WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil residues remaining

  1. Evaluation of PAH depletion of subsurface Exxon Valdez oil residues remaining in Prince William Sound in 2007-2008 and their likely bioremediation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R. [Louisville Univ., Louisville, KY (United States); Bragg, J.R. [Creative Petroleum Solutions LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the extent of oil weathering at the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) sites and estimated the bioremediation potential for shoreline segments by examining the depletion of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) relative to an estimated applicability threshold of 70 per cent. The distribution of oil was examined by location and current ratios of nitrogen and non-polar oil in order to assess if biodegradation rates were nutrient-limited. The impact of sequestration on the effectiveness of bioremediation was also studied. Results of the study showed that the EVOS residues are patchy and infrequently found on sites that were heavily oiled in 1989. Only 0.4 per cent of the oil originally stranded in 1989 remained. The remaining EVOS residues are sequestered under boulder and cobble armour in areas with limited contact with flowing water. The study also showed that concentrations of nitrogen and dissolved oxygen in pore waters within strata adjacent to the sequestered oil can support biodegradation. Most remaining EVOS residues are highly weathered and biodegraded. It was concluded that nutrients added to the shorelines are unlikely to effectively contact the sequestered oil. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  2. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  3. Oil prices remain firm, despite economic slump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Aaron; Giesecke Linda

    2002-01-01

    Despite all the evidence of sluggish economic growth throughout the world this year, WTI crude oil prices have averaged about $24/bbl year-to-date. Although prices have been lower than year-ago levels, they're a far cry from the lows that occurred in 1998 and at the beginning of 1999. Mounting tensions in the Middle East have given crude prices support. While the market has taken these tensions into account since the beginning of the year, more recent concerns about a possible U.S military conflict with Iraq have added a larger war premium to crude prices. Note that the halt of Iraqi exports itself may not be as detrimental as perceived, since these exports could easily be replaced by OPEC's excess capacity. In part, we have already seen a reduction in Iraqi exports this year due to a pricing dispute

  4. Recipe for residual oil saturation determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, A.J.; Kidwell, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978, Shell Oil Co., in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, conducted a residual oil saturation study in a deep, hot high-pressured Gulf Coast Reservoir. The work was conducted prior to initiation of CO/sub 2/ tertiary recovery pilot. Many problems had to be resolved prior to and during the residual oil saturation determination. The problems confronted are outlined such that the procedure can be used much like a cookbook in designing future studies in similar reservoirs. Primary discussion centers around planning and results of a log-inject-log operation used as a prime method to determine the residual oil saturation. Several independent methods were used to calculate the residual oil saturation in the subject well in an interval between 12,910 ft (3935 m) and 12,020 ft (3938 m). In general, these numbers were in good agreement and indicated a residual oil saturation between 22% and 24%. 10 references.

  5. Utility residual fuel oil market conditions: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Planning for residual fuel oil usage and management remains an important part of the generation fuel planning and management function for many utilities. EPRI's Utility Planning Methods Center has maintained its analytical overview of the fuel oil markets as part of its overall fuel planning and management research program. This overview provides an update of recent fuel oil market directions. Several key events of the past year have had important implications for residual fuel oil markets. The key events have been the changes brought about by the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath, as well as continuing environmental policy developments. The Persian Gulf conflict has created renewed interest in reducing fuel oil use by utilities as part of an overall reduction in oil imports. The policy analysis performed to date has generally failed to properly evaluate utility industry capability. The Persian Gulf conflict has also resulted in an important change in the structure of international oil markets. The result of this policy-based change is likely to be a shift in oil pricing strategy. Finally, continued change in environmental requirements is continuing to shift utility residual oil requirements, but is also changing the nature of the US resid market itself

  6. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  7. Heating oil, distillates and residuals outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    M.J. Ervin and Associates offers strategic planning support to the downstream petroleum industry in terms of price market monitoring, market analysis, media commentary and benchmarking of marketing operations. This presentation included graphs depicting supply and demand for heating oil distillates and residuals from the mid 1990s to 2004. It was noted that the long-term decline in residuals demand in the United States and Canada are due to environmental issues, the use of natural gas as an alternative, and the increasing complexity of refineries. Graphs depicting market impacts of refinery utilization and inventory trends showed that middle distillate production will increase at the expense of gasoline production. Middle distillates and gasoline markets will be more sensitive to supply disruptions, resulting in more frequent price spikes. Inventory trends indicate a greater reliance on product imports. The demand for heating fuel has stabilized due to the continued penetration of natural gas in eastern states and provinces. The demand for diesel fuel has growth 1.5 to 2 per cent while the demand for jet fuel has remained relatively flat and depends greatly on the growth of the gross national product (GNP). tabs., figs

  8. Hydrogenation upgrading of heavy oil residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichko, A.A.; Maloletnev, A.S.; Mazneva, O.A.; Galkina, N.I. [Fossil Fuel Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation). Hydrogenation and Gasification Dept.; Suvorov, U.P.; Khadjiev, S.N. [Inst. Oil and Chemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation). Hydrogenation of Heavy Residues Dept.

    1997-12-31

    At present time in the world there is no simple and effective technology at low pressure (<15-20 MPa) which could give the opportunity to use oil residues for distillate fractions production. In Russia a process for hydrogenation (up 6 MPa hydrogen pressure) of high boiling point (b.p. >520 C) oil products, including high S, V and Ni contents ones, into distillates, feedstock for catalytic cracking (b.p. 360-520 C) and metal concentrates. The main point of the new process is as follows: the water solution of catalytic additive, for which purpose water soluble metal salts of VI-VIII groups are used, is mixed with heavy oil residues, dispersed and then subjected to additional supercavitation in a special apparatus. (orig.)

  9. Method of removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmquist, F T.E.

    1949-09-08

    A method is described for removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues by centrifuging in the presence of oil-dissolving and paraffin-precipitating solvents, by which the precipitated paraffin is made to pass through an indifferent auxiliary liquid, in which a removal of oil takes place, characterized in that as auxiliary liquid is used a liquid or mixture of liquids whose surface tension against the oil solution is sufficiently low for the paraffin to pass the layer of auxiliary liquid in the form of separate crystals.

  10. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  11. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  12. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction...

  13. Preparing hydraulic cement from oil-shale residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for preparation of hydraulic cement from oil-shale residue is characterized in that, as flux is used, rich-in-lime poor-in-sulfur portland-cement clinker, by which the usual gypsum addition, is avoided.

  14. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil grease formulation shows superior tribological performance when compared to the commercial grease. On the basis of physico-chemical characterization and tribological performance the vegetable residual oil was found to have good potential for use as biodegradable multipurpose lubricating grease. In addition, the base oils are biodegradable and non toxic.

  15. Enhancement of recovery of residual oil using a biosurfactant slug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of the biosurfactant extract revealed a mixture of glycolipid and phospholipid in a ratio of 3.35:1. The irreducible water saturation (Swi) and initial residual oil saturation (Sor) of the sand-pack were 0.280 ± 0.003 and 0.373 ± 0.006, respectively. Core flooding experiment showed that an optimum oil recovery ...

  16. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the

  17. Acephate and buprofezin residues in olives and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Garau, V L; Pirisi, F M; Cabitza, F; Pala, M

    2000-10-01

    Field trials were carried out to study the persistence of acephate and buprofezin on olives. Two cultivars, pizz'e carroga and pendolino, with very large and small fruits respectively were used. After treatment, no difference was found between the two pesticide deposits on the olives. The disappearance rates, calculated as pseudo first order kinetics, were similar for both pesticides (on average 12 days). Methamidophos, the acephate metabolite, was always present on all olives, and in some pendolino samples it showed higher residues than the maximum residue limit (MRL). During washing, the first step of olive processing, the residue level of both pesticides on the olives did not decrease. After processing of the olives into oil, no residues of acephate or methamidophos were found in the olive oil, while the residues of buprofezin were on average four times higher than on olives.

  18. Alcohol biodiesel from frying oil residues; Biodiesel etilico a partir de oleo de fritura residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, Brunna Simoes; Marques, Luiz Guilherme da Costa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Inst. Virtual Internacional de Mudancas Globais], E-mail: lguilherme@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the reaction optimization and production of biodiesel through the use of frying residual oil made available by the restaurant placed at the PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES-RJ), using ethanol, so that to permit the production of sustainable bio diesel. The environmental gains obtained by the utilization of residual oil, avoiding that this oil be released in the nature, and the economic gains coming from the generation and utilization of ethanol allowing the production of biodiesel be an viable alternative. The obtained results during laboratory tests shown that biodiesel produced from the transesterification in alkaline medium, of the frying residual oil collected presented a reaction yield of approximately 80% considering in mass.

  19. Characteristic of oil palm residue for energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muharnif; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 10 6 ty -1 ) of palm oil from 38.6 x 10 6 ty - 1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), shell (2.3 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 10 6 ty - 1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study

  20. Biodiesel production from residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Pin; Chang, James I.

    2010-01-01

    This work was to study technical and economic feasibilities of converting residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth generated at soybean oil refineries into useable biodiesel. Experimental results showed that fatty acids in the SBE residual oil were hexadecenoic acid (58.19%), stearic acid (21.49%) and oleic acid (20.32%), which were similar to those of vegetable oils. The methyl ester conversion via a transesterification process gave a yield between 85 and 90%. The biodiesel qualities were in reasonable agreement with both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. A preliminary financial analysis showed that the production cost of biodiesel from SBE oils was significantly lower than the pre-tax price of fossil diesel or those made of vegetable oils or waste cooking oils. The effects of the crude oil price and the investment on the production cost and the investment return period were also conducted. The result showed that the investment would return faster at higher crude oil price. (author)

  1. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified...

  2. 40 CFR 180.34 - Tests on the amount of residue remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations..., cauliflower, kohlrabi. (12) Cantaloups, honeydew melons, muskmelons, pumpkins, watermelons, winter squash. (13...

  3. Characterization of residual oils for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Antonio Canesin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results suggesting that it is possible to take advantage of these residues for biodiesel production as the obtained products were approved according to the rules established by the National Association of Petroleum (ANP; the bovine samples were the exception regarding moisture and acidity.

  4. Decomposition of residual oil by large scale HSC plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Koichi; Ogata, Yoshitaka; Limmer, H.; Schuetter, H. (Toyo Engineering Corp., funabashi, Japan VEB Petrolchemisches Kombinat Schwedt, Schwedt (East Germany))

    1989-07-01

    Regarding large scale and high decomposition ratio visbreaker HSC, characteristic points and operation conditions of a new plant in East Germany were introduced. As for the characteristics of the process, high decomposition ratio and stable decpmposed oil, availability of high sulfur content oil or even decomposed residuum of visbreaker, stableness of produced light oil with low content of unsaturated components, low investment with low running cost, were indicated. For the realization of high decomposition ratio, designing for suppressing the decomposition in heating furnace and accelaration of it in soaking drum, high space velocity of gas phase for better agitation, were raised. As the main subject of technical development, design of soaking drum was indicated with main dimensions for the designing. Operation conditions of the process in East Germany using residual oil supplied from already working visbreaker for USSR crude oil were introduced. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO THE USE OF HEAVY OIL RESIDUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Dashut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an alternative approach to the existing oil refining, in which instead of a single priority that emerged in the traditional approach, we consider two: get the light component and a heavy residue used for the production of new construction materials.

  6. Hydrocracking of atmospheric distillable residue of Mongolian oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ts Tugsuu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many catalytic processes to refine heavy part of crude oil have attracted much interest due to declining reserves of light crude oils. This study focused on hydrocracking process of atmospheric distillable residue of Mongolian crude oil in the first time compared to those of other countries. Residue samples were hydrocracked with a commercial catalyst at 450°C, 460°C, 470°C for 2 h under hydrogen pressure of 10 MPa. The amount of residual fraction (350°Cresidue from Tamsagbulag crude oil. When the ME-AR was hydrocracked, the high consumption of hydrogen was related to the lowest H/C atomic ratio of feed atmospheric residue. The amount of liquid fractions (BP<350°C including gaseous products increased from 45.4wt% to 89.2wt%, when the reaction temperature increased from 450°C to 470°C. The highest yield of the middle fraction for each sample was observed at temperature of 460°C. On the other hand, the effect of temperature on the yield of middle fraction was not so high as compared with the yields of other fractions. The contents of n-paraffins on midlle and heavy fractions of TB-AR, DQ-AR were similar, but ME-AR’s was around 2 times lower than other after hydrocracking runs.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.166 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 24-28 

  7. DEEP HANGING WALL TRAPS-THE REMAINING PROMISSING TARGETS FOR OIL EXPLORATION IN THE NIGER DELTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oton, S.W

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the most dominant types of Hydrocarbon types found in the petroliferous Niger Delta are the classical rollover anticlinical traps 'I of oil exploration in the delta, these easy-to-find rollover structures are getting exhausted. They are most numerous at shallow depths in the younger delta front sedimentary sequence. Generally, during this primary oil exploration stage, oil and gas exploration have been concentrated in the shallow depths where they are easy to reach, easy to explore and easy to produce. This means that the present and future exploration campaigns in the Niger Delta should be directed towards other types of hydrocarbon trapping mechanisms that have been mapped in the delta. Many exploration models have been used and oil has been found in at least nine types of traps in the Niger Delta. The contrary (or anitithetic) fault model was used at the close of the last century. This model is so called because the controlling antithetic fault has a regional dip contrary to the structure-building growth fault with which it is associated. These faults, which are widespread in the Niger Delta, are easy to map especially on the Petro geological model. In this period, several promising hydrocarbon accumulations trapped against antithetic faults were discovered and tested. These hydrocarbon targets also seem fully explored and exhausted now. Recently, from modern high resolution 2-D and 3-D seismic data a lot of good prospects have been mapped and drilled in the deep horizon. In the last few years, a lot of unexplored oil have been discovered and tested in the deep horizons. They are mostly in hanging wall traps, at depth below 4,000 meters. This shows that most of the remaining undiscovered hydrocarbons in the Niger Delta may well be in these deep hanging wall traps between 4,000 and close to 5,600 meters. A definite search for deep-seated hanging wall traps is therefore recommended in a bid to find more new reservoirs and thereby increase the

  8. Steam foam studies in the presence of residual oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.A.; Demiral, B.; Castanier, L.M.

    1992-05-01

    The lack of understanding regarding foam flow in porous media necessitates further research. This paper reports on going work at Stanford University aimed at increasing our understanding in the particular area of steam foams. The behavior of steam foam is investigated with a one dimensional (6 ft. {times} 2.15 in.) sandpack under residual oil conditions of approximately 12 percent. The strength of the in-situ generated foam, indicated by pressure drops, is significantly affected by injection procedure, slug size, and steam quality. The surfactant concentration effect is minor in the range studied. In the presence of residual oil the simultaneous injection of steam and surfactant fails to generate foam in the model even though the same procedure generates a strong foam in the absence of oil. Nevertheless when surfactant is injected as a slug ahead of the steam using a surfactant alternating (SAG) procedure, foam is generated. The suggested reason for the success of SAG is the increased phase mixing that results from steam continually having to reestablish a path through a slug of surfactant solution.

  9. Microbial Desulfurization of a Crude Oil Middle-Distillate Fraction: Analysis of the Extent of Sulfur Removal and the Effect of Removal on Remaining Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R. C.; Garrett, K. K.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 was evaluated for its ability to desulfurize a 232 to 343°C middle-distillate (diesel range) fraction of Oregon basin (OB) crude oil. OB oil was provided as the sole source of sulfur in batch cultures, and the extent of desulfurization and the chemical fate of the residual sulfur in the oil after treatment were determined. Gas chromatography (GC), flame ionization detection, and GC sulfur chemiluminesce detection analysis were used to qualitatively evaluate the effect of Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 treatment on the hydrocarbon and sulfur content of the oil, respectively. Total sulfur was determined by combustion of samples and measurement of released sulfur dioxide by infrared absorption. Up to 30% of the total sulfur in the middle distillate cut was removed, and compounds across the entire boiling range of the oil were affected. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption-edge spectroscopy was used to examine the chemical state of the sulfur remaining in the treated OB oil. Approximately equal amounts of thiophenic and sulfidic sulfur compounds were removed by ECRD-1 treatment, and over 50% of the sulfur remaining after treatment was in an oxidized form. The presence of partially oxidized sulfur compounds indicates that these compounds were en route to desulfurization. Overall, more than two-thirds of the sulfur had been removed or oxidized by the microbial treatment. PMID:9872778

  10. Assessing food allergy risks from residual peanut protein in highly refined vegetable oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.M.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Rubingh, C.M.; Remington, B.C.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Houben, G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Refined vegetable oils including refined peanut oil are widely used in foods. Due to shared production processes, refined non-peanut vegetable oils can contain residual peanut proteins. We estimated the predicted number of allergic reactions to residual peanut proteins using probabilistic risk

  11. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Appendix. Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    Volume ten contains the following appendices: overview of improved oil recovery methods which covers enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced secondary recovery methods; the benefits of improved oil recovery, selected data for the analyzed states; and list of TORIS fields and reservoirs.

  12. [Research on engine remaining useful life prediction based on oil spectrum analysis and particle filtering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Jia, Yun-xian; Cai, Li-ying; Lin, Guo-yu; Zhao, Jin-song

    2013-09-01

    The spectrometric oil analysis(SOA) is an important technique for machine state monitoring, fault diagnosis and prognosis, and SOA based remaining useful life(RUL) prediction has an advantage of finding out the optimal maintenance strategy for machine system. Because the complexity of machine system, its health state degradation process can't be simply characterized by linear model, while particle filtering(PF) possesses obvious advantages over traditional Kalman filtering for dealing nonlinear and non-Gaussian system, the PF approach was applied to state forecasting by SOA, and the RUL prediction technique based on SOA and PF algorithm is proposed. In the prediction model, according to the estimating result of system's posterior probability, its prior probability distribution is realized, and the multi-step ahead prediction model based on PF algorithm is established. Finally, the practical SOA data of some engine was analyzed and forecasted by the above method, and the forecasting result was compared with that of traditional Kalman filtering method. The result fully shows the superiority and effectivity of the

  13. Effect of oil refining processes on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in soya bean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Crude soya bean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes. The effect of commercial refining processes, namely: alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. A high percentage (52%) of the residues was eliminated during alkali neutralization. No potentially toxic materials were detected among the identified degradation products. The obtained data showed that the ultimate degradation products were dimethyl phosphate and mono methyl phosphate.2 tab.,2 scheme

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 100-D-9 site is the former location of an underground storage tank used for holding fuel for the 184-DA Boiler House. Results of soil-gas samples taken from six soil-gas probes in a rectangle around the site the tank had been removed from concluded that there were no volatile organic compounds at detectable levels in the area. The 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  15. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana and Texas. Volume 3, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Louisiana and Texas. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS)

  16. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RyoheiTanaka; LehCheuPeng; WanRosliWanDaud

    2004-01-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world's largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country's economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10-15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia. Here we would like to introduce recent situation of palm oil and oil palm lignocellulosic residues at the first part of this paper. In the second part, our recent studies on the preparation of pulps for different purposes will be summarized.

  17. Facilitating the enzymatic saccharification of pulped bamboo residues by degrading the remained xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Li, Xin; Min, Douyong; Yong, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    Kraft pulping was performed on bamboo residues and its impact on the chemical compositions and the enzymatic digestibility of the samples were investigated. To improve the digestibility of sample by degrading the xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes (LCCs), xylanase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) were supplemented with cellulase. The results showed more carbohydrates were remained in the samples pulped with low effective alkali (EA) charge, compared to conventional kraft pulping. When 120 IU/g xylanase and 15 IU/g AF were supplemented with 20 FPU/g cellulase, the xylan degradation yield of the sample pulped with 12% EA charge increased from 68.20% to 88.35%, resulting in an increased enzymatic saccharification efficiency from 58.98% to 83.23%. The amount of LCCs in this sample decreased from 8.63/100C9 to 2.99/100C9 after saccharification with these enzymes. The results indicated that degrading the remained xylan and LCCs in the pulp could improve its enzymatic digestibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Processing on 14C- Chlofenvinphos Residues in Maize Oil and Bioavailability of its Cake Residues on Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.; El-Maghraby, S.

    2008-01-01

    Maize seed obtained from 14 C-chlofenvinphos treated plants contained 0.12 % of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, methanol and coke amounted to 10 %, 6 % and 69 %, respectively of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C activity in the crude oil could be a gradual reduced by the refining processes. The alkali treatment and bleaching steps are more effective steps in the refining processes remove about (63 %). The refined oil contained only about 17 % of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residues in processed oil contain parent compound, in addition to five metabolites of the insecticide. When rats fed the extracted seeds (cake), the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailable. After feeding rats for 5 days with the cake, a substantial amount of 14 C-residues was eliminated in the urine (59.5 %), while about 20 % was excreted in the feces. About 15 % of the radioactivity was distribution among various organs

  19. Efficiency of the refining processes in removing 14C-dichlorvos residues in soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Crude soybean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-dichlorvos at a dose 24 mg insecticide / kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes such as alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization. The effect of the refining processes on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. The insecticide residues in crude oil and cake amounted to 9.5% and 55% , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds. Extraction of the seeds with hexane gave crude oil with 9.5 % of original residues in seeds. The l4 C-activity in the crude stored Soya beans oil could be reduced by about 82% of radioactivity originally present in crude oil eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. A high percentage of the residues (50-55%) were eliminated during alkali treatment and bleaching. Refining of soybeans oil fortified with '1 4 C-dichlorovos. The final refined oil had only 13% of the radioactivity originally present, mainly in the form of dichlorvos, dimethyl and monomethyl phosphate in addition to desmethyl dichlorvos in oil with aged residues

  20. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas' known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole

  1. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of New Mexico and Wyoming. Volume 4, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of New Mexico and Wyoming. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to New Mexico's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the states of New Mexico and Wyoming and the nation as a whole

  2. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California. Volume 2, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As a part of this larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to California's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole

  3. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Kansas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Kansas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the state of Kansas and the nation as a whole.

  4. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Louisiana. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Louisiana oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Louisiana and the nation as a whole.

  5. Effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-LINDANE residues in corn oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    At blooming, maize plants were sprayed twice, 23 days apart, at a dose of 22 mg equivalent to 5 μCi/ plant. At post harvest, maize seeds had a radioactivity corresponding to 0.36% of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, cake and methanolic extract were amounted to 8 % and 60 % 5 % , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C-activity in the crude oil could be reduced by commercial processes locally used for refining. The refined oil had a residue level of about 0.7 ppm mainly in the form of unchanged lindane in addition to a number of chloro phenols as main metabolites. Refining of corn oil fortified with 14 C-lindane led to a high reduction of 14 C-lindane (88%). The refined oil contained a residue consisting lindane and its chloro phenols

  6. North American natural gas outlook : does gas remain a fuel option for oil sands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a North America natural gas outlook from Purvin and Gertz, an international energy consulting firm that has 30 years experience in providing strategic, commercial and technical advice to the petroleum industry. In particular, this presentation focuses on natural gas market fundamentals and how they may impact on oil sands development. It includes charts and graphs depicting NYMEX natural gas outlooks to July, 2009 and examines how supply will react to major changes in Canada's supply portfolio. It was noted that oil sands development is a driver for natural gas demand in Alberta. The existing regional gas pipeline infrastructure was presented and the market impact on upgrader options was discussed. The author suggests that if gas prices are too high, there are other fuel options for steam and power generation. These include bitumen, asphalt, coke, coal and nuclear. However, these options have additional costs, uncertainties and environmental issues. A key factor for success would be to have a clear understanding of the benefits and risks between these fuel options. 1 tab., 9 figs

  7. Assessment of bioavailability of weathered oil residues using caged bivalves (Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis) as indicator organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleczinski, C.F.; Costa, H.J.; Rigatti, M.J.; Wong, M.C.; Boehm, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    In April 1988, an estimated 400,000 gallons of San Joaquin Valley crude oil spilled into Peyton Slough and subsequently into Suisun Bay from an oil refinery in Martinez, California. The crude oil initially impacted a number of ecologically sensitive environments including estuarine water, marsh grasses, marsh and shoreline sediment, and intertidal sediment. A four-year oil weathering study was performed to determine the concentrations of environmentally important compounds in the stranded oil, to monitor changes in these concentrations over time, and to assess the potential long-term impact of the spilled oil in these various environments. As a result of marked differences in the rate of weathering at the different sites, a bioaccumulation component was added to the original study design in order to assess the bioavailability of crude oil residues remaining four-years post spill. Caged bivalves (Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis) were deployed at the three study sites as sentinel organisms and exposed for three months. Sediments and organism tissues were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) assemblages characteristics of the spilled oil. Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting techniques (e.g., double ratio plots of characteristic alkyl PAHs) were used to match distributions in the organisms and in the study site sediments

  8. Residues in cottonseed oil and cake resulting from the combined application of DDT and dimethoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zorgani, G.A.; Ahmed, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Cotton plants were treated with a combination of DDT and dimethoate under conditions of local agricultural practice to study the fate and magnitude of both chemicals in the cottonseed and related products. GLC and nuclear (using 14 C-DDT) techniques were used. DDT residues in the crude oil averaged 0.115 mg/kg; mainly as p,p'-DDT while residues in the cake were not detected. Dimethoate and dimethoxon in the crude oil were 0.13 and 0.01 mg/kg respectively. The cake contained 0.14 mg/kg dimethoate and 0.01 mg/kg dimethoxon. By simulating commercial oil processing in the laboratory using 14 C-DDT fortified oil samples it was found that alkali treatment and bleaching removed only 7% of the total residue, while deodorization effected removal of 40-50% of the residue. (author)

  9. Rhizosphere biodegradation of xenobiotics: Microbiological study of a rice field polluted by oil refinery residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasolomanana, J.L.; Balandreau, J.

    1987-07-01

    A rice field had been studied in which the disposal of oil residues from a refinery plant seemed to improve rice growth and soil N content. To check the hypothesis that nitrogen fixation by oil-adapted bacteria could explain this observation we isolated and studied dominant diazotrophic bacteria from the rhizosphere of an actively N/sub 2/-fixing rice plant growing on the polluted soil; for this purpose we used an axenic plant as an enrichment step. The rhizosphere did not contain more than 10/sup 5/ N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria per g dry soil, essentially Bacillus polymyxa; one of the isolates, strain R3 could grow and reduce C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ on oil residues only in the presence of glucose or of exudates from an axenic plant (spermosphere model); the presence of R3 diminished the inhibition of rice growth due to the oil residues; R3 nitrogenase activity in the rhizosphere of rice was increased in the presence of these residues. This cometabolism of oil residues in the presence of exudates and their stimulating effect on N/sub 2/ fixation provide a likely explanation for observed positive effects of the disposal of oil residues on arable lands, and are conducive to the hypothesis that rhizosphere cometabolism could greatly enhance soil organic matter turn over and humification rates.

  10. NMR and Chemometric Characterization of Vacuum Residues and Vacuum Gas Oils from Crude Oils of Different Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Parlov Vuković

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available NMR spectroscopy in combination with statistical methods was used to study vacuum residues and vacuum gas oils from 32 crude oils of different origin. Two chemometric metodes were applied. Firstly, principal component analysis on complete spectra was used to perform classification of samples and clear distinction between vacuum residues and vacuum light and heavy gas oils were obtained. To quantitatively predict the composition of asphaltenes, principal component regression models using areas of resonance signals spaned by 11 frequency bins of the 1H NMR spectra were build. The first 5 principal components accounted for more than 94 % of variations in the input data set and coefficient of determination for correlation between measured and predicted values was R2 = 0.7421. Although this value is not significant, it shows the underlying linear dependence in the data. Pseudo two-dimensional DOSY NMR experiments were used to assess the composition and structural properties of asphaltenes in a selected crude oil and its vacuum residue on the basis of their different hydrodynamic behavior and translational diffusion coefficients. DOSY spectra showed the presence of several asphaltene aggregates differing in size and interactions they formed. The obtained results have shown that NMR techniques in combination with chemometrics are very useful to analyze vacuum residues and vacuum gas oils. Furthermore, we expect that our ongoing investigation of asphaltenes from crude oils of different origin will elucidate in more details composition, structure and properties of these complex molecular systems.

  11. Biodiesel of distilled hydrogenated fat and biodiesel of distilled residual oil: fuel consumption in agricultural tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Felipe Thomaz da; Lopes, Afonso; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Oliveira, Melina Cais Jejcic; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Dabdoub, Miguel Joaquim [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Great part of the world-wide oil production is used in fry process; however, after using, such product becomes an undesirable residue, and the usual methods of discarding of these residues, generally contaminate the environment, mainly the rivers. In function of this, using oil and residual fat for manufacturing biodiesel, besides preventing ambient contamination, turning up an undesirable residue in to fuel. The present work had as objective to evaluate the fuel consumption of a Valtra BM100 4x2 TDA tractor functioning with methylic biodiesel from distilled hydrogenated fat and methylic biodiesel from distilled residual oil, in seven blends into diesel. The work was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, at UNESP - Jaboticabal, in an entirely randomized block statistical design, factorial array of 2 x 7, with three repetitions. The factors combinations were two types of methylic distilled biodiesel (residual oil and hydrogenated fat) and seven blends (B{sub 0}, B{sub 5}, B{sub 1}5, B{sub 2}5, B{sub 5}0, B{sub 7}5 and B{sub 1}00). The results had evidenced that additioning 15% of biodiesel into diesel, the specific consumption was similar, and biodiesel of residual oil provided less consumption than biodiesel from hydrogenated fat. (author)

  12. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). TORIS is a tested and verified system maintained and operated by the Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. The TORTS system was used to evaluate over 2,300 major reservoirs in a consistent manner and on an individual basis, the results of which have been aggregated to arrive at the national total

  13. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Keywords: Oil Palm Residues, Fuel Pellets, Proximate Analysis, Ultimate Analysis. 1. INTRODUCTION ... Pelletizing of this biomass resources into pellets is a way of ensuring a ... demand for pellets [3], and alternative feed-stocks such as palm kernel ... agro-residues, selection of the best pellets has to be made based on ...

  14. Utilization of oil palm tree residues to produce bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Arami-Niya, Arash; Wan Daud, W.M.A.; Sahu, J.N.; Noor, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • About 14.72% of the total landmass in Malaysia was used for oil palm plantations. • Oil palm tree residues were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. • The process was performed at a temperature of 500 °C and reaction time of 60 min. • Characterization of the products was performed. - Abstract: Oil palm tree residues are a rich biomass resource in Malaysia, and it is therefore very important that they be utilized for more beneficial purposes, particularly in the context of the development of biofuels. This paper described the possibility of utilizing oil palm tree residues as biofuels by producing bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis. The process was performed in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C, a nitrogen flow rate of 2 L/min and a reaction time of 60 min. The physical and chemical properties of the products, which are important for biofuel testing, were then characterized. The results showed that the yields of the bio-oil and bio-char obtained from different residues varied within the ranges of 16.58–43.50 wt% and 28.63–36.75 wt%, respectively. The variations in the yields resulted from differences in the relative amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, volatiles, fixed carbon, and ash in the samples. The energy density of the bio-char was found to be higher than that of the bio-oil. The highest energy density of the bio-char was obtained from a palm leaf sample (23.32 MJ/kg), while that of the bio-oil was obtained from a frond sample (15.41 MJ/kg)

  15. Removal of emulsified oil in residual waters by means of dissolved air flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri Londono, Carlos Alberto

    1996-01-01

    In this article is consigned a theoretical and experimental study on the treatment of industrial residual waters with emulsified oil, through the flotation process for dissolved air (FAD), changing some operation parameters and some importance topics, related with the process. The experimental results and the theoretical pattern, show that the removal of oil depends fundamentally on the chemical pretreatment. Efficiencies of removal of oil up of 99% they were obtained, using the dissolved air flotation with the help of coagulants

  16. Radiation processing studies on residual fractions of Olowi petroleum crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfo, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Residual fuel oil is an inexpensive boiler fuel that can replace diesel in some industrial boilers. The viscous waxy nature of residual fuel oil makes it very difficult to use in industries where fuel storage tanks have no heating elements to keep the fuel at temperatures at which it would easily flow. Irradiation is currently being studied as a cost effective means of cracking heavy petroleum crude oil into lighter and more valuable products. Research has shown that irradiation can replace the conventional methods of cracking petroleum with economical benefits. Gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source was applied to the residue obtained after refining crude oil in this research study, with the intention of causing a similar cracking phenomenon. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using gamma radiation to reduce the viscosity of residual fractions of crude oil used as residual fuel oil. This was done by exposing samples of residual fuel oil in glass jars to 9 different doses of gamma radiation, at room temperature and an elevated temperature of 60 degrees Celsius to determine and quantify the effect of radiation on residual fuel oil obtained from the Tema Oil Refinery. The pour points of the irradiated samples were not affected by radiation doses up to 200 kGy while the changes in viscosity for irradiation at room temperature were not significant. Irradiation at 60 degrees Celsius induced a small but significant increase in viscosity at 1 kGy and 200 kGy absorbed doses of irradiation. Irradiation fuels were stable in relation to viscosity, density and pour point over a period of 20 days after exposure. The flash point of irradiated samples, however, decreased by 5.26, 10.53 and 11.34% for 30, 50 and 80 kGy absorbed doses of radiation respectively. Cumulative and continuous doses gave similar results for pour point, density, viscosity and flash point measurements up to 50 kGy. Comparative cost analysis of methods used in maintaining low

  17. Determination of residual oil saturation from time-lapse pulsed neutron capture logs in a large sandstone reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, E.V.; Salaita, G.N.; McCaffery, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    Cased hole logging with pulsed neutron tools finds extensive use for identifying zones of water breakthrough and monitoring oil-water contacts in oil reservoirs being depleted by waterflooding or natural water drive. Results of such surveys then find direct use for planning recompletions and water shutoff treatments. Pulsed neutron capture (PNC) logs are useful for estimating water saturation changes behind casing in the presence of a constant, high-salinity environment. PNC log surveys run at different times, i.e., in a time-lapse mode, are particularly amenable to quantitative analysis. The combined use of the original open hole and PNC time-lapse log information can then provide information on remaining or residual oil saturations in a reservoir. This paper reports analyses of historical pulsed neutron capture log data to assess residual oil saturation in naturally water-swept zones for selected wells from a large sandstone reservoir in the Middle East. Quantitative determination of oil saturations was aided by PNC log information obtained from a series of tests conducted in a new well in the same field

  18. Volume 5: An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in piercement salt dome reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, H.; Rogers, M.; Becker, A.; Biglarbigi, K.; Brashear, J. [ICF Kaiser-ICF Information Technology, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) has among its missions the facilitation of the development of required technologies to maximize the potential economic recovery of domestic oil and gas resources--both offshore and onshore, especially from Federal lands. In planning its activities, the DOE/FE relies on a number of comprehensive analytical systems in order to target and prioritize its research and development (R and D) activities and to estimate the benefits of its programs. DOE/FE`s analytical system, however, lacks the capability to assess the potential of future technology advances on the exploration, development, and production of crude oil resources in the Federal offshore of the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of the present effort is to develop an analytical system to characterize a portion of the Gulf offshore resources--the remaining unrecovered mobile oil resource associated with piercement salt dome reservoirs (hereafter referred to as salt dome reservoirs), and to evaluate additional recovery potential and related economic benefits that could result from the application of improved technologies. As part of the present effort a comprehensive analytical system has been developed for the characterization and evaluation of unrecovered mobile oil associated with the salt dome reservoirs in Federal offshore Gulf of Mexico. The system consists of a comprehensive database containing detailed rock and fluid properties, geologic information, and production and development history for 1,289 major fields and reservoirs representing an estimated 60% of the salt dome resources in the region. In addition, two separate methodologies and related economic and predictive models have been developed for the evaluation of applicable recovery processes. The system is intended for use as part of DOE`s Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS).

  19. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryohei Tanaka; Leh Cheu Peng; Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world′s largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country′s economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10~15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia.

  20. Improvement of Dune Sands by Residual Oil in Order to Use in Construction of Lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alborz Hajian nia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research which is based on experimental work, devoted to study the improvement and stabilization of dune sands in order to create strong layer and stabilize slope and floor construction of sewage Lagoons. Materials used stabilizing these soils are residual oil from the refinery. To confirm the effectiveness of the use of residual oil to improve the mechanical properties of the sand, various samples with different percentages were tested. In besides, the geotechnical and environmental tests were done. Results demonstrate that samples made with 5% oil have highest shear and unconfined compaction strength. It revealed that in compare with natural samples, cohesion and loading capacity highly increased and permeability decrease well. Percentage of fine aggregate, minerals and durability of oil in soil material were also investigated. Finally, effects of sewage on the samples were analyzed, and performance the oils were evaluated in order to use in lagoons.

  1. Process and catalysis for hydrocracking of heavy oil and residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F.; Kressmann, S. [Centre d' Etudes et de developpement Indutriel ' Rene Navarre' , Vernaison (France); Harle, V.; Kasztelan, S. [Division Cinetique et Catalyse, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-07-01

    Atmospheric or vacuum residue can be converted into valuable distillates using reaction temperature, high hydrogen pressure and low contact time hydroprocessing units. Various residue hydrocracking processes are now commercially employed using fixed bed, moving bed or ebullated bed reactors. The choice of process type depends mainly on the amount of metals and asphaltenes in the feed and on the level of conversion required. Various improvements have been introduced in the last decade to increase run length, conversion level, products qualities and stability of the residual fuel. These improvements include on stream catalysts replacement systems, swing reactors, improved feed distribution, guard bed materials limiting pressure drop, coke resistant catalysts, complex association of catalysts using particle size, activity and pore size grading. Further improvement of the resistance of catalysts to deactivation by coke and metal deposits and of the hydrodenitrogenation activity are two major challenges for the development of new residue hydrocracking catalysts and processes. 29 refs.

  2. Compositional changes of aromatic steroid hydrocarbons in naturally weathered oil residues in the Egyptian western desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, A.O.; Qian, Y.; Kim, M.; Kennicutt, M.C. II

    2002-01-01

    Aromatic steranes are geochemical markers that can be used to study the maturation of organic matter of sediments and to correlate crude oils and source rocks. In this study, naturally weathered oil residues from an arid waste disposal site in Al-Alamein, Egypt, were analyzed for monoaromatic and triaromatic steranes to show the usefulness of biomarker compounds in assessing changes in chemical composition during the degradation of oil residues that have been released onto terrestrial environments. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to characterize the individual aromatic compounds. Results indicate that triaromatic sterane distributions are similar in oil residues with varying extents of weathering. The distribution correlated with a fresh crude oil sample from Western Desert-sourced oil. Molecular ratios of triaromatic sterane compounds were found to be suitable for source identification. The major changes in chemical compositions resulting from the weathering of the oil included the depletion of short chain mono- and tri-aromatic steranes in extremely weathered samples. The results of the triaromatic sterane distribution correspond with weathering classifications based on the analyses of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons and the ratios of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturate biomarker compounds. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Effect of Refining Processes on Magnitude and Nature of Malathion and Carbofuran Residues in Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.; Mahdy, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cotton seeds obtained from 14 C-carbofuran or 14 C-malathion-treated plants contained 0.25% and 0.11% of the originally applied radioactivity, respectively. The concentration of malathion residues in oil, methanol soluble and in the seed cake amounted to 0.94, 2.6 and 1.7 ppm, respectively. Commercial processing procedures led to a gradual decrease in the total amount of 14 C-residues in oils with aged residues as well as in oil fortified with the radiolabelled insecticides. The refined oil contained only about 20% of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residue in processed oil contained malathion, malathion monocarboxylic acid and alpha-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithio)-propionic acid. The concentration of 14 C-carbofuran residues in cotton seed oil, methanol extract and cake was 1.7, 12.3 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. The main residues in the oil were carbofuran and its phenol. The methanol solubles contained conjugated metabolites, which upon hydrolysis gave 3-hydroxy-carbofuran as a major product. Refinement reduced the residue in oil to 0.26 ppm. The residue in refined oil contained carbofuran and carbofuran phenol as main constituents together with smaller amounts of 3-hydroxy- and 3-keto carbofuran

  4. MODEL FOR THE CORRECTION OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF BIODIESEL FROM RESIDUAL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aparecida Rosa da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a important fuel with economic benefits, social and environmental. The production cost of the biodiesel can be significantly lowered if the raw material is replaced by a alternative material as residual oil. In this study, the variation of specific gravity with temperature increase for diesel and biodiesel from residual oil obtained by homogeneous basic catalysis. All properties analyzed for biodiesel are within specification Brazil. The determination of the correction algorithm for the specific gravity function of temperature is also presented, and the slope of the line to diesel fuel, methylic biodiesel (BMR and ethylic biodiesel (BER from residual oil were respectively the values -0.7089, -0.7290 and -0.7277. This demonstrates the existence of difference of the model when compared chemically different fuels, like diesel and biodiesel from different sources, indicating the importance of determining the specific algorithm for the operations of conversion of volume to the reference temperature.

  5. The deep processing of oil residues conjunction with shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Maloletnev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the development of a new process of thermal cracking of tar oil as a slurry with crushed oil shale to obtain components of motor fuels. The results suggest doubtless advantages of the process before the industrial of thermo cracking, since the single-stage processing of raw materials in relatively in the mild conditions (5 MPa, 425ºC, volumetric feed rate 1.0 h-1 is achieved deep destruction of tar oil (the yield petrol fraction with a bp amounts to up to 180ºC - ~12 mass % of middle distillates with a bp 180-360ºC – 43-44 mass %, of raw material for catalytic cracking of a bp 360-520ºC – ~15-16%, based on the initial tar oil. Formed like coke products and raw materials contained in V and Ni is postponed on the mineral part of slate and removed from the reaction zone with the liquid products of the process.

