WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil prospect exploration

  1. PROSPECTING EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082879 Chen Yaoyu(No.3 Geology and Mineral Exploration Team,Gansu Provincial Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development,Lanzhou 730050,China); Gong Quansheng Discussion on the Division of Deposit Scale and the Index of Ore Prospecting(Gansu Geology,ISSN 1004—4116,CN62—1191/P,16(3),2007,p.6—11,4 tables,6 refs.) Key words:prospecting and exploration of mineral

  2. Status and Prospect of Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jiping; Wang Yue; Feng Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    @@ A huge development of offshore oil and gas exploration has been obtained after hard working of more than 30 years.A lot of the large and middle-sized oil/gas fields are successively found to build up several large-scaled offshore oil/gas production areas,which dedicates great contributions for the development of China's economy and society.At the same time,faced difficulties are contiditioned the offshore oil/gas development and utilization.On the whole,the potential in developing offshore oil and gas is excellent with abundant resources of China,although the exploration and development degree is relatively low.

  3. PROSPECTING EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112102 Chen Yiying(Shijiazhuang University of Economics,Shijiazhuang 050031,China);Li Wenbin Automatic Generation of Complicated Fault in Geological Section(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(5),2010,p.7-12,8 illus.,13 refs.)Key words:faults,map compilation The researches of this paper are the basic theories and essential techniques of simulating complicated faults,and a series of approaches are proposed.Based on the practical geological exploration,data types are analyzed and database is normalized.The strata recovering technique is

  4. '95 Achievements in Oil and Gas Exploration and Prospects for 1996

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Guiming; Wang Yuxin

    1996-01-01

    @@ The year of 1995, the last year of the Eighth Five -Year Plan witnessed an overall bumper harvest of the Exploration Bureau. owing to its serious implementation of the working policies of" Speeding up the exploration in the west while consolidating the success in the east" and "Developing oil and gas concurrently" and to the active promotion of modernized exploration and management.

  5. Present Situation and Prospect of Oil Exploration and Development for Sinopec

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yuru; Fan Zheyuan; Zhou Qingfan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Present situation of oil exploration and development Conventional oil exploration and development (1) Resource bases. By the end of 2007,Sinopec has owned 351 exploration blocks in 64 onshore basins and 4 offshore basins,with a total area of 1,027,300 square kilometers (km2).It has also owned 189 production blocks with a total area of 17,009 km2.Among the 351 exploration blocks of Sinopec,there are 117 exploration blocks with a total area of 394,000 km2,accounting for 38.4% of the total of Sinopec's exploration blocks in the 5 onshore basins (including the Bohai Bay,Songliao,Ordos,Tarim and Junggar basins),which are rich in oil and gas resources.

  6. PROSPECTING EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102820 Chen Zhongyun(CNOOC Ltd.Shanghai,Shanghai 200030,China);Chen Hua Using Surfer Automation to Plot Contour Maps(Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1001-1749,CN51-1242/P,31(4),2009,p.409-412,2 illus.,10 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:digital cartography,isopleth maps20102821 Hu Daogong(Institute of Geomechanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100081,China);Patrick J.Barosh Inspirations from the Sino-U.S.Cooperative Geological Mapping in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt:Ideas and Methods(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,28(10),2009,p.1411-1418,5 illus.,14 refs.)Key words:geologic mapping,China,United StatesOn the basis of the practice of the Sino-U.S.cooperative geological mapping in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt and through the comparative analysis of several geological mapping examples completed recently by USGS,the authors have a further knowledge of the method and idea of America geological mapping.The concept of "mapping all lithological unites" hasn’t changed within a difficult course of 130 years along with USGS’s evolution.The mapping method of "geological features guid

  7. Prospecting, exploration and recovery of oil and gas in the Socialist Federated Republic of Yugoslavia for 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahimpasic, I.; Nedeljkovic, V.; Rajkovic, D.

    1982-01-01

    The economy of of the Socialist Federated Republic of Yugoslovia in 1981 experienced definite difficulties, nevertheless the development of the oil and gas industry continued at good rates. Oil recovery increased by 3.4%, and was 4.39 million T, gas recovery increased by 19% and was 2.2 billion m/sup 3/, the increase in the volumes of drilling was 1% (a total of 330,346 running meters of wells were drilled). Decrease in the volumes of imports had a negative effect on the activity of the sector, primarily technical support for drilling operations. A shortage of currency cast doubt on the implementation of plans for the five-year plan (up to 1985) and the subsequent period. Among the positive aspects of drilling one can include increase in the volumes of prospecting and exploratory drilling by 5%, as well as increase in the percentage of productive by 7%.

  8. China's Fruitful Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yan; Wang Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has discovered and proven 10 oil and gas fields with industrial flow in its offshore oil and gas exploration over the part few years. The newly proven oil in place is more than 104million tons and the gas in place is 147.8 billion cubic meters. In addition, other 100 million tons of oil in place are to be confirmed. This shows a bright prospect for sustainable offshore oil and gas development in the Ninth Five-Year Plan period (1996-2000) and the next century.

  9. Oil Resources Potential and Exploration of Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hua; Luo Anxiang; Fu Jinhua; Xi Shengli

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ordos Basin has experienced nearly a century of oil-gas exploration since China's first oil exploratory well (Yan-1 well) was drilled in 1907 in Yanchang County, Shaanxi Province. A good prospect for sustained and steady development of oil and gas was thereby opened based on the efforts made by generations of petroleum geologists and oil workers.

  10. Exploring Oil Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  11. Prospect of Sinopec's Exploration for Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Shengxiang; Zhu Hong; Zhu Tong; Chen Chunfang; Xiao Kaihua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Current state of Sinopec's exploration for natural gas Distnbution of exploration area and resource base Sinopec now owns the exploration right of 364 blocks,with the acreage about one million square kilometers. The company mainly carries out exploration for oil and gas resources in 221, with the acreage about 650,000 square kilometers and taking up 65% of its total exploration area.

  12. STATUS AND PROSPECT OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the exploration and development of natural gas and the increase of crude oil import, the industry of China's Oil and Gas Pipelines has witnessed rapid development. Especially the gas pipeline industry is entering a peak period of development. Thanks to the completion and operation of large-scale pipeline projects including West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline project,Shanxi-Beijing Gas Pipeline Ⅱ, Ji-Ning Pipeline,Huaiyang-Wuhan Pipeline, Guangdong LNG Pipeline,Western Pipeline and Pearl River Delta Oil Product Pipeline, many trans-regional gas and oil pipeline networks with initial scale have been gradually established and improved in China. Meanwhile, the metallurgy,manufacturing and construction level of pipelines has been greatly developed, achieving world top level. The next five years is still a peak period of development for China's gas and oil pipeline industry which will enjoy a broader prospect.

  13. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes. [results of ERTS program for oil exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results from the ERTS program pertinent to exploration for oil, gas, and uranium are discussed. A review of achievements in relevant geological studies from ERTS, and a survey of accomplishments oriented towards exploration for energy sources are presented along with an evaluation of the prospects and limitations of the space platform approach to fuel exploration, and an examination of continuing programs designed to prove out the use of ERTS and other space system in exploring for fuel resources.

  14. Crude oil production prospects for continental Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleby, P. [British Petroleum Co. Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    A medium term view of the prospects for oil production in continental Europe, focusing on the offshore production in UK and Norwegian waters, is presented. The paper begins with a recent history and an overview of current oil production and recent trends. The growth of North Sea production has been important, contributing more than two-thirds of the growth in non OPEC oil production. The development of the Andrew field in the UK North Sea is presented as an example of new management methods succeeding in enhancing the economic viability of oil fields that would otherwise be marginal or non economic The Foinaven field in the new West of Shetlands province illustrates the way in which the combination of technological advances and changes in industry practices is extending the frontiers of commercial viability. Supply projections show North Sea production continuing to grow, but not as rapidly as over the past five years. (author). 7 figs., 8 refs.

  15. The Yemen oil rush: exploration heats up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, J.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of a sizeable oilfield in North Yemen in July 1984 by the Yemen Hunt Oil Company in the first well it drilled marked the beginning of the Yemeni 'oil rush'. Within three years North Yemen was exporting oil to world markets. Meanwhile, in South Yemen the Soviet firm Technoexport announced the discovery of oil in 1987. By early 1990, Yemen was described as one of the hottest exploration plays on the Arabian Peninsula. (author).

  16. Learning through Oil and Gas Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.

    I investigate the importance of learning in oil and gas exploration. I developed a tractable dynamic structural model of oil and gas exploration in which firms gradually learn about the productive qualities of different regions through exploratory drilling. Exploratory drilling is modelled...... the observed geography of exploratory drilling. The broader implications of my model indicate that the structure of information has important effects on drilling behaviour, and that these effects vary, depending on the specific characteristics of the regions being explored....

  17. OIL EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Sečen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Organized exploration of "earth oil" shows started in the 16th century, and the oil production in the middle of the 20th century. The exploration area of the Republic of Croatia is divided into three basins: Pannonian, Dinarides and Adriatic. The most explored is the Panonian Basin, where most oil and gas reserves have been discovered that are continuously being produced. In the Adriatic basin gas reserves have heen discovered but because of the commercial reasons they haven't been used yet. Along with the exploration at home, the perspective areas in foreign contries are being explored more and more with the considerable oil and gas reserves discoveries. Two main products, oil and gas, generate the production of other fuels and raw materials necessary in petrochemical industry: propane, butane, industrial spirit, ethylene, propylene etc. The major part of those products is directly included into the power-supply programme of the Republic of Croatia and they supply 45% of total power needs. Good results in exploration and a high participation of domestic oil and gas in total primary energy supply, direct to the further intense investments in explorations of domestic and perspective foreign areas (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Rooted structuring as key for Southern Apennine oil exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, Anna del; Finetti, Icilio [Trieste Univ. (Italy). EGG

    1999-07-01

    It is Authors' opinion that a key point for the evaluation of the prospect in Southern Apennine, having as target the top of the Apulian Platform, is constituted by the type of the structure involved. That is, if the explored feature is formed by a block rooted with its own basement and practically not or not much displaced, in that case the preservation of the integrity of the reservoir and its oil trapping is possible. But when the explored structure consists of thrust-blocks, disrooted from their basement and prominently displaced, than the resulting reservoir/cover conditions do not allow oil trapping or preservation of oil accumulation. Examples of both types of features are examined. (author)

  19. Basic trends for geological exploration in the Volga-Ural oil and gas province in 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaynbaum, F.Ya.; Kaz' min, L.L.; Khachatryan, R.O.; Konovalenko, F.F.; Polyakov, V.A.; Surovikov, Ye.Ya.; Tkachenko, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    Features are examined of the condition of geological exploration for oil and gas and potential hydrocarbon resources for oil extracting regions of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province. Basic trends are isolated for geological-geophysical and prospecting-exploration work which guarantee an increase in hydrocarbon reserves in the planned period and which create reserves for the subsequent period. The outlook for further increase in effectiveness of geological exploration in the Volga-Ural oil and gas province were indicated.

  20. PROSPECTIVE MODELLING OF OIL SUPPLY IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thameur Necibi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical framework which we are developing refers essentially to Hubbert model in order to determine the peak oil in Tunisia and the exploitation speed of the remaining resources, while referring to the data supplied by the Directorate General for Energy. The study focuses on the comparison between the results of the several econometric adjustment techniques (linear, non-linear techniques, linear techniques with structural change and the non-parametric methods applied to the Tunisian oil production during the period going from 1966 to 2011. The prospective study through the econometric models has allowed us to determine the two dates scaring all energy executives, namely the peak which took place in the middle of the eighties and the finiteness of resources planned in 2028. The obtained results have shown that it remains 495 million barrels to be produced in Tunisia, bearing in mind that the data supplied by the authorities announces the figure of 420 million barrels of the remaining proved reserve in the Tunisian underground. Thereby, we have noticed a strong link between the physical models for reservoir flows and the empirical specifications based on the decline curves.

  1. Global Trends and Development Prospects for Oil and the Oil Products Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorozhkina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the important issue of the development of the global market of oil and oil products. It offers an overview of how this market was formed and its current status, classification, location and potential of countries in the oil and oil processing business. It analyzes the Ukrainian oil products market. The article discusses the shortcomings and strategic areas for the development of Ukraine’s oil transport system. It presents an optimum method for creating integration groups in order to develop the oil processing business in Ukraine for the future. The article considers the main trends and outlines development prospects for the global oil and oil products market.

  2. Dynamic Decision Making for Graphical Models Applied to Oil Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Martinelli, Gabriele; Hauge, Ragnar

    2012-01-01

    We present a framework for sequential decision making in problems described by graphical models. The setting is given by dependent discrete random variables with associated costs or revenues. In our examples, the dependent variables are the potential outcomes (oil, gas or dry) when drilling a petroleum well. The goal is to develop an optimal selection strategy that incorporates a chosen utility function within an approximated dynamic programming scheme. We propose and compare different approximations, from simple heuristics to more complex iterative schemes, and we discuss their computational properties. We apply our strategies to oil exploration over multiple prospects modeled by a directed acyclic graph, and to a reservoir drilling decision problem modeled by a Markov random field. The results show that the suggested strategies clearly improve the simpler intuitive constructions, and this is useful when selecting exploration policies.

  3. Prospect and Exploratory Strategy on Oil & Gas in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Kang

    1995-01-01

    @@ Exploratory Strategy on Oil & Gas in Tibet A guiding ideology In evaluation and selecting prospective oil areas , the preliminary data of geological study and regional economic and geographical conditions should be taken into full consideration. The prospective areas should be sorted out in accordance with the principle of "dealing with easy problems first, and then difficult ones", so as to achieve good exploratory effect as a whole.

  4. Ways to improve oil and gas prospecting in West Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubaikhodzhaev, T.I.

    1981-07-01

    Some innovations in conducting prospecting for oil and gas in the western part of Uzbekistan are described: drilling of single (evaluation, parametric) wells in places where seismic tests have shown some anomalies; reducing drilling time and costs, correct combination of parametric drilling with seismic prospecting. 12 refs.

  5. Oil Market and Prices Prospects for 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Papatulica

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The international crude oil prices started the year 2014 within parameters comparable to those of the precedent year: WTI (USA recorded 92 $/barrel, on the American spot market, considered a minimum value for the last 5 weeks, while Brent (Great Britain had a more stable evolution, on the spot Rotterdam market, staying around a value of 107,50 $/barrel. Despite analysts’ forecasts, which during the last 3 years staked on a lower oil price, as a consequence of the spectacular increase in non-OPEC oil production, namely of shale oil, the international oil price, namely that of Brent, closed each of the last 3 years around the same level, of 108 $/barrel. As for 2014, the great majority of oil analysts estimates again a decline of oil prices, as a result of a significant rise of oil offer globally, which will greatly surpass the demand rise.

  6. Review of Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration in 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)maintained a sustainable and stable growth in oil and gas exploration in 2000, making good preparations for comprehensive offshore natural gas exploration and development in 2001. In the principles of economic performance and self-reliance and cooperation, CNOOC has achieved fruitful results in oil and gas exploration last year.

  7. OIL OUTLOOK:USGS Optimistic on World Oil Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, R A

    2000-07-14

    According to the latest estimates by the U.S. Geological Survey, the world has 20% more oil awaiting discovery in yet-to-be-found fields than the USGS estimated 6 years ago. And a newly analyzed category--oil lurking in and around known fields--offers almost as much additional oil as in those undiscovered reservoirs. But even if the additional oil is really there, pessimists argue that it pushes back the global production peak--and the end of the era of cheap oil--by years, not decades.

  8. 四川盆地南部地区寒武系油气勘探前景%Oil and Gas Exploration Prospects of Cambrian in Southern Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳; 刘树根; 黄文明; 张长俊; 曾祥亮

    2011-01-01

    为明确四川盆地南部地区寒武系常规油气和页岩气的勘探前景,应用岩相学和地球化学分析手段相结合,对研究区中上寒武统娄山组和下寒武统清虚洞组的厚度、孔隙度、渗透率、孔隙类型和下寒武统筇竹寺组的厚度、总有机碳质量分数w(TOC)、镜质体反射率Ro、矿物组分等进行了深入剖析.结果表明:①川南地区烃源岩厚度大(80~100m),w(TOC)高(3%~5%),为一套中—好的过成熟后期阶段烃源岩(Ro为3.0%~4.8%),矿物组分与美国重要页岩气产层Barnett页岩相似,其中石英、长石和黄铁矿的体积分数为31%~50%,黏土矿物体积分数为29%~53%;②威远地区下寒武统九老洞组黑色页岩含气量达0.43~0.86 m3/t;微孔隙发育,主要为粒间孔,孔隙直径达5~10μm,裂缝密度一般为30~50条/m;③中上寒武统娄山组和下寒武统清虚洞组总体上是寒武系最重要的常规储层,储层内部沥青质量分数一般为3%~6%,储集空间主要为粒间溶孔—晶间孔等,平均孔隙度为1.85%,平均渗透率为2.25×10-3μm2;④在川东南地区靠近盆地边缘的斜坡带,寒武系具有较好的常规油气藏勘探前景,而川东南缘和川西南地区筇竹寺组下部具有较大的页岩气勘探潜力.%In order to identify the exploration prospect of Cambrian conventional oil and gas and shale gas in southern Sichuan Basin, this paper, combining the petrographic and geochemical methods, makes a tho-rugh analysis of the thickness, porosity, permeability, porosity type of Middle-Upper Cambrian Loushan-guan Formation and Lower Cambrian Qingxudong Formation, as well as the thickness, TOC, Ro, mineral composition of Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation. The results show that: (1) The hydrocarbon source rocks in southern Sichuan Basin are thick(80 -100 m)and of high organic matter content (3%-5%). It is a set of general-good late-mature stage of hydrocarbon source

  9. Review and Prospect of China's Oil Refining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yun; Zhu He

    2012-01-01

    Prospect of China's oil refining industry during the "12th Five-Year Plan" period The "12th Five-Year Plan" period is critical to China oil refining industry to transform growth mode and grow from big to strong. China oil refining industry will base itself on domestic market demand and maintain rapider development through construction and reconstruction. The total scale will continue to grow, crude runs and product oil output will rise steadily, and the structure and layout of refining units will be further adjusted and optimized. During the period, the number of 10-million-tonnage refineries will rise to about 30, the quality of oil products will be upgraded, overseas interest capability will be improved, and the diversified of oil refining industry will be market competition pattern developed further.

  10. Research and Application of New Methods to Oil-Gas Geochemical Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the results of researches and applications for many years, it has been discovered that new methods and techniques for geochemical exploration of oil and gas such as D C, altered carbonate, Hg in absorption phase, Ks, Fe2+, d 13C, fluorescence in two and three dimensions, and N2 and O2 in heat release can give full play in the following five fields: (1) optimization of the favourable target or hollow zones and structural zones in a region; (2) evaluation of oil traps and delineation of prospective oil and gas areas; (3) prediction of deep-seated oil-bearing horizons; (4) evaluation of the genesis of oil and gas geochemical anomalies and determination of the types of oil and gas accumulations; (5) forecast of the burial depths of oil and gas pools.

  11. Visual Workflows for Oil and Gas Exploration

    KAUST Repository

    Hollt, Thomas

    2013-04-14

    The most important resources to fulfill today’s energy demands are fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas. When exploiting hydrocarbon reservoirs, a detailed and credible model of the subsurface structures to plan the path of the borehole, is crucial in order to minimize economic and ecological risks. Before that, the placement, as well as the operations of oil rigs need to be planned carefully, as off-shore oil exploration is vulnerable to hazards caused by strong currents. The oil and gas industry therefore relies on accurate ocean forecasting systems for planning their operations. This thesis presents visual workflows for creating subsurface models as well as planning the placement and operations of off-shore structures. Creating a credible subsurface model poses two major challenges: First, the structures in highly ambiguous seismic data are interpreted in the time domain. Second, a velocity model has to be built from this interpretation to match the model to depth measurements from wells. If it is not possible to obtain a match at all positions, the interpretation has to be updated, going back to the first step. This results in a lengthy back and forth between the different steps, or in an unphysical velocity model in many cases. We present a novel, integrated approach to interactively creating subsurface models from reflection seismics, by integrating the interpretation of the seismic data using an interactive horizon extraction technique based on piecewise global optimization with velocity modeling. Computing and visualizing the effects of changes to the interpretation and velocity model on the depth-converted model, on the fly enables an integrated feedback loop that enables a completely new connection of the seismic data in time domain, and well data in depth domain. For planning the operations of off-shore structures we present a novel integrated visualization system that enables interactive visual analysis of ensemble simulations used in ocean

  12. Petroleum Discoveries and Exploration Prospect in China's Major Petroliferous Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingfan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Up to now, there are 29 oil-and gas-bearing basins with recoverable oil and gas reserves in China. However,most of the reserves were mainly discovered in parts of the 29 basins, which played an important role in China's petroleum exploration and development.

  13. Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-04

    Statistical Review of World Energy 2004, June 15, 2004; Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA). Caspian Sea Region Country...oil and gas. e Includes Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, and United Kingdom. Sources: BP. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2004. June 15

  14. Deriving optimal exploration target zones on mineral prospectivity maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a quantitative methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. The methodology is demonstrated in the Rodalquilar mineral district in Spain. A subset of known...

  15. BRIGHT PROSPECT FOR CHINA- ARAB OIL COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Now is the perfect time for China and Arab League countries to cooperate more in the oil and gas sector as the development of shale gas in the United States changes the global energy business. The United States produced 180 billion cubic meters of shale gas in 2011, an amount that constituted 34 percent of the coumry's total output of natural gas. As a result, it imported less gas and liquefied natural gas.

  16. Application of geo-microbial prospecting method for finding oil and gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, M. A.; Hasan, Syed Zaheer; Rao, P. L. Srinivasa; Boruah, Annapurna; Sudarshan, V.; Kumar, B.; Harinarayana, T.

    2015-03-01

    Microbial prospecting of hydrocarbons is based on the detection of anomalous population of hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria in the surface soils, indicates the presence of subsurface oil and gas accumulation. The technique is based on the seepage of light hydrocarbon gases such as C1-C4 from the oil and gas pools to the shallow surface that provide the suitable conditions for the development of highly specialized bacterial population. These bacteria utilize hydrocarbon gases as their only food source and are found enriched in the near surface soils above the hydrocarbon bearing structures. The methodology involves the collection of soil samples from the survey area, packing, preservation and storage of samples in pre-sterilized sample bags under aseptic and cold conditions till analysis and isolation and enumeration of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria such as methane, ethane, propane, and butane oxidizers. The contour maps for the population density of hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria are drawn and the data can be integrated with geological, geochemical, geophysical methods to evaluate the hydrocarbon prospect of an area and to prioritize the drilling locations thereby reducing the drilling risks and achieve higher success in petroleum exploration. Microbial Prospecting for Oil and Gas (MPOG) method success rate has been reported to be 90%. The paper presents details of microbial prospecting for oil and gas studies, excellent methodology, future development trends, scope, results of study area, case studies and advantages.

  17. Results of geological prospecting operations for oil and gas in Hrvatia in 1969-1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir, T.; Branimir, M.

    1980-01-01

    In 1969-1979, exploratory and prospecting operations in Hrvatia were conducted at 34 districts which showed promise in terms of the likelihood of oil and gas. Definite advances were achieved both in the area of prospecting and in exploration. Prospecting techniques for non-anticlinal deposits and for testing fissured reservoirs were improved. A significant saving was attained by applying controlled-directional drilling. Discoveries which were made markedly increased the oil and gas reserves in categories A, B, and C. Over the 11-year period, 832 prospecting boreholes were drilled, of which 461 were vertical, 189 inclined, and 182 controlled-directional. The overall length (in meters) of these boreholes amounted to 1,318,272 m; 27.5% of the drilled boreholes were unsuccessful (in the United States, by comparison, in 1969 26.9% of all boreholes did not show positive results). This indicator may be considered acceptable, since Hrvatia deposits are small in size, irregular in shape, and have complicated geological structures. Through the use of controlled-directional drilling, it was possible to retain a large number of already drilled vertical boreholes for subsequent exploitation of producing levels; only 7.24% of the total number of boreholes were eliminated. During this period, a noticeable growth in oil and gas reserves was achieved; within the Pannonnsk basin of Hrvatian, these deposits, increased 51% (oil) and 26% (gas).

  18. Sinopec Encouraged for Oil and Gas Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiuju

    2003-01-01

    @@ Shengli hopeful to find oilfield with 100-millionton reserves A total of 27 wells have been so far drilled in Zhuanghai area of Sinopec Shengli Oil Field with the proven oil in place accumulated to 45.46 million tons. It is hopeful to prove another 50 million tons of oil in place in this region next year so that another oil field with the reserves of 100 million tons is taking shape.

  19. Risk analysis. From prospect to exploration portfolio and back

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, G.M. [Sloan School of Management, MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Improper accounting for covariation of uncertain quantities that characterize prospect, play, basin and corporate exploration portfolio uncertainties can lead to seriously distorted appraisals of exploration and investment risk. The roles played by covariability up the ladder of aggregation from prospect to exploration portfolio are examined. The distinction between systematic risk induced by the dependence of all exploration opportunities on price variation (all boats rising and falling on the tide of prices) and non-systematic or diversifiable risk (geologic and engineering) is highlighted in the context of deciding how to allocate exploration effort among competing exploration opportunities. Valuation of projects that can be flexibly managed over time cannot be correctly valued using probabilistic net present value methods that employ a fixed discount rate. Modern asset value methods derived from the theory of stock options allows correct accounting for flexible timing of exploration and development decisions. An example shows how to employ these methods. 20 refs

  20. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; de Almeida, Arlete Silva; Vieira, Ima C G

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  1. Exploration Potential of Marine Source Rocks Oil-Gas Reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    So far, more than 150 marine oil-gas fields have been found onshore and offshore about 350.The marine source rocks are mainly Paleozoic and Mesozoic onshore whereas Tertiary offshore. Three genetic categories of oil-gas reservoirs have been defined for the marine reservoirs in China: primary reservoirs, secondary reservoirs and hydrocarbon-regeneration reservoirs. And three exploration prospects have also been suggested: (1) Primary reservoirs prospects, which are chiefly distributed in many Tertiary basins of the South China Sea (SCS), the Tertiary shelf basins of the East China Sea (ECS) and the Paleozoic of Tarim basin, Sichuan basin and Ordos basin. To explore large-middle-scale even giant oil-gas fields should chiefly be considered in this category reservoirs. These basins are the most hopeful areas to explore marine oil-gas fields in China, among which especially many Tertiary basins of the SCS should be strengthened to explore. (2) Secondary reservoirs prospects, which are mainly distributed in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic of the Tarim basin, Sichuan basin, Qiangtang basin and Chuxiong basin in western China, of which exploration potential is less than that of the primary reservoirs. (3) Hydrocarbon-regeneration reservoirs prospects, which are chiefly distributed in the Bohai Bay basin, North Jiangsu-South Yellow Sea basin, southern North China basin, Jianghan basin,South Poyang basin in eastern China and the Tarim basin in western China, of which source rocks are generally the Paleozoic. And the reservoirs formed by late-stage (always Cenozoic) secondary hydrocarbon generation of the Paleozoic source rocks should mainly be considered to explore, among which middle-small and small oil-gas fields are the chief exploration targets. As a result of higher thermal evolution of Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks, the marine reservoirs onshore are mainly gas fields, and so far marine oil fields have only been found in the Tarim basin. No other than establishing

  2. Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle; Preece, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The global thirst for vegetable oil can be regarded as one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st Century and interest has intensified with the prospect of biofuels. Palm oil has risen to become the dominant player on the vegetable oil market – and the main recipient of environmental...... scrutiny. Focusing specifically on the Malaysian context, this paper analyses the major environmental, social and economic impacts associated with palm oil production. Drawing on recently published research, publicly available data and a comparison made with a recent sustainability initiative undertaken...... by the hydropower industry – an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector – it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative and one...

  3. Russian Planetary Exploration History, Development, Legacy, Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Russia’s accomplishments in planetary space exploration were not achieved easily. Formerly, the USSR experienced frustration in trying to tame unreliable Molniya and Proton upper stages and in tracking spacecraft over long distances. This book will assess the scientific haul of data from the Venus and Mars missions and look at the engineering approaches. The USSR developed several generations of planetary probes: from MV and Zond to the Phobos type. The engineering techniques used and the science packages are examined, as well as the nature of the difficulties encountered which ruined several missions. The programme’s scientific and engineering legacy is also addressed, as well as its role within the Soviet space programme as a whole. Brian Harvey concludes by looking forward to future Russian planetary exploration (e.g Phobos Grunt sample return mission). Several plans have been considered and may, with a restoration of funding, come to fruition. Soviet studies of deep space and Mars missions (e.g. TMK, ...

  4. Application of local singularity in prospecting potential oil/gas Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Bao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Together with generalized self-similarity and the fractal spectrum, local singularity analysis has been introduced as one part of the new 3S principle and technique for mineral resource assessment based on multifractal modeling, which has been demonstrated to be useful for anomaly delineation. Local singularity is used in this paper to characterize the property of multifractal distribution patterns of geochemical indexes to delineate potential areas for oil/gas exploration using the advanced GeoDAS GIS technology. Geochemical data of four oil/gas indexes, consisting of acid-extracted methane (SC1, ethane (SC2, propane (SC3, and secondary carbonate (ΔC, from 9637 soil samples amassed within a large area of 11.2×104 km2 in the Songpan-Aba district, Sichuan Province, southwestern China, were analyzed. By eliminating the interference of geochemical oil/gas data with the method of media-modification and Kriging, the prospecting area defined by the local singularity model is better identified and the results show that the subareas with higher singularity exponents for the four oil/gas indexes are potential targets for oil/gas exploration. These areas in the shape of rings or half-rings are spatially associated with the location of the known producing drilling well in this area. The spatial relationship between the anomalies delineated by oil/gas geochemical data and distribution patterns of local singularity exponents is confirmed by using the stable isotope of δ13C.

  5. Offshore oil exploration and impact assessment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2016-01-01

    Greenland needs development. Oil and mineral extraction is pursued as a means to achieve economical growth. Fisheries, hunting and tourism are the main pillars in the Greenland economy in 2015. These businesses are however sensitive to potential negative impacts from oil and gas development. Local...... regulation system in relation to oil and gas projects to promote sustainable development. Additional Impact Benefit Agreements (IBA) have to be negotiated between the communities potentially affected, the Government and the oil companies to assure that social investments are made to secure long-term benefits...... for the local communities. In the following sections I present a short description of the current situation in Greenland in relation to oil and gas development, then the Impact Assessment tool is introduced and how the tool is included in the oil and gas project management practice for offshore oil exploration...

  6. Xinjiang Keeps Strong Momentum for Oil Exploration and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Peng

    2001-01-01

    @@ Xinjiang Oilfield Company, as the main exploration area for PetroChina,has been remarkable for its oil and gas exploration results in the recent years.This year, the Oilfield Company focused on the hinterland area of Junggar basin for exploration while striving to make breakthroughs in the southern periphery and step up exploration of the northwestern periphery and eastern area of the basin so that exploration efforts were in full play in the whole basin.

  7. RISK ANALYSIS APPLIED IN OIL EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    This research investigated the application of risk analysis to Oil exploration and production. Essentially ... uncertainty in Oil field projects; it reduces the impact of the losses should an unfavourable .... own merit but since the company has limited funds it can be ..... ference, New Orleans, LA, September 27-30. (1998). 8. Seba ...

  8. Shale Hydrocarbon Prospecting in the Central Part of the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, Renat Kh.; Plotnikova, Irina N.

    2014-05-01

    Until now nobody has prospected or estimated the oil shale resources in Tatarstan, although the high-carbon rocks of Domanikoidtype often became an object of studies dedicated to assessment of the generation potential of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The evaluation of oil-shale deposits in Tatarstan should base on the well-known geological, geochemical and technological criteria. The main, determining conditions for shale oil and gas deposit formation are the following: high content of organic matter (OM) in the rock, and its certain catagenetic maturity; special features of the mineral composition of rocks that contribute to the formation of fractures; and the presence of overlying and underlying impermeable dense strata that ensure the safety of hydrocarbons in the shale series. In Tatarstan, the development prospects of shale oil fields should be associated primarily with the rocks ofDomanikoid formations of Upper Devonian - such as Semiluksky (Domanik) horizon, as well asRechitsky (Mendymsky) horizon and Domanikoid formations of central and side areas of the Kama-Kinel trough system. Studies on Domanikwere started in the middle of the last century, when the Ural-Volga region experienced active interest for oil exploration. Then the research of Domanikoid series was carried out at the Department of Oil and Gas Geology, Kazan State University. Butback then the prospecting was not clearly associated with an estimate of shale oil resources. As revealed during rock geochemical studies of the rock, the average content of organic matter in deposits of Semiluksky and Mendymsky horizons is 8.35 and 2.56 % respectively, which is enough to takethese horizons as the main object of research and resource assessment. The presence of silica rocks and dense limestone in such a large proportion is a favorable factor in terms of assessing the effectiveness of fracturing. So we have a quite clear understanding of how to explore Domanik. In fact, the geological structure of our

  9. PetroChina Domestic Oil Exploration and Development Fruitful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ PetroChina, of which CNPC is the parent company,has continued to focus itself on the main businesses of oil and gas exploration and development at home and achieved remarkable results this year in its various oil and gas fields nationwide. With the efforts concentrated on the basin areas, PetroChina has made important progress in exploration of Sichuan Basin, Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin and Tarim Basin, maintaining a good impetus in the company's oil and gas reserves growth.

  10. Arctic oil exploration Former mayor says yes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleak, J. Sr.

    Alaska's coastal plain can sustain both wilderness values and oil production, says Jeslie Kaleak, Sr., former mayor of North Slope Borough in Borrow, Alaska. Kaleak is director is Barrow Operations for North Slope Regional Corporation. Nevertheless, Kaleak contends, [open quotes]the people in the Lower 48 want to keep us from developing this land because of some preconceived notion of the land as a wilderness paradise.[close quotes] Kaleak insists that the Inupiaq people, American Indians inhabiting the Northern Slope region, have provided for their families for thousands of years by turning to the natural environment. Their decision to support oil development is no different. Kaleak contends that the mineral and oil wealth of the North Slope has allowed the Inupiaq people to improve their standard of living drastically. Oil development on the coastal plain, Kaleak contends, could provide similar economic benefits. [open quotes]We cannot define our lives by the vision of distant people who view the North Slope as one great outdoor Disneyland where...all resources remain off limits to us,[close quotes] Kaleak concludes.

  11. Oil exploration. Oil reservoir engineering; Sekiyu no kaihatsu. Choryuso kogaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, H. [Teikoku Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    This study is to estimate the amount of oil/gas economically producible and to discuss the increase of the amount. The reservoir rock is stuffed with rock particles, and there are impermeable and dense rocks called cap rock on the side wall and top board. Since the size of void of the reservoir is very small, the volume which oil can actually occupy largely decreases because of the existence of surface tension and water film (20-40% of the volume is occupied by water). The rate of the fluid occupying in reservoir space is called the fluid saturation rate. The primitive reserve is a static volume, but the minable reserve, which is related to economical efficiency, is a dynamic volume which changes according to conditions such as the technical progress. To predict a minable reserve is to predict a production amount under a developmental plan, estimate an income, and find out the time of disposal of the oil/gas field (economical limit). To ask for a certain level of accuracy, it is indispensable to simulate the reservoir. To add an element of time to the material balance, the equation of flow including the permeability rate is solved. The paper also described measures to increase minable reserves

  12. Reef Oil and Gas Exploration Status in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Xiaodi; Zhao Bangliu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Reef and beach reservoir has greal exploration significance Oil and gas resources are rich in reef reservoir.Statistics of the International Chemistry Industry Association(CIA)in 1977 show that recoverable reselwes of the reefbeach oil and gas fields that have been discovered in the world were 100 and 120 billion barrels of oil equivalent(BOE),which accounted for about 19% of proved and probable reserves in all types of reservoirs in the world,about 47% of proved recoverable reserves of all limestone reservoirs.

  13. Analyses on Prospects and Influence of U.S. Shale Oil Exploration and Production%美国页岩油勘探开发前景展望及其影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗佐县

    2014-01-01

    对国内外页岩油的概念进行了系统分析,梳理了美国页岩油勘探开发历程,将其划分为发现阶段、认识突破阶段和快速发展阶段三个阶段。之后从剩余资源量、证实储量以及产量三个层次分析了美国页岩油产业发展的资源基础,认为美国页岩油产业具有良好的发展潜力。对美国页岩油产业的发展环境进行了分析,认为美国政府的扶持以及页岩油气潜力对国内外大量资金的吸引是美国页岩油产业在新时期发展的根本保障。最后,对美国页岩油产业的发展路径以及全球影响进行了分析和展望。%The concept of shale oil is systematically defined in the paper. The history of shale oil E&P in USA is divided into three periods including finding period, surmounting knowing period and fast development period. Based on data of remaining res-ources, proved reserves and production, a conclusion that U.S. has a big potential on shale oil production is drawn. Afterwards, the development environment of shale oil industry is analyzed. By which, government support and shale oil potential are the funda-mental guarantees of shale oil industry in the new period of development to attract a great amount of amount at home and abroad in the U.S. Finally, the future development path and global influence of shale oil industry is forecasted.

  14. Prospecting and exploration of deposits of ores, useful minerals and rocks (Vademecum 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokop, F.W.; Streck, W.; Sagheer, M.; Tschoepke, R.W.; Walther, H.W.; Pietzner, H.; Stadler, G.; Vogler, H.; Werner, H.

    1981-01-01

    Geologists and practical men are given instructions for prospecting and exploring deposits of ores, industrial minerals and useful rocks. The improvements and innovations of the prospecting and exploration technologies as well as the production and processing methods are considered.

  15. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  16. 77 FR 9962 - Information Collection; Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection; Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas... paperwork requirements in the regulations under Prospecting for Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on...: 30 CFR Part 580, Prospecting for Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer...

  17. Geology, Murzuk oil development could boost S. W. Libya prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D. (Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom))

    1995-03-06

    With the recent involvement of Repsol, Total, and OMV in developing the 2 billion bbl oil-in-place Murzuk field complex, an infrastructure will be finally constructed in western Libya which will act as a precursor to more exploration activity and development projects in the Murzuk and Ghadames basins. Murzuk, an intra-cratonic sag basin, is a huge ladle-shaped structural basin covering more than 400,000 sq km and extending beyond the borders of southern Libya. The structure of the area is quite simple. The sub-horizontal or gently dipping strata are faulted and the faults are most frequently parallel to the anticlinal axis. Tectonic movements affected the basin to a greater or lesser degree from early Paleozoic (Caledonian) to post-Eocene (Alpine) times. The paper describes the exploration history; stratigraphy; the Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian, and Carboniferous reservoirs; source rocks; oil gravity and gas content; hydrogeologic constraints; aquifer influence on hydrocarbon accumulation; geologic structures; Murzuk field development; and acreage availability.

  18. Review and Prospect of China's Oil Refining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Driven by the steady and rapid development of domestic economy and the rapid growth of oil demand in recent years, China's oil refining industry has overcome the influence of fluctuating international crude oil price and international financial crisis, and witnessed rapid increase in refining capacity and continuous rising of processed crude oil and production of gasoline,

  19. Oil and gas exploration near Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grow, J.A.; Barker, C.E. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Harris, A.G. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Three oil exploration wells were drilled within 20 km of Yucca Mountain in 1991. Conodont samples from two of these new wells and 190 locations near Yucca Mountain and have been analyzed for color alteration indices (CAI), which can be correlated to thermal maturity and petroleum generation. Cambrian through Triassic rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain have experienced temperatures too high to be capable of generating oil, except for a narrow zone (20 x 100 km) northeast of Yucca Mountain, where Mississippian through Triassic rocks are just within the upper limit of the oil generating window. Organic geochemical samples from the Mississippian Eleana Formation in this zone have low total organic carbon and low hydrogen indices, which, combined with overall pattern of CAI values, indicates that the entire Cambrian through Triassic sedimentary column is unfavorable as oil source rocks. While much of the Cambrian through Triassic rocks have thermal potential for gas, extensive Late Tertiary faulting at Yucca Mountain suggest that seals might be inadequate for retaining gas. No commercial gas fields have been found to date in Nevada or adjacent parts of California. Organic geochemistry on samples from a few Tertiary lacustrine deposits do show high carbon and hydrogen indices. However, the lacustrine deposits in these basin and range type valleys lack long range continuity and none of the present Nevada oil fields produce from such Tertiary valley-fill.

  20. ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

  1. Oil Policy Key to Onshore Exploration and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Staff Commentator

    1997-01-01

    @@ The development of energy industry holds the key to the national economic growth and social stability both in developed and developing countries. Chinese Premier Li Peng has recently stressed once more the importance of energy industry in national economy. As for the oil and gas sector, Premier Li pointed out that China's petroleum industry should adhere to the policy of keeping production stable in East China while accelerating exploration and development in West China.

  2. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  3. Airborne Shortwave Infrared Spectral Remote Sensing as a Direct Prospecting Method for Oil and Gas Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柏林

    1994-01-01

    The spectral characters of hydrocarbons in some oil-bearing strata and soil layers ouer oil and gas reservoirs in the Junggar Basin and northern Tarim Basin in Xinjng are compared with those of chemically pure hydrocarbons.The hydrocarbons are characterized by the bi-absorption at 2310nm and 2350nm.Hydrocarbon and radioactive anomalies in oil and gas terrains are found much more widespread than carbonate alterations.Based on the spectra of heavy hydrocarbons related to oil between 2270nm and 2460nm and refined data treatme nt, remote sensing may hold encouraging promise as a directly prospecting technique for oil and gas resources.

  4. Status and Prospects of Petroleum Exploration and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jiping

    2008-01-01

    A new system facing petroleum industry market has been initially established after the recognition and institutional shift of three oil giants, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec) and China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) in 1998.

  5. Oil and gas prospecting on the western pericline of the South Emba elevation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristarov, M.G.; Gribkov, V.V.; Kalugin, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    Based on geological interpretation of seismic time sections MOGT, analysis of the history of geological development and spatial distribution of industrial accumulations of oil, recommendations are made for the setting up of oil prospecting wells on the western pericline of the south Emba elevation.

  6. The prospects of oil occurrence of the upper Permian and Triassic layers in the Michaiusk area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabushin, A.A.; Turchaninov, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    Oil manifestations in the upper Permian and Triassic deposits in the Michaiusk area are analyzed. In the Triassic deposits, the T-1 layer is identified, and it is recommended as a first order objective for the set up of prospect developing operations in the search for oil.

  7. A model of crude oil production: The roles of physics, exploration, and site development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmanis, Maris

    I propose an integrated model of the behavior of a profit-maximizing crude oil producer. I show that the producer's optimization program can be decomposed into an extraction program, which is subject to physical constraints, an investment level program, a development timing program, and an exploration program for new prospects. In the extraction program, I find that it is optimal to extract oil at the maximal feasible rate, unless prices are expected to rise steeply. I also show that such a price process can arise in equilibrium and that prices in such an equilibrium grow at a rate determined by the decrease rate of the maximal feasible extraction rate. In the investment level program, I find that optimal investment is always increasing in the size of the field and, if the current price of oil net of extraction costs is positively related to future net prices, the investment level is also increasing in the net price. In addition, investment increases in the current technology level, unless technological improvements carry very bad news about future prices. Optimal development timing generally has an ambiguous relation to current shock values, and fields are not necessarily developed in a monotonic order by size. However, I establish conditions on the shock process under which development is more likely to occur in higher-price, lower-cost, and higher-technology states and show that the same conditions also ensure that larger fields are developed first. Under the same conditions that ensure monotonic development time dynamics, I show that it is optimal to explore fields in stochastically decreasing order of size and that the total number of prospects explored in a play in a given period responds positively to prices and technology, but is generally declining over the lifetime of the play. The model replicates a number of industry facts. First, crude oil producers respond to price and cost shocks primarily at the extensive margin, by adjusting exploration and

  8. The current situation and prospect of oil steel pipe in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; He-lin; JI; Ling-kang; XIE; Li-hua

    2005-01-01

    The oil steel pipe in the petroleum industry is very important for its high price, large consumption volume and great effect on thedevelopment of petroleum industry. The oil steel pipe mainly includes oil well pipe (drill pipe, drill collar, casing and tubing etc. ) and oil-gas transportation pipe. This paper is an attempt to make a comprehensive review on the current situation and prospect of the oil steel pipe in China, presenting the past , today and future of the China oil pipe.The first section is a historical review of the China oil pipe. The developing course and progress of the oil steel pipe products are presented. The second section is about the current situation of the China oil pipe. The general situation of the China's steel pipe corporation and their products types,capability, etc. is introduced. The third section is about the prospect of the China oil pipe. This part mainly describes the new product research and development in China steel pipe corporations,which are facing more and more strict technical requirements of the petroleum industry in oil pipe,and reveals the prosperity of China's steel pipe corporations.

  9. Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil, camelina oil and algal oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-07-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid (FFA) is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids. To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system. In addition, CFD simulation with ANSYS-CFX was used to model the performance and reactant/product separation in the continuous, counter-flow reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, water-to-oil ratio (ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate), and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Optimization of these parameters has resulted in an improved, continuous process with high mass yields (89-93%, for reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1) and energy efficiency (76%, for reactor temperature of 250°C and water-to-oil ratio of 2:1). Based on the product quality and energy efficiency considerations, the reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1 have provided the optimal condition for the lab scale continuous hydrolysis reaction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  10. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  11. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil

  12. Re-evaluation of Oil/Gas Exploration in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhaocai

    1997-01-01

    @@ Industrial oil flow was discovered in Well Shacan No.2ten years ago. This breakthrough has attracted a great attention from various industrial sectors, thus promoting the formulation of the policy of "prospecting and developingnew oil/gas fields in West China". The breakthrough and the subsequent oil production in areas of Lunnan, Tazhong and Shaxi, and especially, the geographical location of Tarim Basin, have aroused much interest from petroleum geologists as well as oil corporations, big or small, in the world.

  13. Oil/Gas Exploration Prospects for Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhengzhang; Li Yongtie; Ye Hefei

    1997-01-01

    @@ As an important part of the Tethys, Tibet Plateau is prominent in the global geology tectonics. However, due to the limitation of local geographic conditions, the degree of geological study in this region is low, especially in the field of marine Mesozoic petroleum geological study.

  14. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Development Prospect of Oil & Gas Pipelines of CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yaorong; Chen Hao; Zhang Jinjun; Zhang Kegang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Technology progress of oil & gas pipelines transportation project of CNPC since the 11th Five-Year Plan period An introduction to oil & gas pipelines transportationproject As a large industrious system, pipelines transportation industry is playing a more and more important role in oil and natural gas industry even in the world economy.Thanks to the efforts of 40 years, substantial progress has been achieved in the oil & gas pipelines construction in China. Till now, long distance oil & gas transportation trunk pipelines with large caliber have been completed one after another, with a total length exceeding 50 thousand kilometers (kin). CNPC boasts a long distancel and oil transportation pipeline of 30 thousand km.

  16. Oil shale in the United States: prospects for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabenstott, M.; Duncan, M.; Borowski, M.

    1984-05-01

    The development of an oil shale industry has had its ups and downs throughout this century. Despite vast reserves of recoverable shale oil, energy prices usually have been high enough to make extraction of that oil commercially viable. The tripling and then tripling again of world oil prices in the 1970s gave initial promise that development had become economically feasible. After only a few years of rapid development activity, however, the effort was brought to a near-halt by falling world oil prices. The results were a substantial reduction in economic activity for northwestern Colorado and, maybe more importantly, sharply lower expectations for the region's future economic growth. In both the upturn and the downturn, the local public sector was essentially shielded from financial stress because the energy companies helped fund public spending on infrastructure and services. The future for oil shale remains uncertain. A few energy companies continue to pursue their development plans. To spur development of commercial scale plants, Synthetic Fuels Corporation has made loan and price guarantees to energy firms. Some projects may soon be extracting oil, providing needed technological and financial information on various techniques of oil extraction. But the future for oil shale remains clouded by uncertainties regarding the cost of producing syncrude and future oil prices. Environmental issues could also hamper oil shale development. Therefore, oil shale remains, as it has for more than a century, a technical and economic enigma that has only begun to be understood and developed. 8 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  17. THE SITUATION OF IRAQI OIL INDUSTRY AND ITS PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Dulaimi Haidar Ali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is a major oil producer and exporter(the second one after Saudi Arabia, member of OPEC and was able to reform its oil sector and to gradually pass to a market economy system, by restructuring and privatizing its oil production, processing and distribution. Some medium term and long term priorities set for economic development are presented in the article and also investment and business opportunities existing for domestic and foreign investors.

  18. PETROCHINA'S OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION PROGRESS IN 1ST HALF OF 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ling

    2001-01-01

    @@ Oil and gas exploration situation PetroChina has launched 138 oil and gas exploration projects in total in 2001 with the plans to have additional oil recoverable reserves of more than 80 million tons and additional natural gas recoverable reserves of 60 billion cubic meters.

  19. Oil exploration oriented multi-sensor image fusion algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaobing, Zhang; Wei, Zhou; Mengfei, Song

    2017-04-01

    In order to accurately forecast the fracture and fracture dominance direction in oil exploration, in this paper, we propose a novel multi-sensor image fusion algorithm. The main innovations of this paper lie in that we introduce Dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) in data fusion and divide an image to several regions before image fusion. DTCWT refers to a new type of wavelet transform, and it is designed to solve the problem of signal decomposition and reconstruction based on two parallel transforms of real wavelet. We utilize DTCWT to segment the features of the input images and generate a region map, and then exploit normalized Shannon entropy of a region to design the priority function. To test the effectiveness of our proposed multi-sensor image fusion algorithm, four standard pairs of images are used to construct the dataset. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve high accuracy in multi-sensor image fusion, especially for images of oil exploration.

