil zones (current water zones).

  14. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  15. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    allows policy makers to induce parties to undertake socially desirable care and activity levels. Traditionally, tort law systems have assigned residual liability either entirely on the tortfeasor or entirely on the victim. In this paper, we unpack the cheapest-cost-avoider principle to consider...

  16. Residual stresses within sprayed coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou

    2005-01-01

    Some important developments of residual stress researches for coating-based systems were studied. The following topics were included the sources of residual stresses in coatings: error analysis of Stoney's equation in the curvature method used for the measurement of coating residual stress, the modeling of residual stress and some analytical models for predicting the residual stresses in coatings. These topics should provide some important insights for the fail-safe design of the coating-based systems.

  17. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  18. All About Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats. Oils from plant sources (vegetable and nut oils) ... oil, and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to ...

  19. Unconventional Liquids, Peak Oil and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil is the largest source of primary energy in the world, at 32% of 2014 consumption. Forecasts by the International Energy Agency suggest oil will continue to provide the largest share of global energy through 2040, even with new policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios indicate that between 1.5 and 3.8 trillion barrels of oil will be burnt between 2015 and 2100. Various sources suggest that the world has 5 to 6 trillion barrels of remaining recoverable oil, more than half of which are in low grade deposits. Although oil sands and extra heavy oil are claimed to hold 1.5 trillion barrels, assessments of major deposits in the Canadian oil sands and the Venezuela Orinoco Belt, which hold the bulk of these resources, total less than 500 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Kerogen oil (oil shale), which has never been produced in anything but miniscule volumes, comprises an additional trillion barrels of these estimates. These unconventional deposits are very different from the conventional oil of the past as: - they are rate constrained, as they require massive upfront capital investments and lengthy construction periods, and therefore cannot be scaled up quickly in response to declines in conventional production. - they are expensive, both in terms of cost per barrel and the large energy inputs required for production. The best in situ oil sands deposits may yield an energy return of 3:1 and kerogen oil even less if it ever becomes commercially viable. This compares to 10:1 or more for conventional oil. Shale oil (light tight oil), may yield another 300 billion barrels worldwide, but suffers from high decline rates, expensive wells and limited availability of high quality deposits. The most productive and economically viable portions of these unconventional deposits tend to be exploited first, leaving the less productive, higher cost oil for later. As a result, increasing global oil consumption

  20. Residue depletion of tilmicosin in cattle after subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiyang; Ding, Shuangyang; Li, Jiancheng; An, Dianjin; Li, Cun; Shen, Jianzhong

    2006-07-12

    A study of tissue residue depletion of tilmicosin in cattle was conducted after a single subcutaneous injection at the therapeutic level of 10 mg per kg body weight. Eighteen cross cattle were treated with the tilmicosin oil formulation (30%). Three treated animals (two males and one female) were selected randomly to be scarified at 1, 7, 14, 28, and 35 days withdrawal after injection. Samples of the injection site and of muscle, liver, kidney, and fat were collected. Tilmicosin residue concentrations were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a UV detector at 290 nm. Using a statistical method recommended by the Committee for Veterinary Medical Products of European Medical Evaluation Agency, the withdrawal time of 34 days was established when all tissue residues except samples in the injection site were below the accepted maximum residue limits.

  1. Durability evaluation of superhydrophobic copper foams for long-term oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Gao, Lin; Yu, Xinquan; Liang, Caihua; Zhang, Youfa

    2017-06-01

    Superhydrophobic three-dimensional porous composites with good mechanical stability and high efficiency are promising candidates for oil-water separation application. Hence, several superhydrophobic copper foams were fabricated via the in situ growth of patterned Cu(OH)2 nanoneedles or ZnO nanocrystals (e.g. ZnO nanocones and ZnO nanorods) on the skeleton and followed by chemically modification. All the superhydrophobic copper foams showed efficient oil-water separation ability, especially the samples with ZnO nanorods arrays on the pre-nanostructured skeleton. The durability of superhydrophobic copper foams were then evaluated. Although the superhydrophobic samples kept separation efficiency higher than 95% after cycled evaluation, the pre-roughened copper foams exhibited the best performance against various damage among the samples. Microstructural evolution revealed that the coverage of the copper skeleton became from smooth swelling micro-crystals into rough nano-crystals after the pre-treatment of electrodepositing copper nanoparticles. The rough nanocrystals could not only avoid the formation of loose hierarchical structure, but also improve the binding force between patterned nanorods and the matrix. The fabricated closely-patterned ZnO nanorods could thus remain stable under the damage compared to others, presenting great mechanical robustness. Furthermore, we achieved a long-term efficient oil-water separation using the durable foams by periodic removal of residual oil in nanostructure gaps.