  6. Processing and display of nuclear magnetism logging signals: application to residual oil determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.J.S.; Neuman, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    A presentation is made of a series of computations and signal displays which help to show the nature of NML signals in general as well as to show the response to particular formation, hole, and tool conditions. Such processing of digitally recorded signals enables improved accuracy and bed resolution over that presented with the raw log. The treatment of drilling mud filtrate to eliminate NML signal from the brine phase in the invaded zone is described. Logs are shown as recorded before and after invasion of treated mud filtrate. This treatment causes the NML signal to correspond to residual oil only, enabling accurate and relatively inexpensive measurement of residual oil. 24 refs

  7. Time course of pulmonary burden in mice exposed to residual oil fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante Carvalho; Lilian Katie Nagato; Sheila da Silva Fagundes; Flavia Brandão dos Santos; Andrea Surrage Calheiros; Olaf eMalm; Patricia Torres Bozza; Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva; Debora Souza Faffe; Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco; Walter Araujo Zin

    2014-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a common pollutant in areas where oil is burned. This particulate matter (PM) with a broad distribution of particle diameters can be inhaled by human beings and putatively damage their respiratory system. Although some studies deal with cultured cells, animals, and even epidemiological issues, so far a comprehensive analysis of respiratory outcomes as a function of the time elapsed after exposure to a low dose of ROFA is wanted. Thus, we aimed to investigate the...

  8. Catalyst systems in the production of biodiesel from residual oil; Sistemas cataliticos na producao de biodiesel por meio de oleo residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Carlos Alexandre de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The vegetable oils and fat animals appear like an alternative for substitution the diesel oil in ignition engines for compression. Submitting the oil on transesterification reaction, we obtain a fuel with same characteristics as diesel, called biodiesel. Generally, 85 per cent of biodiesel cost is from the oil production. Through transesterification vegetable oil can be transformed in a mixture of esters of fatty acids. The residual oil from frying has been used as a possibility of raw materials of biodiesel, due to its easy acquisition and the viability of not being discarded as waste. (author)

  9. Stability of tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans and soya bean oil towards different processing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.

    1987-01-01

    Cooking of contaminated faba beans did not degrade the originally present potentially toxic residues, namely, tetrachlorvinphos and its desmethyl derivative to any appreciable extent. Processing of contaminated soya bean oil, on the other hand, led to degradation of tetrachlorvinphos and its metabolites to give mono and dimethyl phosphates. Feeding of mice with bound residues of tetrachlorvinphos in beans for 90 days led to an apparent decrease in the rate of body weight gain. (author)

  10. Could residual oil from the Exxon Valdez spill create a long-term population "sink" for sea otters in Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Daniel H.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled 42 million L of crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. At the time of the spill, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population inhabiting the spill area suffered substantial acute injuries and loss. Subsequent research has resulted in one of the best-studied species responses to an oil spill in history. However, the question remains: Is the spill still influencing the Prince William Sound sea otter population? Here we fit time-varying population models to data for the sea otter population of western Prince William Sound to quantify the duration and extent of mortality effects from the spill. We hypothesize that the patchy nature of residual oil left in the environment has created a source-sink population dynamic. We fit models using the age distributions of both living and dying animals and estimates of sea otter population size to predict the number of sea otters in the hypothesized sink population and the number lost to this sink due to chronic exposure to residual oil. Our results suggest that the sink population has remained at just over 900 individuals (95% CI: 606-960) between 1990 and 2009, during which time prime-age survival remained 2-6% below pre-spill levels. This reduced survival led to chronic losses of ???900 animals over the past two decades, which is similar in magnitude to the number of sea otter deaths documented in western Prince William Sound during the acute phase of the spill. However, the unaffected source population appears to be counterbalancing these losses, with the model indicating that the sea otter population increased from ???2150 individuals in 1990 to nearly 3000 in 2009. The most optimistic interpretation of our results suggests that mortality effects dissipated between 2005 and 2007. Our results suggest that residual oil can affect wildlife populations on time scales much longer than previously believed and that cumulative chronic effects can be as

  11. Experimental investigation of wettability alteration on residual oil saturation using nonionic surfactants: Capillary pressure measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Amirpour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the novel technique for enhancing oil recovery from available petroleum reservoirs is one of the important issues in future energy demands. Among of all operative factors, wettability may be the foremost parameter affecting residual oil saturation in all stage of oil recovery. Although wettability alteration is one of the methods which enhance oil recovery from the petroleum reservoir. Recently, the studies which focused on this subject were more than the past and many contributions have been made on this area. The main objective of the current study is experimentally investigation of the two nonionic surfactants effects on altering wettability of reservoir rocks. Purpose of this work is to change the wettability to preferentially the water-wet condition. Also reducing the residual oil saturation (Sor is the other purpose of this work. The wettability alteration of reservoir rock is measured by two main quantitative methods namely contact angle and the USBM methods. Results of this study showed that surfactant flooding is more effective in oil-wet rocks to change their wettability and consequently reducing Sor to a low value. Cedar (Zizyphus Spina Christi is low priced, absolutely natural, and abundantly accessible in the Middle East and Central Asia. Based on the results, this material can be used as a chemical surfactant in field for enhancing oil recovery.

  12. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added to feed mixture ... The interaction effects of RRO and ZnO did not result to a significant change in ... Therefore, the effects of RRO deteriorated the quality of meat by raising the ...

  14. Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... residual oil added to feed mixture on the biochemical traits of thigh muscles in .... The basal diet (Soybean + corn); T2 = basal diet + 0% RRO + 50 mg/kg ZnO; T3 = basal ... fatty acids, using gas chromatography (AOAC, 1999).

  15. Production of petroleum bitumen by oxidation of heavy oil residue with sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tileuberdi, Ye.; Akkazyn, Ye. A.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Mansurov, Z. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper production of bitumen adding elemental sulfur at oxidation of oil residue are investigated. The objects of research were distilled residue of Karazhanbas crude oil and elemental sulfur. These oil residue characterized by a low output of easy fractions and the high content of tar-asphaltene substances, therefore is the most comprehensible feedstock for producing bitumen. The sulfur is one of the oil product collected in oil extraction regions. Oxidation process of hydrocarbons carried out at temperatures from 180 up to 210 °С without addition of sulfur and with the addition of sulfur (5-10 wt. %) for 4 hours. At 200 °С oxidation of hydrocarbons with 5, 7 and 10 wt.% sulfur within 3-4 h allows receiving paving bitumen on the mark BND 200/300, BND 130/200, BN 90/130 and BN 70/30. Physical and mechanical characteristics of oxidation products with the addition of 5-7 wt. % sulfur corresponds to grade of paving bitumen BND 40/60. At the given temperature oxidized for 2.5-3 h, addition of 10 wt. % sulfur gave the products of oxidation describing on parameters of construction grades of bitumen (BN 90/10).

  16. STUDY OF THE THERMAL CRACKING DURING THE VACUUM DISTILLATION OF ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE OF CRUDE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAOUAD ELAYANE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the study of the thermal cracking as undesirable phenomenon in the vacuum distillation of atmospheric residue of crude oil. In this point, we have sought to identify and characterize the effect of the increase in the temperature of vacuum distillation on the separation and the modification of the constituents of atmospheric residue of crude oil whose origin is Arabian Light. This study has been carried out by several techniques of analysis such as the density (ASTM D4052, distillation (ASTM D1160, determination of heavy metals nickel and vanadium (IFP9422, dosing of Conradson Carbon (ASTM D189, dosing of asphaltenes (ASTM D2549 and dosage of PCI (polycyclic aromatics (ASTM D 5186. The results showed a clear idea on the decomposition of the atmospheric residue and their influence on the performance of the vacuum distillation unit.

  17. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  18. Extra heavy oil and refinery residues upgrading through Eni Slurry Technology : first EST commercial unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispoli, G.; Sanfilippo, D.; Amoroso, A [Eni S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    The production of heavy crude oils is projected to continue to grow in the upstream oil industry given that large reserves of unconventional extra heavy crude and bitumen exist in several geographic areas including Canada and Venezuela. As reserves of conventional crude oil continue to decline, these unconventional feedstocks are becoming an opportunity to pursue, but they require effective technologies for upgrading and meeting the growing demand for light and middle distillate fuels. This paper described the proprietary technology that offers a solution to upstream and downstream oil producers for bottom-of-the-barrel upgrading. En i Slurry Technology (EST) is constructing an industrial plant in its Sannazzaro refinery in Italy. The plant is designed to convert 23,000 BPSD of vacuum residue into high quality diesel and other valuable refinery streams such as liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha and jet fuel. EST is an H-addition process characterized by the use of a special homogeneous isothermal intrinsically safe reactor, and of a nano-dispersed non-ageing catalyst. EST converts more than 98 per cent of any type of residues to about 110 per cent volume of light products and distillates or extra heavy oils to high quality bottomless SCO. In typical performance, HDS is greater than 85 per cent, HDM greater than 99 per cent and HDCCR greater than 97 per cent. EST also achieves the target of zero fuel oil - zero coke. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. γ-Oryzanol and tocopherol contents in residues of rice bran oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana-Bauer, Vanessa Ribeiro; Zambiazi, Rui C; Mendonça, Carla R B; Beneito-Cambra, Miriam; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2012-10-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) contains significant amounts of the natural antioxidants γ-oryzanol and tocopherols, which are lost to a large degree during oil refining. This results in a number of industrial residues with high contents of these phytochemicals. With the aim of supporting the development of profitable industrial procedures for γ-oryzanol and tocopherol recovery, the contents of these phytochemicals in all the residues produced during RBO refining were evaluated. The samples included residues from the degumming, soap precipitation, bleaching earth filtering, dewaxing and deodorisation distillation steps. The highest phytochemical concentrations were found in the precipitated soap for γ-oryzanol (14.2 mg g(-1), representing 95.3% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO), and in the deodorisation distillate for tocopherols (576 mg 100 g(-1), representing 6.7% of total tocopherols in crude RBO). Therefore, among the residues of RBO processing, the deodorisation distillate was the best source of tocopherols. As the soap is further processed for the recovery of fatty acids, samples taken from every step of this secondary process, including hydrosoluble fraction, hydrolysed soap, distillation residue and purified fatty acid fraction, were also analyzed. The distillation residue left after fatty acid recovery from soap was found to be the best source of γ-oryzanol (43.1 mg g(-1), representing 11.5% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Asphalts tests using onshore drilling oil wells residues; Ensaios asfalticos utilizando residuos de perfuracao onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Adriano Elisio de F.L.; Rodrigues, John Kennedy G.; Ferreira, Heber Carlos; Lucena, Leda Christiane de F.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Lucena, Luciana de F.L. [Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais Aplicada (FACISA), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The drilling cuttings are one of the residues produced by the oils industries in large amounts during the drilling of oil wells. An alternative of final disposal of the drilling cutting residue is its utilization in asphalt mixtures. Based on this alternative, it was realized chemical and granulometric analysis and tests (Marshall and indirect tensile strength), on the asphaltic mixture using the residue from the oil drilling wells (well: 1-POTI-4-RN, located at Governador DIX-Sept Rosado - RN - Brazil). The achieved results to Marshall test indicated that for the analyzed mixture, the ideal content of residue that can be incorporated to the asphaltic composition and attend at the DNIT-ES 31 (2006) is 5%. To the indirect tensile strength test, the results showed a strength value higher than the minimum limit requested by the DNIT (0,65 MPa). The achieved results indicated the possibility of the utilization of the drilling cuttings in asphaltic pavements as fine aggregate, obeying the percentage limits, as an alternative to the final disposal. (author)

  1. Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in edible oil seeds and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Ten papers were presented in which chemical pollution due to insecticides was examined in edible oil seeds and their products. They include hexachlorocyclohexane residues in groundnut; carbaryl in groundnut; maize and cotton seed products, and in lactating goats; propoxur in cocoa beans; and leptophos residues in cotton seed and its products and in lactating goats. Eight of these papers constitute separate INIS entries. Egypt, Ghana, India, Korea, Lebanon, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, and the Sudan participated under the coordinated research programme. The progress of the programme is reviewed, and problems and priorities for future development of the programme are identified. A number of recommendations are addressed to the Joint FAO/IAEA Secretariat

  2. Determination of macro nickel, vanadium and iron in crude oil and residues by derivative spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Wang, L.; Li, X.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a new method with derivative spectrophotometry and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol as the chromogenic reagent in buffer solution of different pH developed for determining micro amounts of nickel. Vanadium and iron in crude oil and residues is reported. Forth-, Second- and Third-, Fourth-order derivative spectrophotometry were applied to determine nickel, nickel and vanadium, nickel and iron in crude oil and residues, respectively. The derivative maximums chosen for the measurement were at 556 nm for nickel, 540 nm and 643 nm for nickel and vanadium, 524 nm and 604 nm for nickel and iron. Beer's law is valid for the range 1.0 x 10 -6 to 2.5 x 10 -5 M

  3. Microbial Physiology of the Conversion of Residual Oil to Methane: A Protein Prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brandon E. L.; Bastida-Lopez, Felipe; von Bergen, Martin; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2010-05-01

    Traditional petroleum recovery techniques are unable to extract the majority of oil in most petroliferous deposits. The recovery of even a fraction of residual hydrocarbon in conventional reserves could represent a substantive energy supply. To this end, the microbial conversion of residual oil to methane has gained increasing relevance in recent years [1,2]. Worldwide demand for methane is expected to increase through 2030 [3], as it is a cleaner-burning alternative to traditional fuels [4]. To investigate the microbial physiology of hydrocarbon-decomposition and ultimate methanogenesis, we initiated a two-pronged approach. First, a model alkane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfoglaeba alkanexedens, was used to interrogate the predominant metabolic pathway(s) differentially expressed during growth on either n-decane or butyrate. A total of 81 proteins were differentially expressed during bacterial growth on butyrate, while 100 proteins were unique to the alkane-grown condition. Proteins related to alkylsuccinate synthase, or the homologous 1-methyl alkylsuccinate synthase, were identified only in the presence of the hydrocarbon. Secondly, we used a newly developed stable isotope probing technique [5] targeted towards proteins to monitor the flux of carbon through a residual oil-degrading bacterial consortium enriched from a gas-condensate contaminated aquifer [1]. Combined carbon and hydrogen stable isotope fractionation identified acetoclastic methanogenesis as the dominant process in this system. Such findings agree with the previous clone library characterization of the consortium. Furthermore, hydrocarbon activation was determined to be the rate-limiting process during the net conversion of residual oil to methane. References 1. Gieg, L.M., K.E. Duncan, and J.M. Suflita, Bioenegy production via microbial conversion of residual oil to natural gas. Appl Environ Micro, 2008. 74(10): p. 3022-3029. 2. Jones, D.M., et al., Crude-oil biodegradation via

  4. Biodegradation of marine oil spill residues using aboriginal bacterial consortium based on Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Liu, Xing; Guo, Jie; Lv, Yingchun; Li, Yuanwei

    2018-09-15

    Bioremediation, mainly by indigenous bacteria, has been regarded as an effective way to deal with the petroleum pollution after an oil spill accident. The biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms co-incubated from sediments collected from the Penglai 19-3 oil platform, Bohai Sea, China, was examined. The relative susceptibility of the isomers of alkylnaphthalenes, alkylphenanthrenes and alkyldibenzothiophene to biodegradation was also discussed. The results showed that the relative degradation values of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) are 43.56% and 51.29% for sediments with untreated microcosms (S-BR1) and surfactant-treated microcosms (S-BR2), respectively. TPH biodegradation results showed an obvious decrease in saturates (biodegradation rate: 67.85-77.29%) and a slight decrease in aromatics (biodegradation rate: 47.13-57.21%), while no significant difference of resins and asphaltenes was detected. The biodegradation efficiency of alkylnaphthalenes, alkylphenanthrenes and alkyldibenzothiophene for S-BR1 and S-BR2 samples reaches 1.28-84.43% and 42.56-86.67%, respectively. The efficiency of crude oil degradation in sediment with surfactant-treated microcosms cultures added Tween 20, was higher than that in sediment with untreated microcosms. The biodegradation and selective depletion is not only controlled by thermodynamics but also related to the stereochemical structure of individual isomer compounds. Information on the biodegradation of oil spill residues by the bacterial community revealed in this study will be useful in developing strategies for bioremediation of crude oil dispersed in the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. PMID:29329313

  6. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues.

  7. Research on the porous flow of the mechanism of viscous-elastic fluids displacing residual oil droplets in micro pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guanyu

    2018-03-01

    In order to analyze the microscopic stress field acting on residual oil droplets in micro pores, calculate its deformation, and explore the hydrodynamic mechanism of viscous-elastic fluids displacing oil droplets, the viscous-elastic fluid flow equations in micro pores are established by choosing the Upper Convected Maxwell constitutive equation; the numerical solutions of the flow field are obtained by volume control and Alternate Direction Implicit methods. From the above, the velocity field and microscopic stress field; the forces acting on residual oil droplets; the deformations of residual oil droplets by various viscous-elastic displacing fluids and at various Wiesenberg numbers are calculated and analyzed. The result demonstrated that both the normal stress and horizontal force acting on the residual oil droplets by viscous-elastic fluids are much larger compared to that of inelastic fluid; the distribution of normal stress changes abruptly; under the condition of the same pressure gradient in the system under investigation, the ratio of the horizontal forces acting on the residual oil droplets by different displacing fluids is about 1:8:20, which means that under the above conditions, the driving force on a oil droplet is 20 times higher for a viscous-elastic fluid compared to that of a Newtonian Fluid. The conclusions are supportive of the mechanism that viscous-elastic driving fluids can increase the Displacement Efficiency. This should be of help in designing new chemicals and selecting Enhanced Oil Recovery systems.

  8. Degradability of n-alkanes during ex situ natural bioremediation of soil contaminated by heavy residual fuel oil (mazut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramadan Mohamed Muftah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that during biodegradation of oil in natural geological conditions, or oil pollutants in the environment, a degradation of hydrocarbons occurs according to the well defined sequence. For example, the major changes during the degradation process of n-alkanes occur in the second, slight and third, moderate level (on the biodegradation scale from 1 to 10. According to previous research, in the fourth, heavy level, when intensive changes of phenanthrene and its methyl isomers begin, n-alkanes have already been completely removed. In this paper, the ex situ natural bioremediation (unstimulated bioremediation, without addition of biomass, nutrient substances and biosurfactant of soil contaminated with heavy residual fuel oil (mazut was conducted during the period of 6 months. Low abundance of n-alkanes in the fraction of total saturated hydrocarbons in the initial sample (identification was possible only after concentration by urea adduction technique showed that the investigated oil pollutant was at the boundary between the third and the fourth biodegradation level. During the experiment, an intense degradation of phenanthrene and its methyl-, dimethyl-and trimethyl-isomers was not followed by the removal of the remaining n-alkanes. The abundance of n-alkanes remained at the initial low level, even at end of the experiment when the pollutant reached one of the highest biodegradation levels. These results showed that the unstimulated biodegradation of some hydrocarbons, despite of their high biodegradability, do not proceed completely to the end, even at final degradation stages. In the condition of the reduced availability of some hydrocarbons, microorganisms tend to opt for less biodegradable but more accessible hydrocarbons.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of residues from production and refining of vegetable oils as an alternative to conventional solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Thalla, Arun Kumar; Sousbie, P; Bosque, F; Delgenès, J P

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the anaerobic digestion of by-products generated during the production and refining of oil with the objective of proposing an alternative solution (methanisation) to the conventional solutions while reducing the energy consumption of fossil origin on refinery sites. The production of sunflower oil was taken as example. Glycerine from the production of biodiesel was also included in this study. The results show that glycerine has a high potential for methanisation because of its high methane potential (465 ml CH4/g VS) and high metabolization rates (0.42 g VS/g VSS.d). The use of oil cake as substrate for anaerobic digestion is not interesting because it has a low methane potential of 215 ml CH4/g VS only and because it is easily recovered in animal feed. Six residues have quite a high methane potential (465 to 850 ml CH4/g VS) indicating a good potential for anaerobic digestion. However, they contain a mixture of rapidly and slowly biodegradable organic matter and the loading rates must remain quite low (0.03 to 0.09 g VS/g VSS.d) to prevent any accumulation of slowly biodegradable solids in the digesters. IWA Publishing 2008.

  10. Characterization of virgin walnut oils and their residual cakes produced from different varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Amador, Rosa M; Salvador, María Desamparados; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2018-06-01

    This study addresses the composition and properties of different walnut varieties (Chandler, Hartley and Lara), in particular their virgin oils and residual cakes obtained by screw pressing employing different cultivars. Among nuts, walnut (Juglans regia L.) exhibits interesting nutritional value, mainly due to their high content in linoleic acid, phenolic and tocopherol compounds, which show antioxidant and other healthy properties. Valuable results related to fatty acid profile and minor components were observed. Virgin walnut oil is a rich source in linoleic acid (60-62%) and γ-tocopherol (517-554 mg/kg). Moreover, walnuts show a very high content in total phenolic compounds (10,045-12,474 mg/kg; as gallic acid), which contribute to a great antioxidant activity (105-170 mmol/kg for DPPH, and 260-393 mmol/kg for ORAC), being the hydrolysable tannins (2132-4204 mg/kg) and flavanols (796-2433 mg/kg) their main phenolic groups. Aldehydes account for the highest contribution to aromatic volatiles in virgin walnut oil (about 35% of total). As expected, polar phenolic compounds concentrate in the residual cake, after the separation of the oily phase, reaching a content of up to 19,869 mg/kg, leading to potential added value and applications as source of bioactive compounds to this by-product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The variability in iron speciation in size fractionated residual oil fly ash particulate matter (ROFA PM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Sidhartha; Huggins, Frank E; Huffman, Gerald P

    2016-08-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) containing iron can catalyze Fenton reaction leading to the production of reactive oxygen species in cells. It can also catalyze atmospheric redox reaction. These reactions are governed by the physicochemical characteristics of iron in ambient PM. As a surrogate for ambient PM, we prepared residual oil fly ash PM (ROFA PM) in a practical fire tube boiler firing residual oils with varying sulfur and ash contents. The ROFA particles were resolved into fine PM or PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter (AD)iron speciation in PM2.5+ was ascertained using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and leaching method while that in PM2.5 was reported earlier. The results of both studies are compared to get an insight into the variability in the iron speciation in different size fractions. The results show the predominance of ferric sulfate, with a minor spinal ferrite in both PM (i.e. ZnxNi1-xFe2O4 in PM2.5, ZnFe2O4 in PM2.5+). The iron solubility in ROFA PM depends on its speciation, mode of incorporation of iron into particle's carbonaceous matrix, the grade and composition of oils, and pH of the medium. The soluble fraction of iron in PM is critical in assessing its interaction with the biological systems and its toxic potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reusing a residue of the oil industry (FCC) in the production of building elements

    OpenAIRE

    Caicedo Casso, Eduard Andrés; Universidad del Valle; Mejía de Gutiérrez, Ruby; Universidad del Valle; Gordillo Suárez, Marisol; Universidad Autónoma de Occidente; Torres Agredo, Janneth; Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Palmira

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the feasibility of using a residue of spent catalyst (FCC) of the cracking process, from a Colombian oil company, in the production of building elements such as locks and pavers. To define the optimal mix of portland cement/FCC, Portland cement mortars with FCC ratios between 0 and 70% as replacement of cement were prepared and its compressive strength is evaluated at ages up to 28 days of curing. Using a statistical processing, applying the methodology of response, the pr...

  13. Pro biotic as Alternative to Antibiotic for Broiler Chicken fed Food Industrial Residual Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Faramawy, A.A.; El-Maghraby, A.F.; El-Danasoury, M.M.; Hussien, H.A.; Hegazy, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pro biotic (some lactic acid bacteria) with different levels of food industrial residual oil in broiler commercial diets on growth performance, meat yield, internal organs, economical efficiency and performance index. One hundred and eighty one day old Cobb chicks (45 ± 0.4 g) were equally and randomly divided into 6 groups namely; the antibiotic with fresh oil (FO), the antibiotic with mixed oil (MO) [FO+RO ( 1:1 w/w)], the antibiotic with food industrial residual oil (RO), the pro biotic with FO, the pro biotic with MO and the pro biotic with RO. Virginiamycin, Phibro, USA (15 ppm), was the antibiotic, while a mixture of lactic acid bacteria is chosen as pro biotic. Both were added to the water. During the experiment which lasted for 42 days, the body weight, the feed intake and the mortality rate were recorded at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age then the body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, economical efficiency and performance index were calculated. The results revealed that the average body weight, body weight gain and feed consumption significantly (P 0.05) while liver increased significantly (P<0.05) in pro biotic FO and gizzard in all pro biotic group and antibiotic MO. The highest performance index was observed in groups of birds treated with pro biotic with MO followed by birds treated with pro biotic FO without significant difference. It could be concluded that supplementation of pro biotic in broiler diet containing different levels of RO was economically more beneficial than antibiotic

  14. Impact of recharge through residual oil upon sampling of underlying ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, W.R.; Chang, Chichung; Klopp, R.A.; Bedient, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    At an aviation gasoline spill site in Traverse City, Michigan, historical records indicate a positive correlation between significant rainfall events and increased concentrations of slightly soluble organic compounds in the monitoring wells of the site. To investigate the recharge effect on ground water quality due to infiltrating water percolating past residual oil and into the saturated zone, an in situ infiltration experiment was performed at the site. Sampling cones were set at various depths below a circular test area, 13 feet (4 meters) in diameter. Rainfall was simulated by sprinkling the test area at a rate sufficiently low to prevent runoff. The sampling cones for soil-gas and ground water quality were installed in the unsaturated and saturated zones to observed the effects of the recharge process. Infiltrated water was determined to have transported organic constituents of the residual oil, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and ortho-xylene (BTEX), into the ground water beneath the water table, elevating the aqueous concentrations of these constituents in the saturated zone. Soil-gas concentrations of the organic compounds in the unsaturated zone increased with depth and time after the commencement of infiltration. Reaeration of the unconfined aquifer via the infiltrated water was observed. It is concluded that water quality measurements are directly coupled to recharge events for the sandy type of aquifer with an overlying oil phase, which was studied in this work. Ground water sampling strategies and data analysis need to reflect the effect of recharge from precipitation on shallow, unconfined aquifers where an oil phase may be present

  15. Gasification of coal as efficient means of environment protection and hydrogenation of heavy oils residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichko, A.A.; Maloletnev, A.S. [Fossil Fuel Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia`s more then 50% of coals produced in its European part contain over 2,5% of sulphur, and the coals containing less than 1.5% of sulphurs comprise ca.20%. Thus, utilisation of the sulphide coals is inevitable, and there a problem arises concerning the technology of their sensible use and considering the requirements on the environment protection. Russia`s specialists have developed a design and construction for a steam-gas installation with a closed cycle gasification of the solid fuel. The gasification process will proceed in the fluidized bed under forced pressure of the steam-air blast. Characteristic features of this process are the following: a higher efficiency (the capacity of one gas generator is 3-3,5 times larger than that attained in the present gas generators of the Lurgy`s type): 2-2,5 times decreased fuel losses as compared to the Winkler`s generators; retention of the sensible heat, resulting in an increased total energy efficiency. The main task for petroleum refining industry at the present stage is the increase of depth of oil processing with the aim to intensify motor fuel production. One of the ways to solve the problem is to involve heavy oil residues into the processing. But the high metal and asphaltenes contents in the latter make the application of traditional methods and processes more difficult. Up to now there is no simple and effective technology which could give the opportunity to use oil residues for distillate fractions production. In Fossil fuel institute a process for hydrogenation of high boiling oil products, including with high sulphur, vanadium and nickel contents ones, into distillates and metals concentrates. The main point of the new process is as follows: the water solution of catalytic additive, for which purpose water soluble metal salts of VI-VIII groups are used, is mixed with tar, dispersed and then subjected to additional supercavitation in a special apparatus.

  16. Influence of lubricant oil residual fraction on recycled high density polyethylene properties and plastic packaging reverse logistics proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Moraes Martins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To recycle post-consumer HDPE contaminated with waste lubricating oils, companies include prior washing and drying in the process. This consumes large amounts of water and energy, generates significant effluent requiring treatment. This study assesses lubricating oil influence on HDPE properties to evaluate the feasibility of its direct mechanical recycling without washing. The current lubricating oil packaging reverse logistics in Rio de Janeiro municipality is also analyzed. HDPE bottle samples were processed with seven oil contents ranging from 1.6-29.4 (wt%. The results indicated the possibility to reprocess the polymer with oily residue not exceeding 3.2%. At higher levels, the external oil lubricating action affects the plastic matrix processing in the extruder and injection, and the recycled material has a burnt oil odor and free oil on the surface. Small residual oil amounts retain the plastic properties comparable to the washed recycled polymer and exhibited benefits associated with the oil plasticizer action. However, oil presence above 7.7% significantly changes the properties and reduces the elasticity and flexural modulus and the plastic matrix crystallinity.

  17. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  18. Integrated Assessment of Palm Oil Mill Residues to Sustainable Electricity System (POMR-SES): A Case Study from Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaye, I. F. Md; Sadhukhan, J.; Murphy, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    Generating electricity from biomass are undeniably gives huge advantages to the energy security, environmental protection and the social development. Nevertheless, it always been negatively claimed as not economically competitive as compared to the conventional electricity generation system using fossil fuel. Due to the unfair subsidies given to renewable energy based fuel and the maturity of conventional electricity generation system, the commercialization of this system is rather discouraging. The uniqueness of the chemical and physical properties of the biomass and the functionality of the system are fully depending on the availability of the biomass resources, the capital expenditure of the system is relatively expensive. To remain competitive, biomass based system must be developed in their most economical form. Therefore the justification of the economies of scale of such system is become essential. This study will provide a comprehensive review of process to select an appropriate size for electricity generation plant from palm oil mill (POM) residues through the combustion of an empty fruit bunch (EFB) and biogas from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Peninsular Malaysia using a mathematical model and simulation using ASPEN Plus software package. The system operated at 4 MW capacity is expected to provide a return on investment (ROI) of 20% with a payback period of 6.5 years. It is notably agreed that the correct selection of generation plant size will have a significant impact on overall economic and environmental feasibility of the system.

  19. Dual catalyst system for the hydrocracking of heavy oils and residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellussi, G. [ENI S.p.A., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    One of the major challenges for our and for the future generations is the development of a sustainable energy supply system based mainly on renewable sources with no environmental impact. This task is necessary to limit the negative effects of green-house gas on the hearth and to allows the forecasted population growth. However, it is not yet clear the time span needed to reach the objective. The total world energy consumption in 2008 amounted to 8428 Mtoe. In a reference scenario, this amount is expected to grow to 16790 Mtoe in 2030 and the contribution expected by sources, according to the International Energy Agency, will be: oil 29.8 %, coal 29.1 %, natural gas 21,2 %, nuclear 5.7 %, hydroelectric 2.4 %, others (Renewable and waste, geothermal, solar, wind, tide,..) [1]. This picture indicates that for several decades, we must still rely on fossil fuels, avoid running out of this precious energy reserves of our planet and reducing the environmental damage arising from their use. For these reason there is a growing need for the efficient upgrading of the heavy oil streams for a better utilization of every barrel of oil produced and for bringing to production also the huge reserves of unconventional fossil sources, such as the heavy oils and the tar sands. Since several years many companies have R and D project aimed to the conversion of heavy residues through a hydrocracking slurry technology, which, with respect to other competing technologies, such as those based on fixed or ebullated bed, can convert all the feedstock to distillates, avoiding the production of fuel oil or coke. In this lecture the advancement in this area will be presented and discussed, highlighting the potentiality offered by the improvement of the catalyst system. (orig.)

  20. The effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Genyuan; Wang Huaguo; Qi Mengwen; Wang Fujun; Zhou Changjiu

    1994-01-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with 14 C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with 14 C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit

  1. The effect of commercial processing procedures on {sup 14}C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genyuan, Peng; Huaguo, Wang; Mengwen, Qi; Fujun, Wang; Changjiu, Zhou [Laboratory for the Application of Nuclear Techniques, Beijing Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    1994-06-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with {sup 14}C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with {sup 14}C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit.

  2. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  3. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulators and thermal cracking of heavy oil and ultraheavy residues using microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardini, Andre L.; Bineli, Aulus R.R.; Viadana, Adriana M.; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering; Medina, Lilian C.; Gomes, Alexandre de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Barros, Ricardo S. [University Foundation Jose Bonifacio (FUJB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the design of microreactor with microfluidics channels has been carried out in Computer Aided Design Software (CAD) and constructed in rapid prototyping system to be used in chemical reaction processing of the heavy oil fractions. The flow pattern properties of microreactor (fluid dynamics, mixing behavior) have been considered through CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations. CFD calculations are also used to study the design and specification of new microreactor developments. The potential advantages of using a microreactor include better control of reaction conditions, improved safety and portability. A more detailed crude assay of the raw national oil, whose importance was evidenced by PETROBRAS/CENPES allows establishing the optimum strategies and processing conditions, aiming at a maximum utilization of the heavy oil fractions, towards valuable products. These residues are able to be processed in microreactor, in which conventional process like as hydrotreating, catalytic and thermal cracking may be carried out in a much more intensified fashion. The whole process development involves a prior thermal study to define the possible operating conditions for a particular task, the microreactor design through computational fluid dynamics and construction using rapid prototyping. This gives high flexibility for process development, shorter time, and costumer/task oriented process/product development. (author)

  4. Production of vanillin from waste residue of rice bran oil by Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lirong; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhihao; Bai, Yanbing; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xinfu

    2007-03-01

    A new technology of transforming ferulic acid, which was from waste residue of rice bran oil, into vanillin was developed by a combination of fungal strains Aspergillus niger CGMCC0774 and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus CGMCC1115. Various concentrations of ferulic acid were compared, and the highest yield reached 2.2 g l(-1) of vanillic acid by A. niger CGMCC0774 in a 25 l fermenter when concentration of ferulic acid was 4 g l(-1). The filtrate of A. niger CGMCC0774 culture was concentrated and vanillic acid in the filtrate was bio-converted into vanillin by P. cinnabarinus CGMCC1115. The yield of vanillin reached 2.8 g l(-1) when 5 g l(-1) of glucose and 25 g of HZ802 resin were supplemented in the bioconversion medium. The 13C isotope analysis indicated that delta13C(PDB) of vanillin prepared was much different from chemically synthesized vanillin.

  5. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Residual Oil Recovered from Spent Bleaching Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Mat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, semi-refined and refined vegetable oils are used as a feedstock in biodiesel production. However, due to competition with conventional fossil fuel, economic reasons, shortage supply of food and its social impact on the global scale has somewhat slowed the development of biodiesel industry. Studies have been conducted to recover oil from mill palm oil operation especially from the spent bleaching earth. Hence, the study was to investigate the potential recovery of oil from spent bleaching earth to be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The effect of different types of catalysts (sodium hydroxide alkali and sulfuric acid catalysts on biodiesel yield was studied. In addition, the effect of volume addition of methanol to the weight of spent bleaching earth on the product yield was also studied. Furthermore, the effect of ratio of hexane to methanol was also carried out to determine its product yield. The studies were carried out in an in-situ biodiesel reactor system and the biodiesel product was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Result shows that the use of alkali catalyst produced the highest yield of biodiesel and the most optimum biodiesel yield was obtained when the methanol to spent bleaching earth ratio was 3.2:1 (gram of methanol: gram of SBE and hexane to methanol ratio of 0.6:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol. © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 19th December 2010, Revised: 10th May 2011; Accepted: 18th May 2011[How to Cite: R. Mat, O.S. Ling, A. Johari, M. Mohamed. (2011. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Residual Oil Recovered from Spent Bleaching Earth. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6(1: 53-57. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.678.53-57][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.678.53-57 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/678 ] | View in 

  6. STUDY OF ASPHALT BINDER OIL RESIDUE AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ASH TO BE USED IN LOW TRAFFIC PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michéle Dal Toé Casagrande

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The great generation of urban solid has been a concern in several countries. This work presents a study with two materials: the asphalt binder oil residue accumulated in the bottom of asphalt tanks and the municipal solid waste ash, to be used, respectively, as a substitute of conventional binder in asphalt mixtures and for soil stabilization in pavements base layers. Were evaluated properties as the mechanical behavior of the mixtures through experimental tests. The results show the potential of incorporating these residues for low traffic roads, allowing the construction of low cost roads and an environmental use of the residue.

  7. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yuan Chiou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM reduced nitric oxide (NO production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  8. Characterization of hams added with nut residual pastes from the mechanical extraction of oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Luna Guevara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuts contain in their composition nutrients and bioactive compounds that when consumed in sufficient amounts may provide health benefits. In this study was evaluated the influence of the addition of residual pastes (10%, obtained from the extraction of oil from walnut (Juglans regia L., pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, variety Western Shley, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea, on the modification of some textural, proximate, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of cooked hams. Hams were stored at 4 ° C for 21 days. Hams containing pastes significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05 the protein, fat, and total fiber content. Hams added with paste presented a less rigid structures (P ≤ 0.05. The color parameters (L*, a*, and b* of hams decrease slightly during the storage time, except for the ham added with walnut paste, which was darker. The nut pastes contributed significantly (P ≤ 0.05 to decrease the shelf life of hams. However, the yeast and mold counts in ham were less than 10 CFU/g at 21 days of storage. aw and pH decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 and syneresis increased during storage. Hams added with residual pastes were well sensory accepted regarding color, aroma, taste, appearance, and overall acceptability.

  9. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Laboratory studies of the properties of in-situ burn residues: chemical composition of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, B.K.; Buist, I.A.; Schatzke, D.; Aurand, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical composition of the residue from small-scale burns of thick oil slicks was studied. The objective was to describe the changes in chemical composition in oils burning on water and to determine how these changes were influenced by the condition of the burn. Small-scale test burns involved burning 40-cm diameter pools of oil on water. A range of eight oil types including seven crude oils and an automotive diesel were burned. For each oil, slicks of fresh oil of three different thicknesses were tested. Two of the oils were tested before and after weathering. Results showed that the composition of the residue differed greatly from the parent oil. Asphaltenes, high-boiling-point aromatics and resins remained concentrated in the burn residue. The burning of slicks appeared to remove most of the lower-molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons which included the more toxic and more bioavailable components of the crude oils. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  11. Decrease of noxious emissions in the residual fuel oil combustion; Disminucion de emisiones nocivas en la combustion de aceite combustible residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandoki W, Jorge [Econergia S. de R. L. de C. V. Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The residual fuel oil combustion emits noxious substances such as carbonaceous particulate, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur trioxide at unacceptable levels. Water emulsified in the fuel substantially reduces such emissions, achieving besides, in most of the cases, a net saving in the fuel consumption. The beneficial effects are shown in burning the residual fuel oil as a water emulsion, as well as the method to produce an adequate emulsion. The emulsified fuel technology offers a low cost option to reduce air pollution. The fuel oil quality has been declining during the last decades due to: 1. Increase in the production of crude heavy oils, generally with higher content of asphaltens and sulfur. 2. Less availability of vacuum distillation residues due to its conversion into greater value products. 3. More intensive conversion processes such as catalytic cracking, visbreaking, etc. that increase the asphaltenes concentration in the bottoms, causing instability problems. 4. The increase in the vanadium and other metals content as the concentration of asphaltenes increases. The use of emulsified fuel oil provides an efficient and economical method to substantially reduce the noxious emissions to the atmosphere. The emulsion contains water particles in a diameter between 2 and 20 microns, uniformly distributed in the fuel oil, generally in a proportion generally of 5 to 10%; besides, it contains a tensioactive agent to assure a stable emulsion capable of withstanding the shearing forces of the pumping and distribution systems. When the atomized oil drops get into the combustion chamber, the emulsified water flashes into high pressure steam, originating a violent secondary atomization. The effect of this secondary atomization is the rupture of the oil drops of various hundred microns, producing drops of 5 to 15 microns in diameter. Since the necessary time for combustion is an exponential function of the drop diameter, a very substantial improvement in the combustion is

  12. Chemical durability of glass and glass-ceramic materials, developed in laboratory scale, from industrial oil shale residue. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Fonseca, M.V. de; Souza Santos, P. de

    1990-01-01

    Industrial developments frequently drive to the natural resources extinction. The recycling era has come out a long time ago and it has been evident that great part of industrial work's problems are related to the pollution and the raw materials extinction. These problems should be solved, with advantages, through industrial residues recycling. This study deals with glass and glass-ceramics materials obtained from oil shale (Irati Formation-Sao Mateus do Sul-Parana State) industrialization residues. The reached results show that a controled devitrification of retorted oil shale glass improves its performance related to chemical attack. The crystallinity caracterization of the oil shales glass-ceramic was made through X-ray diffraction. (author) [pt

  13. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Manzanares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB, extracted olive pomace (EOP and olive leaves (OL that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  14. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery contex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, P.; Ruiz, E.; Ballesteros, M.; Negro, M.J.; Gallego, F.J.; López-Linares, J.C.; Castro, E.