  20. Exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in Germany in 2011; Exploration und Produktion von Erdoel und Erdgas in Deutschland 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, Michael [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie, Hannover (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    This article presents an overview of oil and gas exploration and production in Germany in 2011. The report is based on data gathered on a regular basis by the State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) from the oil and gas companies and the other state mining offices. An increase in exploration activities due to the granting of new licences was not observed so far. In contrast, the amount of geophysical prospecting for oil and gas was below average and the number of new exploration wells decreased. Three 3D seismic surveys were conducted; all of them were located in Southern Germany. Neither 2D seismic data nor gravimetric or geomagnetic data were acquired. In 2011 ten new exploration wells were drilled compared to thirteen wells in 2010. Another fifteen exploration wells were drilled to total depth already before 2011, but not completed by final well results. In 2011 eight new field wildcats were completed. Two of these wells discovered gas and five of these wells were completed successfully. One well was not successful. Another five exploration wells (new pool tests) were completed. Four of these wells confirmed the presence of gas and one well the presence of oil. The number of new field development wells doubled to 46 compared to 2010. In addition to that number, another seven wells were drilled to total depth already before 2011, but not completed by final well results. 33 wells were completed successfully and encountered oil or gas pay zones. The total drilling meterage increased significantly to 73,272 m compared to 51,411 mof the previous year. This was the highest level since 1998. The natural gas production continued its downward trend in 2011. Due to the depletion of gas fields, the annual natural gas production dropped by 5%compared to the previous year and amounted to 12.9 billion m{sup 3} (field quality). The annual crude oil production increased by 6.6% to 2.7 million t, primarily due to the increase in production from the Mittelplate

  1. Oil and Gas Exploration Planning using VOI Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskova, D. N.; Sizykh, A. V.; Rukavishnikov, V. S.

    2016-03-01

    Paper deals with actual problem about making decisions during field development. The main aim was to apply method “Value of information” in order to estimate the necessity of field exploration works and show the effectiveness of this method. The object of analysis - field X, which is located in the Eastern Siberia. The reservoir is B13 formation of Vend age. The Field has complex structure, and divided into blocks by faults. During evaluation of the project, main uncertainties and oil in place were obtained for three blocks of the field. According to uncertainty analysis, it was suggested to drill a new exploration well, and value of information method was applied to estimate results from this exploration works. Economic evaluation of the value of information method was made by choosing optimal development strategy. According to the obtained results, drilling of the exploration wells for blocks 1 and 3 of the field X is a good decision, while drilling a well in the second block is risky and not recommended. Also using the value of information, optimal well locations were advised - well l_le for the first block, and well 33 for the third block.

  2. Exploration Potential of Atectonic Oil-gas Pools in the Northern Shelf Basin of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuWeilin; WangZhenfeng; LvMing

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale oil exploration has been done and large quantities of oil-gas fields have been found in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea for more than 20 years. The tectonic oil-gas pools are the main type. With the exploration to be deepened, looking for atectonic oil-gas pools is listed in China's exploration strategy. There are advantages for the forming of atectonic oil-gas pools in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea. Because the level of water has been frequently changing within all historical periods, lithozones are changed alternately in both vertical and lateral directions and formed lithologic deposition especially at low water level stages, such as the low-lying fans of basin-floor fans and slope fans. Due to frequent tectonic movement within all historical periods, many structural surfaces and structural unconformities were formed. At the same time, they also formed many kinds of structural unconformity oil-gas pools. According to our exploration and research, the promising areas of atectonic reservoirs within marine basins include: (1) the basin-floor fan of the deep water district, such as the central depression of the Southeast Qiong basin and Baiyun sag in the Zhujiangkou basin; (2) the frontal area of the large ancient delta, such as the Lingao structural belt in the Yingge Sea basin and Huizhou sag in the Zhujiangkou basin; (3) the unconformity pinchout belt or denudation belt in the slope area and the uplift area, for instance, the Yingdong slope belt in the Yingge Sea basin and Yacheng 13-1 structural belt in the southeast Qiong basin. All this proves that the prospects for atectonic oil-gas pools in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea are very broad.

  3. Current State and Development Trends of Deep Sea Oil and Gas Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenli

    2011-01-01

    As people probe deeply into submarine exploration and development of oil, gas hydrates and other mineral reserves, deepwater oil and gas development has become a hotspot for world petroleum industry and the frontier of technological innovation. In the past few years, petroleum companies engaged in deep sea exploration put more effort on exploration and development of marine resources.

  4. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  5. EXPLORATION GEOCHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070497 Wang Shuangqing (National Research Center of Geoanalysis, Beijing 100037, China); Sun Weilin Review on Methodology in Oil and Gas Geochemical Exploration (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11-2131/TD, 24(4), 2005, p.271-276, 40 refs.) Key words: geochemical prospecting of oil and gas

  6. Prospects for using methods to increase oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, B.; Voll, L.

    1985-01-01

    Due to the increase in demand and the unbalancing of the oil market, the introduction in the early 1970s into oil field practice of methods for more effective development became justified from an economic standpoint as well. However, the cited methods did not become as common as expected and their commercial use on a worldwide scale is unresolved, as before. Methods for increasing oil production of strata are analyzed, the basic criteria for their suitability are presented and the factors which limit their expansion are examined. Experience acquired in the United States as a result of commercial experiments on methods for thermal and chemical development and development by pumping gas is cited. It is shown that the cited methods may be effective even in conditions which are different from the general cases. Attention is directed to the economic effects from the use of new methods and the expected trends in the development of them both in Hungary and abroad are outlined.

  7. VolumeExplorer: Roaming Large Volumes to Couple Visualization and Data Processing for Oil and Gas Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/; In this paper, we present a volume roaming system dedicated to oil and gas exploration. Our system combines probe-based volume rendering with data processing and computing. The daily oil production and the estimation of the world proven-reserves directly affect the barrel price and have a strong impact on the economy. Among others, production and correct estimation are linked to the accuracy of the subsurface model used for predicting oil reservoirs shape and size...

  8. Exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in Germany in 2012; Exploration und Produktion von Erdoel und Erdgas in Deutschland 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, Michael [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    This article presents an overview of oil and gas exploration and production in Germany in 2012. The report is based on data gathered on a regular basis by the State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) from the oil and gas companies and the other state mining offices. Due to the granting of new licences in the last years, a significant increase of geophysical prospecting of the subsurface for oil and gas deposits was observed. Six 3D seismic surveys were conducted. Five surveys were located in the Upper Rhine Valley and one in the lowlands of Northwest Germany. 2D seismic data were acquired in Lusatia (Brandenburg) and at the coast of the Baltic Sea. The number of exploration wells decreased once again. In 2012 nine exploration wells were drilled, compared to ten in the previous year. In addition to that number, another seven exploration wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. None of the ten new field wildcats were completed by result. Three exploration wells (appraisal wells) were completed successfully. Two of these wells confirmed the presence of gas and one the presence of oil. The number of development wells decreased significantly. In 2012 31 wells were drilled, compared to 46 in the prominent year 2011. Another 13 wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. 31 wells were completed successfully. 30 of these wells encountered oil or gas pay zones. In 2011 drilling meterage has reached its highest value since 1998. In contrast the total drilling meterage decreased slightly by less than 2000 m to 71,424 min 2012. The natural gas production continued its downward trend. Due to the depletion of gas fields, the annual natural gas production dropped by 9.1% compared to the previous year and amounted to 11.7 billion m{sup 3} (field quality). After the increase in 2011, the annual crude oil production decreased by 2.1% to 2.6 million

  9. Aquathermolysis of crude oils and natural bitumen: chemistry, catalysts and prospects for industrial implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanyan, B. P.; Petrukhina, N. N.; Kayukova, G. P.; Nurgaliev, D. K.; Foss, L. E.; Romanov, G. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of studies of alterations in the elemental and SARA compositions and physicochemical and rheological properties of highly viscous heavy crude oils upon catalytic and non-catalytic aquathermolysis are generalized. The chemistry of transformations of model hydrocarbons and heteroatomic compounds in aqueous media at high temperature, including subcritical and supercritical conditions, is considered. Comparative analysis of methods for activation of oil conversion via aquathermolysis using hydrogen donors, oil-soluble and water-soluble nanodispersed catalysts, ionic hydrogenation processes and various ways for reservoir heating is presented. Problems and prospects of oil-field implementation of catalytic aquathermolysis for upgrading heavy oils and natural bitumen are discussed. The bibliography includes 234 references.

  10. Potentials and Exploration Prospect of China's Hydrocarbon Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYiwei

    2004-01-01

    The potentials of China's hydrocarbon resources has risen as an important factor influencing the current policies of the country. China's oil industry is a developing industry. Gas reservoirs can be classified in light of their accumulation mechanisms into six types: water-sealed gas, hydrate, dissolved gas, conventional entrapped gas, capillary gas and adsorbed gas.

  11. Development of Geophysical Prospecting for Oil Onland in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Banggan

    1994-01-01

    @@ China is Developing Geopysical Market CNPC, as a state petroleum corporation onland oil industry,owns 260 seismic crews and 24non-seismic geophysical and geochemical crews. About one third of the seismic crews use 240 and more channel recorders,imported and home-made.

  12. Identifying the Prospective Area of Sulfide Groundwater within the Area of Palvantash Oil and Gas Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Zhurayev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology of prospecting for sulfide groundwater in the area of Palvantash oil fields. In result of study allowed determining the favorable conditions for the sulfide waters formation, and mapping the areas of different sulfide water concentration. The relatively permeable areas were established and the water borehole positions were recommended.

  13. 76 FR 52963 - Information Collection Activity: Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ...: Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer Continental Shelf, Revision of a... for Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer Continental Shelf (OMB No. 1010-0072), and... Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer Continental Shelf. BOEMRE Form(s): 0134. OMB...

  14. The Progress of Oil and Gas Exploration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Guiming

    1994-01-01

    @@ The discovery and utilization of oil and gas has a histroy of more than 2000 years in China. From the first oil well drilled by morden equipment in Miali, Taiwan Province in 1878 to the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, 29 million tons of crude oil reserve had been proved, and the preliminary theory of continental oil generation had been put forvward.

  15. REVIEW AND PROSPECT OF CHINA'S OIL MARKET IN 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jinshuang; He Chunyan

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the beginning of 2009,although Chinese government introduced a series supportive measures on economic policy,the domestic macroeconomics showed an obviously decrease along with the further development of global financial crisis to real economy.In addition,the domestic industrial production declined as the imports and exports in foreign trade decreased a lot.Due to the needs of domestic oil market dropped off greatly,the fluctuation of market operation movement intensively,leading to a decreased benefit of industry.Since the last ten-day period of March,the trend of macroeconomic of China presented kind of stable the rally situation accompany with the recoverable market requirements.However,the market still has chance to be weaken though the resource supply of product oil sufficiently in second half of 2009.

  16. AUTOMATED MOBILE FACILITY FOR QUANTITY ESTIMATION OF RAW OIL AND OIL GAS, PROSPECTED FROM SUBSOIL

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this article some aspects of the development of automated mobile control facility (MCF), aimed for estimation of raw oil and oil gas quantity that are retrieved from subsoil and transferring data on the estimation results and their indication on central dispatcher’s point.

  17. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  18. Designing tools for oil exploration using nuclear modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauborgne Marie-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing nuclear tools for oil exploration, one of the first steps is typically nuclear modeling for concept evaluation and initial characterization. Having an accurate model, including the availability of accurate cross sections, is essential to reduce or avoid time consuming and costly design iterations. During tool response characterization, modeling is benchmarked with experimental data and then used to complement and to expand the database to make it more detailed and inclusive of more measurement environments which are difficult or impossible to reproduce in the laboratory. We present comparisons of our modeling results obtained using the ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/B-VII cross section data bases, focusing on the response to a few elements found in the tool, borehole and subsurface formation. For neutron-induced inelastic and capture gamma ray spectroscopy, major obstacles may be caused by missing or inaccurate cross sections for essential materials. We show examples of the benchmarking of modeling results against experimental data obtained during tool characterization and discuss observed discrepancies.

  19. Exploring students' prospective memory inside and outside the lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul Y; Mayhorn, Christopher B

    2008-01-01

    This study compared activity-based intentions with event- and time-based intentions. Forty-five participants completed a laboratory session that tested activity-, event-, and time-based prospective memory. Participants were then asked to keep a record of their planned academic and work-related activities for 1 week. Results revealed a main effect of context such that participants were better at performing intentions in the naturalistic setting than in the laboratory. A strong trend of intention type showed that event-based tasks were more likely to be performed than activity- and time-based tasks. An interaction of context and intention type suggested that participants were significantly better at performing time-based tasks in the naturalistic setting than in the lab. Nearly half of the participants reported using simple memory aids such as alarm clocks, parent or friend reminders, or other external cues. Strikingly, very few reported using electronic devices to aid their memory for future intentions.

  20. First steps in exploring prospective exome sequencing of consanguineous couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeuw, Marieke; Waisfisz, Quinten; Zwijnenburg, Petra J G; Sistermans, Erik A; Weiss, Marjan M; Henneman, Lidewij; ten Kate, Leo P; Cornel, Martina C; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Consanguinity is one of the most frequent risk factors for congenital disorders. In theory, prospective exome sequencing of consanguineous couples could identify couples who both are carriers of autosomal recessive diseases, and empower such couples to make informed reproductive decisions. To investigate this, we sent blood samples to our laboratory of four pairs of consanguineous parents having one or more children affected by an autosomal recessive disorder, without revealing any diagnostic information. The study was restricted to find identical, previously described, or evidently pathogenic mutations in both parents of each couple, in over 400 genes known to result in severe autosomal recessive disorders. Out of the six autosomal recessive disorders known to the four couples studied, two were correctly identified. Carrier status of one not previously known autosomal recessive disorder was discovered. As expected, given the pipeline used, large deletions, mutations in genes not present in the gene list, mutations outside the exons and consensus splice sites, and mutations that were not evidently pathogenic and previously not reported, were not identified. The restriction to detecting only couples with identical mutations diminishes the risk of revealing unsolicited findings and shortens the time needed for analysis, but also results in missing couples with different mutations in the same gene. In addition to the proposed pipeline, couples should be offered testing for carrier status of frequent disorders that can present themselves by large deletions, non-exonic mutations or compound heterozygous mutations (e.g. thalassemia, spinal muscular atrophy, cystic fibrosis). Even though sensitivity is reduced, offering exome sequencing prospectively will increase reproductive options for consanguineous couples.

  1. Offshore oil exploration and impact assessment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2016-01-01

    Greenland needs development. Oil and mineral extraction is pursued as a means to achieve economical growth. Fisheries, hunting and tourism are the main pillars in the Greenland economy in 2015. These businesses are however sensitive to potential negative impacts from oil and gas development. Local...... benefits are expected to derive from oil and gas projects, but these benefits cannot be achieved without careful planning and project management. To secure that negative impacts are mitigated and that positive outcomes are achieved, Impact Assessments (IA) have been implemented as in the Greenlandic...... regulation system in relation to oil and gas projects to promote sustainable development. Additional Impact Benefit Agreements (IBA) have to be negotiated between the communities potentially affected, the Government and the oil companies to assure that social investments are made to secure long-term benefits...

  2. The carbonization of biomass waste: an exploration with exciting prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada Kimzey, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a general view of the subject of carbonization of waste biomass. Just as well, it briefly describes two related projects currently under execution at the TEC. Both projects are focused on carbonization of waste biomass from the industrial processing of coffee, in a joint effort with Coopetarrazú.The project initiated in 2011 is dedicated to carbonization of dried wastes and will explore energetic as well as agricultural use of the charcoal. The one initiating in 2012 focuses...

  3. Adult age differences in prospective memory performance: exploring the age prospective memory paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ihle, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    La mémoire prospective consiste à se rappeler d'actions futures, à exécuter dans un délai plus ou moins court, tout en étant déjà engagé dans une autre activité. Trois décennies de recherche sur ce thème ont révélé un intéressant pattern de performances, qui varie en fonction de l'âge : Lorsque la mémoire prospective est étudiée en laboratoire, les jeunes adultes présentent de meilleurs résultats que les adultes âgés. Or, dans un contexte naturalistique, les adultes âgés présentent des résult...

  4. Prospective study for the production of oleochemicals derivates from castor oil in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Guerrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways get closet to the future, being the prospective the one that conceives the future, not like an unique reality but like a multiple one, obtained as a result of the identification of the human beign future actions. For all this, the human being takes knowledge, the yearings and the fears that he sees for the actions he will undertake. Using the prospective, this article outlines the dynamics that will have the oleochemical castor oil sector, because Colombia has resources to develop Ricinus comunnis cultivation and industrial uses of castor oil and its derivates. The study establishes the keys that define the current and future behaviour of the system, the position and the power of each one of the involved actors will have, and the determination of the scenarios (future representations with more probability to occur, as well as the definition of the scenario wanted and the strategies that will allow to reach it.

  5. Olive oil intake and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Spanish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Genevieve; Travier, Noemie; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ardanaz, Eva; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Sánchez, María-José; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Huerta, José María; Navarro, Carmen; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Gonzalez, Carlos A

    2012-12-14

    Olive oil is well known for its cardioprotective properties; however, epidemiological data showing that olive oil consumption reduces incident CHD events are still limited. Therefore, we studied the association between olive oil and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort study. The analysis included 40 142 participants (38 % male), free of CHD events at baseline, recruited from five EPIC-Spain centres from 1992 to 1996 and followed up until 2004. Baseline dietary and lifestyle information was collected using interview-administered questionnaires. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the relationship between validated incident CHD events and olive oil intake (energy-adjusted quartiles and each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) increment), while adjusting for potential confounders. During a 10·4-year follow-up, 587 (79 % male) CHD events were recorded. Olive oil intake was negatively associated with CHD risk after excluding dietary mis-reporters (hazard ratio (HR) 0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·00 for each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) and HR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·59, 1·03 for upper v. lower quartile). The inverse association between olive oil intake (per 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)) and CHD was more pronounced in never smokers (11 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0·048)), in never/low alcohol drinkers (25 % reduced CHD risk (P olive oil consumers (14 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0·072)). In conclusion, olive oil consumption was related to a reduced risk of incident CHD events. This emphasises the need to conserve the traditional culinary use of olive oil within the Mediterranean diet to reduce the CHD burden.

  6. Exploration Theory and Method in Jiyang Composite Oil and Gas Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xingcai; Yang Shenbiao

    1995-01-01

    @@ In 1941, Professor pan Zhongxiang wrote an article for AAPG pointing out that oil could be generated and oil fields could be formed in continental sediments. For half a century after that, particularly since the founding of the People's Republic of China,the theory of continental petroleum geology in Chian, has further been enriched and expanded in exploration practice resulting in the school of petroleum geology with the Chinese characteristics and promoting the rapid development of China's oil and gas industry.

  7. Exploring Butane Hash Oil Use: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bryan Lee; Stogner, John M; Miller, J Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The practice of "dabbing" has seen an apparent upswing in popularity in recent months within American drug subcultures. "Dabbing" refers to the use of butane-extracted marijuana products that offer users much higher tetrahydrocannabinol content than flower cannabis through a single dosage process. Though considerably more potent than most marijuana strains in their traditional form, these butane hash oil products and the practice of dabbing are underexplored in the empirical literature, especially in prohibition states. A mixed-methods evaluation of a federally funded treatment program for drug-involved offenders identified a small sample (n = 6) of butane hash oil users and generated focus group interview data on the nature of butane hash oil, the practice of dabbing, and its effects. Findings inform discussion of additional research needed on butane hash oil and its implications for the ongoing marijuana legalization debate, including the diversity of users, routes of administration, and differences between retail/medical and prohibition states.

  8. International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

  9. Inversion of Airborne Electromagnetic Data: Application to Oil Sands Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristall, J.; Farquharson, C. G.; Oldenburg, D. W.

    2004-05-01

    . We provide an example that involves the interpretation of an airborne time-domain electromagnetic data-set from an oil sands exploration project in Alberta. The target is the layer that potentially contains oil sands. This layer is relatively resistive, with its resistivity increasing with increasing hydrocarbon content, and is sandwiched between two more conductive layers. This is quite different from the classical electromagnetic geophysics scenario of looking for a conductive mineral deposit in resistive shield rocks. However, inverting the data enabled the depth, thickness and resistivity of the target layer to be well determined. As a consequence, it is concluded that airborne electromagnetic surveys, when combined with inversion procedures, can be a very cost-effective way of mapping even fairly subtle conductivity variations over large areas.

  10. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Sikkema, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110609913; Dornburg, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189955007; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2011-01-01

    This study compiles and analyses national-level data on land use change (LUC) and its causes in Indonesia and Malaysia over the past 30 years. The study also explores the role that palm oil has played in past LUC and that projected growth in palm oil production may play in LUC until 2020 and

  11. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; Sikkema, R.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study compiles and analyses national-level data on land use change (LUC) and its causes in Indonesia and Malaysia over the past 30 years. The study also explores the role that palm oil has played in past LUC and that projected growth in palm oil production may play in LUC until 2020 and suggest

  12. Environmental Assessment of proposed oil and gas exploration, Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Saguache County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has prepared this environmental assessment (EA) of Proposed Oil and Gas Exploration, Baca National Wildlife Refuge...

  13. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  14. Exploring the KT source crater: Progress and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.

    It has been 15 years since an iridium-enriched clay layer at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) boundary was discovered, providing the first hard evidence linking the most recent mass extinction event to a comet or asteroid strike [Alvarez et al., 1980]. Now it is widely accepted that the site of this collision is on the Yucatan platform, centered near Progreso, Mexico. The 200-300-km-wide crater lies buried beneath 300-1000 m of limestone laid down in the intervening 65 million years, and few clues of its presence remain at the surface, save an arcuate arrangement of water-filled sinkholes centered approximately on the structure (Figure 1). Yet prominent circular anomalies in gravity and magnetic anomaly maps gained the interest of Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex), and in the early 1950s they began an exploration campaign that included deep drilling to recover samples of the subsurface rocks. The buried feature became known as the Chicxulub structure. Pemex drilling continued throughout the early 1970s and by that time, three wells near the center had recovered silicate rocks with igneous textures, initially mistaken for volcanic rocks. Other wells, located between 130 km and 210 km from ground zero recovered breccia deposits hundreds of meters thick that showed evidence of catastropic or explosive conditions. By 1980, Antonio Camargo, a geophysicist at Pemex, felt the evidence pointed to impact, although a volcanic origin for the Chicxulub structure could not be ruled out.

  15. Prospective for oil 2008-2017; Prospectiva de petroliferos 2008-2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irastorza Trejo, Veronica; Doniz Gonzalez, Virginia; Guerrero Gutierrez, Luis Gerardo [Secretaria de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The Ministry of Energy publishes annually prospective oil in order to provide updated and reliable information on developments in the refining industry and the oil market over the last ten years, while showing an analysis of expected behavior in the prospective period, in order to establish the basis for planning and development of this industry in the country. The document is integrated by five chapters. The first provides an overview of the industry worldwide, analyzing the events that have marked this industry and its possible evolution into the future and installed refining capacity by country and region. Chapter two presents the regulatory framework and the oil market that will govern the activities related to this industry in the country. The third chapter describes the evolution of this national industry from 1997 to 2007, where you can see the changes in infrastructure, capacity per type of process and type of crude oil processing. The fourth chapter develops the prospective subjects 2008-2017, among which are: the expected investment in the sector and its impact, both in the production of oil and oil processing. Chapter five shows the actions taken to improve the exploitation of oil and reduce energy intensity in industrial sectors such as transport. [Spanish] La Secretaria de Energia publica anualmente la Prospectiva de petroliferos con el objetivo de ofrecer informacion actualizada y confiable sobre la evolucion de la industria de refinacion y del mercado de petroliferos en los ultimos diez anos, a la vez que muestra un analisis del comportamiento esperado en el periodo prospectivo, con el proposito de establecer las bases de la planeacion y desarrollo de esta industria en el pais. El documento se integra por cinco capitulos. El primero proporciona una vision de la industria a nivel mundial, analizando los sucesos que han marcado esta industria, asi como su posible evolucion hacia el futuro y la capacidad de refinacion instalada por pais y region. En el

  16. Historical overview of geophysical exploration for hydrocarbon prospecting in Japan; Nippon no sekiyu kogyo ni okeru butsuri tanko gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Y. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes a historical overview of geophysical exploration for hydrocarbon prospecting in Japan. In general, history is divided into eras by the qualitative change. In the case of geophysical exploration, the history is desired to be divided by considering the both of qualitative change in the technology and that in the practical application. In the early time of geophysical prospecting, gravitational exploration, magnetic exploration, seismic refraction method and seismic reflection method were elementarily and successfully tried. In the era of classical geophysical exploration, seismic reflection method and gravitational/magnetic methods were basically completed, and accumulation structures of potential petroleum were discovered around existing oil fields. In the era of systematic geophysical exploration, techniques of underground geological reflection profiles were completed with digitalization, and systematic petroleum exploration was conducted. In the era of modern geophysical exploration, 3D seismic was put into practice, and the inversion accuracy was improved, in which the geophysical exploration could be contributed jointly with the geological techniques. New development era of geophysics is expected. 31 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Major Fields and Areas to Draw PetroChina's Oil and Gas Exploration Efforts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Xinlong

    2001-01-01

    @@ Based on the study released by China's Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development at PetroChina's exploration work conference held recently in Chengdu,Sichuan Province, PetroChina has proven 405 million tons of oil in place between January and September 2001,fulfilling 99 percent of the annual plan.The proven oil in place is estimated to reach 422 million tons by the end of the year. Meanwhile, the controlled oil in place reached 293 million tons,accounting for 84 percent of the annual plan.

  18. Exploring Prospective English Language Teachers' Perceptions of the "Internet" through Metaphorical Conceptualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study aims to explore prospective English language teachers' perceptions of the "Internet" through metaphors. The study has been conducted with the participation of 143 Grade 1 and Grade 2 students attending the English Language Teaching (ELT) Programme at Ondokuz Mayis University. A form with a simple…

  19. 75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... (OCS) oil and gas exploration and development. This review of MMS NEPA policies, practices and procedures is being conducted as a result of the oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon well and drilling rig... QUALITY Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration...

  20. Effect of Macondo Prospect 252 Oil on Microbiota Associated with Pelagic Sargassum in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, Manolito G; Franks, James S; Gomez, Andres; Yooseph, Shibu; Nelson, Karen E; Grimes, D Jay

    2017-01-01

    The environmental impact of major oil spills on marine microorganisms has yet to be thoroughly investigated using molecular biology techniques. The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig explosion of 2010 affected an approximately 176,000 km(2) surface area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) when an estimated 210 million gallons of oil from the Macondo Prospect spilled into the environment. Pelagic Sargassum, a complex of two surface drifting species (Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans) of marine brown macroalgae and a critically important habitat in the GOM ecosystem, was suffused by Macondo Prospect 252 oil released during the DWH event. Using 16S rRNA PCR and Roche 454 pyrosequencing, the effect of the oil on the bacterial population associated with pelagic Sargassum and contiguous waters was examined by comparing sequence data generated from samples collected from oiled and non-oiled locations in the northern GOM. Sequence data showed similar microbial composition in Sargassum regardless of exposure to oil primarily dominated by five phyla; Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and unclassified bacteria. The microbial composition in water samples was significantly less diverse than for Sargassum and consisted primarily of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Due to the evenly distributed abundance of microbial species on oiled and non-oiled pelagic Sargassum, study findings indicate that DWH spilled oil had minimal effect on the composition and diversity of the microbial community associated with Sargassum and contiguous waters. However, higher abundances of Sulfitobacter and one species of Psychrobacter were found in oiled water samples when compared to non-oiled water samples indicating some effect of DHW oil in the microbial composition of seawater. Though there are a number of marine studies using molecular biology approaches, this is the first molecular examination of the impact of the DWH oil spill on bacterial communities

  1. PROSPECTING EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072994 Chen Jiabin(China Economic Academy of Land and Resources,Beijing 101149,China)Global Copper Resource and Its Strategy in China in Future Five Years(Jiangsu Geology,ISSN1003-6474,CN32-1258/P,30(4),2006,p.314-320,3 illus.,2 tables,17 refs.)Key words:copper deposits,administration of mineral resources,GlobalCopper is one of the important raw materials

  2. PROSPECTING EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20092072 Guo Kuicheng(Heilongjiang Institute of Geological Survey,Qiqihar 161005,China);Ma Jianshui Multi-Source Data Integration Technique in Shallow Cover Areas(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,27(7),2008,p.1097-1102,3 illus.,2 tables,10 refs.)Key words:geologic mapping,digital cartographyThe multi-source data integration technique is a new technique developed on the basis of digital mapping.The work method is to process and integrate multi-source data,e.g.geological and mineral resource,geophysical and geochemical and remote sensing data,on computer and extract relevant geological information and integrate multi-source data with geological data to establish

  3. PROSPECTING EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140575Hu Weiyang(Institute of Surveying and Mapping of Geology and Mineral Resources of Jilin Province,Changchun 130062,China)Map-Making and Study of Three-Dimensional City Map(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,32(1),2013,p.140-142,145,1illus.,3refs.)Key words:digital cartography With the rapid development of computer technology and mapping technology,threedimensional map of the electronic map gradu-

  4. PROSPECTING EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111402 Chen Guohu(Geological Institute of Beijing,Beijing 100120,China);Liu Yunhua Application of PS-InSAR Technique in the Deformation Monitoring in Mining Collapse Areas in Beijing(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2825/P,21(2),2010,p.59-63,30 refs.)Key words:synthetic aperture radar,land subsidence,Beijing In this paper,deficiencies of traditional deformation monitoring techniques such as leveling and GPS as well as conventional D-InSAR technique are analyzed for their application to deformation detection of mining collapse areas.Detailed introductions are also made to the principle,advantages and disadvantages of PS-InSAR technique and its current applications.Through an analysis of deformation characteristics of mining collapse areas in Beijing and the advantages and disadvantage

  5. PROSPECTING EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150643Chen Gang(Nanjing Center,China Geological Survey,Nanjing 210016,China);Yao Zhongyou The Compilation of Serial Geological Maps of Oceania Region(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,33(2),2014,p.159-163,3illus.,9refs.)Key words:geologic maps,map compilation,Oceania The collection and choice of interrelated data,establishment of database and compilation and proofreading of maps constitute a large-scale integration of geological and min-

  6. Oil spill modeling in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea in support of accelerated offshore oil and gas exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Since the discovery of major reserves in the Israeli exclusive economic zone (EEZ) 6 years ago, exploration and drilling for natural gas and oil have proceeded at an accelerated pace. As part of the licensing procedure for drilling, an environmental impact assessment and an emergency response plan must be presented to the authorities, which include several prespecified oil spill simulations. In this study, the MEDSLIK oil spill model has been applied for this purpose. The model accounts for time-dependent advection, dispersion, and physiochemical weathering of the surface slick. It is driven by currents produced by high-resolution dynamic downscaling of ocean reanalysis data and winds extracted from global atmospheric analyses. Worst case scenarios based on 30-day well blowouts under four sets of environmental conditions were simulated for wells located at 140, 70, and 20 km off the coast of central Israel. For the well furthest from the coast, the amount of oil remaining in the surface slick always exceeds the amount deposited on the coast. For the mid-distance well, the cases were evenly split. For the well closest to the coast, coastal deposition always exceeds the oil remaining in the slick. Additional simulations with the wind switched off helped highlight the importance of the wind in evaporation of the oil and in transporting the slick toward the southeastern coast.

  7. THE PROSPECTS OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC OIL AND GAS COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Dmitrievskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The New industrialization of the Russian economy is not possible without the formation of forward-looking strategy of innovative development of oil and gas complex, combining related industries. Oil and gas complex of Russia, its fi elds and infrastructure – is key to the territorial integrity of the country, the guarantor of stable functioning of the economy, the most important component of export potential and low-income. During the past decades, a combination of favorable external conditions for the activities of oil and gas companies such as easily recoverable reserves and long-term prospect of rising prices for raw materials – allow these companies do not pay enough attention to the innovation component. The approaching exhaustion of Russian stocks in the «easy» oil and toughening global competition for energy resources and technology made such an inertial approach to innovation is inadmissible; sanctions and the fall in world prices for hydrocarbons requires the development strategy of innovative development of oil and gas based approach combining resource and innovative potential of Russia.Objective: To analyze opportunities for integration into a coherent innovation strategy of fundamental and applied research of Russian scientists, including IPNG Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economic Forecasting, and other scientifi c organizations.Objectives: To propose a mechanism of management of development based management model basic technical and economic parameters of oil and (or gas through its full life cycle, as well as to demonstrate the possibility of forming a strategic decision of a higher level, combining new technologies and market management methods.Methodology: systematic approach, investment analysis, models of the full life cycle of natural and man-made objects, the fundamentals of feasibility and tax planning.Practical application of the results of this work: management model of oil and gas deposits

  8. Successful International Symposium on Oil & Gas Exploration in Lacustrine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry Katz

    1996-01-01

    @@ A Joint American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)-Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau research symposium entitled "Lacustrine Basin Exploration in China and Southeast Asia" was held in Dongying City,People's Republic of China, October 16-20, 1995.

  9. Current Status of Oil Distribution and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingfan

    2009-01-01

    @@ China has rich oil resources, yet relatively low-quality crude oil and difficulty in exploration and development limit the pace the oil industry will be. At present, the prospects of oil development are in a moderate mature stage, the increasing trend of high basic value in oil reserves pose a huge potential of oil exploration and development in China. The most proved reserves are distributed in big-and-middle-sized basins, and will be the main fields of undiscovered oil resources. In addition,though the degree of exploration in unconventional oil is low, its development with abundance resources will be as a significant complementary resource to conventional oil.

  10. Data Prospecting Framework - a new approach to explore "big data" in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.; Lin, A.; Kuo, K.

    2012-12-01

    Due to advances in sensors, computation and storage, cost and effort required to produce large datasets have been significantly reduced. As a result, we are seeing a proliferation of large-scale data sets being assembled in almost every science field, especially in geosciences. Opportunities to exploit the "big data" are enormous as new hypotheses can be generated by combining and analyzing large amounts of data. However, such a data-driven approach to science discovery assumes that scientists can find and isolate relevant subsets from vast amounts of available data. Current Earth Science data systems only provide data discovery through simple metadata and keyword-based searches and are not designed to support data exploration capabilities based on the actual content. Consequently, scientists often find themselves downloading large volumes of data, struggling with large amounts of storage and learning new analysis technologies that will help them separate the wheat from the chaff. New mechanisms of data exploration are needed to help scientists discover the relevant subsets We present data prospecting, a new content-based data analysis paradigm to support data-intensive science. Data prospecting allows the researchers to explore big data in determining and isolating data subsets for further analysis. This is akin to geo-prospecting in which mineral sites of interest are determined over the landscape through screening methods. The resulting "data prospects" only provide an interaction with and feel for the data through first-look analytics; the researchers would still have to download the relevant datasets and analyze them deeply using their favorite analytical tools to determine if the datasets will yield new hypotheses. Data prospecting combines two traditional categories of data analysis, data exploration and data mining within the discovery step. Data exploration utilizes manual/interactive methods for data analysis such as standard statistical analysis and

  11. Oil and Gas Prospects in Egypt Recherches d'huile et de gaz en Égypte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ayouti M. K.

    2006-10-01

    and gas pools mainly vvithin the Upper and Lower Cretaceous. Recent advances in seismic techniques are helping in locating deeper structures, which might prove instrumental in the upgrading of the oil possibilites of the region. At present, the exploration activities are going on in the different oil and gas provinces in Egypt. These activilles are expected to increase and are also expected to expand to new areas in the eastern part of the Gulf of Suez Basin, offshore and onland, in Northern Sinai and in the Offshore Mediterranean. These new areas are believed to house very good prospects which will be tested not before long. It is also hoped that progress in seismic tools and techniques will add to the possibilities of finding more oil and gas. On connaît des accumulations d'huiles depuis 1868, quelque 10 ans après le célèbre puits de Drake en Pennsylvanie (août 1859. Ces accumulations ont été trouvées comme des suintements dans des tunnels forés pour l'extraction du soufre dans la région de Gemsa sur la côte ouest du golfe de Suez. Depuis cette époque, les activités d'exploration se sont poursuivies à travers une longue histoire d'opérations qui témoignaient des derniers développement dans les outils et les techniques. Jusqu'à maintenant, la principale province à huile d'Egypte est le bassin du golfe de Suez où la majorité des réserves ont été trouvées. D'autres provinces à hydrocarbures sont le bassin du delta du Nil, celui d'Abu Garadig et la ride d'El Alamein, les deux derniers situés dans le désert occidental. Il y a eu trois importantes découvertes de gaz dans le delta du Nil, dont deux en mer, en plus de quelques indices de gaz encore non commerciaux. Outre les découvertes mentionnées, les activités d'exploration au cours de cette longue période ont apporté une masse d'informations géologiques et géophysiques qui ont contribué largement à la connaissance géologique de l'Egypte, et en particulier à la géologie p

  12. Exploring the Feasibility of Robotic Pipeline Surveillance for Detecting Crude Oil Spills in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’tega A. Ejofodomi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have significant negative effects on the environment in which they occur, including damage to aquatic, aerial and terrestrial life. In the oil-producing Niger Delta, oil spillage is largely due to pipeline corrosion and crude oil theft and sabotage. This paper explores the feasibility of utilizing small mobile robots for early detection of ground oil leakage, a methodology defined as Ground Robotic Oil Spill Surveillance (GROSS. GROSS robot was constructed using iRobot Create, element serial Bluetooth Adapter Module (BAM and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG sensor, and programmed using MATLAB to patrol a pipeline route 5 m in length. To simulate oil spills, varying volumes of gasoline - 30, 59, 118, 236, 354, 472, 590, and 708 ml – were placed along the pipeline route prior to the robot‟s patrol. GROSS robot demonstrated capability of detecting spills as little as 0.2, 0.5, and 0.7 liters when running at 100, 200, and 300 mm/s respectively. Detection distance between LPG sensor and spill ranged from 76 – 157 cm. GROSS robots could assist in early detection of oil spills. Future work includes improvement in GROSS robot design and determining the effect of soil absorption and API density on the robot‟s ability to detect spills.

  13. Prospective study for the production of oleochemicals derivates from palm and palm kernel oil in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ibeth Jaimes Moreno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways get close to the future, being the prospective the one that concives the future, not like an unique reality but like a multiple one, obtained as a result of the identification of the human being future actions. For all this, the human being takes the knowledge, the yearnings and the fears that he sees for the actions he will undertake. Keeping in mind the characteristic of the palm cultivation (pereninal, of late growth, with a 25 years productive horizon, and the future of the sector captured in "Visión y estrategias de la palmicultura colombiana 2000 - 2020" together with the economic tendencies of the world, the methodology of planning denominated prospective, becomes an appropriate tool to establish the future of the oleochemical sector derived from the palm and palmist oils, which is right now very incipient in our country. Using the prospective, this article outlines the dynamics that will have the sector, starting from the definition of the keys that define the current and future behavior of the system, the position and the power that each one of the involved actors will have, and the determination of the scenarios (future representations will more probability to occur, as well as the definition of the scenario wanted and the strategies that will allow to reach it.

  14. A Sustainable Architecture for Lunar Resource Prospecting from an EML-based Exploration Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, K.; Post, K.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction - We present a point of departure architecture for prospecting for Lunar Resources from an Exploration Platform at the Earth - Moon Lagrange points. Included in our study are launch vehicle, cis-lunar transportation architecture, habitat requirements and utilization, lander/rover concepts and sample return. Different transfer design techniques can be explored by mission designers, testing various propulsive systems, maneuvers, rendezvous, and other in-space and surface operations. Understanding the availability of high and low energy trajectory transfer options opens up the possibility of exploring the human and logistics support mission design space and deriving solutions never before contemplated. For sample return missions from the lunar surface, low-energy transfers could be utilized between EML platform and the surface as well as return of samples to EML-based spacecraft. Human Habitation at the Exploration Platform - Telerobotic and telepresence capabilities are considered by the agency to be "grand challenges" for space technology. While human visits to the lunar surface provide optimal opportunities for field geologic exploration, on-orbit telerobotics may provide attractive early opportunities for geologic exploration, resource prospecting, and other precursor activities in advance of human exploration campaigns and ISRU processing. The Exploration Platform provides a perfect port for a small lander which could be refueled and used for multiple missions including sample return. The EVA and robotic capabilities of the EML Exploration Platform allow the lander to be serviced both internally and externally, based on operational requirements. The placement of the platform at an EML point allows the lander to access any site on the lunar surface, thus providing the global lunar surface access that is commonly understood to be required in order to enable a robust lunar exploration program. Designing the sample return lander for low

  15. New progress of microbial prospecting of oil and gas in China:Taking the Satellite Oilfield in Daqing as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Microbial Prospecting of Oil and Gas(MPOG) is applied to the matured development area in the Satellite Oilfield in Daqing for the first time. And with the MPOG,the hydrocarbon accumulation regulation controlled by faults is interpreted,and the matured development area is extended out to western part. At the same time,four microbial anomalies are discovered. The MPOG results were verified by the hydrocarbon-bearing conditions of the 10 drilled wells within the following half a year,and the consistent rate is up to 80%,which add about 300×104 t of the explored petroleum-in-place. Through study and successful application of MPOG to the Satellite Oilfield,the basis of the application from the exploration to development field is substantially established,and standard system of microbial anomaly is more precisely built for the Satellite Oilfield,which provided an effective explanatory item for the studied and adjacent region,even for the whole Songliao Basin,and also a new technique for complicated reservoirs,especially for the later stage development of litho-reservoirs in China. Therefore,it must have profound influence upon the oil and gas exploration,especially upon the remaining oil,extension and reserves addition of the developed area in China.

  16. Spatial variations of hydrocarbon contamination and soil properties in oil exploring fields across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuting; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Jian; Li, Guanghe

    2012-11-30

    Successful site remediation is critically based on a comprehensive understanding of distribution of contaminants, soil physico-chemical and microbial properties in oil contaminated sites. One hundred and ten topsoils were sampled from seven typical oil fields in different geoclimate regions across north to south China to investigate the spatial variances of oil contaminations and soil parameters. Oil concentrations and compositions, soil geochemical properties and microbial populations were analyzed and statistic analysis methods were used to analyze the spatial pattern of soil variables. The results indicated that oil contaminations were serious in most oil exploring areas in China, especially with high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petrogenic origin. Ordination analyses indicated a relatively distinct spatial pattern that all soil samples grouped mainly by geographic locations, instead of distributing along contamination or other geochemical variable gradient. Microbial populations were found to be statistically positively correlated with soil nitrogen, phosphorus and water content, and negatively correlated with salt pH and soluble salts (Phydrocarbon-contaminated fields across large spatial scales, which is important for the environmental protection and further remediation in oil contaminated sites according to local conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Robust MEMS gyroscope for oil and gas exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, David; Miller, Todd

    2014-06-01

    To satisfy the performance and reliability requirement of a MEMS based harsh environment sensor, the sensor development needs to depart from the classic method of single-discipline technology improvement. In this paper, the authors will describe a Microsystem-based design methodology which considers simultaneous multiple technology domain interaction and achieves performance optimization at the system level to address the harsh environment sensing challenge. This is demonstrated through specific examples of investigating a robust MEMS gyroscope suitable for high temperature and high vibration environments such as down-hole drilling for Oil and Gas applications. In particular, the different mechanisms of temperature-induced errors in MEMS gyroscope are discussed. The error sources include both the direct impact of the gyroscope dynamics by temperature and the indirect perturbation by temperature-induced package stress. For vibration and shock induced failure, the error contributions from the low frequency and high frequency contents are discussed. Different transducer designs with equivalent rate sensitivity can vary with several orders of magnitude in terms of the susceptibility to mechanical vibration. Also shown are the complex interactions among the gyroscopic transducer, packaging and the control electronics, resulting from these temperature and vibration error sources. The microsystem-based design methodology is able to capture such complex interactions and improve the gyroscope temperature and vibration performance. In contrast to other efforts in harsh environment sensing which focus on specific technology domains, the authors strive to demonstrate the need and advantage of addressing MEMS performance and reliability in harsh environment from a microsystem perspective.

  18. Features of the marketing strategy of oil and gas companies in exploration drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, I.; Malanina, V.; Kamynina, L.

    2014-08-01

    The implementation of national and regional programs for the development of new oil and gas provinces of Eastern Siberia poses the challenge of increasing geological exploration. The current drilling service companies' market structure, as well as the strategic task of search and exploration effectiveness requires qualitatively new approaches for choosing a contractor. The proposed strategy to select a contractor based on comprehensive analysis of certain groups of industrial, financial, infrastructural criteria allows not only to optimize the costs of exploration activities, but also to minimize preventively the risks of a poor geological exploration. The authors' SWOT- analysis of the marketing strategy of "Gazprom neft" for choosing a contractor outlined the problem of imperfection of the Russian legislation in the sphere of activities of service companies in the oil and gas sector.

  19. Discussion on the exploration & development prospect of shale gas in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sichuan Basin, a hotspot and one of the most successful areas for shale gas exploration and development, can largely reflect and have a big say in the future prospect of shale gas in China. Through an overall review on the progress in shale gas exploration and development in the Sichuan Basin, we obtained the following findings: (1 the Sichuan Basin has experienced the marine and terrestrial depositional evolution, resulting in the deposition of three types of organic-matter-rich shales (i.e. marine, transitional, and terrestrial, and the occurrence of six sets of favorable shale gas enrichment strata (i.e. the Sinian Doushantuo Fm, the Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm, the Ordovician Wufeng–Silurian Longmaxi Fm, the Permian Longtan Fm, the Triassic Xujiahe Fm, and the Jurassic Zhiliujing Fm; (2 the five key elements for shale gas accumulation in the Wufeng-Longmaxi Fm are deep-water shelf facies, greater thickness of organic-rich shales, moderate thermal evolution, abundant structural fractures, reservoir overpressure; and (3 the exploration and development of shale gas in this basin still confronts two major challenges, namely, uncertain sweet spots and potential prospect of shale gas, and the immature technologies in the development of shale gas resources at a depth of more than 3500 m. In conclusion, shale gas has been discovered in the Jurassic, Triassic and Cambrian, and preliminary industrial-scale gas has been produced in the Ordovician-Silurian Fm in the Sichuan Basin, indicating a promising prospect there; commercial shale gas can be produced there with an estimated annual gas output of 30–60 billion m3; and shale gas exploration and production experiences in this basin will provide valuable theoretical and technical support for commercial shale gas development in China.

  20. The Oil Security Metrics Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Prospective Oil Security Benefits of DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL

    2006-05-01

    Energy technology R&D is a cornerstone of U.S. energy policy. Understanding the potential for energy technology R&D to solve the nation's energy problems is critical to formulating a successful R&D program. In light of this, the U.S. Congress requested the National Research Council (NRC) to undertake both retrospective and prospective assessments of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research programs (NRC, 2001; NRC, 2005). ("The Congress continued to express its interest in R&D benefits assessment by providing funds for the NRC to build on the retrospective methodology to develop a methodology for assessing prospective benefits." NRC, 2005, p. ES-2) In 2004, the NRC Committee on Prospective Benefits of DOE's Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy R&D Programs published a report recommending a new framework and principles for prospective benefits assessment. The Committee explicitly deferred the issue of estimating security benefits to future work. Recognizing the need for a rigorous framework for assessing the energy security benefits of its R&D programs, the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) developed a framework and approach for defining energy security metrics for R&D programs to use in gauging the energy security benefits of their programs (Lee, 2005). This report describes methods for estimating the prospective oil security benefits of EERE's R&D programs that are consistent with the methodologies of the NRC (2005) Committee and that build on Lee's (2005) framework. Its objective is to define and implement a method that makes use of the NRC's typology of prospective benefits and methodological framework, satisfies the NRC's criteria for prospective benefits evaluation, and permits measurement of that portion of the prospective energy security benefits of EERE's R&D portfolio related to oil. While the Oil Security Metrics (OSM) methodology described

  1. Breakthrough and prospect of shale gas exploration and development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past five years, shale gas exploration and development has grown in a leaping-forward way in China. Following USA and Canada, China is now the third country where industrial shale gas production is realized, with the cumulative production exceeding 60 × 108 m3 until the end of 2015. In this paper, the main achievements of shale gas exploration and development in China in recent years were reviewed and the future development prospect was analyzed. It is pointed out that shale gas exploration and development in China is, on the whole, still at its early stage. Especially, marine shale gas in the Sichuan Basin has dominated the recent exploration and development. For the realization of shale gas scale development in China, one key point lies in the breakthrough and industrial production of transitional facies and continental facies shale gas. Low–moderate yield of shale gas wells is the normal in China, so it is crucial to develop key exploration and development technologies. Especially, strictly controlling single well investment and significantly reducing cost are the important means to increase shale gas exploration and development benefits. And finally, suggestions were proposed in five aspects. First, continuously strengthen theoretical and technical researches, actively carry out appraisal on shale gas “sweet spots”, and gradually accumulate development basis. Second, stress on primary evaluation of exploration and development, highlight the effective implementation of shale gas resources, and control the rhythm of appraisal drilling and productivity construction. Third, highlight fine description and evaluation of shale gas reservoirs and increase the overall development level. Fourth, intensify the research on exploration and development technologies in order to stand out simple and practical technologies with low costs. And fifth, summarize the experiences in fast growth of shale gas exploration and development, highlight

  2. Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Macadamia Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mofijur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the prospects of biodiesel production from macadamia oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The biodiesel was produced using conventional transesterification process using the base catalyst (KOH. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emission of 5% (B5 and 20% (B20 macadamia biodiesel fuel at different engine speeds and full load condition. It was found that the characteristics of biodiesel are within the limit of specified standards American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751 and comparable to diesel fuel. This study also found that the blending of macadamia biodiesel–diesel fuel significantly improves the fuel properties including viscosity, density (D, heating value and oxidation stability (OS. Engine performance results indicated that macadamia biodiesel fuel sample reduces brake power (BP and increases brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC while emission results indicated that it reduces the average carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and particulate matter (PM emissions except nitrogen oxides (NOx than diesel fuel. Finally, it can be concluded that macadamia oil can be a possible source for biodiesel production and up to 20% macadamia biodiesel can be used as a fuel in diesel engines without modifications.

