WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil pools

  1. Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

  2. The Swimming Pool (oil painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chen Xi was born in 1968 in Chongqing City, Sichuan Province. In 1991, she graduated with a Bachelor’s degree from the Oil Painting Department of the Central Academy of Fine Arts. Her paintings are soaked through with her mixed emotions towards urban life. The city, the concentrated mirror of human civilization, drives the human race further and further away from mother nature Molded ever more strictly by the socialization process, human beings live more and more like commodities. The ever-shrink-

  3. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  4. 16 CFR Appendix J2 to Part 305 - Pool Heaters-Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Part 305—Pool Heaters—Oil Range Information Manufacturer's rated heating capacities Range of Thermal... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool Heaters-Oil J2 Appendix J2 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE...

  5. Formation Models and Distribution of Oil and Gas Pools in Tarim Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Shengxiang

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the main formation models and distribution of the oil and gas pools in Tarim basin,China,including (I) occurrence of the found oil and gas pools,(2) main formation models of oil and gas pools,and (3) distribution law of oil/gas pools.Petroleum is distributed widely in the strata of Tarim basin from the Sinian at the bottom to the Neogene at the top.However,the found oil and gas fields are mainly distributed in Shaya (沙雅) uplift,Tazhong (塔中) uplift,and Kuche (库车)depression.This article presents 4 main formation models,namely,early formation and long-term preservation,early formation and late reformation,middle-late multiphase-multisource formation,late single-stage formation.Tarim basin is very rich in petroleum resources.Long-term inherited intrabasinal paleohighs and slope zones are the most favorable areas for accumulation of hydrocarbons,but the types of oil and gas pools are different from area to area.The control of unconformities and faults on hydrocarbon accumulating is prominent in Tarim basin.Preservation conditions are of utmost importance.Formation of some oil and gas pools is the result of reforming and re-accumulating of early accumulated hydrocarbons.

  6. The world oil market is one great pool: A response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, A.E.; Williams, M.D

    1993-01-01

    The authors offer a response to Weiner's (1993) criticism of their article in Energy Studies Review (1993). They stand by their original conclusion that the crude oil market is a world market in the relatively short run, and that it is appropriate to define regionalism in terms of geographic antitrust markets. The authors also contend that Weiner incorrectly specified his model by analyzing individual crude oils, which leads to specifying inappropriately narrow geographic markets. It is pointed out that the authors found typical correlation coefficients of over 90% between monthly changes in different market crude prices, and that the appropriate order for their vector autoregression model was four months. These suggest that nearly all the response of one crude oil to movements in price of another occurs rapidly. Further arguments are presented to show that the residual demand curve for oil is very elastic and consequently the oil market is not functionally regionalized. In a regression analysis, 98.7% of the variance in domestic prices is explained by the exogenous variables. A statistically significant and sizeable relationship is also found between domestic and imported crude oil prices, consistent with the authors' previous finding of a homogeneous world oil market. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Spores and Pollen in Oil From Igneous Rock Petroleum Pool and Petroleum Origin of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江德昕; 杨惠秋

    1994-01-01

    Ninety-six species of fossil spores and pollen referred to 55 genera found in crude oil fromthe Beisantai igneous rock petroleum pool of the southeastern part of the Junggar Basin in Xinjiang have beenstudied.Based on the investigation of the spores and pollen in crude oil,the petroleum source rocks of thepetroliferous province are identified,the petroleum origin theory is discussed and the organic petroleum ori-gin theory is confirmed.

  8. Mathematic modelling of the process of thermal destruction of oil pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamed, V.G.; Reverdatto, V.V.

    1980-08-01

    By means of mathematic modelling, the dynamics of thermal destruction of the oil pool are investigated in the vicinity of a thick bedded intrusive body of basalt magma. Heat conductivity of oil-bearing rocks was estimated as effective with account for liquid convection in porous medium. Calculated are the maximum sizes of exocontact area, where contact metamorphism of porous rocks brought about destructive transformations of oil. The problem is solved in four variants, with various endothermal heat effects of chemical reactions in oil and different ways of input of heat conductivity. For a basalt sill of some 100-meter thickness, the width of the zone of contact oil transformation must not exceed 80 meters. The results obtained can be applied in cases with intrusive bodies of any thickness.

  9. Quality of the log-geometric distribution extrapolation for smaller undiscovered oil and gas pool size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenglin, L.; Charpentier, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey procedure for the estimation of the general form of the parent distribution requires that the parameters of the log-geometric distribution be calculated and analyzed for the sensitivity of these parameters to different conditions. In this study, we derive the shape factor of a log-geometric distribution from the ratio of frequencies between adjacent bins. The shape factor has a log straight-line relationship with the ratio of frequencies. Additionally, the calculation equations of a ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary are deduced. For a specific log-geometric distribution, we find that the ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary is the same. We apply our analysis to simulations based on oil and gas pool distributions from four petroleum systems of Alberta, Canada and four generated distributions. Each petroleum system in Alberta has a different shape factor. Generally, the shape factors in the four petroleum systems stabilize with the increase of discovered pool numbers. For a log-geometric distribution, the shape factor becomes stable when discovered pool numbers exceed 50 and the shape factor is influenced by the exploration efficiency when the exploration efficiency is less than 1. The simulation results show that calculated shape factors increase with those of the parent distributions, and undiscovered oil and gas resources estimated through the log-geometric distribution extrapolation are smaller than the actual values. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  10. Exploration Potential of Atectonic Oil-gas Pools in the Northern Shelf Basin of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuWeilin; WangZhenfeng; LvMing

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale oil exploration has been done and large quantities of oil-gas fields have been found in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea for more than 20 years. The tectonic oil-gas pools are the main type. With the exploration to be deepened, looking for atectonic oil-gas pools is listed in China's exploration strategy. There are advantages for the forming of atectonic oil-gas pools in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea. Because the level of water has been frequently changing within all historical periods, lithozones are changed alternately in both vertical and lateral directions and formed lithologic deposition especially at low water level stages, such as the low-lying fans of basin-floor fans and slope fans. Due to frequent tectonic movement within all historical periods, many structural surfaces and structural unconformities were formed. At the same time, they also formed many kinds of structural unconformity oil-gas pools. According to our exploration and research, the promising areas of atectonic reservoirs within marine basins include: (1) the basin-floor fan of the deep water district, such as the central depression of the Southeast Qiong basin and Baiyun sag in the Zhujiangkou basin; (2) the frontal area of the large ancient delta, such as the Lingao structural belt in the Yingge Sea basin and Huizhou sag in the Zhujiangkou basin; (3) the unconformity pinchout belt or denudation belt in the slope area and the uplift area, for instance, the Yingdong slope belt in the Yingge Sea basin and Yacheng 13-1 structural belt in the southeast Qiong basin. All this proves that the prospects for atectonic oil-gas pools in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea are very broad.