    2017-07-01

    Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB), extracted olive pomace (EOP) and olive leaves (OL) that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  15. Time course of pulmonary burden in mice exposed to residual oil fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Residual oil fly ash (ROFA is a common pollutant in areas where oil is burned. This particulate matter with a broad distribution of particle diameters can be inhaled by human beings and putatively damage their respiratory system. Although some studies deal with cultured cells, animals, and even epidemiological issues, so far a comprehensive analysis of respiratory outcomes as a function of the time elapsed after exposure to a low dose of ROFA is wanted. Thus, we aimed to investigate the time course of mechanical, histological, and inflammatory lung changes, as well as neutrophils in the blood, in mice exposed to ROFA until 5 days after exposure. BALB/c mice (25±5 g were randomly divided into 7 groups and intranasally instilled with either 10 µL of sterile saline solution (0.9% NaCl, CTRL or ROFA (0.2 µg in 10 L of saline solution. Pulmonary mechanics, histology (normal and collapsed alveoli, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, and ultrastructure, neutrophils (in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined at 6 h in CTRL and at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h after ROFA exposure. ROFA contained metal elements, especially iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organochlorines. Lung resistive pressure augmented early (6 h in the course of lung injury and other mechanical, histological and inflammatory parameters increased at 24 h, returning to control values at 120 h. Blood neutrophilia was present only at 24 and 48 h after exposure. Swelling of endothelial cells with adherent neutrophils was detected after ROFA instillation. No neutrophils were present in the lavage fluid. In conclusion, the exposure to ROFA, even in low doses, induced early changes in pulmonary mechanics, lung histology and accumulation of neutrophils in blood of mice that lasted for four days and disappeared spontaneously.

  16. Time course of pulmonary burden in mice exposed to residual oil fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante; Nagato, Lilian Katiê da Silva; Fagundes, Sheila da Silva; Dos Santos, Flávia Brandão; Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Malm, Olaf; Bozza, Patricia Torres; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário N; Faffe, Débora Souza; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a common pollutant in areas where oil is burned. This particulate matter (PM) with a broad distribution of particle diameters can be inhaled by human beings and putatively damage their respiratory system. Although some studies deal with cultured cells, animals, and even epidemiological issues, so far a comprehensive analysis of respiratory outcomes as a function of the time elapsed after exposure to a low dose of ROFA is wanted. Thus, we aimed to investigate the time course of mechanical, histological, and inflammatory lung changes, as well as neutrophils in the blood, in mice exposed to ROFA until 5 days after exposure. BALB/c mice (25 ± 5 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups and intranasally instilled with either 10 μL of sterile saline solution (0.9% NaCl, CTRL) or ROFA (0.2 μg in 10 μL of saline solution). Pulmonary mechanics, histology (normal and collapsed alveoli, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, and ultrastructure), neutrophils (in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) were determined at 6 h in CTRL and at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after ROFA exposure. ROFA contained metal elements, especially iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorines. Lung resistive pressure augmented early (6 h) in the course of lung injury and other mechanical, histological and inflammatory parameters increased at 24 h, returning to control values at 120 h. Blood neutrophilia was present only at 24 and 48 h after exposure. Swelling of endothelial cells with adherent neutrophils was detected after ROFA instillation. No neutrophils were present in the lavage fluid. In conclusion, the exposure to ROFA, even in low doses, induced early changes in pulmonary mechanics, lung histology and accumulation of neutrophils in blood of mice that lasted for 4 days and disappeared spontaneously.

  17. Capillary-Physics Mechanism of Elastic-Wave Mobilization of Residual Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, I. A.; Pennington, W. D.; Turpening, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    Much attention has been given to the possibility of vibratory mobilization of residual oil as a method of enhanced recovery. The common features of the relevant applications have nonetheless been inconsistency in the results of field tests and the lack of understanding of a physical mechanism that would explain variable experiences. Such a mechanism can be found in the physics of capillary trapping of oil ganglia, driven through the pore channels by an external pressure gradient. Entrapping of ganglia occurs due to the capillary pressure building on the downstream meniscus entering a narrow pore throat. The resulting internal-pressure imbalance acts against the external gradient, which needs to exceed a certain threshold to carry the ganglion through. The ganglion flow thus exhibits the properties of the Bingham (yield-stress) flow, not the Darcy flow. The application of vibrations is equivalent to the addition of an oscillatory forcing to the constant gradient. When this extra forcing acts along the gradient, an instant "unplugging" occurs, while, when the vibration reverses direction, the flow is plugged. This asymmetry results in an average non-zero flow over one period of vibration, which explains the mobilization effect. The minimum-amplitude and maximum-frequency thresholds apply for the mobilization to occur. When the vibration amplitude exceeds a certain "saturation" level, the flow returns to the Darcy regime. The criterion of the mobilization of a particular ganglion involves the parameters of both the medium (pore geometry, interfacial and wetting properties, fluid viscosity) and the oscillatory field (amplitude and frequency). The medium parameters vary widely under natural conditions. It follows that an elastic wave with a given amplitude and frequency will always produce a certain mobilization effect, mobilizing some ganglia and leaving others intact. The exact macroscopic effect is hard to predict, as it will represent a response of the populations

  18. Liquid oil and residual characteristics of printed circuit board recycle by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis is a technology for recycling of the non-metal fraction of PCBs. • Liquid product constituents were analyzed for PCB pyrolysis. • Water-soluble ionic species were determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. - Abstract: Non-metal fractions of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were thermally treated (200–500 °C) under nitrogen atmosphere. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen were determined by elemental analyzer, bromine by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), phosphorus by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), and 29 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for raw material and pyrolysis residues. Organic compositions of liquid oil were identified by GC (gas chromatography)–MS, trace element composition by ICP system, and 12 water-soluble ions by IC (ionic chromatography). Elemental content of carbon was >450 mg/g, oxygen 300 mg/g, bromine and hydrogen 60 mg/g, nitrogen 30 mg/g, and phosphorus 28 mg/g. Sulfur was trace in PCBs. Copper content was 25–28 mg/g, iron 1.3–1.7 mg/g, tin 0.8–1.0 mg/g and magnesium 0.4–1.0 mg/g; those were the main metals in the raw materials and pyrolytic residues. In the liquid products, carbon content was 68–73%, hydrogen was 10–14%, nitrogen was 4–5%, and sulfur was less than 0.05% at pyrolysis temperatures from 300 to 500 °C. Phenol, 3-bromophenol, 2-methylphenol and 4-propan-2-ylphenol were major species in liquid products, accounting for >50% of analyzed organic species. Bromides, ammonium and phosphate were the main species in water sorption samples for PCB pyrolysis exhaust.

  19. Accelerated artificial aging of particleboards from residues of CCB treated Pinus sp. and castor oil resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília da Silva Bertolini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tests simulating exposure to severe weather conditions have been relevant in seeking new applications for particleboard. This study aimed to produce particleboards with residues of CCB (chromium-copper-boron oxides impregnated Pinus sp. and castor oil-based polyurethane resin, and to evaluate their performance before and after artificial accelerated aging. Panels were produced with different particle mass, resin content and pressing time, resulting eight treatments. Particles moisture and size distribution were determined, beyond panel physical and mechanical properties, according to NBR14810-3: 2006. After characterization, treatments B and G (small adhesive consumption and better mechanical performance, respectively were chosen to artificial aging tests. Statistical results analysis showed best performances were achieved for waterproof aged samples, of both B and G treatments. As example, in treatment B, MOR and MOE values were 23 MPa and 2,297 MPa, samples before exposure; 26 MPa and 3,185 MPa, 32 MPa and 3,982 MPa for samples after exposure (non-sealed and sealed, respectively.

  20. Catalytic copyrolysis of cork oak and bio-oil distillation residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yejin; Oh, Daejun; Kim, Young-Min; Jae, Jungho; Jung, Sang-Chul; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2018-01-01

    The atmospheric distillation residue (ADR) of cork oak (CO) pyrolysis oil was used as the co-feeding material for the catalytic pyrolysis of CO over HZSM-5 catalysts to improve the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Although the non-catalytic copyrolysis of CO and ADR did not improve the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons, the catalytic copyrolysis of CO and ADR promoted the synergistic formation of aromatic hydrocarbons. HZSM-5(30), having a lower SiO2/Al2O3(30), showed better performance for the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons than HZSM-5(80) because of its higher acidity. The catalytic copyrolysis of CO and ADR also decreased the formation of coke. The largest quantity of aromatic hydrocarbons was obtained from the catalytic copyrolysis of CO and ADR over HZSM-5 (30) at 600 °C, whereas the lowest coke yield was achieved at 700 °C. When the catalyst to sample ratio was increased from 2:1 to 5:1, the synergistic formation of aromatic hydrocarbons was limited, resulting in a lower experimental yield of aromatic hydrocarbons than the theoretical yield. A lower coke yield was also achieved at a high catalyst to sample ratio (5:1).

  1. Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments...... extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production...

  2. Optimization of the protein concentration process from residual peanut oil-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayol, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the best process conditions for preparing protein concentrate from residual peanut oil-cake (POC. The study was carried out on POC from industrial peanut oil extraction. Different protein extraction and precipitation conditions were used: water/ flour ratio (10:1, 20:1 and 30:1, pH (8, 9 and 10, NaCl concentration (0 and 0.5 M, extraction time (30, 60 and 120 min, temperature (25, 40 and 60 °C, extraction stages (1, 2 and 3, and precipitation pH (4, 4.5 and 5. The extraction and precipitation conditions which showed the highest protein yield were 10:1 water/flour ratio, extraction at pH 9, no NaCl, 2 extraction stages of 30 min at 40 °C and precipitation at pH 4.5. Under these conditions, the peanut protein concentrate (PC contained 86.22% protein, while the initial POC had 38.04% . POC is an alternative source of protein that can be used for human consumption or animal nutrition. Therefore, it adds value to an industry residue.El objetivo de este trabajo fue encontrar las mejores condiciones para obtener un concentrado de proteínas a partir de la torta residual de maní (POC. El estudio se llevó a cabo en POC provenientes de la extracción industrial de aceite de maní. Se utilizaron distintas condiciones para la extracción y precipitación de proteínas: relación agua / harina (10:1, 20:1 y 30:1, pH de extracción (8, 9 y 10, concentración de NaCl (0 y 0,5 M, tiempo de extracción (30, 60 y 120 min, temperatura (25, 40 y 60 °C, número de etapas de extracción (1, 2 y 3, y el pH de precipitación (4, 4,5 y 5. Las condiciones de extracción y de precipitación que mostraron mayor rendimiento de proteína fueron: relación de 10:1 en agua / harina, pH de extracción de 9, en ausencia de NaCl, 2 etapas de extracción de 30 min cada una a 40 °C y el pH de precipitación de 4,5. En estas condiciones, el concentrado de proteína de maní (PC fue de 86,22%, mientras que el porcentaje de proteínas de

  3. Computed Tomographic-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Recurrent or Residual Hepatocellular Carcinomas around Retained Iodized Oil after Transarterial Chemoembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Young Hwan [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon-Il [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Beom [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Ju [Department of Radiology, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    To assess the clinical efficacy, safety, and risk factors influencing local tumor progression, following CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of recurrent or residual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), around iodized oil retention. Sixty-four patients (M : F = 51 : 13, 65.0 ± 8.2 years old) with recurrent or residual HCC (75 index tumors, size = 14.0 ± 4.6 mm) had been treated by CT-guided RFA, using retained iodized oil as markers for targeting. The technical success, technique effectiveness rate and complications of RFA were then assessed. On pre-ablative and immediate follow-up CT after RFA, we evaluated the size of enhancing index tumors and iodized oil retention, presence of abutting vessels, completeness of ablation of iodized oil retention, and the presence of ablative margins greater than 5 mm. Also, the time interval between transarterial chemoembolization and RFA was assessed. The cumulative local tumor progression rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox proportional hazards model was adopted, to clarify the independent factors affecting local tumor progression. The technical success and technique effectiveness rate was 100% and 98.7%, respectively. Major complications were observed in 5.6%. The cumulative rates of local tumor progression at 1 and 2 years were 17.5% and 37.5%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, partial ablation of the targeted iodized oil retention was the sole independent predictor of a higher local tumor progression rate. CT-guided RFA of HCC around iodized oil retention was effective and safe. Local tumor progression can be minimized by complete ablation of not only index tumors, but targeted iodized oil deposits as well.

  4. Integrated project: Microbiological and physiological studies on the presence of residual concentrations in mineral-oil-contaminated soils after rehabilitation. Final report. Pt. 2; Mikrobiologische und physiologische Untersuchungen zur Frage der Restkonzentration bei der Sanierung mineraloelkontaminierter Boeden. Abschlussbericht. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miethe, D.; Riis, V.; Stimming, M.

    1996-01-04

    It has been known for a long time that microorganisms are able to utilise mineral oils. Today various methods are practised which exploit autochthonous microorganisms` ability to utilise mineral oils. The main problem of microbial decomposition of hydrocarbons is that mineral oil residues remain. The aim of the present research project was therefore to determine the limits of the metabolisability of the substrate and find out why residues remain. Mineral oils and residual fractions differ markedly in their decomposability. Intermediate distillates are easily decomposed to a degree of 95-97% by well-adapted consorts. For high-boiling mineral oils (bp>400 C) the degree of decomposition is approx. 60%. Extracts from contaminated sites range from 40 to 60% in their degree of decomposability. The incomplete microbial decomposition of mineral oils is mainly due to their structure. There remain chemically and thermally extremely, inert hydrocarbons (mainly aliphatic and aromatic fused-ring systems) which are either hardly metabolisable or not at all. An important factor in soils or at other contaminated sites is that some of the substrate is not available because it is bound to the matrix thus increasing the proportion of residue. The next task after examining and presenting the causes of incomplete decomposition is to minimise residual mineral oil concentrations remaining after microbial decomposition. Here the use of special surfactants or of auxiliary substrates could point a way. Project applications to this end have already been submitted to the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. (orig.) [Deutsch] Dass Mikroorganismen in der Lage sind, Mineraloele zu verwerten, ist seit langem bekannt. Verfahren, die das Potential autochthoner Mikroorganismen zur Verwertung von Mineraloelen nutzen sind Praxis. Hauptproblem beim mikrobiellen Abbau der Kohlenwasserstoffe ist das Verbleiben von Mineraloelresten. Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens war die Ermittlung der Grenzen

  5. Investigation of biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms that enhance residue oil recovery in an oil reservoir after polymer flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Yue-Hui; Zhang, Fan; Xia, Jing-Jing; Kong, Shu-Qiong; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Shu, Fu-Chang; Hu, Ji-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Three biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms (XDS1, XDS2, XDS3) were isolated from a petroleum reservoir in the Daqing Oilfield (China) after polymer flooding. Their metabolic, biochemical, and oil-degradation characteristics, as well as their oil displacement in the core were studied. These indigenous microorganisms were identified as short rod bacillus bacteria with white color, round shape, a protruding structure, and a rough surface. Strains have peritrichous flagella, are able to produce endospores, are sporangia, and are clearly swollen and terminal. Bacterial cultures show that the oil-spreading values of the fermentation fluid containing all three strains are more than 4.5 cm (diameter) with an approximate 25 mN/m surface tension. The hydrocarbon degradation rates of each of the three strains exceeded 50%, with the highest achieving 84%. Several oil recovery agents were produced following degradation. At the same time, the heavy components of crude oil were degraded into light components, and their flow characteristics were also improved. The surface tension and viscosity of the crude oil decreased after being treated by the three strains of microorganisms. The core-flooding tests showed that the incremental oil recoveries were 4.89-6.96%. Thus, XDS123 treatment may represent a viable method for microbial-enhanced oil recovery.

  6. Feasibility study on energy saving and environmental improvement via utilization of residual oil at Petron Bataan Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A feasibility study has been performed on reduction of global warming gas emission at Bataan Refinery of Petron Company in the Republic of the Philippines by utilizing residual oil in the refinery at high efficiency. In the project, installation will be implemented on thermal power generation equipment using a low-speed diesel engine that uses residual oil as fuel, and a waste heat recovered steam generation system having NOx removing equipment at Bataan Revinary of Petron Company, in addition to the existing boiler-turbine power generation system. As a result of the discussions, the annual energy saving effect in 8 years after the installation will correspond to crude oil of 50,409 tons, and in 20 years cumulatively, it will correspond to 1,017,224 tons. The annual reduction of the global warming gas emission in 8 years after the installation will be 131,698 t-CO2, or 2,657,599 t-CO2 for 20 years cumulatively. The total investment amount for these facilities is about 4.1 billion yen, whereas the investment and energy saving effects were 10.7 tons of crude oil equivalent/year-one million yen. In addition, the investment and global warming gas emission reducing effects were 28.1 t-CO2/year-one million yen. (NEDO)

  7. The H-Oil process: a worldwide leader in vacuum residue hydro processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colyar, J.J.; Wisdom, L.I.; Koskas, A.

    1996-12-31

    The h-Oil process is a catalytic hydrocracking process which is used to convert and upgrade petroleum residua and heavy oils. This paper discusses additional background information on the H-Oil process, some of the key advances made to the process and applications for the Latin America market. 5 refs., 6 tabs.., 2 figs.

  8. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  9. [Pretreatment of oil palm residues by dilute alkali for cellulosic ethanol production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Zhou, Yujie; Li, Jinping; Dai, Lingmei; Liu, Dehua; Zhang, Jian'an; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2013-04-01

    In the study, we used oil palm residues (empty fruit bunch, EFB) as raw material to produce cellulosic ethanol by pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Firstly, the pretreatment of EFB with alkali, alkali/hydrogen peroxide and the effects on the components and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose were studied. The results show that dilute alkali was the suitable pretreatment method and the conditions were first to soak the substrate with 1% sodium hydroxide with a solid-liquid ratio of 1:10 at 40 degrees C for 24 h, and then subjected to 121 degrees C for 30 min. Under the conditions, EFB solid recovery was 74.09%, and glucan, xylan and lignin content were 44.08%, 25.74% and 13.89%, respectively. After separated with alkali solution, the pretreated EFB was washed and hydrolyzed for 72 h with 5% substrate concentration and 30 FPU/g dry mass (DM) enzyme loading, and the conversion of glucan and xylan reached 84.44% and 89.28%, respectively. We further investigated the effects of substrate concentration and enzyme loading on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The results show that when enzyme loading was 30 FPU/g DM and substrate concentration was increased from 5% to 25%, ethanol concentration were 9.76 g/L and 35.25 g/L after 72 h fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (inoculum size 5%, V/V), which was 79.09% and 56.96% of ethanol theory yield.

  10. Downdraft gasification of pellets made of wood, palm-oil residues respective bagasse: Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlich, Catharina; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2011-01-01

    The downdraft gasification technology has an increased interest among researchers worldwide due to the possibility to produce mechanical and electrical power from biomass in small-scale to an affordable price. The research is generally focused on improvement of the performance and optimizing of a certain gasifier, on testing different fuels, on increasing the user-friendliness of the gasifier and on finding other uses for the product gas than in an IC-engine, for example liquid fuel production. The main objective with the gasification tests presented here is to further contribute in the field by studying the impact of the char bed properties such as char bed porosity and pressure drop on the gasification performance as well as the impact of fuel particle size and composition on the gasification process in one and the same gasifier. In addition, there is very little gasification data available in literature of 'before disregarded' fuels such as sugar cane bagasse from sugar/alcohol production and empty fruit bunch (EFB) from the palm-oil production. By pelletizing these residues, it is possible to introduce them into downdraft gasification technology which has been done in this study. The results show that one and the same reactor can be used for a variety of fuels in pellet form, but at varying air-fuel ratios, temperature levels, gas compositions and lower heating values. Gasification of wood pellets results in a richer producer gas while EFB pellets give a poorer one with higher contents of non-combustible compounds. In this gasification study, there is almost linear relation between the air-fuel ratio and the cold-gas efficiency for the studied fuels: Higher air-fuel ratios result in better efficiency. The pressure drop in the char bed is higher for more reactive fuels, which in turn is caused by low porosity char beds.

  11. Soy Sauce Residue Oil Extracted by a Novel Continuous Phase Transition Extraction under Low Temperature and Its Refining Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Yong; He, Liping; Dai, Weijie; Lai, Yingyi; Yao, Xueyi; Cao, Yong

    2014-04-09

    On the basis of previous single-factor experiments, extraction parameters of soy sauce residue (SSR) oil extracted using a self-developed continuous phase transition extraction method at low temperature was optimized using the response surface methodology. The established optimal conditions for maximum oil yield were n-butane solvent, 0.5 MPa extraction pressure, 45 °C temperature, 62 min extraction time, and 45 mesh raw material granularity. Under these conditions, the actual yield was 28.43% ± 0.17%, which is relatively close to the predicted yield. Meanwhile, isoflavone was extracted from defatted SSR using the same method, but the parameters and solvent used were altered. The new solvent was 95% (v/v) ethanol, and extraction was performed under 1.0 MPa at 60 °C for 90 min. The extracted isoflavones, with 0.18% ± 0.012% yield, mainly comprised daidzein and genistein, two kinds of aglycones. The novel continuous phase transition extraction under low temperature could provide favorable conditions for the extraction of nonpolar or strongly polar substances. The oil physicochemical properties and fatty acids compositions were analyzed. Results showed that the main drawback of the crude oil was the excess of acid value (AV, 63.9 ± 0.1 mg KOH/g) and peroxide value (POV, 9.05 ± 0.3 mmol/kg), compared with that of normal soybean oil. However, through molecular distillation, AV and POV dropped to 1.78 ± 0.12 mg KOH/g and 5.9 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively. This refined oil may be used as feedstuff oil.

  12. On-site monitoring of Hebei Spirit oil spill by fluorometric detection of oil residues in coastal waters off Taean, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M.; Yim, U.H.; Hong, S.H.; Jung, J.H.; Won, J.; An, J.; Choi, H.W.; Shim, W.J. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Inst., Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed activities conducted to monitor a crude oil spill that contaminated over 70 km of the western Korean coastline. Contamination levels and temporal variations of dissolved and dispersed oils in sea and pore water at 40 beaches were monitored using a portable fluorimeter for 10 months after the spill. More than 980 samples from the heavily-impacted Mallipo Beach area were analyzed. The analysis showed that oil concentrations in the sea water were as high as 16,600 {mu}g/L directly after the spill, and decreased to below the Korean marine water quality standard of 10 {mu}g/L at most sites 10 months after the spill. However, the oil content in pore water remained high, with levels of up to 2,320 {mu}g/L for the first few months following the spill. Higher oil contamination levels were observed at some sites for up to 10 months after the spill. Results of the study suggested that oil in pore water persisted in confined areas along the coastline. Results from the fluorescence detection technique were then compared with traditional gas chromatography (GC) techniques of total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. It was concluded that fluorescence detection was capable of generating accurate results more quickly and cost-effectively than traditional GC techniques. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Impact of residual glycerides on viscosity of biodiesel (waste and rapeseed oil blends)

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Jurac; L. Pomenić

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Biodiesel, mixture of fatty acid methyl esters is a biodegradable alternative fuel that is obtained from renewable sources as a vegetable oils or animal fats. Use of waste cooking oils reduce the cost of raw materials for biodiesel production and also reduces the environment pollution. Moreover, pure edible vegetable oils for biodiesel production have an ethical significance because food is used to produce fuel. The aim of this work is a presentation of effects that r...

  14. Biodiesel Production from Residual Palm Oil Contained in Spent Bleaching Earth by In Situ Trans-Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Fahmil QRM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE is an industrial solid waste of vegetable oil industry that has a high residual oil to be potentialy converted to biodiesel. This study aims at developing a biodiesel production process technology by utilizing residual palm oil contained in SBE and to test the use of hexane in the trans-esterification process. Optimization process was done by using the Response Surface Method (RSM. The variables studied included catalyst concentration and reaction time. On the other hand, the deoiled SBE resulted from biodiesel production was tested as an adsorbent on biodiesel purification after being reactivated. The method used in the biodiesel production included an in situ acid catalysed esterification followed by in situ base catalysed trans-esterification. The results of RSM showed that the optimum process was obtained at NaOH concentration of 1.8% and reaction time of 104.73 minutes, with a predicted response rate of 97.18% and 95.63% for validation results. The use of hexane could also increase the yield of biodiesel which was obtained on the ratio of hexane to methanol of 0.4:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol. On the other hand, the reactivated bleaching earth was effective as an adsorbent in biodiesel production, which was still conform with the Indonesian National Standard.

  15. Research within the coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, oil, feed and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.

    1981-06-01

    14 C-methyl and 14 C-ring-labelled carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methyl carbamate) were used to study the fate and magnitude of the insecticide in the plant and cotton seed products. Under conditions of actual agricultural practice, 0.08-0.09, 0.23-0.30 and 0.05 mg/kg of 14 C-residues were found in the seed, crude oil and cake respectively. In oil, the residue was resolved into 4 compounds, 2 identified as carbaryl and 1-naphthol. Residues from the soil did not exceed 0.3 mg/kg after the first week and declined to 0.1 mg/kg after 5 weeks. Parallel experiments were conducted under field conditions using 14 C-phenyl leptophos (4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl methyl phenyl phosphorothioate). Leptophos residues were determined in the cotton seed products during 1975, 1976 and 1977, with mean values for leptophos residues in the cotton seed, crude oil and cake of 0.26, 1.10 and 0.07 mg/kg, respectively. Experiments with non-labelled monocrotophos [3-(dimethoxy phosphinyloxy)-N-methyl cis-crotonamide] gave residues of 0.30, 1.56 and 0.02 mg/kg in the seed, crude oil and cake, respectively. Carbaryl residues in two local maize varieties were determined by a colorimetric method. Cooking in aqueous, oil or aqueous-oil media led to 63-83% loss of carbaryl residues, after 30 minutes. Storage of corn oil for one year had essentially no effect on the concentration of carbaryl residues under laboratory conditions (presumably similar to regular storage conditions). An overall effect of simulated commercial processing procedures (saponification, deodorization and winterization) gave a loss of 70% of the original carbaryl in the oil. Commercial cooking procedures for national popular dishes resulted in near-complete elimination of carbaryl residues (up to 98%). Frying onions and potatoes in carbaryl-spiked corn oil for 3 min. up to 210 0 C resulted in 55-60% loss of the residue

  16. Radiotracer studies on the fate and transformation of pesticide residues in the environment and food chains. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, feed, oil and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.

    1980-10-01

    The magnitude and fate of some pesticide chemicals in Korean foods were studied with particular reference to oil-bearing crops and related products. Application of the chemicals was made under conditions of actual agricultural practice. Analytical methodologies included nuclear activation, gas chromatographic, spectrophotometric and radiotracer techniques. Residues of benzene hexachloride, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and DDT found in refined vegetable oil samples were below or within the tolerance limits set by international organizations and as such, these are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. Also, residues of the herbicides nitrogen, alachlor and butachlor applied to oil-bearing crops were not detected in the seeds. Studies on 14 C-BHC residues in rice revealed that polishing and washing play an important role in removing a considerable portion of the residue. Data on the arsenic-containing neoasozine residues suggest that the products consumed by the human (grain and oil) contained residues below the tolerance limit and are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. On the other hand, relatively high arsenic concentrations (2.2 mg/kg) were found in the cake (serving as animal feed) and should be carefully evaluated in the light of toxicological data

  17. Refinery plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude : understanding and preventing the problem through new oil gellant chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Cheng, A.; Tamayo, C.; Funkhouser, G.P. [Halliburton, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemieux, A. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Phosphate ester oil gellants are the most prevalent oil gellant technology in use by service companies. However, in 1995, they were found to be responsible for plugging distillation trays at 3 refineries across Canada including Imperial Oil's Strathcona refinery in Edmonton, Petro-Canada's refinery in Oakville, Ontario and Chevron's refinery in Burnaby, British Columbia. Since 1998, additional fouling has occurred in Canada, and in 2002, fouling was detected at a refinery in Pennsylvania while processing Canadian sweet, light crude. Since refiners pay a high cost for unscheduled refinery shutdowns, much effort has gone into solving this problem and to maintain the value of Canadian sweet, light crude. Studies by the Canadian Crude Quality Technical Association (CCQTA) have shown that phosphate esters begin to decompose through hydrolysis of the ester linkage at approximately 240 degrees. Gases cool as they move up the tower through distillation trays. Trays in the temperature range of 230 to 290 degrees C produce most of the volatile phosphorous compounds that condense out of the gas phase and cause plugging, thereby reducing the efficiency of distillation. Phosphate esters are often used with a metal crosslinker such as ferric iron or aluminium to gel hydrocarbons for use as a fracturing fluid. This paper described the advantages of existing ferric iron-crosslinked phosphate ester oil gels over the older, alternative oil gellant chemistries. Carbon dioxide-miscible, gelled hydrocarbon fracturing fluids provide better well stimulation by avoiding capillary pressure effects associated with water-based fluids. The fluid properties of the new phosphonate ester system were compared to those of a conventional phosphate ester system. Field tests from two fracturing treatments were also presented. Plugging did not occur with the new phosphonate ester treatment. 6 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  18. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A tiered analytical protocol for the characterization of heavy oil residues at petroleum-contaminated hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, S.J.T.; Kenefick, S.L.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fuhr, B.J.; Holloway, L.R.; Rawluk, M.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from abandoned refinery sites in Alberta, Canada is used to illustrate a tiered analytical approach to the characterization of complex hydrocarbon wastes. Soil extracts isolated from heavy oil- and creosote-contaminated sites were characterized by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID), ultraviolet fluorescence, simulated distillation (GC-SIMDIS) and chemical ionization GC-MS analysis. The combined screening and detailed analytical methods provided information essential to remedial technology selection including the extent of contamination, the class composition of soil extracts, the distillation profile of component classes and the distribution of individual class components within various waste fractions. Residual contamination was characteristic of heavy, degraded oils, consistent with documented site operations and length of hydrocarbon exposure at the soil surface

  20. Metagenome enrichment approach used for selection of oil-degrading bacteria consortia for drill cutting residue bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Alaine B; Oliveira, Jorge S; Silva-Portela, Rita C B; Araújo, Wydemberg; Carlos, Aline C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Domingos, Yldeney Silva; de Farias, Mirna Ferreira; Fernandes, Glauber José Turolla; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2018-04-01

    Drill cuttings leave behind thousands of tons of residues without adequate treatment, generating a large environmental liability. Therefore knowledge about the microbial community of drilling residue may be useful for developing bioremediation strategies. In this work, samples of drilling residue were enriched in different culture media in the presence of petroleum, aiming to select potentially oil-degrading bacteria and biosurfactant producers. Total DNA was extracted directly from the drill cutting samples and from two enriched consortia and sequenced using the Ion Torrent platform. Taxonomic analysis revealed the predominance of Proteobacteria in the metagenome from the drill cuttings, while Firmicutes was enriched in consortia samples. Functional analysis using the Biosurfactants and Biodegradation Database (BioSurfDB) revealed a similar pattern among the three samples regarding hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactants production pathways. However, some statistical differences were observed between samples. Namely, the pathways related to the degradation of fatty acids, chloroalkanes, and chloroalkanes were enriched in consortia samples. The degradation colorimetric assay using dichlorophenolindophenol as an indicator was positive for several hydrocarbon substrates. The consortia were also able to produce biosurfactants, with biosynthesis of iturin, lichnysin, and surfactin among the more abundant pathways. A microcosms assay followed by gas chromatography analysis showed the efficacy of the consortia in degrading alkanes, as we observed a reduction of around 66% and 30% for each consortium in total alkanes. These data suggest the potential use of these consortia in the bioremediation of drilling residue based on autochthonous bioaugmentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevention of refinery tower plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude : pilot plant evaluation of alternative oil gellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Fyten, G.C.; Tamayo, C.; Funkhouser, G.P. [Haliburton, Houston, TX (United States); Lemieux, A.; Blackmore, T. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Previous studies have described refinery plugging caused by volatile phosphorus components originating from phosphate ester oil gellants as well as two successful field trials of new phosphonate ester oil gellants, which were demonstrated to address this problem. Additional field testing of phosphonate ester gellants directed at optimization of cost and performance has also been previously studied. This paper presented the results of a follow-up study to these previous investigations, as new modified phosphate ester systems were expected to become commercial that would reduce volatile phosphorus. Several questions that required further investigation were discussed in this paper. These included the comparative ability of phosphonate and modified phosphate esters to control volatile phosphorus; tower fouling at higher temperatures in the presence of steam; and, organic halide formations under distillation tower conditions. The paper presented the results of full-scale pilot plant testing that was performed over several days with flowback captured after actual fracturing treatments in order to serve as a guide to the selection of oil gellant systems for reduction of refinery tower and heat exchanger fouling. The study measured fouling of a tray inserted in the pilot plant distillation tower as well as fouling of the packing material. Any changes in operating parameters such as rate, temperature, or pressure over the time of each test were also noted, as these could also be indicative of fouling. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs.

  2. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS, PESTICIDE RESIDUE AND AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COLD PRESSED PUMPKIN SEED (Cucurbita pepo L. OILS FROM CENTRAL ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATMA NUR ARSLAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physicochemical characteristics, pesticide residues and aflatoxin contaminations of cold pressed pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L. oils cultivated in four different central Anatolia regions of Turkey, were investigated. Lab-scale screw press machine was used to produce cold pressed pumpkin seed oils and the oil contents were found between 42.8%−47.4% for naked seeds. The physicochemical characteristic (refractive index, viscosity, color value, triglyceride profile analysis, peroxide value, iodine value, free fatty acid, saponification number, unsaponified matter, specific extinction values at 232 and 270 nm of cold pressed oils were determined by using different analytical techniques. The results showed that there was a non-significant difference between cold pressed pumpkin seed oils from different regions, in terms of physicochemical characteristics. The contents of pesticide residue and aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 contamination were determined by using validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. The chlorpyrifos pesticide residue was detected under the limit value declared by official authorities for the quality assessment of edible oils. Aflatoxins weren’t detected in any of studied pumpkin seed oils. Therefore, in food industry the positive effect of screw-pressing application could be useful for preservation of bioactive compounds during edible oil production and also enhancing of their functional properties.

  3. Carbaryl and monocrotophos residues in cottonseed products. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, feed, oil and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo, F.E.

    1981-03-01

    Cotton plants of Deltapine variety were treated with carbaryl (naphthyl-1- 14 C), (6.7 mg/plant) three times at two week intervals. Seeds were collected at maturity and 14 C-residues were determined in the oil and cake by standard procedures. 14 C-carbaryl and/or metabolite residues were 0.42 and 0.15 mg/kg in the crude oil and cake respectively. Parallel studies were conducted with spectrophotometric techniques using p-nitrobenzene diazonium fluoborate as chromogenic agent. Applications were made three times at a rate of 14 mg/plant. Residues in the crude oil and cake were found to be 0.83 and 0.04 mg/kg respectively. The higher residue level in the oil - compared to the radiometric technique - probably relates to higher application rates. Cotton plants of Deltapine variety were treated with (N-methyl- 14 C) monocrotophos (0.09 mg/plant) three times at two week intervals, as recommended for agricultural practice. Seeds were collected at maturity and standard procedures for extraction, clean-up and paper and thin-layer chromatography were adopted for the ultimate determination of residues in seed, oil and cake. Parallel experiments, using spectrophotometric techniques, were made for comparison. 14 C-residues of monocrotophos and/or metabolites in cottonseed, crude oil and cake were found to be 0.06, 0.12 and 0.05 mg/kg respectively. Corresponding data obtained by non-nuclear techniques were 0.18, 0.42 and 0.15 mg/kg respectively. The discrepancy between the two sets of results may be related to different rates of application: 0.3 mg and 0.09 mg/plant for non-nuclear and radiometric techniques respectively. Among the major metabolites identified in the cottonseed were dimethyl phosphate and O-desmethyl monocrotophos. N-demethylated monocrotophos and sugar conjugates were also identified

  4. Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil with Oils Residuals through Bioaugmentation and Natural Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitê Carla Deon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential for soil contamination by oil spills is growing, due to heavy industrialization and economic development of countries. Due to this fact, the bioremediation has become an alternative to remediate areas through the use of biological agents. Two microorganisms, isolated from a lipid-rich effluent, were used in the bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with diesel oil, lubricating oil and soybean oil. Natural attenuation tests were conducted as controls. The removal of diesel fuel at the time of 21 d were of 18.5%, 7.30% and 11.38%, respectively, for the bioaugmentation with isolated I1 and I2 and natural attenuation. The removal of lubricating oil were 41.6%, 14.16% and 6.91% respectively for the bioaugmentation with the isolated I1 and I2 and natural attenuation, while for soybean oil removals were of 87 8%, 73.9% and 49.4%. Considering the processes of bioaugmentatiom and natural attenuation, the bioaugmentation with the isolated I1 showed better results, possibly due to the production of compounds capable of reducing the surface tension during the preparation of bioaugmentation.

  5. Application of environmental management system for a energetic plant with oil residual biomass; Aplicacion de un sistema de gestion medio ambiental a una planta generadora de energia que utiliza la biomasa residual del olivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linan Veganzones, M.J.; Soca Olazabal, N.; Pizarro Camacho, D

    1998-12-01

    Being the alpechin one of the most contaminant residues by the mediterranean agrarian industry, as of today there is no integral depuration procedure. In this paper we show the innovative approach being used to eliminate the alpechin along with the oil miller residual biomass. What it more, the only agroindustrial complex which has introduced such approach is using an EMAS so that actual achievements could be realistically measured. (Author) 12 refs.

  6. Prevention of refinery tower plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude-pilot plant evaluation of alternative oil gellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Fyten, G.C.; Cheng, A. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P.S. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemieux, A. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Tower fouling at petroleum refineries is related to background volatile phosphorus components originating from phosphate ester oil gellants. In an attempt to reduce the cost of unplanned refinery shut downs, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) may institute a new specification in July 2006 of 0.5 ppm maximum volatile phosphorus in crude. In concept, volatile phosphorus can be removed from phosphate esters by eliminating volatile components in the original phosphate ester gellant. However, the issue of of whether modified phosphate esters can really reduce refinery tower fouling has been questioned. For that reason, this study focused on water hydrolysis which may occur in a distillation tower, causing localized areas of acidity and causticity. Halogenation reactions could occur in the presence of acid at high temperatures if halogen ions are present. The source of halide ions could be any salts that have not been removed in the de-salters. Full-scale testing at a pilot plant facility was conducted over several days with flowback captured after actual fracturing treatments. Fouling of distillation tower trays was measured along with fouling of the packing material. The study examined how fouling was influenced by changes in operating parameters such as rate, temperature, or pressure during each test. Three full-scale pilot evaluations were conducted using actual flowback fluids from fracturing treatments conducted with 3 different oil gellants: conventional phosphate ester, modified phosphate and phosphonate ester. The comparison of actual tower fouling between these alternative gellants can be used as a guide when choosing oil gellant systems to reduce refinery tower and heat exchanger fouling. It was concluded that phosphonate gellants are hydrolytically stable at higher temperatures and should minimize volatile phosphorus created through the hydrolysis of phosphate esters. However, they are more expensive since they are more complex to create

  7. Comprehensive profiling and marker identification in non-volatile citrus oil residues by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Mehl, Florence; Debrus, Benjamin; Marcourt, Laurence; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Sommer, Horst; Rudaz, Serge; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-05-01

    The detailed characterization of cold-pressed lemon oils (CPLOs) is of great importance for the flavor and fragrance (F&F) industry. Since a control of authenticity by standard analytical techniques can be bypassed using elaborated adulterated oils to pretend a higher quality, a combination of advanced orthogonal methods has been developed. The present study describes a combined metabolomic approach based on UHPLC-TOF-MS profiling and (1)H NMR fingerprinting to highlight metabolite differences on a set of representative samples used in the F&F industry. A new protocol was set up and adapted to the use of CPLO residues. Multivariate analysis based on both fingerprinting methods showed significant chemical variations between Argentinian and Italian samples. Discriminating markers identified in mixtures belong to furocoumarins, flavonoids, terpenoids and fatty acids. Quantitative NMR revealed low citropten and high bergamottin content in Italian samples. The developed metabolomic approach applied to CPLO residues gives some new perspectives for authenticity assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Insecticides authorized for use on olive trees and the relationship between their registration and residues in olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lentza-Rizos, Ch.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to eliminate losses due to insect attack, several insecticides are used on olive trees. Their residues in olive oil constitute an important parameter of its quality and must be monitored regularly and kept as low possible in order to ensure consumer protection. In this paper the insecticides authorized for use on olive trees are listed and their ADIs and Codex Alimentarius MRLs reported. The existing registrations are discussed from the point of view of their residues in oil.

    Diversos insecticidas son usados para eliminar las pérdidas debidas al ataque de insectos en olivos. Sus residuos en el aceite de oliva constituyen un parámetro importante de su calidad y deben ser controlados con regularidad y mantenidos tan bajos como sea posible en orden a asegurar la protección del consumidor. En este artículo se incluyen los distintos insecticidas autorizados para su uso en olivos así como los valores de ingesta diaria aceptable para el hombre y los límites máximos autorizados de los mismos. Los registros existentes se discuten desde el punto de vista de sus residuos en el aceite.