  3. The Application of Data & Graphic Managing Technology in Oil & Gas Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhiyong; Chen Weijun; Ma Xuehui

    2002-01-01

    The managing of information and data between researching groups is critical to the success of any exploration or development project. Poor communication and data sharing between technological departments can result in incomplete interpretations or inaccurate drilling decisions making. According to the statistic results, the time cost in retrieving and collecting data will occupy more than 70 % percent of the total working time of technicians during the petroleum geological researching. This paper is a summary of the characteristics and the development of the Data & Graphic management system for oil & gas exploration.After that the system's application in oil & gas exploration and researching, which has improved the quality and accurateness of mapping has been summarized in detail. The application of the system mentioned above has proved to be very successful in Daqing oilfield.

  4. Biogeochemical anomaly above oil-containing structures in an arid zone. [Growth stimulation of plants by sodium naphthenate used for prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, O.M.

    1983-01-01

    Visual biological anomalies above the oil-containing structures are characterized by bright green coloring of the vegetation cover, gigantism of the plants, extended vegetation period of the plants, deformity of the plants, etc. Biological anomalies are associated with geological features and are observed only above the zone of fault disorders of the earth's crust, above deep faults. A conclusion is drawn about the presence above the oil-bearing structures in the arid zone of a biogeochemical anomaly whose origin is explained by the biological activity of oil and its derivatives. The petroleum growth matter is the sodium salt of naphthene acid, a growth stimulator of plants and animals. The oils of the USSR contain 0.8-4.8% naphthene acids, which effuse through the faults into the root area levels of the soil. As a result of stimulation of growth and development by the petroleum growth matter, the vegetation period of the plants is prolonged. Under the influence of natural petroleum growth substances, the height and productivity of the anomalous plants increases 2-3-fold. Formation and manifestation of signs of biogeochemical anomalies above the oil-bearing structures in the arid zone predetermine the following conditions: presence of fault disorders of the earth's crust; salinity of the root area of the soil layer necessary for neutralization of the naphthene acids with subsequent formation of the biologically active naphthenates; aridity of the desert landscape; plain relief excluding color diversity in vegetation cover because of nonuniform wetting, etc. The established biogeochemical anomaly can be used in prospecting and exploration of oil, gas and bitumen, and also in determining the fault disorders of the earth's crust.

  5. Emerging conservation challenges and prospects in an era of offshore hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Salit; Brokovich, Eran; Mazor, Tessa; Levin, Noam

    2015-12-01

    Globally, extensive marine areas important for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning are undergoing exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas resources. Such operations are expanding to previously inaccessible deep waters and other frontier regions, while conservation-related legislation and planning is often lacking. Conservation challenges arising from offshore hydrocarbon development are wide-ranging. These challenges include threats to ecosystems and marine species from oil spills, negative impacts on native biodiversity from invasive species colonizing drilling infrastructure, and increased political conflicts that can delay conservation actions. With mounting offshore operations, conservationists need to urgently consider some possible opportunities that could be leveraged for conservation. Leveraging options, as part of multi-billion dollar marine hydrocarbon operations, include the use of facilities and costly equipment of the deep and ultra-deep hydrocarbon industry for deep-sea conservation research and monitoring and establishing new conservation research, practice, and monitoring funds and environmental offsetting schemes. The conservation community, including conservation scientists, should become more involved in the earliest planning and exploration phases and remain involved throughout the operations so as to influence decision making and promote continuous monitoring of biodiversity and ecosystems. A prompt response by conservation professionals to offshore oil and gas developments can mitigate impacts of future decisions and actions of the industry and governments. New environmental decision support tools can be used to explicitly incorporate the impacts of hydrocarbon operations on biodiversity into marine spatial and conservation plans and thus allow for optimum trade-offs among multiple objectives, costs, and risks. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Screening and characterization of oleaginous Chlorella strains and exploration of photoautotrophic Chlorella protothecoides for oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Zhou, Zhi-gang; Gerken, Henri; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jin

    2015-05-01

    The growth and oil production of nine Chlorella strains were comparatively assessed and Chlorellaprotothecoides CS-41 demonstrated the greatest lipid production potential. The effects of different nitrogen forms and concentrations, phosphorus concentrations and light intensities on growth and oil production were studied in laboratory columns. C. protothecoides CS-41 accumulated lipids up to 55% of dry weight, with triacylglycerol and oleic acid being 71% of total lipids and 59% of total fatty acids, respectively. High biomass and lipid productivities were achieved in outdoor panel PBRs, up to 1.25 and 0.59 g L(-1) day(-1), or 44. 1 and 16.1 g m(-2) day(-1), respectively. A two-stage cultivation strategy was proposed to enhance the algal biomass and lipid production. This is the first comprehensive investigation of both indoor and outdoor photoautotrophic C. protothecoides cultures for oil production, and C. protothecoides CS-41 represents a promising biofuel feedstock worthy of further exploration.

  7. Exploring challenges: Brazil towards oil self-sufficiency?; Desafios exploratorios: pode o Brasil atingir sua auto-suficiencia em petroleo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Carlos A.M. de; Santos, Edmilson M. dos; Ferreira, Denilson [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia

    2004-07-01

    Since the 1970's energy crisis, the Brazilian oil industry has sought with obstinacy to achieve the country's self-sufficiency in petroleum. From a national desire, the oil self-sufficiency became PETROBRAS' major corporate target. Based on its excellent performance on offshore exploration, PETROBRAS increased oil production exponentially in the last years, reducing Brazil's oil dependence to only 10%. This paper discusses whether, although feasible in the short term, Brazil's oil self-sufficiency is sustainable in the long term. From different estimated ultimate oil reserves for the country and adopting the Hubbert Curve's methodology, the paper proposes that Brazil's oil self-sufficiency may last only a very short time, which would quickly lead the country to growing oil imports again. (author)

  8. Walnut Staminate Flowers Can Be Explored as a Supplementary Plant Oil Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fossil fuel is currently the major energy source driving global socio-economy, but its stock is being heavily depleted due to increasing anthropogenic activities worldwide. There are also concerns regarding the burning of fossil fuels, which contributes to global climate warming and air pollution. As such, the development of biodiesel as a non-toxic, biodegradable, and renewable alternative energy source using oil crops such as soybean and rapeseed has quickly emerged in the West countries. However, the production of oil crops in China is far from sufficient to meet the demands of the country's population of 1.3 billion, and increasing oil crop production is inhibited by a severe shortage of agricultural land, which currently averages 0.2 acre per person and, as such, is less than half the world average. The current national policy in China regarding land use is more towards revering cultivated lands in ravins and hills to forestry, which presents an ideal opportunity to further develop plantations of walnut (Juglans regia L.) trees, a plant that is tolerant to drought and infertile soils and has a high oil content. Study in this paper shows that one ament of walnut staminate flowers produces about 0.168 g dry pollen, and the dry pollen contained 49.67% oil. Based on this discovery, oil yield obtained from staminate flowers is estimated to reach 6.95% of that from walnut nuts. Thus walnut staminate flower is suggested to explore as supplementary plant oil source, and has a great opportunity to utilize as a biodiesel feedstock.

  9. Globalization and the uneven application of international regulatory standard : the case of oil exploration in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalikwu, J.

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to increase the awareness of the current economic situation that exists in the Niger Delta, a region that has been devastated by the activities of oil multinational corporations (MNCs). In particular, the study linked the Obelle and Obagi communities to the political economy of global capital which creates inequalities that divide societies into hierarchies of the rich and poor. The strategies adopted by the people to improve the negative consequences of oil exploration in the communities were also examined. The researcher postulated that there is a relationship between the uneven application of international and national regulations in oil production by MNCs and environmental degradation. A critical ethnographic paradigm was used to explore and explain the processes of globalization that affect the people's lives and means of livelihood. Data were collected and analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Data was then analyzed using several methods, such as statistics based on cross-tabulation, analysis of themes that emerged from interviews, and Atlas.ti 5.0 qualitative analysis computer programme to show the relationship between variables that emerged from the study. The study revealed that resource exploitation by oil MNCs in Obagi/Obelle communities of the Nigeria Delta, together with the Nigerian government, has resulted in economic expropriation, political disenfranchisement, social instability and environmental damage.

  10. Predictive factors for bleeding-related re-exploration after cardiac surgery: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Camila T; Brunori, Evelise H Fadini Reis; Santos, Vinicius Batista; Moorhead, Sue A; Lopes, Juliana de Lima; de Barros, Alba L Bottura Leite

    2016-04-01

    Bleeding-related re-exploration is a life-threatening complication after cardiac surgery. Nurses must be aware of important risk factors for this complication so that their assessment, monitoring and evaluation activities can be prioritized, focused and anticipated. To identify the predictive factors for bleeding-related re-exploration after cardiac surgery and to describe the sources of postoperative bleeding. This is a prospective cohort study at a tertiary cardiac school-hospital in São Paulo/SP, Brazil. Adult patients (n=323) submitted to surgical correction of acquired cardiac diseases were included. Potential risk factors for bleeding-related re-exploration within the 24 hours following admission to the intensive care unit were investigated in the patients' charts. A univariate analysis and a multiple analysis through logistic regression were conducted to identify the outcome predictors. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was calculated as a measure of accuracy considering the cut-off points with the highest sensitivity and specificity. The univariate factors significantly associated with bleeding-related re-exploration were a lower preoperative platelet count, a lower number of bypasses in coronary artery bypass surgery and postoperatively, a lower body temperature, infusion of lower intravenous volume, a higher positive end-expiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation and transfusion of blood products. The independent predictors of bleeding-related re-exploration included postoperative red blood cell transfusion, and transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, platelet or cryoprecipitate units. These predictors had a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 99.28% and an accuracy of 97.93%. Blood product transfusion postoperatively is an independent predictor of bleeding-related re-exploration. Surgical errors prevailed as sources of bleeding. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  11. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2009,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 75×103 km.The pipelines include 38×103 km of gas pipelines,20×103km of crude oil pipelines and 17×103 km of oil product pipelines,framing a trans-regional pipeline network for the oil and gas delivery.

  12. Exploring the biographies of prospective science teachers: Evolving perspectives on diversity and equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Magnia Ayodele

    Science as a body of knowledge holds a highly regarded place in society. In recent years, science education has been the object of national scrutiny as the result of assessment data that indicates that the scientific literacy of students in the United States is marginal as compared to other advanced nations around the world. Students of color have been especially targeted due to the historical underrepresentation of this group in the sciences. Specifically access to a rigorous science curriculum and qualified teachers has been implicated in improving the chances of traditionally underserved students to participate and achieve in science. The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives (i.e., the beliefs, knowledge, and experiences) of prospective secondary science teachers regarding a science for all reform agenda. Constructivist, critical, and feminist methodologies were used to elicit prospective teachers' views of equity in science teaching and learning as they described their experiences as science learners and prospective science teachers. The topic of multicultural science education served as a context for focus group conversations. Analysis of conversations revealed that participants' lived experiences as learners and teachers-in-the-making shape their views of science and science education, their views of issues of diversity in teaching and learning, and their views of the organizational features of schooling. A dialogic relational perspective (DRP) model that attends to biography is proposed as a means for considering the roles of teacher, student, and science in relationship to the goals of science for all. The model is presented and discussed in the context of equity pedagogy for science teacher preparation and development.

  13. Crustal Structural and Tectonic Evolution and Oil Prospect Evaluation in the Songpan-Zoigê Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yongsheng; FU Xiaoyue; WU Jingsheng; CHEN Gao

    2007-01-01

    Recent study of magnetotelluric (MT) inversion indicates that the basement of the SongpanZoig(e) area could be a stable continental crust. There has developed quite thick and stable Paleozoic continental shelf margin-platform clastic and carbonate sediments during the Triassic. Preliminary field geologic investigation and hydrocarbon potential study show that good-quality source rocks,mainly argillaceous and carbonaceous shale, were deposited in the Cambrian and Silurian in this region, while diverse reservoirs of platform facies carbonate and clastic rocks were in the Carboniferous and Permian. The good vertical source-reservoir-seal configuration might indicate that there exists a certain potential for oil and gas exploration in this area.

  14. Exploration the conception of prospective students teacher about limit of function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juniati, Dwi; Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the conception of prospective students teacher that highly skilled on mathematical ability about limit function, especially in the aspects of understanding, representation, mental image and proposition. This study was conducted by a qualitative exploratory method. The subject was one of the students in the mathematics education of Syiahkuala University which being chosen according to the expected criteria.. The research instrument was divided into main and supporting instrument. The data was analyzed by reducing, presenting, interpreting and concluding. The analyzing data results obtained the subject's conception about limit function were elaborated the meaning of limit function with representation verbal, graphic, symbol, and logical explanation, expressing the limit function definition with verbal representation, graphic, table and symbol. The subject defined the correlation of limit function by imaging, revealing, and using one-sided the limit of function. They expanded the propositions by symbols, explained logically, and proved using a formal definition.

  15. Environmental legal implications of oil and gas exploration in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orubebe, Bibobra Bello

    Nigeria is an African country endowed with a wealth of oil and gas resources, and they are mainly found in the core Niger Delta (home to the Ijaw and Ogoni indigenous, ethnic minorities). Since Great Britain granted Nigeria political independence on October 1, 1960, successive Nigerian governments (military and civilian) have been dominated by the majority ethnic groups (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo). Significantly, the government adopted a socialist-based model of absolute state ownership over oil and gas resources. The socialist model formed the basis of Nigeria's business collaboration with multinational oil and gas corporations from Europe and the United States (notably Shell, Chevron Texaco, Agip, Exxon Mobil, Total, and Elf). This model is fraught with contradictions and has led to unacceptable consequences, including policies that allow exploitation of natural resources without reference to environmental sustainability. When oil was first struck in 1956 at Oloibori (Ijaw area), people thought it would bring prosperity and an improved quality of life. Sadly, the opposite has occurred. Forty-nine years of hardship, agonizing pain, debilitating anger, extreme poverty, poisoned rivers, destroyed occupations, devastated environment, and stunted growth of the youth are the negative impacts of oil and gas exploitation in the Niger Delta. In other words, oil and gas exploration and production have visited a full range of evils---socio-political, economic, and cultural---upon the indigenous Niger Delta people. Furthermore, the wealth extracted from the area is used by the state and multinational corporations to enhance their own wealth and quality of life. Revenue has been conspicuously looted and misappropriated by political leaders at the expense of the Niger Delta environment and its people. This confluence of exploitation and injury has led to social upheavals and armed rebellions, all capable of precipitating the disintegration of the country. In this

  16. Psychosocial risks and hydrocarbon leaks : an exploration of their relationship in the Norwegian oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, L.I.V.; Ringstad, A.J.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon leaks have a major accident potential in the oil and gas industry. Over the years the oil and gas industry in Norway has worked hard to find means to prevent hydrocarbon leaks and is today able to report significant progress. In this context, the exploration of accidents in light of huma

  17. Global Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Expenditure in 2003 Rises 4.8 Percent as Compared to Previous Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A recent survey by Friedman Billings Ramsey (FBR) shows that the oil and gas companies worldwide plan to increase the fund for exploration and development to US$136 billion in 2003, 4.8 percent up from the previous year. The second half of 2003 will see even a higher increase in the fund. In 2002, the exploration and development expenditure of the surveyed oil and gas companies rose 3.6 percent as compared to 2001.

  18. The impact of soil contamination by oil products on the growth of Secale cereale L. and prospects for its use in phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myazin V. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the effect of soil contamination by light and dark oil products on a rye (Secale cereale L. and the prospects of using the plants with phytoremediation have been evaluated. Residual hydrocarbon oil concentration in the soil has been determined, phytoremediation may conduct not more than 5 g/kg of light and not more than 13 g/kg of dark oil

  19. Development and Prospects for Energy Saving Technology in Oil & Gas Fields, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Youwang; Yu Jiqing; Lin Ran; Zhu Yingru; Liu Feijun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Current state of energy saving technology in China's oil and gas fields System optimization To optimize the oil-gas field surface engineering system is critical to improve the efficiency of oil and gas field system.To adapt to the changes in development of old oil and gas fields, all oilfields are adjusted and reconstructed;a set of optimized and simplified modes and technical measures are developed.

  20. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2008,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 6.3×104 km.These pipelines include 3.2×104 km of natural gas pipelines,1.8×104 km of crude oil pipelines and 1.3×104 km of oil products pipelines,laying the foundation for establishing a network of trans-regional oil and gas pipelines.

  1. Technical costs and economics of some typical oil and gas exploration and development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassler, P.

    1984-04-01

    Information from a number of actual projects, mainly located outside the Middle East region, analyzes the technical costs and economics of past, present, and future oil and gas exploration and development projects. The article identifies various cost components, and notes that these costs reflect the behavior of international and local markets for the resources concerned. Technical costs show a strong tendency to increase with time, the growth rate depending on the complexity of recovery of development and the need for enhanced recovery methods. Besides technical costs and taxes, potential investors should also consider energy values in evaluating a project. 1 figure, 1 table.

  2. Aplication of AVO Technique to Gas Exploration in Liaohe Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Changqing; Zhou Faping

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction AVO (Amplitude Versus Offset) technique uses prestack seismic data to predict reservoirs and detect hydrocarbon. We used AVO to find gas for the first time in Liaohe Oil Fields. Both real and synthetic data show that the typical AVO characteristics of gas reservoirs in Liaohe Basin appears dominantly as dim spots and occasionally bright spots. But the bright spot reservoirs are only restricted at depths less than 1 000 m These features can function as detection criteria for the application of AVO to gas exploration in Damintun Depression. which have been proved by real data to be right and reliable.

  3. Modeling petroleum generation and geochemistry of crude oils in Ras Budran field, northern gulf of Suez, Egypt: implications for prospectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A. [Geology Dept., Alexandria Univ. (Egypt)

    2005-12-01

    Petroleum generation modeling of the pre-rift succession in Ras Budran Field, which is located in the northern Gulf of Suez province in Egypt, showed that the best oil prone source rocks identified are the carbonate dominated one in the Upper Cretaceous and the Middle Eocene. These source rocks contain type-II kerogen (liptinitic materials) and progressively increase in their peak of oil generation from 0.63 and 0.83 vitrinite reflectance at a depth of about 3000 meters during the early of middle Miocene age and could have charged traps during the intra Rudeis tectonic phase. Crude oil and source rock extract interrelationships display a great similarity in their geologic occurrences and biological marker distributions. The biomarker characteristics indicate a low relative abundance of oleanane index around 5% pristane/phytane ratio<1, higher C{sub 35}/C{sub 34} homohopanes>1 and higher gammacerane indices >30%, suggesting a typical marine organic matter with source rock deposition under reducing conditions, Marginally mature stage of oil generation is indicated by the relatively low sterane isomerization of C{sub 29} {alpha}{alpha}{alpha} 20S/(S+R) and C{sub 29}{alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}) of about 06 and relatively low aromatic sulfur compound rations. Crude oil geochemistry and related source rock potential define genetically related oils which ware generated from marginally mature and organic-rich carbonate source rocks, most probably from the pre-rift Duwi and Thebes formations. The best oil prone for future prospectivity would be oriented west of Ras Budran Field toward the deep marine of the Gulf, where the undiscovered reserves are expected to be accumulated within the pre-rift reservoirs in the footwalls of the normal faulted blocks. (orig.)

  4. Prospects for applications of electron beams in processing of gas and oil hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, A. V., E-mail: ponomarev@ipc.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation); Pershukov, V. A. [ROSATOM National Nuclear Corporation (Russian Federation); Smirnov, V. P. [CJSC “Nauka i Innovatsii” (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Waste-free processing of oil and oil gases can be based on electron-beam technologies. Their major advantage is an opportunity of controlled manufacturing of a wide range of products with a higher utility value at moderate temperatures and pressures. The work considers certain key aspects of electron beam technologies applied for the chain cracking of heavy crude oil, for the synthesis of premium gasoline from oil gases, and also for the hydrogenation, alkylation, and isomerization of unsaturated oil products. Electronbeam processing of oil can be embodied via compact mobile modules which are applicable for direct usage at distant oil and gas fields. More cost-effective and reliable electron accelerators should be developed to realize the potential of electron-beam technologies.

  5. A thirsty dragon. Rising Chinese crude oil demand and prospects for multilateral energy security cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causevic, Amar

    2012-07-01

    's emergency response exercises. If the initial phases prove successful, more daring options could be envisaged. Firstly, powerful countries could take crucial steps in depoliticizing the international oil market. Reducing political manipulation would diminish the prospects for armed conflict. Secondly, the IEA could be thoroughly redesigned and made into a new organization that grants China unconditional membership. There are many hypothetical options on the table, but the most important message this paper wants to convey is that multilateral cooperation is the only feasible strategy for preventing dangerous confrontation.

  6. OPEC and the oil market: Short- and medium-term prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samii, M.V.; Ameri, M.

    The international oil market faced volatile conditions due to regional political factors, namely, the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. Political events were the major driving force of the industry in the early 1990s. The situation in the Gulf region has quieted considerably since March 1991 and, in response, the oil market and particularly crude oil prices have settled to their prewar range. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) has attempted once again to exert its influence by regulating the crude oil market through supply management in its postwar meetings. The organization is faced with a number of challenges both in the short and long run in stabilizing crude oil prices. While in the short run the concern is how to prevent crude oil prices from dopping, in the long term the challenge is building adequate production and export capabilities for the future. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. North American Oil Sands: History of Development, Prospects for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-17

    mixture of sand, bitumen (a heavy crude that does not flow naturally), and water, can be mined or the oil can be extracted in-situ using thermal recovery...quartz sand, bitumen , and water that can either be mined or extracted in-situ5 using thermal recovery techniques. Typically, oil sands contain about...different technology for bitumen extraction than that used for Alberta’s water-wetted deposits. Oil sands are characterized as having a wet interface

  8. Universal Indicators for Oil and Gas Prospecting Based on Bacterial Communities Shaped by Light-Hydrocarbon Microseepage in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chunping; Yu, Xuejian; Yang, Jinshui; Li, Baozhen; Sun, Weilin; Yuan, Hongli

    2016-07-28

    Light hydrocarbons accumulated in subsurface soil by long-term microseepage could favor the anomalous growth of indigenous hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms, which could be crucial indicators of underlying petroleum reservoirs. Here, Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was conducted to determine the bacterial community structures in soil samples collected from three typical oil and gas fields at different locations in China. Incubation with n-butane at the laboratory scale was performed to confirm the presence of "universal microbes" in light-hydrocarbon microseepage ecosystems. The results indicated significantly higher bacterial diversity in next-to-well samples compared with background samples at two of the three sites, which were notably different to oil-contaminated environments. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the bacterial community structures above the oil and gas fields at the scale of the present study were shaped mainly by environmental parameters, and geographic location was able to explain only 7.05% of the variation independently. The linear discriminant analysis effect size method revealed that the oil and gas fields significantly favored the growth of Mycobacterium, Flavobacterium, and Pseudomonas, as well as other related bacteria. The relative abundance of Mycobacterium and Pseudomonas increased notably after n-butane cultivation, which highlighted their potential as biomarkers of underlying oil deposits. This work contributes to a broader perspective on the bacterial community structures shaped by long-term light-hydrocarbon microseepage and proposes relatively universal indicators, providing an additional resource for the improvement of microbial prospecting of oil and gas.

  9. Prospect of Mid-long Term Oil & Gas System Reform in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    International oil keeps low-price running after crash, and China deepens reform domestically. Using this opportunity, China lays the same emphasis on investment and trade, on onshore and offshore transportation, gives full play to the important role of market in resource distribution, speeds up oil and gas system reform to guarantee clean, efficient, safe and steady energy supply and long-term demand for energy. We systematically and thoroughly established legal system for oil and gas domains, reformed management system for energy domain, reformed regulatory domain, built modern market entity and multi-level market system, and improved oil and gas pricing mechanism, etc.

  10. Oil and gas reservoir exploration based on hyperspectral remote sensing and super-low-frequency electromagnetic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiming; Zhang, Zili; Chen, Li; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Chengye

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a method that combined hyperspectral remote sensing with super-low-frequency (SLF) electromagnetic detection to extract oil and gas reservoir characteristics from surface to underground, for the purpose of determining oil and gas exploration target regions. The study area in Xinjiang Karamay oil-gas field, China, was investigated. First, a Hyperion dataset was used to extract altered minerals (montmorillonite, chlorite, and siderite), which were comparatively verified by field survey and spectral measurement. Second, the SLF electromagnetic datasets were then acquired where the altered minerals were distributed. An inverse distance weighting method was utilized to acquire two-dimensional profiles of the electrical feature distribution of different formations on the subsurface. Finally, existing geological data, field work, and the results derived from Hyperion images and SLF electromagnetic datasets were comprehensively analyzed to confirm the oil and gas exploration target region. The results of both hyperspectral remote sensing and SLF electromagnetic detection had a good consistency with the geological materials in this study. This paper demonstrates that the combination of hyperspectral remote sensing and SLF electromagnetic detection is suitable for the early exploration of oil and gas reservoirs, which is characterized by low exploration costs, large exploration areas, and a high working efficiency.

  11. Seepage system of oil-gas and its exploration in Yinggehai Basin located at northwest of South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiong He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Seepage systems of oil-gas in Yinggehai Basin are divided into two types, namely: “micro-seepage”, which is presented by gas chimneys and pockmarks; and “macro-seepage”, which is also called oil-gas outflow; and, in addition, the combination of the two basic types. Among the oil seepage systems, the combined seepage system at Yingdong Slope of Yinggehai Basin is the most eye-catching, and gas chimneys and pockmarks micro-leakage systems in mud diapir zones in the central part of the basin are very common. Both the indications of large-scale oil-gas outflow at Yingdong Slope, which have been booming for a hundred years; and the occurrence of pockmarks at the central mud diapir belt, along with the chaotic seismic reflection of widely-distributed shallow gas chimneys—have shown that hydrocarbon in this area is sufficient and oil-gas is now in dynamic equilibrium of the processes of accumulation, migration, gathering and dispersing. It builds up good conditions for the accumulation, migration, gathering and reserving of oil and gas. However, it must be noted that the results of oil-gas exploration at Yingdong Slope didn't turn out to be satisfactory, despite the presence of oil-gas outflow and gas chimney combined seepage systems. So, strengthen synthesized analysis and study on oil-gas seepage systems and on the conditions for accumulation, migration, gathering and dispersing; the forecasting and evaluation to the advantageous conditions for enriched oil and gas zones; and trap preservation in accordance with the dynamic balance theories; are of significant importance for purposes of exploration.

  12. Uranium ore prospecting and exploration with a special view to sedimentary deposits, illustrated by the example of the Muellenbach deposit. [Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.

    1981-08-01

    The Muellenbach deposit near Baden-Baden (northern Black Forest) is used as an example to illustrate the prospecting and exploration methods of Messrs. Saarberg-Interplan which includes: airborne measurements, carborne measurements, Ru measurements near the ground, drills to detect ground anomalies, borehole logging, photosurveys, geochemistry, geophysical surface prospecting, mining exploration, radiation protection.

  13. Prospective framework for collection and exploitation of waste cooking oil as feedstock for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    From the viewpoint of waste-to-energy, waste cooking oil is one of the attractive and available recycled feedstocks, apart from agricultural residues. The generation of energy from waste cooking oil is considered as an effective technique for waste management, as well as a beneficial form of energy recovery. Two alternative systems and a conventional system of waste cooking oil collection and conversion are evaluated by the cost benefit analysis in order to find a suitable method for waste-to-energy conversion. The results show that the collection of waste cooking oil with waste lubricating oil (System II) a useful alternative to the management of waste cooking oil (B/C > 1). The total heat produced by the combustion of pyrolytic oil at maximum and minimum conversion rates is also determined. The separate collection of waste cooking oil, subjected to chemical pre-treatment prior to introduction in a pyrolysis reactor (System III), is considered an undesirable option (B/C < 1) due to the cost of the chemicals involved. Although the exclusion of chemical pre-treatment makes System III a desirable option, the total amount of heat of combustion generated is less. The increased electricity cost required for the process has no effect on the benefit-cost ratio of System II. However, System III, excluding chemical pre-treatment, becomes an unprofitable alternative when the electricity cost reaches 100% of the fixed capital cost at the minimum conversion rate. (author)

  14. Brief Analysis of Investment and Effect for Oil/Gas Exploration During Eighth Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Liufang

    1996-01-01

    @@ The characteristics of high risk and declining productive capability in oil/gas exploration and development necessitate continuous huge amount of investment for both the simple reproduction and the expanded reproduction .The size of input, the increment of production, and the economic benefit are related to each other. Without sufficient and subsequently effective funds input, it is impossible to develop the oil and gas industry steadily. Similarly. without the growth of oil and gas reserves and production, it is also impossible to yield better economic benefit.

  15. Problems and prospects of integration development of oil and gas complex in the south of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitaeva Anastasia, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic transformations of the global energy market in recent years have formed the basic tendency of development of modern oil and gas complex – consolidation and integration of companies in the industry to maintain its competitiveness and ensure sustainable strategic business development. In this regard, the issues of building effective mechanisms of partnership interactions and management of integration processes of oil and gas complex at the national and regional levels become relevant. The authors describe the specific operating conditions of oil and gas companies in southern Russia, identify obstacles to the region's integration into the structure of the Russian oil and gas industry, and formulate directions and measures activation of innovative development of oil and gas complex in the South of Russia.

  16. Physico-Chemical and Pharmacological Prospective of Roghan-e-Narjeel (Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Shamim Khan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Roghan-e-Narjeel (coconut oil is extracted from dried Maghz-e-Narjeel (coconut kernels which is derived from coconut (Cocos nucifera L. tree. It is used extensively in tropical countries especially India, Srilanka and Philippines. The oil contains 92% of saturates consisting of medium chain fatty acids in the form of triglycerides containing lauric acid in large amount, and about 8% of unsaturates consisting of oleic and linoleic acids as triglycerides. The oil is colourless and has odour typical of the coconuts. It plays an important role in the treatment of ischemic heart disease, infections (viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal, wounds and obesity. These effects of oil can be attributed to the presence of lauric acid, capric acid and caprylic acid. The aim of this review paper is to highlight the physico-chemical and pharmacological properties of Roghan-e-Narjeel (coconut oil according to modern as well as unani aspect.

  17. Exploring prospective secondary mathematics teachers' interpretation of student thinking through analysing students' work in modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didis, Makbule Gozde; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat; Cetinkaya, Bulent; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Alacaci, Cengiz

    2016-09-01

    Researchers point out the importance of teachers' knowledge of student thinking and the role of examining student work in various contexts to develop a knowledge base regarding students' ways of thinking. This study investigated prospective secondary mathematics teachers' interpretations of students' thinking as manifested in students' work that embodied solutions of mathematical modelling tasks. The data were collected from 25 prospective mathematics teachers enrolled in an undergraduate course through four 2-week-long cycles. Analysis of data revealed that the prospective teachers interpreted students' thinking in four ways: describing, questioning, explaining, and comparing. Moreover, whereas some of the prospective teachers showed a tendency to increase their attention to the meaning of students' ways of thinking more while they engaged in students' work in depth over time and experience, some of them continued to focus on only judging the accuracy of students' thinking. The implications of the findings for understanding and developing prospective teachers' ways of interpreting students' thinking are discussed.

  18. Shape memory alloy actuated accumulator for ultra-deepwater oil and gas exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Devendra; Song, Gangbing

    2016-04-01

    As offshore oil and gas exploration moves further offshore and into deeper waters to reach hydrocarbon reserves, it is becoming essential for the industry to develop more reliable and efficient hydraulic accumulators to supply pressured hydraulic fluid for various control and actuation operations, such as closing rams of blowout preventers and controlling subsea valves on the seafloor. By utilizing the shape memory effect property of nitinol, which is a type of shape memory alloy (SMA), an innovative SMA actuated hydraulic accumulator prototype has been developed and successfully tested at Smart Materials and Structure Laboratory at the University of Houston. Absence of gas in the developed SMA accumulator prototype makes it immune to hydrostatic head loss caused by water depth and thus reduces the number of accumulators required in deep water operations. Experiments with a feedback control have demonstrated that the proposed SMA actuated accumulator can provide precisely regulated pressurized fluids. Furthermore the potential use of ultracapacitors along with an embedded system to control the electric power supplied to SMA allows this accumulator to be an autonomous device for deployment. The developed SMA accumulator will make deepwater oil extraction systems more compact and cost effective.

  19. Exploration of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on soils contaminated by crude oil from South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Napoleon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to explore hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on crude oil contaminated soil with potential to degrade hydrocarbon in oil pollutant. The research started by early August 2013 till January 2014. Soil sampling for this research was taken on several places with contaminated soil location such as Benakat, Rimau, and Pengabuan all of it located in South Sumatera. Conclusion from this research Isolates obtained from three (3 sites of contaminated soil and treated using SBS medium were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pnumoniae, Streptococcus beta hemolisa, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acinotobacter calcoaceticus. Isolates that survived on 300 ppm of hydrocarbon concentration were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter cakciaceticus Selected isolates posses the ability to degrade hydrocarbon by breaking hydrocarbon substance as the energy source to support isolates existence up to 1,67 TPH level. Based on results accomplish by this research, we urge for further research involving the capacity of isolates to degrade wide variety of hydrocarbon substance and more to develop the potential of these bacteria for bioremediation.

  20. Non-seismic applications of magnetotellurics for oil and gas exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearst, R. [Quantec Geoscience Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Magnetotellurics (MT) is an electromagnetic geophysical technique that uses natural electric fields from solar flares, ionospheric resonances, and lightning sources to induce current flow in the ground in order to image the earth's electrical resistivity structure from depths up to 100 km. Data is then correlated with geology, structure, and potential hydrocarbon traps. This presentation discussed non-seismic exploration activities conducted using MT in oil and gas applications. The MT units consist of a recording unit, a geographical positioning system (GPS) synchronization clock; field measurement electrodes; and low frequency magnetometers. Data from MT studies are correlated with data from seismic surveys. MT surveys provide high quality, accurate data, and can be used in areas where seismic surveys are difficult to acquire. Geophysical models are constructed using geologic models, which are then used to generate forward models to estimate the response expected in the field from an MT survey. A sample study of a salt dome was presented to demonstrate the technology, as well as 4 case studies of oil and gas MT surveys. The case studies demonstrated that MT can be used to acquire meaningful results in areas with complex geologies. tabs., figs.

  1. Prospects of application of vegetable oils as antifungal agents (Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mikheev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work – to summarize and present modern scientific literature reviews of alternative antifungal agents usage, among which herbal medicines, and in particular herbal oils, may play significant role. Fungal infections (mycoses are one of the leading infectious diseases in the world. Besides the medical importance, pathogenic fungi play a significant role in the food industry as potential pollutants. In order to treat fungal infections and to prevent food spoilage various medications that are products of chemical synthesis are widely used and the need for them increases significantly. However, among large number of medications and herbal drugs only a small part is used to treat fungal infections and to prevent food decay, though plants contain a lot of bioactive compounds with potential antifungal properties. Therefore, question of application of vegetable oils as antifungal agents is relevant. Various plants contain oils that have the potential antifungal properties, but are often used only in gastronomic purpose. The same time those oils can be successfully used for the treatment of candidiasis and infections caused by fungi of genera Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Metrhizium, Ophiostoma, Scopulariopsis and others. Their effects are manifested like using a single vegetable oil and mixtures of oils. Conclusions. Vegetable oils usage has big perspectives due to the lack of «addictive» effect and the development of resistance in fungi of different taxa. Vegetable oils do not require considerable investments for their reception, and thanks to traditions of aromo- and herbal medicine, their usage can be more effective in contrast to traditional chemotherapeutic agents. The search and study of new medicines based on vegetable oils may be a perspective direction of modern microbiological sciences and requires further deep studies of their biological properties and mechanisms of action.

  2. Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O' Connor

    2007-08-10

    The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

  3. Structural Control of Sand Bodies and Deep Exploration for Oil and Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Rihui; Lin Changsong; Zheng Herong

    2002-01-01

    The structural styles can be used to analyses and predict developments and distributions of sand bodies in a rift basin. The dynamic process of faulting and sedimentation can be expressed as follow: the basin topography controlled by fault activity can control water dynamics; which in turn affect the transport and sedimentation of sediments. The corresponding analysis between structural styles and sand depositional types includes the following aspects: (1) in section, the corresponding between development of fault terraces and sand depositional types; (2) in plane, the relationship between faults' association and distributions of sand bodies. There are four types of terrace styles to be identified. They are Steep Slope Single Fault Terrace (SSSFT), Steep Slope Multiple Fault Terrace (SSMFT), Gentle Slope (GS) and Gentle Slope Multiple Fault Terrace (GSMFT), which also can be divided into six subtypes by the timing of the faults activities and the directions of their activity migrations (basinward and landward or marginward). They correspond to the following sand depositions such as alluvial fan, fan delta and turbidite fan etc.. The analysis of structure-sedimentation is a discussion on the rank Ⅲ sequence evolution under the condition of pulsing or episodic fault activities. It has been recognized four plane fault associations such as the comb, the broom, the fork and the fault-fold association as well as the corresponding sand distributions. Structural-sedimentary models above mentioned are significant for the deep oil and gas exploration when lacking of the drill data. It may reduce multiple resolutions in the interpretation of seismic-sedimentary facies and promote sand predictions through the constraints of the structural styles of the basin units. The structural-sedimentary pattern can be used as a geological model in oil and gas exploration in the rift basins.

  4. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the

  5. Current state and prospects of cost accounting enterprises oil and fat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state oil and fat industry of Ukraine and described the trend of the industry of agriculture. Revealed the pressing problems of accounting of expenses oil and fat industry, identified cost centers and their composition, raw materials, products and waste as well as the directions of economic activity (of species that cause costs to increase efficiency of resource potential sub the object management capabilities and optimize its financial results. The study singles out areas of improvement of organizational and methodological aspects of the accounting of expenses oil and fat industry, in particular in terms of internal accounting proposed disclosure of costs to activities, types of oil and fat products, cost centers and production waste, contributing optimization of production costs and expenses of the entity as a whole

  6. An exploration of the dynamic longitudinal relationship between mental health and alcohol consumption: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite intense investigation, the temporal sequence between alcohol consumption and mental health remains unclear. This study explored the relationship between alcohol consumption and mental health over multiple occasions, and compared a series of competing theoretical models to determine which best reflected the association between the two. Methods Data from phases 5 (1997 to 1999), 7 (2002 to 2004), and 9 (2007 to 2009) of the Whitehall II prospective cohort study were used, pro...

  7. Prospect of Oil/Gas Exploration in Beach Area of Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gansheng; Dou Lirong; Yuan Lingling; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction Located in beach zone along Bohai Bay, the beach area of Bohai Bay basin is restricted between coastline and water depth of 5 m, stretching from Bayuquan to Huludao, Liaoning Province and Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province to Weihekou, Shandong Province.

  8. Situation and Prospect of Oil and Gas Exploration in Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zeheng; Gu Pingquan

    1996-01-01

    @@ Petroleum Geology Background The Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi region (hereinafter "YGG" region) is located in southwest China, with a total area of 800 000 km2, of which 580 000 km2 is covered by sedimentary rocks. In the course of long geologic evolution, a series of medium, small and micro basins of marine and terrestrial facies of different periods are developed in the region (Table 1).

  9. Prospect for Oil and Gas Resources in China in New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Chengde

    2001-01-01

    @@ China imported 72 million tons of crude oil from abroad in 2000 at the cost of US$15 billion. Some people hold the opinion that China will exhaust its oil resources by 2017 on the basis of the current remaining recoverable reserves and annual production rate since petroleum and natural gas are of nonrecoverable resources. However, the study indicates the period between 2010and 2017 will be still the peak discovery period in the country.

  10. Strategies for Prospecting and Extracting Water on Mars for Long-Term Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolley, R. J.; Saikia, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    We aim to develop a specific set of criteria to classify water reserves on Mars, and to design water prospecting and extraction systems for various human landing sites using a requirements-driven framework.

  11. The association between cooking oil fume exposure during pregnancy and birth weight: A prospective mother-child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Hu, Weiyue; Guan, Quanquan; Du, Guizhen; Chen, Ting; Wu, Wei; Wang, Yun; Wang, Xinru; Xia, Yankai

    2017-09-04

    Effects of indoor air pollution on neonatal birth weight has been studied for many years. In China, cooking oil fumes are important parts of indoor air pollution. However, whether cooking oil fume exposure during pregnancy affects birth weight in China remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to examine the association between pregnancy exposure to cooking oil fumes and birth weight in a newly established prospective mother-child cohort in China. We finally included 1420 pregnant women from 2013 to 2015 and follow up for one year until the offspring was born. According to self-reported exposure status, we categorized mothers into non-exposure group and exposed group or three exposure time subgroups, including 0h/day, 0-1h/day and >1h/day respectively. By using multinomial logistics regression models, we found that pregnancy exposure to cooking oil fumes significantly increased the risk of large for gestational age (LGA, OR=1.58, 95% CI=1.15-2.18, P=4.88×10(-3)). Additionally, compared to pregnant women who were in non-exposure group, 0-1h/day exposure elevated the risk of LGA (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.22-2.33, P=1.63×10(-3)), while >1h/day exposure elevated the risk of small for gestational age, but were not significant (SGA, OR=2.15, 95% CI=0.61-7.66, P=0.24). In the stratification analysis, women aged 25-29years and ≥30years were predisposed to the influence of cooking oil fumes and have LGA newborns (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.09-2.75, P=0.02; OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.07-2.77, P=0.02, respectively). In conclusion, the present study suggests inverse U-shape dose response association between maternal exposure to cooking oil fumes during pregnancy and birth weight, and further studies are needed to verify the effect of cooking oil fumes on the birth weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Experience and prospects of oil shale utilization for power production in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, O. P.

    2016-09-01

    Due to termination of work at the Leningrad Shale Deposit, the Russian shale industry has been liquidated, including not only shale mining and processing but also research and engineering (including design) activities, because this deposit was the only commercially operated complex in Russia. UTT-3000 plants with solid heat carrier, created mainly by the Russian specialists under scientific guidance of members of Krzhizhanovsky Power Engineering Institute, passed under the control of Estonian engineers, who, alongside with their operation in Narva, construct similar plants in Kohtla-Jarve, having renamed the Galoter Process into the Enifit or Petroter. The main idea of this article is to substantiate the expediency of revival of the oil shale industry in Russia. Data on the UTT-3000 plants' advantages, shale oils, and gas properties is provided. Information on investments in an UTT-3000 plant and estimated cost of Leningrad oil shale mining at the Mezhdurechensk Strip Mine is given. For more detailed technical and economic assessment of construction of a complex for oil shale extraction and processing, it is necessary to develop a feasibility study, which should be the first stage of this work. Creation of such a complex will make it possible to produce liquid and gaseous power fuel from oil shale of Leningrad Deposit and provide the opportunity to direct for export the released volumes of oil and gas for the purposes of Russian budget currency replenishment.

  13. Safety and efficacy of an olive oil-based triple-chamber bag for parenteral nutrition: a prospective, randomized, multi-center clinical trial in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Zhen-Yi; Yang, Jun; XIA, Yang; Tong, Da-Nian; Gary P. Zaloga; Qin, Huan-Long; ,

    2015-01-01

    Background Small studies suggest differences in efficacy and safety exist between olive oil-based (OLIVE) and soybean oil-based (SOYBEAN) parenteral nutrition regimens in hospitalized adult patients. This large, prospective, randomized (1:1), open-label, multi-center, noninferiority study compared the delivery, efficacy, and safety of OLIVE (N = 226) with SOYBEAN (N = 232) in Chinese adults (≥18 years) admitted to a surgical service for whom parenteral nutrition was required. Methods Treatmen...

  14. 广东省油棕产业现状及前景展望%Present Situation and Prospects of Oil Palm Industry in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李先鹏; 陈秀龙; 李志阳; 郑永清; 曹建华

    2011-01-01

    分析广东发展油棕产业的优势和存在的问题,提出广东发展油棕产业的对策建议并展望发展前景。%The development situation of oil palm industry in Guangdong Province is analyzed. The advantages and existing problems are summarized. The countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. The development prospects of the oil palm industry are envisaged.

  15. Present status and trend of oil/gas field exploration technology in polar region. Part 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, Koji

    1988-10-01

    The supporting system necessary for the oil/gas field exploration in the polar region includes the transportation of material/equipment between the support base and production site, maintenance/repair of exploration/production equipment, salvage and other systems. For the transportation, ice breakers, supply boats, trucks, helicopters and aircrafts are used. To heighten the ice breaker in ice breaking capacity, there is progress in bow shape, paint coating and power source, of which the main feature is the adoption of spoon shaped bow and diesel or turbine engine. For the transportation of personnel and material/equipment, the aircraft, and long flight range and high transport capacity helicopter being used, the hovercraft and vertical take-off and landing aircraft will be further introduced in no distant future. Besides, Archimedian screw type amphibian vehicle is in expectation for the various work use, and manned or unmanned submarine boat for the submarine work/maintenance use, diving unit for the submarine maintenance/inspection use and submarine burying unit for the pipeline burying use are developed. 23 figures, 18 tables.

  16. Oil seepage detection technique as a tool to hydrocarbon prospecting in offshore Campos Basin-Brazil; Deteccao de exsudacoes de oleo como uma ferramenta de prospeccao de hidrocarbonetos na regiao maritima da Bacia de Campos - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Jose G.; Brito, Ademilson F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    With a proven capacity to identify oil slicks in offshore regions, RADARSAT-1 imagery can be useful for oil exploration purposes. The paper discusses the seepage detection method at Campos Basin, offshore Rio de Janeiro State, which is responsible for 80% of the Brazilian production of oil and gas. It is known that the horizontal migration of petroleum can occurs over tens or even hundreds of kilometers, where the source rock placed in more deep locations can be linked with shallow reservoirs or traps and even reach the ocean. It means that seepage can provide information for risking petroleum charge at basin scales, and cannot have a direct relation with the geographical position of the interpreted seeps and possible filled prospects. A good understanding of the geology, and hence the petroleum systems of a basin is the key to use seepage in exploration. The work is divided into three main steps. First step were select oil seepages interpreted at Campos Basin where is found several giant petroleum fields. Second, the geology of the study area and its structural and stratigraphic features were analyzed, in order to identify possible migration pathways related to faults generated by halokinesis. Another important aspect is the presence of 'windows' or ducts in the evaporates beds allowing the contact between the section that contains source rocks and the turbidities reservoirs, that contain the majority of the oil discovers. All these features were interpreted based on a regional dip seismic line (203 - 76), and a geologic cross section with E-W orientation, showing the structure of the Marlim Field. Finally, all the information was integrated in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and then analyzed in an interdisciplinary environment, with the intention to link possible routes of oil migration to post-evaporites reservoirs or to interpreted seeps. (author)

  17. Retrospect to Human Deep Space Exploration History and Its Prospect in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Peijian; Peng Jing

    2006-01-01

    The definition, goal and impacts of deep space exploration are summarized. After a retrospect to past deep exploration activities of human being to date, both recent deep space missions and future missions in 5 years are also listed. There are also brief introductions about the future strategic plans of NASA, ESA,RAKA, JAXA and ISRO. Then authors analyze some important features of global deep space exploration scheme. Key technologies of deep space exploration are also determined. The status of China deep exploration plan is introduced including CE-1 lunar orbiter, the subsequent China Lunar Exploration Program, especially proposal for the second stage of China Lunar Exploration Program, Mars exploration program of China with Russia Kuafu mission, Hard X-Ray Modulated Telescope, Space Solar Telescope. At the end, some suggestions for China future deep space exploration are made.

  18. Effects of disturbance associated with seismic exploration for oil and gas reserves in coastal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Wells, Christopher J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Johnson, Darren J.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion.

  19. Fifty years of oil exploration in Nigeria: the paradox of plenty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet over many years, it has been observed that nations rich in oil, gas, or mineral ... with rich endowments of natural resources [oil as in the case of Nigeria] often ... like this had given rise to other contemporary oil nations overtaking Nigeria.

  20. The Status and Prospects of Enhancing Oil Recovery Technology for Waterflooding Oilfields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Pingping; Yuan Shiyi

    1994-01-01

    @@ The water injection method has been used in most of oilfields in China even at the beginning of development, meanwhile the laboratory research on enhancing oil recovery (EOR) for these oilfields simultareously started too. Oilfields developed in 1960's have mostly been at a high watercut stage since 1990.Tasks in face of petroleum reservoir engineers are on the one hand, further improving recovery of waterflooding by integrated adjustments such as infill well drilling, water/oil ratio controlling, injection profile adjusting, etc. On the other hand, EOR techniques for waterflooding oilfields must be studied and applied to improve mostly the potential of underground resources and to increase recoverable reserves.