  2. Mechanisms of microbial oil recovery by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Core displacement experiments at elevated pressures were conducted to determine whether microbial processes are effective under conditions that simulate those found in an actual oil reservoir. The in-situ growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2 resulted in the recovery of residual oil. About 21 and 23% of the residual oil was recovered by C. acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2, respectively. Flooding cores with cell-free culture fluids of C. acetobutylicum with and without the addition of 50 mM acetone and 100 mM butanol did not result in the recovery of residual oil. Mathematical simulations showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not sufficient to recover residual oil. Oil recovery by Bacillus strain JF-2 was highly correlated to surfactant production. A biosurfactant-deficient mutant of strain JF-2 was not capable of recovering residual oil. These data show that surfactant production is an important mechanism for microbially enhanced oil recovery. The mechanism for oil recovery by C. acetobutylicum is not understood at this time, but the production of acids, solvents, or gases alone cannot explain the observed increases in oil recovery by this organism.

  3. Oil-particle interactions and submergence from crude oil spills in marine and freshwater environments: review of the science and future research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Boufadel, Michael C.; Johnson, Rex; Lee, Kenneth W.; Graan, Thomas P.; Bejarano, Adriana C.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Waterman, David; Capone, Daniel M.; Hayter, Earl; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Dekker, Timothy; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Hassan, Jacob S.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-particle interactions and oil submergence are of much interest to oil spill responders and scientists, especially as transportation of light and heavy crude oils increases in North America’s coastal marine and freshwater environments. This report contains an up-to-date review of the state of the science for oil-particle aggregates (OPAs), in terms of their formation and stability which may alter the transport, fate, and toxicity of the residual oil and, hence, its level of ecological risk. Operational considerations—detection, containment, and recovery—are discussed.

  4. Spectral analysis of pharmaceutical formulations prepared according to ancient recipes in comparison with old museum remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, M Cristina; Baraldi, C; Freguglia, G; Baraldi, P

    2011-10-01

    A study of the composition of the remains of ancient ointments from museums was undertaken to enable understanding of the preparation techniques. Comparison of ancient recipes from different historical periods and spectroscopic characteristics of inorganic and/or organic remains recovered in museum vessels enabled preparation of ancient pharmaceutical-cosmetic formulations. Farmacopea Augustana by Occo was one the most important books studied for the 14 formulations prepared in the laboratory. Three formulations are discussed in detail and raw materials and new preparations were proposed for ozone ageing. The most important micro Raman results are discussed. The spectra of the raw materials lipids, beeswax, and resins are discussed; beeswax and pig suet (axŭngia) Raman spectra were found to be similar, but different from those of the aged oils. SERS was applied to ancient ointments and galbanum and the Raman spectra are reported and discussed for the first time.

  5. Geomorphic factors related to the persistence of subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline; Hayes, Miles O.; Irvine, Gail V.; Short, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill has persisted along shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska, for more than two decades as both surface and subsurface oil residues. To better understand the distribution of persistent subsurface oil and assess the potential need for further restoration, a thorough and quantitative understanding of the geomorphic factors controlling the presence or absence of subsurface oil is required. Data on oiling and geomorphic features were collected at 198 sites in Prince William Sound to identify and quantify the relationships among these geomorphic factors and the presence and absence of persistent subsurface oil. Geomorphic factors associated with the presence of subsurface oil were initial oil exposure, substrate permeability, topographic slope, low exposure to waves, armoring on gravel beaches, tombolos, natural breakwaters, and rubble accumulations. Geomorphic factors associated with the absence of subsurface oil were impermeable bedrock; platforms with thin sediment veneer; fine-grained, well-sorted gravel beaches with no armor; and low-permeability, raised bay-bottom beaches. Relationships were found between the geomorphic and physical site characteristics and the likelihood of encountering persistent subsurface oiling at those sites. There is quantitative evidence of more complex interactions between the overall wave energy incident at a site and the presence of fine-scale geomorphic features that may have provided smaller, local wave energy sheltering of oil. Similarly, these data provide evidence for interactions between the shoreline slope and the presence of angular rubble, with decreased likelihood for encountering subsurface oil at steeply sloped sites except at high-angle sheltered rubble shoreline locations. These results reinforce the idea that the interactions of beach permeability, stability, and site-specific wave exposure are key drivers for subsurface oil persistence in exposed and intermittently exposed mixed