  9. Radiation protection and management of NORM residues in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haridasan, P.P.; )

    2014-01-01

    The radionuclides in oil and gas streams belong to the decay chains of 238 U and 232 Th originate from the reservoir rock that contains oil, gas and formation water. Formation water contains significant concentrations of isotopes of radium dissolved from the reservoir rock. The parent isotopes of uranium and thorium are not mobilized from the rock and hence the radium isotopes appear in the water co-produced with the oil and gas. When the ions of Group II elements are present in the produced water, drops in pressure and temperature can lead to precipitation of sulphate and carbonate scales on the inner walls of production tubulars, well heads, valves, pumps, separators, water treatment vessels, gas treatment and oil storage tanks. The mixed stream of oil, gas and water carries the radon gas generated in the reservoir rock and in the production stream it preferentially follows the dry export gases. Consequently the equipment from gas treatment and transport facilities may accumulate a thin film of 210 Pb in the inner surfaces of gas lines. The radionuclide concentrations in produced water, hard scale and sludge will be presented. Indication on typical quantities of wastes generated and best practices followed in the industry in managing such wastes will be outlined. Information on external gamma exposure and potential internal exposure as well as global emerging issues will be discussed

  10. Mineral oil residues in soil and apple under temperate conditions of Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Malik Mukhtar; Wani, Ashraf Alam; Sofi, Mubashir; Ara, Ishrat

    2018-03-09

    The study was undertaken to ascertain the persistence of Orchol-13, a mineral oil used against insect pests of horticultural fruit crops in soil and apple following the dormant and summer applications of 2 and 0.75% respectively. Soil samples were collected during dormant, while as both soil and apple samples were collected during summer season. Samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, and 5 days post treatment in both the seasons. Average recoveries of paraffinic constituents (which constitute about 60% of mineral oils by composition) from soil and apple at 1 μg ml -1 spiking level were found to be 74.18 and 76.81% respectively. The final quantification of paraffinic constituents was performed on gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). No paraffinic constituents of mineral oil could be detected in soil and apple at 0 day post treatment in both the seasons.

  11. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  12. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Almudena; Martínez-García, Carmen; Cotes-Palomino, Teresa

    2017-01-25

    Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  13. An adaptive robust optimization scheme for water-flooding optimization in oil reservoirs using residual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siraj, M.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Model-based dynamic optimization of the water-flooding process in oil reservoirs is a computationally complex problem and suffers from high levels of uncertainty. A traditional way of quantifying uncertainty in robust water-flooding optimization is by considering an ensemble of uncertain model

  14. Characterization of Emissions and Residues from Simulations of the Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface oil burns conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico were simulated by small scale burns to characterize the pollutants, determine emission factors, and gather particulate matter for subsequent...

  15. Prevention of refinery plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude-optimization of phosphonate ester oil gellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, A.; Alick, C.; Stadnyk, S.; Funkhouser, G.; Fyten, G.; Taylor, R.S. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the use of phosphonate ester oil gellants for refinery plugging. Field tests were performed to test ways to optimize cost and performance and to establish quality control specifications based on performance testing and compositional analysis determined through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Additional field tests were performed to ensure both operational performance and the ability to control volatile phosphorus while continuing to meet the standards of the 2 initial field trials. The study assessed the ability of phosphonate esters to control volatile phosphorus at higher temperatures. Distillations used to evaluate volatile phosphorus to date have had a 250 degree C end point. This temperature was chosen because it represents the approximate temperature experienced at the distillation tower trays where plugging has been observed from components condensing from the gas phase. However, the actual peak temperature in the tower bottom is closer to 350 degrees C. This higher temperature is the actual temperature at which decomposition or volatilization occurs. In order to fully understand the ability to control volatile phosphorus, distillations were conducted with a 350 degree C end point. Volatile and total phosphorus to both 250 degrees C and 350 degrees C end points were reported. The study also addressed the concern regarding organic halide formation under distillation tower conditions, although no organic halides were detected in the field trials. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. Extraction and characterization of mandarin essential oil obtained from agroindustrial residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Carolina; Gil, Jesus; Durango, Diego; Garcia, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, citrus national agroindustries have shown a significant momentum, led by the market expansion of fruit derivatives. This activity has resulted in the generation of large amounts of waste, which could have a potential as starting material for the development of commercial products with high added value such as essential oils (EO), fixed oils, and fibres among others. The EO have a strong demand in the food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. This paper describes the extraction and characterization of mandarin EO obtained through steam distillation, of agroindustrial waste. The effect of vapour pressure, thickness, and the number of layers of plant material, were evaluated on the yield and quality of EO. The operating conditions were adjusted in accordance to the design characteristics of the extraction plant of a local company.

  17. Rejuvenation of residual oil hydrotreating catalysts by leaching of foulant metals. Modelling of the metal leaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, M.; Kam, E.K.T.; Stanislaus, A.; Absi-Halabi, M. [Petroleum Technology Department, Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Materials Division, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

    1996-11-19

    Increasing emphasis has been paid in recent years on the development of processes for the rejuvenation of spent residual oil hydroprocessing catalysts, which are deactivated by deposition of metals (e.g. vanadium) and coke. As part of a research program on this subject, we have investigated selective removal of the major metal foulant from the spent catalyst by chemical leaching. In the present paper, we report the development of a model for foulant metals leaching from the spent catalyst. The leaching process is considered to involve two consecutive operations: (1) removal of metal foulants along the main mass transfer channels connected to the narrow pores until the pore structure begins to develop and (2) removal of metal foulants from the pore structure. Both kinetic and mass transfer aspects were considered in the model development, and a good agreement was noticed between experimental and simulated results

  18. Sustainable utilization of waste palm oil and sulfonated carbon catalyst derived from coconut meal residue for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thushari, Indika; Babel, Sandhya

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an inexpensive, environmental benign acid catalyst is prepared using coconut meal residue (CMR) and employed for biodiesel production from waste palm oil (WPO). The total acid density of the catalyst is found to be 3.8mmolg -1 . The catalyst shows a unique amorphous structure with 1.33m 2 g -1 of surface area and 0.31cm 3 g -1 of mean pore volume. Successful activation is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The highest biodiesel yield of 92.7% was obtained from WPO in an open reflux system using the catalyst. Results show that biodiesel yield increases with increasing methanol:oil (molar ratio) and reaction time up to an optimum value. It is found that the catalyst can be reused for at least four cycles for >80% biodiesel yield. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel meet international biodiesel standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative evaluation of thermal oxidative decomposition for oil-plant residues via thermogravimetric analysis: Thermal conversion characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Ren, Xiu'e; Fan, Shuanshi

    2017-11-01

    Thermal oxidative decomposition characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of rape straw (RS), rapeseed meal (RM), camellia seed shell (CS), and camellia seed meal (CM) were evaluated via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TG-DTG-DSC curves demonstrated that the combustion of oil-plant residues proceeded in three stages, including dehydration, release and combustion of organic volatiles, and chars oxidation. As revealed by combustion characteristic parameters, the ignition, burnout, and comprehensive combustion performance of residues were quite distinct from each other, and were improved by increasing heating rate. The kinetic parameters were determined by Coats-Redfern approach. The results showed that the most possible combustion mechanisms were order reaction models. The existence of kinetic compensation effect was clearly observed. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔG, ΔS) at peak temperatures were calculated through the activated complex theory. With the combustion proceeding, the variation trends of ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS for RS (RM) similar to those for CS (CM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Residual Sorption and leaching of the herbicide diuron following de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste addition to soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Cabrera, D.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Flores, S.

    2009-07-01

    The residual sorption, desorption, degradation, and leaching of the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) a herbicide widely used in olive groves, was studied following the addition to soils of de oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DTPOMW). Field experiments were conducted on an olive grove soil amended over seven years with DTPOMW. (Author)

  1. Partial least squares modeling of combined infrared, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra to predict long residue properties of crude oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Peinder, P.; Visser, T.; Petrauskas, D.D.; Salvatori, F.; Soulimani, F.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has been carried out to determine the potential of partial least squares (PLS) modeling of mid-infrared (IR) spectra of crude oils combined with the corresponding 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data, to predict the long residue (LR) properties of these substances. The study

  2. Demulsification of residual waters from refining industries of lubricant oil: case study; Desemulsificacao de aguas residuarias de industrias de refino de oleo lubrificante: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, Marcia Yumi; Morita, Dione Mari [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Sanitaria]. E-mail: dmmorita@usp.br

    1997-07-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the coagulation, flocculation with iron chloride (FeCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O), followed by phase separation, as alternative for treating residual waters from lubricant oil refining industries. Tests have been performed by using {sup j}ar test{sup ,} changing pH value and coagulants for various wastewater characteristics.

  3. Residual Sorption and leaching of the herbicide diuron following de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste addition to soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Cabrera, D.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Flores, S.

    2009-01-01

    The residual sorption, desorption, degradation, and leaching of the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) a herbicide widely used in olive groves, was studied following the addition to soils of de oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DTPOMW). Field experiments were conducted on an olive grove soil amended over seven years with DTPOMW. (Author)

  4. Prediction of long-residue properties of potential blends from mathematically mixed infrared spectra of pure crude oils by partial least-squares regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Peinder, P.; Visser, T.; Petrauskas, D.D.; Salvatori, F.; Soulimani, F.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has been carried out to determine the feasibility of partial least-squares (PLS) regression models to predict the long-residue (LR) properties of potential blends from infrared (IR) spectra that have been created by linearly co-adding the IR spectra of crude oils. The study is the follow-up

  5. Flaxseed oil supplementation manipulates correlations between serum individual mol % free fatty acid levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics. Insulin resistance and percent remaining pancreatic β-cell function are unaffected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, D E; Mizier-Barre, K A; Griscti, O; Hafez, K

    2016-10-01

    Elevated total serum free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations have been suggested, controversially, to enhance insulin resistance and decrease percent remaining β-cell function. However, concentrations of individual serum FFAs have never been published in terms of their relationship (correlation) to homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and percent remaining β-cell function (HOMA-%β) in the type 2 diabetics (T2Ds). Alpha-linolenic acid consumption has a negative correlation with the insulin resistance, which in turn is negatively correlated with the remaining β-cell function. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there would be different relationship (correlation) between the blood serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β in T2D. The secondary objective was to test the hypothesis that flaxseed oil, previously being shown to be ineffective in the glycemic control in T2Ds, may alter these correlations in a statistically significant manner as well as HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β. Patients were recruited via a newspaper advertisement and two physicians have been employed. All the patients came to visit one and three months later for a second visit. At the second visit, the subjects were randomly assigned (double blind) to flaxseed or safflower oil treatment for three months, until the third visit. Different statistically significant correlations or trends towards among some serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and HOMA-%β, pre- and post-flaxseed and safflower oil supplementation were found. However, flaxseed oil had no impact on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β despite statistically significant alterations in correlations compared to baseline HOMA-IR. The obtained data indicate that high doses of flaxseed oil have no statistically significant effect on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β in T2Ds, probably due to the additive effects of negative and positive correlations.

  6. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  7. Characterization of oil shale residue and rejects from Irati Formation by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, S.L.; Brinatti, A.M.; Saab, S.C. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Simoes, M.L.; Martin-Neto, L. [Embrapa Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Rosa, J.A. [IAPAR - Unidade Regional de Pesquisa, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Mascarenhas, Y. P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-03-15

    In this study, sedimentary organic matter of oil shale rejects, calschist, shale fine and the so called retorted shale from Irati formation was characterized. EPR was used to analyse the samples regarding loss of signal in g = 2:003 associated to the organic free radical with the calcined samples and washing with hydrogen peroxide. The radical signal was detected in all samples, however, for the calschist and shale fine samples another signal was identified at g = 2:000 which disappeared when the sample was heated at 400 deg C. Hydrogen peroxide washing was also performed and it was noted that after washing the signal appeared around g = 2:000 for all samples, including retorted shale, which might be due to the quartz E1 defect. (author)

  8. Effect of the inclusion of fish residue oils in diets on the fatty acid profile of muscles of males and females lambari (Astyanax altiparanae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Uribe Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of two lipids sources of fish residue (tilapia and salmon compared with a vegetable oil source (soybean oil on the fatty acid profiles of male and female lambari. This experiment was developed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments resulting from the combination of the three experimental diets for both sexes, with four replications for each treatment. This study involved 120 male (2.58±0.13 g and 72 female lambari (4.00±0.09 g, fed the experimental diets twice a day until apparent satiation for a period of 60 days. Oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic fatty acids were found at higher concentrations in all experimental oils and diets, as well in the muscle of male and female lambari. The low amounts of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the experimental diets and subsequent greater concentrations in muscle tissue, suggested that lambari are able to desaturate and elongate the chain of fatty acids with 18 carbons. The fish of both sexes that received the diet with soybean oil showed high levels of n-6 fatty acids, especially of C18: 2n-6 and low levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. The diet with salmon residue oil promoted higher levels of fatty acids of the n-3 series and resulted in the best n-3/n-6 ratio in the muscle of male and female lambari. The oils from fish residues can be a substitute for traditional fish oil and its use in the lambari diets does not impair its growth.

  9. Technology on In-Situ Gas Generation to Recover Residual Oil Reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayavur Bakhtiyarov

    2008-02-29

    This final technical report covers the period October 1, 1995 to February 29, 2008. This chapter begins with an overview of the history of Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques and specifically, CO2 flood. Subsequent chapters conform to the manner consistent with the Activities, Tasks, and Sub-tasks of the project as originally provided in Exhibit C1 in the Project Management Plan dated September 20, 1995. These chapters summarize the objectives, status and conclusions of the major project activities performed during the project period. The report concludes by describing technology transfer activities stemming from the project and providing a reference list of all publications of original research work generated by the project team or by others regarding this project. The overall objective of this project was a final research and development in the United States a technology that was developed at the Institute for Geology and Development of Fossil Fuels in Moscow, Russia. Before the technology can be convincingly adopted by United States oil and gas producers, the laboratory research was conducted at Mew Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The experimental studies were conducted to measure the volume and the pressure of the CO{sub 2} gas generated according to the new Russian technology. Two experimental devices were designed, built and used at New Mexico Tech facilities for these purposes. The designed setup allowed initiating and controlling the reaction between the 'gas-yielding' (GY) and 'gas-forming' (GF) agents proposed by Russian technology. The temperature was controlled, and the generated gas pressure and volume were recorded during the reaction process. Additionally, the effect of surfactant addition on the effectiveness of the process was studied. An alternative GY reactant was tested in order to increase the efficiency of the CO2 gas generation process. The slim tube and the core flood experimental studies were conducted to define

  10. Ex situ bioremediation of a soil contaminated by mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)--a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana; Milić, Jelena; Ilić, Mila; Miletić, Srdjan; Solević, Tatjana; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2011-03-01

    Mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)-polluted soil was exposed to bioremediation in an ex situ field-scale (600 m(3)) study. Re-inoculation was performed periodically with biomasses of microbial consortia isolated from the mazut-contaminated soil. Biostimulation was conducted by adding nutritional elements (N, P and K). The biopile (depth 0.4m) was comprised of mechanically mixed polluted soil with softwood sawdust and crude river sand. Aeration was improved by systematic mixing. The biopile was protected from direct external influences by a polyethylene cover. Part (10 m(3)) of the material prepared for bioremediation was set aside uninoculated, and maintained as an untreated control pile (CP). Biostimulation and re-inoculation with zymogenous microorganisms increased the number of hydrocarbon degraders after 50 d by more than 20 times in the treated soil. During the 5 months, the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of the contaminated soil was reduced to 6% of the initial value, from 5.2 to 0.3 g kg(-1) dry matter, while TPH reduced to only 90% of the initial value in the CP. After 150 d there were 96%, 97% and 83% reductions for the aliphatic, aromatic, and nitrogen-sulphur-oxygen and asphaltene fractions, respectively. The isoprenoids, pristane and phytane, were more than 55% biodegraded, which indicated that they are not suitable biomarkers for following bioremediation. According to the available data, this is the first field-scale study of the bioremediation of mazut and mazut sediment-polluted soil, and the efficiency achieved was far above that described in the literature to date for heavy fuel oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Bull, Ann S

    2015-01-01

    When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  12. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Claisse

    Full Text Available When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes. "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  13. Environmental performance, mechanical and microstructure analysis of concrete containing oil-based drilling cuttings pyrolysis residues of shale gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Qiang; Lin, Xiao-Yan; He, Ming; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Si-Lan

    2017-09-15

    The overall objective of this research project is to investigate the feasibility of incorporating oil-based drilling cuttings pyrolysis residues (ODPR) and fly ash serve as replacements for fine aggregates and cementitious materials in concrete. Mechanical and physical properties, detailed environmental performances, and microstructure analysis were carried out. Meanwhile, the early hydration process and hydrated products of ODPR concrete were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results indicated that ODPR could not be categorize into hazardous wastes. ODPR had specific pozzolanic characteristic and the use of ODPR had certain influence on slump and compressive strength of concrete. The best workability and optimal compressive strength were achieved with the help of 35% ODPR. Environmental performance tests came to conclusion that ODPR as recycled aggregates and admixture for the preparation of concrete, from the technique perspective, were the substance of mere environmental contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodemetalation reactions of residue oils over CoMo/aluminum borate catalysts in a trickle bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.C.; Chen, Y.W.; Kang, B.C.; Wu, J.C.; Leu, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a series of aluminum borates (AB) with various Al/B mole ratios is prepared by the precipitation method. The results indicated that the exhibited properties are dependent on the Al/B ratio of the material. The monodisperse pore size distributions of these samples simply that it is a true microcomposite structure rather than a mixture of the individual materials. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodemetalation (HDM) of heavy Kuwait atmospheric residuum over CoMo/AB catalysts were carried out in a bench-scale trickle bed reactor at 663 K and 7582 kPa. The weight hourly space velocity of residue oils was 1.5, and the hydrogen flow rate was kept constant at 300 mL/min (STP). The results showed that these catalysts are much more active than the conventional CoMo/Al 2 O 3 catalyst in HDS and HDM reactions. The results of desulfurization activity are mainly interpreted on the basis of difference in dispersion and the interaction of Mo species with the support. The demetalation activity was strongly influenced by the intraparticle diffusion of metal porphyrins

  15. Removal of residual palm oil-based biodiesel catalyst using membrane ultra-filtration technique: An optimization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, residual potassium hydroxide catalyst was removed from palm oil-based alkyl esters (biodiesel using membrane separative technique, with the aim of achieving high-quality biodiesel that meets international standard specifications. Further, Central Composite Design (CCD coupled with Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to study the effects of the system variables such as flow rate, temperature and transmembrane pressure (TMP on the retention of potassium. At the optimum conditions, the coefficient of retention (%R of the catalyst was 93.642, and the content of the potassium was reduced from 8.328 mg/L to 0.312 mg/L; a value well below the one specified by both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. In addition, the comparison between predicted and experimental values for the catalyst retention offers a reasonable percentage error of 0.081%. Therefore, this study has proven that membrane technique can be used to post treat crude biodiesel; in order to achieve high-quality biodiesel fuel that can be efficiently used on diesel engines.

  16. Characterization of oil-palm trunk residue degradation enzymes derived from the isolated fungus, Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kok Chang; Arai, Takamitsu; Ibrahim, Darah; Deng, Lan; Murata, Yoshinori; Mori, Yutaka; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study characterizes crude enzymes derived from Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL, a mesophilic fungus isolated from the local soil of Malaysia. Prior to enzyme activity evaluation, P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL was inoculated into a broth medium containing oil-palm trunk residues for the preparation of crude enzymes. Oil-palm trunk residues were optimally hydrolysed at pH5.0 and 50°C. P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived crude enzymes displayed higher thermal stability compared with the commercial enzymes, Celluclast 1.5 L and Acellerase 1500. Moreover, the hydrolysing activities of the P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived crude enzymes (xylan, arabinan, and laminarin) were superior compared to that of Celluclast 1.5 L and Acellerase 1500, and exhibit 2- to 3-fold and 3- to 4-fold higher oil-palm trunk residues-hydrolysing specific activity, respectively. This higher hydrolysis efficiency may be attributed to the weak 'lignin-binding' ability of the P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived enzymes compared to the commercial enzymes.

  17. Utilization of oil palm biodiesel solid residue as renewable sources for preparation of granular activated carbon by microwave induced KOH activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2013-02-01

    In this work, preparation of granular activated carbon from oil palm biodiesel solid residue, oil palm shell (PSAC) by microwave assisted KOH activation has been attempted. The physical and chemical properties of PSAC were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, volumetric adsorption analyzer and elemental analysis. The adsorption behavior was examined by performing batch adsorption experiments using methylene blue as dye model compound. Equilibrium data were simulated using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Kinetic modeling was fitted to the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich kinetic models, while the adsorption mechanism was determined using the intraparticle diffusion and Boyd equations. The result was satisfactory fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 343.94mg/g at 30°C. The findings support the potential of oil palm shell for preparation of high surface area activated carbon by microwave assisted KOH activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Residual Effect of Chemical and Animal Fertilizers and Compost on Yield, YieldComponents, Physiological Characteristics and Essential Oil Content of Matricaria chamomilla L. under Drought Stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Ahmadian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The residual effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers on growth and yield of plants is one of the important problems in nutrition. This study was conducted to determine the residual effect of different fertilizers on yield, yield components, physiological parameters and essential oil percentage of Matricaria chamomilla under drought stress. A split plot arrangement based on randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replication was conducted in 2009, at the University of Zabol. Treatments included W1 (non stress, W2 (75% FC and W3 (50% FC as main plot and three types of residual’s fertilizers: F1 (non fertilizer, F2 (chemical fertilizer, F3 (manure fertilizer and F4 (compost as sub plot. Results showed that water stress at W3 treatment reduced dry flower yield. Low water stress increased essential oil percentage and the highest oil was obtained in W2. In this experiment, free proline and total soluble carbohydrate concentration were increased under water stress. The residual’s manure and compost enhanced flower yield, percentage and yield of essential oil of chamomile at the second year. At a glance, animal manure application and light water stress (75% FC was recommended to obtain best quantitative and qualitative yield. Keywords: Water Stress, Fertilizer, Carbohydrate, Proline, Chamomile

  19. Hippocampus lipid peroxidation induced by residual oil fly ash intranasal instillation versus habituation to the open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Ana Claudia; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of particulate matter (PM) inhalation on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. It has been reported that air pollution may affect the central nervous system and decrease cognitive function. In rats, residual oil fly ash (ROFA) instillation causes decreased motor activity and increased lipid peroxidation in the striatum and the cerebellum. Our objective was to determine whether chronic instillation of particles induces changes in learning and memory in rats and whether oxidants in the hippocampus may contribute to these adverse effects. Forty-five-day-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ROFA by intranasal instillation and were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 150 mg/kg i.p. for 30 days. Control groups were exposed to ROFA, NAC, or neither. On days 1, 8, and 30 of the protocol, rats were submitted to the open field test to evaluate habituation. After the last open field session, the rats were killed by decapitation. The hippocampus was used to determine lipid peroxidation (LP) by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances test. ROFA instillation induced an increase in LP in the hippocampus compared to all treatment groups (p = .012). NAC treatment blocked these changes. All of the treatment groups presented a decrease in the frequency of peripheral walking (p = .001), rearing (p = .001), and exploration (p = .001) over time. Our study demonstrates that exposure to particles for 30 days and/or NAC treatment do not modify habituation to an open field, a simple form of learning and memory in rats, and that oxidative damage induced by ROFA does not modulate these processes.

  20. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  1. The Galeta Oil Spill. III. Chronic Reoiling, Long-term Toxicity of Hydrocarbon Residues and Effects on Epibiota in the Mangrove Fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Sally C.; Garrity, Stephen D.; Burns, Kathryn A.

    1994-04-01

    In April 1986, 75 000-100 000 barrels of medium-weight crude oil (˜ 10 000-13 500 metric tons) spilled into Bahía las Minas, a large mangrove-lined bay on the Caribbean coast of Panamá. Between 1986 and 1991, biological and chemical effects of this spill were studied. The epibiota of fringing mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle L.) were examined in three habitats: (1) the shoreward margins of reef flats that fronted the open sea, (2) the edges of channels and lagoons, and (3) the banks of streams and man-made cuts that drained interior mangroves or uplands into lagoons. Chemical analyses of bivalves collected from submerged prop roots (oysters and false mussels) and records of slicks and tarry deposits on artificial roots documented chronic reoiling. Each habitat was repeatedly oiled between 1986 and 1991, with petroleum residues identified as the oil spilled in 1986. There was a decline in the release of tarry oils recorded as slicks and on roots over time, but not in tissue burdens of hydrocarbons in bivalves. This suggested that the processes that released these different types of oil residues were at least partially independent and that toxic hydrocarbons were likely to be released from sediments over the long term. The submerged prop roots of fringing mangroves in each habitat had a characteristic epibiota. On the open coast, roots were covered with a diverse assemblage of sessile invertebrates and algae. In channels, the most abundant species on roots was the edible oyster Crassostrea virginica ( rhizophorae morph). In streams, the false mussel Mytilopsis sallei covered the most space on roots. Cover of sessile invertebrates was significantly reduced at oiled compared with unoiled sites on the open coast for 4 years after oiling, while oysters and false mussels were reduced in cover at oiled sites in channels and streams through at least 1991, when observations ended. False mussels transplanted from an unoiled stream to oiled and unoiled streams were

  2. Dual-fuel production from restaurant grease trap waste: bio-fuel oil extraction and anaerobic methane production from the post-extracted residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Maeda, Kouji; Tsuji, Tomoya; Xu, Kaiqin

    2014-10-01

    An effective way for restaurant grease trap waste (GTW) treatment to generate fuel oil and methane by the combination of physiological and biological processes was investigated. The heat-driven extraction could provide a high purity oil equivalent to an A-grade fuel oil of Japanese industrial standard with 81-93 wt% of extraction efficiency. A post-extracted residue was treated as an anaerobic digestion feedstock, and however, an inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) was still a barrier for high-rate digestion. From the semi-continuous experiment fed with the residual sludge as a single substrate, it can be concluded that the continuous addition of calcium into the reactor contributed to reducing LCFA inhibition, resulting in the long-term stable operation over one year. Furthermore, the anaerobic reactor performed well with 70-80% of COD reduction and methane productivity under an organic loading rate up to 5.3g-COD/L/d. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation of a Nanoemulsion with Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae Oil by a Low-Energy/Solvent-Free Method and Evaluation of Its Preliminary Residual Larvicidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia L. M. Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Andiroba (Carapa guianensis seeds are the source of an oil with a wide range of biological activities and ethnopharmacological uses. However, few studies have devoted attention to innovative formulations, including nanoemulsions. The present study aimed to obtain a colloidal system with the andiroba oil using a low-energy and organic-solvent-free method. Moreover, the preliminary residual larvicidal activity of the nanoemulsion against Aedes aegypti was evaluated. Oleic and palmitic acids were the major fatty acids, in addition to the phytosterol β-sitosterol and limonoids (tetranortriterpenoids. The required hydrophile-lipophile was around 11.0 and the optimal nanoemulsion was obtained using polysorbate 85. The particle size distribution suggested the presence of small droplets (mean diameter around 150 nm and low polydispersity index (around 0.150. The effect of temperature on particle size distribution revealed that no major droplet size increase occurred. The preliminary residual larvicidal assay suggested that the mortality increased as a function of time. The present study allowed achievement of a potential bioactive oil in water nanoemulsion that may be a promising controlled release system. Moreover, the ecofriendly approach involved in the preparation associated with the great bioactive potential of C. guianensis makes this nanoemulsion very promising for valorization of this Amazon raw material.

  4. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Rece...

  5. Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis; Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de residuos solidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose E.; Leao, Alcides L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], emails: evaristo@fca.unesp.br, alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Sartori, Maria M.P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], email: msartori@btu.flash.tv.br

    2009-07-01

    The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW). With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above 15% showed large increase in ash content. Therefore, the treatment that fulfilled the requirements for combustion versus ash content and mechanical resistance was of at least 15% of MSW, since the source of the ash is unidentified. Considering the net energy content, the best treatment was 25% of MSW, with 17,175 kJ kg{sup -1}. Nevertheless, it is strongly advised that further studies related to gas emissions are necessary. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the toxicity of the weathered crude oil used at the Newfoundland Offshore Burn Experiment (NOBE) and the resultant burn residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.; Li, K.; Fingas, M.

    1997-01-01

    Toxicity of the weathered crude oil Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend (ASMB) used at the Newfoundland Offshore Burn Experiment (NOBE), and the resultant burn residue was evaluated using the newly developed Environment Canada water-accomodated fraction (WAF) method and exposure protocol. Rainbow trout, three-spine stickleback and gametes of sea urchins were exposed to saltwater WAF prepared from both weathered ASMB and burn residue. Gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry headspace analysis of 28 analytes showed low levels of volatile hydrocarbons after 96 hours of exposure (except for sea urchins, in which case the test was only 20 minutes in duration). All samples were found to be not toxic to all species tested. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki, E-mail: ebitani@jaist.ac.jp [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Miyazato, Akio [Nanotechnology Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H{sub 2}O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, {sup 13}C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously.

  9. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki; Miyazato, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H 2 O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, 13 C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously

  10. The atomization and the flame structure in the combustion of residual fuel oils; La atomizacion y estructura de flama en la combustion de combustibles residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado Estandia, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    In this article a research on the combustion of heavy residual fuel oils is presented. The type of flames studied were obtained by means of the burning of sprays produced by an atomizer designed and calibrated specially for the research purpose. The flame characteristics that were analyzed are its length, its luminosity, the temperature, the distribution of the droplets size and mainly the burning regime of the droplets in the flame. The experimental techniques that were used for these studies were shadow micro-photography, suction pyrometry and of total radiation, laser diffraction, 35 mm photography, and impact push. The analysis of the experimental results, together with the results of the application of a mathematical model, permitted to establish two parameters, that quantitatively related determine the burning regime of the droplets in a flame of sprays of residual heavy fuel oil. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una investigacion sobre la combustion de combustibles residuales pesados. El tipo de flamas estudiadas se obtuvieron mediante el quemado de sprays producidos por un atomizador disenado y calibrado especialmente para el proposito de la investigacion. Las caracteristicas de flama que se analizaron son la longitud, la luminosidad, la temperatura, la distribucion de tamano de gotas y, principalmente, el regimen de quemado de gotas en la flama. Las tecnicas experimentales que se usaron para estos estudios fueron microfotografia de sombras, pirometria de succion y de radiacion total, difraccion laser, fotografia de 35 mm y empuje de impacto. El analisis de resultados experimentales, junto con los resultados de la aplicacion de un modelo matematico, permitio establecer dos parametros, que relacionados cuantitativamente, determinan el regimen de quemado de gotas en una flama de sprays de combustible residual pesado.

  11. The atomization and the flame structure in the combustion of residual fuel oils; La atomizacion y estructura de flama en la combustion de combustibles residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado Estandia, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    In this article a research on the combustion of heavy residual fuel oils is presented. The type of flames studied were obtained by means of the burning of sprays produced by an atomizer designed and calibrated specially for the research purpose. The flame characteristics that were analyzed are its length, its luminosity, the temperature, the distribution of the droplets size and mainly the burning regime of the droplets in the flame. The experimental techniques that were used for these studies were shadow micro-photography, suction pyrometry and of total radiation, laser diffraction, 35 mm photography, and impact push. The analysis of the experimental results, together with the results of the application of a mathematical model, permitted to establish two parameters, that quantitatively related determine the burning regime of the droplets in a flame of sprays of residual heavy fuel oil. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una investigacion sobre la combustion de combustibles residuales pesados. El tipo de flamas estudiadas se obtuvieron mediante el quemado de sprays producidos por un atomizador disenado y calibrado especialmente para el proposito de la investigacion. Las caracteristicas de flama que se analizaron son la longitud, la luminosidad, la temperatura, la distribucion de tamano de gotas y, principalmente, el regimen de quemado de gotas en la flama. Las tecnicas experimentales que se usaron para estos estudios fueron microfotografia de sombras, pirometria de succion y de radiacion total, difraccion laser, fotografia de 35 mm y empuje de impacto. El analisis de resultados experimentales, junto con los resultados de la aplicacion de un modelo matematico, permitio establecer dos parametros, que relacionados cuantitativamente, determinan el regimen de quemado de gotas en una flama de sprays de combustible residual pesado.

  12. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos madeireiros contendo 12% de umidade. Os parâmetros analisados para a escolha da melhor mistura, foram: análise de combustibilidade x cinzas, resistência e energia utilizável. Os briquetes com até 10% de RRSU se mostraram com baixa resistência e os acima de 15% apresentaram grande aumento no teor de cinzas; portanto, os que melhor atenderam aos requisitos combustibilidade x cinzas e resistência mecânica, foram aqueles com 15% de RRSU, pois não se conhece a procedência das cinzas. Considerando-se a energia utilizável, o briquete com 25% de RRSU é o que apresenta maior poder calorífico útil na ordem de 17.175 kJ kg-1 motivo pelo qual se indica a produção de briquetes com adição RRSU; ressalta-se, porém, a necessidade de estudos sobre a emissão de gases.The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW. With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above

  13. Pyrolysis thermocatalytic of the residues generated in the process of oil refining; Pirolise termocatalitica de residuos gerados no processo de refino de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Lima, Cicero de Souza; Araujo, Aruzza Mabel de Morais; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The pyrolysis process is a catalytic thermal defined as the degradation of waste which occurs by the action of temperature and presence of catalysts. Thus promoting disruption of the original molecular structure of a given compound by the catalytic action in an environment with little or no oxygen. Investigations have been developed in the pyrolysis due to be a promising technique, due to the application of catalytic materials. In this work, the catalyst used Al/MCM-41 was synthesized in a ratio Si / Al = 50 by the hydrothermal method. Being in this promising oil industry because of their structural characteristics. This material was characterized by XRD analysis, which was observed three major peaks typical of mesoporous materials. The analysis of the adsorption / desorption of nitrogen this material was performed to determine the textural parameters, which are peculiar to the mesoporous materials. The residue samples were characterized with a view to meet some properties such as through elemental analysis of the compounds and saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. The pyrolysis reaction system catalytic thermal residue is mounted to test the pyrolysis of residue pure and the Al-MCM-41. For both pyrolysis liquid fractions were obtained, gaseous and solid. And only the liquid fractions were characterized by chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Thus, there was an increase in the range hydrocarbons (C6-C12 and C13-C17) for products obtained from the pyrolysis catalyst. (author)

  14. Tailoring diffraction technique Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-can oiled 304 stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikin; Killen, P.; Anis, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tailoring of diffraction technique-Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates assuming the material is isotopic, the residual stress measurements using X-ray powder diffraction is just performed for a plane lying in a large angle. For anisotropic materials, the real measurements will not be represented by the methods. By Utilizing of all diffraction peaks in the observation region, tailoring diffraction technique-Rietveld analysis is able to cover the limitations. The residual stress measurement using X-ray powder diffraction tailored by Rietveld method, in a series of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates deforming; 0, 34, 84, 152, 158, 175, and 196 % reduction in thickness, have been reported. The diffraction data were analyzed by using Rietveld structure refinement method. Also, for all cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates cuplikans, the diffraction peaks are broader than the uncanailed one, indicating that the strains in these cuplikans are inhomogeneous. From an analysis of the refined peak shape parameters, the average root-mean square strain, which describes the distribution of the inhomogeneous strain field, was calculated. Finally, the average residual stresses in cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates were shown to be a combination effect of hydrostatic stresses of martensite particles and austenite matrix. The average residual stresses were evaluated from the experimentally determined average lattice strains in each phase. It was found the tensile residual stress in a cuplikan was maximum, reaching 442 MPa, for a cuplikan reducing 34% in thickness and minimum for a 196% cuplikan

  15. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  16. A Review of distribution and quantity of lingering subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2018-01-01

    Remaining lingering subsurface oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) are, at present, patchily distributed across the geologically complex and spatially extensive shorelines of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. We review and synthesize previous literature describing the causal geomorphic and physical mechanisms for persistence of oil in the intertidal subsurface sediments of these areas. We also summarize previous sampling and modeling efforts, and refine previously presented models with additional data to characterize the present-day linear and areal spatial extent, and quantity of lingering subsurface oil. In the weeks after the spill in March of 1989, approximately 17,750 t of oil were stranded along impacted shorelines, and by October of 1992, only 2% of the mass of spilled oil was estimated to remain in intertidal areas. We estimate that lingering subsurface residues, generally between 5 and 20 cm thick and sequestered below 10-20 cm of clean sediment, are present over 30 ha of intertidal area, along 11.4 km of shoreline, and represent approximately 227 t or 0.6% of the total mass of spilled oil. These residues are typically located in finer-grained sand and gravel sediments, often under an armor of cobble- or boulder-sized clasts, in areas with limited groundwater flow and porosity. Persistence of these residues is correlated with heavy initial oil loading together with localized sheltering from physical disturbance such as wave energy within the beach face. While no longer generally bioavailable and increasingly chemically weathered, present removal rates for these remaining subsurface oil residues have slowed to nearly zero. The only remaining plausible removal mechanisms will operate over time scales of decades.

  17. Assessment of bioethanol yield by S. cerevisiae grown on oil palm residues: Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Mohd Dinie Muhaimin; Mat Don, Mashitah

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm trunk (OPT) sap was utilized for growth and bioethanol production by Saccharomycescerevisiae with addition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as nutrients supplier. Maximum yield (YP/S) was attained at 0.464g bioethanol/g glucose presence in the OPT sap-POME-based media. However, OPT sap and POME are heterogeneous in properties and fermentation performance might change if it is repeated. Contribution of parametric uncertainty analysis on bioethanol fermentation performance was then assessed using Monte Carlo simulation (stochastic variable) to determine probability distributions due to fluctuation and variation of kinetic model parameters. Results showed that based on 100,000 samples tested, the yield (YP/S) ranged 0.423-0.501g/g. Sensitivity analysis was also done to evaluate the impact of each kinetic parameter on the fermentation performance. It is found that bioethanol fermentation highly depend on growth of the tested yeast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploration of a mechanism for the production of highly unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. at low temperature grown on oil crop residue based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinghan; Li, Kun; Li, Jingjing; Han, Pei; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang

    2017-11-01

    The ability of algae to produce lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids varies with strains and culture conditions. This study investigates the effect of temperature on the production of unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. grown on oil crop residue based medium. At low temperature (10°C), synthesis of lipids compromising of high contents of unsaturated fatty acids took place primarily in the early stage while protein accumulation mainly occurred in the late stage. This stepwise lipid-protein synthesis process was found to be associated with the contents of acetyl-CoA and α-KG in the algal cells. A mechanism was proposed and tested through simulation experiments which quantified the carbon flux allocation in algal cells at different cultivation stages. It is concluded that low culture temperature such as 10°C is suitable for the production of lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Construction of a predictive model for concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of crude oils using artificial neural networks and LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, José L; Guerrero, Jáder; Cabanzo, Rafael; Mejía-Ospino, E

    2012-03-01

    A predictive model to determine the concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of Colombian crude oils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) with nodes distributed in multiple layers (multilayer perceptron) is presented. ANN inputs are intensity values in the vicinity of the emission lines 300.248, 301.200 and 305.081 nm of the Ni(I), and 309.310, 310.229, and 311.070 nm of the V(II). The effects of varying number of nodes and the initial weights and biases in the ANNs were systematically explored. Average relative error of calibration/prediction (REC/REP) and average relative standard deviation (RSD) metrics were used to evaluate the performance of the ANN in the prediction of concentrations of two elements studied here. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  20. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  1. An improved crude oil atmospheric distillation process for energy integration: Part II: New approach for energy saving by use of residual heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benali, Tahar; Tondeur, Daniel; Jaubert, Jean Noël

    2012-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, it was shown on thermodynamic grounds that introducing a flash in the preheating train of an atmospheric oil distillation process, together with an appropriate introduction of the resulting vapour into the column, could potentially bring substantial energy savings, by reducing the duty of the preheating furnace, by doing some pre-fractionation and by reducing the column irreversibilities. Part II expands on this idea by showing how this can be done while keeping the throughput and the product characteristics unchanged. The outcome is that placing several flashes after the heat exchangers and feeding the corresponding vapour streams to the appropriate trays of the column reduces the pumparound flows and the heat brought to the preheating train. The resulting heat deficit may then be compensated in an additional heat exchanger by using low level heat recuperated from the products of the distillation and/or imported from other processes. The use of this residual heat reduces the furnace duty by approximately an equivalent amount. Thus high level energy (fuel-gas burnt in the furnace) is replaced by residual low level heat. The simulation with an example flowsheet shows that the savings on fuel could be as high as 21%. - Highlights: ► Flash installation in the preheating train of the crude oil distillation process. ► Pumparound streams and heat sent to the preheating train are reduced. ► A high level heat deficit is induced and replaced by low level heat. ► Considerable energy savings and greenhouse gas emissions are achieved.

  2. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery.