  1. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  2. Petroleum geological features and exploration prospect of deep marine carbonate rocks in China onshore: A further discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Wenzhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep marine carbonate rocks have become one of the key targets of onshore oil and gas exploration and development for reserves replacement in China. Further geological researches of such rocks may practically facilitate the sustainable, steady and smooth development of the petroleum industry in the country. Therefore, through a deep investigation into the fundamental geological conditions of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, we found higher-than-expected resource potential therein, which may uncover large oil or gas fields. The findings were reflected in four aspects. Firstly, there are two kinds of hydrocarbon kitchens which were respectively formed by conventional source rocks and liquid hydrocarbons cracking that were detained in source rocks, and both of them can provide large-scale hydrocarbons. Secondly, as controlled by the bedding and interstratal karstification, as well as the burial and hydrothermal dolomitization, effective carbonate reservoirs may be extensively developed in the deep and ultra-deep strata. Thirdly, under the coupling action of progressive burial and annealing heating, some marine source rocks could form hydrocarbon accumulations spanning important tectonic phases, and large quantity of liquid hydrocarbons could be kept in late stage, contributing to rich oil and gas in such deep marine strata. Fourthly, large-scale uplifts were formed by the stacking of multi-episodic tectonism and oil and gas could be accumulated in three modes (i.e., stratoid large-area reservoir-forming mode of karst reservoirs in the slope area of uplift, back-flow type large-area reservoir-forming mode of buried hill weathered crust karst reservoirs, and wide-range reservoir-forming mode of reef-shoal reservoirs; groups of stratigraphic and lithologic traps were widely developed in the areas of periclinal structures of paleohighs and continental margins. In conclusion, deep marine carbonate strata in China onshore contain the conditions for

  3. Prospects of pyrolysis oil from plastic waste as fuel for diesel engines: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangesh, V. L.; Padmanabhan, S.; Ganesan, S.; PrabhudevRahul, D.; Reddy, T. Dinesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The purpose ofthis study is to review the existing literature about chemical recycling of plastic waste and its potential as fuel for diesel engines. This is a review covering on the field of converting waste plastics into liquid hydrocarbon fuels for diesel engines. Disposal and recycling of waste plastics have become an incremental problem and environmental threat with increasing demand for plastics. One of the effective measures is by converting waste plastic into combustible hydrocarbon liquid as an alternative fuel for running diesel engines. Continued research efforts have been taken by researchers to convert waste plastic in to combustible pyrolysis oil as alternate fuel for diesel engines. An existing literature focuses on the study of chemical structure of the waste plastic pyrolysis compared with diesel oil. Converting waste plastics into fuel oil by different catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis process also reviewed in this paper. The methodology with subsequent hydro treating and hydrocracking of waste plastic pyrolysis oil can reduce unsaturated hydrocarbon bonds which would improve the combustion performance in diesel engines as an alternate fuel.

  4. [Explore objective clinical variables for detecting delirium in ICU patients: a prospective case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojiang; Lyu, Jie; An, Youzhong

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this case-control study is to explore clinical objective variables for diagnosing delirium of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. According to the method of prospective case-control study, critical adult postoperative patients who were transferred to ICU of Peking University People's Hospital from October 2015 to May 2016 and needed mechanical ventilation were included. After evaluating the Richmond agitation sedation scale score (RASS), the patients whose score were -2 or greater were sorted into two groups, delirium and non-delirium, according to the confusion assessment method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Then these patients were observed by domestic multifunctional detector for electroencephalographic (EEG) variables such as brain lateralization, brain introvert, brain activity, brain energy consumption, focus inward, focus outward, cerebral inhibition, fatigue, sleep severity, sedation index, pain index, anxiety index, fidgety index, stress index and the cerebral blood flow (CBF) index which was named of perfusion index. Other variables including indexes of ICU blood gas analysis, which was consisted of variables of blood gas analysis, routine blood test and biochemistry, previous history and prognostic outcome was recorded. Binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Forty-three postoperative patients, who needed intensive care, were included. Eighteen were in delirium group and twenty-five in control group. Excluding the trauma, variables like gender, age, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure, acute physiology and chronic health evaluationII(APACHEII) score, organ failure, dementia and emergency surgery didn't show any statistical significance between two groups. The trauma in delirious patients increased obviously compared with the control group (33.3% vs. 4.0%, P = 0.031). Except for the brain activity [122.47 (88.62, 154.21) vs. 89.40 (86.27, 115.97), P = 0.034], there were no statistical differences in

  5. Encouraging Prospective Teachers to Engage Friends and Family in Exploring Physical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowl, Michele; Devitt, Adam; Jansen, Henri; van Zee, Emily H.; Winograd, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Involving people outside of a science course can foster learning for students enrolled in the course. Assignments involving friends and family provided such opportunities in an undergraduate physics course for prospective teachers. These assignments included reflecting upon prior experiences, interviewing friends and family members, engaging them…

  6. Dynasplint Trismus System exercises for trismus secondary to head and neck cancer : a prospective explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I.; Reintsema, Harry; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2016-01-01

    The Dynasplint Trismus System (DTS) can be used to treat trismus secondary to head and neck cancer. We conducted a prospective study with the following aims: (1) to determine the effects of DTS exercises on changes in mouth opening, pain, mandibular function, quality of life (QoL), and symptomatolog

  7. Dynasplint Trismus System exercises for trismus secondary to head and neck cancer : a prospective explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I.; Reintsema, Harry; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    The Dynasplint Trismus System (DTS) can be used to treat trismus secondary to head and neck cancer. We conducted a prospective study with the following aims: (1) to determine the effects of DTS exercises on changes in mouth opening, pain, mandibular function, quality of life (QoL), and

  8. Exploring Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Interpretation of Student Thinking through Analysing Students' Work in Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didis, Makbule Gozde; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat; Cetinkaya, Bulent; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Alacaci, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    Researchers point out the importance of teachers' knowledge of student thinking and the role of examining student work in various contexts to develop a knowledge base regarding students' ways of thinking. This study investigated prospective secondary mathematics teachers' interpretations of students' thinking as manifested in students' work that…

  9. The Teacher Trainer as Researcher: Exploring the Initial Pedagogical Content Concerns of Prospective Science Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Onno

    2000-01-01

    Examined preservice teachers' concerns about transforming their academic knowledge into teaching activities (pedagogical content concerns). Prospective chemistry teachers individually prepared high school chemistry lessons. During group meetings, they presented and discussed the lesson plans. Data from interviews during individual and group…

  10. Exploring PCK ability of prospective science teachers in reflective learning on heat and transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmatin, S.; Rustaman, N. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Learning can be planned by the person him/herself when he or she tries to reflect his/her learning. A study involving prospective science teachers in junior secondary schools was carried out to analyze their ability on Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) in reflective learning after teaching practice. The study was focused especially in creating Pedagogical and Professional Repertoires (PaP-eRs) as part of resource-folios. PaP-eRs as a narrative writing in the learning activities are created by prospective science teachers after lesson plan implementation. Making the narrative writing is intended that prospective science teachers can reflect their learning in teaching. Research subjects are six prospective science teachers who are implementing "Program Pengalaman Lapangan" (PPL) in two junior secondary schools in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. All of them were assigned by supervisor teachers to teach VII grade students on certain topic "heat and its transfer". Instruments used as a means of collecting data in this study is PaP-eRs. Collected PaP-eRs were then analyzed using PaP-eRs analysis format as instruments for analysis. The result of analyzing PaP-eRs indicates that learning activities, which narrated, involve initial activities, core activities and final activities. However, any activity, which is narrated just superficial as its big line so the narration cannot be, used as reflective learning. It indicates that PCK ability of prospective science teachers in creating narrative writing (PaP-eRs) for reflective learning is still low.

  11. Shallow-ocean methane leakage and degassing to the atmosphere: triggered by offshore oil-gas and methane hydrate explorations

    OpenAIRE

    Yong eZHANG; Weidong eZhai

    2015-01-01

    Both offshore oil-gas exploration and marine methane hydrate recovery can trigger massive CH4 release from seafloor. During upward transportation of CH4 plume through water column, CH4 is subjected to dissolution and microbial consumption despite the protection of hydrate and oil coating on bubbles surface. The ultimate CH4 degassing to the atmosphere appears to be water-depth dependent. In shallow oceans with water depth less than 100 m, the natural or human-induced leakages or both lead to ...

  12. Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Thoma; John Veil; Fred Limp; Jackson Cothren; Bruce Gorham; Malcolm Williamson; Peter Smith; Bob Sullivan

    2009-05-31

    This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project 'Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.' The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.

  13. Report on exploration of the Wadi Yiba copper prospect, Tihamat Ash Sham quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, Robert L.

    1969-01-01

    The first phase of an exploration program at The Wadi Yiba copper prospect consisted of geologic mapping, prospecting, sampling, geophysical surveys, and diamond drilling. Copper mineralization is in a sedimentary rock sequence comprised mostly of siliceous, calcareous, and dolomitic rocks metamorphosed to the greenschist facies. The metasedimentary rocks are overlain and underlain by metavolcanic rocks. They are folded into a tight north-plunging syncline transected by two fault systems. Results from the exploration program indicate that a fault zone which sub-parallels the synclinal axis and cuts siliceous dolomite contains copper mineralization and small amounts of gold and silver. Copper and silver beaming pyroclastic rocks were found in the upper part of the metasedimentary rock sequence. Concentrations of copper mineralization seem to be restricted to particular rock units in the metasedimentary rock sequence. Primary sulfides have not been encountered in the drill holes to date and the results from one drill hole indicate secondary copper sulfide minerals to a vertical depth of 60 meters. Further exploration seems to be warranted and a program is proposed which includes the investigation of other mineral occurrences and geophysical anomalies in the region.

  14. Interfacial wave behavior in oil-water channel flows: Prospects for a general understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCready, M.J.; Uphold, D.D.; Gifford, K.A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Oil-water pressure driven channel flow is examined as a model for general two-layer flows where interfacial disturbances are important. The goal is to develop sufficient understanding of this system so that the utility and limitations of linear and nonlinear theories can be known a priori. Experiments show that sometimes linear stability is useful at predicting the steady or dominant evolving waves. However in other situations there is no agreement between the linearly fastest growing wave and the spectral peak. An interesting preliminary result is that the bifurcation to interfacial waves is supercritical for all conditions that were studied for an oil-water channel flow, gas-liquid channel flow and two-liquid Couette flow. However, three different mechanisms are dominant for each of these three situations.

  15. Exploring prospective secondary science teachers' understandings of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics concepts using computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Mustafa

    The primary objective of this case study was to examine prospective secondary science teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics. A computer simulation of basic Mendelian inheritance processes (Catlab) was used in combination with small-group discussions and other instructional scaffolds to enhance prospective science teachers' understandings. The theoretical background for this research is derived from a social constructivist perspective. Structuring scientific inquiry as investigation to develop explanations presents meaningful context for the enhancement of inquiry abilities and understanding of the science content. The context of the study was a teaching and learning course focused on inquiry and technology. Twelve prospective science teachers participated in this study. Multiple data sources included pre- and post-module questionnaires of participants' view of scientific inquiry, pre-posttests of understandings of Mendelian concepts, inquiry project reports, class presentations, process videotapes of participants interacting with the simulation, and semi-structured interviews. Seven selected prospective science teachers participated in in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that while studying important concepts in science, carefully designed inquiry experiences can help prospective science teachers to develop an understanding about the types of questions scientists in that field ask, the methodological and epistemological issues that constrain their pursuit of answers to those questions, and the ways in which they construct and share their explanations. Key findings included prospective teachers' initial limited abilities to create evidence-based arguments, their hesitancy to include inquiry in their future teaching, and the impact of collaboration on thinking. Prior to this experience the prospective teachers held uninformed views of scientific inquiry. After the module, participants demonstrated extended expertise in

  16. Exploring the WTI crude oil price bubble process using the Markov regime switching model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wang, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The sharp volatility of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price in the past decade triggers us to investigate the price bubbles and their evolving process. Empirical results indicate that the fundamental price of WTI crude oil appears relatively more stable than that of the market-trading price, which verifies the existence of oil price bubbles during the sample period. Besides, by allowing the WTI crude oil price bubble process to switch between two states (regimes) according to a first-order Markov chain, we are able to statistically discriminate upheaval from stable states in the crude oil price bubble process; and in most of time, the stable state dominates the WTI crude oil price bubbles while the upheaval state usually proves short-lived and accompanies unexpected market events.

  17. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  18. Panorama of Oil and Gas Exploration in Turpan-Hami Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wuhe

    1997-01-01

    @@ Turpan-Hami Basin (abbreviated to Tuha Basin) is one of the three largest petroliferous basins in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China with a total area of 53500km2. Its reserves and production of oil and gas have rapidly increased since 1990. By the end of 1995, the reserves of about 200 million tons of oil and 70 billion cubic meters of gas have been proved, with the annual oil productivity reaching three million tons. A new area of oil/gas fields has risen in East Xinjiang.

  19. Preliminary Exploration of a Novel Type High-effi-ciency Mosquito-repellent Compound Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei; Jing; Zhou; Yin; Sun; Yizhe; Wang; Tao; Yang; Jingya

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils were extracted from flowers and branches of Cestrum genus plant Telosma cordata(Burm. F.) Merr.,and used for purifying the mosquito-repellent refined oils. The yielded extracts were mixed with single nerve-smoothing or nerve-exciting components from lavender and peppermint or mixed with basal oils(like evening primrose),in order to prepare the novel type compound essential oils conferring mosquito-repellent and air-refreshing actions. The resulted compound was prepared into solid air freshener.

  20. An empirical exploration of the world oil price under the target zone model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linghui Tang; Shawkat Hammoudeh [Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Lebow College of Business

    2002-11-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of the world oil price based on the first-generation target zone model. Using anecdotal data during the period of 1988-1999, we found that OPEC has tried to maintain a weak target zone regime for the oil price. Our econometric tests suggest that the movement of the oil price is not only manipulated by actual and substantial interventions by OPEC but also tempered by market participants' expectations of interventions. As a consequence, the non-linear model based on the target zone theory has very good forecasting ability when the oil price approaches the upper or lower limit of the band. (author)

  1. An empirical exploration of the world oil price under the target zone model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Linghui; Hammoudeh, Shawkat [Department of Economics and International Business, Lebow College of Business, Drexel University, 19104 Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2002-11-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of the world oil price based on the first-generation target zone model. Using anecdotal data during the period of 1988-1999, we found that OPEC has tried to maintain a weak target zone regime for the oil price. Our econometric tests suggest that the movement of the oil price is not only manipulated by actual and substantial interventions by OPEC but also tempered by market participants' expectations of interventions. As a consequence, the non-linear model based on the target zone theory has very good forecasting ability when the oil price approaches the upper or lower limit of the band.

  2. Deep Drilling Into the Chicxulub Impact Crater: Pemex Oil Exploration Boreholes Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Chicxulub structure was recognized in the 1940´s from gravity anomalies in oil exploration surveys by Pemex. Geophysical anomalies occur over the carbonate platform in NW Yucatan, where density and magnetic susceptibility contrasts with the carbonates suggested a buried igneous complex or basement uplift. The exploration program developed afterwards included several boreholes, starting with the Chicxulub-1 in 1952 and eventually comprising eight deep boreholes completed through the 1970s. The investigations showing Chicxulub as a large impact crater formed at the K/T boundary have relayed on the Pemex decades-long exploration program. Despite frequent reference to Pemex information, original data have not been openly available for detailed evaluation and incorporation with results from recent efforts. Logging data and core samples remain to be analyzed, reevaluated and integrated in the context of recent marine, aerial and terrestrial geophysical surveys and the drilling/coring projects of UNAM and ICDP. In this presentation we discuss the paleontological data, stratigraphic columns and geophysical logs for the Chicxulub-1 (1582m), Sacapuc-1 (1530m), Yucatan-6 (1631m) and Ticul-1 (3575m) boreholes. These boreholes remain the deepest ones drilled in Chicxulub and the only ones providing samples of the melt-rich breccias and melt sheet. Other boreholes include the Y1 (3221m), Y2 (3474m), Y4 (2398m) and Y5A (3003m), which give information on pre-impact stratigraphy and crystalline basement. We concentrate on log and microfossil data, stratigraphic columns, lateral correlation, integration with UNAM and ICDP borehole data, and analyses of sections of melt, impact breccias and basal Paleocene carbonates. Current plans for deep drilling in Chicxulub crater focus in the peak ring zone and central sector, with proposed marine and on-land boreholes to the IODP and ICDP programs. Future ICDP borehole will be located close to Chicxulub-1 and Sacapuc-1, which intersected

  3. From olive drupes to olive oil. An HPLC-orbitrap-based qualitative and quantitative exploration of olive key metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, Periklis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Michel, Thomas; Gikas, Evagelos; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was the qualitative exploration and quantitative monitoring of key olive secondary metabolites in different production steps (drupes, paste, first and final oil) throughout a virgin olive oil production line. The Greek variety Koroneiki was selected as one of the most representative olives, which is rich in biological active compounds. For the first time, an HPLC-Orbitrap platform was employed for both qualitative and quantitative purposes. Fifty-two components belonging to phenyl alcohols, secoiridoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and lactones were identified based on HRMS and HRMS/MS data. Nine biologically and chemically significant metabolites were quantitatively determined throughout the four production steps. Drupes and paste were found to be rich in several components, which are not present in the final oil. The current study discloses the chemical nature of different olive materials in a successive and integrated way and reveals new sources of high added value constituents of olives.

  4. Exploration practices and prospect of Upper Paleozoic giant gas fields in the Ordos Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Shengli Xi; Xinshe Liu; Peilong Meng

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas resources is abundant in the Ordos Basin, where six gas fields with more than 100 billion cubic meters of gas reserves have been successively developed and proved, including Jingbian, Yulin, Zizhou, Wushenqi, Sulige and Shenmu. This study aims to summarize the fruitful results and functional practices achieved in the huge gas province exploration, which will be regarded as guidance and reference for the further exploration and development in this basin. Based on the past five deca...

  5. New progress and future prospects of CBM exploration and development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Jian; Xu Fengyin; Liu Lin; Zhong Ningning; Wu Xiaobin

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to speed up China's coal bed methane (CBM) exploration developments related to production safety,optimization of energy structures,prevention of energy waste and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are all of great significance.In order to strengthen CBM exploration and development in China and to encourage increased growth in the CBM industry,we firstly give a general overview of the recent technological innovations and other developments in CBM exploration in the U.S.,Canada and other countries.Using this background information as the starting point,we further present observations and analyses of CBM exploration and development,preferential policies,technical support and implications of R&D for CBM development in China.The results show that the problems related to CBM exploration technology development and lack of a complete set of management policies are still the major issues slowing down the growth of domestic CBM industry.Development of resource exploration and technology,R&D and establishment of favorable government policy to support the industry and the creation of a relevant information platform,etc.are finally recommended.

  6. Exploration: A misunderstood business. [The economics and expenditures of planning and executing an oil and gas exploration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrenz, J. (Louisiana Tech. Univ., Ruston (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The business of exploration is persistently misunderstand. Why Misunderstandings persist and even pervade educated, sophisticated, and obviously capable business practitioners and savants of an array of disciplines - finance, economics, and the management sciences. Routine and appropriate assumptions that apply for most businesses invoke nonsense applied to exploration, a unique business. The uniqueness of exploration, unrecognized, sustains the misunderstandings. The authors will not here obliterate these obdurate misunderstandings with some revelation. They show, however, how the misunderstandings naturally arise among those who certainly are not used to being naive.

  7. Isolation and characterization of hyper phenol tolerant Bacillus sp. from oil refinery and exploration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Ghoshal, Aloke K

    2010-04-15

    Bacillus cereus MTCC 9817 strain AKG1 and B. cereus MTCC 9818 strain AKG2 were isolated from petroleum refinery and oil exploration site, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequence of strain AKG1 showed the closest relation to B. cereus 99.63% and Bacillus coagulans 99.63% followed by 99.34% homology with Bacillus thuringiensis strain 2PR56-10. AKG2 is mostly related to B. thuringiensis strain CMG 861 with 99.37% homology. The similarity search between AKG1 and AKG2 gave the lowest similarity 99.19% among same genus similar sequences. At phenol concentration of 1000 mg/L, the optimum growth conditions for AKG1 were found to be 37 degrees C and pH 7.0 and the same were found to be 37 degrees C and pH 7.5 for AKG2. The growth kinetics of the strains AKG1 and AKG2 are best fitted by Yano model (maximum growth rate, mu(max)=1.024 h(-1) and inhibition constant, K(I)=171,800 mg/L) and Edward model (mu(max)=0.5969 h(-1) and K(I)=1483 mg/L) respectively. Growth kinetics of both the strains are also well fitted by the Haldane model with mu(max)=0.4396 h(-1) and K(I)=637.8 mg/L for AKG1 and mu(max)=0.9332 h(-1) and K(I)=494.4 mg/L for AKG2.

  8. Orbital remote sensing for geological mapping in southern Tunisia: Implication for oil and gas exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Sherrie A.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2006-02-01

    mapping and seismic exploration. Identifying lithological and structural features using remote sensing studies incorporated with surface and sub-surface geological investigations in southern Tunisia can aid exploration for new oil and gas fields. Such an approach of integrating remote sensing and in situ geological studies can be successfully adopted in other parts of North Africa and arid regions in general.

  9. The effect of early berthing prospects on the energy efficiency operational index in oil tanker vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, N.; Acomi, O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Marine pollution is one of the main concerns of our society. In order to reduce air pollution produced by ships, the International Maritime Organization has developed technical, operational and management measures. Part of the operational measures refers to CO2 emissions that contribute to the energy efficiency of the vessel. The difficulty in assessing the energy efficiency of the vessel rests with the diversity of voyage parameters, including quantity of cargo, distance and type of fuel in use. Assessing the energy efficiency of the vessel is thus not a matter of determining the absolute value of the CO2, but of providing a meaningful construct to enable tracking performance trends over time, for the same ship, a fleet of ships or across the industry. This concept is the Energy Efficiency Operational Index, EEOI. The purpose of this study is to analyse the influence of a well predicted voyage on the EEOI value. The method used consists in a comparative analysis of two situations regarding berthing prospects: the real passage plan and an early prediction that supposes the vessel to arrive on time as required. The results of the study represent a monitoring tool for the ship owners to assess the EEOI from the early stage of designing the berthing prospects.

  10. Hydrobiogeochemical controls on a low-carbon emitting energy extraction mechanism: exploring methanogenic crude oil biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna; McIntosh, Jennifer; Akob, Denise; Spear, John; Warwick, Peter; McCray, John

    2016-04-01

    Exploiting naturally-occurring microbial communities in the deep subsurface could help mitigate the effects of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. These microbial communities, a combination of methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, can perform methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, namely the conversion of crude oil to natural gas, and have also been detected in biodegraded, methanogenic reservoirs. These microbes could target residual crude oil, a high-carbon, hard-to-obtain fossil fuel source, and convert it to natural gas, effectively "producing" a lower CO2 per BTU fuel source. Yet, little is known about what geochemical parameters are driving microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs, and how the presence of specific microbial communities may impact methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. To investigate methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, 22 wells along a subsurface hydrogeochemical gradient in the southeastern USA were sampled for DNA analysis of the microbial community, and geochemical analysis of produced water and crude oil. A statistical comparison of microbial community structure to formation fluid geochemical parameters, amount of crude oil biodegradation, and relative extent of methanogenesis revealed that relative degree of biodegradation (high, medium, or low), chloride concentration (550 mM to 2100 mM), well depth (393 m to 1588 m), and spatial location within the reservoir (i.e., oil field location) are the major drivers of microbial diversity. There was no statistical evidence for correlation between extent of methanogenesis and the subsurface community composition. Despite the dominance of methanogens in these sampled wells, methanogenic activity was not predicted solely based on the microbial community composition. Crude oil biodegradation, however, correlates with both community composition and produced water geochemistry, suggesting a co-linear system and implying that microbial communities associated with degree

  11. Exploring Quantum Gravity with Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Instruments - Prospects and Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Some models for quantum gravity (QG) violate Lorentz invariance and predict an energy dependence of the speed of light, leading to a dispersion of high-energy gamma-ray signals that travel over cosmological distances. Limits on the dispersion from short-duration substructures observed in gamma-rays emitted by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at cosmological distances have provided interesting bounds on Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). Recent observations of unprecedentedly fast flares in the very-high energy gamma-ray emission of the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) Mkn 501 in 2005 and PKS 2155-304 in 2006 resulted in the most constraining limits on LIV from light-travel observations, approaching the Planck mass scale, at which QG effects are assumed to become important. I review the current status of LIV searches using GRBs and AGN flare events, and discuss limitations of light-travel time analyses and prospects for future instruments in the gamma-ray domain.

  12. Reducing Onshore Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Impacts Using a Broad-Based Stakeholder Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Childers

    2011-03-30

    Never before has the reduction of oil and gas exploration and production impacts been as important as it is today for operators, regulators, non-governmental organizations and individual landowners. Collectively, these stakeholders are keenly interested in the potential benefits from implementing effective environmental impact reducing technologies and practices. This research project strived to gain input and insight from such a broad array of stakeholders in order to identify approaches with the potential to satisfy their diverse objectives. The research team examined three of the most vital issue categories facing onshore domestic production today: (1) surface damages including development in urbanized areas, (2) impacts to wildlife (specifically greater sage grouse), and (3) air pollution, including its potential contribution to global climate change. The result of the research project is a LINGO (Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil) handbook outlining approaches aimed at avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating environmental impacts. The handbook identifies technical solutions and approaches which can be implemented in a practical and feasible manner to simultaneously achieve a legitimate balance between environmental protection and fluid mineral development. It is anticipated that the results of this research will facilitate informed planning and decision making by management agencies as well as producers of oil and natural gas. In 2008, a supplemental task was added for the researchers to undertake a 'Basin Initiative Study' that examines undeveloped and/or underdeveloped oil and natural gas resources on a regional or geologic basin scope to stimulate more widespread awareness and development of domestic resources. Researchers assessed multi-state basins (or plays), exploring state initiatives, state-industry partnerships and developing strategies to increase U.S. oil and gas supplies while accomplishing regional economic and environmental goals.

  13. Exploration practices and prospect of Upper Paleozoic giant gas fields in the Ordos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Xi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas resources is abundant in the Ordos Basin, where six gas fields with more than 100 billion cubic meters of gas reserves have been successively developed and proved, including Jingbian, Yulin, Zizhou, Wushenqi, Sulige and Shenmu. This study aims to summarize the fruitful results and functional practices achieved in the huge gas province exploration, which will be regarded as guidance and reference for the further exploration and development in this basin. Based on the past five decades' successful exploration practices made by PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company, we first comb the presentation of geological theories at different historical stages as well as the breakthrough in the course. Then, we analyze a complete set of adaptive techniques obtained from the long-time technological research and conclude historical experiences and effective measures in terms of broadening exploration ideas, such as the fluvial delta reservoir-forming theory, giant tight gas reservoir-forming theory, the idea of sediment source system in the southern basin, etc., and innovating technical and management mechanism, such as all-digit seismic prediction, fine logging evaluation for gas formations, stimulation of tight sand reservoirs, flat project and benchmarking management, and so on.

  14. Application of the Earth's Natural Electromagnetic Noise to Geophysical Prospecting and Seraching for Oil

    CERN Document Server

    Malyshkov, Sergey Yu; Gordeev, Vasily F; Shtalin, Sergey G; Polivach, Vitaly I; Bazhanov, Yury Yu; Hauan, Terje

    2011-01-01

    When applying the Earth's natural pulse electromagnetic fields to geophysical prospecting one should take into account characteristics of their spatial and temporal variations. ENPEMF is known to include both pulses attributed to atmospheric thunderstorms and pulses generated in the lithosphere by mechanic-to-electric energy conversion in rocks. It is evident that the most valuable information on the geophysical structure of a certain area is obviously contained in pulses originated from this area. This article covers a method of recording spatial variations of the Earth's natural pulse electromagnetic fields which is able to take due account of spatial and temporal variations of EM fields and suits to reveal crustal structural and lithologic heterogeneities including hydrocarbon pools. We use a system of several stations recording the ENPEMF concurrently to erase the temporal variations from ENPEMF records and to sort out the pulses of local and remote origin. Some stations are fixed (reference) and record o...

  15. Map service: Historical oil and gas exploration for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), southwestern Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service was created to assemble oil and gas well information for a comprehensive inventory of energy data pertinent to the Wyoming Landscape Conservation...

  16. Corruption and oil exploration: expert agreement about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A; Stammen, Ronald M; Mantell, Joanne E

    2008-08-01

    The Niger Delta, according to the Nigerian Ministry of Health, has a disproportionately high HIV infection rate, which is double the national average. The United Nations Development Program attributes the spiraling HIV infection rate in the region to poverty, migration and gender inequality. This paper examines two complementary suppositions: Is the high prevalence of HIV in the Niger Delta related to incompetent leadership and corruption? Is it related to the negative effects of oil exploration in the region? Currently, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of government programs or the role of the oil industry on the impact of AIDS in Nigeria. To address this gap, we conducted a survey with 27 internationally renowned experts from diverse disciplines using a three-round modified Delphi to formulate consensus about the impact of weak governance and oil corruption on AIDS in the Niger Delta. Results from the Delphi suggest that these factors and others have exacerbated the transmission of HIV in the region. To mitigate the impact of AIDS in the region, efforts to engage oil companies in implementing HIV prevention programs as part of their corporate environmental responsibility to the community are urgently needed.

  17. Oil Exploration and the Challenges of Food Security: A Reflection on the Indigenous Minorities of the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogege Sam Omadjohwoefe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines oil exploration and the challenges of food security in the Niger Delta. Oil exploratory activities inevitably upturn the balance of the earth crust and degrade the larger environment through the dumping of harmful wastes, gas flaring and intermittent oil spillage. The paper maintains that the indigenous minorities have been particularly badly hit since most of their economic activities tied to the environment are either disrupted or destroyed. The hitherto fertile farmlands have regressively lost fertility. The rivers are without fishes and the forests without animals. This no doubt, has adverse implication for food security. Environmental degradation and its attendant problem of food insecurity are exacerbated by lopsided and impotent environmental policies that are formulated by the Nigerian state. Based on the above, the paper recommends among others, that the Nigerian state should as a matter of necessity, develop environmental regulatory framework that can guarantee steady oil production with minimal adverse environmental impact on the prevailing food chain of the indigenous minorities in the Niger Delta.

  18. Corruption and oil exploration: expert agreement about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A.; Stammen, Ronald M.; Mantell, Joanne E.

    2008-01-01

    The Niger Delta, according to the Nigerian Ministry of Health, has a disproportionately high HIV infection rate, which is double the national average. The United Nations Development Program attributes the spiraling HIV infection rate in the region to poverty, migration and gender inequality. This paper examines two complementary suppositions: Is the high prevalence of HIV in the Niger Delta related to incompetent leadership and corruption? Is it related to the negative effects of oil exploration in the region? Currently, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of government programs or the role of the oil industry on the impact of AIDS in Nigeria. To address this gap, we conducted a survey with 27 internationally renowned experts from diverse disciplines using a three-round modified Delphi to formulate consensus about the impact of weak governance and oil corruption on AIDS in the Niger Delta. Results from the Delphi suggest that these factors and others have exacerbated the transmission of HIV in the region. To mitigate the impact of AIDS in the region, efforts to engage oil companies in implementing HIV prevention programs as part of their corporate environmental responsibility to the community are urgently needed. PMID:17906312

  19. Barite: a case study of import reliance on an essential material for oil and gas exploration and development drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Miller, M. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Global dependence on a limited number of countries for specific mineral commodities could lead to sudden supply disruptions for the United States, and barite is one such commodity. Analyses of barite supply amounts and sources for the United States are demonstrative of mineral commodities on which the country is import reliant. Mineral commodity trade flows can be analyzed more easily than import reliances for commodities in which U.S. domestic demand is primarily met by materials contained within manufactured products, as with the rare-earth elements in cellular phones and computers. Barite plays an essential role as a weighting material in drilling muds used in oil and gas drilling, primarily to prevent the explosive release of gas and oil during drilling. The Nation’s efforts to become more energy independent are based largely on the domestic oil and gas industry’s ability to explore and develop onshore and offshore fuel deposits. These activities include increased efforts by the United States to locate and recover oil and gas within unconventional deposits, such as those in the Bakken, Eagle Ford, and Marcellus Formations, using advanced drilling technologies.

  20. 43 CFR 23.4 - Application for permission to conduct exploration operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to be disturbed, explore, test, or prospect for minerals (other than oil and gas) subject to disposition under the mineral leasing acts without first filing an application for, and obtaining, a...

  1. Time-based prospective memory in young children-Exploring executive functions as a developmental mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Anett; Voigt, Babett; Friedrich, Sylva; Pfeiffer, Kathrin; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated time-based prospective memory (PM) during the transition from kindergarten/preschool to school age and applied mediation models to test the impact of executive functions (working memory, inhibitory control) and time monitoring on time-based PM development. Twenty-five preschool (age: M = 5.75, SD = 0.28) and 22 primary school children (age: M = 7.83, SD = 0.39) participated. To examine time-based PM, children had to play a computer-based driving game requiring them to drive a car on a road without hitting others cars (ongoing task) and to refill the car regularly according to a fuel gauge, which serves as clock equivalent (PM task). The level of gas that was still left in the fuel gauge was not displayed on the screen and children had to monitor it via a button press (time monitoring). Results revealed a developmental increase in time-based PM performance from preschool to school age. Applying the mediation models, only working memory was revealed to influence PM development. Neither inhibitory control alone nor the mediation paths leading from both executive functions to time monitoring could explain the link between age and time-based PM. Thus, results of the present study suggest that working memory may be one key cognitive process driving the developmental growth of time-based PM during the transition from preschool to school age.

  2. Exploring the Impact of Commuter’s Residential Location Choice on the Design of a Rail Transit Line Based on Prospect Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice on the design problem of a rail transit line located in a monocentric city. A closed-form social welfare maximization model is proposed, with special consideration given to prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice over years. Commuters are assumed to make residential location choice by a trade-off between daily housing rent and generalized travel cost to minimize their prospect values. The solutions properties of the proposed model are explored and compared analytically. It is found that overestimation exists for the optimal solutions of rail line length, headway, and fare based on traditional utility theory, compared with the optimal solutions of the proposed prospect theory based model. A numerical example is given to illustrate the properties of the proposed model.

  3. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation.

  4. Exploring the Current Trends and Future Prospects in Terrorist Network Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Chaurasia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s era of hi-tech technologies, criminals are easily fulfilling their inhuman goals against the mankind. Thus, the security of civilians has significantly become important. In this regard, the law-enforcement agencies are aiming to prevent future attacks. To do so, the terrorist networks are being analyzed using data mining techniques. One such technique is Social network analysis which studies terrorist networks for the identification of relationships and associations that may exist between terrorist nodes. Terrorist activities can also be detected by means of analyzing Web traffic content. This paper studies social network analysis, web traffic content and explores various ways for identifying terrorist activities.

  5. Oil Exploration and the Dilemma of Unemployment in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwosu Jonathan E

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Niger delta region situated in the southern part of Nigeria covers a territory of about 112,110 km2, which represents about 12 % of the total area of the country. The Niger delta is an oil-rich region, which has led Nigeria to the 12th place among the oil producing countries of the world. The share of crude oil production accounts for 90 % of export revenues and 75% of the total state revenue. However, despite the numerous social and economic achievements of the oil industry, it is considered to be the cause of the unemployment rate growth in the region. Taking into account the abovementioned, the aim of this article is to evaluate the relationship of the crude oil production and high unemployment rate in the Niger Delta. In the article there applied the method of non-experimental research to enable the proportional reflection, method of cluster random choice for distribution of questionnaires and interviewing method for obtaining direct data and information. The results showed that the ecological damage caused by the oil production has had a negative impact on the fishing and agriculture — the main activities of the region rural population. In other words, the threat of oil spills, gas flaring, pollution and other activities associated with oil production are destroying the environment, which is the main home and source of income for a large number of working-age population. Thus, as a result of the depletion of fertile soils, the crop yield drops or completely disappears, forests vanish together with their resources. Rivers and reservoirs are being polluted resulting in the extinction of fish and river fauna, which, in turn, leads to the fact that fishermen and farmers, whose work is directly dependent on environmental conditions, are affected by unemployment. This causes a widespread poverty, unrest and hostile attitude of among young people, as well as the emergence of other social problems prevailing in the region. Unfortunately, the

  6. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Bartone, Paul T; Eid, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents.

  7. Shallow-ocean methane leakage and degassing to the atmosphere: Triggered by offshore oil-gas and methane hydrate explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong eZHANG

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both offshore oil-gas exploration and marine methane hydrate recovery can trigger massive CH4 release from seafloor. During upward transportation of CH4 plume through water column, CH4 is subjected to dissolution and microbial consumption despite the protection of hydrate and oil coating on bubbles surface. The ultimate CH4 degassing to the atmosphere appears to be water-depth dependent. In shallow oceans with water depth less than 100 m, the natural or human-induced leakages or both lead to significant sea-to-air CH4 degassing from 3.00 to 1.36 × 105 μmol m-2 d-1. To quantify the human-perturbation induced CH4 degassing, the combination of top-down modeling and bottom-up calculations is essential due to spatial and temporal variability of diffusion and ebullition at water-air interface.

  8. World oil prices: prospects and implications for energy policy-making in Latin America's oil-deficit countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    This study considers two broad topics: future prices for world crude oil and energy policy in Latin American oil-deficit countries. Chapter 1 identifies and explains the pattern of world crude oil prices in the post-war era and it considers the relative importance of three factors in explaining changes in world crude oil prices during this period: the pressure of increasing demand on the supply cost of world crude oil, the organization of the world oil industry, and energy policies in the industrialized, oil-deficit countries. Chapter 2 provides an analysis of the structure of today's world crude oil market from the point of view of price formation. Chapter 3 discusses the current pattern of energy policies in the industrialized, oil-importing countries, again, with emphasis on price formation. Chapter 4 focuses on the price forecast. Chapter 5 deals with the range of options open to policy-makers in Latin America's oil deficit countries as they confront the expected price of world crude oil. (JMT)

  9. World oil prices: prospects and implications for energy policy-makers in Latin America's oil-deficit countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    This study considers two broad topics: future prices for world crude oil and energy policy in Latin American oil-deficit countries. Chapter I identifies and explains the pattern of world crude oil prices in the post-war era. Chapter II provides an analysis of the structure of today's world crude oil market from the point of view of price formation. Chapter III discusses the current pattern of energy policies in the industrialized, oil-importing countries. Again, the emphasis is on price formation. Chapter IV focuses on the price forecast. It opens with an estimate of the maximum level of the long-run incremental cost of supplying world oil over the next two decades. Chapter V deals with the range of options open to policy-makers in Latin America's oil-deficit countries as they confront the expected price of world crude oil. It closes with a discussion of the security of oil imports in Latin America's oil-deficit countries.

  10. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    CERN Document Server

    Xhixha, Gerti; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 24 +/- 3 Bq/kg and 549 +/- 12 Bq/kg, respectively, come from oil-sand produced by hydrocarbon extraction from molasses formations. The mineralogical characterization together with the 228Ra/40K and 226Ra/40K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirm the geological and geodynamic model that predicts a dismantling of Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (+/- standard deviations) of the radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and of the 228Th and 40K radionuclides in soil samples are determined...

  11. Oil Exploration in Nigeria and its Socio-Economic Impact in Ogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of product demand and international network of operations, the industry affects ... As a result, a day hardly passes without oil being mentioned in the news. ... the dominant role of petroleum in the Nigerian Economy and are therefore eager to ...

  12. Metals in water, sediments, and biota of an offshore oil exploration area in the Potiguar Basin, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, L D; Campos, R C; Santelli, R E

    2013-05-01

    Metal concentrations were evaluated in water, bottom sediments, and biota in four field campaigns from 2002 to 2004 in the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil, where offshore oil exploration occurs. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Total metal concentrations in water (dissolved + particulate) and sediments were in the range expected for coastal and oceanic areas. Abnormally high concentrations in waters were only found for Ba (80 μg l(-1)) and Mn (12 μg l(-1)) at the releasing point of one of the outfalls, and for the other metals, concentrations in water were found in stations closer to shore, suggesting continental inputs. In bottom sediments, only Fe and Mn showed abnormal concentrations closer to the effluent releasing point. Metal spatial distribution in shelf sediments showed the influence of the silt-clay fraction distribution, with deeper stations at the edge of the continental shelf, which are much richer in silt-clay fraction showing higher concentrations than shallower sediments typically dominated by carbonates. Metal concentrations in estuarine (mollusks and crustaceans) and marine (fish) organisms showed highest concentrations in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae). Fish tissues metal concentrations were similar between the continental shelf influenced by the oil exploration area and a control site. The results were within the range of concentrations reported for pristine environments without metals contamination. The global results suggest small, if any, alteration in metal concentrations due to the oil exploration activity in the Potiguar Basin. For monitoring purposes, the continental inputs and the distribution of the clay-silt fraction need to be taken into consideration for interpreting environmental monitoring results.

  13. Identifying Oil Exploration Leads using Intergrated Remote Sensing and Seismic Data Analysis, Lake Sakakawea, Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, Willistion Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott R. Reeves; Randal L. Billingsley

    2004-02-26

    The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, inhabited by the Arikara, Mandan and Hidatsa Tribes (now united to form the Three Affiliated Tribes) covers a total area of 1530 mi{sup 2} (980,000 acres). The Reservation is located approximately 15 miles east of the depocenter of the Williston basin, and to the southeast of a major structural feature and petroleum producing province, the Nesson anticline. Several published studies document the widespread existence of mature source rocks, favorable reservoir/caprock combinations, and production throughout the Reservation and surrounding areas indicating high potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. This technical assessment was performed to better define the oil exploration opportunity, and stimulate exploration and development activities for the benefit of the Tribes. The need for this assessment is underscored by the fact that, despite its considerable potential, there is currently no meaningful production on the Reservation, and only 2% of it is currently leased. Of particular interest (and the focus of this study) is the area under the Lake Sakakawea (formed as result of the Garrison Dam). This 'reservoir taking' area, which has never been drilled, encompasses an area of 150,000 acres, and represents the largest contiguous acreage block under control of the Tribes. Furthermore, these lands are Tribal (non-allotted), hence leasing requirements are relatively simple. The opportunity for exploration success insofar as identifying potential leads under the lake is high. According to the Bureau of Land Management, there have been 591 tests for oil and gas on or immediately adjacent to the Reservation, resulting in a total of 392 producing wells and 179 plugged and abandoned wells, for a success ratio of 69%. Based on statistical probability alone, the opportunity for success is high.

  14. The Gabbs Valley, Nevada, geothermal prospect: Exploring for a potential blind geothermal resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J.; Bell, J. W.; Calvin, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Gabbs Valley prospect in west-central Nevada is a potential blind geothermal resource system. Possible structural controls on this system were investigated using high-resolution LiDAR, low sun-angle aerial (LSA) photography, exploratory fault trenching and a shallow temperature survey. Active Holocene faults have previously been identified at 37 geothermal systems with indication of temperatures greater than 100° C in the western Nevada region. Active fault controls in Gabbs Valley include both Holocene and historical structures. Two historical earthquakes occurring in 1932 and 1954 have overlapping surface rupture patterns in Gabbs Valley. Three active fault systems identified through LSA and LiDAR mapping have characteristics of Basin and Range normal faulting and Walker Lane oblique dextral faulting. The East Monte Cristo Mountains fault zone is an 8.5 km long continuous NNE striking, discrete fault with roughly 0.5 m right-normal historic motion and 3 m vertical Quaternary separation. The Phillips Wash fault zone is an 8.2 km long distributed fault system striking NE to N, with Quaternary fault scarps of 1-3 m vertical separation and a 500 m wide graben adjacent to the Cobble Cuesta anticline. This fault displays ponded drainages, an offset terrace riser and right stepping en echelon fault patterns suggestive of left lateral offset, and fault trenching exposed non-matching stratigraphy typical of a significant component of lateral offset. The unnamed faults of Gabbs Valley are a 10.6 km long system of normal faults striking NNE and Quaternary scarps are up to 4 m high. These normal faults largely do not have historic surface rupture, but a small segment of 1932 rupture has been identified. A shallow (2 m deep) temperature survey of 80 points covering roughly 65 square kilometers was completed. Data were collected over approximately 2 months, and continual base station temperature measurements were used to seasonally correct temperature measurements. A 2

  15. Vector of development of prospecting branch in the conditions of exhaustion of raw material resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Zastypov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustion of oil resources in many oil-extracting regions staticizes a problem of development of mechanisms of economic incentives of activity of the prospecting companies, effective regulation of tax system and its adaptation to needs of development of oil-extracting and prospecting branches. Offers on rational use of investment means in geological exploration and to justification of administrative decisions are considered. The main questions of tax and investment incentives of activity in the subsurface use sphere in the conditions of insufficiency of financing of prospecting works are taken up.

  16. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to explore the geochemistry of the Santa Barbara oil seeps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Christopher; Nelson, Robert

    2013-03-27

    The development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) has expanded the analytical window for studying complex mixtures like oil. Compared to traditional gas chromatography, this technology separates and resolves at least an order of magnitude more compounds, has a much larger signal to noise ratio, and sorts compounds based on their chemical class; hence, providing highly refined inventories of petroleum hydrocarbons in geochemical samples that was previously unattainable. In addition to the increased resolution afforded by GC x GC, the resulting chromatograms have been used to estimate the liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, octanol-water partition coefficients, and vaporization enthalpies of petroleum hydrocarbons. With these relationships, powerful and incisive analyses of phase-transfer processes affecting petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in the environment are available. For example, GC x GC retention data has been used to quantitatively deconvolve the effects of phase transfer processes such as water washing and evaporation. In short, the positive attributes of GC x GC-analysis have led to a methodology that has revolutionized the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons. Overall, this research has opened numerous fields of study on the biogeochemical "genetics" (referred to as petroleomics) of petroleum samples in both subsurface and surface environments. Furthermore, these new findings have already been applied to the behavior of oil at other seeps as well, for petroleum exploration and oil spill studies.

  17. Environmental Management System of Petroleum Industries: A case study of Oil and Gas Exploration in the Zamrud Field Conservation Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onny Setiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background:The Zamrud Field is one of the oil fields managed by Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI a production sharing contractor of Pertamina. It is located in the Coastal Plain and  Pekanbaru (CPP Block. The government of Indonesia has designated Zamrud as a conservation area. The petroleum industry in Zamrud fields has received 14001 ISO Certificate on Environmental Management System. The production sharing contract between CPI and the Government of Indonesia expired in August 2002 Methods: .This case study describes how CPI managed the development  of oil and gas production and compared to  the environmental management system for  petroleum industries  that should be taken  in the Zamrud conservation areas. Results: A number of specific measures were employed by CPI  to protect this sensitive area including a green seismic project, zero-discharge drilling, water management, preservation of nature and regular monitoring and impact assessment. There are two  important points that should be in consideration  for the environmental management system by CPI in the Zamrud areas, including top soil utilization to maintain biological and nutrients quality and re-vegetation in all areas of significant disturbances. Conclusion: oil and gas  exploration and production in conservation areas has to be managed through high commitment to good environmental  and social practices. Key words     : Environmental Management System (EMS, Petroleum Industries, Zamrud Field

  18. Hydrogeochemical exploration of geothermal prospects in the Tecuamburro Volcano region, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, C.J.; Goff, F.; Fahlquist, L.; Adams, A.I.; Alfredo, Roldan M.; Chipera, S.J.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses of thermal and nonthermal waters and of gases from springs and fumaroles are used to evaluate the geothermal potential of the Tecuamburro Volcano region, Guatemala. Chemically distinct geothermal surface manifestations generally occur in separate hydrogeologic areas within this 400 km2 region: low-pressure fumaroles with temperatures near local boiling occur at 1470 m elevation in a sulfur mine near the summit of Tecuamburro Volcano; non-boiling acid-sulfate hot springs and mud pots are restricted to the Laguna Ixpaco area, about 5 km NNW of the sulfur mine and 350-400 m lower in elevation; steam-heated and thermal-meteoric waters are found on the flanks of Tecuamburro Volcano and several kilometers to the north in the andesitic highland, where the Infernitos fumarole (97??C at 1180 m) is the primary feature; neutral-chloride hot springs discharge along Rio Los Esclavos, principally near Colmenares at 490 m elevation, about 8-10 km SE of Infernitos. Maximum geothermometer temperatures calculated from Colmenares neutral-chloride spring compositions are ???180??C, whereas maximum subsurface temperatures based on Laguna Ixpaco gas compositions are ???310??C. An exploration core hole drilled to a depth of 808 m about 0.3 km south of Laguna Ixpaco had a bottom-hole temperature of 238??C but did not produce sufficient fluids to confirm or chemically characterize a geothermal reservoir. Hydrogeochemical data combined with regional geologic interpretations indicate that there are probably two hydrothermal-convection systems, which are separated by a major NW-trending structural boundary, the Ixpaco fault. One system with reservoir temperatures near 300??C lies beneath Tecuamburro Volcano and consists of a large vapor zone that feeds steam to the Laguna Ixpaco area, with underlying hot water that flows laterally to feed a small group of warm, chloriderich springs SE of Tecuamburro Volcano. The other system is located beneath the Infernitos

  19. Exploring the Anti-Burkholderia cepacia Complex Activity of Essential Oils: A Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have checked the ability of the essential oils extracted from six different medicinal plants (Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, and Thymus vulgaris to inhibit the growth of 18 bacterial type strains belonging to the 18 known species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc. These bacteria are opportunistic human pathogens that can cause severe infection in immunocompromised patients, especially those affected by cystic fibrosis (CF, and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. The analysis of the aromatograms produced by the six oils revealed that, in spite of their different chemical composition, all of them were able to contrast the growth of Bcc members. However, three of them (i.e., Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus vulgaris were particularly active versus the Bcc strains, including those exhibiting a high degree or resistance to ciprofloxacin, one of the most used antibiotics to treat Bcc infections. These three oils are also active toward both environmental and clinical strains (isolated from CF patients, suggesting that they might be used in the future to fight B. cepacia complex infections.

  20. Who lives near coke plants and oil refineries An exploration of the environmental inequity hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J.D.; Beaulieu, N.D.; Sussman, D.; Sadowitz, M.; Li, Y.C. (Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Boston, MA (United States))

    1999-04-01

    Facility-specific information on pollution was obtained for 36 coke plants and 46 oil refineries in the US and matched with information on populations surrounding these 82 facilities. These data were analyzed to determine whether environmental inequities were present, whether they were more economic or racial in nature, and whether the racial composition of nearby communities has changed significantly since plants began operations. The Census tracts near coke plants have a disproportionate share of poor and nonwhite residents. Multivariate analyses suggest that existing inequities are primarily economic in nature. The findings for oil refineries are not strongly supportive of the environmental inequity hypothesis. Rank ordering of facilities by race, poverty, and pollution produces limited (although not consistent) evidence that the more risky facilities tend to be operating in communities with above-median proportions of nonwhite residents (near coke plants) and Hispanic residents (near oil refineries). Over time, the radical makeup of many communities near facilities has changed significantly, particularly in the case of coke plants sited in the early 1900s. Further risk-oriented studies of multiple manufacturing facilities in various industrial sectors of the economy are recommended.