  11. Investigation of oil-pool formation from the homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions and biomarkers in reservoir rocks: a genetic model for the Deng-2 oil-pool in the Jiyuan Depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Weiwei [Geochemical Institute of Chinese Academy, Guizhou (China); University of Petroleum, Shandong (China); Li Zhaoyang [University of Petroleum, Shandong (China); Jin Qiang; Wang Weifeng [Geochemical Institute of Chinese Academy, Guizhou (China)

    2002-11-01

    The Jiyuan Depression is a frontier area for oil and gas exploration in Henan Province, China. In recent years, oil was discovered in the Deng-2 well in the lower Tertiary, though the tectonics and petroleum geology of the Depression are very complex. A series of experiments on fluid inclusions in the oil-bearing sandstones from the Deng-2 well were made that included measurement of the homogenization temperatures of gas-liquid inclusions and GC-MS analysis of biomarkers either in the sandstone pores or in the fluid inclusions. The Deng-2 oil-reservoir was formed at about 78{sup o}C, corresponding to a burial depth of about 2200 m. The present burial depth is about 700 m because of erosion and fault-block uplift in Oligocene time. Although oil in the sandstone pores is now heavily biodegraded, the biomarkers in the inclusions show slight biodegradation representing a watering and biodegradation process that did not occur before formation of the Deng-2 oil- pool. Having investigated the structural evolution of the Deng-2 trap, it is concluded that the oil discovered in the Tertiary reservoir of Deng-2 well migrated from Mesozoic reservoirs through active faults around the Deng-2 trap. As the oil migrated from the Mesozoic to the Tertiary reservoir, the Deng-2 trap was uplifted close to the depth of active biodegradation (subsurface temperature lower than 80{sup o}C and to a burial depth shallower than 2250 m from the thermal gradient of 3.1{sup o}C/100 m) so that the oil in the inclusions shows a slight biodegradation. Because of the continuous uplift of the Deng-2 trap during the Tertiary and Quaternary, the reservoired oil has been more heavily biodegraded compared to that in the inclusions. (author)

  12. Successful scaling-up of self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass under pool-type reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Juferi; Shirai, Yoshihito; Andou, Yoshito; Mohd Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin; Othman, Mohd Ridzuan; Ibrahim, Izzudin; Yamamoto, Akio; Yasuda, Nobuhiko; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-02-01

    An appropriate technology for waste utilisation, especially for a large amount of abundant pressed-shredded oil palm empty fruit bunch (OFEFB), is important for the oil palm industry. Self-sustained pyrolysis, whereby oil palm biomass was combusted by itself to provide the heat for pyrolysis without an electrical heater, is more preferable owing to its simplicity, ease of operation and low energy requirement. In this study, biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass in the form of oil palm empty fruit bunch was tested in a 3-t large-scale pool-type reactor. During the pyrolysis process, the biomass was loaded layer by layer when the smoke appeared on the top, to minimise the entrance of oxygen. This method had significantly increased the yield of biochar. In our previous report, we have tested on a 30-kg pilot-scale capacity under self-sustained pyrolysis and found that the higher heating value (HHV) obtained was 22.6-24.7 MJ kg(-1) with a 23.5%-25.0% yield. In this scaled-up study, a 3-t large-scale procedure produced HHV of 22.0-24.3 MJ kg(-1) with a 30%-34% yield based on a wet-weight basis. The maximum self-sustained pyrolysis temperature for the large-scale procedure can reach between 600 °C and 700 °C. We concluded that large-scale biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis was successfully conducted owing to the comparable biochar produced, compared with medium-scale and other studies with an electrical heating element, making it an appropriate technology for waste utilisation, particularly for the oil palm industry.

  13. Drilling horizontal wells from the coast to reach offshore heavy oil pool, Puerto Escondido field, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puentes, G.E.; Alvarez, R.R. [Cubapetroleo, Havana, (Cuba); Marrero, F.M. [Ministry of Basic Industry, Havana, (Cuba)

    1999-11-01

    A series of vertical oil wells were drilled in the Puerto Escondido field in Cuba as part of an oil exploration program in the 1970s. The drilling of well PE-3 in 1992 revealed that the field contained one of the most significant oil finds in the western region of Cuba. Due to the fractured nature of the reservoir, it was determined that future wells should be drilled using horizontal drilling technology to increase hydrocarbon recoveries, and to maintain high production rates. The first horizontal well was successfully drilled in April, 1997. Four other wells were drilled by September 1998. This paper briefly described the drilling techniques used.

  14. The Goldsmith/Lakeshore Field : a case history of an Ontario Trenton oil pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, S.; Waugh, G. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The development of the Goldsmith/Lakeshore oil and gas field located in Mersea and Romney Townships in southwestern Ontario was described with reference to the geological, geophysical and engineering aspects of the field. It was discovered in 1985 and has since produced 5 MMSTB oil and 3 Bcf gas from the Middle Ordovician carbonates of the Trenton Group. A total of 40 wells currently produce about 700 bopd and 1 MMcfg/d. The field is expected to continue to make a significant contribution to Ontario's total oil production for many years. The remaining reserves are estimated at 2 MMSTB oil and 1 Bcf gas. The development history over the 17 year period can be sub-divided into 4 distinct phases: (1) the early years from 1985-1989, (2), the development phase from 1990-1993, (3) the mature phase from 1994-1997, and (4) the horizontal drilling phase from 1998-2002. This paper describes the heterogeneous nature of the reservoir and the changes in drilling and completion practices over the years. In particular, it describes in detail how Talisman Energy Ltd. used horizontal drilling to develop an extension of the field beneath Lake Erie. Talisman is currently evaluating options for future field development including field extensions along the trend, in-fill drilling, and stimulation work on existing wells to increase production and reserves. 6 refs., 34 figs.

  15. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico was a cost-shared field demonstration project in the U.S. Department of Energy Class III Program. A major goal of the Class III Program was to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques were used at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP) project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The objective of the project was to demonstrate that a development program, which was based on advanced reservoir management methods, could significantly improve oil recovery at the NDP. Initial goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to other oil and gas producers. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description was used as a risk reduction tool to identify 'sweet spots' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir. An

  16. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico was a cost-shared field demonstration project in the U.S. Department of Energy Class III Program. A major goal of the Class III Program was to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques were used at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP) project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The objective of the project was to demonstrate that a development program, which was based on advanced reservoir management methods, could significantly improve oil recovery at the NDP. Initial goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to other oil and gas producers. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description was used as a risk reduction tool to identify 'sweet spots' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir. An

  17. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-02-24

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a cost-shared field demonstration project in the US Department of Energy Class II Program. A major goal of the Class III Program is to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geologic, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description is being used as a risk reduction tool to identify ''sweet spots'' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well simulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  18. Geophysical Investigations, Scientific, UT-Oil and gas pools in the state of Utah with CO2 capacities, Published in 2006, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geophysical Investigations, Scientific dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale as of 2006. It is described as 'UT-Oil and gas pools in the state of...

  19. Determining water influx and geological reserves for oil and gas pools from data of the history of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoltan, I.; Papp, I.; Szantho, I.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods are presented for computing to determine parameters describing water influx. The question is examined of determining the geological reserves of hydrocarbons. The calculation is made on specific numerical examples for one hypothetical gas pool and pool No. 1 of the Paleozoic-Miocene of the Tazlar field.