  3. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, So Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery. PMID:28154606

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Joint verification research on use for power generation of Omani superhigh-viscosity crude oil remaining unexploited; 1999 nendo Oman koku ni okeru miriyo chokonensei gen'yu no denryoku riyo ni kansuru kyodo jissho kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A Mukhaizna oil field remains to be exploited in Oman, with an estimated reserve of 2.4-billion barrels of very heavy oil with an API (American Petroleum Institute) specific gravity of 15.3. The viscosity of the oil is so high as to be over 100-thousand cP (at 15 degrees C). The extremely high viscosity causes its exploitable rate to be so low as 3%, and makes shipment by pipeline quite difficult. In this survey, a method using water emulsion is proposed for viscosity reduction, which aims to reduce the Mukhaizna crude oil viscosity to 200mm2/s or less. In an experiment using the water emulsion method, oil is mixed with water at a rate of 72 to 28 in a shearing mixer for the production of a water emulsion of crude oil. It is found that a certain degree of stability is acquired using a surface active agent available on the market. Using this emulsion method, the crude oil is converted into a power generator fuel with a heating value of 6,775kcal/kg. The crude oil-turned product is a fine fuel superior to Orimulsion which is a fuel of the same type in terms of viscosity, amount of ash, and vanadium concentration. (NEDO)

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Joint verification research on use for power generation of Omani superhigh-viscosity crude oil remaining unexploited; 1999 nendo Oman koku ni okeru miriyo chokonensei gen'yu no denryoku riyo ni kansuru kyodo jissho kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A Mukhaizna oil field remains to be exploited in Oman, with an estimated reserve of 2.4-billion barrels of very heavy oil with an API (American Petroleum Institute) specific gravity of 15.3. The viscosity of the oil is so high as to be over 100-thousand cP (at 15 degrees C). The extremely high viscosity causes its exploitable rate to be so low as 3%, and makes shipment by pipeline quite difficult. In this survey, a method using water emulsion is proposed for viscosity reduction, which aims to reduce the Mukhaizna crude oil viscosity to 200mm2/s or less. In an experiment using the water emulsion method, oil is mixed with water at a rate of 72 to 28 in a shearing mixer for the production of a water emulsion of crude oil. It is found that a certain degree of stability is acquired using a surface active agent available on the market. Using this emulsion method, the crude oil is converted into a power generator fuel with a heating value of 6,775kcal/kg. The crude oil-turned product is a fine fuel superior to Orimulsion which is a fuel of the same type in terms of viscosity, amount of ash, and vanadium concentration. (NEDO)

  6. Total sulfur determination in residues of crude oil distillation using FT-IR/ATR and variable selection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Aline Lima Hermes; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Mello, Paola de Azevedo; Ferrão, Marco Flores; dos Santos, Maria de Fátima Pereira; Guimarães, Regina Célia Lourenço; Müller, Edson Irineu; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Total sulfur concentration was determined in atmospheric residue (AR) and vacuum residue (VR) samples obtained from petroleum distillation process by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR/ATR) in association with chemometric methods. Calibration and prediction set consisted of 40 and 20 samples, respectively. Calibration models were developed using two variable selection models: interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS). Different treatments and pre-processing steps were also evaluated for the development of models. The pre-treatment based on multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and the mean centered data were selected for models construction. The use of siPLS as variable selection method provided a model with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values significantly better than those obtained by PLS model using all variables. The best model was obtained using siPLS algorithm with spectra divided in 20 intervals and combinations of 3 intervals (911-824, 823-736 and 737-650 cm-1). This model produced a RMSECV of 400 mg kg-1 S and RMSEP of 420 mg kg-1 S, showing a correlation coefficient of 0.990.

  7. A multiple hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction method for the determination of halogenated solvent residues in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, J; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L; González, A G

    2014-02-01

    The present paper describes a method based on the extraction of analytes by multiple hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction and detection by ion-trap mass spectrometry and electron capture detectors after gas chromatographic separation. The limits of detection are in the range of 0.13-0.67 μg kg(-1), five orders of magnitude lower than those reached with the European Commission Official method of analysis, with three orders of magnitude of linear range (from the quantification limits to 400 μg kg(-1) for all the analytes) and recoveries in fortified olive oils in the range of 78-104 %. The main advantages of the analytical method are the absence of sample carryover (due to the disposable nature of the membranes), high enrichment factors in the range of 79-488, high throughput and low cost. The repeatability of the analytical method ranged from 8 to 15 % for all the analytes, showing a good performance.

  8. Separating cresote from tars, mineral oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, E

    1921-01-07

    Phenolic bodies are extracted from tars such as lignite, shale, peat, coal, producer and low temperature tars, and from tar distillates and residues and from mineral oils and distillates by washing with a mixture of acetone and water. Acetone extracts of the tars etc., may be mixed with water or aqueous acetone to cause the separation of the oils, while the creosote remains in solution.

  9. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from oil-extracted microalgae residues via two-step H2/CH4 or H2/butanol anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Shu-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Algae-based biodiesel is considered a promising alternative energy; therefore, the treatment of microalgae residues would be necessary. Anaerobic processes can be used for treating oil-extracted microalgae residues (OMR) and at the same time for recovering bioenergy. In this study, anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of recovering bioenergy, in the forms of butanol, H2, or CH4, from pretreated OMR. Using pretreated OMR as the only substrate, a butanol yield of 0.086 g/g-carbohydrate was obtained at carbohydrate of 40 g/L. With supplemented butyrate, a highest butanol yield of 0.192 g/g-carbohydrate was achieved at pretreated OMR containing 25 g/L of carbohydrate with 15 g/L of butyrate addition, attaining the highest energy yield of 3.92 kJ/g-OMR and energy generation rate of 0.65 kJ/g-OMR/d. CH4 production from pretreated OMR attained an energy yield of 8.83 kJ/g-OMR, but energy generation rate required further improvement. H2 production alone from pretreated OMR might not be attractive regarding energy yield, but it attained a superb energy generation rate of 0.68 kJ/g-OMR/d by combining H2 production from pretreated OMR and butanol production from pretreated OMR with supplementary butyrate from H2 fermentation supernatant. This study demonstrated an integrated system as an option for treating OMR and recovering bioenergy. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effects of inoculum source and co-digestion strategies on anaerobic digestion of residues generated in the treatment of waste vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Dolores; Martín-Marroquín, Jesús M

    2014-09-01

    This work aims at selecting a suitable strategy to improve the performance of the anaerobic digestion of residues generated in the treatment of waste vegetable oils (WVO). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were conducted at 35 °C to evaluate the effects of substrate mix ratio between a mixture of WVO residues (M) and pig manure (PM) co-digesting by using different inocula. Inoculum from an industrial digester fed with organic waste from hotels, restaurants and catering leftovers (HORECA) showed higher methanogenic activity (55.5 mLCH4 gVS(-1) d(-1)) than municipal wastewater treatment plant (mWWTP) inoculum (42.6 mL CH4 gVS(-1) d(-1)). Furthermore, the results showed that the resistance to WVO residues toxicity was higher for the HORECA sludge than for the mWWTP sludge. HORECA inoculum produced more biogas in all the assays. Moreover, the resulting biogas was of better quality, containing an average of 71.1% (SD = 1.6) methane compared to an average of 69.5% (SD = 1.2) methane for test with mWWTP sludge. The maximum degradation rate occurred at the higher PM mix ratio (M/PM:1/3), reaching 26.7 ± 4.3 mLCH4 gVS(-1) d(-1) for mWWTP inoculum, versus 42.0 ± 1,5 mLCH4 gVS(-1) d(-1) achieved for HORECA inoculum. A high reduction of volatile solids (between 70% and 81%) was obtained with both inocula at all M/PM ratios assayed (1/0, 1/3, 1/1 and 3/1 v/v) but, bearing in mind the operation of a full-scale anaerobic plant, the optimal scenario assayed corresponds to the ratio M/PM: 1/3 v/v where shorter lag periods will make it possible to operate at lower hydraulic retention times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation of a novel carbon-based solid acid from cassava stillage residue and its use for the esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingtao; Dong, Xiuqin; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Zhang, Minhua

    2014-04-01

    A novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of incompletely carbonized cassava stillage residue (CSR) with concentrated sulfuric acid, and employed to catalyze the esterification of methanol and free fatty acids (FFAs) in waste cooking oil (WCO). The effects of the carbonization and the sulfonation temperatures on the pore structure, acid density and catalytic activity of the CSR-derived catalysts were systematically investigated. Low temperature carbonization and high temperature sulfonation can cause the collapse of the carbon framework, while high temperature carbonization is not conducive to the attachment of SO3H groups on the surface. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity for esterification, and the acid value for WCO is reduced to below 2mg KOH/g after reaction. The activity of catalyst can be well maintained after five cycles. CSR can be considered a promising raw material for the production of a new eco-friendly solid acid catalyst. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Residue determination and levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with oil palm plantation in Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ismail, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    Levels of glyphosate and its main metabolite were determined in surface water, soil and sediment samples from an oil palm plantation area located at Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia. The optimization analytical method has been developed for the determination of glyphosate herbicide and its metabolite amino-methyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA) in surface waters to a level of 0.1μg/L, while in sediments and soils to a level of 0.5μg/g with a good linearity in the calibration range of 1-100μg/L. The procedure involves a pre-columnderivatization step with 9-fluorenyl-methyl-chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) yielding highly fluorescent derivatives of the analytes which can be determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. In the field, levels of glyphosate in surface waters ranges from not detected to 1.0mg/L, while in soils and sediments were from not detected to 6.0mg/kg. For AMPA, the residues in surface waters were between not detected to 2.0mg/L, while in soil and sediment samples were from not detected to 5mg/kg. This variation of glyphosate and AMPA levels depended directly on time of pesticide application and the season.

  13. Residual oil fly ash induces cytotoxicity and mucin secretion by guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells via an oxidant-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, N; Dreher, K L; Dye, J A; Li, Y; Richards, J H; Martin, L D; Adler, K B

    2000-03-15

    Inhalation of ambient air particulate matter (PM) is associated with pulmonary injury and inflammation. Using primary cultures of guinea pig tracheal epithelial (GPTE) cells as an in vitro model of airway epithelium, we examined effects of exposure to suspensions of six different emission and ambient air PM samples: residual oil fly ash (ROFA) from an electrical power plant; fly ash from a domestic oil burning furnace (DOFA); ambient air dust from St. Louis (STL), Ottawa (OT), and Washington, DC (WDC); and volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Saint Helens (MSH) in 1980. Effects of these particulates on cell viability (assessed via LDH assay), secretion of mucin (measured by a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA), and steady-state mRNA levels of the mucin gene MUC2 were determined. ROFA was the most toxic of the dusts tested, as it significantly increased LDH release following a 24-h incubation with 50 microg/cm(2) ROFA. ROFA also enhanced MUC2 mRNA after 4-h exposure, and mucin secretion after 8 h. ROFA-induced mucin secretion and cytotoxicity were attenuated by the oxidant scavenger, dimethylthiourea (DMTU). ROFA exposure also depleted cells of glutathione (GSH). Relatedly, depletion of intracellular GSH by treatment of the cells with buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO) also provoked mucin secretion, as well as enhancing the secretory effect of ROFA when the two agents were added together. L-NMA, the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, did not affect ROFA-induced mucin secretion. Of the soluble transition metals in ROFA (nickel, iron, vanadium), only vanadium individually, or combinations of the metals containing vanadium, provoked secretion. The results suggest ROFA enhances mucin secretion and generates toxicity in vitro to airway epithelium via a mechanism(s) involving generation of oxidant stress, perhaps related to depletion of cellular antioxidant capacity. Deleterious effects of inhalation of ROFA in the respiratory tract in vivo may relate to these cellular

  14. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodemetallization of different origin vacuum residues : new modeling approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira , Cristina; Tayakout-Fayolle , Melaz; Guibard , Isabelle; Lemos , Francisco

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In order to be able to upgrade the heaviest part of the crude oil one needs to remove several impurities, such as sulfur or metals. Residue hydrotreatment in fixed beds, under high hydrogen pressure can achieve high removal performances, with an industrial catalysts optimized staging. Despite the recent improvements, petroleum residues remain very difficult to describe and characterize in detail. Several kinetic models have been developed, but mostly they are feed depe...

  15. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  16. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Surfactant Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandersen, Sara Bülow

    , thus reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) to ultra low (0.001 mN/m), which consequently will mobilize the residual oil and result in improved oil recovery. This EOR technology is, however, made challenging by a number of factors, such as the adsorption of surfactant and co-surfactant to the rock...... be resistant to and remain active at reservoir conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and salinities. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of systems that exhibit liquid-liquid equilibrium (e.g. oil-brine systems) at reservoir conditions is an area of increasing interest within EOR. This is true...... studied. The effect of increased pressure became more significant when combined with increasing temperature. The experiments performed on the oil/ seawater systems were similar to the high pressure experiments for the surfactant system discussed above. Oil was contacted with different brine solutions...

  17. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, Deborah R. [CESyMA, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Silvia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Evelson, Pablo, E-mail: pevelson@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  18. Dewatering Behaviour of Fine Oil Sands Tailings : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Oil sands tailings are a warm aqueous suspension of sand, silt, clay, residual bitumen and naphtha. The tailings are hydraulically transported and stored in tailing ponds where they segregate, with the sand settling from suspension forming beaches and the remaining tailings flowing to the middle of

  19. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 2. Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: residual oil determination; thermal methods; heavy oil-tar sands; technology transfer; and carbon dioxide flooding. Individual papers were processed.

  20. Study on distribution of reservoir endogenous microbe and oil displacement mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to research oil displacement mechanism by indigenous microbial communities under reservoir conditions, indigenous microbial flooding experiments using the endogenous mixed bacterium from Shengli Oilfield were carried out. Through microscopic simulation visual model, observation and analysis of distribution and flow of the remaining oil in the process of water flooding and microbial oil displacement were conducted under high temperature and high pressure conditions. Research has shown that compared with atmospheric conditions, the growth of the microorganism metabolism and attenuation is slowly under high pressure conditions, and the existence of the porous medium for microbial provides good adhesion, also makes its growth cycle extension. The microbial activities can effectively launch all kinds of residual oil, and can together with metabolites, enter the blind holes off which water flooding, polymer flooding and gas flooding can’t sweep, then swap out remaining oil, increase liquidity of the crude oil and remarkably improve oil displacement effect.

  1. Fate of oil determinations under Arctic conditions: The Komi Pipeline oil spill experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, R.J.; Hansen, O.

    1995-01-01

    The rationale developed by a United Nations team to estimate the fate and transport of spilled oil remaining on the ground in the Pechora River basin in Russia following the Komi Pipeline spill disaster, was presented. The team consisted of experts from Norway, Canada, the United States and the European Union. Detailed background of the spill event, petroleum industry setting, geographic setting and hydrology of the regions was presented. Nine contaminated sites were identified. A worst case scenario was developed for the fate of the spilled oil. It was estimated that 93 000 - 97 000 tonnes of oil remained on the ground. Further pollution of the environment outside of Russia was considered unlikely under the circumstances, but petroleum contamination of the drinking water, tar balls and residual oil were expected to continue to persist in the affected area for many months. The UN team concluded that chronic pollution posed a significant threat to the region's natural resources. 4 refs., 3 figs

  2. Propoxur (2-iso propoxy-phenyl-N-methylcarbamate) residues in cocoa beans. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, feed, oil and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1982-05-01

    Pod-bearing Amazon and Amelonado cocoa plants were sprayed with Unden 20% (propoxur, arprocarb, baygon) at the recommended rate of 210 g a.i./ha and twice the recommended rate at monthly intervals from July to October 1976, and cured beans from the ripe pods analysed for propoxur residues by gas chromatography. In a radiotracer study with 14 C-labelled propoxur, the effect of processing methods on residues and systemic uptake of propoxur from insecticide deposits on pod surfaces were also investigated. Residues did not exceed 0.03 mg/kg. There was no relationship between residues and harvesting time, cocoa type or rate of application. Contamination of beans with insecticide deposits on the pod surface during processing, and systemic uptake of insecticide from pod surfaces were negligible. Experiments were also designed to provide data on 14 C-propoxur residues in cocoa beans, uptake of the chemical from pod surfaces and persistence on the leaves and in the soil. Leaves were picked from the lowest five branches of the cocoa trees, 13 months after the application of 14 C-propoxur, dried at 80 0 for 4 days, stored and analysed for their 14 C-activity. Soil samples were collected at 15 cm and 30 cm distances from the trunk base of treated trees, dried, stored and analysed. The analytical procedure involved extraction and clean-up steps after a standard method using acetone, chloroform and a coagulating agent. Propoxur residues in cocoa leaves collected 13 months after the insecticide application ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg. Residues in shells from cocoa pods treated with 14 C-propoxur 2 months prior to harvest did not exceed 0.02 mg/kg. Propoxur residues in soil samples collected at 6, 16, and 19 months following application ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg. These low levels are probably related to volatilization and heavy rains. Possible binding to soil cannot be precluded. The low levels of propoxur are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to humans

  3. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  4. Carbaryl residues in maize and processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Sattar, A. Jr.; Naqvi, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Carbaryl residues in two local maize varieties were determined using a colorimetric method. No significant differences were observed for residues of the two varieties which ranged between 12.0 to 13.75 mg/kg in the crude oil, and averaged 1.04 and 0.67 mg/kg in the flour and cake respectively. In whole maize plants, carbaryl residues declined to approximately 2 mg/kg 35 days after treatment. Cooking in aqueous, oil or aqueous-oil media led to 63-83% loss of carbaryl residues, after 30 minutes. (author)

  5. Industry remains stuck in a transitional mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garb, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    The near future for industry remains foggy for several obvious reasons. The shake-up of the Soviet Union and how the pieces will reform remains unclear. How successful efforts are to privatize government oil company operations around the world has yet to be determined. A long sought peace in the Middle East seems to be inching closer, but will this continue? If it does continue, what impact will it have on world energy policy? Will American companies, which are now transferring their attention to foreign E and P, also maintain an interest in domestic activities? Is the U.S. economy really on the upswing? We are told that the worst of the recession is over, but try telling this to thousands of workers in the oil patch who are being released monthly by the big players in domestic operations. This paper reports that 1992 should be a better year than 1991, if measured in opportunity. There are more exploration and acquisition options available, both domestically and internationally, than there have been in years. Probably more opportunities exist than there are players-certainly more than can be funded with current financial resources

  6. 稀碱预处理棕榈残渣制备纤维乙醇%Pretreatment of oil palm residues by dilute alkali for cellulosic ethanol production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 周玉杰; 李晋平; 戴玲妹; 刘德华; 张建安; Yuen May Choo; Soh Kheang Loh

    2013-01-01

    In the study, we used oil palm residues (empty fruit bunch, EFB) as raw material to produce cellulosic ethanol by pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Firstly, the pretreatment of EFB with alkali, alkali/hydrogen peroxide and the effects on the components and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose were studied. The results show that dilute alkali was the suitable pretreatment method and the conditions were first to soak the substrate with 1% sodium hydroxide with a solid-liquid ratio of 1:10 at 40 ℃ for 24 h, and then subjected to 121 ℃ for 30 min. Under the conditions, EFB solid recovery was 74.09%, and glucan, xylan and lignin content were 44.08%, 25.74% and 13.89%, respectively. After separated with alkali solution, the pretreated EFB was washed and hydrolyzed for 72 h with 5% substrate concentration and 30 FPU/g dry mass (DM) enzyme loading, and the conversion of glucan and xylan reached 84.44% and 89.28%, respectively. We further investigated the effects of substrate concentration and enzyme loading on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The results show that when enzyme loading was 30 FPU/g DM and substrate concentration was increased from 5% to 25%, ethanol concentration were 9.76 g/L and 35.25 g/L after 72 h fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (inoculum size 5%, V/V), which was 79.09% and 56.96% of ethanol theory yield.%以棕榈残渣(Empty fruit bunch,EFB)为原料,通过预处理、酶解、发酵等过程制备纤维乙醇.首先对比了碱、碱/过氧化氢等预处理条件对棕榈残渣组成及酶解的影响,结果表明稀碱预处理效果较好.适宜的稀碱预处理条件为:NaOH浓度为1%,固液比为1∶10,在40℃浸泡24 h后于121℃下保温30 min,在该条件下,EFB的固体回收率为74.09%,纤维素、半纤维素和木质素的含量分别为44.08%、25.74%和13.89%.对该条件下预处理后的固体样品,以底物浓度5

  7. A Promising Material by Using Residue Waste from Bisphenol A Manufacturing to Prepare Fluid-Loss-Control Additive in Oil Well Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The residues mixture from Bisphenol A manufacturing process was analyzed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were used to characterize the residues. The results indicated that the residues were complex mixture of several molecules. 3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl-1,1,3-trimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-ol and phenol were the main components of the residues. The technical feasibility of using it as phenol replacement in fluid-loss-control additive production was also investigated. The fluid-loss-control capacity of the novel additive was systematically investigated. It was discovered that the well fluid-loss performance of the prepared additive can be achieved, especially at high temperature.

  8. The oil market towards 2030 - can OPEC combine high oil price with high market share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Glomsroed, Solveig; Lindholt, Lars; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine within a partial equilibrium model for the oil market whether OPEC can combine high oil prices with a high market share. The oil market model explicitly accounts for reserves, development and production in 4 field categories across 13 regions. Oil companies may invest in new field development or alternatively on improved oil recovery in the decline phase of fields in production. Non-OPEC production is profit-driven, whereas OPEC meets the residual call for OPEC oil at a pre-specified oil price, while maintaining a surplus capacity. The model is run over a range of exogenous oil prices from 15 to 60 $ per barrel. Sustained high oil prices stimulate Non-OPEC production, but its remaining reserves gradually diminish despite new discoveries. Oil demand is only slightly affected by higher prices. Thus, OPEC is able to keep and eventually increase its current market share beyond 2010 even with oil prices around $30 per barrel. In fact, the model simulations indicate that an oil price around $40 is profitable for OPEC, even in the long term. Sensitivity analyses show that the most profitable price level for OPEC is generally above $35 per barrel. Even with several factors working jointly in OPEC's disfavour, the oil price seems to stick to the 30 $ level. Thus, for OPEC there is a trade-off between high prices and high market share in the short to medium term, but not in the long term. For OECD countries, on the other hand, there is a clear trade-off between low oil prices and low import dependence. (Author)

  9. Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of bamboo residual and waste lubricating oil over an ex-situ dual catalytic beds of MgO and HZSM-5: Analytical PY-GC/MS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia; Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Ding, Kuan; Deng, Aidong; Min, Min; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Catalytic co-pyrolysis of bamboo residual and waste lubricating oil was conducted. • MgO was beneficial to deacidification via ketonization and aldol condensation. • Dual catalytic bed system exhibited prominent deoxygenation and aromatization. • A HZSM-5/MgO mass ratio of 3:2 largely increased the yield of aromatics. • Waste lubricating oil leads hydrocarbon pool towards the formation of hydrocarbons. - Abstract: Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis (co-CFP) of bamboo residual (BR) and waste lubricating oil (WLO) over dual catalytic beds of MgO and HZSM-5 were carried out in an analytical PY-GC/MS. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst types, HZSM-5/MgO mass ratio and WLO percentage on products distribution and selectivities of aromatics were investigated. Experimental results revealed that 600 °C promoted the total peak area of volatile matters and accelerated the yields of furans and phenols. Compared to HZSM-5, MgO exhibited pronounced deacidification via ketonization and aldol condensation reactions as the minimum yield of acids (2.116%) and the maximum yield of ketones (28.805%) could be obtained. Furthermore, given the selectivity of phenols, MgO not only spurred the increase of overall phenols yield, but also facilitated the selectivity of light phenols like phenol and 4-methyl-phenol. With respect to the co-CFP of BR and WLO, a HZSM-5/MgO mass ratio of 3:2 largely accelerated the yield of aromatics via Diels-Alder reaction. Simultaneously, the WLO percentage played a vital role in the yield of hydrocarbons (i.e. aromatics + olefins & alkanes), and the maximum yield (70.305%) could be attained at the percentage of 60% as a function of significant activation of hydrocarbon pool.

  10. Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, A.L.

    1980-08-15

    The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

  11. Carbaryl residues in cottonseed products in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    Residues of carbaryl in cottonseed products were determined by spectrophotometry. Carbaryl residues in oil and cake were 0.83 and 0.04 mg/kg respectively. Parallel experiments with 14 C-carbaryl gave comparable results. 14 C-carbaryl residues in oil and cake were 0.42 and 0.15 mg/kg respectively. (author)

  12. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass and Algal Residues via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, T. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Beginning in 2010, UOP, along with the Department of Energy and other project partners, designed a pathway for an integrated biorefinery to process solid biomass into transportation fuel blendstocks. The integrated biorefinery (IBR) would convert second generation feedstocks into pyrolysis oil which would then be upgraded into fuel blendstocks without the limitations of traditional biofuels.

  13. Oxidizing oils, etc. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penniman, W B.D.

    1926-03-02

    The oxidation of crude petroleum and its distillates, shale oils and tars, waxes, sludges, petroleum residues, asphaltic oils, asphalt, malthas, cracked oils and residues from cracking stills, wood tar oils and wood tar, peat and lignite distillates, coal tar oils and coal tar, and oils containing powdered coal, coke or peat, sulphur in suspension, is effected by passing air or other oxygen-containig gas through a layer of the material of a depth sufficient substantially to deoxygenate the air, the pressure being at or below atmospheric pressure.

  14. Technological alternatives for the handling of high viscosity heavy crude oil and of petroleum residuals; Alternativas tecnologicas para el manejo de crudos pesados de alta viscosidad y residuales de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez S, Ramon; Peralta M, Maria Vita; Gonzalez Santalo, Jose M; Herrera V, J Ramon; Arriola M, Alejandro M; Manzanares P, Emilio; Romo M, Cesar A; Palacios L, Elvia M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the technological capacity that, through the years, has been developed in emulsions of heavy oil in water preparations, as well as the potential application that this technology has in the electrical sector and the problem reduction during the extraction and handling of high viscosity heavy oils. Within this technological development it first appears the process for the formation of emulsions of residual petroleum within lots, followed by the preparation of emulsions in a continuous way within a laboratory model, and finally the production in greater scale in a pilot plant, including more and more adequate tense-actives for the formation of emulsions. Also experimental systems are presented to execute static stability and dynamic tests in different conditions, pumping tests for the handling of these emulsions and burning tests for their combustion. All of this with the purpose of consolidating the technology of residual petroleum emulsions as a profitable alternative that replaces the heavy fuel oil and to solve specific problems of the oil industry, among other benefits. [Spanish] Este trabajo exhibe la capacidad tecnologica que, a traves de los anos, se ha desarrollado en la preparacion de emulsiones de aceites pesados en agua; asi como el potencial de aplicacion que tiene dicha tecnologia en el sector electrico y la reduccion de problemas durante la extraccion y manejo de aceites pesados de alta viscosidad. Dentro de este desarrollo tecnologico figura primero el proceso para la formacion de emulsiones de residuales de petroleo dentro de lotes, seguido por la preparacion de emulsiones en continuo dentro de un laboratorio modelo, y finalmente la produccion a mayor escala en una planta piloto, incluyendo cada vez mas adecuados tenso-activos para la formacion de las emulsiones. Tambien se presentan sistemas experimentales para ejecutar pruebas de estabilidad estatica y dinamica en diferentes condiciones, pruebas de bombeo para el manejo de estas

  15. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  16. ASEAN grid-connected biomass residues fired cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, M.F.; Alias, R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy supply is one of the major concerns in the world. With uncertainty in the main oil suppliers, the oil price is expected to remain high due to continuous demand from the world. Since oil is mostly used for electricity and transportation, its shortage would cause major disruptions in our daily activities. Thus to counter this scenario and faster depletion of fossil fuel resources, various measures have been taken to find alternative source of energy such as renewable energy. One of the renewable energy sources is from biomass residues which is aplenty particularly in ASEAN. Through one of the collaboration programme between ASEAN and EC which is The EC-ASEAN Cogeneration Programme, a number of Full-Scale Demonstration Projects (FSDP) using biomass residues have been commissioned and implemented successfully. Four of the FSDPs in Thailand and Malaysia are connected to the grid. These projects have been operating very well and since the fuel is commonly available in this ASEAN region, duplication should not be a problem. Thus, this paper would highlight the success stories in implementing biomass residues grid connected project while enhancing cooperation between ASEAN and EC. (Author)

  17. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  18. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    installed. What to do at this limit, at the transgressive encounter between saying yes and no to history, remains the challenge. It is the very challenge of what insistently remains.

  19. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  20. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  1. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  2. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  3. La conversion des résidus et huiles lourdes : au carrefour du thermique et du catalytique Conversion of Residues and Heavy Oils At the Crossroads of Thermal Cracking and Catalytic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Page J. F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les diverses familles de procédés de conversion des résidus et huiles lourdes. Tous les résultats semblent converger pour accréditer l'idée que dans tous ces procédés, y compris les procédés dits catalytiques, l'essentiel de la conversion des espèces de poids moléculaire élevé, résines et asphaltènes, procède par mécanisme radicalaire : la clef de la conversion profonde, c'est paradoxalement la maîtrise de la condensation radicalaire de ces espèces. Hydrogène seul, hydrogène en présence de solvant donneur, d'additifs ou encore mieux de catalyseurs, sont les armes dont dispose tout raffineur pour affirmer cette maîtrise, dans la mesure où il ne tient pas à fabriquer du coke. Tous ces procédés de conversion des résidus donnent par ailleurs naissance à des produits craqués dont la nature et la distribution rappellent celles des produits de première distillation du pétrole brut dont est issu le résidu soumis au craquage. This article reviews the different families of conversion processes for residues and heavy oils. All the results seem to converge to support the idea that in all these processes, including so-called catalytic processes, most of the conversion of high-molecular-weight species (resins and asphaltenes operates by a radical mechanism. The key to in-depth conversion is, paradoxically, the mastery of the radical condensation of these species. Hydrogen alone, hydrogen in the presence of a donor solvent, of additives or, better yet, of catalysts, are the arms at the disposal of all refiners to assert this mastery, to the extent that they do not want to manufacture coke. All such conversion processes for residues also give rise to cracked products whose nature and distribution recall those of first-distillation products of crude oil, from which the residue comes that is subjected to cracking.

  4. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  5. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  6. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2004-01-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  7. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  8. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Hamidreza

    2011-04-15

    Primary oil recovery by reservoir pressure depletion and secondary oil recovery by waterflooding usually result in poor displacement efficiency. As a consequence there is always some trapped oil remaining in oil reservoirs. Oil entrapment is a result of complex interactions between viscous, gravity and capillary forces. Improving recovery from hydrocarbon fields typically involves altering the relative importance of the viscous and capillary forces. The potential of many EOR methods depends on their influence on fluid/rock interactions related to wettability and fluid/fluid interactions reflected in IFT. If the method has the potential to change the interactions favorably, it may be considered for further investigation, i.e. core flooding experiment, pilot and reservoir implementation. Enzyme-proteins can be introduced as an enhanced oil recovery method to improve waterflood performance by affecting interactions at the oil-water-rock interfaces. An important part of this thesis was to investigate how selected enzymes may influence wettability and capillary forces in a crude oil-brine-rock system, and thus possibly contribute to enhanced oil recovery. To investigate further by which mechanisms selected enzyme-proteins may contribute to enhance oil recovery, groups of enzymes with different properties and catalytic functions, known to be interfacially active, were chosen to cover a wide range of possible effects. These groups include (1) Greenzyme (GZ) which is a commercial EOR enzyme and consists of enzymes and stabilizers (surfactants), (2) The Zonase group consists of two types of pure enzyme, Zonase1 and Zonase2 which are protease enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze (breakdown) peptide bonds, (3) The Novozyme (NZ) group consists of three types of pure enzyme, NZ2, NZ3 and NZ6 which are esterase enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze ester bonds, and (4) Alpha-Lactalbumin ( -La) which is an important whey protein. The effect of

  9. Two schemes for production of biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01: Applying residues from soybean oil industry and silica sol-gel immobilized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri Lotfabad, Tayebe; Ebadipour, Negisa; Roostaazad, Reza; Partovi, Maryam; Bahmaei, Manochehr

    2017-04-01

    Rhamnolipids are the most common biosurfactants and P. aeruginosa strains are the most frequently studied microorganisms for the production of rhamnolipids. Eco-friendly advantages and promising applications of rhamnolipids in various industries are the major reasons for pursuing the economic production of these biosurfactants. This study shows that cultivation of P. aeruginosa MR01 in medium contained inexpensive soybean oil refinery wastes which exhibited similar levels and homologues of rhamnolipids. Mass spectrometry indicated that the Rha-C10-C10 and Rha-Rha-C10-C10 constitute the main rhamnolipids in different cultures of MR01 including one of oil carbon source analogues. Moreover, rhamnolipid mixtures extracted from different cultures showed critical micelle concentrations (CMC) in the range of ≃24 to ≃36mg/l with capability to reduce the surface tension of aqueous solution from 72 to ≃27-32mN/m. However, the sol-gel technique using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a gentler method in order to entrap the P. aeruginosa MR01 cells in mold silica gels. Immobilized cells can be utilized several times in consecutive fermentation batches as well as in flow fermentation processes. In this way, reusability of the cells may lead to a more economical fermentation process. Approximately 90% of cell viability was retained during the silica sol-gel immobilization and ≃84% of viability of immobilized cells was preserved for 365days of immobilization and storage of the cells in phosphate buffer at 4°C and 25°C. Moreover, mold gels showed good mechanical stability during the seven successive fermentation batches and the entrapped cells were able to efficiently preserve their biosurfactant-producing potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Studies on crude oil removal from pebbles by the application of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wen-xiang; Xia, Yan; Li, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Dan-feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-02-15

    Oil residues along shorelines are hard to remove after an oil spill. The effect of biodiesel to eliminate crude oil from pebbles alone and in combination with petroleum degrading bacteria was investigated in simulated systems. Adding biodiesel made oil detach from pebbles and formed oil-biodiesel mixtures, most of which remained on top of seawater. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal efficiency increased with biodiesel quantities but the magnitude of augment decreased gradually. When used with petroleum degrading bacteria, the addition of biodiesel (BD), nutrients (NUT) and BD+NUT increased the dehydrogenase activity and decreased the biodegradation half lives. When BD and NUT were replenished at the same time, the TPH removal efficiency was 7.4% higher compared to the total improvement of efficiency when BD and NUT was added separately, indicating an additive effect of biodiesel and nutrients on oil biodegradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oil spill cleanup in severe weather and open ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, T.

    1993-01-01

    Most serious oil spills occur in open water under severe weather conditions. At first the oil stays on the surface, where it is spread by winds and water currents. The action of the waves then mixes the oil into the water column. With time the light elements of crude oil evaporate. The remaining residue is of very low commercial value, but of significant environmental impact. The oil spill can move either out to sea or inshore, where it ends up on the beaches. Normal procedures are to let outbound oil disperse by evaporation and mixing into the water column, and to let the inbound oil collect on the beaches, where the cleanup operations are concentrated. The reason for this is that there is no capability to clean the surface of the water in wave conditions-present-day oil skimmers are ineffective in waves approaching 4 ft in height. It would be simpler, more effective and environmentally more beneficial to skim the oil right at the spill location. This paper describes a method to do this. In the case of an oil spill in open water and high wave conditions, it is proposed to reduce the height of the ocean waves by the use of floating breakwaters to provide a relatively calm area. In such protected areas existing oil skimmers can be used to recover valuable oil and clean up the spill long before it hits the beaches. A floating breakwater developed at the University of Rhode Island by the author can be of great benefit in oil spill cleanup for open ocean conditions. This breakwater is constructed from scrap automobile tires. It is built in units of 20 tires each, which are easily transportable and can be connected together at the spill site to form any desired configuration

  14. Simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and antioxidants in blended oil using a liquid-liquid extraction combined with dispersive solid phase extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Tian, Wen; Pei, Fei; Li, Peng; Shao, XiaoLong; Fan, Yan; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-08-15

    This article developed a method to detect two antioxidants (butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT)) and twelve pesticides (dichlorvos, pirimicarb, prothiofos, fenitrothion, ethoprophos, malathion, beta-Cypermethrin, profenofos, diazinon, propoxur, procymidon, captan) in blended oil samples after their extraction simultaneously. The establishment of the method was based on two-step process of screening and optimization experiment design. With a Plackett-Burman (PB) design, significant parameters were found by screening experiment and single factor experiment accompanied by a central composite design (CCD) experiment were used to make important parameters optimal. The coefficients of determination (r 2 ) was between 0.9931 and 0.9996 while the limits of quantification (LOQs) and limits of detection (LODs) were found in scope of 0.002-0.04mg·kg -1 and 0.0006-0.0012mg·kg -1 . Recovery values of analytes were above 74%, at the same time the relative standard deviations (RSDs) under 10% at the concentrations ranging from 0.05mg·kg -1 to 0.20mg·kg -1 . To sum up, this method with shorter time and fewer consumption of reagents could be employed in various occasions to detect antioxidants and pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a quadrupole/linear ion trap instrument for the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, M D; Ferrer, C; Ulaszewska, M; García-Reyes, J F; Molina-Díaz, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2007-11-01

    This article describes the development of an enhanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the analysis of pesticides in olive oil. One hundred pesticides belonging to different classes and that are currently used in agriculture have been included in this method. The LC-MS method was developed using a hybrid quadrupole/linear ion trap (QqQ(LIT)) analyzer. Key features of this technique are the rapid scan acquisition times, high specificity and high sensitivity it enables when the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode or the linear ion-trap operational mode is employed. The application of 5 ms dwell times using a linearly accelerating (LINAC) high-pressure collision cell enabled the analysis of a high number of pesticides, with enough data points acquired for optimal peak definition in MRM operation mode and for satisfactory quantitative determinations to be made. The method quantifies over a linear dynamic range of LOQs (0.03-10 microg kg(-1)) up to 500 microg kg(-1). Matrix effects were evaluated by comparing the slopes of matrix-matched and solvent-based calibration curves. Weak suppression or enhancement of signals was observed (ion (EPI) and MS3 were developed.

  16. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1980-01-01

    Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin, measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to μg/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100th that of sunlight. (orig.)

  18. Oils, paintings and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Machado de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil paintings artists use oils to apply pigments. These oils firstly are liquid and then solidify in a thin film. Many chemical reactions are involved in drying and also in the aging of these oils. Drying is a continuous process that begins with the oxidation of insaturated fatty acids from triglycerides to originate peroxides. These compounds suffer a cascade of reactions that lead to cross linking bonds between fatty acids residues, transforming the oil in a solid film. Identification of the film oil is possible using the palmitic/stearic ratio (P/S by chromatographic (GC and/or spectroscopic techniques. Sterol composition, phytosterols or cholesterol, determined by GC-MS or FTIR techniques, allows investigators to distinguish between oil painting and a temper one that used egg as the binding medium.

  19. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  20. Management of industrial solid residues; Gerenciamento de residuos solidos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the management of industrial solid wastes, approaching the following subjects: classification of industrial solid residues; directives and methodologies for the management of industrial solid residues; instruments for the management of industrial solid residues; handling, packing, storage and transportation; treatment of industrial solid residues; final disposal - landfill for industrial residues; the problem of treatment and final disposer of domestic garbage in Brazil; recycling of the lubricant oils used in brazil; legislation.

  1. Theory and application of landfarming to remediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil-contaminated sediments: beneficial reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, J.; Rulkens, W.H.; Sims, R.C.; Rijtema, P.E.; Zweers, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    When applying landfarming for the remediation of contaminated soil and sediment, a fraction of the soil-bound contaminant is rapidly degraded; however, a residual concentration may remain, which slowly degrades. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mineral oil can be described

  2. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  3. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  4. 40 CFR 279.47 - Management of residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.47 Section 279.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Management of residues. Transporters who generate residues from the storage or transport of used oil must...

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-20, 1716-B Maintenance Garage Underground Tank, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-019

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-27

    The 100-B-20 waste site, located in the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site, consisted of an underground oil tank that once serviced the 1716-B Maintenance Garage. The selected action for the 100-B-20 waste site involved removal of the oil tanks and their contents and demonstrating through confirmatory sampling that all cleanup goals have been met. In accordance with this evaluation, a reclassification status of interim closed out has been determined. The results demonstrate that the site will support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. These results also show that residual concentrations support unrestricted future use of shallow zone soil and that contaminant levels remaining in the soil are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-20, 1716-B Maintenance Garage Underground Tank. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 100-B-20 waste site, located in the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site, consisted of an underground oil tank that once serviced the 1716-B Maintenance Garage. The selected action for the 100-B-20 waste site involved removal of the oil tanks and their contents and demonstrating through confirmatory sampling that all cleanup goals have been met. In accordance with this evaluation, a reclassification status of interim closed out has been determined. The results demonstrate that the site will support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. These results also show that residual concentrations support unrestricted future use of shallow zone soil and that contaminant levels remaining in the soil are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  7. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote the joint implementation. Potential survey of the greenhouse effect gas reduction by high-efficient utilization of the oil residue in Bataan Refinery in the Philippines; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Philippines koku Bataan seiyusho ni okeru sekiyu zansa kokoritsu riyo ni yoru onshitsu koka gas sakugen kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the CO2 emitted from electricity/vapor supply facilities of Bataan Refinery in the Philippines, study was conducted of optimum energy supply facilities considering the effective use of the oil residue and future reinforcement of the refinery. Concerning the high-pressure/high-temperature condensing extraction boiler/turbine cogeneration, gas turbine cogeneration and low speed diesel engine cogeneration, comparative study was carried out in terms of thermal efficiency, reliability/preservation, environmental acceptability, effectiveness of measures for the future excessive oil residue, etc. As a result, the study was concluded as follows: the electric power consumption will markedly increase in the future; however, in the light of the situation of the refinery where the vapor demand will not increase, it is the most suitable to use low speed diesel engine cogeneration facilities as on-site power generation facilities which can burn the excessively increasing oil residue as direct fuel. The CO2 reduction effect estimated from the project on the present scale was 132,880 t-CO2/y, and the energy conservation effect estimated was 50,861 toe/y. (NEDO)

  8. Radioactive contamination of oil produced from nuclear-broken shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.D.; Crouse, D.J.