  6. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia`s coastline following the grounding of the tanker `Arrow`. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  7. Residual hydrocarbon toxicity in sediments impacted by the 1970 Arrow spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.D.; Tremblay, G.H. [Fisheries and Oceans. Inst. Maurice Lamontagne, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, J.H.; Mossman, D.C. [Fisheries and Oceans. Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K.G.; Jackman, P.M. [Environment Canada. Environmental Science Centre, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R.C.; Garrett, R.M.; Haith, C.E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-09-01

    An assessment of the biological effects associated with a marine oil spill that occurred more than twenty years ago was presented. In 1970, 2,045 m{sup 3} of Bunker C crude oil impacted 300 km of Nova Scotia`s coastline when the tanker Arrow ran aground. Only 10 per cent of the contaminated shoreline was subjected to cleanup. The other 90 per cent was left to degrade naturally. In 1993 and 1997, samples of sediment and interstitial water were collected in areas where residual oil from the spill was still evident. Chemical analysis has shown that the oil has undergone substantial biodegradation. As a result of natural attenuation process for more than a 20 year period, the toxicity of the residual oil has been reduced. Substantial evidence of habitat recovery was also found. 43 res., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia's coastline following the grounding of the tanker 'Arrow'. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  9. Effect of morphology of aluminium oxide nanoparticles on viscosity and interfacial tension (IFT) and the recovery efficiency in enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Hasnah Mohd; Radzi, Nur Shahbinar Ahmad; Latiff, Noor Rasyada Ahmad; Shafie, Afza

    2014-10-01

    Conventional enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods failed to extract the remaining oil from unconventional, high salinity and high temperature high pressure (HTHP) oil reservoirs. In surfactant flooding method, surfactants are injected to reduce the interfacial tension between oil and water hence sufficiently displaces oil from the reservoir. In steam flooding, high temperature steam is injected into a reservoir to heat oil to make it less viscous, making it easier to move to the production wells. However these methods fail to failed to perform because injection agents start to change its properties under the extreme condition. Therefore, nanoparticles are introduced to mitigate these challenges because of its ability to change certain factor in certain condition. Previous studies had shown that increments in the oil recovery were observed when core-flooding experiments using Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) nanofluid were conducted. In this research, the effect of morphology of Al2O3 nanoparticles on viscosity and interfacial tension (IFT) and the recovery efficiency in EOR was studied. Al2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized and the morphology was altered by hydrothermal treatment using different concentration of NaOH. After being treated, the morphology of Al2O3 changed from hexagonal to thin lath. The IFT between crude oil and the nanofluids of the treated Al2O3 showed lower values compared to the untreated ones. It was also observed from core-flooding experiment that the Al2O3 nanofluid which had undergone treatment with 10 M NaOH gave the highest recovery of 52.50% of residual oil in place (ROIP). The change in morphology could have resulted in better dispersion and thus lead to higher recovery.

  10. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  11. Extracting sea level residual in tidally dominated estuarine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer M.; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Howarth, Michael J.; Souza, Alejandro J.

    2012-07-01

    Sea level comprises a mean level, tidal elevation and a residual elevation. Knowledge of what causes maximum water levels is often key in coastal management. However, different methods to extract deviations in water level (residuals) from modelled and observed elevation can give different results. The Dee Estuary, northwest England is a macrotidal estuary that undergoes periodic stratification. It is used here to demonstrate methods to extract the residual water level in response to the following interactive processes: tidal, river-induced stratification and flow, meteorology and waves. Using modelling techniques, the interaction and contribution of different physical processes are investigated. Classical harmonic tidal analysis, model simulations and filtering techniques have been used to "de-tide" the total elevation for short-term (approximately month long) records. Each technique gives a different result highlighting the need to select the correct method for a required study. Analysis of the residual components demonstrates that all processes inducing residuals interact with the tide generating a semi-diurnal residual component. It is suggested that modelling methods enable the full effect of tidal interaction to remain in the residual, whilst harmonic tidal analysis (partly) modify and filtering methods (fully) remove this component of the residual. The analysis methods presented and their influences on the resultant residual are applicable to other study sites. However, when applied specifically to the mouth of the Dee Estuary, the external surge is found to be the main contributor to the total residual, whilst local wind and stratification effects are of secondary importance.