  1. The economic growth and development in Angola since the oil exploration; O crescimento economico e o desenvolvimento em Angola apos a exploracao do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandini, Adriano Lirio; Machado, Tayonara Damasceno [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present article highlights a few relevant points in connection to the high index of economic growth in Angola and the exploration of oil in the region. Presenting accordingly a quick overview of the historic evolution of oil research in Angola to identify the beginning of oil exploration and its present production capacity. Therefore, it appoints also the economic growth characteristics limited to the oil sector and its implications to the economic, structural and human development in Angola. Thus, it will be taken under consideration the positive and negative impacts of the exploration of oil to Angola's economy. As a result, it will be considered the social situation in the region related to the economic growth presenting arguments to improve the structural and social development capacity of the country by taking advantage of the highest of oil production and exportation and its revenue. Also, it will be observed the human development evolution progress of Angola utilizing the indicator Human Development Index (HDI) from the United Nations. Therefore it intents to outline the necessity of investing in non extractive sectors of the economy with the purpose of creating this way a more diversification of production and to stimulate its exports participation minimizing the Commercial Balance dependency of the oil sector to keep up the superavit. And as a conclusion, its has been taken into account political government reform to fight corruption known to be in fact a obstacle to the development of a country. (author)

  2. The local content approach in activities of exploration and production of oil and gas; Conteudo local nas atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederice, Jose Carlos [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Conteudo Local; Macedo, Marcelo Mafra Borges de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regulacao de Petroleo e Derivados

    2008-07-01

    Breaking the monopoly of PETROBRAS for the activities of exploration and production of oil and natural gas has occurred in Brazil in 1995 by the Constitutional Amendment No 9 followed by the promulgation of the Law 9.478 of 1997, the 'Law of Oil' and the creation of the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo - ANP, with powers to regulate, recruit and monitor the oil and natural gas industry. The new regulatory framework has established the award granted by the State, through bids organized by the ANP, of the oil and gas exploration and production activities. This new model has established that the offers to purchase blocks must be composed by the Signature Bonus, Minimum Exploration Program and percentages of Local Content for the stages of exploration and development of production. As a result of market opening and the completion of bids over these 10 years, there has been a significant expansion of investment in the industry, revealing that the demands of Local Content rightly acted as a strong mechanism inducing the participation of local industry supplier of goods and services. In practical terms, in 1997 the participation of the sector of oil and gas in the Brazilian GDP was approximately 2.5% and now comes to 10.5%, or each R$ 100.00 generated in the country, R$ 10.50 come from the sector of oil and gas. (author)

  3. Modulating the properties of sunflower oil based novel emulgels using castor oil fatty acid ester: prospects for topical antimicrobial drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, B; Biswal, D; Uvanesh, K; Srivastava, A K; Bhattacharya, Mrinal K; Paramanik, K; Pal, K

    2015-04-01

    The current study describes the effect of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the properties of sunflower oil and span-40 based emulgels. The prepared emulgels contained PGPR in varied concentrations. The microstructure of the emulgels was characterized by bright-field microscopy. The molecular interactions amongst the components of the emulgels were studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The flow and mechanical behaviors of the emulgels were studied using cone-and-plate viscometer and static mechanical tester, respectively. The efficiency of the metronidazole-loaded emulgels as antimicrobial formulations was tested in vitro. E. coli was used as the model microorganism for the antimicrobial study. The emulgels were also explored for iontophoretic delivery applications. The biocompatibility of the emulgels was tested using human keratinocytes (HaCaT). The microscopic evaluation of the emulgels indicated formation of biphasic formulations. FTIR studies suggested a decrease in the hydrogen bonding amongst the components of the emulgels as the concentration of the PGPR was increased. Viscosity studies indicated shear-thinning property of the emulgels. An increase in the PGPR concentration resulted in the reduction in the mechanical properties of the emulgels. Incorporation of PGPR resulted in the decrease in the drug released (both passive and iontophoresis) from the emulgels. The emulgels were found to be cytocompatible in the presence of keratinocytes. The drug loaded emulgels showed good antimicrobial activity against E. coli. In gist, the developed emulgels can be tried for controlled delivery of antimicrobial drugs. The physical and the release properties of the emulgels can be modulated by incorporating PGPR in varied proportions.

  4. A Historical Perspective of Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Activities on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The discovery of oil within the Swanson River Field by the Richfield Oil Corp. on July 19, 1957 fused the words "oil" and "Kenai" into almost synonymous terms....

  5. Accelerating Oil and Gas Exploration in Western China by Studies of Formations of Hydrocarbon Accumulations in Superimposed Basins——A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiongqi

    2010-01-01

    @@ The superimposed basins in the western region of China are a hot research topic for earth scientists home and abroad for their vast area and rich oil and gas resources.Their complex geological conditions and resultant great exploration difficulties have received much attention of the scientists.This issue presents the advances of several scholars in their long-term research on the mechanisms of oil and gas accumulation and the patterns of oil and gas distribution.These studies are part of the National 973Project entitled"Mechanism of Oil and Gas Accumulation and Patterns of Oil and Gas Distribution in Typical Superimposed Basins in the Western Region of China(no.2006CB202300)",which is funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology.

  6. Analysis of Geological Background of Seismic Activity in the Chengdu Plain from Data of Seismic Prospecting for Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Shenmu; He Tianhua; Fan Mingxiang; Li Jiapen; Xie Xiongfei; Feng Hedi; Wu Zhishen

    2004-01-01

    Summarizing the existing data of seismological and geological investigations ancl or strong and intermediate-strong earthquakes in the Sichuan basin and its adjacent areas accumulated by the seismological and petroleum organizations in Sichuan and of the results of seismic prospecting and detailed exploration in Chengdu depression during the last 20 years permitted ns to study the types and distribution of hidden structures in Chengdu depression and its adjacent areas, in particular, to identify in detail the "hidden faults" in the Chenngdu-Deyang area on the one hand; The obtained data indicate that the NE-trending Xinjin fault runs northward and dies out in the south of Penzhen town of Shuangiiu County. Meanwhile, we studied genetic relations of seismic activity to active faults and their corresponding movement characteristics on the other hand. Moreover, the surface faults and deep-seated faults are clearly defined and outlined,and 5 types of seismogenic faults suggested. The knowledge thus obtained enables us to delimit the focal zones for potential strong earthquakes in Chengdu depression. The study suggests that a zone of 40 km wide and more than 100 km long on sides along the Chengdu-Deyang line has a stable seismogeological background and good engineering-seismological conditions.

  7. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  8. Environmental impacts and improvement prospects for environmental hotspots in the production of palm oil derived biodiesel in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle

    out to generate LCI data for central, yet underexplored elements in the production of biodiesel with a focus on greenhouse gasses (GHG). The research follows an attributional modelling framework, but does include system expansion to account for the use of residues from the palm oil production...... and extinction of animals and plants in tropical areas being easily communicated to the public, palm oil has been the target of numerous scare campaigns. Conversely, the palm oil industry is adamant that palm oil and oil palm plantations are sequestering carbon and supporting a wide range of flora and fauna....... Through critical selection of literature data, field studies and application of state-of-the-art LCA methodology, this study is quantifying the GHG emissions from palm oil related LUC for the two most common previous land uses in Malaysia, namely logged-over forest and rubber plantations. In order...

  9. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (MX)] (and others)

    2003-08-01

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measured at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO{sub 2}, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and

  10. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper

  11. Oil exploration and development in Marib/Al Jawf basin, Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maycock, I.D.

    1988-02-01

    In 1981, Yemen Hunt Oil Company (YHOC) negotiated a production-sharing agreement covering 12,600 km/sup 2/ in the northeast part of the Yemen Arab Republic. A reconnaissance seismic program of 1864 km acquired in 1982 revealed the presence of a major half graben, designated the Marib/Al Jawf basin by YHOC. A sedimentary section up to 18,000 ft thick has been recognized. Geologic field mapping identified Jurassic carbonates covered by Cretaceous sands overlying Permian glaciolacustrine sediments, Paleozoic sandstones, or Precambrian basement. The first well, Alif-1, drilled in 1984, aimed at a possible Jurassic carbonate objective, encountered hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition between 5000 and 6000 ft. Appraisal and development drilling followed. The Alif field is believed to contain in excess of 400 million bbl of recoverable oil. Subsequent wildcat drilling has located additional accumulations while further amplifying basin stratigraphy. Rapid basin development took place in the Late Jurassic culminating with the deposition of Tithonian salt. The evaporites provide an excellent seal for hydrocarbons apparently sourced from restricted basin shales and trapped in rapidly deposited clastics.

  12. Exploring the antioxidant potential of lignin isolated from black liquor of oil palm waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Khalil, H P S A; Karim, A A

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential antioxidant activity of lignin obtained from black liquor, a hazardous waste product generated during the extraction of palm oil. Antioxidant potential of the extracted lignin was evaluated by dissolving the extracted samples in 2 different solvent systems, namely, 2-methoxy ethanol and DMSO. Results revealed high percent inhibition of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in the lignin sample dissolved in 2-methoxy ethanol over DMSO (concentration range of 1-100 microg/ml). Lignin extracted in 2-methoxy ethanol exhibited higher inhibition percentage (at 50 microg/ml, 84.2%), whereas a concentration of 100 microg/ml was found to be effective in the case of the DMSO solvent (69.8%). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry revealed that the functional groups from the extracted lignin and commercial lignin were highly similar, indicating the purity of the lignin extracted from black liquor. These results provide a strong basis for further applications of lignin in the food industry and also illustrate an eco-friendly approach to utilize oil palm black liquor.

  13. 白油生产技术的发展与展望%Development and Prospect of White Oil Production Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江波; 朱赫礼

    2012-01-01

    The processes for producing white o merization and hydrotreating( including single- by sulfonation with oleum and gaseous SO, solvent extraction,olefin poly- stage hydrotreating process,two- stage hydrotreating process and three- stage hydrotreating process) are introduced. The feedstock, operating conditions, process flow and product quality for pro- ducing industrial - grade white oil and food or medicinal grade white oil with the hydrotreating method are described in detail. And the future of domestic white oil production is prospected combining with current production technology development of white oil in abroad.%介绍了磺化法(发烟硫酸磺化法和三氧化硫磺化法)、溶剂萃取法、烯烃聚合法和加氢法(一段、二段和三段加氢法)生产白油工艺。详细阐述了加氢法生产工业级和食品与医药级白油所采用的原料、操作条件、工艺流程和产品质量。结合国外白油生产工艺的发展趋势,对我国未来白油生产工艺进行了展望。

  14. Effect of biological markers and kerogens in geochemical exploration for oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Song Nian; Li Wei Min; Gu Hui Min; Gao Pin Wen

    1985-02-01

    The aliphatic hydrocarbons of 29 Tertiary argillaceous rock samples from eastern China have been examined by computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The steroid and triterpenoid components provide new information for the characterization of depositional environments, organic matter, and maturation of the source rocks. These samples contain gamaceranes, 8,14-open-hopanes, diterpenoid hydrocarbons, and diasteranes. The abundant gamaceranes correspond to the preference of even carbon atoms. The highest gamacerane occurs in the strongly reducing environment. The abundant diterpenoid hydrocarbons relate with the type III kerogen. These diterpenoid hydrocarbons are derived from higher plant forms. The threshold of oil formation can be correlated with the ratio of 20S (22S) and 20R (22R).

  15. Study of Plasma Treatment of Produced Water from Oil and Gas Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kamau

    mg/L of bicarbonate ions. Water with bicarbonate ion concentration approaching zero resulted in prevention of scale. To enhance this new plasma induced fouling mitigation method, a plasma arc-in-water reactor was re-engineered, using a ground electrode, and two high-voltage electrodes, to stretch the arc discharge in water and increase contact between plasma and water. Results of simultaneous effects were also collected, showing within 5 min, a 4-log reduction in both Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) and Acid Producing Bacteria (APB), bacteria that are characteristic of oil-field produced waters; as well as oxidation of organics, with degradation of visually observable organics within 3 minutes, and decrease of oil and grease from 40 mg/L to under 10 mg/L within one min. With an arc-in-water system utilizing a stretched arc, simultaneous effects were exhibited on fouling ability of produced water, inactivation of bacteria, and degradation of organics. Plasma discharges in water represent a unique option in the treatment of produced waters from oil and gas production. While the water softening capabilities of arc-in-water systems present a new method for fouling mitigation and remediation of scale in heat exchangers, the simultaneous effects, including oxidation of organics and inactivation of bacteria, may allow application of plasma to water, to satisfy treatment targets that allow for the reuse of such waters in oil and gas operations.

  16. AGRIFIS - simulator prospecting scenarios and evaluation of projects for production of seeds, in nature oil and castor oil biodiesel; AGRIFIS - simulador de prospeccao de cenarios e avaliacao de projetos de producao de sementes, oleo in natura e biodiesel de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polizel, L.H.; Tahan, C.M.V.; Pelegrini, M. A.; Soares, B.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia], Email: cmvtahan@pea.usp.br; Takeno, H.K. [Companhia Energetica de Petrolina (CEP), PE (Brazil); Silva, O.C. da; Monteiro, B.; Velazquez, S.M.S.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Drumond, M.A.; Anjos, J.B. dos [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a model conceived for scenario prospection and project evaluation of small scale castor bean farming, oil extraction and bio diesel production (transesterification) integrated chain. To evaluate the performance of each project the model adopts financial, social and environmental index such as NPV, IRR, SPB, DPB, production costs, family income, number of settled families and employment. The model was implemented in a computational environment, allowing its use as a decision support tool for investments on the castor bean production chain; it calculates the cash flow of the entire project and of each family, including earnings, debts, taxes, interest and amortization. (author)

  17. Overpressure development and oil charging in the central Junggar Basin,Northwest China:Implication for petroleum exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Junggar Basin is one of the largest and most petroliferous superimposed petroleum basins in China. The central depression area has become the frontier field for petroleum exploration. The characteristics of potential source rocks and reservoir sandstones, and the pressure regime in the central Junggar Basin were studied. Permian shales are dominated by hydrogen-rich, oil-prone algal organic matter, and Jurassic mudstones are dominated by hydrogen-poor, higher-plant derived organic matter. These source rocks are widespread and have been mature for hydrocarbon generation, suggesting good to excellent exploration potential, both for crude oils and for natural gases. The deeply buried Jurassic sandstones usually have low porosity and permeability. However, sandstones beneath the Jurassic/Cretaceous unconformity display relatively high porosity and permeability, suggesting that meteoric water leaching had improved the quality of the sandstones. Overpressure developed over much of the central Junggar Basin. The overpressured rocks are characterized by slightly increased interval transit time, low sandstone permeability, increased organic matter maturity, and high relative hydrocarbon-gas contents. Mudstones in the overpressured system have quite the same clay mineral compositions as mudstones in the lower part of the normally pressured system. Overpressure generation in the central Junggar Basin is best to be explained as the result of hydrocarbon generation and fluid retention in low-permeability rocks. Petroleum generated from Permian and Jurassic source rocks could migrate laterally through preferential petroleum migration pathways and accumulated in structural traps or lithological traps in the overpressured system, or migrate vertically through faults/ hydraulic fractures into the overlying, normally pressured system and accumulate in structural or lithological traps. Therefore, commercial petroleum reservoirs could be potentially found in both the overpressured

  18. Overpressure development and oil charging in the central Junggar Basin,Northwest China:Implication for petroleum exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI XiYuan

    2009-01-01

    The Junggar Basin is one of the largest and most petroliferous superimposed petroleum basins in China.The central depression area has become the frontier field for petroleum exploration.The characteristics of potential source rocks end reservoir sandstones,and the pressure regime in the central Junggar Basin were studied.Permian shales are dominated by hydrogen-rich,oil-prone algal organic matter,and Jurassic mudstones are dominated by hydrogen-poor,higher-plant derived organic matter.These source rocks are widespread and have been mature for hydrocarbon generation,suggesting good to excellent exploration potential,both for crude oils and for natural gases.The deeply buried Jurassic sandstones usually have low porosity and permeability.However,sandstones beneath the Jurassic/Cretaceous unconformity display relatively high porosity and permeability,suggesting that meteoric water leaching had improved the quality of the sandstones.Overpressure developed over much of the central Junggar Basin.The overpressured rocks are characterized by slightly increased interval transit time,low sandstone permeability,increased organic matter maturity,and high relative hydrocarbon-gas contents.Mudstones in the overpressured system have quite the same clay mineral compositions as mudstones in the lower part of the normally pressured system.Overpressure generation in the central Junggar Basin is best-to be explained as the result of hydrocarbon generation and fluid retention in low-permeability rocks.Petroleum generated from Permian and Jurassic source rocks could migrate laterally through preferential petroleum migration pathways and accumulated in structural traps or lithological traps in the overpressured system,or migrate vertically through faults/hydraulic fractures into the overlying,normally pressured system and accumulate in structural or lithological traps.Therefore,commercial petroleum reservoirs could be potentially found in both the overpressured system,and in the normally

  19. Reviews and Prospect of International Crude oil Market%国际原油市场走势回顾与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃军; 王姿懿

    2013-01-01

    当前,世界经济正在经历一个艰难而复杂的复苏过程,下行风险显著,导致国际油价在震荡中前行,不稳定不确定因素显著增多.本文梳理了2012年国际原油市场的发展历程与主要特征,并对2013年世界经济形势和原油价格走势进行了展望,认为欧元区经济和债务危机进一步恶化的可能性是2013年世界经济面临的主要风险,受此影响,2013年国际油价将略低于2012年,而且Brent与WTI原油价差较2012年将有所缩小.%Currently, global economy is experiencing the hard and complex recovery with significant downside risk, which causes crude oil price to vibrate sharply and face growing uncertainties. This paper classifies the evolving process of oil price and summarizes the primary features of international crude oil market 2012, and also prospects the trend of oil price and the world economic situation in 2013. The results argue that the possible deterioration of European debt crisis may be the foremost risk. Under this circumstance, oil price in 2013 may fall a little compared to the 2012 level, and the Brent-WTI price premium may also shrink.

  20. Oil exploration and development in Marib/Al Jawf basin, Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maycock, I.D.

    1986-07-01

    In 1981, Yemen Hunt Oil Company (YHOC) negotiated a production-sharing agreement covering 12,600 km/sup 2/ in the northeast part of the Yemen Arab Republic. A reconnaissance seismic program of 1864 km acquired in 1982 revealed the presence of a major half graben, designated the Marib/Al Jawf basin by YHOC. A sedimentary section up to 18,000 ft thick has been recognized. Geologic field mapping identified Jurassic carbonates covered by Cretaceous sands overlying Permian glaciolacustrine sediments, Paleozoic sandstones, or Precambrian basement. The first well drilled in 1984, aimed at a possible Jurassic carbonate objective, encountered hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition between 5000 and 6000 ft. A successful appraisal drilling program has demonstrated satisfactory lateral reservoir continuity. Further wildcat drilling demonstrates macro-unit correlation within the eastern part of the basin. Rapid basin development apparently commenced in the late Kimmeridgian, culminating with the deposition of Tithonian evaporites. Available geochemical analysis indicates sourcing from restricted-basin sediments. Excellent traps, reservoirs, and source beds underlying the Tithonian evaporites indicate that a significant new petroliferous province is present.

  1. Exploring the effect of cellulose nanowhiskers isolated from oil palm biomass on polylactic acid properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haafiz, M K Mohamad; Hassan, Azman; Khalil, H P S Abdul; Fazita, M R Nurul; Islam, Md Saiful; Inuwa, I M; Marliana, M M; Hussin, M Hazwan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) were prepared through solution casting technique. The CNW was first isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC) by using 64% H2SO4 and was designated as CNW-S. The optical microscopy revealed that the large particle of OPEFB-MCC has been broken down by the hydrolysis treatment. The atomic force microscopy confirmed that the CNW-S obtained is in nanoscale dimension and appeared in individual rod-like character. The produced CNW-S was then incorporated with PLA at 1, 3, and 5 parts per hundred (phr) resins for the PLA-CNW-S nanocomposite production. The synthesized nanocomposites were then characterized by a mean of tensile properties and thermal stability. Interestingly to note that incorporating of 3 phr/CNW-S in PLA improved the tensile strength by 61%. Also, CNW-S loading showed a positive impact on the Young's modulus of PLA. The elongation at break (Eb) of nanocomposites, however, decreased with the addition of CNW-S. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the CNW-S dispersed well in PLA at lower filler loading before it started to agglomerate at higher CNW-S loading (5phr). The DSC analysis of the nanocomposites obtained showed that Tg,Tcc and Tm values of PLA were improved with CNW-S loading. The TGA analysis however, revealed that incopreated CNW-S in PLA effect the thermal stability (T10,T50 and Tmax) of nanocomposite, where it decrease linearly with CNW-S loading.

  2. Ethical aspects of the oil exploration: the royalties and the intergenerational issue; Aspectos eticos da exploracao do petroleo: os royalties e a questao intergeracional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Flavia Cahete Lopes

    2008-03-15

    This work has as purpose to discuss the ethical aspects of the petroleum exploration mainly that ones which are referred to the intergenerational question. In this context, it is intended to discourse on the payment of royalties in reason of the exploration of oil, as a tool that guarantees the intergenerational fairness. Conceptually, the goal of the payment of royalties for the exploration of an exhaustible is exactly to guarantee that the future generations are compensated by the absence of the explored natural resources. Moreover, the work intends to verify whether the current Brazilian model of distribution and application of the referring resources that derives of the oil production corroborates for the sustainability of the future generations, which will not be able to count on the cited finite natural resources. (author)

  3. Beyond SHARP-- Primary Formaldehyde from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde has been named by the EPA as a hazardous air pollutant that may be carcinogenic and also cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat and lung. Moreover, it is a powerful radical and ozone precursor. The 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) was conceived by the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) on behalf of the Texas Environmental Research Consortium (TERC) to examine the relative importance of primary and secondary formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrous acid (HONO) in ozone formation. SHARP confirmed that primary combustion sources of HCHO, such as flares end engines, may be underestimated (by an order of magnitude or more) in official emission inventories used for the purpose of air quality modeling in highly industrialized areas such as Houston. This presentation provides recently generated modeling and observational evidence that the same may be true in both rural and urban areas with oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) activities, such as the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming and the Barnett Shale of Texas. Oil and gas E&P is increasing in the Gulf of Mexico region, particularly in the Barnett, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, Cana-Woodford, and Fayetteville shale basins. In the Barnett Shale, E&P activities are moving into urban neighborhoods, and may affect the ability to bring the Dallas-Ft. Worth region into attainment of the federal ozone standard. Data concerning formaldehyde emissions from drill rig and pipeline compressor engines, flares, and glycol or amine reboilers, should be obtained in order to more accurately model air quality in the Gulf of Mexico region.

  4. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Balch

    2003-04-15

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The pool of experts is much reduced today. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fourth of five annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the April 2002 through March 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  5. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Balch

    2003-10-15

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This ninth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through September 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  6. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Balch

    2004-04-08

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth annual (and tenth of 12 semi-annual reports) contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through March 2004 period was directed toward completion of the Brushy Canyon FEE Tool and to Silurian-Devonian geology, and development of rules for the Devonian fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  7. Foreign Cooperation and Development Trends of the Russian Petroleum Industry and Prospects of Sino-Russian Cooperation in Oil and Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Bo

    2006-01-01

    This article is focused on the analysis of the international cooperation of the Russian petroleum industry and its development trend. Also discussed here are the patterns that the foreign oil companies used in acquiring Russian petroleum assets, and the cooperation models of petroleum exploration and production in Russia. The Russian government encourages foreign oil companies to establish strategic alliances with domestic companies that keep good relations with the government. To achieve this goal, the government provides foreign companies with the space for cooperation in such aspects as advanced technology and management culture. International cooperation in petroleum industry will be further developed under the macro-control of the Russia State energy strategy. The energy cooperation between China and Russia will enter a new phase full of hopes and challenges after the past unfavorable situation is gradually overcome.

  8. Exploring the role of pain as an early predictor of category 2 pressure ulcers: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Isabelle L; Brown, Sarah; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Briggs, Michelle; Coleman, Susanne; Dealey, Carol; Muir, Delia; Nelson, E Andrea; Stevenson, Rebecca; Stubbs, Nikki; Wilson, Lyn; Brown, Julia M; Nixon, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore pressure area related pain as a predictor of category ≥2 pressure ulcer (PU) development. Design Multicentre prospective cohort study. Setting UK hospital and community settings. Participants inclusion Consenting acutely ill patients aged ≥18 years, defined as high risk (Braden bedfast/chairfast AND completely immobile/very limited mobility; pressure area related pain or; category 1 PU). Exclusion Patients too unwell, unable to report pain, 2 or more category ≥2 PUs. Follow-up Twice weekly for 30 days. Primary and secondary outcome measures Development and time to development of one or more category ≥2 PUs. Results Of 3819 screened, 1266 were eligible, 634 patients were recruited, 32 lost to follow-up, providing a 602 analysis population. 152 (25.2%) developed one or more category ≥2 PUs. 464 (77.1%) patients reported pressure area related pain on a healthy, altered or category 1 skin site of whom 130 (28.0%) developed a category ≥2 PU compared with 22 (15.9%) of those without pain. Full stepwise variable selection was used throughout the analyses. (1) Multivariable logistic regression model to assess 9 a priori factors: presence of category 1 PU (OR=3.25, 95% CI (2.17 to 4.86), p<0.0001), alterations to intact skin (OR=1.98, 95% CI (1.30 to 3.00), p=0.0014), pressure area related pain (OR=1.56, 95% CI (0.93 to 2.63), p=0.0931). (2) Multivariable logistic regression model to account for overdispersion: presence of category 1 PU (OR=3.20, 95% CI (2.11 to 4.85), p<0.0001), alterations to intact skin (OR=1.90, 95% CI (1.24 to 2.91), p=0.0032), pressure area related pain (OR=1.85, 95% CI (1.07 to 3.20), p=0.0271), pre-existing category 2 PU (OR=2.09, 95% CI (1.35 to 3.23), p=0.0009), presence of chronic wound (OR=1.66, 95% CI (1.06 to 2.62), p=0.0277), Braden activity (p=0.0476). (3) Accelerated failure time model: presence of category 1 PU (AF=2.32, 95% CI (1.73 to 3.12), p<0.0001), pressure area related pain (AF=2.28, 95% CI (1

  9. Possible sources of genetic resistance in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) to basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense--prospects for future breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Gasselin, T; Asmady, H; Flori, A; Jacquemard, J C; Hayun, Z; Breton, F; de Franqueville, H

    2005-01-01

    Oil palm estates in southeast Asia suffer from substantial losses due to basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense. Field observations have been carried out in North Sumatra, Indonesia, on a series of planting materials of known origin. Differences in susceptibility to the disease have been detected within the two Elaeis species, guineensis and oleifera. Within Elaeis guineensis, material of Deli origin is highly susceptible compared to material of African origin. It is also possible to detect differences in reaction between parents and between crosses within a given origin. The variability of resistance to basal stem rot within the same cross is also illustrated by the diverse responses of clones derived from palms of the same origin. The prospects opened up by these results are discussed, and the importance of performing an early selection test is highlighted.

  10. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  11. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William W. Weiss

    2000-12-31

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries, including medical diagnostics, have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized data base and computer maps generated by neural networks, is proposed for development through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This tool will be beneficial in many regions of the US, enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting and decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the US as reserves are depleted. The proposed expert exploration tool will benefit a diverse group in the US, leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This third of ten semi-annual reports contains an account of the progress, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress.

  12. Prospecting for marine gas hydrate resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Shipp, Craig; Reichel, Thomas; Shelander, Dianna; Saeki, Tetsuo; Frye, Matthew; Shedd, William; Collett, Timothy S.; McConnell, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    As gas hydrate energy assessment matures worldwide, emphasis has evolved away from confirmation of the mere presence of gas hydrate to the more complex issue of prospecting for those specific accumulations that are viable resource targets. Gas hydrate exploration now integrates the unique pressure and temperature preconditions for gas hydrate occurrence with those concepts and practices that are the basis for conventional oil and gas exploration. We have aimed to assimilate the lessons learned to date in global gas hydrate exploration to outline a generalized prospecting approach as follows: (1) use existing well and geophysical data to delineate the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), (2) identify and evaluate potential direct indications of hydrate occurrence through evaluation of interval of elevated acoustic velocity and/or seismic events of prospective amplitude and polarity, (3) mitigate geologic risk via regional seismic and stratigraphic facies analysis as well as seismic mapping of amplitude distribution along prospective horizons, and (4) mitigate further prospect risk through assessment of the evidence of gas presence and migration into the GHSZ. Although a wide range of occurrence types might ultimately become viable energy supply options, this approach, which has been tested in only a small number of locations worldwide, has directed prospect evaluation toward those sand-hosted, high-saturation occurrences that were presently considered to have the greatest future commercial potential.

  13. Identification of genes/loci and functional markers for seed oil quality improvement by exploring soybean genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The difference in seed oil composition and content among soybean genotypes can be attributed mostly to variations in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil-related genes expressed in seeds. We applied the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system to sequence RNA populations in soybean seeds fro...

  14. Exploration of waste cooking oil methyl esters (WCOME as fuel in compression ignition engines: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kathirvel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing human population and the corresponding economic development of mankind have caused a relentless surge in the energy demand of the world. The fast diminishing fossil fuel reserves and the overdependence of petroleum based fuels have already prompted the world to look for alternate sources of energy to offset the fuel crisis in the future. Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (WCOME has proven itself as a viable alternate fuel that can be used in Compression Ignition (CI engines due to its low cost, non-toxicity, biodegradability and renewable nature. It also contributes a minimum amount of net greenhouse gases, such as CO2, SO2 and NO emissions to the atmosphere. The main objective of this paper is to focus on the study of the performance, combustion and emission parameters of CI engines using WCOME and to explore the possibility of utilizing WCOME blends with diesel extensively in place of diesel. The production methods used for transesterification play a vital role in the physiochemical properties of the methyl esters produced. Various production intensification technologies such as hydrodynamic cavitation and ultrasonic cavitation were employed to improve the yield of the methyl esters during transesterification. This review includes the study of WCOME from different origins in various types of diesel engines. Most of the studies comply with the decrease in carbon monoxide (CO emissions and the increase in brake thermal efficiency while using WCOME in CI engines. Many researchers reported slight increase in the emissions of oxides of nitrogen. ANN modeling has been widely used to predict the process variables of the diesel engine while using WCOME. The versatility of ANN modeling was proven by the minimum error percentages of the actual and predicted values of the performance and emission characteristics.

  15. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William W. Weiss

    2001-09-30

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. As a result, today's pool of experts is much reduced. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the May 2001 through September 2001 was directed toward development of rules for the fuzzy system.

  16. A prospective, randomized controlled trial of sanguisorba oil in the treatment of tamoxifen-related vaginitis in breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Hong Zhao; Su-Heng Han; Zheng Li; Xiao-Yao Luo; Xiu-Li Long; Shuai Li

    2016-01-01

    #摘要目的:观察地榆油外用对乳腺癌患者服用三苯氧胺(TAM)所致阴道炎的临床效果。方法:将112例乳腺癌术后服用三苯氧胺所致阴道炎患者随机分成治疗组56例和对照组56例,治疗组常规基础治疗加清洁外阴后涂抹地榆油,早晚各1次,2g/次。对照组仅接受常规基础治疗。两组均治疗10天,于治疗前及治疗结束后7天收集患者临床症状进行症状评分及疗效评定。结果:治疗前两组各项临床症状积分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗组治疗后各项临床症状积分与对照组比较有显著性差异(P0.05);治疗组临床治愈率为7.1%;对照组临床治愈率为0,两组差异有显著性(P0.05). After treatment, however, the sanguisorba oil group had a better clinical symptom score compared to control group (P0.05). The clinical cure rate of the sanguisorba oil group and the control group were 7.1% and 0%, respectively, with significant difference (P<0.05). No adverse reaction was found during the treatment process in the two groups. Conclusions:Taken together, external use of sanguisorba oil was effective in the treatment of TAM-related vaginitis and/or urinary irritation in breast cancer patients. With the advantage of convenience, safety and low price, sanguisorba oil treatment improves the compliance of breast cancer patients with TAM-related vaginitis, and should be promoted in clinical practice for oncologists.

  17. Practice and exploration of new geological prospect mechanism%地质找矿新机制的实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福良; 胡永达; 雷晓力; 靳松; 方一平; 邵风雨; 马慧慧

    2013-01-01

    For strengthen mineral resource support capability ,implementingNational Exploration &Development Planning is a Strategic issues for social development in China .in this article ,a variety of local approaches for promoting the planning are described and summarized ,and experiences and practices are given to solve problems such as inadequate investment in social capital ,having exploration rightsinstead of prospecting ,slow new exploration delivery ,mineral right integrating difficult and advancing out of step ,not high enthusiasm of geological prospecting units and enterprises in participating the planning ,lack of experience and technical personnel ,backward technology and equipment ,integrated exploration disharmony external environment and insecurity interests ,etc ..The aim is to provide references for similar situations .%  实施找矿突破行动,增加矿产资源的保障能力,是我国社会发展的战略性问题。本文通过对地方在推进找矿突破战略行动中各种做法的介绍与归纳,给出解决社会资金投入不足、已有探矿权圈而不探、新设探矿权投放速度较慢、已有矿业权整合难和推进步调不一、地勘单位及企业参与找矿积极性不高、经验技术人员匮乏、技术装备落后、整装勘查外部环境不和谐利益无保障等问题的经验做法,旨在供各地及有关方面参考借鉴。

  18. Application of Advanced Exploration Technologies for the Development of Mancos Formation Oil Reservoirs, Jicarilla Apache Indian Nation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Scott; Billingsley, Randy

    2002-09-09

    The objectives of this project are to: (1) develop an exploration rationale for the Mancos shale in the north-eastern San Juan basin; (2) assess the regional prospectivity of the Mancos in the northern Nation lands based on that rationale; (3) identify specific leads in the northern Nation as appropriate; (4) forecast pro-forma production, reserves and economics for any leads identified; and (5) package and disseminate the results to attract investment in Mancos development on the Nation lands.

  19. Crude costs: a framework for a full-cost accounting analysis of oil and gas exploration off Cape Breton, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, L.; Pannozzo, L.

    2001-12-01

    Defined as the total quantity of all goods and services produced and the total money earned and spent, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure used to determine how well an economy is doing. For its part, the Genuine Progress Index (GPI) measures 26 variables and was first developed in 1995. In Nova Scotia, a set of 20 social, economic and environmental indicators are examined to obtain a better picture of the well-being of the region and determine if the development is sustainable over time. The authors explained their approach based on the use of GPI analysis to assist decision makers in identifying the real costs and benefits of different options applied to the oil and gas exploration situation off Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The document is divided into five parts as follows: (1) Part 1: introduction, (2) Part 2: natural capital and the impacts of oil and gas development, (3) Part 3: social capital and the economic value of fishing and tourism, (4) Part 4: the real cost of oil and gas, and (5) Part 5: recommendations. Some of the recommendations call for the further study of cumulative and sub-lethal effects from petroleum development, the establishment of Marine Protected Areas preceded by a moratorium on oil and gas exploration in the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence and Sydney Bight areas until the establishment of the Areas is made, and that future environmental assessments concerning oil and gas development to address the impacts on species and ecosystems as a whole. 209 refs., 11 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. A brief history of oil and gas exploration in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California: Chapter 3 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenneth I.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    The Golden State got its nickname from the Sierra Nevada gold that lured so many miners and settlers to the West, but California has earned much more wealth from so-called “black gold” than from metallic gold. The San Joaquin Valley has been the principal source for most of the petroleum produced in the State during the past 145 years. In attempting to assess future additions to petroleum reserves in a mature province such as the San Joaquin Basin, it helps to be mindful of the history of resource development. In this chapter we present a brief overview of the long and colorful history of petroleum exploration and development in the San Joaquin Valley. This chapter relies heavily upon the work of William Rintoul, who wrote extensively on the history of oil and gas exploration in California and especially in the San Joaquin Valley. No report on the history of oil and gas exploration in the San Joaquin Valley would be possible without heavily referencing his publications. We also made use of publications by Susan Hodgson and a U.S. Geological Survey Web site, Natural Oil and Gas Seeps in California (http://seeps.wr.usgs.gov/seeps/index.html), for much of the material describing the use of petroleum by Native Americans in the San Joaquin Valley. Finally, we wish to acknowledge the contribution of Don Arnot, who manages the photograph collection at the West Kern Oil Museum in Taft, California. The collection consists of more than 10,000 photographs that have been scanned and preserved in digital form on CD-ROM. Many of the historical photographs used in this paper are from that collection. Finally, to clarify our terminology, we use the term “San Joaquin Valley” when we refer to the geographical or topographical feature and the term “San Joaquin Basin” when we refer to geological province and the rocks therein.

  1. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Balch; Ron Broadhead

    2005-03-01

    Incomplete or sparse data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduce a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results when working with sparse data. State-of-the-art expert exploration tools, relying on a database, and computer maps generated by neural networks and user inputs, have been developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk has been reduced with the use of these properly verified and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tools.'' Through the course of this project, FEE Tools and supporting software were developed for two producing formations in southeast New Mexico. Tools of this type can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In today's oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lack the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, volatile oil prices, and scarcity of domestic exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tools benefit a diverse group in the U.S., allowing a more efficient use of scarce funds, and potentially reducing dependence on foreign oil and providing lower product prices for consumers.

  2. The surface geochemical exploration of oil and gas in the Gangbatong-Ya’anxiang and the Dongqiao-Nam Co of the Qinghai-Tibet region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Due to the complexity of geological background and the adverseness of natural geographical environment in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,it is very difficult to carry out petroleum geological study in this region. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the only blank space of petroleum exploration on a large scale. The authors carried out the surface geochemical exploration of oil and gas in the Gangbatong-Ya’anxiang and Dongqiao-Nam Co of the Qinghai-Tibet region. Based on the data of actual detection and experiments in the studied area,the characteristics of concentration and profile distribution of the main geochemical exploration indicators(total adsorbed hydrocarbon,altered carbonate,thermal released mercury,etc.) were discussed. The origin of hydrocarbon was also discussed. Moreover,the oil and gas potential of different sections in the Qiangtang Basin and the Biru Basin were evaluated,which could provide references for the exploration and prediction of oil and gas in this region. The concentrations of total adsorbed hydrocarbons in the Ya’anxiang of Suoxian County-Zadong of Baqing County and the Jiecha-Dangxiong of Anduo County in the Qinghai-Tibet region are high,averaging 312.64 μL·kg-1 and 164.36 μL·kg-1. Their altered carbonate concentrations are relatively low,averaging 0.11% and 0.56%. Their concentrations of thermal released mercury are relatively high,averaging 13.09×10-9 and 1.94×10-9. Geochemical exploration results in fact reflect hydrocarbon information in the underground,which are mainly petroleum associated gas and over-matured cracking gas. The Jiecha-Charenluma and the Xiamaya’ertong-Suoba sections in the Qiangtang Basin are the most favorable ones for oil and gas and the Ekou-Zadong section is relatively favorable one,while the Nam Co and the Zigetangcuo-Dongqiao sections in the Biru Basin are the favorable ones for oil and gas,and the Jiang Co-Nading Co and the Ya’anxiang-Ya’ertong sections are relatively favorable ones.

  3. Long-Life, Oil-Free, Light-Weight, Multi-Roller Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicle Surface Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A multi-roller "oil free" traction drive is under development for use on vehicles used in hostile environments like those that will be encountered on planetary...

  4. The NASA Solar System Exploration Virtual Institute: International Efforts in Advancing Lunar Science with Prospects for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), originally chartered in 2008 as the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), is chartered to advance both the scientific goals needed to enable human space exploration, as well as the science enabled by such exploration. NLSI and SSERVI have in succession been "institutes without walls," fostering collaboration between domestic teams (7 teams for NLSI, 9 for SSERVI) as well as between these teams and the institutes' international partners, resulting in a greater global endeavor. SSERVI teams and international partners participate in sharing ideas, information, and data arising from their respective research efforts, and contribute to the training of young scientists and bringing the scientific results and excitement of exploration to the public. The domestic teams also respond to NASA's strategic needs, providing community-based responses to NASA needs in partnership with NASA's Analysis Groups. Through the many partnerships enabled by NLSI and SSERVI, scientific results have well exceeded initial projections based on the original PI proposals, proving the validity of the virtual institute model. NLSI and SSERVI have endeavored to represent not just the selected and funded domestic teams, but rather the entire relevant scientific community; this has been done through many means such as the annual Lunar Science Forum (now re-named Exploration Science Forum), community-based grass roots Focus Groups on a wide range of topics, and groups chartered to further the careers of young scientists. Additionally, NLSI and SSERVI have co-founded international efforts such as the pan-European lunar science consortium, with an overall goal of raising the tide of lunar science (and now more broadly exploration science) across the world.

  5. HEAVY OIL DEVELOPMENT KEY TO CHINA'S OIL PRODUCTION GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ How to raise the heavy oil production rate has long been a difficult research project focused by international oil giants while the super-heavy oil development is particularly a world-class bottleneck for many oil producers. However, China's main oil companies will give priority to heavy oil exploration and production in the next decade to meet China's increasing energy needs.

  6. Prospects for Learning in River Management: Exploring the Initial Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in a Swedish River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundmark, Carina; Jonsson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    This case study explores the initial implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Lule River basin, Sweden, examining how and to what extent administrative procedures enable learning through dialogue and stakeholder collaboration. Theorising on adaptive co-management and social learning is used to structure what is to be learnt,…

  7. Changing Pattern of Saudi Arabia's Oil Exports and Broad Prospects for China and Saudi Arabia Cooperation in Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2012-01-01

    Changing pattern of Saudi Arabia's oil exports Saudi Arabia (hereinafter referred to as Saudi) long time ranks No. one of world oil production and lost the title only in 2009 and 2010 due to cutting output which is slightly lower than the Russian output. It is predicted that global annual oil output in the next 10 years will be more than 4 billion tons, during which Saudi annual oil output will be up to 540-550 million tons, accounting for about 14 percent of global annual oil output. Saudi's 2005 oil exports of about 360 million tons accounted for 17.78 percent of the global oil exports, and 42.66% of the Middle East. Over the next 10 years, it is expected Saudi oil exports will reach 380-400 tons. Saudi plenty of spare oil production capacity and enhanced oil recovery will increase its remaining recoverable oil reserve,

  8. Reservoir structures detection and hydrocarbons exploration using wavelet transform method in 2 oil fields in southwestern of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, H.; Saadatinejad, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    Spectral decomposition provides better methods for quantifying and visualizing subtle seismic features and by decomposing the seismic signal into discrete frequency components, allows the geoscientist to analyze and map features. Through these methods, continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is an effective and widely-applied. It provides a different approach to time-frequency analysis and produces a time-scale map. The application of CWT is extensive and in this paper, we applied two major capacities of CWT in seismic investigations. It operated to detect reservoir structural characteristics and low-frequency shadows below gas reservoirs to develop a producing reservoir and discover a new petroleum reservoir in 2 oilfields in southwestern of Iran successfully. At the first and significant application in reservoir structure study, CWT enabled to providing clear images from kind of structural systems especially to identify hidden structural features such as extensional ruptures and faults for better drilling, injection and recovery operations and be able to increase production of oilfield. According to properties of tectonic events as fault and their effect (velocity diffraction) on seismic signals, it had been observed that CWT results show some discontinuities in location of ruptures and be able to display them more obvious than other spectral results, especially on horizon slices. Then, by picking and interpretation those, we obtain map, kind, strike and deep direction of faults easily. In petroleum exploration case, low-frequency shadows in CWT results appear due to energy attenuation of seismic signal in high frequencies by the presence of gas; this means there are no high frequencies under the gas reservoir. This phenomenon accounts as an indicator and attribute to explore reservoirs containing gas. As the frequency increases, these shadows decrease and finally disappear. The ranges of these shadows are usually between 8 to 20 Hz in gaz and 28 to 35 Hz in oil

  9. Towards Sustainable Green Production: Exploring Automated Grading for Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB Using Machine Vision and Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Makky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, Indonesian palm oil industry has become a leading producer of the world, and been able to generatenotable foreign export reserves. In spite of this, problems still persist in this industry, including low productivity due to mishandling of raw material in post-harvest operations. One of the prime causes of this is manual grading/sorting of fresh fruit bunches, which is prone to error and misjudgement, as well as subjectivity. High demand of oil palm establishes its high price in world market, which drives the industry to expand its plantation area to increase production. Ultimately, it compromise forests and agricultural land, resulting stagnation or decline in several food products. Alternatively, before expanding plantation extent, oil extraction productivity of existing plantation can be improved by carefully selecting appropriate FFBs for post-harvest processing through introduction of automation. The use of machine vision and spectral analysis has shown to assist productivity of agricultural processing industry. This study employs automation technology for FFB grading in oil palm mills, resulting in improved raw material quality, thereby increasing the oil extraction productivity, and simultaneously contributing to partly release the pressure of deforestation by maintaining green agricultural areas.

  10. Offer restrictions on bidding of oil and natural gas exploration areas; Limitacoes de ofertas nas licitacoes de blocos exploratorios de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Marcelo Lauar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (PRH-36-ANP)

    2008-07-01

    Created by Law 9.478/97 (Law of Oil), the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP) has, among others, the purpose of laborating edicts and promoting public tenders to give concession to exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas, celebrating the future contracts and monitoring its execution. This procedure, however, has strong differences in comparison to the classical law 8.666/93 - the general law of public tenders of Brazil -, given the specificities of petroleum and gas natural industry. Based on the mitigation of the concept of free competition, ANP made, recently, use of clauses that restrict the offers to the winning bidders that participate in ANP's public tenders. The restrictive measure taken by the Regulatory Agency is constitutional, in order that it, indeed, develops the market and prevents the concentration of a single agent in a particular economic exploratory block, accomplishing the real free competition. (author)

  11. Optimization of Oil Body Extraction and Exploration of Oil Bodies’ Stability in Brassica napus%油菜油体的提取方法优化及其稳定性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 梁丛敏; 臧新; 徐静; 杨冬之; 田保明; 张绵绵

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the extraction method of oil bodiesand obtain higher purity oil bodies,the seeds of Brassica napus L.(Dingyouza 4) was used as the experiment materials,on the basis of the origi-nal method of extracting oil bodies,such as flotation centrifugation,detergent washing and ion eluting,two-steps elution through 9 mol/ L urea and extraction through n-hexane were increased to optimize the method. The effects of physical and chemical factors on the oil bodies’ stability were explored. The results showed that:the stable and high purity of oil bodies were obtained by the optimization method. The stabili-ty of oil bodies decreased with the increase of NaCl concentration;the oil bodies stably distributed in pH≤3 and pH≥7 and the oil bodies’ stability decreased obviously when pH value was between 4 and 6. The temperature almost had no effects on the oil bodies’ stability,and the oil bodies were quite stable un-der different temperatures. On this basis,polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to separate the oil body protein,and obtained a clearer protein band.%为了优化油体提取方法,获得较高纯度的油体,以甘蓝型油菜鼎油杂4号种子为试验材料,在漂浮离心、去污剂洗涤、离子洗脱液洗脱等程序的基础上,增加9 mol/ L 尿素洗脱、正己烷萃取等步骤进行优化,并探讨了理化因素对油体稳定性的影响。结果表明:优化后的方法提高了离体油体的完整性,获得的油体纯度较高。随着 NaCl 浓度的增加,油体的稳定性下降;pH 值≤3及 pH 值≥7时油体稳定分布,pH 值为4~6时油体稳定性明显下降;温度对油体的影响较小,不同温度下油体分布相对稳定。在此基础上,利用 SDS - PAGE 对油体蛋白进行分离,获得了较清晰的蛋白质条带。

  12. The current trend of oil and natural gas exploration in Quebec; L'engouement actuel pour l'exploration du petrole et du gaz naturel au Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcil, J.S. [Junex, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Canadian Inst. of Mining and Metallurgy, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Although Quebecers spend more than $10 million per year in hydrocarbon fuels, the production of hydrocarbons in the province is very small. Recently however, companies such as Junex of Quebec and Corridor Resources of Halifax have launched important hydrocarbon exploration programs in the province of Quebec. Quebec has a refining capacity of 500,000 barrels of oil per day and has 3 important refineries and an important petrochemical industry. In addition, the newly launched exploration programs are now beginning to yield results. Other companies have embarked in the exploration trend. These include Gastem, Aquatex, Petrolia, Talisman Energy, Amque and Petrolympia. In September 2006 the Quebec Ministry of Natural Resources issued 383 exploration permits. Since 2006, Junex has produced 1000 barrels of light crude that has been sold to the Ultramar refinery in Saint-Romuald. Junex has also been producing from wells in the Gaspe Peninsula. It was noted however, that successful development of hydrocarbon reservoirs in Quebec will require access to the offshore reserves in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where a current exploration moratorium is in place. Also, legal boundary definitions will need to be addressed to allow for exploration in the gulf. 3 figs.

  13. 对月探测技术研究回顾及展望%Retrospect and Prospect of the Moon Exploration Technologies and Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉玮; 王心源; 郭振亚; 吴海中

    2011-01-01

    人类对月球进行科学探测的半个多世纪以来,经历了第一次探月高潮、探月相对宁静期和第二次探月高潮3个阶段,对月探测技术也经历了飞越月球、环绕月球、硬着陆、软着陆、无人采样返回以及载人登月的发展,水平不断提高.在全月地形探测、构造特征认识以及资源探测上有了许多重大进步,但仍主要集中在月球表层及次表层.从对月探测技术和研究两方面回顾了月球探测的发展历程,并根据目前中国"嫦娥一号"和"嫦娥二号"绕月探测的新技术和其他国家的月球探测情况,在探测手段和研究内容等方面对未来月球探测进行了展望.%The moon exploration is not only the important approach and means to understand the Earth's evolution process and the Earth-Moon system, but is a concrete embodiment of a country's comprehensive national strength. Since the past more than half century of the scientific moon exploration, it has experienced three stages respectively, the first upsurge, the relatively quiet period, and the second upsurge. Meanwhile the moon observation technologies have developed from over the moon, around the moon, hard landing, soft landing, lunar rover and the astronaut field trip, the level has risen gradually. The mankind has made much significant progress in the whole lunar terrain detection, structural characteristics and resource exploration, but it was still mainly concentrated on the lunar surface and subsurface. Reviewing the development of lunar exploration about observation technologies and researches, also according to the new lunar exploration technologies of the current Chinese "Chang' E-1","Chang'E-2" and the situation of the other countries' lunar exploration, the future moon exploration about the exploration technologies and researches has been prospected.