    1970-01-01

    The results of small-scale exposure and retorting tests indicate that oil recovered from shale that has been broken with nuclear explosives will be contaminated with tritium. When oil shale was heated in sealed flasks with tritiated water vapor or with tritiated hydrogen, both the shale and the oil subsequently retorted from the shale contained tritium. There was much less contamination of the shale or oil, however, when the shale was exposed to tritiated methane and ethane. Contamination of shale and oil with tritium, as the result, of exposure to tritiated water, increased as the exposure temperature, exposure pressure, and the tritium concentration in the water were increased. This contamination also increased as the exposure time was increased up to 25 days, but not significantly thereafter. More than 90% of the tritium was removed from contaminated shale by treating the shale with moist air at elevated temperatures. Only small amounts of the tritium were removed from crude oil by contacting it with solid drying agents or with water. When tritium-contaminated shale oil was distilled, the tritium contents of the recovered fractions were found to be approximately equal. After being heated with a sample of underground test-shot debris, liquid shale oil became contaminated with radioactive fission products. Most of the radioactivity of the oil was due to finely dispersed solids rather than to dissolved radionuclides. Filtration of the oil removed a major fraction of the radioactive material. When the contaminated oil was distilled, more than 99% of the radionuclides remained in the pot residue. (author)

  9. Radioactive contamination of oil produced from nuclear-broken shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, W D; Crouse, D J

    1970-05-15

    The results of small-scale exposure and retorting tests indicate that oil recovered from shale that has been broken with nuclear explosives will be contaminated with tritium. When oil shale was heated in sealed flasks with tritiated water vapor or with tritiated hydrogen, both the shale and the oil subsequently retorted from the shale contained tritium. There was much less contamination of the shale or oil, however, when the shale was exposed to tritiated methane and ethane. Contamination of shale and oil with tritium, as the result, of exposure to tritiated water, increased as the exposure temperature, exposure pressure, and the tritium concentration in the water were increased. This contamination also increased as the exposure time was increased up to 25 days, but not significantly thereafter. More than 90% of the tritium was removed from contaminated shale by treating the shale with moist air at elevated temperatures. Only small amounts of the tritium were removed from crude oil by contacting it with solid drying agents or with water. When tritium-contaminated shale oil was distilled, the tritium contents of the recovered fractions were found to be approximately equal. After being heated with a sample of underground test-shot debris, liquid shale oil became contaminated with radioactive fission products. Most of the radioactivity of the oil was due to finely dispersed solids rather than to dissolved radionuclides. Filtration of the oil removed a major fraction of the radioactive material. When the contaminated oil was distilled, more than 99% of the radionuclides remained in the pot residue. (author)

  10. Shale oil. I. Genesis of oil shales and its relation to petroleum and other fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R H; Manning, P D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil-shale kerogen originated from resinous vegetation residues of past eras, whereas well petroleum was formed from oil shales by pressure and mild heat. Petroleum migrated to its present reservoir from neighboring oil-shale deposits, leaving a residue of black bituminous shales. The high carbon dioxide content of gases present in petroleum wells originated from kerogen, as it gives off carbon dioxide gas before producing soluble oil or bitumen.

  11. GC/MS determination of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Landriault, M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in which sesquiterpanes, a component of crude oils and petroleum products, were identified and characterized in an effort to determine the feasibility of using them as biomarkers for fingerprinting and identifying unknown lighter petroleum product spills. The study compared the distributions of sesquiterpanes in different oils, oil distillation fractions and refined products, including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels and lubricating oils. Evaporative weathering effects on sesquiterpane distribution and concentration were quantitatively studied and several diagnostic indices of sesquiterpane were developed for oil correlation and differentiation. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and oil products have much different abundances and distributions. Therefore, the relevant sesquiterpane ratios are different. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes are mostly partitioned into the medium distillation fractions. The study showed that concentrations of sesquiterpanes in crude oil and diesel fuel increase in proportion with the increase of weathering percentages. Relevant diagnostic ratios therefore remained stable. It was concluded that C 15 and C 16 sesquiterpanes may be alternative internal tracers to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Charred olive stones: experimental and archaeological evidence for recognizing olive processing residues used as fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, Freek; Marinova, E.; Sarpaki, A.

    After extracting oil from olives a residue is left usually referred to as the olive oil processing residue (OPR). This study explores the way in which ancient societies may have used OPR as fuel for fires to generate heat and the various issues that are related to the residues of this fuel. After

  13. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  14. Hydrogenizing oils, asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1925-03-14

    The hydrogenation of carbonaceous solids in presence of combined sulfur, e.g., sulfides as described in the parent specification is applied to the treatment of rock oils, shale oils, resins, ozokerite, asphalt, and the like, or fractions, residues, or acid sludge or other conversion products thereof, alone or mixed. Preferably the hydrogen or other reducing gas is in excess and under pressure, and is either circuited or led through a series of treatment vessels, hydrogen being added for that used. In an example, residues from American crude oil are passed continuously with hydrogen at 200 atmospheres and 450 to 500/sup 0/C over pressed precipitated cobalt sulfide, the issuing gases being cooled to condense the light oil produced.

  15. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  16. Quarterly oil statistics. Second quarter, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This issue presents rapid and accurate information on supply and disposal of crude oil, oil products, and natural gas, including production, refinery output, trade, bunkers, refinery fuel and losses and stock changes. Detailed import and export data are given for 42 origins and 29 destinations for crude oil and products. NGL, feedstocks, naphtha, LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gas/diesel oil, and heavy fuel oil (residual) are covered. (DLC)

  17. Satellite refrigerator compressors with the oil and moisture removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    There are twenty-eight compressors installed around the Main Accelerator Ring in seven locations. Drawing 9140-ME-129720 shows the piping and the components schematic for four Mycom compressor skids per building with each having an independent oil and moisture removal system. The Mycom skids each consist of an oil injected screw compressor of 750 SCFM capacity with a 350 hp motor, oil pump, oil cooler, and oil separator. Helium gas returning from the heat exchanger train is compressed from 1 atm to 20 atm in the compressor. The compressed gas is then passed through the three coalescer de-mister where oil mist is separated from the helium gas. The helium gas then flows through the charcoal adsorber and molecular sieve where any residual oil vapor and water vapor are removed. The final stage of purification is the final filter which removes any remaining particulates from the compressed helium gas. The end product of this system is compressed and purified helium gas ready to be cooled down to cryogenic temperatures

  18. Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.

  19. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raudsepp, P.; Brüggemann, D.A.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis; Andersen, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during storage

  20. Preparation of hydraulic cement from oil-shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cement from oil-shale or oil-shale residue is characterized in that, the oil-shale or shale-coke together with a slight amount of marl is burned under sintering conditions and the residue obtained is ground to a fine dust.

  1. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction for the determination of optimum oil recovery conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Marzouqi, Ali H.; Zekri, Abdulrazag Y.; Jobe, Baboucarr; Dowaidar, Ali [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, U.A.E. University, P.O. Box: 17555, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2007-01-15

    CO{sub 2} under supercritical (SC) conditions is a powerful solvent capable of extracting hydrocarbons from crude oil. The extraction capacity of CO{sub 2} is a function of pressure, temperature and composition of the crude oil. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study investigating the capacity of CO{sub 2} to extract hydrocarbons from an oil-saturated soil under a wide range of pressures and temperatures (80-120 bar for temperatures ranging from 40 to 60 C and 200-300 bar for temperatures varying from 100 to 140 C). The soil samples were collected from Sahel oil filed, which is near Bu Hasa oil field (Abu Dhabi, UAE) where the crude oil was obtained from. The extracted oil from the SC CO{sub 2} process and the residual oil remaining in the soil sample were analyzed by gas chromatography to shed more light on the extraction phenomenon. Extraction efficiency of CO{sub 2} increased with pressure and decreased with temperature. Moreover, the amount of extracted heavy fractions increased with pressure for all temperatures. On the other hand, the amount of extracted heavy hydrocarbons decreased with temperature for the low pressure range (80-120 bar) and remained the same for the pressure range of 250-300 bar. The maximum extraction efficiency of CO{sub 2} was 72.4%, which was obtained at the highest pressure (300 bar) and a temperature of 100 C. (author)

  3. BTC method for evaluation of remaining strength and service life of bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "This report presents the BTC method; a comprehensive state-of-the-art methodology for evaluation of remaining : strength and residual life of bridge cables. The BTC method is a probability-based, proprietary, patented, and peerreviewed : methodology...

  4. Application of preservatives for residual fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorozpe y Munoz, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    Due to the high costs of the combust oils (fuel oil 6) used in generators of vapor and in other treatments, makes important consider the use of preservatives that improve the operation of the units from the operative point of view and of environmental control. The author enumerates several of the problems of corrosion, of efficiency in the combustion and of thermal efficiency; in a same way it enumerates several useful preservatives, to be used in residual fuel

  5. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J E

    1923-03-19

    In distilling mineral oils such as petroleum, shale oil, distillates and topped or residual oils, particularly to obtain lubricating oils, the distillation is carried out under reduced pressures below an absolute pressure of 25 mm. of mercury and preferably below about 5 mm. of mercury, and the distillate is collected in fractions determined by the physical characteristics, such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, etc. Superheated steam may be passed through the liquid during distillation. A horizontal cylindrical still provided with cross braces and peripheral ribs interrupted at the base is connected through a condensing coil immersed in a steam chest and a baffled chamber with distillate receiver and is evacuated by a pump. Steam from a boiler and superheater is injected into the still through a perforated pipe. Steam and light oil vapors passing from the chamber are condensed in a coil.

  6. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs

  7. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  8. Development of Bottom Oil Recovery Systems. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    ahead of the filtration process. Stage 6 Disposal: Collection of oil , oiled debris, and decontaminated sand/sediments. 7 NET ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT......Sea HFO / 10.7 X 1983 T/V Hanon Jade Yosu, South Korea Heavy Arabian Crude Oil X (salt) ( burn residue) 1984 T/V Alvenus Louisiana Merey

  9. Super oil cracking update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulraney, D.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of residual fuel oil to usable middle distillates was discussed. The residue conversion processing paths are usually based on separation, carbon rejection, or hydrogen addition principles. Super Oil Cracking (SOC) uses a slurry catalyst system in a new, tubular reactor to achieve high levels of hydrothermal conversion. SOC can upgrade a variety of heavy, high metals residue feedstocks with high yields of middle distillates. The SOC products can also be further treated into feedstocks for FCC or hydrocracking. The SOC process can be incorporated easily into a refinery to obtain incremental residue conversion directly. It can also be integrated with other residue processes, acting as a demetallization and decarbonization step which results in enhanced overall conversion. The relative rate of coke formation and its handling are distinguishing characteristics between residue upgrading technologies. The SOC process operates at higher temperatures that other residue hydrocracking processes resulting in higher rates of thermal decomposition, thus preventing coke formation. SOC process can operate as a stand-alone upgrader or can be integrated with other bottoms processing steps to extend the refiner's range of options for increasing bottoms conversion.3 tabs., 14 figs

  10. Numerical approach for enhanced oil recovery with surfactant flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Keshtkar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The remained oil in the reservoir after conventional water-flooding processes, forms a dispersed phase in the form of oil drops which is trapped by capillary forces and is almost about 70% of the original oil in the place (OOIP. To reduce oil residual saturation in laboratory experiments and field projects, surfactant flooding is effective via decreasing the interfacial tension mobility ratio between oil and water phases. Estimation of the role of design variables, like chemical concentrations, partition coefficient and injection rate in different performance quantities, considering a heterogeneous and multiphase oil reservoir is a critical stage for optimal design. Increasing demand for oil production from water-flooded reservoirs has caused an increasing interest in surfactant-polymer (SP and alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP. Modeling minimizes the risk of high cost of chemicals by improving our insight of process. In the present paper, a surfactant compositional flood model for a three-component (water, petroleum and surfactant, two phase (aqueous and oleic system is studied. A homogeneous, two-dimensional, isothermal reservoir with no free gas or alkali is assumed. The governing equations are in three categories: the continuity equations for the transport of each component, Darcy's equation for the transport of each phase and other auxiliary equations. The equations are solved by finite-differences using a procedure implicit in pressure and explicit in saturation. The validation of the model is achieved through comparing the modeling results with CMG simulators and Buckley–Leverett theory. The results of modeling showed good agreement with CMG results, and the comparison with Buckley–Leverett theory is explained according to different assumptions. After validation of the model, in order to investigate sensitivity analysis, the effects of system variables (partition coefficient, surface tension, oil viscosity and surface injection

  11. Configuration de piégeage dans un milieu poreux à saturation résiduelle en huile Configuration of Trapping in a Porous Medium with Residual Oil Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvestre L.

    2006-11-01

    ainsi, d'une part, situer le comportement du milieu poreux par rapport aux deux états de référence précédemment définis et d'autre part, nous avons pu estimer la fraction du volume poreux en écoulement, la composition des zones stagnantes et leur taille moyenne, en fonction de la saturation en huile. L'analyse critique de ces résultats nous permet de conclure que, si certains comportements sont vraisemblablement caractéristiques de notre mode opératoire expérimental et du milieu poreux étudié, la technique mise au point (traçage et interprétation par un modèle PDE pourrait être utilisée avec succès dans le cas de milieux poreux réels. This article analyzes the hydrodynamics and spatial distribution of liquid phases in a porous medium with residual oil saturation. Experiments were performed in a porous medium made up of glass beads piled up in a column. Water drive was used to achieve decane saturations of up to 30% pore volume. The sweep water was traced during each experiment by a dyestuff that was insoluble in oil. The distribution curves of the tracer residence time, obtained upon issuing from the medium, were analyzed by a chromatographic model of the piston-dispersion type with exchange (PDE. This model covers all the pores in which the sweeping phase is flowing as well as the stagnant sections containing trapped water and oil. In the first phase an analysis of equations led to a definition, in the form of adimensional variables, of the penetrability of the porous medium and of the time constants respectively characterizing flow in the mobile phase and diffusion in stagnant zones. An examination of the influence of these variables on the flows transferred led to a definition of the state of distribution equilibrium of the solute between the stagnant and mobile phases. Two reference situations were chosen: (i equilibrium almost reached, and (ii negligible penetration of stagnant zones. On these bases, correlations were established between the

  12. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility study on the CO{sub 2} reduction project by residue power generation at the oil refinery in China; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chugoku no seiyusho ni okeru zansa hatsuden ni yoru CO{sub 2} sakugen project ni kansuru F/S chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a part of the basic research on joint project promotion, this feasibility study supposed introduction of IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) to Nanjing oil refinery of Jinling Petrochemical Corp. (JPC) in China, estimated the CO{sub 2} emission reduction effect by in-refinery efficient power generation using petroleum coke residue as fuel, and assessed the feasibility of the project together with a cost benefit. The feasibility study result showed the effectiveness of IGCC introduction to the oil refinery for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, occupying the interest of JPC. However, Nanjing oil refinery already making a decision to adopt another system (BTG) answered that early adoption of this project is difficult. The feasibility study result also showed that efficient operation of IGCC is difficult because of lower generation efficiency of petroleum coke residue, and achievement of the supposed CO{sub 2} emission reduction effect and profitability is difficult. The project based on this feasibility study result is probably difficult to be realized. (NEDO)

  13. Fe(CO)5-catalyzed coprocessing of coal and heavy oil vacuum residue using syngas-water as a hydrogen source; Fe(CO)5 shokubai ni yoru gosei gas-mizu wo suisogen to suru sekitan-jushitsuyu no coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, K.; Wada, K.; Mitsudo, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Improvement in efficiency and profitability of hydrogenation reaction of heavy hydrocarbon resources is the most important matter to be done. In this study, coprocessing of coal and heavy oil vacuum residue was conducted using syngas-water as a hydrogen source. For the investigation of effect of the reaction temperature during the coprocessing of Wandoan coal and Arabian heavy vacuum residue using Fe(CO)5 as a catalyst, the conversion, 66.0% was obtained at 425{degree}C. For the investigation of effect of reaction time, the yield of light fractions further increased during the two stage reaction at 400{degree}C for 60 minutes and at 425{degree}C for 60 minutes. Finally, almost 100% of THF-soluble matter was obtained through the reaction using 2 mmol of Fe(CO)5 catalyst at 400{degree}C for 60 minutes, and hydrogenation of heavy oil was proceeded simultaneously. When comparing coprocessing reactions using three kinds of hydrogen sources, i.e., hydrogen, CO-water, and syngas-water, the conversion yield and oil yield obtained by using syngas-water were similar to those obtained by using hydrogen, which demonstrated the effectiveness of syngas-water. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The effect of gamma irradiation on crude fibre NDF, ADF, and ADL of some Syrian agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1992-07-01

    The effects of 150 KGy of gamma irradiation on crude fibre and its main components (cellulose, hemicellulose-cellulose and lignin) and on neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were investigated. The results indicate that gamma irradiation decreased Cf content by 30%, 28%, 29%, and 17% for cottonwood, lentils straw, apple-tree pruning products and olive-oil cake, respectively. NDF values also decreased by 5%, 23%, 13% and 3% for, cottonwood, lentils straw, olive-oil cake and apple-tree pruning products respectively. Gamma irradiation (150 KGy) had no effects on ADF and ADL for lentils straw, apple-tree pruning products and olive-oil cake whereas, ADF decreased by 8.5% and ADL by 8.3 for cottonwood. Hemicellulose content increased by 12% for cottonwood while decreased by 54% for lentils straw and by 33% for apple-tree pruning products with no effects for olive-oil cake. Cellulose content decreased by 8.6% for cottonwood whereas no effects for the remaining residues were seen. Gamma irradiation treatment improved the nutritive value of the agriculture residues examined. The reduction in crude fibre content varies with the residue. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  15. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durousset, M.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents todays economical and strategic realities of the oil market. According to the author, petroleum will remain a vital energy source essentially supplied by the Middle-East with strong increasing and decreasing demand changes. (J.S.)

  16. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  17. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  18. Tracer monitoring of enhanced oil recovery projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleven R.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In enhanced oil recovery (EOR, chemicals are injected into the oil reservoir, either to increase macroscopic sweep efficiency, or to reduce remaining oil saturation in swept zones. Tracers can be used to identify reservoirs that are specifically suited for EOR operations. Injection of a selection of partitioning tracers, combined with frequent sample analysis of produced fluids, provides information suited for estimation of residual oil saturation. Tracers can also be used to evaluate and optimize the application of EOR chemicals in the reservoir. Suitable tracers will follow the EOR chemicals and assist in evaluation of retention, degradation or trapping. In addition to field applications, tracers also have a large potential as a tool to perform mechanistic studies of EOR chemicals in laboratory experiments. By labelling EOR chemicals with radioactive isotopes of elements such as H, C and S, detailed studies of transport mechanisms can be carried out. Co-injection of labelled compounds in dynamic flooding experiments in porous media will give information about retention or separation of the unique compounds constituting the chemical formulation. Separation of such compounds may be detrimental to obtaining the EOR effect expected. The paper gives new information of specific methods, and discusses current status for use of tracers in EOR operations.

  19. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  20. When oil spills emulsify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.; Fingas, M.; Tennyson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Cleanup operations of oil spills must take into account the numerous detrimental effects attributable to the emulsification of spilled oil into a stable water-in-oil mousse. The incorporation of water greatly increases the volume of the polluted material. The viscous nature of mousse impedes the efficient operation of most mechanical recovery equipment and results in a cohesive slick that resists dispersion, both natural and artificial. The rate at which spilled oil emulsifies determines the effective window of opportunity for specific countermeasures. Much has been learned from previous studies on petroleum emulsification, but is still remain a poorly understood phenomenon. Although most crude oils can be emulsified, not all spills result in the formation of stable mousse. The formation of mousse results from a complex series of processes. Whether an oil will form mousse or not, and if so, at what rate, depends on an array of different factors including the properties of the oil and the prevailing environmental conditions. We need a greater understanding of the emulsification process to better predict the emulsification behavior of oil spills and utilize the most appropriate countermeasures available. In this paper, the authors report on work to elucidate the role that physicochemical factors play in determining an oil's tendency to emulsify. The authors studied the emulsification behavior of oils of known composition to examine the importance of oil chemistry in the emulsification process

  1. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. Evaluation of behavioral parameters, hematological markers, liver and kidney functions in rodents exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil and Corexit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sindhu; Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Majrashi, Mohammed; Morgan, Marlee; Prabhakar Clement, T; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2018-04-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill is the largest marine oil spill in US history. In the aftermath of the spill, the response efforts used a chemical dispersant, Corexit, to disperse the oil spill. The health impacts of crude oil and Corexit mixture to humans, mammals, fishes, and birds are mostly unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the in vivo effects of DWH oil, Corexit, and oil-Corexit mixture on the general behavior, hematological markers, and liver and kidney functions of rodents. C57 Bl6 mice were treated with DWH oil (80 mg/kg) and/or Corexit (95 mg/kg), and several hematological markers, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions were monitored. The results show that both DWH oil and Corexit altered the white blood cells and platelet counts. Moreover, they also impacted the lipid profile and induced toxic effects on the liver and kidney functions. The impacts were more pronounced when the mice were treated with a mixture of DWH-oil and Corexit. This study provides preliminary data to elucidate the potential toxicological effects of DWH oil, Corexit, and their mixtures on mammalian health. Residues from the DWH spill continue to remain trapped along various Gulf Coast beaches and therefore further studies are needed to fully understand their long-term impacts on coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  4. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rebecca S.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

  5. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  6. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  7. Shale oil. II. Gases from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R H; Manning, P D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil shale (from Colorado) was pyrolyzed, and the gaseous products obtained were studied. The organic material present in oil shale contains carboxyl groups that lose carbon dioxide during pyrolysis before the formation of soluble bitumen. Nitrogen was evolved as ammonia in two stages and was not continuous. The first evolution was from loosely combined nitrogen structures, whereas the second was from more stable forms. No hydrocarbons were present as such in the kerogen. The gaseous products from oil-shale pyrolysis were similar to those obtained by distillation of colophony, amber, coal, and wood. This places the kerogen of the oil shale in the same series of carbonaceous substances as those from which coals are formed. Kerogen appeared to be decomposed in three steps; namely, to insoluble bitumen, to soluble bitumen, and to oil (gas evolution accompanied each step). Its low solubility and the character of its pyrolytic gas indicated that kerogen is largely a resinous residue from vegetation of the past era and may have been formed by the tranportation of coal-forming organic debris to inland salty lakes or carried to the sea by clay-laden waters. The salt water and the natural settling action precipitated the clay and organic matter in an almost homogeneous deposit. Oil shales have existed to the present time because they have not been subjected to high pressures or elevated temperatures that would have changed them to petroleum.

  8. Sun drying of residual annatto seed powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego da Costa Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual annatto seeds are waste from bixin extraction in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Most of this by-product is currently discarded; however, the use of these seeds in human foods through the elaboration of powder added to other commercial powders is seen as a viable option. This study aimed at drying of residual annatto powder, with and without the oil layer derived from the industrial extraction of bixin, fitting different mathematical models to experimental data and calculating the effective moisture diffusivity of the samples. Powder containing oil exhibited the shortest drying time, highest drying rate (≈ 5.0 kg kg-1 min-1 and highest effective diffusivity (6.49 × 10-12 m2 s-1. All mathematical models assessed were a suitable representation of the drying kinetics of powders with and without oil, with R2 above 0.99 and root mean square error values lower than 1.0.

  9. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  10. Proceedings: 1993 fuel oil utilization workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The primary objective of the Workshop was to utilize the experiences of utility personnel and continue the interchange of information related to fuel oil issues. Participants also identified technical problem areas in which EPRI might best direct its efforts in research and development of fuel oil utilization and to improve oil-fired steam generating systems' performance. Speakers presented specific fuel projects conducted at their particular utilities, important issues in the utilization of fuel oil, studies conducted or currently in the process of being completed, and information on current and future regulations for fuel utilization. Among the major topics addressed at the 1993 Fuel Oil Utilization Workshop were burner and ESP improvements for the reduction of particulate and NO x emissions, practical experience in utilization of low API gravity residual fuel oils, the use of models to predict the spread of oil spills on land, implementing OPA 90 preparedness and response strategies planning, a report on the annual Utility Oil Buyers Conference, ASTM D-396 specification for No. 6 fuel oil, the utilization of Orimulsion reg-sign in utility boilers, recent progress on research addressing unburned carbon and opacity from oil-fired utility boilers, EPRI's hazardous air pollutant monitoring and implications for residual fuel oil, and the feasibility of toxic metals removal from residual fuel oils. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  11. Influence of pretreatment of agriculture residues on phytase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phytase production. Pretreatment of agriculture residues with water to remove excess inorganic phosphate has significantly enhanced the phytase activity in case of de-oiled rice bran, wheat bran, peanut cake (low and high oil) and coconut cake. Maximum increase of 20.3 times in phytase activity was observed in case of ...

  12. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  13. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  14. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  15. The Annuity Puzzle Remains a Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, J.M.J.; Werker, Bas; Nijman, Theo

    We examine incomplete annuity menus and background risk as possible drivers of divergence from full annuitization. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, we find that full annuitization remains optimal if saving is possible after retirement. This holds irrespective of whether real or

  16. Interpreting residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in wildlife tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.J.; Coon, N.C.

    1988-08-01

    This report is the first publication in the field of environmental-contaminant effects on wildlife to tell the reader how to interpret the results of analytical chemical results. Specifically, the publication describes how to interpret residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in wildlife tissues. Pollutant oil residues in avian species are emphasized

  17. Deceased Slabs Drive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The application of Re-Os isotope geochemistry to dating single oils is a nascent field [1,2]. Challenges include dissection of oils into asphaltene-maltene (ASPH-MALT) components in a way that preserves meaningful chronologic and source information. Significantly, oil-water mixing rapidly transfers Os to the oil, while Re exchange is sluggish [3]. The Os initial ratio of the oil is shifted in the direction of Os carried in the aqueous fluid, whereas the Re-Os isotopic age is preserved. We show that this phenomenon is operative in natural systems. Further, we show that deserpentinization of old oceanic slabs [4], may be linked to expulsion of Os-enriched waters into overlying sedimentary sections - a process that may be of fundamental importance for oil generation. This conclusion does not diminish the role of traditional organic-rich shales as source rocks for the hydrocarbon, but shows that external fluids are essential to petroleum generation. Moreover, the external fluids may be an important driver for expulsion and migration of oils. We have taken apart several petroleum systems from source rock, to residual oil, to tar mat development, to in situ live oil, through to produced oil. In many cases, a fluid with low 187Os/188Os - unlike that of normal basinal brines - provides a critical component to the oil-water mixture. Funding - CHRONOS project supported by Norwegian petroleum industry (Eni-Norge, Lundin, Aker BP) Acknowledgement - Christine Fichler [4], who first queried us on old slabs and oil, and stimulated ideas. [1] Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., Hannah, J.L., Galimberti, R., Nali, M., Yang, G., and Zimmerman, A. (2016) Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179: 53-75. [doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.01.016] [2] DiMarzio, J., Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., and Hannah, J.L. (in press) Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. [3] Hurtig, N.C., Georgiev, S

  18. Use of residual soapstock from the refining of edible vegetable oils to make biodiesel; Aprovechamiento de las oleinas residuales procedentes del proceso de refinado de los aceites vegetales comestibles, para la fabricaciond e biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, P.; Barriga Mateos, F.; Alvarez Mateos, P. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    A procedure to obtain Biodiesel from Oiliness is studied. Biodiesel is a suitable product to replace diesel oil currently used to power the Diesel engines. It consists of a mixture of methyl esters of the fatty acids presents as triglycerides in vegetables oils (oil, sunflower, soya, rape oils). As a result of the refining of these oils for their use as food, a waste product is formed, the oleins (acidulated soapstock). The oiliness consist of a mixture of triglycerides and free fatty acids, the latter amounting to 50% or more of the mixture and are subject to a fluctuating market, therefore it exist at times a problem for their disposal. In our research work we have tried to obtain biodiesel from oiliness. The process resulting from our experimental work is as follows. 1. Scarification of the free fatty acids with methanol, by acid catalysis, centrifuging the reaction product and removal of the acid-methanol phase. Drying of the latter. At this stage we have a product containing about 70% of methyl esters. 2. Transesterification of the triglycerides present in the sterified product with methanol by alkaline catalysis, washing the reaction product with a water methanol solution. Centrifuging and removal of the water-methanol phase. At this stage a biodiesel products is obtained containing about 90% of methyl esters. 3. Fractional vacuum distillation of the 90% biodiesel gives a final product with a methyl esters content higher than 98%. (Author)

  19. Crude oil derived petroleum products in the aquatic environment: priorities for control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimwood, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    The available data on the environmental fate, behaviour and toxicity of five groups of petroleum products is reviewed and the information used to identify the priority of oil products for pollution control to protect the aquatic environment. The oil product groups comprise gasolines, kerosenes, other light fuel oil distillates, residual heavy fuel oils and lubricating oils. (author)

  20. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  1. Recovery of transuranics from process residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Process residues are generated at both the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during aqueous chemical and pyrochemical operations. Frequently, process operations will result in either impure products or produce residues sufficiently contaminated with transuranics to be nondiscardable as waste. Purification and recovery flowsheets for process residues have been developed to generate solutions compatible with subsequent Purex operations and either solid or liquid waste suitable for disposal. The ''scrub alloy'' and the ''anode heel alloy'' are examples of materials generated at RFP which have been processed at SRP using the developed recovery flowsheets. Examples of process residues being generated at SRP for which flowsheets are under development include LECO crucibles and alpha-contaminated hydraulic oil

  2. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  3. Geopolitics of oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscom, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Geopolitics can inject a great deal of uncertainty and cause fundamental shifts in the overall direction of oil markets, which would otherwise act in a fairly predictable and stable manner. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the response of the USA were definitely linked with oil, and the aftermath of the invasion left four geopolitical issues affecting world oil markets. The provision authorizing $1.6 billion in Iraqi oil exports under the United Nations sanctions was imposed with little concern about the potential impact of these exports on the oil market; Iraq could export as much as 1 million bbl/d and it is unlikely that exports would be stopped once the $1.6 billion limit is reached. By making up most of the supply shortfall during the Kuwait crisis, Saudi Arabia suddenly became the producer of over a third of OPEC oil supplies and now dominates OPEC. The Saudis have indicated it will swing production according to world demand, irrespective of what OPEC wants, so that world oil demand will return strongly and remain. Middle East politics in general will determine the stability of oil supplies in the region for many of the countries. A producer-consumer dialogue at the high governmental level has started, with a view to some type of multilateral understanding in the light of mutual interests in secure oil supplies. This is not likely to have a big impact on oil markets without participation and support from the USA. The recent changes in the Soviet Union have potential impacts in regard to the attraction of that market for Western investment, in particular to assist exports. The worldwide environmental movement will also play a geopolitical role in the world oil market due to its influence on oil taxation policies

  4. Oil and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Yoshiaki

    1988-06-01

    The secondary oil recovery due to microorganisms and the production of useful substances from oil distillates using microorganisms are described as examples to solidify the relationship between oil and biotechnology. The secondary crude-oil recovery has been carried out due to the microorganism drive process, which includes the on-the-ground and underground processes. Although the microorganism drive process has been investigated for many years, the selection of the microorganisms is not completely established. Many uncertainties still remain regarding the technical and economic aspects. The single cell protein (SCP) is an example of industrial success in the production of useful substances from the oil. Rumania has produced SCP from normal paraffin and the U. K. from the methanol and the products are used as the protein source for animals. Remarkable progress in the functional efficiency of microorganisms is expected due to the biotechnology for both applications. (4 tabs)

  5. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  6. Bioremediation of oil%contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Marchenko1, M.; Shuktueva, M.; Vinokurov, V.; Krasnopolskaya, L.

    2011-01-01

    Stocks of crude oil remains at a high level, does not stop the construction of new pipelines, increasing the output and at the same time the transportation of oil. At the same time, it gives rise to accidents resulting in oil and oil products fall in different ecosystems: the atmosphere, soil, waters. This paper provides an overview of the mechanical, physical, chemical, and biological methods for the elimination of oil-contaminated soils. Create optimal conditions for growth and development ...

  7. Oxidizing oils, etc. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penniman, W B.D.

    1926-03-02

    The oxidation of crude petroleum and its distillates, shale oils and tars, waxes, sludges, petroleum residues, asphaltic oils, asphalt, malthas, cracked oils and residues from cracking stills, wood tar oils and wood tar, peat and lignite distillates, coal tar oils and coal tars, and oils containing powdered coal, coke, oreat, sulphur in suspension, by passing air or other oxygen-containing gas through a layer of the material of a depth sufficient substantially to deoxygenate the air and c., is carried out in stages in a series of treatment zones, the pressure in at least one of the zones being above atmospheric pressre. The products of oxidation include acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, acrylic and phthalic acids, alcohols, acetone, solvents, gums, and substances adapted for use as motor fuels or burnign oils. The oxidizing gas may be enriched with oxygen or be diluted with steam, and its point of entry into the oil and c. layer may be varied to promote or retard settlement of suspended solids.

  8. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach...... to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  9. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed

  10. Political, energy events will remain interwoven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it is possible to discuss the significance of political and energy events separately, but, in truth, they are intricately interwoven. Furthermore, there are those who will argue that since the two are inseparable, the future is not predictable; so why bother in the endeavor. It is possible that the central point of the exercise may have been missed-yes, the future is unpredictable exclamation point However, the objective of prediction is secondary. The objective of understanding the dynamic forces of change is primary exclamation point With this view of recent history, it is perhaps appropriate to pause and think about the future of the petroleum industry. The future as shaped by political, energy, economic, environmental and technological forces will direct our lives and markets during this decade. Most importantly, what will be the direction that successful businesses take to remain competitive in a global environment? These are interesting issues worthy of provocative thoughts and innovative ideas

  11. Nuclear remains an economic and ecologic asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The author herein outlines the several benefits of nuclear energy and nuclear industry for France. He first outlines that France possesses 97 per cent of de-carbonated electricity thanks to nuclear energy (77 pc) and renewable energies (20 pc, mainly hydraulic), and that renewable energies must be developed in the building and transport sectors to be able to get rid of the environmentally and financially costly fossil energies. He outlines that reactor maintenance and the nuclear fuel cycle industry are fields of technological leadership for the French nuclear industry which is, after motor industry and aircraft industry, the third industrial sector in France. He indicates that nuclear electricity is to remain the most competitive one, and that nuclear energy and renewable energies must not be opposed to it but considered as complementary in the struggle against climate change, i.e. to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to get rid of the prevalence of fossil energies

  12. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267

  13. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  14. Long-term effects of Exxon Valdez oiling and shoreline treatments on intertidal infauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driskell, W.B.; Houghton, J.P.; Fukuyama, A.K.; Lees, D.C.; Shigenaka, G.; Mearns, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from five years of quantitative monitoring (1989 through 1993) have been analyzed for trends in infaunal recovery on Prince William Sound sand and gravel beaches affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill and cleanup. Hydraulic washing caused significant, immediate changes in beach morphology, sediment structure, and biota. Total organism abundance, species richness, species diversity, and abundances of several major taxa (polychaetes, molluscs, gastropods) were dramatically reduced in hot-water-treated beaches relative to those in unoiled beaches. These reductions remain discernible but have lessened somewhat after five years. Oiled but untreated beaches continue to have a richer and more abundant infauna than those that were hot-water washed. Multivariate analyses indicate trends in recovery and identify important species in the successional recolonization. Correlations of biological variables with residual sediment total PAH and with sediment coarseness suggest that changes in beach morphology resulting from washing were as important as residual hydrocarbons in affecting recovery

  15. Exploring Vietnam's oil potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of the oil production potential in Vietnam. Since Since 1987, the country has been open to foreign investment in offshore exploration but has suffered from a US embargo on trade and economic ties. Nevertheless some exploration has occurred and twenty production sharing contracts with international oil companies has been signed. To date most of the finds have been non-commercial but optimism remains high. (U.K.)

  16. Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H.

    2010-01-01

    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

  17. Nanotechnologies in oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alieva, M.K; Kazimov, F.K.; Ismailov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of remaining, laboriously developed oil reserves at the last stage of development of deposits require drastically improved methods of oil recovery. From this point of view it is more expedient to apply high-tech nanotechnologies. Application of metal nanoparticles in solutions consisting of conventional reagents (deemulgators, SAA and etc.) allows to improve their rheology considerably to increase permaibility and washing of highly viscous components from the smallest pores. Thus, nanofluids influence layer system on atomic-molecular-ionic level which will lead to a complex synergetic effect from the application of nanotechnologies in oil and gas production.

  18. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  19. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  20. Case Studies of the ROZ CO2 Flood and the Combined ROZ/MPZ CO2 Flood at the Goldsmith Landreth Unit, Ector County, Texas. Using ''Next Generation'' CO2 EOR Technologies to Optimize the Residual Oil Zone CO2 Flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentham, Robert C. [Univ. of Texas, Midland, TX (United States); Melzer, L. Stephen [Univ. of Texas, Midland, TX (United States); Kuuskraa, Vello [Advanced Resources International, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Koperna, George [Advanced Resources International, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The technology for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2 EOR) has significantly advanced since the earliest floods were implemented in the 1970s. At least for the Permian Basin region of the U.S., the oil recovery has been now been extended into residual oil zones (ROZs) where the mobile fluid phase is water and immobile phase is oil. But the nature of the formation and fluids within the ROZs has brought some challenges that were not present when flooding the MPZs. The Goldsmith-Landreth project in the Permian Basin was intended to first identify the most pressing issues of the ROZs floods and, secondly, begin to address them with new techniques designed to optimize a flood that commingled the MPZ and the ROZ. The early phase of the research conducted considerable reservoir and fluid characterization work and identified both technical and commercial challenges of producing the enormous quantities of water when flooding the ROZs. It also noted the differing water compositions in the ROZ as compared to the overlying MPZs. A new CO2 gas lift system using a capillary string was successfully applied during the project which conveyed the CO2 to the deeper and differing ROZ reservoir conditions at Goldsmith and added a second capillary string that facilitated applying scale inhibitors to mitigate the scaling tendencies of the mixing ROZ and MPZ formation waters. The project also undertook a reservoir modeling effort, using the acquired reservoir characterization data, to history match both the primary and water flood phases of the MPZ and to establish the initial conditions for a modeling effort to forecast response of the ROZ to CO2 EOR. With the advantage of many profile logs acquired from the operator, some concentration on the original pattern area for the ROZ pilot was accomplished to attempt to perfect the history match for that area. Several optional scenarios for producing the ROZ were simulated seeking to find the

  1. Chemical aspects of shale and shale oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackford, J E

    1922-01-01

    To prove that the kerogen in oil shale is a form of bitumen, several experiments were made with oil shale and a heavy asphaltic oil mixed with fuller's earth. When distilled, both the oil shale and asphalt-impregnated fuller's earth yielded paraffin oil, wax, and hydrogen sulfide (if sulfur was present). Both yielded ammonia if nitrogen was present. The organic material in each was partly isolated by extraction with pyridine and appeared to be the same. Oil shale is a marl that was saturated with oil or through which oil has passed or filtered. The insolubilities of its organic compounds are due to a slightly elevated temperature for a prolonged period and to the retaining effect exerted by the finely divided marl. The marl exerted a selective action on the oil and absorbed the asphaltum, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds from the oil. The class of oil evolved from a shale depended on the nature of the original compounds absorbed. Asphaltenes obtained from crude oil by precipitation with ethyl ether produced distillation products of water, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, oil, wax, and a carbonaceous residue. Water was formed by decomposition of oxyasphaltenes and hydrogen sulfide by decomposition of thioasphaltenes. Ammonia was evolved during decomposition if lime was present, but if there was not sufficient free lime present, pyridine and pyrrole derivatives were redistilled as such. The oil and wax that resulted from the dry distillation were true decomposition products and equaled about 60 weight-percent of the asphaltenes. The oil and wax content of the mixture varied between 8 and 10 percent. The carbonaceous residue, which represented approximately 40 percent of the original asphaltene, was a decomposition product of the asphaltenes. Geologic comparisons of oil-shale deposits and oil-well fields were also made.

  2. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  3. Distilling oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W G

    1913-08-13

    Oils and other products are distilled continuously from materials containing or charged with hydrocarbons, such as coal, shale, absorbent materials containing oil, or metal turnings covered with oil, in a vertical or inclined combustion chamber supplied continuously or intermittently with a small quantity of air, and continuously with a large quantity of gases from the condenser admitted below the combustion zone. If desired, steam may also be supplied to the combustion chamber. In the apparatus shown are the combustion chamber, the air inlet, the gas-inlet pipe, the gas-outlet pipe, the condenser, and a mechanical separator which preferably also acts as a fan. A pair of slides is provided at the bottom of the combustion chamber to discharge the residue without admitting air, or a water seal may be used.