  20. Nucleate Pool Boiling Performance of Smooth and Finned Tube Bundles in R-113 and R-114/Oil Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    finned tube. Both investigators used oil concentrations in the range of zero to ten percent by mass. Henrici and Hesse (Ref. 11], on the other hand...showed that the surface tension of R-113/oil mixtures increases monotonically with increasing oil concentration. Henrici and Hesse (Ref. 11) determined...Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, September 1987. 606 11. Henrici , H. and Hesse, G., "Unteersuchunger uber den

  1. The Influence of Oil Contamination on the Nucleate Pool-Boiling Behavior of R-114 from a Structured Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    compressor, some amount of oil is always present in the evaporator. Studies by Henrici and Hesse [Ref. 6] for 10 " . . . - LIQUID IN VAPOR OUT C VAPOR...1972, Henrici and Hesse [Ref. 6] updated Stephan’s work for R-114-oil mixtures boiling from a smooth copper tube. Figures 2.1 and 2.2 summarize... Henrici and Hesse’s results. Figure 2.1 shows that oil generally lowers the heat-transfer coefficient, and that at high heat fluxes and high oil

  2. Quantitative prediction of mixed-source crude oils and its significance for understanding oils accumulation in subtle pools in the Dongying Depression,Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sumei; Liu Keyu; Pang Xiongqi; Li Maowen; Jiang Zhenxue; Qiu Guiqiang; Gao Yongjin

    2008-01-01

    Conventional geochemical approaches were utilized in the quantitative prediction of the proportions of mixed-source crude oils derived from the Es3 and Es4 members of the Paleogene Shahejie Formation.The mixed-source oils are accumulated in the middle interval of the Es3 member(EsM3)in the Niuzhuang Sag,which is one of the sags where subtle traps are primarily of lenticular basin-floor turbidite sands within mudstones mostly developed in the Dongying Depression,Bohai Bay Basin.The result showed that about 18-92% of the mixed-source oils were derived from the Es4 source rocks with an average of 55-60%.Reservoirs associated with deep faults appear to have much more Es4 genetic affinity oils.A high proportion of the Es4-derived oils discovered in the Es3M subtle lithological traps in the Niuzhuang Sag have long migration distances.This suggests that surrounding source rocks might not necessarily control the hydrocarbon supply for subtle traps.Subtle migration pathway may play an important role in the vertical oil migration.The traditional concept of hydrocarbons accumulation in these lenticular turbidite sandstone traps within a short migration distance from the surrounding source rocks is not supported by this study.The present result is also consistent with our previous findings that immature oils in the Bamianhe Oilfield in the south slope of the Niuzhuang Sag were actually mixed-source oils mostly sourced from the Es4 in the depocenter of the Niuzhuang Sag,and the petroleum potential of the Es4 member in the Dongying Depression should therefore be re-evaluated.

  3. Impact of 'Chitra' oil spill on tidal pool macrobenthic communities of a tropical rocky shore (Mumbai, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sukumaran, S.; Mulik, J.; Rokade, M.A.; Kamble, A.

    A collision between the ships MSC Chitra and MV Khalijia 3 in the mouth region of Mumbai Harbour led to a leakage of around 800 t of fuel oil in August 2010, affecting the rocky intertidal region of Colaba. To evaluate the impact...

  4. 柴达木盆地北缘南八仙构造油气运聚成藏机理与模式探讨%Discussion of the Mode and Mechanism of Oil and Gas Accumulation in the Nanbaxian Pool in the North of the Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤君; 罗群; 陈淑兰; 刘运宏; 田丰华

    2005-01-01

    Because of the difference of oil and gas accumulation condition between the hanging wall and the footwall of a fault, there is a peculiar accumulation mechanism that oil and gas mainly exists in the hanging wall of the basement fault, but in the footwall of the shallow detachment fault in the Nanbaxian pool. The oil and gas of the Nanbaxian pool came from the mature Jurassic hydrocarbon source rock of the Yibei depression located at the south of the Nanbaxian pool. Firstly, the oil and gas accumulated in the traps of the hanging wall of the basement fault by way of the unconformity and the basement faults, and turned into some primary deep pools; and then, the shallow detachment fault that formed in the later tectonic movement broke into the deep primary pools, which caused the oil and gas migration upwards along the basement faults and the shallow detachment faults and the evolvement into some secondary oil and gas pools later. The history of the Nanbaxian oil and gas accumulation can be summarized successively as the syndepositional upheaval controlled by faults; single hydrocarbon source rock; unconformities and faults as migration channels; buoyancy, overpressure and tectonic stress as dynamic forces; multistage migration and accumulation of oil and gas; and finally an overlapped double-floor pattern of oil and gas accumulation. The most important explorative targets in the north of the Qaidam Basin are traps connected with the primary pools in the footwall by shallow detachment faults.

  5. Reflections on the Pooling Rule of Oil and Gas Law in the USA%美国油气法上的联营规则启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁华江

    2014-01-01

    美国油气法上的联营制度是打破资源垄断,促进资源向资本转化的产权通道。油气联营的特殊规则具有促进资源勘探、开采,提高资源集约化经营和经济效益的功能,与我国倡导的整装勘查、集中开采有异曲同工之妙,这一经营方式对中国页岩气产业的制度完善提供了有力的法治参考。%The pooling rule of oil and gas law in the USA is a property channel which could break the monopoly of resources, and promote the transition from resources to capital. This special rules has the function of promoting exploration and mining, improving resource intensive management and economic benefit. That echoes the integrated exploration, concentrative mining advocated by our government, the mode provides a strong reference to institution perfection of China's shale gas industry.

  6. Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a polygon layer representing existing vernal pool complexes in California's Central Valley, as identified and mapped by Dr. Robert F. Holland. The purpose of...

  7. Investigation on the Accuracy of Flame Height Relation Model for Crude Oil Pool Fire%油池火灾火焰高度关系模型的准确度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姗姗; 孙建刚; 王振; 王楠楠; 崔利富

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on the flame heights of crude oil pool fires with different pool diameters of 1. 5, 2, 3 and 5 m in daqing oil field, and the experimental values of flame height were compared with the calculated values by the relation models. The results show that the values of flame height calculated by the Thomas relation model agree well with the experi-mental data at the pool diameters of 1. 5 m and 2 m, but have a great deviation at the pool diam-eters of 3 m and 5 m. Also the Thomas relation model is corrected based on the experimental re-sults.%对大庆油田原油池火灾火焰高度进行实验测试,油池直径分别为1.5,2,3和5 m,将测试结果与池火灾关系模型计算结果进行比较。结果表明,当圆盘直径为1.5 m和2 m时,Thomas关系模型火焰高度计算值与实验值较为接近,当圆盘直径为3 m和5 m时,Thomas关系模型火焰高度计算值与实验值偏差较大。基于实验结果对Thomas关系模型进行了修正。

  8. Espacio Pool

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Espacio Pool es un grupo abierto de usuarios vinculados a la Facultad de Bellas Artes UCM que actúa sobre los márgenes que la circundan. Toma su nombre de los estanques vacíos ubicados en los jardines de la cafetería, y elige el término anglosajón por sus connotaciones relativas a lo participativo y autogestionado. Su objetivo es habitar los espacios de “vacuidad” para que sean efectivos y permutadores. Espacio Pool organiza la celebración de encuentros a partir de la construcción de disposit...