  14. Exploring the Prospects for Cross-Border Climate Change Adaptation between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein C.J. Van Eerd

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will have various effects on river basins: precipitation levels and water temperature may change, floods and also droughts may occur more frequently. These effects do not respect man-made borders, so climate adaptation in itself is a transnational challenge. Adaptation can reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate change effects. Within the Rhine river basin, North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands are dealing with climate adaptation governance, both on the national and on the transboundary level. The aim of this paper is to get a better understanding of factors that stimulate or constrain transboundary governance of climate change adaptation. Our presumption is that the level of congruence between policy arrangements on both sides of the border has an impact on the prospects for cooperation. By applying the Policy Arrangement Approach we found similarities and differences between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands. The two arrangements are similar in their involvement of multiple actors on multiple levels, the degree of decentralization of policy making, a relatively strong feeling of urgency (though framed differently and the availability of knowledge resources. However, in the Netherlands adaptation is primarily water related and sector based, while in North Rhine-Westphalia the focus is more integrated, aiming at a balancing of different values and interests. Other differences are related to the amount and division of financial resources available and to actors’ responsibilities. The latter is geared towards a public responsibility in the Netherlands, while in North Rhine-Westphalia dealing with flood risks is also a responsibility of civilians and other private parties. We conclude that the degree of congruence between the two states is fairly high and will present argument as to why this offers good opportunities for further cooperation.

  15. In Western Liaoning province area oil shale need for geological exploration and mining development%辽西地区油页岩矿急待勘查开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫占全

    2011-01-01

    当前国际能源的短缺,油页岩炼制页岩油可替代石油能源.辽西地区油页岩矿分布广泛,资源储量规模巨大,综合开发利用经济价值高.为早日改变辽西的贫穷与落后,勘查开发油页岩矿迫在眉睫.%The current international energy shortage, Shale oil shale oil refining alternative energy sources. In liaoning province oil shale contains western region ore widely distributed, Contain oil shale mineral resources is very big, Contain oil shale ore comprehensive exploitation and utilization of economic value is very big. In western liaoning province area accelerate transformation of poverty and backwardness, Geology exploration and mining development including oil shale ore is imminent.

  16. Exploring the Potential of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation and the Age Groups of Oil Palm Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiran, N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    The land use/land cover transformation in Malaysia is enormous due to palm oil plantation which has provided huge economical benefits but also created a huge concern for carbon emission and biodiversity. Accurate information about oil palm plantation and the age of plantation is important for a sustainable production, estimation of carbon storage capacity, biodiversity and the climate model. However, the problem is that this information cannot be extracted easily due to the spectral signature for forest and age group of palm oil plantations is similar. Therefore, a noble approach "multi-scale and multi-texture algorithms" was used for mapping vegetation and different age groups of palm oil plantation using a high resolution panchromatic image (WorldView-1) considering the fact that pan imagery has a potential for more detailed and accurate mapping with an effective image processing technique. Seven texture algorithms of second-order Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) with different scales (from 3×3 to 39×39) were used for texture generation. All texture parameters were classified step by step using a robust classifier "Artificial Neural Network (ANN)". Results indicate that single spectral band was unable to provide good result (overall accuracy = 34.92%), while higher overall classification accuracies (73.48%, 84.76% and 93.18%) were obtained when textural information from multi-scale and multi-texture approach were used in the classification algorithm.

  17. Key issues in relation to local human and technical resources in developing exploration and production in oil and gas, offshore British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayne, J.M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Jacques Whitford has been involved in nearly all of the geotechnical work associated with offshore development on the eastern coast of Canada from its early beginnings in 1972. It has built a national presence from an Atlantic corporate office. The company employs 900 people and operates from coast to coast in Canada, the northeast US and in several other countries around the world. The success of Jacques Whitford and Associates Limited in offshore Atlantic Canada can be attributed to strategic partnerships, international positioning, and multi-sectoral opportunities. The author describes how the same business philosophy can be applied to the offshore exploration and development in British Columbia. The operator's requirements before commencing offshore exploration in British Columbia are also examined with emphasis on the following 3 key issues: (1) a clear integrated federal-provincial framework governing the activity, (2) all related First Nations land claims must be resolved, and (3) all ecologically sensitive areas must be identified in advance and set aside. The following marine protected areas have been identified for British Columbia: 4 marine ecological reserves, 14 Class A parks, 2 Class R parks, 5 wildlife reserves, and the Kitlope Heritage Conservatory. The author concludes that there are already companies located in British Columbia with expertise in offshore oil and gas, but a supportive regulatory framework is required to ensure that the local expertise can benefit from the lifting of the moratorium on offshore oil and gas development. He emphasized that there is a need to set up the BC equivalent of the Atlantic Petroleum Boards (the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board) to administer the approval process for offshore BC oil and gas exploration and production.

  18. Legal concerns for the elaboration of a contingency plan for oil spills in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Plácido de Mello

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to the oceans assume vital importance for life on Earth. Environmental monitoring of prospection, exploration and oil transport is imperative in order to prevent and minimize oil and gas accidents. It is necessary to elaborate a Contingency Plan for oil spilling in the sea in the various exploration and production areas, with the collaboration of platform operators. Such strategies may be organized in two parts: the first one containing the plan’s documented policy, and the second presenting the operational plan. A good cooperation among those involved in the accident response plan is critical.

  19. Surface and Downhole Prospecting Tools for Planetary Exploration: Tests of Neutron and Gamma Ray Probes - Research Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Elphic; P. Chu; S. Hahn; M. R. James; D. J. Lawrence; T. H. Prettyman; J. B. Johnson; R. K. Podgorney

    2008-06-01

    The ability to locate and characterize icy deposits and other hydrogenous materials on the Moon and Mars will help us understand the distribution of water and, therefore, possible habitats at Mars, and may help us locate primitive prebiotic compounds at the Moon’s poles. We have developed a rover-borne neutron probe that localizes a near-surface icy deposit and provides information about its burial depth and abundance. We have also developed a borehole neutron probe to determine the stratigraphy of hydrogenous subsurface layers while operating within a drill string segment. In our field tests, we have used a neutron source to “illuminate” surrounding materials and gauge the instruments’ efficacy, and we can simulate accurately the observed instrument responses using a Monte Carlo nuclear transport code (MCNPX). An active neutron source would not be needed for lunar or martian near-surface exploration: cosmic-ray interactions provide sufficient neutron flux to depths of several meters and yield better depth and abundance sensitivity than an active source. However, for deep drilling (>10 m depth), a source is required. We also present initial tests of a borehole gamma ray lithodensity tool and demonstrate its utility in determining soil or rock densities and composition.

  20. Genetic aspects of the oil and gas potential of the sedimentary cover in the northeastern part of the Black Sea (within the Russian Economic Zone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, M. M.; Berlin, Yu. M.; Egorov, A. V.

    2011-04-01

    The oil and gas potential of the region under study is assessed using the historical-genetic method developed at the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The predicted distribution of the main oil and gas source formations in the sedimentary cover section is presented; the modern temperature conditions of their occurrence are calculated. Based on these data and the analyses of the distribution of the oil and gas deposits discovered in the adjacent land territories, the possible oil and oil-and-gasbearing prospectives are determined, and specific recommendations for exploration are given.

  1. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing the impact of exploration prospect interdependency: an application to predict gas discoveries in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Mijnlieff, H.; Lutgert, J.; Breunese, J.; Bos, C.; Rosenkranz, P.; Neele, F.

    2008-01-01

    Prospect interdependencies, if present and positively correlated, result in a higher standard deviation of the portfolio volumetric expectation curve, compared to a portfolio with independent prospects. This wider uncertainty range offers options for companies to increase the expected cumulative net

  2. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing the impact of exploration prospect interdependency: an application to predict gas discoveries in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Mijnlieff, H.; Lutgert, J.; Breunese, J.; Bos, C.; Rosenkranz, P.; Neele, F.

    2008-01-01

    Prospect interdependencies, if present and positively correlated, result in a higher standard deviation of the portfolio volumetric expectation curve, compared to a portfolio with independent prospects. This wider uncertainty range offers options for companies to increase the expected cumulative net

  3. Les bases de données bibliographiques pour l'exploration et la production des hydrocarbures Bibliographic Data Bases for Hydrocarbon Prospection and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambre Syndicale du Pétrole

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les bases de données bibliographiques accessibles en ligne sont un outil très efficace pour qui cherche des documents scientifiques et techniques, mais il faut bien les connaître pour savoir les sélectionner. Deux types de bases de données sont présentées. D'abord celles qui couvrent les différents domaines qui composent l'exploration et la production des hydrocarbures : géologie, géophysique, forage, production et récupération assistée, économie et actualités, énergie et environnement. Ensuite, celles qui couvrent un type particulier de document : brevets, rapports, thèses, actes de congrès, normes et spécifications, livres, traductions, citations. Des fiches descriptives répertorient les caractéristiques des bases de données présentées dans chacune des sections. Bibliographic data bases accessible online make a very effective tool for searching for scientific and technical documents, but a thorough understanding of them is required if they are to be selected properly. Two types of data bases are described. The first ones cover different fields involved in hydrocarbon prospection and production: geology, geophysical prospecting, drilling, production and enhanced recovery, economics and current events, energy, environment. Then come data bases covering a specific type of document: patents, reports, theses, conference proceedings, standards and specifications, books, translations, citations. Descriptive data sheets give an inventory of the leading characteristics of the data bases described in each section.

  4. 柴达木盆地近期勘探工作思考%Consideration about Recent Oil and Gas Exploration of Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付锁堂; 关平; 张道伟

    2012-01-01

    Qaidam basin, which is the seventh-largest petroliferous basins in China,is rich in oil and gas resources. Therefore, the basin possesses the conditions to be a large-scale oil and gas field. However, the strong Cenozoic Himalayan orogeny resulted in the complex structure of Qaidam basin. The source-reservoir-cap assemblage of the oil and gas field has been reformed intensively. And later reformations make the exploration become more difficult. For the petroleum enterprise,once faced a harsher circumstance to increase reserve and production. However,in recent years with the great support of the joint-stock company leadership, Qinghai Oilfield Company continues to emanci pate the mind. In terms of carefully and systematic analysis of the structure, deposition and petroleum geological conditions of Qaidam basin, explorationists changing the old exploration thoughts positively, and the exploration work obtains continuous breakthroughs. Two oil fields with 100 million ton reserves (Kunbei,Yingdong) and three oil fields with 50 million ton reserves (Hongliuquan,Wunan and Mabei) were sequentially discovered by Qinghai Oilfield Company. Natural gas risk exploration in deep zone of Eboliang III and Tainan reserves fields has also gains a major breakthrough progress. According to summarize the successful experience, we can sum up five guiding ide- ologies and four working principles. These ideas and principles play very important roles in making exploration work get breakthrough progress and successfully increasing reserves and production of Qaidam basin.%柴达木盆地是我国七大含油气盆地之一,油气资源丰富,具备建立大型油气田的资源基础。受新生代强烈的喜马拉雅造山运动的影响,盆地内构造十分复杂,油气田生、储、盖组合的后期改造非常严重,使得勘探难度很大,"增储上产"曾一度面临严峻的形势。但近年来青海油田公司通过解放思想,在认真系统地分析柴达木盆地构

  5. Arrangement of tapering traps in the main oil and gas complexes of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vysotskiy, V.M.; Malykh, A.G.; Pikulevich, V.D.; Sidorenkov, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Based on evaluation of the densities of distribution of traps formed by lithological and stratigraphic screens, in the main oil and gas masses of West Siberia an isolation is made of the intervals of the section which are the most promising for detecting screened formations. These include the Berrias-Valanzhinskiy, Valanzhin-Gotherivian and upper Jurassic oil and gas complexes which are included among the primary objects for setting up prospecting and exploration aimed at finding screened hydrocarbon formations.

  6. Oil spill contingency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kip, S.H. (Sarawak Shell Bhd/Saban Shell Petroleum Co. Ltd. (MY))

    1988-01-01

    Oil spill contingency planning is an essential feature required in present day activities involving oil and gas exploration, production and transportation. A well through out continency plan will not only eliminate or minimize the sense of panic, normally associated with oil spill emergency, but also can minimize damage and cost involved. Oil spill contingency planning is a process of predetermining a response to an oil spill emergency. The process of preparing a contingency plan is discussed in this paper.

  7. 加蓬油气勘探开发项目风险评估%Risk assessment of oil and gas exploration and development projects in Gabon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马卫征

    2014-01-01

    以国际油气勘探开发项目的风险管理为研究对象,借鉴前人的研究成果,综合运用系统分析、定性分析与定量分析相结合以及多学科理论相结合的方法,以风险分析与管理、工程项目管理、油气田勘探开发等有关基本理论为基础,运用层次分析法、多因素综合分析等方法对加蓬石油工程项目的风险进行了有效评估。分析结果:加蓬目前比较适合勘探开发项目的实施,风险等级为较小。%Taking risk management of international oil and gas exploration and development projects as research object, referring to previous research, comprehensive applying methods, such as system analysis, qualitative analysis combined with quantitative analy-sis and the combination of multidisciplinary theories, based on basic theories, such as risk analysis and management, project man-agement, oil and gas field exploration and development, using analytical hierarchy process and multifactor analysis, the risks of pe-troleum engineering project were effective evaluated in Gabon work area. The results show, at present, exploration and development projects have the lowest risk level and are relatively suitable for Gabon.

  8. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Pennsylvania Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  9. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Ohio Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  10. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Illinois Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  11. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Kentucky Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  12. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Indiana Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  13. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as One-Mile Cells (Decadal Time Slices)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  14. EXPLORATION GEOCHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072782 Dong Sheng(East China Academy of Metallurgical Geological Exploration,Hefei 230022,China)Regional Geochemical Characteristics of Guichi Area in Anhui Province and Their Ore-Prospecting Significance(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,30(3),2006,p.215-219,223,3 illus.,7 refs.)Key words:polymetallic deposits,regional geological exploration,Anhui Province Controlled by unique geological conditions,

  15. The history of oil and gas exploration between the Baltic Sea and the Thuringian Forest; Zur Entwicklung der Erdoel- und Erdgasexploration zwischen Ostsee und Thueringer Wald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, E.P. [Erdoel-Erdgas Gommern GmbH, Gommern (Germany); Dubslaff, H. [Erdoel-Erdgas Gommern GmbH, Gommern (Germany); Eiserbeck, W. [Erdoel-Erdgas Gommern GmbH, Gommern (Germany); Sallum, R. [Erdoel-Erdgas Gommern GmbH, Gommern (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Hydrocarbon exploration started in the area between the Baltic Sea and the Thuringian Forest in 1951. At the beginning of the 1960s, wells were drilled at an average rate of over 150000 m per annum. The main targets were the Mesozoic in the North German Basin and the Zechstein; hydrocarbon accumulations were discovered at Kirchheilingen-Allmenhausen, Krahnberg, Behringen, etc. in the Thuringian basin. The Reinkenhagen oil field in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania was discovered in 1961 and the Salzwedel/Peckensen gas field in the Rotliegendes of the Altmark in 1968. Successful exploration resulted in the discovery of 297.5 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} of recoverable gas reserves in Permian strata until the end of 1989; the equivalent figure for oil is 4.3 million t. Up to the end of 1989, about 180 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} gas had been produced from Permian formations and 2.4 million t oil from the Zechstein. The hydrocarbons in the Stassfurt carbonate are autochthonous; i.e. the Stassfurt carbonate includes both the source rock and the reservoir rock. The nitrogen-rich gases in the Rotliegendes were generated epigenetically as a result of coalification of carboniferous source rocks and supply of nitrogen from the basement. Comprehensive data are presented from 27 deep boreholes (> 5000 m) drilled into Permian and pre-Permian strata. The future exploration targets are proposed on the basis of geoscientific studies. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Nach 1950 setzte im Gebiet zwischen Ostsee und Thueringer Wald die gezielte Kohlenwasserstoffexploration ein. Anfang der 60er Jahre wurden bereits ueber 150000 Bohrmeter jaehrlich abgeteuft. Zielhorizonte waren das Mesozoikum in der Norddeutschen Senke und der Zechstein mit dem Nachweis der Lagerstaetten Kirchheilingen-Allmenhausen, Krahnberg, Behringen u.a. in der Thueringer Senke. 1961 wurde die Erdoellagerstaette Reinkenhagen in Mecklenburg/Vorpommern aufgeschlossen. Die Entdeckung der Erdgaslagerstaette Salzwedel/Peckensen im Rotliegenden der

  16. Characterization of EPA's 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tank bottom solids and associated contaminated soils at oil exploration and production sites in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojes, Heidi K; Pope, Peter G

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration and types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of environmentally toxic and persistent chemicals, at contaminated oil exploration and production (E&P) sites located in environmentally sensitive and geographically distinct areas throughout Texas. Samples of tank bottom solids, the oily sediment that collects at the bottom of the tanks, were collected from inactive crude oil storage tanks at E&P sites and hydrocarbon contaminated soil samples were collected from the area surrounding each tank that was sampled. All samples were analyzed for the 16 PAH priority pollutant listed by US EPA and for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The results demonstrate that overall average PAH concentrations were significantly higher in tank bottom solids than in contaminated soils. Total PAH concentrations decreased predictably with diminishing hydrocarbon concentrations; but the percent fraction of carcinogenic PAHs per total measured PAH content increased from approximately 12% in tank bottom solids to about 46% in the contaminated soils. These results suggest that the PAH content found in tank bottom solids cannot reliably be used to predict the PAH content in associated contaminated soil. Comparison of PAHs to conservative risk-based screening levels for direct exposure to soil and leaching from soil to groundwater indicate that PAHs are not likely to exceed default risk-based thresholds in soils containing TPH of 1% (10,000mg/kg) or less. These results show that the magnitude of TPH concentration may be a useful indicator of potential risk from PAHs in crude oil-contaminated soils. The results also provide credibility to the 1% (10,000mg/kg) TPH cleanup level, used in Texas as a default management level at E&P sites located in non-sensitive areas, with respect to PAH toxicity.

  17. SEDIMENTARY PATTERN OF PROTOTYPE BASIN IN THE DEPOSITION PERIOD OF LAIYANG FORMATION AND THE ADVANTAGEOUS AREAS FOR OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION OF JIAOLAI BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhiping; LI Ling; LI Wei; ZHOU Yaoqi

    2004-01-01

    Laiyang formation of Jiaolai Basin is the target stratum for oil and gas exploration. By measuring several field sections, the authors find that Laiyang formation reveals the whole processes from development to death of the lake basin and its sedimentary facies differ in different structural locations.Analyses about sedimentary facies and paleocurrent orientations in association with researches about the positive tectonic units such as Dayetou horseback and Chaigou horst indicate that Laiyang sag is a relatively independent sedimentary unit that shows great water depth typical of deep lake or semideep lake and was controlled by Wulongcun fault during the deposition period of Laiyang formation. Its sediments mainly originated from Jiaobei uplift area and Dayetou horseback. Gaomi-Zhucheng sag was a fast-filled basin controlled by Wurong fault and Yishu fault zone, being high in the northeast and low in the northwest and characterized by the development of pluvial facies and fluvial facies in most areas, and with the development of lake facies being limited to local low-lying regions. Selection of advantageous hydrocarbon reservoir areas for exploration purpose mainly relies on the sedimentation pattern of prototype basin and conservation conditions. The central-west area of Laiyang sag covered by overlying Laiyang formation is the most advantageous exploration area.

  18. 油用向日葵龙葵杂7号的特征特性与产业化前景%Characteristic and Industrialization Prospect of Oil Sunflower Longkuiza No.7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文军; 李彩凤; 黄绪堂; 张明; 李岑; 梁春波; 李晓明

    2011-01-01

    着重介绍了由黑龙江省农业科学院经济作物研究所育成的油用向日葵杂交种龙葵杂7号的植物学特性、生育特性和抗病性,并对产量和油分进行分析,探讨了油用向日葵的产业化前景。%The oil sunflower Longkuiza No.7 was bred by Industrial Crops Institute of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences.This article analyzed botanical characteristics,growth characteristics,disease resistance,yield and quality,the use of sunflower oil industrial prospect was discussed.

  19. Mineral resources and exploration prospect in The Republic of Yemen%也门共和国矿产资源与矿业开发前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 王靓靓; 元春华; 李玉龙

    2014-01-01

    也门共和国地处阿拉伯-努比亚(Arabian-Nubian)地盾,地质结构复杂多样,在火山岩和沉积岩区蕴藏着丰富的黄金、铅、银、铜、锌和其他金属矿产。也门的金矿主要位于Sana'a省,与火山和岩浆活动有关;铅锌矿成因类型较复杂,最大的铅锌矿产出于JabalSalab地区侏罗纪的白云岩中;铜镍矿存在于基性、超基性的侵入岩中,主要位于Taiz和Amran省。也门矿产资源丰富但大量矿床尚未被开发,有巨大的找矿潜力。本文结合也门矿产的资源情况及矿业开发现状圈定了优势矿产的找矿远景区,如Al Jawf省西部的金-银矿远景区,Sa'ada省北部的铜-镍矿远景区,以及Shabwah省东南部的锌-铅矿远景区等。也门共和国矿产资源丰富,矿业及税收政策宽松,定会成为未来矿业投资的热点区域。%The Republic of Yemen composes part of the Arabian -Nubian Shield .The geological conditions in Yemen and other factors are favourable for many types of mineral deposits ,like gold ,lead , silver ,copper and zinc .The gold deposit located in Sana'a is related to volcanic and magma activity ;the genetic type of lead-zinc deposit is complicated and the biggest deposit appeared in dolomite of Jurassic in JabalSalab region;copper-nickel deposit is located in Taiz and Amran ,in mafic and ultra-mafic intrusive rocks .The mineral potential of Yemen has not been explored .By analysing the mineral resource distribution and the current mineral exploration situation ,the author defined several prospect zones ,like Al Jawf for gold-silver deposit ,Sa'ada for copper-nickel deposit ,and Shabwah for zinc-lead deposits .With favourable mining and fax policy ,The Republic of Yemen will abstract more oversee investment and to be a hot spot for mineral exploration in the future .

  20. Exploring Ideational Metafunction in Helon Habila’s Oil on Water: A re-evaluation and redefinition of African Women’s Personality and Identity through Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léonard A. Koussouhon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at applying some of the principles guiding Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG to Helon Habila’s Oil On Water (2011. One of the major principles of Systemic Linguistics is that the exploration of the Transitivity properties (processes, participants, and circumstances in/of a text can give a full insight into how the writer encodes experiential meaning therein (Koussouhon & Allagbe, 2013 and Koussouhon & Dossoumou, 2014. This implies that the analysis in/of a text can reveal how its language is organized to express the speaker’s or narrator’s personal experience, views, etc., thereby contributing to the meaning of personal and interpersonal interaction. Given the importance of social role played by language in any societal situation, the experiential meaning of a structural choice is not determined only by Lexico-grammar, but also by contextual factors (Gledhill, 2011. By applying the theory of the grammar of experiential meaning to Helon Habila’s Oil On Water (2011, this article attempts to auscultate African society’s emerging perception of gender identity as it affects and re-presents women. By borrowing the way the writer encodes his experience (or fictional reality via the medium of language to affirm male writers’ support to the trend, this article is proving the propriety and relevance of womanist theory by re-evaluating and re-defining African women’s identity and personality through the novel under study.

  1. PREDICATION OF THE ORE RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF CHANG 8 AND CHANG 9 OIL GROUP OF YANCHANG FORMATION IN PINGBEI EXPLORATION AREA%坪北探区延长组长8、长9油层组资源潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金良; 郭爱华; 李浩; 张慧元

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,along with the exploration change of Yanchang formation in strategy, Pingbei exploration area achieved new discovery in Chang 8 and Chang 9 oil group of Yanchang formation. Based on the massive core data,with SEM observations microscopic-analysis, casting thin sections and conventional Hg injection techniques, the results showed Chang 9 oil group is shallow lake deposition and sediments are fine. Chang 8 oil group locates in Ansai delta front, underwater distributary channel and debouch bar sandbodies whose storage space are big developed. Reservoir space is made up of original residual pore between grains. There is one set of premium hydrocarbon source rock on the top of Chang 9 oil group,about 5~14 m thick,which generate hydrocarbons strongly. There are three types of reservoir assemblage in this area, self-generation and self-accumulation ones, lowe generation and high accumulation ones, high generation and low accumulation ones. According to oil-test results of Chang 8 and Chang 9 oil group, self-generation and self-accumulation ones, low generation and high accumulation ones in Pingbei exploration area present good oil exploration prospect. Oil-bearing area can be increased by progressive exploration,it's also the replacement resources of next exploitation.%以大量的岩心和测井资料为基础,利用铸体薄片、扫描电镜及压汞等测试分析方法,对坪北探区延长组长8和长9油层组的沉积环境、储层特征以及生储盖的组合关系进行了研究,结果表明长9期属浅湖相沉积,沉积物普遍较细,其顶部发育一套优质烃源岩,厚度5~14 m,具有良好的供烃能力;长8期位于安塞三角洲沉积前缘,主要发育三角洲前缘水下分流河道和河口坝砂体,具有良好的储集空间,以原生残余粒间孔隙为主;区域内发育自生自储式、下生上储式、上生下储式3种成藏组合类型.根据坪北探区延长组长8、长9层试油成果,综合评价认为

  2. Exploration of the Management Mode of HSE Supervision in Oil Production Plant%探索采油厂HSE监督管理模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于传滨

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduced HSE monitoring network and HSE supervision and management model which is improved by Deming model, and explored methods and content to run. Through continuous improvement, it ensures the quality of HSE supervision rising, to help the achievement of production and management goals of oil production plant.%介绍了HSE监督网络和应用戴明模型改进的HSE监督管理模式,探索了运行方法和内容,经过持续改进,确保HSE监督质量不断提高,为采油厂原油生产经营目标的实现保驾护航.

  3. Exploring Innovation Processes from a Complexity Perspective. Part II. Experiences from the Subsea Increased Oil Recovery Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, Tone Merethe Berg; Johannessen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    In this second part of the papers, exploring innovation processes from a complexity perspective, we present an empirical example to strengthen further the relevance of the approach. The example draws on a longitudinal research initiative conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil ASA. We conducted our research into the…

  4. Use of thermal infrared remote sensing data for fisheries, environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, and ship routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffer, M. A.; Gawlikowski, G.; Muller-Karger, F.; Schaudt, K.; Upton, M.; Wall, C.; Westhaver, D.

    2006-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) and ocean color remote sensing data (1.1 - 4.0 km) are being used as the primary data source in decision making systems for fisheries management, commercial and recreational fishing advisory services, fisheries research, environmental monitoring, oil and gas operations, and ship routing. Experience over the last 30 years suggests that while ocean color and other remote sensing data (e.g. altimetry) are important data sources, TIR presently yields the most useful data for studying ocean surface circulation synoptically on a daily basis. This is due primarily to the greater temporal resolution, but also due to one's better understanding of the dynamics of sea surface temperature compared with variations in ocean color and the spatial limitations of altimeter data. Information derived from commercial operations and research is being used to improve the operational efficiency of fishing vessels (e.g. reduce search time and increase catch rate) and to improve our understanding of the variations in catch distribution and rate needed to properly manage fisheries. This information is also being used by the oil and gas industry to minimize transit time and thus, save costs (e.g., tug charter, insurance), to increase production and revenue up to 500K dollars a day. The data are also be used to reduce the risk of equipment loss, loss of time and revenue to sudden and unexpected currents such as eddies. Sequential image analysis integrating TIR and ocean color provided near-real time, synoptic visualization of the rapid and wide dispersal of coastal waters from the northern Gulf of Mexico following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in September 2005. The satellite data and analysis techniques have also been used to monitor the effects and movement of other potential environmentally damaging substances, such as dispersing nutrient enriched waste water offshore. A review of our experience in several commercial applications and research efforts will reinforce the

  5. The use of secondary and tertiary methods of working oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, J.; Karlos, A.

    1985-01-01

    Oil policy in recent years has led to the efficient use of resources and to a reduction in oil demand by the import nations. The high cost of oil has led to a situation where oil recovery with a higher specific cost has also become cost effective. The broad use of secondary methods of recovery from operating mines has caused a temporary drop in total expenditures on exploration and prospecting. Tertiary development methods aimed at increasing oil recovery have already passed their experimental phase. The broad utilization of these methods will follow the need for more efficient utilization of expensive reserves of natural resources. The current utilization of methods for increasing oil recovery are analyzed together with methods for use in the near future.

  6. Exploration of cervical carotid stenosis using helical CT angiography. A prospective trial on the detection of candidates for surgery in the Gujo area, Gifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, Hiroyasu; Sumi, Yasuhiko [Sumi Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Kaku, Yasuhiko; Sakai, Noboru; Yamada, Hiromu

    1995-04-01

    To detect cervical carotid stenosis as a candidate for carotid endarterectomy (CEA), the authors attempted a prospective trial by exploring stenosis for one year in a rural district with a population of 20,000, employing helical CT angiography which apparently displayed three-dimensional reconstructed images of the carotid bifurcation. Thirty-three patients, 24 males and 9 females, with a mean age of 71.8 years, suffering from TIA, RIND or stroke were investigated for their carotid systems. The clinical symptoms of the patients were briefly as follows: motor weakness in 30 cases, dysarthria in 8 cases and aphasia in 4 cases; and 6 of 22 (27%) stroke cases had previously suffered an episode of TIA. The risk factors of the whole group of patients were hypertension in 13 cases, diabetes mellitus in 6, heart disease in 17, and hypercholesteremia in 4. Helical CT angiography was performed in 11 cases of TIA, 2 cases of RIND, and 16 cases of stroke. Only 3 cases of the TIA group and 3 cases of the stroke group were found to have extracranial carotid stenosis of more than 50%, which subsequently required conventional angiography. For the detection of stenosis, CT angiography was beneficial as well as conventional angiography. Finally, CEA was performed in 2 of 3 cases with severe carotid stonosis in the TIA group, while such cases in the stroke group were only observed. The above results meant that the occurrence of extracranial carotid stenosis was 6 out of 6,589 elderly inhabitants (over 60 years old), although the possible detection rate of candidates for CEA was 2 out of 20,000 population per year. (author).

  7. 无油涡旋压缩机的关键技术综述及其发展展望%THE KEY TECHNOLOGIES OF OIL-FREE SCROLL COMPRESSOR AND ITS PROSPECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯; 刘益才; 张建平; 辛天龙; 陈思明

    2011-01-01

    First of all, give a comprehensive overview of oil-free scroll compresscr's history and current situation, Later,introduce the working principle and composition of oil-free scroll compressor .Make a overview of oil-free scroll compresscr's key technologies, which include seal and lubrication, cooling system and anti-rotation. Have a systematic induction to solve the key technical issues of oil-free scroll compressor and propose an extension of the key technologies to expand. Through a comprehensive analysis of oil-free scroll compressor, Making a detailed outlook of the oil-free scroll compresscr's development prospects, giving views to broaden the application field of oil-free scroll compressor,. Indicate the complementary relationships of proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology and oil-free scroll compressor.%首先对国内外无油涡旋压缩机的发展历史及现状进行了全面的概述,尔后介绍无油涡旋压缩机的工作原理及组成,对无油涡旋压缩机的密封与润滑、冷却系统及其防自转等关键技术作出了概述.为解决无油涡旋压缩机的关键技术问题做出了系统的归纳并提出相关关键技术的延伸拓展.通过对无油涡旋压缩机的综合分析,详细的展望了无油涡旋压缩机的发展前景,为拓宽无油涡旋压缩机的应用领域提出了见解,指出了质子交换膜燃料电池技术与无油涡旋压缩机相辅相成的发展关系.

  8. 西藏羌塘盆地的深部构造与含油气远景评价%The deep structures and oil-gas prospect evaluation in the Qiangtang Basin, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文津; 赵逊; 蒋忠惕; 刘葵; 吴珍汉; 熊嘉育

    2006-01-01

    main structures at the surface are orientated NW-SE and the crustal structure can be described as three depressions, three risees, and one deep depression, of which the prospective zone with the most potential is the inner main subsided belt and its two sides;3) Comparatively intensive interaction between the crust and mantle and volcanic and thermal activities in the northern basin play a very important role in petroleum evaluation. The southern deeper sedimentation and less thermal activity make this area a more perfect zone for oil exploration;4) Currently, the most important objective is determining the physical properties of the deep strata, the status of oil and gas accumulations, the source of the hydrocarbons, and the relationship between the upper and lower structures;and 5) The Lunpola Tertiary basin may be favorable for oil accumulations because petroleum may migrate from marine strata on two sides.

  9. Target post-evaluation of China's “12th Five-Year” oil and gas exploration and development planning and its “13th Five-Year” target prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiping Pan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the turn of 12th and 13th “Five-Year Plan” of China, the global oil and gas market changes greatly. In this regard, the target post-evaluation of the “12th Five-Year” oil and gas exploration and development planning was conducted, which is of significant importance to scientifically and reasonably making the specific “13th Five-Year” oil and gas exploration and development target planning. The post-evaluation results indicate that, in the period of “12th Five-Year Plan”, the oil and gas exploration and development targets of China were satisfactorily completed, but some deficiencies still existed. For example, the target of oil production (2 × 108 t was overfulfilled, while the target of oil reserves (65 × 108 t remained 6.4% outstanding. The target of gas reserves (3.5 × 1012 m3 was overfulfilled, while the target of gas production (1385 × 108 m3 remained 6.2% outstanding. Moreover, the targets of unconventional gases were not satisfactorily completed-shale gas being better than coalbed methane (CBM. Failures to fulfill some targets in “12th Five-Year Plan” were primarily attributed to the slowdown of oil and gas consumption growth, sharp drop of oil price, downgrading of resources, and changes of statistic basis under the new normal. The forecast results suggest that, in the period of “13th Five-Year Plan”, given USD50–70/bbl of world oil price, China's annual average incremental conventional oil and gas in place will be 10.0 × 108–12.0 × 108 t and 6000 × 108–8000 × 108 m3 respectively, annual average incremental shale gas and CBM in place will be 1000 × 108–2000 × 108 m3 and 500 × 108–1000 × 108 m3 respectively, and annual oil production will be about 2.0 × 108 t. By 2020, China's annual gas production will approach 1800 × 108–2000 × 108 m3 (shale gas: 200 × 108 m3, and CBM: 150 × 108 m3.

  10. Framework of Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Supervision in the United States%墨西哥湾漏油事件后美国海上油气勘探开发监管新框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯连勇; 孙肖阳; 唐旭; 王宏伟; Michael H(o)(o)k

    2012-01-01

    目前我国海上油气勘探开发正蓬勃开展,与此同时,我国海上油气开发事故时有发生,海上监管越来越被重视,确保我国海上油气开发安全和环保具有重要意义.本文通过分析墨西哥湾漏油事件后的美国海上油气监管的调整,研究美国海上监管新框架,并剖析石油行业协会在美国海上油气开发监管中发挥的作用,总结出美国海上油气监管的特点:第一,要重视对海上油气资源的专业化管理;第二,大力培育和发展安全文化;第三,环保是各级监管的核心;第四,大力发挥石油行业协会的作用.并针对我国海上油气开发监管现状提出了一些启示,希望对完善我国海上油气开发监管起到一定的借鉴意义.%Nowadays, China offshore oil and gas exploration and development have prosperously developed. At the same time, China's offshore oil and gas exploration accidents occur frequently. Offshore supervision has been paid more and more attention. It is great significance for China to ensure its offshore oil and gas safety and environmental development. This paper analyzes the adjustment of offshore oil and gas supervision in the United States after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. After studying the US offshore oil development regulation and the role of oil industry associations in the framework, the paper summarizes the characteristics of marine oil and gas regulation in the United States, that is, First, it should attach importance to offshore oil and gas resources professional management; secondly, it should cultivate and develop safety culture vigorously; thirdly, the environmental protection is the core of the supervision at all levels; fourthly, the oil industry associations should play a great role . Then aiming at the offshore oil and gas supervising actuality in China, the paper puts forward some enlightenment, and hoping to provide some references to perfect our offshore oil and gas development regulation

  11. Simulation study using 3-D wavefield modeling for oil and gas exploration; Sanjigen hadoba modeling wo mochiita sekiyu tanko no simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Saeki, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    As the surroundings of objects of oil exploration grow more complicated, seismic survey methods have turned 3-dimensional and, in this report, several models are examined using the 3-dimensional simulation technology. The result obtained by the conventional wave tracking method is different from actual wavefields, and is unrealistic. The difference method among the fullwave modelling methods demands an exorbitantly long computation time and high cost. A pseudospectral method has been developed which is superior to the difference method, and has been put to practical use thanks to the advent of parallel computers. It is found that a 3-dimensional survey is mandatory in describing faults. After examining the SEG/EAGE Salt model, it is learned that the salt is well-developed and that 3-dimensional depth migration is required for sub-salt exploration. It is also found through simulation of the EAGE/S Overthrust model, which is an elastic model, that no quality records are available on thrust zones in complicated terrains. The records are poor in quality since the actually measured wavefield is regarded as an acoustic wavefield when it is an elastic wavefield. 1 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Proposals for the application of the resources of geoprocessing in the determination and monitoring of the deep areas of exploration of the oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rodrigo Ferreira dos [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Since middle of the decade of 80, the resources of Geoprocessing come wide being applied in the most diverse branches of the study where the localization of a region is factor of the biggest significance for a good performance of some task. In the economic aspect, the processing of the data of the Earth one reveals sufficiently significant in the determination of the region of an industry of wide ambient impact where the characteristic of the ground layers, characteristics of draining of wind, characteristics of the water resources and vertical and horizontal profile of water sheets, can mean the impossibility of concession of exploration, or, if not perceived the economic and ambient time, damages many irreversible times. The apparent possibilities of a region, deserve a more careful analysis of specialists of the studies of the Earth, that through the images of low orbit satellites (for differentiated soundings of some regions of the planet or imaging of bigger space resolution), high orbit satellites (for soundings of wide fixed parcels of the Earth and imaging of bigger secular resolution), allies to the soundings of land instruments and adoption of the normal characteristics of the region, will be able to give its to seem on the yield of the exploration. Numerical modeling as the RAMSIN, MM5, ENSEMBLE, GLOBAL, ETA, MBAR, NCEP and CALMET associates the systems of interpretation of data as the SPRING, SAGA, SURFER, ARCHVIEW, GRADS, DIGITAL, FETERRA, SOLIDWORKS, and instruments of CAD, allow bonanza analyses, powerful and varied forms of understanding of one same phenomenon, and an ample quarrel on as, from now, the lines of direction of the research in Geoprocessing will contribute for the improvement of the operations in deepenings in the industry of the oil. The present workmanship has intention to bring new proposals, or new ways to understand, to create and to apply computational resources for data processing of great value for the exploration of the oil

  13. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090712 Ge Mingjun(General Institution of Mineral Exploration & Development in Qiqihaer of Heilongjiang Province,Qiqihaer 161006,China) Application of Emulsified Diesel Oil Drilling Fluid in Under-Balanced Drilling(Exploration Engineering(Rock & Soil Drilling and Tunneling),ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,34(11),2007,p.43-45,1 illus.,2 tables,4 refs.)

  14. Sustainable water management in Alberta's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Bill; Usher, Robyn; Roach, Andrea [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States); Lambert, Gord; Kotecha, Prit [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers forecast published in 2011 predicts that oil production from oil sands will increase by 50% in the next 3 years and double by 2020. This rate of growth will result in significant pressure on water resources; water use per barrel of oil sands production is comparable to other energy resources - about 2.5 barrels of fresh water per barrel of oil produced are used by mining operations and 0.5 barrels by in-situ operations. Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) was the first company to develop the oil sands in northern Alberta and holds one of the largest oil sands positions in Canada. In 2010, Suncor announced plans to increase production to more than 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day by 2020, which it plans to achieve through oil sands production growth of approximately 10% per year. Because water supply and potential impacts to water quality are critical to its future growth, in 2010-2011 Suncor conducted a risk assessment to identify water-related business risks related to its northern Alberta operations. The assessment identified more than 20 high level business risks in strategic water risk areas including water supply, water reuse, storm water management, groundwater, waste management and river water return. The risk assessment results prompted development of a strategic roadmap to guide water stewardship across Suncor's regional operations. The roadmap describes goals, objectives, and specific activities for each of six key water risk areas, and informs prioritization and selection of prospective water management activities. Suncor is not only exploring water within its own boundaries, but is also collaborating with other oil sands producers to explore ways of integrating its water systems through industry consortia; Suncor is a member of the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative and of the recently formed Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, among others. (author)

  15. Welcome to Jiangsu for Cooperative Exploration and Development of Petroleum Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Zuotan; Chen Hanlin

    1994-01-01

    @@ Since 1985, 68 foreign enterprises from 17countries and areas have investigated Jiangsu area and discussed the business with us. According to the prediction by domestic geologists, the marine strata of Mesozoic-Paleozoic in south Jiangsu could contain 1.393 billion cubic meters of oil and 763.4 billion cubic meters of gas, meanwhile the volume of oil resources in continental strata of upper Cretaceous-Lower Triassic in North Jiangsu is estimated to be 3.34-7.55 hundred million cubic meters. For this reason many foreign oil companies are greatly interested in the prospect of cooperative exploration and development of petroleum resources in Jiangsu Province (Fig.1).

  16. GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151884 An Guoying(China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Land and Resources,Beijing100083,China)Regional Geochemistry of Sanjiang Region in Yunnan Province and Its Copper-Polymetallic Prospecting Significance(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,

  17. GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131784 An Guoying(China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Land and Resources,Beijing 100083,China);Lei Yingping Geochemical Characteristics and Metallogenic Prospecting Areas in Yunkai Area,Guangxi(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,36

  18. Visayan Basin - the birthplace of Philippine petroleum exploration revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rillera, F.G. (COPLEX Resources N.L., Manila (Philippines)); Durkee, E.F. (E.F. Durkee and Associates, Manila (Philippines))

    1994-07-01

    Petroleum exploration in the Philippines has its roots in the Visayan Basin in the central Philippines. This is a Tertiary basin with up to 30,000 ft of sedimentary fill. With numerous surface oil and gas manifestations known as early as 1888, the area was the site of the first attempts to establish commercial petroleum production in the country. Over the past 100 years, more than 200 wells have been drilled in the basin. Several of these have yielded significant oil and gas shows. Production, albeit noncommercial in scale, has been demonstrated to be present in some places. A review of past exploration data reveals that many of the earlier efforts failed due to poorly located tests from both structural and stratigraphic standpoints. Poor drilling and completion technology and lack of funding compounded the problems of early explorationists. Because of this, the basin remains relatively underexplored. A recent assessment by COPLEX and E.F. Durkee and Associates demonstrates the presence of many untested prospects in the basin. These prospects may contain recoverable oil and gas potential on the order of 5 to 10 MMBO onshore and 25 to 100 MMBO offshore. With new exploration ideas, innovative development concepts, and the benefit of modern technology, commercial oil and gas production from the basin may yet be realized.

  19. 油棕育种现状及关联分析在油棕分子辅助育种中的应用展望%Current Situation of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Breeding and Application Prospects of Association Analysis in Molecular-assisted Breeding of Oil Palm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 王永; 雷新涛; 杨耀东; 肖勇; 夏薇

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) , which produces 4~6 t/hm2 palm oil annually, is the king of oil crops in the world and also the emphatically-supported tropical woody oil crop in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan of China.China imports massive palm oil every year recently, but the development of oil palm planting industry ( especially the selection and breeding of its fine vari-eties) in China is still at an initial stage.As an effective research strategy for the quick scanning of the connection between genetic markers and economic traits of crops, association analysis has important application prospects in the molecular-assisted selection and breeding of oil palm.This paper summarized the characteristics, targets and current situation of oil palm breeding, expounded some cases of association analysis application in the breeding of several crops, and gave a view on the future application of associa-tion analysis in molecular-assisted selection and breeding of oil palm.%油棕年产油量4~6 t/hm2,有“世界油王”之称,是我国“十二五”规划重点支持的热带木本油料作物。我国每年需要进口大量的棕榈油,但国内的油棕种植业尤其是良种选育还处于起步阶段。关联分析作为一种快速挖掘遗传标记与作物经济性状间的关联的研究策略,在油棕分子辅助育种中有重要的应用前景。综述了油棕育种的特点、目标及现状,阐述了关联分析在多种作物育种相关研究中的应用实例,并对其在油棕分子辅助育种中的应用前景进行了展望,以期为油棕选育种提供研究思路。

  20. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  1. Present Situation and Exploration Potentialities of Natural Gas Resources in Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ordos Basin is the second largest sedimentary basin in China, with an area of 370 thousand km2. Since the first onshore oil well was drilled successfully in northern Shaanxi of China, there has been a century of oil and gas exploration in the basin, and it may be said that the oil exploration has a long history, but for natural gas exploration, it still may be regarded as a new area, because large-scale research, exploration, and development of natural gas in the basin have relatively lagged. The four big gas fields of Jingbian, Sulige, Yulin, and Uxin Banner with respective reserves of more than one hundred giga cubic meters were discovered since 1990s[1]. Therefore,the basin has a great resources potential of natural gas and a low discovery ratio of gas reserves. The natural gas industry has broad prospects of development.

  2. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2005-10-15

    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs.

  3. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-10-01

    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs.

  4. Several important issues about current oil and gas exploration in China%关于中国当前油气勘探的几个重要问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾承造

    2012-01-01

    The gap between supply and demand for oil and gas is widening, yet exploration situation is severe in China. From the current situation of oil and gas exploration, this paper focuses on the analysis of global oil and gas exploration trend, current challenges of China's oil and gas exploration, basic problems of unconventional oil and gas exploration, as well as current oil and gas exploration theory and key issues. Global oil and gas exploration area is no longer limited by the degree of exploration, and gradually follows the trend of shifting to deep water, deep formation, unconventional, arctic area and other newly developed areas. China's key oil and gas bearing basins gradually enter the intensive oil and gas exploration, featuring that exploration depth increases, target reservoirs are more subtle, physical properties of reservoir are worse and technical difficulties of oil and gas exploration development engineering are gradually greater. Overseas oil and gas exploration development strategy of China's energy enterprises is faced with a number of challenges such as difficult block acquisition, political risk increase, higher requirements for exploration technology and so on. Geological theory and resource assessment of unconventional oil and gas and other core technologies require more researches. Borehole, fracturing and other key development technologies need to strengthen field test research. Under the guidance of new geological theory for oil and gas exploration, the paper highlights to explain 9 bottleneck problems, such as the whole process model of organic hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and accumulation in the actual geological conditions, the evaluation on petroleum resource potential in the basins undergoing the tectonic transformation, pore throat structure and hydrocarbon percolation mechanism for the low permeability-tight reservoirs, hydrocarbon formation conditions and exploration direction of the large-size lithostratigraphic

  5. 国外致密油勘探开发新进展及其对中国的启示%Advancements in global tight oil exploration and exploitation and the implications for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙张涛; 田黔宁; 吴西顺; 邵明娟

    2015-01-01

    致密油已成为全球非常规油气勘探开发的重要领域之一,正逐渐影响着世界能源供需格局,许多国家都加快了对其勘探开发的进程。本文通过调研世界主要国家致密油勘探开发的最新进展,对全球致密油资源量概况、主要国家致密油勘探开发利用现状、技术研发新进展以及国外致密油开发的相关政策进行了介绍,美国和加拿大是全球主要的致密油生产国,俄罗斯也开始了致密油的商业化生产。这些国家不仅在致密油开发关键技术方面遥遥领先,而且逐步形成了一系列有利于致密油等非常规能源开发的相关政策。鉴于致密油开发对我国的重要战略意义,本文提出了一些思考和建议,以期为中国的致密油勘探开发给予参考。%Tight oil has become one of the significant areas of global unconventional oil and gas exploration and exploitation.Many countries have speeded up the exploration and exploitation of tight oil, since it has gradually affected the energy supply and demand pattern worldwide.Based on investigation and research on the latest developments of tight oil in major countries in the world,this paper presents an overview of the world’s tight oil resources,current exploration and exploitation and progress in technology of major countries,as well as the related policies.The U.S.,Canada and Russia,which are not only in the leading position in technologies innovation but also set up a series of policies on unconventional energy development,have realized the commercial production of tight oil.In view of the strategic significance of tight oil for China,this paper comes up with some suggestions with the aim of giving some reference for tight oil exploration and exploitation in China.

  6. China's Oil Industry Seeking Overseas Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CD News

    1996-01-01

    @@ China is actively exploring international oil markets,while making the efforts to tap huge oil and gas resources domestically, with the participation of foreign firms,according to a senior Chinese oil official.

  7. EDTA-induced phytoextraction of lead and barium by brachiaria (B. decumbens cv. Basilisk in soil contaminated by oil exploration drilling waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fernão Martins de Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The phytoextraction of heavy metals using chelating agents has been widely studied for the remediation of contaminated soils. To evaluate the efficiency of EDTA-induced phytoextraction of Ba and Pb using Brachiaria decumbens for the remediation of soil contaminated by oil well drilling and exploration waste, an experiment was conducted by applying a single dose (6 mmol EDTA kg-1 soil and split doses of EDTA (three applications of 2 mmol EDTA kg-1 soil. The samples were subjected to sequential extractions using the method proposed by Ure et al. (1993 as modified by Rauret et al. (1999.The application of EDTA did not influence the distribution of Ba in various chemical fractions of the soil. The dry matter production did not differ significantly between the treatments and the control, thereby demonstrating the tolerance of plants to the experimental conditions. The absorption of Pb by plants was influenced by the application of EDTA. The application of a single dose of EDTA influenced the absorption of Pb and its translocation to the aerial plant parts. The application of split doses favoured higher accumulation of Pb in roots. Because of its tolerance to heavy metals and EDTA, B. decumbens has the potential to be used in phytostabilisation.