  4. Desarrollo y validación de una metodología para la determinación de residuos de orto-fenilfenol en aceite esencial de frutas cítricas en Tucumán, R. Argentina Development and validation of a methodology for determining orto-phenylphenol residues in citrus essential oil in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Kamiya

    Full Text Available Los aceites esenciales de frutas cítricas constituyen mezclas complejas de compuestos orgánicos que interfieren en la cuantificación de residuos de plaguicidas. Siendo escasa la bibliografía encontrada para la determinación de orto-fenilfenol (OPP en estas matrices, este trabajo apunta a adaptar, desarrollar, validar y acreditar bajo Norma IRAM 301 (ISO/IEC 17025:2005, un método sencillo y de menor costo. Para dicha cuantificación, se tomaron como punto de partida metodologías aplicadas al análisis de frutas cítricas y se aprovechó el carácter ácido del OPP para separarlo mediante una extracción ácido-base. Posteriormente, fue detectado y cuantificado por cromatografía gaseosa (CG con detector de ionización de llama (FID. Se obtuvieron recuperaciones promedio de 89% a 104%, en el rango de 0,1 a 100 mg/kg, para aceite esencial de limón (AEL; de 93% a 103 % y de 90% a 114% entre 0,2 mg/kg y 10 mg/kg de OPP para aceite esencial de pomelo (AEP blanco y rosado, respectivamente. Los límites de detección fueron 0,05 mg/kg para AEL y 0,1 mg/kg para AEP blanco y rosado. Los límites de cuantificación fueron 0,1 mg/kg para AEL y 0,2 mg/kg para AEP. Además, se observaron una linealidad aceptable en los rangos evaluados e incertidumbres relativas de 24% para AEL, 14% para AEP blanco y 23% para AEP rosado.The essential oils of citric fruits constitute complex mixtures of organic compounds which interfere with pesticide residues quantitation. As there exists scarce bibliography on ortho-phenylphenol (OPP determination in this commodity, the present work aims to adapt, develop and validate a simple and cheaper method for determining phenylphenol residues in citrus essential oil, while certifying it under IRAM 301 standard (ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Citrus fruit analysis methods were used, taking advantage of OPP acidity for its extraction from the commodity by simple acid-base extraction. Later, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector

  5. Process for recovering oil from shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-20

    A process is described for recovering oil from oil-shale and the like, by the direct action of the hot gases obtained by burning the carbonized shale residue. It is immediately carried out in separate adjacent chambers, through which the feed goes from one to the other intermittently, from the upper to the lower.

  6. Preliminaries studies of the technological development of biodiesel production from used frying oil; Estudos preliminares sobre desenvolvimento tecnologico da producao de biodiesel a partir de oleo residual de fritura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasner, Cecilia; Mayerhoff, Zea D.V.L. [Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martins, Humberto [Biomarca, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Sena, Denise R. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Espirito Santo (CEFETES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to use the technological information available in the patent system to evaluate the technological routes used in the biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The search for patent documents was performed in two steps: patent applications in Brazil and patent applications in others countries. The method is described in the following order: choice of the patent searching databases; data parameters definition; displaying results; quantitative and qualitative analysis of the results; and data treatment. The results allowed concluding that the technological process to obtain biodiesel from waste cooking oil mostly used was the esterification followed by transesterification. Methanol was the preferable alcohol, but, there were a great number of Brazilian patents documents using ethanol. Also, there were an increasing number of patent documents concerning the development of new catalysts. The results also showed a low number of patent documents related to the pre-treatment of waste cooking oil, what suggests the need of further research to improve and standardized the raw material quality and consequently overcome the different difficulties during the biodiesel process production. (author)

  7. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  8. Separation of oil and grease from oil sludge using surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainon Abdul Aziz; Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad; Zalina Laili

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the experiments was to observe the efficiency of the surfactant to remove oil and grease from oil sludges using various surfactant concentration ranging from 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and 30 %. The surfactant solution consists of two mixtures of Aqua 2000 and D Bond. The oil sludge were subjected to heating and surfactant treatment process. Remaining oil and grease concentration were observed on the oil sludges after treatment. Small scale experiments were conducted by heating process, without heating process and heating process with addition of sodium chloride. Surfactant solution was added in each process. Results shows that there is separation of oil and grease from the oil sludges. There were formation of mini emulsions (oil in water). The higher the concentration of surfactant used, the higher the concentrations of mini emulsion formed as observed. Solid remains after the treatment process were found to contain lesser oil concentration with presence of bitumen, sediment, organic and inorganic materials. After a washing process using distilled water, the solid was still black but less oily than before the treatment. There is no separation of oil occurred in aqueous solution for the control experiment. (Author)

  9. Effect-directed analysis and mixture effects of AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and coastal sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Gi Beum; Ha, Sung Yong; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jongseong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P.; Khim, Jong Seong

    2015-01-01

    The major AhR-active PAHs were identified in crude oil and oil-contaminated sediments by use of effect-directed analysis. As part of the study, an enhanced potency balance analysis was conducted by establishing the novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs from the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Silica gel column fractionation of crude oil resulted in greater AhR-mediated potencies in fractions of aromatics (F2) and resins (F3), and such trend was also observed for field collected sediment samples. AhR-mediated potencies of six F2 sub-fractions from HPLC indicated that the majority of F2 responses were attributable to 3–4 ring aromatics. Target PAHs including C4-phenanthrene, C1-chrysene, and C3-chrysene in sediments explained ∼18% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs, however, the unknown AhR agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the AhR-potency and antagonistic potential of residual oil in sediment tended to decrease over time, thus monitoring of weathering process would be key for the post management of oil-contaminated sites. - Highlights: • AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and sediments were newly determined using EDA. • Novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs for AhR activity were established. • Three to four ring PAHs were identified to be major AhR agonists in crude oil. • Parent and alkyl-PAHs explained ∼18% of the total AhR-mediated potencies of crude oil. • AhR-mediated potencies apparently decreased by the timely weathering processes. - “Major AhR agonists were identified three to four ring PAHs in crude oil and sediments determined by use of effect-directed analysis.”

  10. Use of ultrasound in petroleum residue upgradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawarkar, A.N.; Pandit, A.B.; Samant, S.D.; Joshi, J.B. [Mumbai Univ., Mumbai (India). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2009-06-15

    The importance of bottom-of-the barrel upgrading has increased in the current petroleum refining scenario because of the progressively heavier nature of crude oil. Heavy residues contain large concentrations of metals such as vanadium and nickel which foul catalysts and reduce the potential effect of residue fluidized catalytic cracking. This study showed that the cavitational energy induced by ultrasound be be successfully used to upgrade hydrocarbon mixtures. Conventional processes for the upgrading of residual feedstocks, such as thermal cracking and catalytic cracking, were carried out in the temperature range of 400-520 degrees C. Experiments were performed on 2 vacuum residues, Arabian mix vacuum residue (AMVR) and Bombay high vacuum residue (BHVR) and 1 Haldia asphalt (HA). These were subjected to acoustic cavitation for different reaction times from 15 to 120 minutes at ambient temperature and pressure. Two acoustic cavitation devices were compared, namely the ultrasonic bath and ultrasonic horn. In particular, this study compared the ability of these 2 devices to upgrade the petroleum residues to lighter, more value-added products. Different surfactants were used to examine the effect of ultrasound on upgrading the residue when emulsified in water. In order to better understand the reaction mechanism, a kinetic model was developed based on the constituents of the residue. The ultrasonic horn was found to be more effective in bringing about the upgrading than ultrasonic bath. The study also showed that the acoustic cavitation of the aqueous emulsified hydrocarbon mixture could reduce the asphaltenes content to a greater extent than the acoustic cavitation of non-emulsified hydrocarbon mixture. 20 refs., 11 tabs., 17 figs.

  11. Process for oil shale retorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  12. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co-mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery, it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil-in-water and oil-water-solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers, water can be discharged and oil is collected. High-frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale, residual oil, drill cuttings, tar sands oil, contaminated dredge/sediments, tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly, fuel-generating recycler to reduce waste, cut emissions, and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

  13. Decarboxylation Of Palm And Groundnut Oils In Medium Uv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    INTRODUCTION. Vegetable oils undergo appreciable deterioration during processing and storage. The residual free fatty acid (FFA) concentration of vegetable oils is a function of the processing and storage conditions. Vegetable oils spoilage, usually defined as rancidity, is the result of fatty acid moity has been recognized ...

  14. Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Post-Burn Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Niger delta, crude oil spilled soils are burned as a means of decontaminating the impacted soils. Gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GCFID) analyses were performed on oil residues extracted from burnt spilled oil soil samples to facilitate detailed chemical composition and characterization of petroleum ...

  15. 75 FR 40751 - Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Oleate; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0231; FRL-8834-4] Castor Oil... castor oil, ethoxylated, oleate (CAS Reg. No. 220037-02-5) with a minimum number average molecular weight... regulation eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of castor oil...

  16. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  17. Recovery of Waterflood Residual Oil Using Alkali, Surfactant and Polymer Slugs in Radial Cores Récupération d'huile résiduelle par injection d'eau améliorée de produits alcalins, de tensio-actifs et de polymères dans des carottes radiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-El-Din H. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study has been conducted to examine mobilization and recovery of waterflood residual oil in radial cores. Alkali, surfactant, and polymer slugs of various compositions, sizes and sequences were tested. Core flood experiments were conducted with unfired radial Berea sandstone disks at a flow rate of 8 cm3/h. David Lloydminster crude oil (total acid number of 0. 45 mg KOH/g oil was used. The results of the present work showed that the composition and sequence of the injected chemical slug play an important role in mobilization and recovery of residual oil. For slugs lacking either mobility control, or low interfacial tension, no oil bank was formed and tertiary oil recovery was less than 20% Sor. A significant oil bank and tertiary oil recovery up to 70 % Sor were obtained with slugs having mobility control and low interfacial tension. However, maximum oil cut, incre-mental oil recovery and surfactant propagation were found to be functions of the alkali content in the slug. The incremental oil recovery, oil cut and slug injectivity greatly improved as the alkali concentration (sodium carbonate in the combined slug was increased. A slight delay in surfactant breakthrough and a significantly slower rate of surfactant propagation were observed at higher sodium carbonate concentrations. Une étude expérimentale ayant pour but d'examiner la mobilisation et la récupération assistée d'huile résiduelle, à la suite d'un déplacement par l'eau en milieu poreux, a été conduite. Des bouchons de produit alcalin, de surfactant et de polymère, ayant des compositions, grosseurs et séquences d'injection variées, furent essayés. Les déplacements en milieu poreux furent conduits en utilisant des carottes de grès berea (non traités à haute température et un débit de 8,0 cm3/h. Pour ce faire, on utilisa de l'huile de David Lloydminster (ayant un nombre acide de 0,45 mg KOH/g d'huile. Les résultats de ce travail ont démontré que la

  18. Mapping and quantification of organic agro-industrial residues in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and water ways, but, at the same time they constitute a large potential for production of bioenergy through anaerobic digestion as well as potential substrate for other biological fermentation processes. The utilization of these resources for production of valuable products would contribute significantly to: Improvement of the local energy supply, through production of bio-energy; Improvement of the economy of the East African agro-industry; Reduction of the environmental impact from the agro-industrial sector. Except for production of cane sugar, most agro-industrial residues are generated from cash crops, which are produced and processed in the developing countries and where the final products mainly are used for export. In the East-African Region the most important of these crops are: Sisal, coffee, Cashew nuts and Pineapple. In addition significant quantities of organic residues are generated from other food processing activities like breweries, consumption of bananas etc. The total potential methane production of the residues available for use in biomethanization systems in East Africa is 189.61 million m{sup 3} of methane per year. Converted to diesel oil equivalents and including the residues only feasible for combustion systems, the total bioenergy potential of agro-industrial residues in Eastern Africa is 279,176 TOE. If this potential was fully utilized for production of electricity, it would correspond to installed effects of 37,68 and 31 MW in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, respectively, equivalent to 10%, 11% and 18% of the currently installed effect is these countries. Residues from sisal and coffee processing constitute the main part of the bioenergy potential, on average approximately 75%, while the remaining 25% of the potential are formed by the

  19. Auto shredder residue recycling: Mechanical separation and pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, Alessandro; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano; Serrano, David; Dufour, Javier; Morselli, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this work, we exploited mechanical separation and pyrolysis to recycle ASR. ► Pyrolysis of the floating organic fraction is promising in reaching ELV Directive targets. ► Zeolite catalyst improve pyrolysis oil and gas yield. - Abstract: sets a goal of 85% material recycling from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) by the end of 2015. The current ELV recycling rate is around 80%, while the remaining waste is called automotive shredder residue (ASR), or car fluff. In Europe, this is mainly landfilled because it is extremely heterogeneous and often polluted with car fluids. Despite technical difficulties, in the coming years it will be necessary to recover materials from car fluff in order to meet the ELV Directive requirement. This study deals with ASR pretreatment and pyrolysis, and aims to determine whether the ELV material recycling target may be achieved by car fluff mechanical separation followed by pyrolysis with a bench scale reactor. Results show that flotation followed by pyrolysis of the light, organic fraction may be a suitable ASR recycling technique if the oil can be further refined and used as a chemical. Moreover, metals are liberated during thermal cracking and can be easily separated from the pyrolysis char, amounting to roughly 5% in mass. Lastly, pyrolysis can be a good starting point from a “waste-to-chemicals” perspective, but further research should be done with a focus on oil and gas refining, in order both to make products suitable for the chemical industry and to render the whole recycling process economically feasible.

  20. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  1. Effect of oil palm sustainability certification on deforestation and fire in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Heilmayr, Robert; Gibbs, Holly K; Noojipady, Praveen; Burns, David N; Morton, Douglas C; Walker, Nathalie F; Paoli, Gary D; Kremen, Claire

    2018-01-02

    Many major corporations and countries have made commitments to purchase or produce only "sustainable" palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Sustainability certification is the tool most used to fulfill these procurement policies, and around 20% of global palm oil production was certified by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in 2017. However, the effect of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations remains unclear. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of RSPO-certified and noncertified oil palm plantations (∼188,000 km 2 ) in Indonesia, the leading producer of palm oil, as well as annual remotely sensed metrics of tree cover loss and fire occurrence, to evaluate the impact of certification on deforestation and fire from 2001 to 2015. While forest loss and fire continued after RSPO certification, certified palm oil was associated with reduced deforestation. Certification lowered deforestation by 33% from a counterfactual of 9.8 to 6.6% y -1 Nevertheless, most plantations contained little residual forest when they received certification. As a result, by 2015, certified areas held less than 1% of forests remaining within Indonesian oil palm plantations. Moreover, certification had no causal impact on forest loss in peatlands or active fire detection rates. Broader adoption of certification in forested regions, strict requirements to avoid all peat, and routine monitoring of clearly defined forest cover loss in certified and RSPO member-held plantations appear necessary if the RSPO is to yield conservation and climate benefits from reductions in tropical deforestation. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  2. Effect of oil palm sustainability certification on deforestation and fire in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Holly K.; Noojipady, Praveen; Burns, David N.; Morton, Douglas C.; Walker, Nathalie F.; Paoli, Gary D.; Kremen, Claire

    2018-01-01

    Many major corporations and countries have made commitments to purchase or produce only “sustainable” palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Sustainability certification is the tool most used to fulfill these procurement policies, and around 20% of global palm oil production was certified by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in 2017. However, the effect of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations remains unclear. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of RSPO-certified and noncertified oil palm plantations (∼188,000 km2) in Indonesia, the leading producer of palm oil, as well as annual remotely sensed metrics of tree cover loss and fire occurrence, to evaluate the impact of certification on deforestation and fire from 2001 to 2015. While forest loss and fire continued after RSPO certification, certified palm oil was associated with reduced deforestation. Certification lowered deforestation by 33% from a counterfactual of 9.8 to 6.6% y−1. Nevertheless, most plantations contained little residual forest when they received certification. As a result, by 2015, certified areas held less than 1% of forests remaining within Indonesian oil palm plantations. Moreover, certification had no causal impact on forest loss in peatlands or active fire detection rates. Broader adoption of certification in forested regions, strict requirements to avoid all peat, and routine monitoring of clearly defined forest cover loss in certified and RSPO member-held plantations appear necessary if the RSPO is to yield conservation and climate benefits from reductions in tropical deforestation. PMID:29229857

  3. Jojoba oil and derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniak, T

    1977-01-01

    Jojoba oil differs from all known seed oils by its almost complete absence of glycerides, making it more a liquid wax than a fat. It has become important as a possible substitute for sperm-whale oil to produce lubricants, lubricant additives and other products. The plant occurs naturally in southern Arizona and N.W. Mexico and its oil has long been used by Indians for medicinal, culinary, ritual and other purposes. It tolerates extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and grows well under the difficult soil and moisture conditions of the region. In the first part of this review the plant and its uses are described, including its floral, fruit and seed anatomy and the use of liquid wax during germination. Stored coryledon wax is used up by the embryo as a linear function of time during the first 30 days of germination and growth. Before germination, seeds weight about 0.59 mg and contain about 54% wax. The second and greater part of the review deals with jojoba oil (its extraction, properties, molecular description, toxicity and composition), jojoba meal, which remains after the oil has been extracted, and the chemical modification of the oil.

  4. Radium in diesel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulich, J.

    1977-05-01

    In order to determine the addition of radon and radium to the air in mines, originatiny from the combustion of petroleum, measurements of the content of radium in diesel oil have been performed. Knowing the radium content theradon content can easily be calculated. The procedures used for the chemical analysis of radium is desribed. The ash remaining after combustion of the diesel oil is soluted in water and radium is precipiated as sulphate. The radium is detected by a ZnS (Ag) detector. The diesel oils from different petroleum companies contained between o.019-0.5pCi radium - 226. The conclution is that the consumption of diesel oils in motors used in mines does not contribute to the radium - 226 content at the air move than permissible according to norms.(K.K.)

  5. Bioremediation of marine oil spills: when and when not--the Exxon Valdez experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Ronald; Bragg, James

    2009-03-01

    In this article we consider what we have learned from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in terms of when bioremediation should be considered and what it can accomplish. We present data on the state of oiling of Prince William Sound shorelines 18 years after the spill, including the concentration and composition of subsurface oil residues (SSOR) sampled by systematic shoreline surveys conducted between 2002 and 2007. Over this period, 346 sediment samples were analysed by GC-MS and extents of hydrocarbon depletion were quantified. In 2007 alone, 744 sediment samples were collected and extracted, and 222 were analysed. Most sediment samples from sites that were heavily oiled by the spill and physically cleaned and bioremediated between 1989 and 1991 show no remaining SSOR. Where SSOR does remain, it is for the most part highly weathered, with 82% of 2007 samples indicating depletion of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Total PAH) of >70% relative to EVOS oil. This SSOR is sequestered in patchy deposits under boulder/cobble armour, generally in the mid-to-upper intertidal zone. The relatively high nutrient concentrations measured at these sites, the patchy distribution and the weathering state of the SSOR suggest that it is in a form and location where bioremediation likely would be ineffective at increasing the rate of hydrocarbon removal. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. In vitro comparison of three common essential oils mosquito repellents as inhibitors of the Ross River virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralambondrainy, Miora; Belarbi, Essia; Viranaicken, Wildriss; Baranauskienė, Renata; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas; Desprès, Philippe; El Kalamouni, Chaker; Sélambarom, Jimmy

    2018-01-01

    Background The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (CC), Pelargonium graveolens (PG) and Vetiveria zizanioides (VZ) are commonly used topically to prevent mosquito bites and thus the risk of infection by their vectored pathogens such as arboviruses. However, since mosquito bites are not fully prevented, the effect of these products on the level of viral infection remains unknown. Objectives To evaluate in vitro the essentials oils from Reunion Island against one archetypal arbovirus, the Ross River virus (RRV), and investigate the viral cycle step that was impaired by these oils. Methods The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by a combination of GC-FID and GC×GC-TOF MS techniques. In vitro studies were performed on HEK293T cells to determine their cytotoxicity, their cytoprotective and virucidal capacities on RRV-T48 strain, and the level of their inhibitory effect on the viral replication and residual infectivity prior, during or following viral adsorption using the reporter virus RRV-renLuc. Results Each essential oil was characterized by an accurate quantification of their terpenoid content. PG yielded the least-toxic extract (CC50 > 1000 μg.mL-1). For the RRV-T48 strain, the monoterpene-rich CC and PG essential oils reduced the cytopathic effect but did not display virucidal activity. The time-of-addition assay using the gene reporter RRV-renLuc showed that the CC and PG essential oils significantly reduced viral replication and infectivity when applied prior, during and early after viral adsorption. Overall, no significant effect was observed for the low monoterpene-containing VZ essential oil. Conclusion The inhibitory profiles of the three essential oils suggest the high value of the monoterpene-rich essential oils from CC and PG against RRV infection. Combined with their repellent activity, the antiviral activity of the essential oils of CC and PG may provide a new option to control arboviral infection. PMID:29771946

  7. The rise and fall of an oil company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    A tremendous amount of oil and gas reserves has been found. These reserves were discovered when geologists were in key positions. Exploration oriented leaders are not in key positions today. As with all living organisms, oil companies are governed by a life cycle which includes birth, adolescence, maturity, old age, and death. The life cycle of a company is characterized by its CEO/management team. During the birth of an oil company, a geologist and/or entrepreneur (leader) who has a desire to succeed is in charge. There are few tangible assets and the mortality rate is high. In the adolescence stage, the leader is willing to take high risks and is very receptive to new ideas. The discovery of company-making reserves are most likely to occur during this stage. During maturity, the key officer is usually an engineer who develops the newly found reserves. He has the desire to quantify exploration ventures in unrealistic, precise terms. Old age usually has a CPA as manager who prefers to take cash flow and transfer it to other businesses (diversification). The sale of properties starts in this stage. The last stage is death and the key officer is either a lawyer or a banker. The legal entanglement will start that inevitably plagues the cash-rich, asset-rich oil company. There is no residual expertise conducting exploration activity. We now have the liquidation of remaining assets and the company goes through mergers or sale

  8. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  9. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  10. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  11. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  12. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2006-01-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  13. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  14. Bioactive properties of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius) seeds, oil and press cake obtained during oilseed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Penha Patrícia Cabral; Silva, Denise Maria de Lima E; Assis, Cristiane Fernandes de; Correia, Roberta Targino Pinto; Damasceno, Karla Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature concerning the bioactive properties of faveleira products. This work focuses on the physicochemical evaluation of faveleira oil, as well as it investigates the bioactive properties of faveleira seeds, faveleira oil and the press cake obtained during the oilseed processing. The seeds were cold pressed and the following tests were performed: physicochemical characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, moisture and volatile matter, density and viscosity) and fatty acid profile of faveleira oil; total phenolic and flavonoid content of faveleira seed and press cake; antibacterial activity of seed, oil and press cake; and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide radical scavenging assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of seed, oil and press cake. Our work demonstrated that the faveleira seed oil has low acidity (0.78 ± 0.03% oleic acid) and peroxide value (1.13 ± 0.12 mEq/1000g), associated with the relevant concentration of linoleic acid (53.56%). It was observed that important phenolics (398.89 ± 6.34 mg EAG/100 g), especially flavonoids (29.81 ± 0.71 mg RE/g) remain in the press cake, which indicates that the by-product of the faveleira oilseed production constitutes a rich residual source of bioactive compounds. No bacterial growth inhibition was detected, but all samples including faveleira seeds, press cake, oil and its fractions have potent antioxidant activities, mainly the press cake, with oxygen radical absorbance capacity of 28.39 ± 4.36 μM TE/g. Our results also show that faveleira oil has potential to be used as edible oil and the press cake should be used to contain the most antioxidants from seed.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 126-B-2, 183-B Clearwells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 126-B-2, 183-B Clearwells were built as part of the 183-B Water Treatment Facility and are composed of 2 covered concrete reservoirs. The bulk of the water stored in the clearwells was used as process water to cool the 105-B Reactor and as a source of potable water. Residual conditions were determined to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD through an evaluation of the available process knowledge. The results of the evaluation do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also indicate that residual concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific

  17. Influence of Volume Deformation Rate on the Intensity of Oil-Bearing Crop Pressing-out in Relation to Rape Extrudate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavnov, E. V.; Petrov, I. A.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of the volume deformation rate on the intensity of piston pressing-out of oil has been investigated. The results of pressing by a piston moving with different speeds are presented. Mathematical simulation is carried out for the stage of pressing-out after the termination of sample loading, when oil release occurs due to the accumulated deformations of the skeleton. It has been assumed that in mechanical pressing there remains the least residual content of oil. A dimensionless complex representing the ratio of the characteristic times of loading to the material response (the process of pressing) has been obtained. The dependence of the rate of oil pressing-out at the stage of pressure relaxation on the dimensionless complex has been determined.

  18. BioWaste-to-Liquid. An ecologic-economic consideration of pyrolysis oil based on biogenic residual materials and wastes; BioWaste-to-Liquid. Oekologisch-oekonomische Betrachtung von Pyrolyseoel auf Basis biogener Rest- und Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liemen, Franziska; Zech, Konstantin; Kroeger, Michael [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The joint research project BioWaste-to-Liquid, which is carried out by Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum (DBFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), focuses on the provision of alternative fuels by means of fast pyrolysis. Alongside the various tests and technical analyses, an ecologic and economic assessment was carried out, that examines the performance of different raw materials in terms of GHG-emissions and production costs. The herein examined raw materials were Rape straw, Sunflower straw, residues of corn harvesting, hay, waste wood, bark and driftwood from river Rhine. The results show a good performance of waste wood and draft wood both in ecologic and economic terms, whilst especially Sunflower straw can be considered rather unsuitable since it is particularly affected by the negative effects of the compensatory fertilization. The other raw materials perform varyingly in the ecologic and economic assessments. (orig.)

  19. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  20. A biological oil adsorption filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasila, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  1. Predicting the residual life of plant equipment - Why worry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaske, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Predicting the residual life of plant equipment that has been in service for 20 to 30 years or more is a major concern of many industries. This paper reviews the reasons for increased concern for residual-life assessment and the general procedures used in performing such assessments. Some examples and case histories illustrating procedures for assessing remaining service life are discussed. Areas where developments are needed to improve the technology for remaining-life estimation are pointed out. Then, some of the critical issues involved in residual-life assessment are identified. Finally, the future role of residual-life prediction is addressed

  2. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we (HM found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO., or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1. Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of health oriented diet. Oxidized oils may eventually cause DNA cleavages, modification of proteins, RNA, and lipids, as well as cellular damage, or promote inflammation and carcinogenesis at later time [5-9]. These commercial oils of low antioxidant activity may be improved by adding functionally effective antioxidative components, by using dried vegetable-waste such as tomato-juice-waste-residues and wine-ferment-waste-residues. Their antioxiative components will be transferred into the functionally poor grade edible oils, and consequently, one can improve the quality of such functionally poor oils and thereby contributing human health [2,8,9]. The purpose of this paper is to report a practical procedure to fortify functionally low grade conventional edible oils to functionally enriched edible oils using dried vegetable-waste residues such as tomato juice waste, and wine-ferment-residues, or other vegetable-waste residues. Methods: (1 Preparation and measurements of lycopene and carotenoid enriched oils. To 5.0g or 1.0g of the dried residue of tomato juice waste, 100ml of commercial rape seed (canola oil was added respectively. Each mixture was incubated at room temperature in dark for several weeks. Amount of lycopene and carotenoids extracted into the oil was monitored by increase of absorption (400-550nm and fluorescence at 470nm of carotenoid. Grape-juice ferment (wine waste was similarly prepared after hot air drying, and immersed in canola oil. (2

  3. Unilever food safety assurance system for refined vegetable oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Duijn Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unilever Food Safety Assurance system for refined oils and fats is based on risk assessments for the presence of contaminants or pesticide residues in crude oils, and refining process studies to validate the removal of these components. Crude oil risk assessments were carried out by combining supply chain visits, and analyses of the contaminant and pesticide residue levels in a large number of crude oil samples. Contaminants like poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons of mineral origin, and pesticide residues can largely be removed by refining. For many years, this Food Safety Assurance System has proven to be effective in controlling contaminant levels in refined vegetable oils and fats.

  4. Russian oil exports : the Baltic Sea remains important route / Kari Liuhto

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liuhto, Kari

    2003-01-01

    Kui Venemaa jätkab naftatranspordi suurendamist Läänemere sadamate kaudu, siis paneb see EL-i ja Venemaa suhted tõsiselt proovile, leiab autor ning et keskkonnale kõige ohutum viis naftat Venemaalt läände eksportida oleks läbi Murmanski sadama Põhja-Jäämeres. Tabel: Venemaa toornafta eksport 2002. aastal.

  5. Oil spills - effects and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicks, B.M.; White, I.C.

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of oil spills from offshore industry operates on the United Kingdom continental shelf is reported for the period 1979 to 1988. The properties of North Sea crude oils which determine their fate and effects when spilled onto the surface of the sea are summarized. Examples of oil impacts on specific North Sea habitats and communities are used to illustrate the effect of oil spills and the economic impact on human activities such as recreation, industry and fishing are considered. Since most oil spills will dissipate through natural processes if they remain at sea long enough, the most appropriate response to a spill from a platform in the middle of the sea is often aerial surveillance to monitor the movement and dissipation of the oil. However, if an active response is required, containment and collection of the oil or chemical dispersion are the two main options. In coastal waters, it will be necessary to focus protection efforts on selected sensitive areas of coastline. Once the oil is ashore there are still occasions when the best course of actions is to do nothing as clean-up operations may do more harm than good. If oil removal is feasible and necessary, the methods which are most effective are usually straightforward and require no sophisticated technology. Contingency planning is an essential preparation for all operations to deal with oil spills. (UK)

  6. Cyolane residues in milk of lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Osman, A.; Fakhr, I.M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Consecutive feeding of lactating goats with 14 C-alkyl labelled cyolane for 5 days at dietary levels 8 and 16 ppm resulted in the appearance of measurable insecticide residues in milk (0.02-0.04 mg/kg). The residue levels were markedly reduced after a withdrawal period of 7 days. Analysis of urine and milk residues showed the presence of similar metabolites in addition to the parent compound. The major part of the residue consisted of mono-, diethyl phosphate and 2 hydrophilic unknown metabolites. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to about 50% after 24 hours whereas the plasma enzyme was only slightly affected. The animals remained symptom-free during the experimental period. (author)

  7. Strategy of Chavez determines oil future of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdershoven, C.

    2008-01-01

    The perspective of the oil and gas industry remains unclear as long as the current president, Hugo Chavez, continues to implement his own political ideas. The announcement of another tax increase on high oil revenues of oil companies will significantly weaken the appeal to invest in the oil sector. [mk] [nl

  8. Process for treating oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A process for treating oil shale is characterized in that the shale is first finely ground, then heated in the presence of steam in a high-pressure retort at 1 to 50 atmospheres pressure at a temperature of 200/sup 0/ to 450/sup 0/C and then with large amounts of water with or without materials forming emulsions with water or with oil. Solution medium suitable for bitumen or paraffin is beaten up in a rapid hammer mill until all or most all of the oil or bitumen is emulsified. The emulsion is separated by filter-pressing and centrifuging from the solid shale residue and the oil or bitumen is again separated from the emulsion medium by heating, acidulating, standing, or centrifuging, and then in known ways is further separated, refined, and worked up.

  9. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  10. Environmental dredging residual generation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patmont, Clay; LaRosa, Paul; Narayanan, Raghav; Forrest, Casey

    2018-05-01

    The presence and magnitude of sediment contamination remaining in a completed dredge area can often dictate the success of an environmental dredging project. The need to better understand and manage this remaining contamination, referred to as "postdredging residuals," has increasingly been recognized by practitioners and investigators. Based on recent dredging projects with robust characterization programs, it is now understood that the residual contamination layer in the postdredging sediment comprises a mixture of contaminated sediments that originate from throughout the dredge cut. This mixture of contaminated sediments initially exhibits fluid mud properties that can contribute to sediment transport and contamination risk outside of the dredge area. This article reviews robust dredging residual evaluations recently performed in the United States and Canada, including the Hudson River, Lower Fox River, Ashtabula River, and Esquimalt Harbour, along with other projects. These data better inform the understanding of residuals generation, leading to improved models of dredging residual formation to inform remedy evaluation, selection, design, and implementation. Data from these projects confirm that the magnitude of dredging residuals is largely determined by site conditions, primarily in situ sediment fluidity or liquidity as measured by dry bulk density. While the generation of dredging residuals cannot be avoided, residuals can be successfully and efficiently managed through careful development and implementation of site-specific management plans. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:335-343. © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  11. Research of losses of oil oil and mineral oil at transportation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akzhigitov, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : All way of hydrocarbonic raw material from a mouth of oil wells up to the consumer is accompanied by losses which occur as a result of evaporation, outflow and change of quality. Therefore preservation of quantity and quality of oil and mineral oil during transportation and storages is the major not only economic, but also an ecological problem. The facilitated fractional structure, the big maintenance concern to prominent features of the majority oil from underground salts adjournment Prycaspi in them of the easy hydrocarbons, the raised gas factor in conditions of deposits and presence in structure of gases, except for hydrocarbons and sour a component, - hydrogen sulphide, carbonic gas, etc. The superficial tests stabilized on phase structure oil depending on conditions of preparation for external transport and the subsequent processing can contain this or that quantity of residual hydrogen sulphide, easy hydrocarbons and the lowest sulfhydrates. For change of temperature and external pressure, during transportation and storage the part of easy hydrocarbons and not hydrocarbonic connections (sulfur organic) can be allocated from oil in a gaseous phase and in case of hit in an atmosphere sharply worsens ecology. In the Western Kazakhstan during the years period the temperature of air sometimes reaches up to 40-45 degrees. As is known, at such temperature there is a strengthened warming up of the open surface of oil tanks, that finally leads to increase evaporation easy oil and oil hydrocarbons. With this purpose experiences by quantitative definition evaporation lungs oil and petromixes of the Western Kazakhstan were spent. As a result of the lead works it is found out, that the size of losses at the given fixed temperature depends on evaporation by nature, fractional and hydrocarbonic structures of oil

  12. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.

  13. Origin of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham-Craig, E H

    1915-01-01

    Kerogen was believed to be formed by the inspissation of petroleum. During this process nitrogen and sulfur compounds were concentrated in the most inspissated or weathered products. At a certain stage, reached gradually, the organic matter became insoluble in carbon-disulfide and ceased to be a bitumen. Oil shale was formed by the power of certain clays or shales to absorb inspissated petroleum, particularly unsaturated hydrocarbons. This adsorption apparently depended on the colloid content of the argillaceous rock. This rock retained these impregnated petroleum residues long after porous sandstones in the vicinity had lost all traces of petroleum by weathering and leaching.

  14. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.; Jackson, B.E.; Stuadt, M.; Frey, W.

    2003-01-16

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  15. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  16. Characterization of solid residues from coal liquefaction processes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; McDougall, W.M.; Kybett, B.D.; Neufeld, C.

    1981-01-01

    Various coal liquefaction and beneficiation processes are being investigated by independent research groups sponsored by the Canadian Federal Government. These processes include the co-processing of heavy oils and bitumen with coal, oxygen removal and hydrogenation of coal and supercritical gas extraction of coal. The end products, gaseous and liquid fuels and insoluble organic residues, vary with the experimental conditions. The physical properties and origin of the insoluble residue may influence such factors as degree of conversion, efficiency of the process, and ultimately, gaseous and liquid yields. One of the most suitable methods of assessing the nature of the insoluble residues is the use of petrography. This report deals with petrographic assessment of the coals and residues from various coal conversion processes; attempts were made to characterize the solid phases in the residues; to assess them in a quantitative manner and where possible; to correlate the results with experimental data; and to assess their effects on conversion. (30 refs.)

  17. A study on the hydrotreating of coal hydro liquefaction residue and its kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Lu, X.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydro-conversion of coal hydro liquefaction residue obtained from a 6 t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydro liquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 {sup o}C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydro liquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydro liquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ-mol{sup -1}. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values. (authors)

  18. A Study on the Hydrotreating of Coal Hydroliquefaction Residue and its Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Gao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-conversion of coal hydroliquefaction residue obtained from a 6t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydroliquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 °C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydroliquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydroliquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ•mol-1. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values.

  19. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On the feasibility of inducing oil mobilization in existing reservoirs via wellbore harmonic fluid action

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Chanseok

    2011-03-01

    Although vibration-based mobilization of oil remaining in mature reservoirs is a promising low-cost method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), research on its applicability at the reservoir scale is still at an early stage. In this paper, we use simplified models to study the potential for oil mobilization in homogeneous and fractured reservoirs, when harmonically oscillating fluids are injected/produced within a well. To this end, we investigate first whether waves, induced by fluid pressure oscillations at the well site, and propagating radially and away from the source in a homogeneous reservoir, could lead to oil droplet mobilization in the reservoir pore-space. We discuss both the fluid pore-pressure wave and the matrix elastic wave cases, as potential agents for increasing oil mobility. We then discuss the more realistic case of a fractured reservoir, where we study the fluid pore-pressure wave motion, while taking into account the leakage effect on the fracture wall. Numerical results show that, in homogeneous reservoirs, the rock-stress wave is a better energy-delivery agent than the fluid pore-pressure wave. However, neither the rock-stress wave nor the pore-pressure wave is likely to result in any significant residual oil mobilization at the reservoir scale. On the other hand, enhanced oil production from the fractured reservoir\\'s matrix zone, induced by cross-flow vibrations, appears to be feasible. In the fractured reservoir, the fluid pore-pressure wave is only weakly attenuated through the fractures, and thus could induce fluid exchange between the rock formation and the fracture space. The vibration-induced cross-flow is likely to improve the imbibition of water into the matrix zone and the expulsion of oil from it. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  2. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  3. 40 CFR 180.609 - Fluoxastrobin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subgroup 4B 4.0 Peanut 0.010 Peanut, hay 20.0 Peanut, refined oil 0.030 Soybean, forage 9.0 Soybean, hay 1... Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.010 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of fluoxastrobin... Vegetable, foliage of legume, group 7 0.050 [74 FR 67113, Dec. 18, 2009] ...

  4. Residues of 14C-cyolane in cottonseed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Osman, A.Z.; Fakhr, I.M.I.; Bahig, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The systemic insecticide cyolane [2-(0,0-diethylphosphoryl)-imino-1,3-dithiolane] was prepared from 14 C-ethanol, phosphorus oxychloride and 2-amino-1,3-dithiolane. Cotton plants were treated with two applications of the insecticide under conditions of local agricultural practice. 14 C-residues in the crude oil and cake of the harvested cotton seeds amounted to 1.63 and 0.014 mg/kg respectively. About 50% of the 14 C-activity present in the crude oil was found to be eliminated by simulated commercial processes used for refining of the oil. Alkali treatment and bleaching removed 16% and 25% of the radioactive residues respectively. Winterization of the bleached oil at 5-7 0 C for 3 days effected a further elimination of 13%. 14 C-residues in the cotton seed products and in the samples of the refined oil were characterized and the main constituents identified using chromatographic techniques. (author)

  5. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, K.A.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L.; Garrity, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahia las Minas (Panama) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills. (author)

  6. effects of rumen exposure to anise oil on ruminal fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    and the remaining three lambs were offered basal diet with ANO (anise oil group, ... potentially a useful feed additive to optimise the fatty acid composition of ... The active ...... Biological effects of essential oils- A review. .... for human nutrition.

  7. Developments in hydroconversion processes for residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douwes, C T [Shell Res. B.V.; Wijffels, J B; Van Klinken, J; Van Zijll Langhout, W C

    1979-01-01

    A review of recent developments in hydrotreating processes for demetallization, desulfurization, and conversion to distillate products of residues covers catalyst developments for suppression of coke formation, maximum metals tolerance, and conversion selectivity; the effects of hydrogen pressure and temperature on catalyst deactivation and conversion; basic operating characteristics of conventional fixed-bed trickle-flow reactors, and of onstream catalyst replacement reactors, including the expanded-bed and the moving-bed reactor; a comparison of catalyst bed activity level, dirt tolerance, reactor effectiveness, temperature control, and thermal stability of the expanded-bed and moving-bed reactors; residue upgrading in slurry-bed reactors of dispersed vanadium sulfide catalyst in the oil; design and control features for safety and reliability; and a cost comparison between the indirect hydrotreating route, in which the asphalt fraction is separated prior to hydrotreating, and the as yet incompletely developed direct route.

  8. Detecting organic gunpowder residues from handgun use

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCrehan, William A.; Ricketts, K. Michelle; Baltzersen, Richard A.; Rowe, Walter F.

    1999-02-01

    The gunpowder residues that remain after the use of handguns or improvised explosive devices pose a challenge for the forensic investigator. Can these residues be reliably linked to a specific gunpowder or ammunition? We investigated the possibility by recovering and measuring the composition of organic additives in smokeless powder and its post-firing residues. By determining gunpowder additives such as nitroglycerin, dinitrotoluene, ethyl- and methylcentralite, and diphenylamine, we hope to identify the type of gunpowder in the residues and perhaps to provide evidence of a match to a sample of unfired powder. The gunpowder additives were extracted using an automated technique, pressurized fluid extraction (PFE). The conditions for the quantitative extraction of the additives using neat and solvent-modified supercritical carbon dioxide were investigated. All of the major gunpowder additives can be determined with baseline resolution using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with a micellar agent and UV absorbance detection. A study of candidate internal standards for use in the CE method is also presented. The PFE/CE technique is used to evaluate a new residue sampling protocol--asking shooters to blow their noses. In addition, an initial investigation of the compositional differences among unfired and post-fired .22 handgun residues is presented.

  9. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  10. Indigenous fungal entomopathogens associated with the oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-11-30

    Nov 30, 2014 ... is the most devastating insect pest of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacquin. Like most insect ... (Carrere, 2006). Malaysia and Indonesia, the world's ... environment, and residues in the fruits produced, it has become ...

  11. Combined effect of grain solarisation and oiling on the development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2012, 13 (2): 117-126 ... 2National Agricultural Research Organisation, P. O Box 295 Entebbe, Kampala, Uganda ... Combined oiling and solarisation provides residual grain protection to maize against.