  9. 7 CFR 985.57 - Reserve pool requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve pool requirements. 985.57 Section 985.57... Reserve pool requirements. (a) On November 1, or such other date as the Committee, with the approval of the Secretary may establish, the Committee shall pool identified excess oil as reserve oil in...

  10. Nucleate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of Refrigerant/Oil Mixture with Diamond Nanoparticles%含油金刚石纳米制冷剂的核态池沸腾换热特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄大伟; 彭浩; 胡海涛; 丁国良; 朱禹

    2011-01-01

    研究了含油金刚石纳米制冷剂(即由制冷剂R113、润滑油VG68和金刚石纳米颗粒组成的纳米流体)的核态池沸腾换热特性,分析了金刚石纳米颗粒对含油制冷剂核态池沸腾换热的影响.实验中饱和压力为101.3 kPa;热流密度为10~80 kW/m2;纳米油(纳米颗粒和润滑油的混合物)的质量分数为0~5%;在纳米油中金刚石纳米颗粒的质量分数为0~15%.实验结果表明:金刚石纳米颗粒增强了含油制冷剂的池沸腾换热,在测试工况下换热系数最大可增加63.4%,并且增加幅度随纳米油中纳米颗粒质量分数的增加而增加,随纳米油质量分数的降低而增加.开发了含油纳米制冷剂池沸腾换热关联式,关联式预测值与94%的实验数据偏差在±20%以内.%Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant/oil mixture with diamond nanop-articles were investigated experimentally. The refrigerant is R113 and the oil is VG68. The experimental conditions include a saturation pressure of 101. 3 kPa, heat fluxes from 10 to 80 kW · m-2, nanoparticles concentrations in the nanoparticles/oil suspension from 0 to 15 %, and nanoparticles/oil suspension concentrations from 0 to 5 %. The experimental results indicate that the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient of R113/oil mixture with diamond nanoparticles is larger than that of R113/oil mixture by maximum of 63. 4% under the present experimental conditions, and the enhancement increases with the increase of nanoparticles concentration in the nanoparticles/oil suspension and decreases with the increase of nanoparticles/oil suspension concentration. A correlation for predicting the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant/oil mixture with nanoparticles was proposed. The predicted values of the new correlation can agree with 94% of the experimental data of R113/oil mixture with diamond nanoparticles in the present study within the

  11. A Prediction Model of Oil Cracked Gas Resources and Its Application in the Gas Pools of Feixianguan Formation in NE Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongshan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of oil cracked gas resources is necessary and urgent in the gas exploration of these basins at high to over stage in China. A marine crude oil sample was pyrolyzed using sealed gold tubes system in our study. The pyrolysates including gas, liquid, and solid were quantitatively analyzed. Based on the pyrolysis data and kinetic calculation, the yield correlativity among gas, liquid, and solid products was regressed with high correlative coefficients to establish a prediction model suitable for the resource estimation of oil cracked gas. The verification formula for this model was also established on the principle of mass conservation. The affecting factors and the application preconditions of this model were discussed. Finally the model was extrapolated to the prediction of oil cracked gas resources of Feixianguan formation in NE Sichuan basin, SW China. The prediction value of oil cracked resources is about 6.84×1012 m3, and generation intensity of oil cracked gas is about 97.5×108 m3/km2, and the paleo-oil reserves is about 97×108 t. The verifying value for this prediction is approximately equal to 1, indicating the model is reliable in the resource estimation of oil cracked gas.

  12. 炼油厂区事故池容积设计探讨%Research on Design for the Capacity of Accident Pool in Oil Refinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑广秋

    2009-01-01

    根据对炼油厂区需设置的事故池容积进行计算确定,结合厂区排水系统实际情况,分别计算最不利情况下应设置的污水事故池容积,为事故池的建设提供参考依据,充分考虑利用现有储存设施,使事故池的建设做到经济合理和安全可靠.%According to the Guidance for the Design of Prevention and Control Measures against Water Pollution, the capacity of accident pool that is required to be equipped within the factory district ofoil refinery has been calculated and decided. On the basis of actual situation of drainage system within the factory district, the possible capacities of waste water accident pool under the most disadvantageous situation were respectively set up, which will provide reference for the establishment of accident pool. With the available storage facilities brought fully into play, the establishment of accident pool will become economical, reasonable, safe and reliable.

  13. Analysis on Groundwater Polluted by Oil Sewage in Tiebutie Pool%贴不贴泡石油污水对地下水的污染分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雯雯

    2012-01-01

    The petroleum pollution has become a serious environmental problem.Tiebutie pool,which takes wastewater discharge from a petrochemical plant in Daqing,plays the role of wide oxidation pond.In order to investigate the groundwater pollution around the pool,groundwater samples were collected from around the pool.The results show that the groundwater near the pool was slightly polluted by petroleum.The petroleum pollutants are restricted in the lake,which is basically restricted in the diving level in the section plane distribution,reaching the top of weak permeable bed partially.The petroleum pollutant moves slowly,especially in horizontal move,which prevents the groundwater from serious pollution in nearly 30 years.%贴不贴泡是大庆某石油化工总厂生产废水排放场地,其作用相当于一个水面较大的氧化塘。本文对大庆市贴不贴泡周边地下水采集样品,以研究其对周边地下水的污染状况。结果显示:纳污泡附近地下水受到不同程度石油类污染,石油类污染物还仅限于湖泡区内,在剖面上的分布基本限于潜水层内,局部达到弱透水层顶部附近。石油类污染物在其中的迁移速度很低,特别是水平迁移速度更小,才使污染近30年的场地地下水受到的石油烃污染不是十分严重。

  14. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  15. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, Chad [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Dastgheib, Seyed A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Yang, Yaning [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Ashraf, Ali [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Duckworth, Cole [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sinata, Priscilla [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sugiyono, Ivan [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Shannon, Mark A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Werth, Charles J. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO2-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter

  16. SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF OIL-POOL IN-SITU COMBUSTION FRONT PROPAGATION ON THE BASIS OF HEURISTIC HYPOTHESIS REGARDING TEMPERATURE AND CONCENTRATION PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dobrego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present the number of oil deposits with viscous and stranded oil is steadily growing. Due to the mentioned circumstance there is growing interest in methods of thermochemical treatment of an oil and coal-beds. This interest is reflected, e.g., in the “Visha-Thermogaz” BelarusianRussian joint project. In order to provide control over the in-situ thermochemical processes it is necessary to use models of different levels, i.e. qualitative analysis, simplified numerical simulation with “averaged” parameters, as well as detailed 2D and 3D modeling. Due to variety of specific parameters and conditions of in-situ processes, design of new simplified methods of analysis is a topical objective both for research and practical activity. Therefore, a new method of solution of the problem of in-situ combustion front propagation based on heuristic hypothesis is discussed in the present article. The designed method is based on heuristic assumption of functional relationship between the profiles of temperature T and deficit component concentration y: exp(-E / T  = exp(-E / Tmax (1- y. Another hypothesis is the assumption that the maximum gradient of the concentration profile of the missing component is implemented with a fixed value of concentration that is expressed as y’’ ( y = y* = 0. Simple algebraic and differential equations fordetermination of the temperature and concentration profiles as well as for the front propagation velocity are derived for two cases i.e. the lack of oxidizer and the fuel component fault. Principal functional dependencies of the front velocity are revealed. Comparison of the profiles obtained with the use of the described method with the one obtained numerically proves the adequacy of the method itself and the hypotheses adopted. The method can be used for rapid assessment and parametric studies of the profiles and the speed of the front. It can also be used for analysis of similar problems