  12. Simulation of CO2-Distribution in Fractured Oil Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Furuvik, Nora; Halvorsen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    Deep geologic injections and storage of Carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) are an upcoming combination due to the potential for increased oil production from depleted oilfields at the same time reducing the carbon footprint from industrial sources. CO2-EOR refers to a technique for injection of supercritical-dense CO2 into an oil reservoir. Remaining oil, not producible by primary and secondary techniques, has been successfully produced using EOR with CO2 since early 1970??....

  13. Nitrogen deposition promotes the production of new fungal residues but retards the decomposition of old residues in forest soil fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griepentrog, Marco; Bodé, Samuel; Boeckx, Pascal; Hagedorn, Frank; Heim, Alexander; Schmidt, Michael W I

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has frequently been observed to increase soil carbon (C) storage in forests, but the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Changes in microbial community composition and substrate use are hypothesized to be one of the key mechanisms affected by N inputs. Here, we investigated the effects of N deposition on amino sugars, which are used as biomarkers for fungal- and bacterial-derived microbial residues in soil. We made use of a 4-year combined CO2 enrichment and N deposition experiment in model forest ecosystems, providing a distinct (13) C signal for 'new' and 'old' C in soil organic matter and microbial residues measured in density and particle-size fractions of soils. Our hypothesis was that N deposition decreases the amount of fungal residues in soils, with the new microbial residues being more strongly affected than old residues. The soil fractionation showed that organic matter and microbial residues are mainly stabilized by association with soil minerals in the heavy and fine fractions. Moreover, the bacterial residues are relatively enriched at mineral surfaces compared to fungal residues. The (13) C tracing indicated a greater formation of fungal residues compared to bacterial residues after 4 years of experiment. In contradiction to our hypotheses, N deposition significantly increased the amount of new fungal residues in bulk soil and decreased the decomposition of old microbial residues associated with soil minerals. The preservation of old microbial residues could be due to decreased N limitation of microorganisms and therefore a reduced dependence on organic N sources. This mechanism might be especially important in fine heavy fractions with low C/N ratios, where microbial residues are effectively protected from decomposition by association with soil minerals.

  14. Potential technical solutions to recover tight oil: Literature and simulation study of tight oil development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Over past decades, technology innovation drove unconventional resourcesbecome conventional. Incorporating the technologies applied in shale gasdevelopment, exploiting tight oil comes into stage recently. Advanced technology such as long horizontal wells combined with massivelyhydraulic fracturing was established as necessity to exploit tight oil reserve, however,primary recovery remains as low as 5.0-10.0% of original oil in place in tight oilreservoir with these technologies applied.[1] ...

  15. Observer's observables. Residual diffeomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Duch, Paweł; Świeżewski, Jedrzej

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the fate of diffeomorphisms when the radial gauge is imposed in canonical general relativity. As shown elsewhere, the radial gauge is closely related to the observer's observables. These observables are invariant under a large subgroup of diffeomorphisms which results in their usefulness for canonical general relativity. There are, however, some diffeomorphisms, called residual diffeomorphisms, which might be "observed" by the observer as they do not preserve her observables. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of these diffeomorphisms in the case of the spatial and spacetime radial gauges. Although the residual diffeomorphisms do not form a subgroup of all diffeomorphisms, we show that their induced action in the phase space does form a group. We find the generators of the induced transformations and compute the structure functions of the algebras they form. The obtained algebras are deformations of the algebra of the Euclidean group and the algebra of the Poincar\\'e group in the spat...