  8. Oil exploration and production activities after the flexibilizing of the strategical state monopoly in Brazil: environmental control tools applied by governmental bodies; Activites d'exploration et de production du petrole dans le nouveau scenario de flexibilite du monopole d'Etat au Bresil. Les controles gouvernementaux pour la protection de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malheiros, T.M.M. [IBAMA, Institut bresilien pour l' Environnement et les Ressources Naturelles Renouvelables, Rio de Janeiro, RI (Brazil); La Rovere, E.L. [Centro de Tecnologia, PPE/COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the environmental control tools applied by Brazilian governmental bodies to oil exploration and production activities after the flexibilizing of the strategical state monopoly in this sector. An analysis of the environmental control tools applied up to now by governmental bodies is needed due to the fast growth rate of these activities in the last few months and to the entrance of new players in this sector. This work presents the new scenario of the flexibilizing of the state oil monopoly in Brazil and the current situation of environmental control tools applied to oil exploration and production activities. Follow some proposals of changes in the environmental licensing procedures, and for the adoption of environmental audits aiming at an improved environmental control of these activities in the current Brazilian context. (authors)

  9. Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Schechter, David S.

    1999-10-15

    The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principles: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems). (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems. 3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results).

  10. Yemen's Oil Industry and Its Exploration and Development Prospect%也门石油工业及勘探开发前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕延仓; 何碧竹; 张孝义

    2001-01-01

    介绍了也门的地质概况;认为也门具有较丰富的油气资源,石油工业起步晚、发展快,含油气盆地勘探程度低,勘探领域广;提出在也门政府采取的对外开放的石油政策下,中国石油、中国石化和中国海洋石油三大公司应积极进入也门的石油勘探开发市场.

  11. Statistics of Petroleum Exploration in the World Outside the United States and Canada Through 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Glovier, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    Future oil and gas supplies depend, in part, on the reserves that are expected to be added through exploration and new discoveries. This Circular presents a summary of the statistics and an analysis of petroleum exploration in the world outside the United States and Canada (the study area) through 2001. It updates U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1096 (by E.D. Attanasi and D.H. Root, 1993) and expands coverage of the statistics to areas where drilling and discovery data have recently become available. These new areas include China, the formerly Communist countries of Eastern Europe, and the countries that once were part of the former Soviet Union in Europe and Asia. Data are presented by country but are organized by petroleum provinces delineated by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (USGS Digital Data Series DDS?60, published in 2000). The data and analysis are presented in maps and graphs, providing a visual summary of the exploration maturity of an area. The maps show the delineated prospective areas and explored areas through 2001; explored areas have a drilling density that would rule out the occurrence of undetected large petroleum accumulations. Graphs summarize the exploration yields in terms of cumulative recoverable discovered oil and gas by delineated prospective area. From 1992 through 2001 in areas outside the United States and Canada, the delineated prospective area expanded at a rate of about 50,000 square miles per year while the explored area grew at the rate of about 11,000 square miles per year. The delineated prospective area established by 1970 contains about 75 percent of the oil discovered to date in the study area. This area is slightly less than 40 percent of the delineated prospective area established through 2001. Maps and graphs show the extension of the delineated prospective area to deepwater areas offshore of Brazil and West Africa. From 1991 through 2000, offshore discoveries accounted for 59 percent of the oil

  12. 全球冰区油船现状及发展前景%Status and prospects of global ice-zone oil tankers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦琦

    2011-01-01

    冰区和冰级简介据了解.世界冰区主要分布在南北极附近水域.英国劳氏船级社(LR)列出了包括波罗的海、北极水域和鄂霍次克海在内的主要冰区分布,见表1。%By October 201 l, there were 364ships in the global ice-zone oil tanker fleet in service, totaling 21298493 dwt. Of such tanker building countries, Korea comes out smelling like a rose as its newbuildings account for 68.3% of the global ice-zone oil tanker building market.

  13. Three-dimensional forward simulation of seabed oil and gas exploration%海洋电磁法勘探油气的三维正演模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷林林; 刘四新; 傅磊; 孟旭

    2012-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of frequency domain submarine electromagnetic method in the exploration of oil and gas. In order to distinguish the spatial reservoir filled with hydrocarbon, we established three-dimensional seabed models with a horizontal electric-dipole source. With numeric forward simulation of models by vector finite element method, it shows that; the MCSEM can well identify hydrocarbon layers; while it is difficult to recognize reservoir in the shallow water which was concluded by the normalized amplitudes of deep water and shallow water; and with higher frequency, the identifiying ability will be better within experiment frequencies. The results prove that the identification of hydrocarbon layers by the MCSEM was established on the basis of the theoretical guided wave.%针对海底可控源电磁法(MCSEM)在油气资源勘探中的实用性,应用矢量有限元进行了多种频率的水平电偶源发射电磁场识别油气层的实例研究,并利用矢量有限元对海底的3D模型进行了正演数值模拟.利用MCSEM能较好地识别油气层;归一化后的电场曲线特征表明,浅海下不易测得油气层,在实验频率内,电场源频率越高对油气层识别能力越强.同时证实了MCSEM识别油气层是建立在波导理论基础上的.

  14. Oil and gas exploration in the Southeastern Gulf of St. Lawrence: a review of information on pinnipeds and cetaceans in the area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammill, M.O.; Lesage, V.; Dube, Y.; Measures, L.N. [Maurice Lamontagne Inst., Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A summary of information concerning pinnipeds (seals) and cetaceans (whales) was summarized for the proposed region of oil and gas exploration, located in the southeastern part of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Marine mammals moving in and out of the Gulf of St. Lawrence utilize Cabot Strait as an important migratory route. A platform for pinnipeds reproduction is available with the seasonal ice cover. This ice cover provides a limit to access, during winter months, to marine mammals, especially cetaceans, to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Important foraging areas for cetaceans are located in the Cape Breton Trough in the vicinity of Cheticamp, as well as the large canyons in the Gulf. The four pinnipeds species most commonly found in the area are: harp, hooded, grey and harbour seals. Data on population abundance, whelping areas, distribution, and diet is generally available. Scientists require specific at sea distribution, relative abundance and local diet data for the area. On the east coast of Prince Edward Island, the seal-watching industry relies mostly on harbour seals. Of the fifteen whale species that transit through the Cabot Strait, six are regular visitors, namely: Fin, Minke, Humpback, Pilot whales, White-sided dolphins, and Harbour porpoise are seen in abundant numbers on a regular basis. Right whales pass through the area in small numbers. The whale-watching activity taking place on the western coast of Cape Breton relies mainly on Pilot Whales, for which this area has great importance. Additional data on species present, abundance, seasonal occupation, seasonal movements, and diet of whales is missing. Damage to hearing could result from seismic activity, leading to distribution changes, and increased strandings due to noise. 108 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. Bright Economic Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Minqiu

    2004-01-01

    @@ India is expected to register an 8.2% growth rate for the 2003-04 fiscal year. The overall economic situation this year has been satisfactory despite the scaled down 6-6.5% growth rate for the new fiscal year due to oil price hikes, reduced monsoon volume and some 7% inflation. Judging from the following factors, bright prospects are in store for the country down the road.

  16. GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110462 Chen Furong(Anhui Institute of Geological Survey,Hefei 230001,China)Ore-Search Prospects of Gold and Tungsten Geochemical Anomalies in Ningdun Area,Anhui Province(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,34(2),2010,p.150-153,5 illus.,2 tables,6 refs.)Key words:gold ores,tungsten ores,geochemical exploration,AnhuiGeochemical anomalies of gold and tungsten in Ningdun area are dominated by the element association of Au-As-W-Bi.These anomalies are well coincident with

  17. Analysis on China's mineral exploration investment from 2006 to 2009 and prospects for future trend%2006-2009年度全国矿产勘查资金投入浅析及未来形势展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳芳; 伍光英; 张万益; 张翠光; 甄世民

    2011-01-01

    文章通过对2006-2009年度全国矿产勘查资金来源、矿类结构、主要矿种、各省(区、市)投入情况等的浅析,获得以下几点启示:(1)受金融危机影响,全国矿产勘查资金投入增长中出现拐点;(2)能源矿产资金投入逆流走强,而有色金属增长受阻;(3)煤、铜、金等主要矿种资金投入依然火热,铅锌等投资有所降温;(4)省级矿产勘查资金投入聚焦资源大省及其优势矿产.由于经济社会发展对矿产资源的需求强劲、党和政府对地质找矿工作的高度重视和殷切期望、地质找矿体制机制的不断完善、多省投入巨资加大找矿力度,全球金属价格逐渐回升,未来矿产勘查形势乐观依旧.%According to analyzing mineral exploration fund sources, mineral type, main minerals, provinces ( cities) investment of China' s mineral exploration investment from 2006 to 2009, authors gets the following enlightenments: ( 1) under the influence of Financial Crisis, the investment of China' s mineral exploration increased with inflexion; (2) the investment of energy sources grew in a reverse trend, but non - ferrous metal fell into the low ebb after rapid growth; ( 3 ) the investment on major minerals, including coal, copper and gold, continued to grow strongly, but those on lead and zinc had cooled; (4) the provincial investment of mineral exploration focused on provinces which are rich in mineral resources and their dominant minerals. Due to the robust demand of economic and social development on mineral resources, the great attention and ardent expectations of the Party and the government in geological and mineral prospecting work, the improvement of geological and mineral prospecting system, the huge provincial investment in prospecting ore and the climbing global metal price, the mineral exploration for future trend remains optimistically.

  18. Petroleum formation in the second deep space of the crust and its exploration prospects%也谈地壳内第二深度空间石油、天然气的形成及勘探前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪祥龙; 张景廉; 马新民

    2012-01-01

    在当前国内油气供需紧张的严峻形势下,开展“第二深度空间”的油气勘探“势在必行”,也是“当务之急”.“第二深度空间”的油气勘探需解决3个问题.一是油气无机成因的地球化学证据.原油、沥青、干酪根的Pb,Sr,Nd 同位素示踪、原油中异常高含量的金属微量元素、原油中有机硅化合物的发现等均表明原油可以由无机反应而生成.二是油气无机成因论是可以指导油气勘探的.油气的分布与中地壳的低速、高导层的耦合表明有成因关系,中地壳的低速、高导层是油气的发生器,也是初始储层,据此可以对油气田进行预测.柴达木盆地昆北花岗岩油田的发现是一典型案例.三是“第二深度空间”的油气勘探需要地球物理方法和技术的支撑.目前第4代采集处理新理论、新方法业已提出.地球物理学家已经把深部勘探的新方法、新技术提到议事日程.总之,“第二深度空间”的油气勘探是有理论依据的,是可能的,是可操作的.发现大型、超大型油气田指日可待.%Petroleum exploration in the second deep space of China continent is a serious issue in the present situation Three questions should be solved. The first question is the geochemical evidences. Based on the author's research, some geochemical data have been achieved: Pb, Sr, Nd isotopic data in the bitumen, crude oil and kerogen. anormlous high content of minor metal elements in crude oil and bitumen, and metal-organo compounds in crude oil totally support the inorganic origin of petroleum. The second question is how the inorganic origin theory of petroleum could guide the petroleum exploration. The distribution of oil and gas is related with the low velocity high conductive layer of the mid-crust in the basin. The low velocity velocity-high conductive layer of the mid crust is the generator of the oil and gas, and is the primary reservoir. According to the coupling

  19. State and prospects of using equipment for simultaneous-separate production of oil and separate injection of water in the Uzen Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orzhanov, T.K.; Teslyuk, E.V.; Dyusenbaev, I.D.

    1967-08-01

    The Uzen Field consists of several producing strata spaced closely together. The most economical way of developing this field is to use multiple completions in both oil-producing and in water-injection wells. In this way the hydrodynamic characteristics of each formation can be harnessed for maximum economic gain. The authors describe and show in schematic drawings several basic multiple completion arrangements. The basic element in each arrangement is a packer, which isolates one stratum from another. The basic operating principle of each multiple completion shown in this article appears to follow conventional principles.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SEISMIC RESEARCH WORKS FOR OIL AND GAS DEPOSITS IN THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. CHIS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact of seismic research works for oil and gas deposits in the Black Sea. The prospecting and exploitation activity of hydrocarbon deposits in Romania has experienced a major development in the nineteenth century and has remained since a major component in achieving energy independence in our country. In 1970 the oil and gas production in Romania reached a peak of over 14.5 million tons of crude oil. Gas production reached 33 million tons of oil equivalents. After 1990 the production level fell again, because of the depletion of the existing resources and the lack of investment prevented the discovery and the development of new fields. They have led in the last few years to a decrease of the oil production level to less than 5.0 million tons of oil and of the gas production of 10,3 million oil equivalent. After 1990 the Romanian Government through THE NATIONAL AGENCY FOR MINERAL RESOURCES has decided to organize international auctions to award a series of contracts regarding exploration and participation to rates of production of specialized companies that run all the financial funds and necessary technologies for the development of hydrocarbon prospecting activities. That is why in the Black Sea, beside the oil and gas deposits leased to OMV Petrom, there were also leased 7 areas needed for research, exploration and possible exploitation of oil and gas deposits. This paper presents the effects of seismic research works on the environment, considering that these are the first that will run on the platform of the Black Sea shore.

  1. 栲胶基于油田应用的研究与展望%Research and Prospect of Application of Tannin Extract in Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Because tannin is a natural material, its reserve is abundance and its price is low, and it has many advantages after chemical modification including temperature resistance and biodegradability, low pollution and so on, so it has been applied in the oil field for a long time. In this paper, preparing methods of the tannin and modified tannin were introduced as well as application of the tannin in the oilfield. Study on chemical reagents prepared from the tannin for heavy oil reservoirs and low permeability shallow reservoirs was discussed.%栲胶类因其为天然材料,储藏丰富,价格低廉,能够通过化学改性使其具有耐温性,生物降解性,低污染等优点,在油田应用已久。简述了针对油田现存的状况,栲胶和改性栲胶的制备,关于国内外栲胶类钻井液处理及在油田上的生产与应用,通过改性栲胶与栲胶复配而成的化学试剂在低渗透油藏和稠油热采油藏上的研究发展和应用前景。

  2. Magnetic, Geochemical and Mineralogical Charac-teristics of Soils in Qiangtang Basin, Tibet, China:Implications for Prospective Oil and Gas Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The alteration of iron-bearing minerals induced by hydrocarbon microseepage above oil/gas reservoirs has been evaluated using measurements of soil magnetic susceptibility κ, geochemical compositions (gas hydrocarbon and alteration carbonate ΔC), and composition and concentration of iron-bearing minerals. The analyses were performed along two profiles across the Qiangtang basin in Tibet, China: the Nuoermahu-Xuehuanhu profile (C) and the Mugari-Huochetoushan profile (E). Results show that three strong magnetic anomalies (C1, E1 and E2 anomalies) are related to the distribution of Neogene volcanic rocks on the surface in the Gangmacuo-Xiyaergang uplift. Two other anomalies (C2 and E4 anomalies), characterized by both moderately amplitude magnetic susceptibility and elevated soil gas hydrocarbons, occur near fault zones in the Cuoni-Donghu synclinorium. These latter anomalies display characteristics of hydrocarbon microseepage anomalies commonly associated with oil and gas accumulations. Their presence in the Cuoni-Donghu synclinorium suggests that parts of the Qiangtang basin may have significant petroleum potential.

  3. The successes and errors related to growth of a local economy with oil exploration: the Macae case; Os exitos e erros decorrentes do crescimento de uma economia local com a exploracao petrolifera: o caso de Macae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lariane Dallapicola [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais], e-mail: lariane2003@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The following essay has the purpose of showing the benefits and problems relations generated in one city that has the oil exploration as the main important task in its economy. One region can have its physical and economic structure drastically changed with the insertion of oil extraction task. An example that must be sentenced is the case of the city of Macae, situated in the state of Rio de Janeiro. With the economy that has grown 600% in the period between 1999 and 2007, Macae is a city in constant growing and expansion process. Because of the industry and oil and gas extraction development, specially starting from the State's monopoly breaking in 1997, the city has turned very different from the little fisher's village that it was once, in the mid-1970's, having many alterations what its concerned about its population and increase of internal migrations, in terms of incomes and urbanization. These changing process's results are analyzed in this essay, aiming the positive and negative points of the situation of Macae, considering its new oil economy. (author)

  4. Salinity Levels, The G-WIS data are created to support environmental assessments associated with oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation activities in the Gulf of Mexico., Published in 2001, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Salinity Levels dataset current as of 2001. The G-WIS data are created to support environmental assessments associated with oil and gas exploration, production, and...

  5. Prospects for European labour demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  6. Research status and prospect to the sludge cleaning technology of oil tank%油罐底泥清洗技术研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利坤

    2013-01-01

    Tank sludge is a dark and dense gelatinous material layer formed on the tank bottom during oil storage. Due to containing BTEX, phenols and other toxic substances, it cannot be directly discharged. However, it will accelerate corrosion to the tank bottom plate so as to reduce service life of the oil tank and have some negative impacts on the tank oil quality and effective volume. Characteristics, hazards, cleaning cycles and costs of the tank sludge are analyzed simply. Inductive analysis on the status and development trend for tank sludge treatments worldwide is conducted on cleaning technologies, cleaning processes, recycling treatment technologies and other aspects. The application and research status worldwide on manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning, robot cleaning and other aspects are introduced. Through comprehensive analysis, it is proposed that the tank sludge cleaning technology will develop towards closing, integration, systematization and intelligence and sludge treatment will develop towards facilitation, reduction, harmlessness and recycling.%油罐底泥是在油品储存过程中,在罐底形成的一种又黑又稠的胶状物质层,因其含有苯系物、酚类等有毒物质,不能直接排放.若不及时清除,将加速油罐底板的腐蚀,降低油罐的使用寿命,并对罐内油品质量、有效容积等产生一定的负面影响.简要分析了油罐底泥的特性、危害、清洗年限及费用;从清洗技术、清洗工艺及资源化处理技术等方面,归纳分析了国内外罐底油泥处理现状和发展趋势;阐述了国内外在人工清洗、机械清洗及机器人清洗等方面的应用与研究现状;通过综合分析,指出油罐底泥清洗技术将向密闭化、综合化、系统化、智能化的方向发展,油泥处理将向便捷化、减量化、无害化、资源化方向发展.

  7. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  8. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  9. Prospect, isolation, and characterization of microorganisms for potential use in cases of oil bioremediation along the coast of Trindade Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Edmo M; Kalks, Karlos H M; Tótola, Marcos R

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, acrylic coupons with a thin layer of oil on the surface were incubated in the coastal water of Trindade Island, Brazil, for 60 days. The microorganisms adhered to the coupons were isolated using enrichment medium with hexadecane and naphthalene as the sole carbon and energy source. A total of 15 bacterial isolates were obtained, and the ability of these isolates to use different hydrocarbons as the source of carbon and energy was investigated. None of the isolates produced biosurfactants under our experimental conditions. Subsequently, identification methods such as partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and analysis of fatty acids (MIDI) profile were employed. Among the 15 isolates, representatives of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Alphaproteobacteria were detected. The isolates Rhodococcus rhodochrous TRN7 and Nocardia farcinica TRH1 were able to use all the hydrocarbons added to the culture medium (toluene, octane, xylene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, hexadecane, anthracene, eicosane, tetracosane, triacontane, and pentacontane). Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the DNA isolated by employing primers for catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, alkane dehydrogenase and the alpha subunit of hydroxylating dioxygenases polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon rings genes demonstrated that various isolates capable of utilizing hydrocarbons do not exhibit genes of known routes of catabolism, suggesting the existence of unknown catabolic pathways in these microorganisms. Our findings suggest that the microbiota associated to the coast of tropical oceanic islands has the ability to assist in environmental regeneration in cases of accidents involving oil spills in its shore. Thus, it motivates studies to map bioremediation strategies using the autochthonous microbiota from these environments.

  10. Discussion on Mineral Geological Exploration and Prospecting Techniques in Guizhou Region%关于贵州地区矿产地质勘查与找矿技术要点探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鋆

    2012-01-01

    全球化经济不断扩大、市场竞争日益激烈,矿产资源也越来越紧缺.本文参考以往地质勘查和找矿技术研究成果,并且总结我在贵州多年的实地地质勘查工作经验,按着将贵州地区划分为不同的区域的方针,来阐述贵州地区的地质条件,并且探讨贵州地质勘查与找矿技术要点;同时就如何实现贵州地质矿产勘查的可持续发展、矿产勘查如何更好的服务经济建设进行探讨.%The global economy is constantly expanding, and the fierce market competition is increasing, which leads to the more and more shortage of mineral resources. In this paper, referencing past research results of geological survey and prospecting technology, summarizing author' s work experience of geological survey, and according to the policy that Guizhou region is divided into different areas, the geological conditions of Cuizhou was expounded, and geological survey and prospecting techniques in Guizhou were discussed. Meanwhile, how to achieve sustainable development of mineral geological exploration in Guizhou and how to better serve economic construction for mineral exploration were also explored.

  11. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  12. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  13. Marine prospecting for petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzung, G.

    1982-01-01

    The contribution presents a review of areas of oceans and seas, where prospecting for oil and gas is carried out. Prospecting in marine areas is characterized by advancing to growing water depths and in hospitable climatic districts. The growing expenditures, connected with these circumstances, call for a more careful preparation of drilling work.

  14. Exploration cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttrer, J.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Jerry Huttrer, President, Geothermal Management Company, discusses the general state of exploration in the geothermal industry today, and mentions some ways to economize and perhaps save costs of geothermal exploration in the future. He suggests an increased use of satellite imagery in the mapping of geothermal resources and the identification of hot spots. Also, coordinating with oil and gas exploration efforts, the efficiency of the exploration task could be optimized.

  15. Executive and theory-of-mind contributions to event-based prospective memory in children: exploring the self-projection hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Ruth M; Driscoll, Timothy; Shum, David; Macaulay, Catrin E

    2012-03-01

    In two studies, 4- to 6-year-olds were asked to name pictures of animals for the benefit of a watching hand puppet (the ongoing task) but to refrain from naming and to remove from view any pictures of dogs (the prospective memory [PM] task). Children also completed assessments of verbal ability, cognitive inhibition, working memory, and false-belief understanding (both studies), empathy (Study 1 only), and performance on false-sign tests that matched the false-belief tests in narrative content and structure (Study 2 only). Both studies found that inhibition and false-belief performance made unique contributions to the variance in PM, although in Study 1 the influence of inhibition was evident only when children needed to withhold naming. Study 2 further demonstrated that false-belief performance was the only reliable predictor of whether children remembered to return to the researcher an object that had been loaned to them prior to the picture-naming game. Both experiments uncovered moderate relations between PM and chronological age, but such relations were rarely significant after taking account of cognitive ability. We consider the implications of the findings for (a) current views regarding frontal/executive contributions to PM development and (b) the suggestion that the same brain network underlies various forms of mental self-projection, including envisioning the future and understanding the minds of other people.

  16. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 6: Arctic operations case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites to oil exploration in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The hypothetical development and transportation of Arctic oil and other resources by ice breaking super tanker fleets to the continental East Coast are discussed. The utilization of SEASAT ice mapping data is shown to contribute to a more effective transportation operation through the Arctic ice by reducing transportation costs as a consequence of reduced transit time per voyage.

  17. San Emidio Desert Prospect, Washoe and Pershing Counties, Nevada, for Chevron Oil Co., Wells Se-A and SE-B, Temperature depth data, 19 wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehoe, Mark

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 Chevron Resources conducted numerous temperature hole programs in the San Emidio Desert Prospect, Nevada. These programs were projected to evaluate recently acquired Fee Land and acreage which could be included in a unit package. The 1977 temperature holes (Map 1) were drilled to a maximum depth of 500 feet with a minimum of 100 feet. Maximum temperature encountered in these holes was 232 F with an average gradient of {approx} 9 F/100 feet (300-400 feet) and {approx} 11 F/100 feet (100-200 feet). In addition, shot holes drilled during the seismic program had temperature pipe installed and were also logged. Table 1 reflects data pertinent to the temperature holes drilled in 1977; in addition, complete temperature gradient plots (Appendix A) and lithology descriptions (Appendix B) are included in this report. Water samples from two temperature holes were collected early in the 1977 program and analyzed by Skyline Laboratories (Appendix C). The results of the estimated base temperature calculations are given.

  18. PetroChina Opens 18 Fresh Oil and Gas Blocks to Foreign Investors--Interview with CCAD general manager Zeng Xingqiu on PetroChina's foreign risk exploration and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Keyu

    2001-01-01

    @@ PetroChina has recently opened 18 new oil and gas blocks to foreign companies for exploration and development and will soon hold a series of bilateral negotiations on the cooperation projects. Those blocks are located in the northern part of Ordos basin, the northeastern part of Songliao basin, the northwestern part of Caidamu basin and Junggar basin. No blocks in Tarim basin are included in the 18ones. This is the first time for China to offer so many blocks for foreign cooperation on the Chinese soil at one time.

  19. Exploration potential of offshore northern California basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, S.B.; Crouch, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A series of exploratory wells was drilled in the northern California offshore basins in the 1960s following leasing of federal tracts off northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The drilling, although encountering numerous oil shows, was considered at the time to indicate low prospectivity in an area that extended as far south as the offshore Santa Maria basin. However, subsequent major discoveries in this decade in the offshore Santa Maria basin, such as the Point Arguello field, indicate that these offshore basins may be highly prospective exploration targets. Many of the key features of Monterey production in central and southern California are also present in the offshore basins of northern California. A new 5-year leasing plan has scheduled leasing in the northern California OCS starting in early 1989. The first basins on the schedule, the Point Arena and Eel River basins, differ in some respects. The Point Arena basin is more typical of a Monterey basin, with the potential for fractured chert reservoirs and organic-rich sections, deep burial of basinal sections to enhance the generation of higher gravity oils, and complex folding and faulting. The Eel River basin is more clastic-rich in its gas-producing, onshore extension. Key questions in the Eel River basin include whether the offshore, more distal stratigraphy will include Monterey-like biogenic sediments, and whether the basin has oil potential in addition to its proven gas potential. The Outer Santa Cruz basin shares a similar stratigraphy, structure, and hydrocarbon potential with the Point Arena basin. The Santa Cruz-Bodega basin, also with a similar stratigraphy, may have less exploration potential because erosion has thinned the Monterey section in parts of the basin.

  20. Oil: Economics and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, A. (Laval Univ., PQ (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs.

  1. Progress in China's Unconventional Oil & Gas Exploration and Development and Theoretical Technologies%中国非常规油气勘探开发与理论技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹才能; 王玉满; 王岚; 黄金亮; 王淑芳; 杨智; 朱如凯; 张国生; 侯连华; 吴松涛; 陶士振; 袁选俊; 董大忠

    2015-01-01

    The new century has witnessed a strategic breakthrough in unconventional oil & gas.Hydrocarbon accumulated in micro-/nano-scale pore throat shale systems has become an important domain that could replace current oil &gas resources.Unconventional oil & gas plays an increasingly important role in our energy mix.Tight gas,CBM,heavy oil and asphaltic sand have served as a key domain of exploration &development,with tight oil becoming a'bright spot'domain and shale gas becoming a'hotspot'domain. China has made great breakthroughs in unconventional oil & gas resources,such as tight gas,shale gas, tight oil and CBM,and great progress in oil shale,gas hydrate,heavy oil and oil sand.China has an estimated (223~263)×108 t of unconventional oil resources and (890~1260)×1012 m3 of gas resources. China has made a breakthrough for progress in unconventional oil &gas study.New progress achieved in fine-grained sedimentary studies related to continental open lacustrine basin large-scale shallow-water delta sand bodies,lacustrine basin central sandy clastic flow sediments and marine-continental fine-grained sediments provide a theoretical basis for the formation and distribution of basin central reservoir bodies. Great breakthroughs have been made in unconventional reservoir geology in respect of research methodology & technology,multi-scale data merging and physical simulation of formation conditions. Overall characterization of unconventional reservoirs via multi-method and multi-scale becomes increasingly popular and facilitates the rapid development of unconventional oil & gas geological theory,method and technology.The formation of innovative,continuous hydrocarbon accumulation theory,the establishment of the framework of the unconventional oil & gas geological theory system,and the determination of the implications, geological feature, formation mechanism, distribution rule and core technology of unconventional oil &gas geological study lays a theoretical foundation for

  2. 国外页岩层系石油勘探开发进展及启示%Progresses and Enlightenment of Overseas Shale Oil Exploration and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔景伟; 朱如凯; 杨智; 白斌; 吴松涛; 苏玲

    2015-01-01

    国外页岩层系石油勘探取得重大进展, 美国已进入大规模开发阶段, 加拿大、 阿根廷、 俄罗斯也获得突破, 并显示出良好的勘探前景. 详细调研了国外6个重点区带页岩层系石油勘探开发成果资料, 总结出国外页岩层系石油勘探选区、 勘探步骤和发展趋势; 重点解剖了美国Eagle Ford (鹰滩) 区带和Bakken (巴肯) 区带, 筛选出页岩油勘探 "甜点" 区优选的8个指标和致密油 "甜点" 区优选的4个指标; 分析国内外页岩层系在形成环境、 矿物组成、 储层物性、 地层压力等方面的差异性,借鉴国外成功的勘探经验, 对国内页岩层系石油勘探提出宏观建议. 指出富有机质页岩发育条件、 微观储集空间评价、 微观孔喉内流体赋存状态、 可动孔隙下限与可采资源量评价、 "甜点" 区地质工程一体化预测、 新型压裂工艺及压裂对环境的影响等是中国页岩层系石油勘探的研究方向.%Great progress has been made in shale oil exploration overseas. The United States has entered into large-scale development of shale oil. Canada, Argentina and Russia also made breakthroughs and showed great exploration potential. We collected and investigated six hot-spots play of these countries, summarized the exploration procedures and growth trend, mainly analyzed the Eagle Ford and the Bakken Play, and pointed out eight indicators for shale oil exploration and four indicators for tight oil sweet spot scanning. Comparing to foreign countries, China has different sedimentary environ-ment, mineral components, reservoir properties and geologic stressin shale plays. Drawing lessons from foreign successful exploration experience, we gave some strategic suggestions to the exploration of shale plays in China. We also pointed out that the development conditions of organic rich shale, micro reservoir apprisement, oil occurrence in micro-pore systems, effective flow pore diameters and

  3. Exploring Willingness to Pay for QR Code Labeled Extra-Virgin Olive Oil: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Lombardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick Response Code (QR code is the representative device of a particular branch of marketing called mobile marketing. The code is found throughout various productive sectors, including the agro-food sector. This work investigates whether consumers are willing to pay a premium price for extra information on a bottle of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO by means of the QR-code. Based on data collected from 1006 interviews conducted in Italy, we implemented the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB model to ascertain the factors that could influence consumer’s willingness to pay (WTP for extra QR code information. Empirical results show the influence of attitudes, subjective norms and consumer personal characteristics such as mavenism and motivation for shopping (utilitarian vs. hedonic motivation in explaining willingness to pay for a bottle of QR code labeled olive oil.

  4. Local natural electric fields - the electrochemical factor of formation of placers and the criterion of prospectings of oil and gas deposits on the Arctic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir; Kholmianskaia, Galina

    2014-05-01

    electroinvestigation for searches of sea hydrocarbonic deposits and specification of morphology of deposits is proved. On the basis of the offered theoretical representations, the specialised equipment "IOL-UV" which has passed metrological tests is developed. The applied technology allows to divide types of deposits on gas or oil. Search works are spent by a method of towage of the underwater module of a complex behind a stern of a bearing vessel. The performed works have shown high efficiency of the used technique and the created sea search complex. The conducted researches have allowed to specify contours of deposits. The geochemical analysis of tests of water and ground deposits has specified the nature of deposits.

  5. Oil and Gas Resources of the Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province, encompassing all the lands and adjacent Continental Shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald arch, is one of the most petroleum-productive areas in the United States, having produced about 15 billion bbl of oil. Seven unitized oil fields currently contribute to production, and three additional oil fields have been unitized but are not yet producing. Most known petroleum accumulations involve structural or combination structural-stratigraphic traps related to closure along the Barrow arch, a regional basement high, which has focused regional hydrocarbon migration since Early Cretaceous time. Several oil accumulations in stratigraphic traps have been developed in recent years. In addition to three small gas fields producing for local consumption, more than 20 additional oil and gas discoveries remain undeveloped. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Oil and gas were generated from multiple source rocks throughout the region. Although some reservoired oils appear to be derived from a single source rock, evidence for significant mixing of hydrocarbons from multiple source rocks indicates a composite petroleum system. Both extensional and contractional tectonic structures provide ample exploration targets, and recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated a significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite sequences of Jurassic through Tertiary age. Recent estimates of the total mean volume of undiscovered resources in the Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province by the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Minerals Management Service are more than 50 billion bbl of oil and natural-gas liquids and 227 trillion ft3 of gas, distributed approximately equally between Federal offshore and combined onshore and State offshore areas.

  6. Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

  7. Unhealthy effects of upstream oil and gas flaring : a report prepared for Save our Seas and Shores (SOSS) for presentation before the public review commission into effects of potential oil and gas exploration, drilling activities within licences 2364, 2365, 2368[For US Standard Industrial Classification 1311 and 1389

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argo, J. [IntrAmericas Centre for Environment and Health, Wolfe Island, ON (Canada)

    2002-01-18

    A study was conducted to understand the adverse health impact of chronic exposure to multiple flaring discharges on people who live and work in proximity to oil field exploration and developments in Alberta. The issues discussed in this report are associated with industrial activity defined by US SIC 311 and SIC 1389 which includes flaring in the oil and gas industry with all aspects of exploration, testing, proving and development in the petroleum industry. Flaring at refineries is not considered in this study. Hydrocarbons are produced when waste oil-gas and oil-gas-water solutions are flared. This is because flaring is an efficient combustion process and inefficient burning releases raw fuel. Tremendous volumes of gas are flared in Alberta each day. It is estimated that benzene is present in enough concentration to pose a measurable risk to residents living as far as 5 km away from the flare. In addition, all of the hydrocarbons released by the minimal flares were found to be present in amounts below their threshold for smell. Many reduced sulphur species are formed in a sour gas flare, including hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide - both potent toxic chemicals. Chronic exposure for humans may result in chemical sensitivity and autoimmune diseases such as MS, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, and type 2 diabetes. Save our Seas and Shores (SOSS) presents flaring as a broad, multi-faceted disturbance that comes with a high cost in human health, with the greatest cost to residents who live unprotected as far as 30 km away from flares. 55 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. Analysis on Exploration Prospecting of Phosphorite Unconventional Uranium Resource in Guizhou%贵州磷块岩型非常规铀资源找矿前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯平; 郑懋荣

    2012-01-01

    According to the utilization condition and economic analyses of unconventional uranium resource of the world, combine with the basic condition of phosphoite unconventional uranium resource in Guizhou, the geological exploration of phosphorite uranium deposit is need to be strengthened. By analysis the ore control factor and exploration prospecting of uranium mineralization, the target and important areas for uranium - bear- ing phosphorite are pointed out.%根据世界非常规铀资源的利用情况及经济性分析,结合贵州铀磷块岩型非常规铀资源的基本情况,认为加强贵州磷块岩型铀矿的地质勘查工作已洽到其时。通过铀矿化控制因素及找矿前景分析,指出贵州寻找含铀磷块岩的首选区域和重要区域。

  9. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions...... emulsion formation at 0.05 mol/1. The amount of emulsion formation showed significant dependency on the type of acid doped in oil. Experiments demonstrate that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at the oil-water interface, and this ion specific interaction leads to oil emulsion formation......The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  10. Exploring the association of dental care utilization with oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) - a prospective study of ageing people in Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcan, Ferda; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven; Klock, Kristin S; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2017-09-10

    To explore the association of dental health care utilization with oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) across time focusing ageing Norwegian and Swedish adults adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need related-factors as defined by Andersen's model. Data were based on Norwegian and Swedish 1942 birth-cohorts conducted in 2007 (age 65) and 2012 (age 70). In Norway, the response rates ranged from 54% to 58%. Corresponding figures in Sweden were from 72% to 73%. Self-administered questionnaires assessed OIDP, dental care utilization and predisposing, enabling and need related factors. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation was used to adjust for clustering in repeated data. Significant covariates of OIDP were satisfaction with dental services, dental care avoidance due to financial constraints, frightening experience with dental care during childhood and patient initiated dental visiting. Frequency and regularity of dental attendance were associated with OIDP in the Swedish cohort, only. In spite of country differences in the public co-financing of dental care, dental care utilization indicators were associated with OIDP across time in both cohorts. Encouraging regular and dentist initiated visiting patterns and strengthening beliefs in keeping own teeth could be useful in attempts to reduce poor oral health related quality of life in ageing people.

  11. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  12. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  13. Guido Bonarelli, explorador y gelogo incansable: pionero en la prospeccin de hidrocarburos en la Argentina Guido Bonarelli, tireless explorer and geologist: pioneer in the prospection of hydrocarbons in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Concheyro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Guido Bonarelli es un personaje relevante en la geologa argentina y constituy uno de los pilares en la exploracin de hidrocarburos de nuestro pas. De origen italiano, naci en Ancona, el 25 de julio de 1871 y falleci en Montereano, el 11 de enero de 1951. Se destac en estratigrafa, relevamiento geolgico, geologa histrica y paleontologa, llegando a ser un especialista en la taxonoma de amonites jursicos y la estratigrafa de los Apeninos Centrales. Su tarea profesional comenz en Italia y sigui en el sudeste asitico, Amrica del Sur, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. Entre 1911 y 1918, trabaj en la Direccin General de Minas, Geologa e Hidrografa de la Repblica Argentina. Defini las Sierras Subandinas como un complejo orogrfico trascendente y estableci la localizacin de yacimientos de petrleo y gas natural. Realiz investigaciones tambin en numerosas provincias argentinas y el litoral pacfico de Chile. Durante su segundo periodo de investigaciones (1923-1927, Guido Bonarelli organiz la seccin Geologa de Yacimientos Petrolferos Fiscales y desarroll la prospeccin de hidrocarburos en el noroeste argentino, Mendoza, Neuqun y Comodoro Rivadavia. Gener un ncleo de colaboradores, que se ocuparon de intensificar los estudios geolgicos con fines exploratorios en el pas. Curiosamente Bonarelli en 1891 descubri un horizonte sedimentario que posee enorme importancia, utilizado como nivel de referencia para caracterizar el evento de anoxia global del Cenomaniano-Turoniano. Dicho horizonte conocido mundialmente como Livello Bonarelli rinde un homenaje pstumo a su descubridor.Guido Bonarelli is an important figure in the field of geology in Argentina and he constituted one of the most relevant geologists in the oil exploration in our country. Of Italian origin, he was born in Ancona on July 25, 1871 and he died in Montereano, January 11, 1951. He excelled in stratigraphy, geological survey, historical geology and paleontology, becoming a specialist in the taxonomy

  14. Metabolite profiles of essential oils and molecular markers analysis to explore the biodiversity of Ferula communis: Towards conservation of the endemic giant fennel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Lamine, Myriam; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Hammami, Majdi; Sellami, Ibtissem Hamrouni

    2016-04-01

    Giant fennel (Ferula communis L.) is well known in folk medicine for the treatment of various organ disorders. The biological importance of members of genus Ferula prompted us to investigate the leaves of the endangered Tunisian medicinal plant F. communis L. not previously investigated. An estimate of genetic diversity and differentiation between genotypes of breeding germplasm is of key importance for its improvement. Thus, four F. communis populations were RAPD fingerprinted (63 RAPD markers generated by 7 primers) and the composition of their leaf essential oils (EO) (134 EO compounds) was characterized by GC-MS. Cluster analysis based on the leaf volatiles chemical composition of F. communis accessions defined three chemotypes according to main compounds have been distinguished: α-eudesmol/β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; α-eudesmol/α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide and chamazulene/α-humulene chemotypes. A high genetic diversity within population and high genetic differentiation among them, based on RAPDs, were revealed (H(pop)=0.320 and GST=0.288) caused both by the habitat fragmentation, the low size of most populations and the low level of gene flow among them. The RAPD dendrogram showed separation of three groups. Populations dominated by individuals from the β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; chemotype showed the lowest gene diversity (H=0.104), while populations with exclusively α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide chemotype showed the highest value (H=0.285). The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA analysis based on volatiles yielded higher separation among populations, indicated specific adaptation of populations to the local environments. Correlation analysis showed a non-significant association between the distance matrices based on the genetic markers (RAPD) and chemical compounds of essential oil (P>0.05) indicating no influence of genetic background on the observed chemical profiles. These results reinforce the use of both volatile compounds and RAPD markers as a starting point for

  15. Panorama of PetroChina Jidong Oil Field Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoLu

    2003-01-01

    As the old oil fields in East China are currently facing more and more pressure to keep their crude oil production stable in the past few years owing to the high water cut, PetroChina Jidong Oil Field has become a rising star in the country's oil and gas exploration and production sector. Jidong Oil Field

  16. Ordovician gas exploration breakthrough in the Gucheng lower uplift of the Tarim Basin and its enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhaoming

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A steady high yield natural gas flow was tapped in the Ordovician strata of Well Gucheng 6 drilled in the Gucheng lower uplift in the Tarim Basin in 2012, marking the discovery of another carbonate gas exploration field after the other two fields in the middle and northern Tarim Basin (the so called Tazhong and Tabei in the industry. The exploration in the Gucheng lower uplift has experienced three stages: the first stage, marine facies clastic exploration from 1995 to 2003, focusing on the Devonian Donghe sandstone lithologic traps, the Silurian overlapping lithologic traps, and the Upper Ordovician shelf slope turbidites; the second stage focusing on the reef shoal carbonate reservoirs from 2003 to 2006, during which oil and gas were first discovered in Well Gucheng 4; the third stage can be divided into two periods, in the first period, deeper insight into interbed karstification reservoir exploration, intense research on tricky seismic issues, selection of favorable zones, and 3D seismic deployment in advance laid a robust foundation for breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration; and during 2009–2012, through an in-depth investigation, Well Gucheng 6 was drilled, bringing about the major breakthrough in oil and gas exploration in this study area. This success proves that the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Gucheng area have good geological conditions and broad prospect for oil and gas exploration, which give us enlightenment in three aspects: a. new insight into geologic understanding is the prerequisite of exploration breakthrough; b. addressing bottleneck technologies, and acquiring 3D seismic data are the guarantees of exploration breakthrough; and c. emancipation of mind and persistent exploration are key to the findings in new domains.

  17. Technologies for the exploration of highly mineralized geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The prospects of the integrated processing of the high-parameter geothermal resources of the East Ciscaucasia of artesian basin (ECAB) with the conversion of their heat energy into electric energy at a binary geoPP and the subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds from thermal waters are evaluated. The most promising areas for the exploration such resources are overviewed. The integrated exploration of hightemperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new trend in geothermal power engineering, which can make it possible to significantly increase the production volume of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal field at a higher level with the realization of the energy-efficient advanced technologies. The large-scale exploration of brines can solve the regional problems of energy supply and import substitution and fulfill the need of Russia in food and technical salt and rare elements. The necessity of the primary integrated exploration of the oil-field highly mineralized brines of the South Sukhokumskii group of gas-oil wells of Northern Dagestan was shown in view of the exacerbated environmental problems. Currently, the oil-field brines with the radioactive background exceeding the allowable levels are discharged at disposal fields. The technological solutions for their deactivation and integrated exploration are proposed. The realization of the proposed technological solutions provides 300 t of lithium carbonate, 1650 t of caustic magnesite powder, 27300 t of chemically precipitated chalk, 116100 t of food salt, and up to 1.4 mln m3 of desalinated water from oil-field brines yearly. Desalinated water at the output of a geotechnological complex can be used for different economic needs, which is important for the arid North Caucasus region, where the fresh water deficiency is acute, especially in its plain part within the ECAB.

  18. Exploration and production. Know-how. Extra-heavy oils and bitumen. Reserves for the future; Exploration et production. Savoir-faire. Bruts extra-lourds et bitumes. Des reserves pour demain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    How can ever-expanding needs be met without jeopardizing reserve life? The answers can be summed up in a single word: the innovation. In this framework the Group Total developed their research and development activities, which are endowed with a annual budget of more than 100 million dollars. Tools from seismic imaging to thermodynamic modeling of fluids and flows in any type of reservoir can be used in combination in order to steadily reduce uncertainties and control risks. These tools will help make technologically and economically feasible to produce new resources such extra-heavy crudes, very acid gases, deeply-buried reservoirs or oil and gas reserves situated in ultra deep waters. (A.L.B.)

  19. Construction Model of Cloud Center for Oil-Gas Exploration in Big-Data Era%大数据时代勘探云建设模式探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林茂; 塔依尔∙伊布拉音; 许涛; 宋雪峰; 姜元刚

    2015-01-01

    According to big data definition, the data processing of exploration of oil and gas is obviously a big data application mode. Computing center is designed to meet data processing needs of the company as the main exploration platform of oil and gas exploration cloud. Under the primise of ensuring the sharing computing power and Collaborative work,exploration cloud focus on support of data storage, data management and data applications. Compared with the general public cloud, the Construction of private exploration cloud has its unique mode. The author company combined with own company characteristics and current big data application needs to construct large data private cloud, and it achieved certain results. The support for the main business is obviously effect.%按照大数据定义,油气勘探数据处理工作显然是一种大数据应用模式,而作为油气勘探核心工作平台的勘探云计算中心,其建设目的首先是为了满足企业内部业务数据处理工作需求,在确保计算力分享和协同工作的基础上,勘探云更注重数据存储、数据管理以及数据应用业务的支持,对照一般公用云建设模式,勘探私有云建设具备其独特的建设模式。笔者企业结合自身特点,对照当前大数据应用需求开展勘探私有云建设工作,取得了一定的效果,对企业主营业务的支持效果明显。

  20. Use of the sensitivity analysis for multi-attributes decision models for oil exploration and production systems; Uso da analise de sensibilidade em modelos de decisao multiatributos para sistemas de exploracao e producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Ricardo

    2000-07-01

    Today, oil companies must be able to survive in a hostile and competitive environment. Such environment involves volatility of oil prices, the narrow margins of profitability, and ever increasing environmental restrictions. In order to survive, firms must have the appropriate tools to consider the tradeoffs involving the financial, environmental, technological and of market parameters which are the key elements within the investment decision-making process. The aim of the present work is to analyze the behavior of the weights (relative importance) of the attributes int the multi-criteria decision model through a high dimension sensitivity analysis. Among the benefits of such method are: provide the analyst (decision-maker) with a better characterization and control of the weights of the attributes, providing the user with a clear view of the entire decision process. The methodology suggested in this dissertation was applied in two oil exploration and production case studies. The first case involved the selection of an exploratory target among three options. In this case, there is interaction of the objectives of the company, where financial, technological and of market parameters interact. In the second case, a hypothetical production project is suggested. For this second study, the decision-maker has the option of using one of the following production systems: a FPSO (Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading); a TLP (Tension Leg Platform); or a SS (Semi Submersible). The attributes for each one of the production systems are financial, technological and environmental. In this second case, the model makes it possible to simulate several options, providing the manager with the choice of the most appropriate production system to this objectives and preferences. (author)

  1. Exploration of a mechanism for the production of highly unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. at low temperature grown on oil crop residue based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinghan; Li, Kun; Li, Jingjing; Han, Pei; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang

    2017-11-01

    The ability of algae to produce lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids varies with strains and culture conditions. This study investigates the effect of temperature on the production of unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. grown on oil crop residue based medium. At low temperature (10°C), synthesis of lipids compromising of high contents of unsaturated fatty acids took place primarily in the early stage while protein accumulation mainly occurred in the late stage. This stepwise lipid-protein synthesis process was found to be associated with the contents of acetyl-CoA and α-KG in the algal cells. A mechanism was proposed and tested through simulation experiments which quantified the carbon flux allocation in algal cells at different cultivation stages. It is concluded that low culture temperature such as 10°C is suitable for the production of lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20092040 Chen Jing(College of Petroleum Engineering,Yangtze University,Jingzhou 434023,China);Xiong Qingshan Technology of Well Cementing with Expandable Tube and Its Application(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(8),2008,p.19-21,4 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)Key words:cementingExpandable tube is a new technology and has been developed oversea.It can be applied in well drilling and completion for deep water,deep well,extended reach well and multilateral well,as well as in oil extraction and workover.This paper briefly introduces the technology of well cementing with

  3. Legal aspects of data and information used in oil and gas exploration and production; O regime juridico dos dados e informacoes de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucheb, Jose Alberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The utilization of data and information related to the Brazilian sedimentary basins constitutes an essential element in any petroleum exploration and production venture, as well as in the technical and scientific works of this area of study and, for this reason, this technical asset, according to article 22 of the Petroleum Law, is considered part of the national petroleum resources, to be collected, maintained, and administered by the ANP. This issue is also regulated in other articles of the Petroleum Law, the ANP tender protocols, the concession contracts and the ANP ordinances no. 188/1998 and n. 114/2000. In this context, the evolution of the pertinent legal instruments is discussed, aiming at the analysis of the existing conflicts of rules, the rights and obligations of the regulatory agency, the petroleum companies, the service companies and the technical and scientific community. Some aspects of the international oil industry practices are also analyzed vis-a-vis the Brazilian Law. (author)

  4. ThermoGIS: An integrated web-based information system for geothermal exploration and governmental decision support for mature oil and gas basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.-D. van; Juez-Larre, J.; Mijnlieff, H.; Kronimus, A.; Gessel, S. van; Kramers, L.; Obdam, A.; Verweij, H.; Bonté, D.