  17. 东濮凹陷文明寨地区三叠系低熟油特征及成藏模式%Characteristics and pool-forming patterns of the Triassic immature oil in Wenmingzhai area, the Dongpu Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张源智; 于兴河; 季洪泉; 赵广珍; 李明义

    2011-01-01

    to C30 hopanes ratio is 0. 70 - 0. 81, indicating the geochemical characteristics of immature oil formed in a sedimentary environment with high water salinity. Oil-source correlation reveals that the immature oil in the Triassic reservoirs in Wenmingzhai area are sourced from the mudstone in the 3 rd and 4th members of Shahejie Formation in Puwei area. The pool-forming pattern is that hydrocarbons generated by young source rocks accumulate in old reservoirs.

  18. Poole High Street study

    OpenAIRE

    Kilburn, David

    2007-01-01

    A presentation given to key decision makers within Poole to improve the retail offer in Poole High Street and leverage the benefit of improved town planning and the introduction of quality retail companies.

  19. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  20. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to keep my child safe around swimming pools? An adult should actively watch children at ...

  1. Swimming pool granuloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001357.htm Swimming pool granuloma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin ...

  2. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM. Second annual technical progress report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration in the US Department of Energy Class III Program. Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir description was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. As a result of the analysis, a proposed pilot area was reconsidered. Comparison of seismic data and engineering data have shown evidence of discontinuities in the area surrounding the proposed injector. Analysis of the 3-D seismic has shown that wells in the proposed pilot are in an area of poor quality amplitude development. The implication is that since amplitude attenuation is a function of porosity, then this is not the best area to be attempting a pilot pressure maintenance project. Because the original pilot area appears to be compartmentalized, the lateral continuity between the pilot wells could be reduced. The 3-D seismic interpretation indicates other areas may be better suited for the initial pilot area. Therefore, the current focus has shifted more to targeted drilling, and the pilot injection will be considered in a more continuous area of the NDP in the future. Results of reservoir simulation studies indicate that pressure maintenance should be started early when reservoir pressure is still high.

  3. The science of pooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.

    1995-10-01

    The pooling of data from radon studies is described. Pooling refers to the analysis of original data from several studies, not meta-analysis in which summary measures from published data are analyzed. A main objective for pooling is to reduce uncertainty and to obtain more precise estimates of risk than would be available from any single study.

  4. Pool Onistarist kuulub kütusefirma omanikele / Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-

    2001-01-01

    Alkoholikontserni Onistar kiiret tõusu Eesti alkoholiturul toetavad Vene rahvusest ärimeestele kuuluvate kütusefirmade Infast Oil ja Saurix Petroleum omanikud, kellele kuulub pool Eesti viinaturu liidri aktsiatest

  5. Pool Onistarist kuulub kütusefirma omanikele / Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-

    2001-01-01

    Alkoholikontserni Onistar kiiret tõusu Eesti alkoholiturul toetavad Vene rahvusest ärimeestele kuuluvate kütusefirmade Infast Oil ja Saurix Petroleum omanikud, kellele kuulub pool Eesti viinaturu liidri aktsiatest

  6. Dominant factors in controlling marine gas pools in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S.; Watney, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    In marine strata from Sinian to Middle Triassic in South China, there develop four sets of regional and six sets of local source rocks, and ten sets of reservoir rocks. The occurrence of four main formation periods in association with five main reconstruction periods, results in a secondary origin for the most marine gas pools in South China. To improve the understanding of marine gas pools in South China with severely deformed geological background, the dominant control factors are discussed in this paper. The fluid sources, including the gas cracked from crude oil, the gas dissolved in water, the gas of inorganic origin, hydrocarbons generated during the second phase, and the mixed pool fluid source, were the most significant control factors of the types and the development stage of pools. The period of the pool formation and the reconstruction controlled the pool evolution and the distribution on a regional scale. Owing to the multiple periods of the pool formation and the reconstruction, the distribution of marine gas pools was complex both in space and in time, and the gas in the pools is heterogeneous. Pool elements, such as preservation conditions, traps and migration paths, and reservoir rocks and facies, also served as important control factors to marine gas pools in South China. Especially, the preservation conditions played a key role in maintaining marine oil and gas accumulations on a regional or local scale. According to several dominant control factors of a pool, the pool-controlling model can be constructed. As an example, the pool-controlling model of Sinian gas pool in Weiyuan gas field in Sichuan basin was summed up. ?? Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag 2007.

  7. Dominant factors in controlling marine gas pools in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Sihuang; W.Lynn Watney

    2007-01-01

    In marine strata from Sinian to Middle Triassic in South China,there develop four sets of regional and six sets of local source rocks,and ten sets of reservoir rocks.The occurrence of four main formation periods in association with five main reconstruction periods,results in a secondary origin for the most marine gas pools in South China.To improve the understanding of marine gas pools in South China with severely deformed geological background,the dominant control factors are discussed in this paper.The fluid sources,including the gas cracked from crude oil,the gas dissolved in water,the gas of inorganic origin,hydrocarbons generated during the second phase,and the mixed pool fluid source,were the most significant control factors of the types and the development stage of pools.The period of the pool formation and the reconstruction controlled the pool evolution and the distribution on a regional scale.Owing to the multiple periods of the pool formation and the reconstruction,the distribution of marine gas pools was complex both in space and in time,and the gas in the pools is heterogeneous.Pool elements,such as preservation conditions,traps and migration paths,and reservoir rocks and facies,also served as important control factors to marine gas pools in South China.Especially,the preservation conditions played a key role in maintaining marine oil and gas accumulations on a regional or local scale.According to several dominant control factors of a pool,the pool-controlling model can be constructed.As an example,the pool-controlling model of Sinian gas pool in Weiyuan gas field in Sichuan basin was summed up.