  16. Differentiation between decomposed remains of human origin and bigger mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, E; Loix, S; Develter, W; Van de Voorde, W; Cuypers, E; Tytgat, J

    2017-08-01

    This study is a follow-up study in the search for a human specific marker in the decomposition where the VOC-profile of decomposing human, pig, lamb and roe remains were analyzed using a thermal desorber combined with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer in a laboratory environment during 6 months. The combination of 8 previously identified human and pig specific compounds (ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, propyl butyrate, ethyl pentanoate, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, methyl(methylthio)ethyl disulfide, diethyl disulfide and pyridine) was also seen in these analyzed mammals. However, combined with 5 additional compounds (hexane, heptane, octane, N-(3-methylbutyl)- and N-(2-methylpropyl)acetamide) human remains could be separated from pig, lamb and roe remains. Based on a higher number of remains analyzed, as compared with the pilot study, it was no longer possible to rely on the 5 previously proposed esters to separate pig from human remains. From this follow-up study reported, it was found that pyridine is an interesting compound specific to human remains. Such a human specific marker can help in the training of cadaver dogs or in the development of devices to search for human remains. However, further investigations have to verify these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyrolysis Recovery of Waste Shipping Oil Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adibah Wan Mahari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microwave pyrolysis as a recovery method for waste shipping oil. The influence of different process temperatures on the yield and composition of the pyrolysis products was investigated. The use of microwave heating provided a fast heating rate (40 °C/min to heat the waste oil at 600 °C. The waste oil was pyrolyzed and decomposed to form products dominated by pyrolysis oil (up to 66 wt. % and smaller amounts of pyrolysis gases (24 wt. % and char residue (10 wt. %. The pyrolysis oil contained light C9–C30 hydrocarbons and was detected to have a calorific value of 47–48 MJ/kg which is close to those traditional liquid fuels derived from fossil fuel. The results show that microwave pyrolysis of waste shipping oil generated an oil product that could be used as a potential fuel.

  18. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could also be ..... during the domestic deep-frying and pan- frying of potatoes. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 53, ... commercial edible vegetable oils. JAOCS. 84, 31-36.

  19. Shoreline type and subsurface oil persistence in the Exon Valdez spill zone of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Boehm, P.D. [Exponent Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Neff, J.M. [Neff and Associates, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The grounding of the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska in the spring of 1989 resulted in the release of 258,000 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil into the marine environment. Nearly 800 km of shoreline were oiled to some degree. There was an unprecedented oil spill cleanup effort following the spill. The shoreline surveys of the spill zone were synthesized in this paper in an effort to demonstrate the relationship between shoreline type and persistence of subsurface oil (SSO) residues. Shoreline surveys of surface and SSO indicate rapid initial oil loss with a decline from about 800 linear km of PWS shoreline in 1989 to about 10 km of oiled shoreline in 1992. The period of rapid loss was attributed to natural physical process, biodegradation and cleanup activities that removed accessible spill remnants from shorelines. This was followed by a slower natural average loss rate for less accessible surface and SSO deposits of about 22 per cent per year for the period 1992-2001. This paper emphasized that shoreline type plays a key role in determining SSO persistence. The geology of PWS is complex. Many of the shorelines where SSO persists have armouring layers composed of hard, dense clasts, such as the quartzite boulders and cobblestones that can protect SSO deposits. Eighteen years after the spill, persistent SSO deposits in PWS shorelines remain protected from tidal water-washing and biodegradation by a surface boulder/cobble armour and low sediment porosity. The SSO deposits are in a physical/chemical form and location where they do not pose a health risk to intertidal biological communities and animals. The surveys continue to substantiate that remaining SSO deposits in PWS continue to degrade and go away slowly. 37 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  20. Identification and assessment of trace contaminants associated with oil and gas pipelines abandoned in place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, W.E.R.; Basso, A.C.; Dhol, S.K. [Biophilia Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    As more Alberta oil and gas fields become depleted, attention is being given to development of economically and environmentally sound abandonment procedures. The objective of this study was to identify and assess residual internal and external contaminants associated with abandoned pipelines, particularly those to be abandoned in place. Circumstances which might increase the risk of contaminant release, and other issues relating to residual pipeline contaminants, were also identified. It was found that there are thousands of different substances which could potentially be associated with abandoned pipelines. A wide range in the potential quantities of residual contaminants was also found. Of the issues identified, the effectiveness of pipeline pigging and cleaning procedures prior to abandonment was the most critical determinant of the potential quantities of residual contaminants. However, a number of trace contaminants, such as PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) and NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) may remain after thorough cleaning. A brief review of the legislation and regulations from a number of jurisdictions shows that pipeline abandonment has only recently become an issue of concern. Regulations specific to abandonment are lacking, and more general regulations and guidelines are being applied on a contaminant-specific basis, or in terms of waste disposal requirements.