  12. Latest oil data, trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempest, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Reserves of crude oil, especially in non-opec areas continue to grow steadily. OPEC, however, remains dominant in the international trade of oil. Oil production, too, is buoyant, with expansion in OPEC running at 0.7% for 1994 and non-OPEC production expansion at 4.2%. Overall demand for oil also rose (by 1.7%), a sharp fall in CIS state consumption notwithstanding. Import dependence continues to grow. Heavy investment by the petroleum industry in production, transportation and processing is expected over the next thirty years. However, oil's share of the world energy mix continues to be eroded by nuclear power, gas and coal, despite adequate supplies. (UK)

  13. The Newfoundland oil spill burn experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    1992-01-01

    A major offshore oil-spill combustion experiment is being planned for waters off Newfoundland. The experiment is designed to answer outstanding questions on the acceptability of in-situ oil spill burning. In the experiment, variables will be controlled to allow quantitative measurement of the scientific and operational parameters that will enhance understanding of in-situ combustion as an operational oil-spill response technique. The proposed full-scale tests follow six years of testing in laboratory tanks. Analyses have shown that the high temperatures reached during efficient in-situ combustion result in relatively complete destruction of the oil. Tests have shown that the most important factor in this regard is that the oil must be thickened sufficiently before effective burning will occur. Such thickening is potentially possible in the offshore, under suitable wind and sea conditions, using fireproof containment booms. The experiment will involve measurement of emissions to the air, levels of oil in water, and operational parameters of in-situ burning. Time and location of the experiment are chosen to minimize ecological damage and for operational reasons. When suitable conditions are present in early August 1993, two 45-m 3 batches of crude oil will be released into a containment boom and ignited. The burn residue will be recovered mechanically, and a secondary containment and recovery system will be towed behind the fireproof boom to pick up any fugitive oil or residue. 3 figs., 6 tabs

  14. @iMaersk navigator@@ oil spill in the great channel (Andaman Sea) in January 1993 and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Shailaja, M.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Observations on oil slicks, tar residues and dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPH) shortly after the oil spill resulting from the tanker accident in January 1993 showed negligible impact on the Indian EEZ of the Great Channel (Andaman Sea). DPH...

  15. Maersk navigator oil spill in the great channel (Andaman Sea) in January 1993 and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Shailaja, M.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Observations on oil slicks, tar residues and dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPH) shortly after the oil spill resulting from the tanker accident in January 1993 showed negligible impact on the Indian EEZ of the Great Channel (Andaman Sea). DPH...

  16. Protein structure based prediction of catalytic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, J Eduardo; Fiser, Andras

    2013-02-22

    Worldwide structural genomics projects continue to release new protein structures at an unprecedented pace, so far nearly 6000, but only about 60% of these proteins have any sort of functional annotation. We explored a range of features that can be used for the prediction of functional residues given a known three-dimensional structure. These features include various centrality measures of nodes in graphs of interacting residues: closeness, betweenness and page-rank centrality. We also analyzed the distance of functional amino acids to the general center of mass (GCM) of the structure, relative solvent accessibility (RSA), and the use of relative entropy as a measure of sequence conservation. From the selected features, neural networks were trained to identify catalytic residues. We found that using distance to the GCM together with amino acid type provide a good discriminant function, when combined independently with sequence conservation. Using an independent test set of 29 annotated protein structures, the method returned 411 of the initial 9262 residues as the most likely to be involved in function. The output 411 residues contain 70 of the annotated 111 catalytic residues. This represents an approximately 14-fold enrichment of catalytic residues on the entire input set (corresponding to a sensitivity of 63% and a precision of 17%), a performance competitive with that of other state-of-the-art methods. We found that several of the graph based measures utilize the same underlying feature of protein structures, which can be simply and more effectively captured with the distance to GCM definition. This also has the added the advantage of simplicity and easy implementation. Meanwhile sequence conservation remains by far the most influential feature in identifying functional residues. We also found that due the rapid changes in size and composition of sequence databases, conservation calculations must be recalibrated for specific reference databases.

  17. The North Cape oil spill assessment: PAHs in oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Boehm, P. D.; Hardestine, J. H.; Douglas, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The North Cape oil spill in January 1996 resulted in the release of an estimated 827,000 gallons of No. 2 home heating oil into the nearshore turbulent waters of coastal Rhode Island. The oil was mixed into the water column and was transported on the surface as well as below the surface. Some of the spilled oil entered the coastal ponds behind the beaches. Sampling and chemical analysis for detailed suites of petroleum saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was undertaken as part of the assessment of the fate of the oil spill and of the exposure to the marine environment. The ponds were found to contain significant quantities of background petroleum hydrocarbons, including petrogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs. Initial assessment pointed (incorrectly as it turned out) to widespread contamination due only to the North Cape spill. Application of advanced chemical fingerprinting approaches, and geochemical biomarker data illustrated that many of the PAHs consisted of combustion-related 4- and 5-ringed PAHs, attributable to diesel fuel used routinely by boats in the area. The analysis demonstrated that the use of non-specific total PAH data and insufficient fingerprinting and allocation of petrogenic residues has the potential to overestimate contamination and hence injury to the environment in similar oil spill situations

  18. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs at South Texas. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtz, M.; Knox, P.; McRae, L. [and others

    1996-02-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion barrels of oil, yet it still contains about 1.6 billion barrels of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. Interwell-scale geologic facise models of Frio Fluvial-deltaic reservoirs are being combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume or unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Progress in the third year centered on technology transfer. An overview of project tasks is presented.

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 100-F-38 Stained Soil Site. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-093

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The 100-F-38 Stained Soil site was an area of yellow stained soil that was discovered while excavating a trench for the placement of electrical conduit. The 100-F-38 Stained Soil site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils and the contaminant concentrations remaining in the soil are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  20. China's tax system relatively benign, but problems remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in China's oil market have reignited the interest of multinational oil and gas companies in China. New onshore and offshore blocks are being granted, and the Tarim basin has been opened to foreign participation for the first time. Foreign participation is also being sought in refining and other downstream areas. Though Chinese officials have long been viewed as difficult negotiators, the tax provisions applicable to oil and gas exploration and production in China are some of the more generous in the area. This article describes some of the relevant features of the system and some of the problem areas. The paper describes production sharing contracts, applicable taxes, gross income determination, taxable income, tax consolidation, overseas charges, and withholding taxes on payments to subcontractors and employees

  1. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  2. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  3. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  4. Fundamentals of a moderate thermocracking-deep deasphalting combined process of Karamay vacuum residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiming, X; Tonghua, L.; Suogi, Z.; Renan, W. [University of Petroleum, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Beijing (China); Lailong, L.; Zhen, L. [Karamay Petrochemical Company, Petrochemical Research Institute, Karamay (China)

    2004-07-01

    Thermocracking of heavy oil vacuum residue was carried out to determine the optimum conditions for the thermal cracking of Karamay vacuum residue prior to coke formation. The vacuum residue and the cracked residue after distillation were separated using supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation techniques. Sixteen and thirteen fractions and non-extractable end cuts respectively were separated, and their properties, compositions and average structures determined. Solubility parameters of the end cuts were measured, and those of the fractions calculated. The solubility parameter of the end cut of distilled residue was found to have greatly increased. It was determined that when the difference of the end cut and the extractable fractions amounts to 6.37MPa1/2, in the case of Karamay vacuum residue coke will deposit under thermocracking conditions. Based on the results of a series of solvent deep deasphalting experiments, a scheme for vacuum residue thermocracking and deasphalting of the cracked residue was proposed.

  5. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ''Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report'' (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ''Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report'' survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994

  6. Recovery of oil from underground drill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.; Hutchinson, T.S.; Ameri, S.; Wasson, J.A.; Aminian, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a significant quantity of oil is left in reservoirs after conventional oil recovery techniques have been applied. In West Virginia and Pennsylvania alone, this oil has been estimated at over 4.5 billion barrels (0.72 billion m 3 ). Conventional recovery methods are already being used when applicable. But a new recovery method is needed for use in reservoirs that have been abandoned. One alternative method for recovery of the residual oil is known as oil recovery from underground drill sites. This recovery technology is a combination of proven methods and equipment from the petroleum, mining, and civil construction industries. Underground oil recovery can be an economically viable method of producing oil. This has been shown in producing fields, field tests, and feasibility, studies. Faced with decreasing domestic oil production, the petroleum industry should give serious consideration to the use of oil recovery from underground drill sites as a safe, practical, and environmentally sensitive alternative method of producing oil from many reservoirs

  7. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  8. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  9. Fundamental and Financial Influences on the Co-movement of Oil and Gas Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, Derek; Chevallier, Julien; Le Pen, Yannick; Sevi, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    As both speculative and hedging financial flows into commodity futures are expected to link commodity price formation more strongly to equity indices, we investigate whether these processes also create increased correlation amongst the commodities themselves. Considering U.S. oil and gas futures, using the large approximate factor models methodology we investigate whether common factors derived from a large international dataset of real and nominal macro variables are able to explain both returns and whether, beyond these fundamental common factors, the residuals remain correlated. We further investigate a possible explanation for this residual correlation by using some proxies for hedging and speculative activity, showing that speculation increases and hedging reduces the inter-commodity correlations. (authors)

  10. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers

  11. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  12. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  13. OIL BOND®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  14. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  15. Combustion Characterization of Individual Bio-oil Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2015-01-01

    Single droplet combustion characteristics has been investigated for bio-oil slurries, containing biomass residue, and compared to conventional fuels for pulverized burners, such as fuel oil (start up) and wood chips (solid biomass fuel). The investigated fuels ignition delays and pyrolysis behavior...

  16. Persistence of pirimiphos methyl residues in stored wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zennouche, B.; Bennaceur, M.

    1991-03-01

    The persistence of 14C pirimiphos methyl in stored wheat was investigated under local conditions during a storage period of 6 months. Surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were quantified. There was a gradual increase in the surface residues over the storage period. 27,97% of the applied amount was found in the surface residues and 54,16% in the extractable and bound residues one month after treatment. After 6 months storage, about 17,8% of the total quantity of the applied pirimiphos methyl remained on the surface and about 58,6% was present in the grains (extractable and bound residues). During cooking 10,91% of the extractable and bound residues were lost

  17. Oil vaporizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumontier, F

    1904-03-31

    An oil burner particularly applicable to heavy oils, composed essentially of one or more gasification chambers, heated by the flame from the burners, to which the combustible gases are fed by the collectors suitably fixed on the chambers, all parts of the apparatus and especially the gasification chambers being easily demountable to permit cleaning, and all arranged in such a manner as to avoid fouling by reducing or localizing the deposition of solid deposits in the coking chamber.

  18. Oil on seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerresen, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The present book discusses the effects of oil spills at sea. Topics covered are as follow: Petroleum properties; oil spills at sea; harmfulness of oil spills; effects from acute oil spills; experience of oil spills; oil spill contingency planning in Norway; oil spill protecting equipment and methods; emergency of unloading equipment. 252 refs., 86 figs., 54 tabs

  19. Isotope aided studies of pesticide residues during food processing. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting held in Bangkok, Thailand, 31 January - 4 February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The use of agrochemicals in general and pesticides in particular has greatly aided crop production, protected man from diseases, decreased losses of stored grains and has generally improved man's welfare. One of the steps in ensuring safety of pesticides is adequate monitoring programmes for residue levels in food products and the agricultural environment. Oil-bearing plants often receive heavy pesticide treatment and known to accumulate high concentration of pesticide residues. Technical documents included in this volume report effect of refining or processing of various oil crops like soybean, olive oil, coconut, rapeseed, sunflower cottonseed corn, peanut oil on 14 C-compound pesticide residues. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Isotope aided studies of pesticide residues during food processing. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting held in Bangkok, Thailand, 31 January - 4 February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The use of agrochemicals in general and pesticides in particular has greatly aided crop production, protected man from diseases, decreased losses of stored grains and has generally improved man`s welfare. One of the steps in ensuring safety of pesticides is adequate monitoring programmes for residue levels in food products and the agricultural environment. Oil-bearing plants often receive heavy pesticide treatment and known to accumulate high concentration of pesticide residues. Technical documents included in this volume report effect of refining or processing of various oil crops like soybean, olive oil, coconut, rapeseed, sunflower cottonseed corn, peanut oil on {sup 14}C-compound pesticide residues.

  1. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  2. Sulfur compounds and species in Russian residues by XPS and PY-GC-PFPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, S.; Suoqi, Z.; Chunming, X. [University of Petroleum, State Key Laboraory of Heavy Oil Processing, Beijing (China); Kotlyar, L.; Kung, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Institute for Chemical processand Environmental Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Chung, K. H. [Syncrude Canada Limited, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Distribution and structure of sulfur components of Russian crude oil were investigated by separating vacuum residues from the oil into 17 narrow cuts and one end-cut using the supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation technique (SFEF). The cuts were analyzed by gas chromatography, with conditions optimized from 600 degrees C to 1,000 degrees C, and between two and twenty seconds. In general, the total amount of of the sulfur compounds in pyrolizates was found to be proportional to the sulfur content in the vacuum residues. Thiophenes, benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophene content varied from vacuum residue to vacuum residue. Benzothiophens were identified as the dominant sulfur compounds in the pyrolizate of Russian crude oil.

  3. The Galeta Oil Spill. II. Unexpected Persistence of Oil Trapped in Mangrove Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K. A.; Garrity, S. D.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L.

    1994-04-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahía las Minas (Panamá) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills.

  4. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 2; Unexpected persistence of oil trapped in mangrove sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.A.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L. (Bermuda Biological Station, Ferry Reach (Bermuda)); Garrity, S.D. (Coastal Zone Analysis, Sopchoppy, FL (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahia las Minas (Panama) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills. (author)

  5. Effects of pollution from oil shale mining in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallner, L.; Sepp, K.

    1993-01-01

    The largest commercially exploited oil shale deposit in the world is in northeast Estonia. The accumulation of solid residues by oil shale mines and processing plants has resulted in numerous dumps and ash hills, which are polluting the environment. The groundwater and streams are highly polluted by sulphates, phenols and oil products. A dump hill of radioactive wastes poses a serious threat to the Baltic Sea. Local people suffer from diseases more often than in other regions of Estonia. (author)

  6. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  7. Transesterification of mustard (Brassica nigra) seed oil with ethanol: Purification of the crude ethyl ester with activated carbon produced from de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, Abdelrahman B.; Abdulahad, Waseem S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel ethyl ester has been developed from mustard seed oil. • Variables affect the transesterification were investigated. • Dry washing using the activated carbon produced from the extraction remaining was applied to purify the ethyl esters. • Properties of the produced fuels were measured. • Blending of the produced ethyl ester with petro diesel was also investigated. - Abstract: The present study reports the production of mustard seed oil ethyl esters (MSOEE) through alkali-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The influence of the process parameters such as catalyst concentration, ethanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction duration and the catalyst type was investigated so as to find out the optimal conditions for the transesterification process. As a result, optimum conditions for production of MSOEE were found to be: 0.90% KOH wt/wt of oil, 8:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and a reaction time of 60 min. Dry washing method with (2.50% wt.) of the activated carbon that was produced from the de-oiled cake was used to purify the crude ethyl ester from the residual catalyst and glycerol. The transesterification process provided a yield of 94% w/w of ethyl esters with an ester content of 98.22% wt. under the optimum conditions. Properties of the produced ethyl esters satisfied the specifications prescribed by the ASTM standards. Blending MSOEE with petro diesel was also investigated. The results showed that the ethyl esters had a slight influence on the properties of petro diesel

  8. Assessment and recommendations for the oil spill cleanup of Guanabara Bay, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    The potential impact of an oil spill consisting of a blend of diesel and a heavy residual fuel oil on water column resources, benthic resources, intertidal habitats and communities, birds, and socio-economic resources was assessed and recommendations for clean-up given. The oil spill occurred in the bay on January 18, 2000

  9. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Time-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil on...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on honey...

  11. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  12. Prospects for oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.

    1992-01-01

    The basic argument presented is that the oil price is set in an administrated market. The administration is undertaken by the controllers of excess capacity to produce crude oil. The extent to which the administrated price matches the market price is a function, first, of the strength and effectiveness of the market controller and, secondly, of the state of supply and demand and expectations in the market. Currently, the market is operating close to capacity, what limited excess capacity exists is located mainly in Saudi Arabia and the Saudi Arabians appear to be following a low price objective. While the Saudi Arabians pursue volume, the short term project, in the balance of a political upheaval, is that oil prices will remain below the $21 per barrel agreed in July 1990. There is a view that Saudi Arabia would take quick action to reverse a price collapse, but attention is drawn to previous miscalculations with respect to price collapse. Should political circumstances allow the return of Iraq to the oil market, then excess capacity within the Gulf members of OPEC will return and control will be much more difficult. (UK)

  13. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  14. Dynamics of indigenous bacterial communities associated with crude oil degradation in soil microcosms during nutrient-enhanced bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikere, Chioma B; Surridge, Karen; Okpokwasili, Gideon C; Cloete, Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    Bacterial population dynamics were examined during bioremediation of an African soil contaminated with Arabian light crude oil and nutrient enrichment (biostimulation). Polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to generate bacterial community fingerprints of the different treatments employing the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene as molecular marker. The DGGE patterns of the nutrient-amended soils indicated the presence of distinguishable bands corresponding to the oil-contaminated-nutrient-enriched soils, which were not present in the oil-contaminated and pristine control soils. Further characterization of the dominant DGGE bands after excision, reamplification and sequencing revealed that Corynebacterium spp., Dietzia spp., Rhodococcus erythropolis sp., Nocardioides sp., Low G+C (guanine plus cytosine) Gram positive bacterial clones and several uncultured bacterial clones were the dominant bacterial groups after biostimulation. Prominent Corynebacterium sp. IC10 sequence was detected across all nutrient-amended soils but not in oil-contaminated control soil. Total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial counts increased significantly in the nutrient-amended soils 2 weeks post contamination whereas oil-contaminated and pristine control soils remained fairly stable throughout the experimental period. Gas chromatographic analysis of residual hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils showed marked attenuation of contaminants starting from the second to the sixth week after contamination whereas no significant reduction in hydrocarbon peaks were seen in the oil-contaminated control soil throughout the 6-week experimental period. Results obtained indicated that nutrient amendment of oil-contaminated soil selected and enriched the bacterial communities mainly of the Actinobacteria phylogenetic group capable of surviving in toxic contamination with concomitant biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The

  15. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  16. Discussion of oil pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Oil pollution in Argentina, at the port of Comodora Rivadavia showed signs of long-term oil pollution of a nature which would not be tolerated in relation to the exploitation of North Sea oil. The field is operated by Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (Argentine), produces 70,000 bbl/day of oil from onshore and offshore wells, and has been in operation since 1907. A very marked ''tideline'' of bituminous oil residues contaminates the harbor installations and completely covers the pebbles, boulders, and rocks in the intertidal region. This material is of a considerable thickness and has completely obliterated any form of littoral marine life in these habitats. The sandy beach does not show signs of accumulative oil, and it is used as an important recreational area. Since seriously oiled seabirds can be seen, it is surprising that Patagonian crested ducks, king cormorants, and kelp gulls occur in large numbers but show little sign of oil contamination. The Magellan penguin, which is much less abundant locally, may have been much more vulnerable to the oil.

  17. Method of removing radioactive waste from oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a method of removing particulates, radioactive contaminants, and moisture from oil, which consists of: straining out the particulates by passing the oil through a coarse filter screen to a receiving vessel; forming an upper stratum of oil and a lower stratum of sludge, consisting of mud, oil, particulates, and moisture, by heating the upper two-thirds of the receiving vessel; skimming off the stratum of oil from the receiving vessel; transferring the sludge from the receiving vessel to a container; transferring additional separated oil to the receiving vessel; conveying the oil skimmed from the receiving vessel to a mixing vessel; adding an effective amount of Calcium Hypochlorite crystals containing 65% free Chlorine to the mixing vessel to initiate salt formation with the radioactive contaminants; mixing the contents of the mixing vessel for at least ten minutes; transferring the mixture from the mixing vessel to a circulating heater; outputting the mixture from the circulating heater to a second mixing vessel; removing moisture from the oil; and filtering from the oil, the solid radioactive contaminant-salts and residual particulate matter

  18. Spilled oil and infaunal activity - Modification of burrowing behavior and redistribution of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary

  19. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia`s coastline following the grounding of the tanker `Arrow`. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  20. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia's coastline following the grounding of the tanker 'Arrow'. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  1. Mechanisms of microbial oil recovery by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Core displacement experiments at elevated pressures were conducted to determine whether microbial processes are effective under conditions that simulate those found in an actual oil reservoir. The in-situ growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2 resulted in the recovery of residual oil. About 21 and 23% of the residual oil was recovered by C. acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2, respectively. Flooding cores with cell-free culture fluids of C. acetobutylicum with and without the addition of 50 mM acetone and 100 mM butanol did not result in the recovery of residual oil. Mathematical simulations showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not sufficient to recover residual oil. Oil recovery by Bacillus strain JF-2 was highly correlated to surfactant production. A biosurfactant-deficient mutant of strain JF-2 was not capable of recovering residual oil. These data show that surfactant production is an important mechanism for microbially enhanced oil recovery. The mechanism for oil recovery by C. acetobutylicum is not understood at this time, but the production of acids, solvents, or gases alone cannot explain the observed increases in oil recovery by this organism.

  2. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comberiati, Joseph R.; Locke, Charles D.; Kamath, Krishna I.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  3. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  4. Purifying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  5. Distilling oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  6. Surfactant-aided recovery/in situ bioremediation for oil-contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducreaux, J.; Baviere, M.; Seabra, P.; Razakarisoa, O.; Shaefer, G.; Arnaud, C.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation has been the most commonly used method way for in situ cleaning of soils contaminated with low-volatility petroleum products such as diesel oil. However, whatever the process (bioventing, bioleaching, etc.), it is a time-consuming technique that may be efficiency limited by both accessibility and too high concentrations of contaminants. A currently developed process aims at quickly recovering part of the residual oil in the vadose and capillary zones by surfactant flushing, then activating in situ biodegradation of the remaining oil in the presence of the same or other surfactants. The process has been tested in laboratory columns and in an experimental pool, located at the Institut Franco-Allemand de Recherche sur l'Environnement (IFARE) in Strasbourg, France. Laboratory column studies were carried out to fit physico-chemical and hydraulic parameters of the process to the field conditions. The possibility of recovering more than 80% of the oil in the flushing step was shown. For the biodegradation step, forced aeration as a mode of oxygen supply, coupled with nutrient injection aided by surfactants, was tested

  7. Characterization of heavy crude oils and petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissot, B.

    1984-01-01

    Proceedings of an international symposium held in Lyon in 1984, consisting of typescript versions of five plenary lectures and a large number of research papers in the areas of geochemical analysis, fractionation and characterization, and relations between structure and properties.

  8. Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) and Mesocarp Fibre (MF) were used for the production of fuel briquettes in this study in order to supplement the energy mix of the nation. PKS was pulverized and then sieved into different grain particles of 350 μm, 250 μm and 150 μm, before mixing with MF in the ratios: 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 ...

  9. Happy oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2009-01-01

    The decay of demand, the bad financial results of the first half of 2009 and the hypothetical depletion of reserves must not hide a reality: oil companies are passing through the economic crisis without much trouble. Even if profits have marked time in volume (-57% for BP, -65% for Shell..), the net margins have not significantly suffered and the available cash remains comfortable (14 billion euros for Total as an example). The perspectives offered by the new offshore sites (like Santos in Brazil) added to the fabulous promises of the Iraqi market where 'majors' can now make their come-back will be the key of success of oil companies. The overall exploration-production investments should start up again by the beginning of 2011. For the only offshore drilling domain, they should rise up by 32% during the 2009-2013 period which represents a sum of 367 billion dollars. (J.S.)

  10. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  11. The Other Major 2010 Oil Spill: Oil weathering after the Kalamazoo River Dilbit Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, B.; Reddy, C. M.; Nelson, R. K.; Hamilton, S. K.; Aeppli, C.; Valentine, D. L.; Fundaun, S. E.; Oliveira, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    Diluted bitumen (dilbit) from the oil sands (tar sands) of western Canada is increasingly being transported to US markets. North America's largest inland oil spill and the first major oil sands spill in a freshwater environment occurred in 2010, when at least 843,000 gallons leaked from a pipeline into the Kalamazoo River of southwest Michigan. Cleanup of this oil was unusually difficult and protracted, lasting through 2014 and costing over a billion dollars, largely because a substantial fraction of the oil became submersed and deposited in slack water areas over 60 km of river channel, reservoirs, and floodplain backwaters. To investigate the fate of the spilled dilbit from the 2010 Kalamazoo River release, black rings, presumably oil residues, on the bark of dead trees were collected in 2015. These residues were deposited on the trees during high flood levels that have not been observed since the spill and represent an opportunity to constrain weathering processes excluding dissolution. This material contained a major non-GC amenable fraction of 90-95%, presumably oxygenated hydrocarbons. The GC amenable portion was consistent with laboratory weathered dilbit. We used a variety of analytical tools to characterize the dilbit residues, as well as to identify dilbit weathering processes that occurred since the spill.

  12. Quality assessment of biodiesels obtained from pure cooking oils of some feedstocks and their waste oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Ansari, T.M.; Manzoor, S.

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel being a renewable energy resource possesses compositional variability based on the type of feedstock. Biodiesel is considered a cleaner burning fuel and can be used as pure B100 or blended with petro-diesel. In this study, biodiesel was prepared from pure cooking oils (soybean oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, corn oil) and their waste frying oils by base-catalyzed transesterification with methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide. The optimized experimental parameters were applied to achieve the maximum yield of biodiesel. Various fuel properties like kinematic viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, total acid number, specific gravity, water and sediments, conradson carbon residue, sulfur contents, phosphorous contents, sulphated ash, cetane and copper corrosion were determined and found comparable to ASTM standards. Pure cooking oils, their waste frying oils and prepared biodiesels were characterized by FT-IR. The study showed that the biodiesel derived from waste frying oils can be a promising alternative of the biodiesel from pure cooking oils. (author)

  13. Contained controlled burning of spilled oil during the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    During the evening of the second day following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, an estimated 57,000-114,000 liters of North Slope crude oil were eliminated using in-situ combustion. The oil was collected with 3M's Fire Boom towed in a U-shaped configuration behind two fishing boats. Working with 152 m long tow lines, a 137 m boom was moved at ca 0.26-5.2 m/s through slightly emulsified oil patches in the downwind region of the spill. A gelled fuel ignitor was used to ignite the captured oil, and the size and intensity of the blaze was controlled by adjusting the speed of the vessels. Total burn time was ca 1.25 h, however the intense part of the burn lasted for ca 45 minutes. Using several methods to estimate the total volume of oil collected, the volume resulted in ca 1136 liters of stiff, taffy-like burn residue that could be picked up easily on completion of the burn. The controlled burn thus resulted in an estimated 98% or better elimination of crude oil. It had been planned to use a helitorch to ignite the captured oil, however darkness required the use of the gelled ignitor. Had the helitorch been used, numerous ignition points could have been spread througout the contained oil, providing a much more efficient heating and ultimate ignition of the oil. 5 figs

  14. Oil integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela agree in to have a bigger exchange of information, technology and experiences in areas of mutual interest that allow in the future, combined developments of the hydrocarbons industry. In such a sense, ECOPETROL narrowed its relationships with the two powerful Latin American oil enterprises, when suiting in Bogota agreements of mutual collaboration with representatives of the respective state companies. To begin, the company signed a cooperation agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), with the purpose of to narrow the relationships between the two companies and to undertake combined actions in those matters of the oil and petrochemical industry of mutual interest

  15. Unconventional Liquids, Peak Oil and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil is the largest source of primary energy in the world, at 32% of 2014 consumption. Forecasts by the International Energy Agency suggest oil will continue to provide the largest share of global energy through 2040, even with new policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios indicate that between 1.5 and 3.8 trillion barrels of oil will be burnt between 2015 and 2100. Various sources suggest that the world has 5 to 6 trillion barrels of remaining recoverable oil, more than half of which are in low grade deposits. Although oil sands and extra heavy oil are claimed to hold 1.5 trillion barrels, assessments of major deposits in the Canadian oil sands and the Venezuela Orinoco Belt, which hold the bulk of these resources, total less than 500 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Kerogen oil (oil shale), which has never been produced in anything but miniscule volumes, comprises an additional trillion barrels of these estimates. These unconventional deposits are very different from the conventional oil of the past as: - they are rate constrained, as they require massive upfront capital investments and lengthy construction periods, and therefore cannot be scaled up quickly in response to declines in conventional production. - they are expensive, both in terms of cost per barrel and the large energy inputs required for production. The best in situ oil sands deposits may yield an energy return of 3:1 and kerogen oil even less if it ever becomes commercially viable. This compares to 10:1 or more for conventional oil. Shale oil (light tight oil), may yield another 300 billion barrels worldwide, but suffers from high decline rates, expensive wells and limited availability of high quality deposits. The most productive and economically viable portions of these unconventional deposits tend to be exploited first, leaving the less productive, higher cost oil for later. As a result, increasing global oil consumption

  16. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ana Cristi Basile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa, oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus, velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of Cu and Zn through metal organic complex reactions and increased availabilities of S and B through competition with organic anions by the adsorption sites on soil.

  17. Peptides containing internal residues of pyroglutamic acid: proton NMR characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The proton NMR characteristics of internal pyroglutamic acid (Glp; 5-oxoproline) residues in seven tripeptides of the general structure Boc-Xxx-Glp-Yyy-NH 2 were studied. In general, the chemical shifts of several diagnostic protons moved downfield on going from the Glu-containing peptides (Boc-Xxx-Glu-Yyy-NH 2 ) to the corresponding Glp-containing peptides. The C-2 proton of the Xxx residue was shifted by about 1.1 ppm. The N-2 proton of the Yyy residue was shifted by about 0.5 ppm. The C-2 proton of the Glx residue itself was shifted by about 0.5 ppm. One of the Glx C-3 protons was also shifted by about 0.5 ppm, but the other remained essentially unchanged. Finally, the Glx C-4 protons were shifted by about 0.3 ppm. Internal Glu residues are readily converted chemically into internal Glp residues. This conversion also occurs as a side reaction during HP cleavage of the protecting group from Glu(OBzl) residues. The spontaneous fragmentation of serum proteins C3, C4 and λ 2 -macroglobulin under denaturing conditions is probably due to regioselective hydrolysis of an internal Glp residue formed in each of these proteins upon denaturation. These proton NMR characteristics may be useful in establishing the presence of internal Glp residues in synthetic and natural peptides

  18. Residual stresses in weld-clad reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, W.

    1975-01-01

    Cladding of low alloy nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel with austenitic stainless steel introduces in heavy section components high residual stresses which may cause microcrack formation in stress relief heat treatment. In this investigation an attempt is made to contribute to the solution of the stress relief cracking problem by determining quantitatively the magnitude and distribution of the residual stresses after cladding and after subsequent stress relief heat treatment. The distribution of residual stresses was determined on the basis of a combined experimental-mathematical procedure. Heavy section plate specimens of low alloy steel as base material were given an austenitic monolayer-cladding using the techniques of strip electrode and plasma hot wire cladding, respectively. A number of plates was stress relief heat treated. Starting from the cladded surface the thickness of the plates was reduced by subsequent removal of layers of material. The elastic strain reaction to the removal of each layer was measured by strain gauges. From the data obtained the biaxial residual stress distribution was computed as a function of thickness using relations which are derived for this particular case. In summary, lower residual stresses are caused by reduced thickness of the components. As the heat input, is decreased at identical base material thickness, the residual stresses are lowered also. The height of the tensile residual stress peak, however, remains approximataly constant. In stress relief annealed condition the residual stresses in the cladding are in tension; in the base material the residual stresses are negligibly small

  19. A New Era of Oil Abundance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire

    2015-09-01

    From 2014 to 2015, the price of oil fell. The price drop is explained by several factors: a significant increase of oil production in the United States, the resumption of Libyan and Iraqi exports, the possible lifting of sanctions against Iran, and slowing growth in developing countries. The situation is having negative effects on oil-producing countries, but the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) remains divided as to its stance on the situation, making it all the more difficult to predict future trends in oil prices. Reprint of an article published in 'Politique Etrangere', vol. 80, no.4, Winter 2015. (author)

  20. Analysis of the kerogen of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quass, F W; Down, A L

    1939-01-01

    Comments are given on the method developed by F. W. Quass for reducing the amount of mineral matter present in certain coals and oil shales (torbanites). The method consisted of grinding oil shale with water in a porcelain ball mill in the presence of oil. The oil formed a paste with the carbonaceous material, and a greater portion of the mineral matter remained suspended in the water and was separated. Ultimate analyses of the enriched samples indicated that the percent of carbon was higher, the percent of hydrogen and oxygen was lower, and the ratio of carbon to hydrogen and carbon to oxygen increased in the enriched samples.

  1. A New Era of Oil Abundance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    From 2014 to 2015, the price of oil fell. The price drop is explained by several factors: a significant increase of oil production in the United States, the resumption of Libyan and Iraqi exports, the possible lifting of sanctions against Iran, and slowing growth in developing countries. The situation is having negative effects on oil-producing countries, but the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) remains divided as to its stance on the situation, making it all the more difficult to predict future trends in oil prices

  2. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  3. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  4. Residual diesel measurement in sand columns after surfactant/alcohol washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, R.; Gelinas, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new simple gravimetric technique has been designed to determine residual oil saturation of complex hydrocarbon mixtures (e.g., diesel) in sand column experiments because reliable methods are lacking. The He/N 2 technique is based on drying of sand columns by circulating helium gas to drag oil droplets in a cold trap (liquid nitrogen). With this technique, residual diesel measurement can be performed easily immediately after alcohol/surfactant washing and in the same lab. For high residual diesel content in Ottawa sand (25 to 30 g/kg), the technique is much more accurate (± 2% or 600 mg/kg) than the standard analytical methods for the determination of mineral oil and grease. The average relative error on partial diesel dissolution in sand column estimated after alcohol/surfactant flooding (residual saturation of 10 to 15 g/kg) is as low as 5%. The precision of the He/N 2 technique is adequate to compare relative efficiency of washing solutions when partial extraction of residual oil in Ottawa sand columns is performed. However, this technique is not adapted for determination of traces of oil in sediment or for environmental control of contaminated soils. Each diesel determination by the He/N 2 technique costs less than $8 in chemical products (helium and liquid nitrogen). A simple laboratory drying setup can be built for less than $400 which makes this technique valuable for diesel analyses when a large number of tests are required

  5. Behavior of 14C-BHC residues in rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.; Kim, Y.H.

    1981-01-01

    γ-(U- 14 C)-BHC was applied to rice plants grown in a pot and its fate in the growth, polishing and oil-extraction processes of the grain was investigated. The 14 C-activity was absorbed and translocated widely in the plant and the recovery of applied 14 C-activity in the straw and grain was about 2.8%, of which 9.4% was found in the brown rice. The % partitioning of 14 C-residues in bran and polished rice was 12:88 and that in oil and oilcake was 37:63. Characterization of 14 C-residues the presence of γ-BHC, pentachlorocyclohexene, trichlorobenzene and hydrophilic metabolites, whose proportions were different in the straw and grain. (Author)

  6. Oil outlook to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shihab-Eldin, A.; Hamel, M.; Brennand, G.

    2003-01-01

    OPEC's World Energy Model, OWEM, is used to develop the outlook for oil demand and supply to 2020. The reference case assumes world economic growth averaging 3.3 per cent per annum, while OPEC's Reference Basket of seven crudes remains mainly in the target range of US $22-28 a barrel, in nominal terms. With no additional assumed policy measures, for example, to reduce CO 2 emissions, the reference case sees world oil demand rising from 76 million barrels a day in 2000 to 89 mb/d in 2010 and 107 mb/d in 2020. More than three-quarters of this increase comes from developing countries. The most important sector for a demand increase is transportation, accounting for 60 per cent of the rise globally. On the supply side, the oil resource base is not considered a constraint to satisfying this increase in demand. Non-OPEC production is expected to continue to grow during the current decade, and to stabilise at a level of 53-55 mb/d beyond 2010. OPEC production is projected to reach 36 mb/d by 2010 and 52 mb/d in 2020. It is important, however, to recognise the uncertainties pervading such an assessment. For example, it is not clear how future economic growth, energy policies and technology will develop over this time horizon, and this inevitably clouds any assessment of future oil demand and supply. In an attempt to quantify one aspect of such uncertainty, other feasible economic growth rates have been assumed, the results of which suggest that OPEC output by 2010 could be 4-5 mb/d higher or lower than in the reference case, while the range is clearly even greater in the years to 2020. Moreover, policy reactions to such developments could compound the uncertainty. On the other hand, such alternative economic growth could place pressure upon oil prices to move outside OPEC's price band of $22-28/b. These uncertainties illustrate the scope of the challenges confronting the oil industry, especially given the long lead-time nature of oil industry investment, in making

  7. Oil bodies and their associated proteins, oleosin and caleosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gitte I.; Mundy, John; Tzen, Jason T. C.

    2001-01-01

    Oil bodies are lipid storage organelles which have been analyzed biochemically due to the economic importance of oil seeds. Although oil bodies are structurally simple, the mechanisms involved in their formation and degradation remain controversial. At present, only two proteins associated with oil....... (1999) Plant Cell Physiol 40: 1079-1086; Naested et al. (2000) Plant Mol Biol 44: 463-476]. Caleosin and caleosin-like proteins are not unique to oil bodies and are associated with an endoplasmatic reticulum subdomain in some cell types. Here we review the synthesis and degradation of oil bodies...

  8. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  9. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  10. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  11. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  12. 40 CFR 180.482 - Tebufenozide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stem, subgroup 5A 5.0 Brassica, leafy greens, subgroup 5B 10.0 Canola, refined oil 4.0 Canola, seed 2.0..., forage, fodder and hay, group 17 1.0 Vegetable, foliage of legume, group 7 0.20 [60 FR 29347, May 31... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tebufenozide; tolerances for residues...

  13. Treatment of Lignin and Waste residues by Flash Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    pyrolysis properties were compared with the pyrolysis properti es of wood and straw. The PCR treatment of sewage sludge provides an oil that can be used for energy pur poses and a solid residue rich in in organic nutrients that may be used as fertilizer product. By fast pyroly sis of lignin from the IBUS...... be operated at low rotational speed was constructed. The new rotor systems should make it easier to make an up-scaling of the process....

  14. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-3 Burn Pit Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-058

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-11-17

    The 128-B-3 waste site is a former burn and disposal site for the 100-B/C Area, located adjacent to the Columbia River. The 128-B-3 waste site has been remediated to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results of sampling at upland areas of the site also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-24 Spillway. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-051

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 100-B-24 Spillway is a spillway that was designed to serve as an emergency discharge point for the 116-B-7 outfall in the event that the 100-B-15 river effluent pipelines were blocked, damaged, or undergoing maintenance. The site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  17. Pyrolysis Recovery of Waste Shipping Oil Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adibah Wan Mahari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microwave pyrolysis as a recovery method for waste shipping oil. The influence of different process temperatures on the yield and composition of the pyrolysis products was investigated. The use of microwave heating provided a fast heating rate (40 °C/min to heat the waste oil at 600 °C. The waste oil was pyrolyzed and decomposed to form products dominated by pyrolysis oil (up to 66 wt. % and smaller amounts of pyrolysis gases (24 wt. % and char residue (10 wt. %. The pyrolysis oil contained light C9–C30 hydrocarbons and was detected to have a calorific value of 47–48 MJ/kg which is close to those traditional liquid fuels derived from fossil fuel. The results show that microwave pyrolysis of waste shipping oil generated an oil product that could be used as a potential fuel.

  18. Mineral oils, tars. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, A M; Handmarch, E

    1933-08-11

    Hydrocarbon materials such as mineral oils and tars from coal, shale, lignite, or peat are freed from phenols and like oxy-bodies by heating under pressure in a closed vessel to a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect reduction of the oxy-bodies, and then removing the water formed by the reaction. 350/sup 0/ to 400/sup 0/C. for 30 to 60 minutes is suitable. Any wax-like constituents are converted to liquids of lower viscosity and settling point. The product may be fractionated to give light oils and a residue of aviation Diesel fuel. In an example, oil from the low-temperature distillation of coal and having a tar acid content of 30 per cent is treated in a tubular converter at 380/sup 0/C. and 400 lb. per sq. in for 40 min., and the benzine toluol, and xylol distilled; the residue has a tar acid content of only 7.6 per cent.

  19. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  20. (Discussion of) oil pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    The port of Comodora Rivadavia shows signs of long-term oil pollution of a nature which would not be tolerated in relation to the exploitation of North Sea oil. The field is operated by Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (Argentine), produces 70,000 bbl/day of oil from onshore and offshore wells, and has been in operation since 1907. A very marked tideline of bituminous oil residues contaminates the harbor installations and completely covers the pebbles, boulders, and rocks in the inertidal region. This material is of a considerable thickness and has completely obliterated any form of littoral marine life in these habitats. The sandy beach does not show signs of accumulative oil, and it is used as an important recretional area. Since seriously oiled seabirds can be seen, it is surprising that Patagonian crested ducks, king cormorants, and kelp gulls occur in large numbers but show little sign of oil contamination. The Magellan penguin, which is much less abundant locally, may have been much more vulnerable to the oil. Photographs are included.