  8. The Assessment of Fire-fighting Capabilities under the Pool Fire of Large Crude Oil Storage Tank%大型原油储罐池火灾事故下消防能力的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆功; 宋文华; 吕铃钥; 陈阵

    2012-01-01

    以某大型原油储备库为例,采用FDS火灾模拟软件对储罐罐内池火灾进行了数值模拟,得出了火灾发展过程、烟气质量分数分布以及热辐射强度的变化规律,火灾初期烟粒子浓度高的区域分布面积大,且烟粒子分布的面积也比较广,随着反应的进行,烟粒子浓度逐渐降低,火焰逐渐明显,且主要分布在油面附近;热辐射强度随燃烧时间的延长而增强,最高值达35 kW/m2,最终下降并稳定在25 kW/m2左右.最后,对罐区固定消防设施以及移动消防设施的消防能力进行了评估.消防给水系统不能满足储罐罐内池火灾的灭火需求,泡沫灭火系统46 min可以将火扑灭;满足5 min原则的1号超特勤消防站不能满足该储罐发生池火灾所需要的消防车数量、移动泡沫炮数量、泡沫混合液量以及冷却水量.%Using fire simulation software FDS, the pool fire inside the tank is simulated with a large crude oil storage tank area taken for an example. The result of the fire development process, the mass fraction distribution of flue gas and the thermal radiation intensity variation is as follows. In the initial period of fire, the area range of high smoke concentration is wide, and the distribution of smoke particle is relatively wide, with the reaction proceeding, the concentration of smoke particles decreases, the flame becomes clear and is mainly on the surface of oil. The thermal radiation intensity is enhanced as the burning time passes by with the maximum value of 35 kW/m2, and finally declines stabilized at 25 kW/m2 or so. At last, the ability of the fixed and mobile firefighting facilities in the tank area is assessed. The fire-fighting water supply system does not meet the demand for extinguishing the fire, and the foam fire-extinguishing system could put the fire out after 46 min. No. 1 fire station in accordance with 5 min principle does not meet the required number of the mobile foam gun, foam mixture

  9. Types, Evolution and Pool-Controlling Significance of Pool Fluid Sources in Superimposed Basins: A Case Study from Paleozoic and Mesozoic in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Sihuang; Mei Lianfu; Yuan Caiping; Ma Yongsheng; Guo Tonglou

    2007-01-01

    Having multiple tectonic evolution stages, South China belongs to a superimposed basin in nature. Most marine gas pools became secondary pools. The pool fluid sources serve as the principal pool-controlling factors. On the basis of eight typical petroleum pools, the type, evolution in time-space,and the controlling of petroleum distribution of pool fluid sources are comprehensively analyzed. The main types of pool fluid sources include hydrocarbon, generated primarily and secondly from source rocks, gas cracked from crude oil, gas dissolved in water, inorganic gas, and mixed gases. In terms of evolution, the primary hydrocarbon was predominant prior to Indosinian; during Indosinian to Yenshanian the secondary gas includes gas cracked from crude oil, gas generated secondarily, gas dissolved in water, and inorganic gas dominated; during Yenshanian to Himalayan the most fluid sources were mixed gases. Controlled by pool fluid sources, the pools with mixed gas sources distributed mainly in Upper Yangtze block, especially Sichuan (四川) basin; the pools with primary hydrocarbon sources distributed in paleo-uplifts such as Jiangnan (江南), but most of these pools became fossil pools; the pools with secondary hydrocarbon source distributed in the areas covered by Cretaceous and Eogene in Middle-Lower Yangtze blocks, and Chuxiong (楚雄), Shiwandashan (十万大山), and Nanpanjiang (南盘江) basins; the pools with inorganic gas source mainly formed and distributed in tensional structure areas.

  10. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  11. Pool spacing in forest channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Montgomery; John M. Buffington; Richard D. Smith; Kevin M. Schmidt; George Pess

    1995-01-01

    Field surveys of stream channels in forested mountain drainage basins in southeast Alaska and Washington reveal that pool spacing depends on large woody debris (LWD) loading and channel type, slope, and width. Mean pool spacing in pool-riffle, plane-bed, and forced pool-riffle channels systematically decreases from greater than 13 channel widths per pool to less than 1...

  12. 亚诺斯前陆盆地MM油田成藏规律及成藏模式%Oil and Gas Pool-Forming Law and Reservoir Model of LIanos Foreland Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯方; 王晓杰; 吕本勋; 吴小斌; 李海燕

    2015-01-01

    The MM oilfield is located in the eastern slope of LIanos foreland basin in Colombia , South America .It is made up of many micro amplitude ,small scale lithologic‐structural reservoirs far away from the western hydrocarbon source .A comprehensive analysis is conducted for the history of tectonic evolution of LIanos basin with full integration of geological logging and seismic data . The results show that the oil and gas pool was formed through “hydrocarbon migrated long distance through a complex transport system and accumulated by faults sheltered” .The long distance transport system controls abundance of reservoirs ,and lateral sealing faults control oil and gas distribution ,while the size of trap and reservoir physical properties directly affect the reservoir scale .In the study area ,for the hydrocarbon migration ,the C7 formation of Carbonera group is the main lateral passage ,and the faults are vertical passages .The matching relationship between the fault throw and the thickness of cap rock as well as the trap conditions jointly control MM oilfield reservoir model ,fault nose ,lithologic‐fault ,and fault‐lithologic reservoir types .%MM 油田位于南美洲哥伦比亚境内亚诺斯前陆盆地东部斜坡带,远离西部烃源灶,以微幅度、小规模岩性构造油藏为主。本文通过研究亚诺斯盆地构造演化史并充分结合研究区地质、测井、地震等资料,总结出 MM 油田具有“远源复合输导,断层遮挡式成藏”的油气成藏规律,油气远源输导控制油藏丰度,构造位置控制油气聚集,断层侧向封闭控制油藏分布,圈闭大小及储层物性条件直接影响油藏规模。在研究区,卡沃内拉组 C7段储层为油气侧向运移主要载体,断层为油气垂向运移主要通道,断层断距与盖层厚度之间的匹配关系及圈闭条件共同控制 MM 油田成藏模式,形成了断鼻、岩性断层及断层岩性等3种油藏类型。

  13. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  14. Volcanism and Oil & Gas In Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Xuanlong

    2000-01-01

    Based on study on the relation with volcanic rock and oil & gas in Songliao Basin and Liaohe Basin in northeast China, author proposes that material from deep by volcanism enrichs the resources in basins, that heat by volcanism promotes organic matter transforming to oil and gas, that volcanic reservoir is fracture, vesicular, solution pore, intercrystal pore.Lava facies and pyroclastic facies are favourable reservoir. Mesozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of intermediate, acid rock,but Cenozoic volcanic reservoir is majority of basalt. Types of oil and gas pool relating to volcanic rock include volcanic fracture pool, volcanic unconformity pool, volcanic rock - screened pool, volcanic darpe structural pool.

  15. Rebound of continuous droplet streams from an immiscible liquid pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, William J.; Laiacona, Danielle M.; German, Guy K.; Chiarot, Paul R.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the rebound of high velocity continuous water droplet streams from the surface of an immiscible oil pool. The droplets have diameters and velocities of less than 90 μm and 15 m/s, respectively, and were created at frequencies up to 60 kHz. The impact and rebound of continuous droplet streams at this scale and velocity have been largely unexplored. This regime bridges the gap between single drop and jet impacts. The impinging droplets create a divot at the surface of the oil pool that had a common characteristic shape across a wide-range of droplet and oil properties. After impact, the reflected droplets maintain the same uniformity and periodicity of the incoming droplets but have significantly lower velocity and kinetic energy. This was solely attributed to the generation of a flow induced in the viscous oil pool by the impacting droplets. Unlike normally directed impact of millimeter-scale droplets with a solid surface, our results show that an air film does not appear to be maintained beneath the droplets during impact. This suggests direct contact between the droplets and the surface of the oil pool. A ballistic failure limit, correlated with the Weber number, was identified where the rebound was suppressed and the droplets were driven through the oil surface. A secondary failure mode was identified for aperiodic incoming streams. Startup effects and early time dynamics of the rebounding droplet stream were also investigated.