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years the use of geothermal energy through implementation of low enthalpy geothermal production systems for both electricity and heating have been growing rapidly in north-western Europe. Geothermal exploration and production takes largely place in sedimentary basins at depths from 2 t

  5. ThermoGIS: An integrated web-based information system for geothermal exploration and governmental decision support for mature oil and gas basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.-D. van; Juez-Larre, J.; Mijnlieff, H.; Kronimus, A.; Gessel, S. van; Kramers, L.; Obdam, A.; Verweij, H.; Bonté, D.

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years the use of geothermal energy through implementation of low enthalpy geothermal production systems for both electricity and heating have been growing rapidly in north-western Europe. Geothermal exploration and production takes largely place in sedimentary basins at depths from 2 t

  6. GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111167 Cao Zhonghuang(Wuhan Iron & Steel Group Minerals Company,Wuhan 430063,China);Luo Xianrong Comparative Study of Copper-Nickel Deposit Exploration by the Geoelectro-chemical Extraction Method in Different Overburden Areas(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,46(3),2010,p.476-482,4 illus.,5 tables,20 refs.)Key words:geo-electrochemical methods,copper ores,nickel ores,Gansu Province,Jilin Province The authors have made a comparative study of quantitative and qualitative analysis and application of the geoelectro-chemical extraction method in different overburden areas in southward extension of Jinchuan in Gansu Province and Hongqiling in Jilin Province.The authors found that this method extracted very few ions in arid areas covered with debris,but the prospecting effect was almost the same as that in moist areas covered with thick overburden.And this method could show objectively differences of geochemical characters

  7. The Future of Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Oil and gas are the major energy resources all over the world but are not renewable. According to their present reserves, the resource volumes yet to be found and the large amount of non-conventional oil and gas resources, there is still great potential in oil and gas production. The proportion ofoil and gas in energy structure will be influenced by four major factors: 1) Potential of the world oil and gas resources; 2) Technological progress of oil and gas exploration and development; 3) Speed of the development of substitute energy resources; and 4) Variation of oil price. It is estimated that, oil and gas will still retain an important proportion in energy structure by the first half of the 21st century.

  8. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  9. Exploring prospects of novel drugs for tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Saskia; Jayachandran, Rajesh; Khathi, Lulama; Zinsstag, Jakob; Grobusch, Martin P; Pieters, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a disease with an enormous impact on public health worldwide. With the continuously increasing epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis, new drugs are desperately needed. However, even for the treatment of drug-sensitive tuberculosis, new drugs are required to shorten the treatment duration and thereby prevent development of drug resistance. Within the past ten years, major advances in tuberculosis drug research have been made, leading to a considerable number of antimycobacterial compounds which are now in the pipeline. Here we discuss a number of these novel promising tuberculosis drugs, as well as the discovery of two new potential drug targets for the development of novel effective drugs to curb the tuberculosis pandemic, ie, the coronin 1 and protein kinase G pathways. Protein kinase G is secreted by mycobacteria and is responsible for blocking lysosomal delivery within the macrophage. Coronin 1 is responsible for activating the phosphatase, calcineurin, and thereby preventing phagosome-lysosome fusion within the macrophage. Blocking these two pathways may lead to rapid killing of mycobacteria. PMID:22973091

  10. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  11. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  12. Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

    The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of o...

  13. Exploration of a Chemo-Mechanical Technique for the Isolation of Nanofibrillated Cellulosic Fiber from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as a Reinforcing Agent in Composites Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireana Yusra A. Fatah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of sulphuric acid hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization as an effective chemo-mechanical process for the isolation of quality nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC. The cellulosic fiber was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB using acid hydrolysis methods and, subsequently, homogenized using a high-pressure homogenizer to produce NFC. The structural analysis and the crystallinity of the raw fiber and extracted cellulose were carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The morphology and thermal stability were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric (TGA analyses, respectively. The FTIR results showed that lignin and hemicellulose were removed effectively from the extracted cellulose nanofibrils. XRD analysis revealed that the percentage of crystallinity was increased from raw EFB to microfibrillated cellulose (MFC, but the decrease for NFC might due to a break down the hydrogen bond. The size of the NFC was determined within the 5 to 10 nm. The TGA analysis showed that the isolated NFC had high thermal stability. The finding of present study reveals that combination of sulphuric acid hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization could be an effective chemo-mechanical process to isolate cellulose nanofibers from cellulosic plant fiber for reinforced composite materials.

  14. Geochemical Prospecting Method and Results of Direct Acquisition of Free Gaseous HC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongXilin; WangShixin; SuoXiaodong

    2003-01-01

    Geochemistry has been utilized in the petroleum exploration for tens of years. The hydrocarbon halo in the near surface above the oil and gas pool has three kinds of state, i.e., free gaseous HC, absorbed HC and dissolved HC.The optimum choice in the geochemical prospecting is directly testing the free HC. The gas chromatography for free HC was imported and improved in the Division in the early 1990s, realizing the acquiring, analyzing, processing and interpreting free HC samples in the field and in real time. Marked geological result and economical effect were achieved during the many years'' practices.

  15. Exploration and production in Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, K.; Hobson, D. [Oil Search Limited, Port Morseby (Papua New Guinea)

    1996-12-31

    The prospectivity of the Papuan Basin has been appreciated, since oil seeps were first discovered in 1911. Initially, the mountainous terrain, a deeply karstified limestone surface covered with tropical rainforest, fed by 300 inches of rain each year, restricted access to the adventurous. Early exploration was focussed along the coastline and river systems, with only limited success. The development of helicopter transportable rigs during the 1970s was the technological advance that led to success, as the crests of anticlines became accessible to the drill. Even so, the lack of seismic due to severe terrain conditions and structural complexity, still constrains our ability to image trap. Despite these limitations, the oil discovery at Lagifu-2 in 1986, led to the development of the Kutubu Field by a Chevron led joint venture, with first oil in 1992. The Kutubu Field was developed at a cost of US$ 1 billion. Reserves are in excess of 250 mmbo with production currently at 1,00,000 bopd. PNG`s second oil development will be the Gobe / SE Gobe Fields, also in the Papuan Thrust Belt, and thought to contain around 100 mmbo. Discovered in the late 1980s, the field is expected to produce 25 000 bopd from 1997. Significant volumes of gas have been discovered in the Highlands at Hides, where 3 wells have now confirmed a gas column in excess of 1 km. Additional large gas discoveries have been made in the Papuan Basin, highlighting the potential for PNG to become a long term LNG s producer.

  16. Exploration and production in Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, K.; Hobson, D. (Oil Search Limited, Port Morseby (Papua New Guinea))

    1996-01-01

    The prospectivity of the Papuan Basin has been appreciated, since oil seeps were first discovered in 1911. Initially, the mountainous terrain, a deeply karstified limestone surface covered with tropical rainforest, fed by 300 inches of rain each year, restricted access to the adventurous. Early exploration was focussed along the coastline and river systems, with only limited success. The development of helicopter transportable rigs during the 1970s was the technological advance that led to success, as the crests of anticlines became accessible to the drill. Even so, the lack of seismic due to severe terrain conditions and structural complexity, still constrains our ability to image trap. Despite these limitations, the oil discovery at Lagifu-2 in 1986, led to the development of the Kutubu Field by a Chevron led joint venture, with first oil in 1992. The Kutubu Field was developed at a cost of US$ 1 billion. Reserves are in excess of 250 mmbo with production currently at 1,00,000 bopd. PNG's second oil development will be the Gobe / SE Gobe Fields, also in the Papuan Thrust Belt, and thought to contain around 100 mmbo. Discovered in the late 1980s, the field is expected to produce 25 000 bopd from 1997. Significant volumes of gas have been discovered in the Highlands at Hides, where 3 wells have now confirmed a gas column in excess of 1 km. Additional large gas discoveries have been made in the Papuan Basin, highlighting the potential for PNG to become a long term LNG s producer.

  17. Characterization and geographic location of sources of radioactivity lost downhole in the course of oil and gas exploration and production activities in Texas, 1956 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlovich, S; Emery, R J; Whitehead, L W

    2005-11-01

    Case reports describing sources of radioactivity lost downhole in Texas from 1956 to 2001 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control and entered into a computerized database. The events of the 45-y period of analysis were characterized, examining aspects such as source type, amount of activity, location of loss, depth, and date of occurrence. Results of the study found that 316 downhole source incidents were reported to the agency during this period of time, representing a total of 426 distinct sources of radioactivity lost downhole within the boundaries of the State of Texas. The sources lost were predominantly AmBe, accounting for 74 TBq of radioactivity at the time of loss, and Cs, accounting for 16.3 TBq of radioactivity. A longitudinal analysis of the data showed the average loss per active oil and gas rig in Texas (known as "rig count") at approximately 24 losses per 1,000 rigs. Specific geographic information was largely missing from many of the records, which prevented the geolocation of wells described to contain lost radioactive sources. As a result, most wells could only be located to the county level, and no comprehensive geographical information system (GIS) map could be accurately created from the data. However, when available, source location information was standardized to permit the characterization of the sources reported as lost. This effort produced the first dedicated compendium of lost downhole sources for the State of Texas and provides an important source of information for regulatory agencies. The ability to provide prompt information about the fate and location of sources of radioactivity is important to regulatory officials, given the recent concerns about radiation source inventory control in the post 9/11 world as it relates to the possible creation of radiological dispersal devices.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA'S OFFSHORE OIL RESOURCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xiaojian; You Xuegang; Liu Haishan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Compared with the traditional exploitation of landbased oil and gas, to explore offshore oil and gas might exert certain influences by high-risk, high-tech and highinvestment, which attributes to determine the basic characteristics of offshore oil and gas developmentsafe, efficiency and economy.

  19. Historical and geochemical outlines of the oil occurrence and production near Miková village; Flysch Belt, NE Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Milička

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum geological field research since the 2nd half of the 19th century has revealed the presence of hydrocarbons in the Western Carpathian Flysch Belt, especially in the Galicia area of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. Historical prospecting and exploration in this part of the Flysch belt are well documented, and revival in hydrocarbon exploration interest at the end of the 20th century led to drilling the new Alexander 1 well which supplied a non-commercial methane inflow and only traces of crude oil in form of impregnations. The chemical and isotopic composition of this methane carbon indicates methane associated with oil generation conditions. Oil is genetically related most probably to Upper Eocene to Oligocene source rocks, mainly Krosno-Menilite beds, activated after Oligocene period by thrusting of Flysch formations. The geochemical characteristics are based on low temperature extraction of oil impregnation from the Alexander 1/1065 m well core and on hexane oil extract from the oil-water emulsion at a depth of 390 m in this well.

  20. Biodiversity Prospecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

  1. Wavelets in oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, A. H.

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter, the role of wavelet methods applied to identification and characterization of oil reservoir is elaborated. The market rate of petroleum product is very much related to exploration, drilling and production cost. The main goal of researchers working in oil industry is to develop tools and techniques for minimizing cost of exploration and production. Efforts of researchers working in applications of wavelet methods in different parts of the world to achieve this goal is reviewed. Wavelet based solution of Buckley-Leverett equation modelling reservoir is discussed. Variants of Buckley-Leverett equations including its higher dimension versions are introduced. Wavelet methods for inverse problems associated with Buckley-Leverett equation, which are quite useful for oil recovery, are also explained in this chapter.

  2. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhöft Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals, 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  3. Weathered Oil and Tar Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  4. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  5. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  6. 2014年油料和食用植物油市场形势及后期展望%Oilseeds and Edible Vegetable Oils Markets Situations in 2014 and Their Future Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淞淋

    2014-01-01

    夏收油菜籽集中收购结束,油菜籽价格在临储价格附近趋稳。豆油、花生油、菜籽油等主要食用植物油价格与2013年同期相比均低20%左右。2014年前10个月中国油料进口量同比增加,食用植物油进口量同比减少。在全球油料增产形势明朗、供求关系宽松的背景下,国内食用植物油价格仍将跟随国际市场震荡运行。%The temporary storage of summer rapeseed was ended, which made rapeseed price fluctuate around the temporary storage price. Soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil and other major edible vegetable oils prices were about 20%lower than those in 2013. The imports of oilseeds increased while edible vegetable oils decreased compared to the same period of last year in the former ten months of 2014. With higher yield of global oilseeds and loose relationship between supply and demand, domestic edible vegetable oils prices will continue following international oils prices to shock weakly.

  7. The thinking of South China Sea oil and gas exploration and production according to the status of the resource exploration of Gulf of Mexico%墨西哥湾油气开发海工装备对我国南海油气开发的启思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅馨

    2012-01-01

    Due to its abundant oil and gas resource potential, the South China Sea is known as the "Second Persian Gulf". The environment of the South China Sea and Gulf of Mexico is similar and we can get a lot experience from the exploration and production of Gulf of Mexico.%南海是中国油气资源最为丰富的海域,有“第二个波斯湾”之称.南海的海洋环境与墨西哥湾有极大相似性.文章研究了海上油气田开发的一般规律及墨西哥湾油气田的开发及海工装备现状,对我国南海油气开发具有一定的启发、借鉴意义.

  8. CNPC Confident about Target for Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Staff Commentator

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) held a two-month large-scale forum on oil and gas exploration early this year, at which senior experts have made a systematic analysis of China's onshore oil and gas resources, summed up the experience in the exploration work in the recent decades and set the strategic target for exploration- bringing the oil and gas reserves up to 5 billion tons in the Ninth Fiveyear Plan Period (1996-2000). This forum has a great significance for the sustainable development of China's onshore oil and gas industry.

  9. Study and Application of the Partial Extraction Geochemical Prospecting Method for the Uranium Exploration in Changpai,North of Guangdong Province,China%分量化探法在粤北长排地区铀矿勘查中的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛祥坤; 尹金双; 庞雅庆; 高飞; 范光; 张彦辉; 张良圣; 常阳

    2015-01-01

    应用分量化探法对粤北长排地区进行了找矿前景预测评价,圈定出贯穿测区南北的3条铀分量异常带。3条异常带在测区北部连成一片面积较大的异常区,并在该异常区内钻探到多个工业铀矿体,取得了较好的研究成果。建立了4条分量化探法勘查花岗岩型铀矿的地球化学找矿标志。分量化探法将在“攻深找盲”、寻找“第二找矿空间”等铀矿勘查方面发挥更大的作用。%Partial extraction geochemical prospecting method was used to evaluate the uranium minerali-zation prospect and three uranium abnormal zones was outlined from north to south and joining together in the north of Guangdong.Satisfied prospecting results and several industrial uranium drilling holes have been obtained in the big uranium abnormal area by drilling.4 geochemical prospecting indicaters were de-veloped for the exploration of granite type uranium deposit by partial extraction geochemical prospecting method,which will play a more important role in the uranium exploration of deep buried ore and second prospecting space.

  10. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  11. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzherbert, E.B.; Struebig, M.J.; Morel, A.; Danielsen, F.; Brühl, C.A.; Donald, P.F.; Phalan, B.

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This article explores the impacts of oil palm expansion on biodiversity and tropical deforestation. Oil palm plantations support substantially less biodiversity than natural forest or even other tree crops. Because regions with favorable conditions for oil palm plantations tend to be areas of critical importance for biodiversity, the rising international demand for vegetable oils and biofuels could prompt further wide-scale tropical deforestation and large losses of bi...

  12. Present status of oil shale resource utilization in the world and its development prospects%世界油页岩资源开发利用现状与发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玲; 尹秀英; 孙昊; 付宝山

    2012-01-01

    由于世界原油价格的高涨和常规油气资源的短缺,非常规油气资源中的油页岩以资源丰富、经济性和开发利用的可行性成为21世纪重要的石油补充和替代能源.世界油页岩资源探明储量折算成页岩油约70%分布在美国,其次集中分布在中国、俄罗斯、巴西、加拿大、约旦、澳大利亚和爱沙尼亚等;中国油页岩资源约85%以上分布在吉林、辽宁和广东省.随着各国重新或开始重视油页岩的开发与利用,油页岩的储量、页岩油的产量和油页岩开发利用的经济价值都呈增长趋势,相应的政策支持力度也在加大.%Because of the increasing of oil price and the shortage of conventional oil and gas resources, the oil shale of unconventional oil and gas resources may become the important oil complementary and alternative energy in the 21th century due to its rich resources, its economy and its feasibility of development and utilization. Approximately 70% of the proven reserves of the worlds shale oil resources converted by oil shale is distributed in the United States followed by China, Russia, Brazil, Canada, Jordan, Australia and Estonia, etc. , while over 85% oil shale of China is in Jilin, Liaoning and Guangdong provinces. Along with the increasing attention on the development and utilization of oil shale, the oil shale reserves, shale oil production and economic value of oil shale have showed the growth trend, and the support of corresponding policy have also increased.

  13. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  14. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  15. Skin-effect down hole electric heater for heavy oil and high wax content oil applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chenglin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanhua [Liaoning Huafu Petroleum High-Tech Co., Ltd. (China); Xiao, Jon H; Klotz, Eric [ANDMIR Environmental Group Canada Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With the increased production of oil and the depletion of conventional reserves, operators have started to exploit heavy oil and high wax content oil. Adequate production of such oils is difficult to achieve due to viscosity increase and mobility decrease during lifting as a result of heat loss. The down-hole electric heater has been developed to resolve these issues with the application of skin-effect electric heating technology. The aim of this paper is to present how this technology improves the production of heavy oil and waxy oil. Applications of the technology to wells in Chinese oilfields are studied. Results proved the technology to be efficient while being based on a simple process and operating in an easy and safe manner. This paper showed that the down-hole electric heater is a breakthrough technology, resolving the issues encountered in the heavy oil and waxy oil exploitation field, with broad application prospects.

  16. Developing technology of remediation of oil-contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchyk, Lesya; Romaniuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Abstract ? The results of developing technologies for cleaning of soils from oil pollution on the example of Boryslav are shown. The prospects of tree species for the remediation of oil-contaminated soils are studied. The best results of cleaning oil contaminated soils with the application of Hippophae rhamnoides L. plants were obtained. It is a promising measure for restoring the oil-contaminated soils, attractive both from environmental and economical point of view.

  17. 油气化探土壤样品解吸气技术实验研究%Desorption technical experimental research on soil samples from oil and gas geochemical exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽; 黄欣; 李武; 高俊阳; 李兴强

    2015-01-01

    With the self-developed devices for in-situ soil sample preservation and desorption in oil and gas geochemical exploration and through optimizing the detecting conditions by such means as using saturated salt water or pure water, changing the sample weight, de-sorbing time, and negative pressure conditions, the authors obtained the best condition of analyzing. According to the experimental re-sults, the method for in-situ soil sample preservation and desorption in oil and gas geochemical exploration was established. Precision waas used to evaluate the method. The result shows that this method has high precision, as shown by its good performance in a known area.%油气地球化学勘探中常用的顶空轻烃和物理吸附烃属于吸附态的烃类,两者在处理土壤样品时没有粉碎,使得吸附烃没有完全解吸. 油气化探土壤样品解吸气技术就是利用自行研制的油气化探原位土壤样品保存与解吸装置,通过实验选择加饱和盐水或纯净水,改变样品量、样品解吸时间、负压条件,从而确定解吸气提取的最佳实验条件,建立油气化探土壤样品解吸气提取的方法. 运用重复性对该方法进行评价,并选择富安油田试验区的一条已知地质剖面开展土壤中解吸烃指标的应用,研究结果表明,解吸气技术在油气藏上方具有较好的化探异常响应.

  18. 准噶尔盆地盆缘地层不整合油气成藏特征及勘探展望%Hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics and exploration prospects of stratigraphic unconformity in basin margin of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张善文

    2013-01-01

    Based on a large number of geological and geophysical data, it was analyzed in this paper the structural characteristics of stratigraphic unconformity styles in basin margin of the Junggar Basin. The hydrocarbon ac-cumulation feature and pattern were concluded, and the exploration prospect in the future was pointed out. Mul-tiphase tectonic movements and frequent facies change in the Junggar Basin led to the wide development of un-conformity in basin edge. In the macro style, three types of on lap truncation, leveled truncate and parallel con-formity developed. In vertical direction, there were three or two layers, forming many combination forms of per-meability. Influenced by unconformity style structure, permeability combination, geologic background in basin margin and source rock generation condition in basin, the accumulation of unconformity reservoir in basin margin has three characteristics. a) Unconformity trap can form stratigraphic trap and other related types. b) Hydrocar-bon generates from multiple sources and charges during different phases. Primary and secondary reservoirs co-exist. c) Unconformity itself has a certain ability of conducting, but the scope of transverse conducting is limited and petroleum migrates along “fault-blanket” type migration systems formed by faults, framework sand body and unconformity. Basin edge unconformity reservoirs have great exploration potentials, so relevant research and eva-luation are needed to develop according to the exploration degree in each area.%  基于大量地质与地球物理资料,分析了准噶尔盆地盆缘地层不整合样式结构特征,研究并总结了盆缘不整合的油气成藏特征及模式,提出了今后的勘探方向。认为:准噶尔盆地多期构造运动与频繁岩相变化使得盆缘不整合广泛发育,在宏观样式上具有削超、削平、平行等3种类型,垂向上具有三层或二层结构,并形成了多种渗透性组合形式。受不整

  19. Economics effects of lower oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, S.; Horton, G.; Vernon, K.

    1985-01-01

    The economic effects, both for the world, and for the UK, of lower oil prices are examined, and the impact of a sustained fall in oil prices is considered. The results of some simulations on both the Treasury's World Economic Prospects model and its model of the UK economy are used to give an estimate of the possible effects on the world and UK economies of a sustained fall of 10 per cent in the world oil price. A number of studies of the relationship between oil price changes and exchange rate changes are summarised. (author).

  20. Historic Breakthrough in CNPC's Overseas Oil and Gas Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Daily overseas oil production tops 80,000 tons China National Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Corporation (CNODC), one of the subsidiaries under CNPC specialized in overseas oil and gas exploration, is now experiencing a strong and rapid business development momentum this year.

  1. Mass production of chemicals from biomass-derived oil by directly atmospheric distillation coupled with co-pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Wu-Jun; Ding, Hong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Production of renewable commodity chemicals from bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis of biomass has received considerable interests, but hindered by the presence of innumerable components in bio-oil. In present work, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated an innovative approach combining atmospheric distillation of bio-oil with co-pyrolysis for mass production of renewable chemicals from biomass, in which no waste was produced. It was estimated that 51.86 wt.% of distillate just containing dozens of separable organic components could be recovered using this approach. Ten protogenetic and three epigenetic compounds in distillate were qualitatively identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantified by gas chromatography. Among them, the recovery efficiencies of acetic acid, propanoic acid, and furfural were all higher than 80 wt.%. Formation pathways of the distillate components in this process were explored. This work opens up a fascinating prospect for mass production of chemical feedstock from waste biomass. PMID:23350028

  2. PROSPECT FOR CHINA'S PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cha Quanheng

    2001-01-01

    @@ Many people show concerns over the prospect forChina's petroleum industry.They may raise the question about whether the country's resources are on the brink of exhaustion. Such questions should be answered only by the exploration results because petroleum production is based on the reserves.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of edible oils: a comparison between four popular edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, D; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J; van Rooyen, J

    2010-12-01

    Edible oils form an essential part of the modern diet. These oils play a role as an energy source, and provide the diet with many beneficial micronutrients. Although a popular conception may be that fat should be avoided, certain edible oils as a dietary supplement may play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular health. CVD has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Dietary supplementation with different oils may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. While olive oil and sunflower-seed oil are known to reduce serum cholesterol, fish oil has become well known for reducing potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, red palm oil research has shown beneficial effects on cardiac recovery from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. It is clear that dietary supplementation with edible oils may play a vital role in reducing the mortality rate due to heart disease. The specific benefits and disadvantages of these oils should, however, be explored in greater depth. The present review will attempt to identify the benefits and shortcomings of four popular edible oils, namely olive oil, sunflower-seed oil, fish oil and palm oil. Additionally the present review will aim to reveal potential areas of research which could further enhance our understanding of the effects of edible oils on cardiovascular health.

  4. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  5. New Headway in China's Offshore Oil Cooperation with Foreign Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Xiaoying; WANG Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ In its cooperation with foreign firms this year, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has made new headway in attracting foreign capital and accelerating offshore oil and gas exploration and development as well as joint studies.

  6. Studying Tertiary System in Oil and Gas Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Yaoxian

    1994-01-01

    @@ In order to obtain potential resources in the Tertiary System and provide scientific data for oil and gas exploration, the CNPC and CNOOC had drawn up a project to study the Tertiary System in oil and gas regions of China.

  7. Perspectives of microbial oils for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Du, Wei; Liu, Dehua

    2008-10-01

    Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits, and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Generally speaking, biodiesel is prepared through transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with short chain alcohols. However, the lack of oil feedstocks limits the large-scale development of biodiesel to some extent. Recently, much attention has been paid to the development of microbial, oils and it has been found that many microorganisms, such as algae, yeast, bacteria, and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under some special cultivation conditions. Compared to other plant oils, microbial oils have many advantages, such as short life cycle, less labor required, less affection by venue, season and climate, and easier to scale up. With the rapid expansion of biodiesel, microbial oils might become one of potential oil feedstocks for biodiesel production in the future, though there are many works associated with microorganisms producing oils need to be carried out further. This review is covering the related research about different oleaginous microorganisms producing oils, and the prospects of such microbial oils used for biodiesel production are also discussed.

  8. Application of waste frying oils in the biosynthesis of biodemulsifier by a demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Peng, Kaiming; Huang, Xiangfeng; Lu, Lijun; Cheng, Hang; Yang, Dianhai; Zhou, Qi; Deng, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    Exploration of biodemulsifiers has become a new research aspect. Using waste frying oils (WFOs) as carbon source to synthesize biodemulsifiers has a potential prospect to decrease production cost and to improve the application of biodemulsifiers in the oilfield. In this study, a demulsifying strain, Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1, was investigated to synthesize a biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as carbon source. It was found that the increase of initial pH of culture medium could increase the biodemulsifier yield but decrease the demulsification ratio compared to that using paraffin as carbon source. In addition, a biodemulsifier produced by waste frying oils and paraffin as mixed carbon source had a lower demulsification capability compared with that produced by paraffin or waste frying oil as sole carbon source. Fed-batch fermentation of biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as supplementary carbon source was found to be a suitable method. Mechanism of waste frying oils utilization was studied by using tripalmitin, olein and tristearin as sole carbon sources to synthesize biodemulsifier. The results showed saturated long-chain fatty acid was difficult for S-XJ-1 to utilize but could effectively enhance the demulsification ability of the produced biodemulsifier. Moreover, FT-IR result showed that the demulsification capability of biodemulsifiers was associated with the content of C=O group and nitrogen element.

  9. Philosophy of Petroleum Exploration Promoting the Petroleum Geoscience and Exploration Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongJianguo

    2004-01-01

    From the mid-1800s to the present, the philosophy of oil and gas exploration has had three major breakthroughs. The first breakthrough--from oil seepage to the anticlinal theory; The second breakthrough--from the anticlinal theory to the trap theory; The third breakthrough--from the trap theory to the petroleum system. The philosophy of oil finding promotes the petroleum geosciences and exploration technology.

  10. Frontiers of Offshore Oil Equipment and Engineering Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ From a worldwide perspective, offshore gas and oil fields account for about 60% of the total. At present, more than 100 countries are going in for offshore oil and gas exploration, among which over 50 countries are exploring ocean floor. With the continuous innovation of engineering technology, the exploration of submarine oil and gas will develop toward deep water area. The reserves are expected to continue to increase in the future. The discovery rate of oil and gas in China's sea area merely amounts to 18.5% and 9.2% respectively. Compared with land exploration,offshore exploration has a great potential.

  11. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenario

  12. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored

  13. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160684Bi Xueliang(Key Laboratory of En-hanced Oil Recovery,MOE,Northeast Petroleum University,Daqing163318,China);Zhang Nan Optimization of Underbalanced Drilling Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Methods(Fault-Block Oil and Gas Fields,ISSN1005-8907,CN41-1219/TE,22(1),2015,p.116-119,1illus.,2tables,

  14. Offshore Oil Development versus Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Offshore petroleum development is an expensive and high-risk operation that applies advanced science and technology. The Bohai Bay oil spill has resulted in calls for changes in the relationship between China and the foreign oil companies that enable the search for resources. Amid the criticism heaped on ConocoPhillips Co. - the United States-based energy conglomerate whose operations spilled more than 700 barrels of oil into the waters of China's Bohai Bay in June, the nation's industrial experts are clamoring for a review of the policies for oil and gas exploration with foreign oil companies in China.

  15. Decision making process in oil exploration and production projects: a systemic approach by means of fuzzy logic theory application; Processo de tomada de decisao em projetos de exploracao e producao de petroleo: uma abordagem sistemica com aplicacao da teoria de logica fuzzy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brana, Juan Pablo

    2008-12-15

    Oil is a non-renewable resource and maximizing the efficiency of its use is of the utmost importance, not only to private companies and the generation of their profit, but also to governments and their energy, economic and territorial planning. The aims of this thesis are, on the one hand, to breakdown, by means of a systemic approach, the complexity of the decision-making process in oil exploration and production projects (E and P), explaining, whenever possible, the theories and relationships that underlie their modeling contexts, and, on the other, to create a model - in the case of a specific E and P problem - to support the decision-making process, using the fuzzy logic theory. The variables analyzed include the probability of the exploration process achieving success, the size of reserves, the level or burden of taxation and the price of oil. In the case of the latter, the price of oil, the elements necessary for the elaboration of different scenarios have been provided. Finally, this model has been applied to a case study, providing continuity to previous work and discussing the results obtained. (author)

  16. Class separation of lipids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in normal phase high performance liquid chromatography - a prospect for analysis of aromatics in edible vegetable oils and biodiesel exhaust particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Petter; Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Holmbäck, Jan; Westerholm, Roger

    2014-09-19

    The retention characteristics of the major lipid components in biodiesels and edible oils as well as representative polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) have been investigated on five different normal phase HPLC stationary phases, in order to optimize class separation for an automatized online HPLC cleanup of PAHs prior GC-MS analysis. By stepwise comparison of different hexane/MTBE compositions as mobile phases on cyano-, phenyl-, pentabromobenzyl-, nitrophenyl- and amino-modified silica columns, the capacity and selectivity factors for each analyte and column could be calculated. It was concluded that the most suitable column for backflush isolation of PAHs in biodiesel and edible oil matrices was the pentabromobenzyl-modified silica (PBB). A previously described online HPLC-GC-MS system using the PBB column was then evaluated by qualitative and quantitative analysis of a biodiesel exhaust particulate extract and a vegetable oil reference material. The GC-MS full scan analysis of the biodiesel particulate extract showed that the lipids had been removed from the sample and a fraction containing PAHs and oxygenated derivatives thereof had been isolated. Quantified mass fractions of PAHs of the reference material BCR-458 agreed well for most of the certified PAH mass fractions in the spiked coconut oil reference material.

  17. Practice and Exploration of the Oil Blocking and Collecting Technology in Ansai Oilfield%安塞油田拦油、收油技术实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚飞; 郭亮; 唐跃辉; 张少楠

    2013-01-01

    文章结合安塞油田在应对原油泄漏后针对不同河道、干沟及所处的地形、地貌特点开展应急抢险中拦油、收油处置的措施,总结了取得的经验及成效.同时介绍了自制、改良后的拦油和收油工具以及在抢险中的实用效果.%Ansai Oilfield took different oil blocking and oil collecting measures dealing with crude oil spill emergency according to different topographic and geomorphic characteristics of the rivers and dry ditches. This paper sums up its experiences and effectiveness. Meanwhile it introduces the homemade and improved oil blocking and oil collecting tools as well as their practical effect in the rescue.

  18. Eco-efficiency in oil and gas exploration and production in regions of humid tropical forests: the PETROBRAS case in the Amazon region; Eco-eficiencia na exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas em regioes de florestas tropicais umidas: o caso da PETROBRAS na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyen, Bianca de Castro

    2008-09-15

    This dissertation discourses about the application of eco-efficiency concepts to the case of PETROBRAS oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Amazon Forest, proposing the use of indicators as a systematization tool for this application. First there is a description about the concepts concerning corporate sustainability, corporate social responsibility and eco-efficiency, considering their application to the oil and gas industry. The main exploration and production projects in rainforest regions are described next, with distinction to PETROBRAS case in the Amazon Forest. Finally there is a description about the process of alignment of PETROBRAS Amazon activities management to the eco-efficiency and corporate sustainability, followed by a proposal of a body of indicators to the case study. (author)

  19. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  20. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immune system. Despite coconut oil's high calorie and saturated fat content, some people use it by mouth to ... Coconut oil is high in a saturated fat called medium chain triglycerides. These fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. However, research on the effects ...

  1. L'impact des développements scientifiques sur la résolution des problèmes techniques posés par la nouvelle conjoncture dans l'exploration et la production du pétrole Impact of Scientific Developments on the Solving of Technical Problems Raised by the New Economic Situation in Oil Exploration and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les circonstances difficiles que traverse l'exploration et la production du pétrole, le savoir-faire technologique, associé à la maîtrise des coûts, seront pour l'industrie pétrolière et parapétrolière des atouts essentiels. On envisage ici l'impact prévisible des développements scientifiques sur la résolution des problèmes techniques dans l'exploration et la production. Les principales disciplines scientifiques concernées (géologie, géophysique, géochimie, mécanique des roches et des sols, mécanique des fluides, physicochimie des interfaces ainsi que trois techniques de base (modélisation, systèmes experts, matériaux nouveaux sont examinées dans ce sens. En particulier,la modélisation numérique voit son importance croître de manière spectaculaire : elle couvre désormais des domaines nouveaux, comme les Sciences de la Terre, et continue à s'enrichir de développements importants, même dans les secteurs où on l'utilise depuis 20 ans comme la production. Ces évolutions s'accompagneront nécessairement d'ajustements dans la formation des hommes et le fonctionnement des organisations; en particulier un espace nouveau pourrait se dégager pour de petites entreprises de conseil et de service plus riches en matière grise qu'en investissements lourds. In the difficult circumstances now confronting oil exploration and production, technical know-how combined with cost control will be essential assets for the petroleum and petroleum equipment and service industries. This article considers the foreseeable impact of scientific developments on the solving of technical problems in exploration and production. The principal scientific disciplines involved (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, rock and soil mechanics, fluid mechanics, interface physicochemistry as well as three basic techniques (modeling, expert systems, new materials are examined within this context. In particular, numerical modeling is increasing in

  2. Factors determining the structure of fish assemblages in an Amazonian river near to oil and gas exploration areas in the Amazon basin (Brazil: establishing the baseline for environmental evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Determining the significance of biotic and abiotic factors in the structuring of fish assemblages in freshwater environments is an important question in ecology, particularly in view of environmental changes caused by man. In this paper we sought to identify the factors responsible for the composition and abundance of fish species collected with gill nets in six locations near ports in forest clearance areas opened up for oil and natural gas exploration (Petrobras Pedro Moura Base in the Urucu River, during drought and flood cycles. In all, 923 individuals from 23 families and 82 species were collected, totalling a biomass of 182,244 g. The most abundant species during the flood season were Bryconops alburnoides (Kner, 1858 and Dianema urostriatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912; in the drought season, the predominant species were Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829 and Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766. The species with the greatest biomass during the flood season were Pellona castelnaeana (Valenciennes, 1847, S. rhombeus and Pellona flavipinis (Valenciennes, 1847. During the drought season, the predominant species was O. bicirrhosum. When both periods were analysed together, electrical conductivity, water transparency and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors. The species Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840, O. bicirrhosum, Chaetobranchus flavenscens Heckel, 1840, Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855 were strongly related to high values of conductivity, pH and water current velocity during the drought season, as well as Serrasalmus altispinis Merckx, Jégu & Santos, 2000, Triportheus albus Cope, 1872, Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 and Brycon melanopterus (Cope, 1872 that were associated with less depth and width in the drought season whereas P. castelnaeana, D. urostriatum, Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner, 1858 and Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 were mainly associated with high transparency and

  3. Fish Oil-Derived Fatty Acids in Pregnancy and Wheeze and Asthma in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo L.

    2016-01-01

    in their offspring. Methods: We randomly assigned 736 pregnant women at 24 weeks of gestation to receive 2.4 g of n-3 LCPUFA (fish oil) or placebo (olive oil) per day. Their children formed the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010 (COPSAC2010) cohort and were followed prospectively...

  4. OPEC behavior and world oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.M.; Teece, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book addresses the economics of exhaustible resources under monopoly and competition. The conventional wisdom - that oil prices, after hesitation in the early 80's will move upward faster than world inflation - is questioned along with the models supporting these predictions. The prospect that world oil prices may collapse in the near future is treated as a definite possibility. The findings are optimistic for consumers and should serve to reorient energy policy.

  5. 墨西哥湾盆地深水区油气分布特征及勘探潜力%Distribution features and exploration potential of oil and gas in a deepwater area of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩彧; 黄娟; 赵雯

    2015-01-01

    通过分析墨西哥湾盆地油气资源勘探现状、油气地质特征,及与油气成藏密切相关的盐岩形成、演化和分布特征,进一步认识到墨西哥湾盆地上侏罗统牛津阶—第四系更新统发育了4套优质烃源岩和多套性能优越的储集层,封堵性能良好的局部和区域盖层遍布整个新生界层系,断层提供了运移通道,构造和地层圈闭发育,具有优越的生储盖等油气成藏条件。盆内中侏罗统发育一套广泛分布的厚层盐岩,很多大型油气藏均与该盐岩相关。盐上和盐下储层中均有可观的油气发现,随着油气勘探理论和技术的进步,盐下油气藏的潜力逐渐显现出来,勘探潜力很大。%The hydrocarbon exploration conditions and geologic features of the Gulf of Mexico Basin were studied, and the formation, evolution and distribution of salt deposits which were closely related to the reservoirs were analyzed. From the Oxfordian Stage of the Upper Jurassic to the Pleistocene Series of the Quaternary, four sets of excellent hydrocarbon source rocks and various favorable reservoirs developed. Effective sealing formations were widespread in the Cenozoic. Faults provided pathways for hydrocarbon migration. Structural and stratigraphic traps were common. All these contributed to the generation and preservation of hydrocarbon. Thick salt deposits were widespread in the Middle Jurassic of the basin, which had a close relationship with giant oil and gas pools. Major discoveries have been made in both pre⁃salt and post⁃salt formations. As petroleum exploration theory and technique advanced, the pre⁃salt formations in the deepwater area of the basin attracted more attention and showed good potential.

  6. Integral anomalous effect of an oil and gas deposit in a seismic wave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostyshevskiy, M.B.; Nabokov, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    The basic precepts of an elaborated version of a procedure for forecasting (direct exploration) of oil and gas deposits according to seismic prospecting data MOV are examined. This procedure was previously called the procedure of analysis of the integral affect of an oil and gas deposit in a seismic wave field (MIIEZ-VP). The procedure is implemented in the form of an automated system ASOM-VP for the BESM-4 computer in a standard configuration equipped with standard input-output devices for seismic information (''Potok'', MVU, ''Atlas''). The entire procedure of processing from input of data into the computer to output of resulting maps and graphs on graph plotter ''Atlas'' is automated. Results of testing of procedure MIIEZ-VP and system ASOM-VP on drilled areas of Kazakhstan, Azerbaydzhan and Uzbekistan are cited.

  7. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  8. Prospecting for lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Martel, L.

    larger than elsewhere in a region. (4) We are developing a strategy that represents a comprehensive, integrated program to prospect for resources throughout the solar system. The plan involves a hierarchy of surface exploration techniques. At the base is a huge swarm (thousands to millions) of microrobots equipped with sensors to identify targeted resources. The tiny robots work in consort with sophisticated all- terrain rovers that serve as communication links and make detailed observations at promising locations identified by the microrobots.

  9. Burgeoning China Offshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ming; Hou Xiaoying; Xiao Yang

    1996-01-01

    @@ Despite its late inception, China's offshore oil industry has been growing rapidly over the past ten years and has become a new division of the energy sector boasting constant, swift and highly-effective development. Before foreign cooperation was introduced, offshore crude production was only about 100 000 tons per year. In 1996,the total production will surpass 10 million tons, indicating promising prospects for further progress in the future.

  10. Multi-information integrated exploration methods and ore-prospecting model of the Chelsea East gold deposit in Mutawatawa area,Zimbabwe%津巴布韦 Mutawatawa 地区 Chelsea East 金矿床多元信息综合找矿方法及找矿模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫红圃; 刘文斌; 程兴国

    2015-01-01

    笔者通过津巴布韦北东部 Mutawatawa 地区 Chelsea East 金矿床的发现,提出了适合于南部非洲亚热带大陆性半干旱气候区的多元信息综合找矿方法,即以成矿地质特征研究为前提,融合了地质、地球物理、地球化学和工程验证等多种技术手段的综合找矿过程。实践证明,综合找矿具有经济、快捷和找矿效果显著等特点。在此基础上,通过对各种找矿方法的相互配合和分析研究,提出了适合于本地区的金综合找矿模型,为本地区乃至南部非洲地区的金多金属矿找矿提供了重要的指导意义。%Based on discovering the Chelsea East gold deposit in northeastern Mutawatawa of Zimbabwe, the authors put forward the suitable multivariate⁃information comprehensive prospecting methods for subtropical continental semi⁃arid climate of South Africa. The methods combine a variety of geological, geophysical, geochemical and engineering means for comprehensive prospecting process on the premise of the study of ore⁃forming geological characteristics. Practice has proved that the comprehensive prospecting has remarkable e⁃conomic and prospecting effect besides its rapidness. Based on an integrated analysis of prospecting methods, the authors present a comprehensive prospecting model suitable for gold exploration in this region, which has important guiding significance for gold poly⁃metallic ore prospecting work in this region or even in whole South Africa.

  11. Numerical simulations of the spread of floating passive tracer released at the Old Harry prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgault, Daniel; Cyr, Frédéric; Dumont, Dany; Carter, Angela

    2014-05-01

    The Gulf of St Lawrence is under immediate pressure for oil and gas exploration, particularly at the Old Harry prospect. A synthesis of the regulatory process that has taken place over the last few years indicates that important societal decisions soon to be made by various ministries and environmental groups are going to be based on numerous disagreements between the private sector and government agencies. The review also shows that the regulatory process has taken place with a complete lack of independent oceanographic research. Yet, the Gulf of St Lawrence is a complex environment that has never been specifically studied for oil and gas exploitation. Motivated by this knowledge gap, preliminary numerical experiments are carried out where the spreading of a passive floating tracer released at Old Harry is examined. Results indicate that the tracer released at Old Harry may follow preferentially two main paths. The first path is northward along the French Shore of Newfoundland, and the second path is along the main axis of the Laurentian Channel. The most probable coastlines to be touched by water flowing through Old Harry are Cape Breton and the southern portion of the French Shore, especially Cape Anguille and the Port au Port Peninsula. The Magdalen Islands are less susceptible to being affected than those regions but the probability is not negligible. These preliminary results provide guidance for future more in-depth and complete multidisciplinary studies from which informed decision-making scenarios could eventually be made regarding the exploration and development of oil and gas at the Old Harry prospect in particular and, more generally, in the Gulf of St Lawrence.

  12. Comprehensive Information Interpretation in Oil and Gas Exploration—An Example of Buried-Hill Oil and Gas Field in the Jizhong area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangShengzheng

    2003-01-01

    The petroleum geophysical and geological comprehensive interpretation with whole-information of gravitational, magnetic, electrical and seismic methods has played an important role in the exploration and development of the buried-hill oil and gas pools in the Jizhong area, including the oil pools in the weathering surface of the buried-hill with “oil generated in the Cenozoic and accumulated in thePaleozoic”, and the gas pools in the buried-hill with “oil generated in both the Cenozoic and the Paleozoic, accumulated in the Paleozoic and sealed by the Mesozoic”. In recent years,high-precision gravitational and magnetic surveying and continuous electromagnetic profile (CEMP) prospecting were carried out on the Yangcun Slope that had been preliminarily recognized as a monocline in the Paleozoic structural-stratigraphy. After the geophysical and geological comprehensive interpretation with whole-information of gravitational,magnetic, electric and seismic data, the gas-bearing buriedhill zone of Matou-Huanghuadian was discovered.

  13. EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF ANXIOLYTIC EFFECT OF FLAXSEED OIL AND PERILLA OIL IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sandeep

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the putative anxiolytic-like activity of Flaxseed Oil and Perilla Oil using elevated plus maze (EPM and light-dark exploration test in mice. Flaxseed Oil is also known as linseed oil. Flaxseed Oil obtained from the dried ripe seeds of the Linum usitatissimum, (Linaceae. Perilla Oil is also known as Yegoma oil. It is obtained from seed of Perilla frutescens (Lamiaceae. Male mice were treated orally with the different doses of Flaxseed Oil (0.5-2.0 ml/kg, Perilla Oil (0.3-1.2ml/kg and diazepam respectively, 1 hour before behavioral evaluation. Oral administration of 1.5 and 2.0ml/kg of Flaxseed Oil and 0.9, 1.2 ml/kg of Perilla Oil significantly (p<0.05 increased the number of entries and time spend in light arena of light-dark exploration test as well as these significantly (p<0.05 increased number of entries and time spent in open arm of elevated plus maze test. The anxiolytic effects of herbal oils compared with that of control group without any treatment and further, the results are quite comparable to diazepam (2mg/kg, p.o.. These results indicate that both oils have anxiolytic profile. The comparison between maximum significant effect of Flaxseed Oil and Perilla Oil at doses 1.5ml/kg and 0.9ml/kg respectively showed that Perilla Oil as more anxiolytic effect with low dose as compared with Flaxseed Oil.

  14. Status Analysis and Development Prospect on Purifying Technology of Cooking Oil Fumes in China Catering Services%国内饮食业油烟净化技术的现状及发展预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启超; 朱浩然

    2016-01-01

    The paper summarizes the harms of cooking oil fumes (COFs) in catering services, analyzes the COFs purify-ing technology and application foreground in the common use or new catering services at present time.%概述了饮食业油烟的危害,分析了目前常用或新兴的几种饮食业油烟净化技术及应用前景。

  15. Marine Oil Pollution Biodegradation Process and Bioremediation Technology Prospects%海洋石油污染的微生物降解过程及生态修复技术展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张信芳

    2012-01-01

    海洋石油污染物的微生物降解是一个复杂的过程。受石油组分与物理化学性质、环境条件以及微生物群落组成等多方面因素的影响,氮和磷营养的缺乏是海洋石油污染物生物降解的主要限制因子。文章阐述了石油烃类的微生物代谢途径、影响因素、常规的生物修复技术以及两种海洋专性解烃菌降解石油的协同效应和极地海洋石油污染的生物降解过程和方式,对未来海洋石油污染控制进行了展望。%Microbial degradation of marine oil pollution is a complex process,which is affected by oil component,physical and chemical properties,environmental conditions,microbial community composition and many other factors.The lack of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition in marine oil pollution is a major limit for biodegradation.This essay describes the microbial metabolic pathway of petroleum hydrocarbons,influencing factors,conventional bioremediation techniques and two marine bacteria specifically degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon solution of the synergy and polar marine biodegradation of oil pollution.

  16. OUTLOOK OF CHINA'S PETROLEUM EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xianzheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Oil and gas resource situation of China Overall discovered maturity of oil and gas resources not high According to all previous nationwide estimates of oilgas resources, the total resources is relatively abundant in China. The latest resource assessment results, performed by China's three national oil companies (CNPC, Sinopec and CNOOC), also indicate that petroleum exploration still has a solid resource base. According to the latest nationwide petroleum resource assessment results and the proved oil and gas geologic reserves at the end of 2004,the average discovery maturity of recoverable oil reserves is 20% in China, with 40% in east China, 14% in westcentral China and 14.5% in offshore China, reflecting that petroleum exploration is still in middle stage with considerable exploration potential.

  17. Study on combustion characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu [and others

    1997-07-01

    Petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) is one of prospect substitute of oil burned in many industrial boilers and utilities in China. It is a mixture of pulverized petroleum coke, residual oil and slurry oil. We carried out a series of experiments to study its ignition and combustion mechanism. Experimental results show that the ignition temperature of petroleum coke is higher than normal anthracite and meager coal, and it is difficult to be burned in oil-fired furnace directly. The petroleum coke`s combustion property is improved greatly after mixing with residual oil and slurry oil. The combustion process of POS can be divided into three phases: preheating, kindling and homogenous combustion, burning of the petroleum coke residue. The combustion condition of POS is close to bituminous and coal-oil-mixture (COM).

  18. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deepwater Horizon well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. See a map showing the largest oil spills ... Hurricane Season Meet the New CAMEO Chemicals Mobile App Revised: Sep 25, 2017 10:35pm | Site Map | ...

  19. PetroChina's Oil Production Continues to Climb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The discovery of the giant oil field in China's Bohai Bay Basin reveals a bright prospect for PetroChina's business development. The company's oil and gas production in the first quarter of this year rose to 277 million tons of oil equivalent, 3.7 percent up from the same period of the previous year, according to the statement recently released by PetroChina.

  20. Soap production: A green prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Sandra; Araújo, Joana; Pires, Ana Maria; Sousa, Ana Cláudia

    2017-08-01

    A green prospective based on the reuse of waste materials such as almond shells, orange peel and used cooking oil to manufacture soap is presented. In Portugal, thousands of tons of waste are generated from used cooking oil and production of nut shells' residues is growing every year. In addition, the high consumption of citrus fruits, oranges in particular, generates large amounts of citrus peel. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify reuse mechanisms of these wastes, in order to make them back into raw materials. Complying with this trend, this work was carried out by processing and grinding almond shells, treating used oil, processing orange peels and extracting limonene, formulating and producing soap, and performing an acceptance study of the final product. Results validated a high potential of the idea in the field of environmental education, so it can be replicated in practical classes. It can also be useful for waste management, and it can support the development of community projects on an ecological approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.