  16. High Velocity Droplet Rebound On Liquid Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, William; Laiacona, Danielle; Chiarot, Paul; German, Guy

    2015-11-01

    Rebound of high velocity, periodic droplet streams off viscous liquid pools is studied experimentally. Droplets, approximately 60 micrometers in diameter, impact the oil surface at velocities up to 13 m/s and at angles between 2-25 degrees. The oil surface does not degrade or lose its ability to provide rebound even after millions of droplet impacts. The oil was varied to examine the effect that surface tension and viscosity had on droplet rebound. Stable rebound is achievable on oils varying in dynamic viscosity in the range 13-970 Pa.s and surface tensions in the range 19-28 mN/m. When rebound occurs, a consistent 29% loss of droplet kinetic energy is observed. This is a surprising relationship due to the fact that it holds true for all cases of stable rebound regardless of the oil used. We further observe an upper inertial limit where droplets no longer provide stable rebound and instead become fully entrained in the oil pool. This limit is governed by the Rayleigh-Plateau instability and can be characterized and predicted using a modified version of the Weber number. The droplet rebound presented in this study is unique due to the size, velocity, and frequency of the droplets used. Another unique feature is that the rebound manifests itself as an effectively static phenomenon. No motion of the interface - oscillations, waves, or otherwise - was observed during rebound. The quasi-static nature of rebound enabled distinctions to be made regarding energy dissipation and the transition from droplet rebound to entrainment.

  17. The Future of Pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Peter C.; Fone, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses seven propositions underlying the strategies that insurance pools can, will, and must pursue: (1) risk management versus risk financing; (2) elimination of windfall advantages; (3) the maintenance of market-dominant status; (4) cost leadership; (5) client focus; (6) innovation and diversification; and (7) leadership challenges. A sidebar…

  18. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution of r...

  19. Forced pooling and mediation: the odd couple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoe, D.

    2001-07-01

    The mandate and activities of the office of the Ontario Mining and Lands Commissioner is explained. The office has jurisdiction under the Mining Act, the Conservation Authorities Act, the Assessment Act, the Aggregates Resources Act , the Lakes and Rivers Improvement Act, and most importantly, under the Oil, Gas and Salt Resources Act. Under the Oil, Gas and Salt Resources Act, the Commissioner may under clause (a) order the joining of interest within a spacing unit for the purpose of drilling and operating a well and apportioning the associated costs and benefits. Under clause (b) the Commissioner may, by order, require and regulate the joining of interests within a field or a pool for the purpose of drilling or operating wells and may order also the designation of management and apportioning of costs. Pooling (matters relating to spacing units) and unitization (matters relating to joining interests in a field or pool) are legislated departures from the old rule of capture which essentially allowed any landowner to sink a well on his land and remove the resource without consideration of the interest of surrounding landowners. In essence, the Mining and Land Commissioner protects the interest of all landowners within a spacing unit, while ensuring that the resource extraction can proceed under the economically and technically most favorable conditions.

  20. Mechanism of Silurian Hydrocarbon Pool Formation in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Luofu; Guo Yongqiang; Zhao Yande; Li Yan; Chen Yuanzhuang; Chen Lixin; Pang Xiongqi; Xie Qilai; Huo Hong; Zhao Suping; Li Chao; Li Shuangwen

    2007-01-01

    There are three formation stages of Silurian hydrocarbon pools in the Tarim Basin. The widely distributed asphaltic sandstones in the Tazhong (central Tarim) and Tabei (northern Tarim) areas are the results of destruction of hydrocarbon pools formed in the first-stage, and the asphaltic sandstones around the Awati Sag were formed in the second-stage. The hydrocarbon migration characteristics reflected by the residual dry asphalts could represent the migration characteristics of hydrocarbons in the Silurian paleo-pools, while the present movable oil in the Silurian reservoirs is related to the later-stage (the third-stage) hydrocarbon accumulation.

  1. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1996 (fifth quarter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-31

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program--based on advanced reservoir management methods--can significantly improve oil recovery. The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques while comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program, can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the US oil and gas industry. Results so far are described on geology, engineering, 3-D seismic, reservoir characterization and simulation, and technology transfer.

  2. [Antioxidant activity of flaxseed oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozorovskaia, N N; Rusina, I F; Lupinovich, V L; Beketova, N A; Sorokin, I V; Ipatova, O M; Levachev, M M

    2003-01-01

    Effective concentration of antioxidants and its reactivity toward peroxil radicals (constant k7) have been measured by the chemiluminescence technique for flaxseed oil. Effective concentration of antioxidants is shown to depend on the technology of producing flaxseed oil; period of seed storage before use; and storing duration of flaxseed oil also. Minor component content of flaxseed oil, which may be the members of antioxidant pool, has been quantitatively estimated.

  3. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  4. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  5. Carbon dioxide gas in hydrocarbon pools as a geochemical indicator of tapering traps (as in West Siberian fields)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenkov, A.T.

    1983-01-01

    Principal sources of carbon dioxide gas in oil pools of Western Siberia are carbonates, present in the makeup of the layer-collector horizons. All the hydrocarbon pools complicated by lithologic screens are characterized by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the gases dissolved in the oils. With a carbon dioxide content of more than 1 vol%, the probability of identifying the screen in the pools of Western Siberia is close to 100%.

  6. Carbon dioxide gas in hydrocarbon pools as a geochemical indicator of tapering traps (as in West Siberian fields)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenkov, A.T.

    1980-07-01

    Principal sources of carbon dioxide gas in oil pools of Western Siberia are carbonates, present in the makeup of the layer-collector horizons. All the hydrocarbon pools complicated by lithologic screens are characterized by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the gases dissolved in the oils. With a carbon dioxide content of more than 1 vol %, the probability of identifying the screen in the pools of Western Sibeia is close to 100%.

  7. The Productive Ligurian Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Casella, E; Couvelard, X; Caldeira, R M A

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with the behavior of the eddies in the open-ocean, the sub-mesoscale eddies generated in the constricted Ligurian Basin (NW Mediterranean), are unproductive but their combined effect, arranged in a rim-like fashion, contributes to the containment of a Productive Ligurian Pool (PLP). Data de- rived from MODIS satellite sensor showed persistent higher chlorophyll con- centrations in the centre of the basin, concurrent with high EKE values in its surroundings, derived from AVISO altimetry merged products. This sug- gested that this 'productive pool' is maintained by the intense (sub)mesoscale eddy activity in the rim. Numerical realistic experiments, using a Regional Ocean Model System, forced by MERCATOR and by a high-resolution COSMO- l7 atmospheric model, also showed that most of the sub-mesoscale eddies, during 2009 and 2010, are concentrated in the rim surrounding the basin, contributing to the formation of a basin-scale cyclonic gyre. We hypothesized that the interaction between eddies in the r...

  8. 76 FR 61933 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... the current marketing year or by releasing oil from the reserve pool. As of May 31, 2011, the Committee estimated the Scotch reserve pool to contain 454,715 pounds of spearmint oil and the Native reserve pool to contain 606,942 pounds of spearmint oil. When the allotment percentage...

  9. Morphology of drying blood pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  10. Rank Pooling for Action Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Basura; Gavves, Efstratios; Oramas M, Jose Oramas; Ghodrati, Amir; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2017-04-01

    We propose a function-based temporal pooling method that captures the latent structure of the video sequence data - e.g., how frame-level features evolve over time in a video. We show how the parameters of a function that has been fit to the video data can serve as a robust new video representation. As a specific example, we learn a pooling function via ranking machines. By learning to rank the frame-level features of a video in chronological order, we obtain a new representation that captures the video-wide temporal dynamics of a video, suitable for action recognition. Other than ranking functions, we explore different parametric models that could also explain the temporal changes in videos. The proposed functional pooling methods, and rank pooling in particular, is easy to interpret and implement, fast to compute and effective in recognizing a wide variety of actions. We evaluate our method on various benchmarks for generic action, fine-grained action and gesture recognition. Results show that rank pooling brings an absolute improvement of 7-10 average pooling baseline. At the same time, rank pooling is compatible with and complementary to several appearance and local motion based methods and features, such as improved trajectories and deep learning features.

  11. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lower Amaranth M Pool, Waskada Field, southwest Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasinski, D.R.; Last, W.M. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Geological Science; Martiniuk, C.D. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Petroleum Branch

    2005-07-01

    The major hydrocarbon producer of Manitoba's Waskada Field is the Lower Amaranth Member of the Jurassic Amaranth, the oldest Mesozoic unit in the northeastern portion of the Williston Basin. Reservoir facies occur as sandy intervals on logs, and are complexly interbedded intertidal sandstones and siltstones. Thickness of the Lower Member is controlled by the paleotopography of the underlying Paleozoic erosional surface. Hydrocarbon production in the Waskada Amaranth began in 1980 with the recompletion of a former Mississippian producer. In the mid-1990s, the Waskada Field expanded eastward into the Goodlands area, with the development of the Lower Amaranth M pool. Developed original oil in place (OOIP) is calculated to be 9.8 million bbl, with 6.7 per cent primary recovery. However, net pay data from the M pool shows that the current pool boundaries do not accurately represent the absolute pool limits. Extent of the pool is defined by a diagenetically controlled permeability pinchout, where reduced permeability allows water migration, while simultaneously retarding oil migration. Total potential of the M pool has yet to be reached. Two development targets have been identified adjacent to the current M pool boundaries based on reservoir facies thickness, net pay, and production data. Development of these areas would expand the pool boundaries by 632 ha, increasing M pool total OOIP to 28.5 million bbl, leaving an undeveloped 18.7 million bbl.

  12. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  13. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  14. Characteristics of carbonate gas pool and multistage gas pool formation history of Hetianhe gas field, Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Hetianhe is a big carbonate gas field which is found and demonstrated in the period of "Chinese National Ninth 5-Year Plan". The proved reserve of Hetianhe gas field is over 600×108 m3. Its main producing layers are Carboniferous bioclastic limestone and Ordovician carbonate composed of buried hill. The former is stratified gas pool with water around its side, and the latter is massive gas pool with water in its bottom. The gases in the gas pools belong to dry gases with normal temperature and pressure systems. Based on the correlation of gas and source rock, the gases are mainly generated from Cambrian source rocks. According to the researches on source rock and structure evolution, and the observations on the thin section to reservoir bitumen and the studies on homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions, the gas pool has been identified and divided into three formation periods. The first is Late Caledonian when the oil generated from the Cambrian source rocks and migrated along faults, as a form of liquid facies into Ordovician carbonate reservoir and accumulated there. After that, the crust uplifted, the oil reservoir had been destroyed. The second is Late Hercynian when condensate gases generated from the Cambrian source rocks and migrated into Ordovician reservoir, as a form of liquid facies. Since the fractures had reached P strata, so the trap might have a real poor preservation condition, and the large-scale gas pool formation had not happened. The third gas reservoir formation period occurred in Himalaya. The fractures on both sides of Hetianhe gas field developed violently under the forces of compression, and thus the present fault horst formed. The dry gases generated from Cambrian source rocks and migrated upwards as the form of gas facies into Ordovician and Carboniferous reservoirs, and the large gas pool as discovered at present was formed finally.

  15. 13 CFR 120.1706 - Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. 120.1706 Section 120.1706 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Pools § 120.1706 Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. The Pool Originator must retain...

  16. Oil Price Trackers Inspired by Immune Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, William; Birkin, Phil; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    We outline initial concepts for an immune inspired algorithm to evaluate and predict oil price time series data. The proposed solution evolves a short term pool of trackers dynamically, with each member attempting to map trends and anticipate future price movements. Successful trackers feed into a long term memory pool that can generalise across repeating trend patterns. The resulting sequence of trackers, ordered in time, can be used as a forecasting tool. Examination of the pool of evolving...

  17. Formation Laws of Inorganic Gas Pools in the Northern Jiangsu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In the Northern Jiangsu basin there are high pure CO2 gas pools, low condensed oil-containing CO2 gas pools, high condensed oil-containing CO2 gas pools and He-containing natural gas pools, with the d 13Cco2 (PDB) values ranging from - 2.87to - 6.50 3He/4He 3.71×10- 6 to 6.42×10- 6, R/Ra 2.64 to 4.5, 40Ar/36Ar 705 to 734, belonging to typical mantle source inorganic gas pools which are related to young magmatic activity. The gas layers occur in two major reservoir-caprock systems, the terrestrial Meso-Cenozoic clastic rock system and the marine Meso-Palaeozoic carbonate rock-clastic rock system. Controlled by the difference in the scale of traps in the two reservoir-caprock systems, large and medium-scale inorganic gas pools are formed in the marine Meso-Palaeozoic Group and only small ones are formed in the terrestrial Meso-Cenozoic strata. Inorganic gas pools in this basin are distributed along the two deep lithospheric faults on the west and south boundaries of the basin. Gas pools are developed at the intersected part of the ENE-trending faults that control the half graben and the E-W tenso-shear faults, mainly distributed near the Es1, Ny1 and Ny2-Q basalt eruption centres.

  18. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters 1. Test... 2.9 of ANSI Z21.56-1994. The measurement of energy consumption for oil-fired pool heaters in Btu is...

  19. Synaptic vesicle pools and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, AbdulRasheed A; Tsien, Richard W

    2012-08-01

    Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses, thus initiating the flow of information in neural networks. To achieve this, vesicles undergo a dynamic cycle of fusion and retrieval to maintain the structural and functional integrity of the presynaptic terminals in which they reside. Moreover, compelling evidence indicates these vesicles differ in their availability for release and mobilization in response to stimuli, prompting classification into at least three different functional pools. Ongoing studies of the molecular and cellular bases for this heterogeneity attempt to link structure to physiology and clarify how regulation of vesicle pools influences synaptic strength and presynaptic plasticity. We discuss prevailing perspectives on vesicle pools, the role they play in shaping synaptic transmission, and the open questions that challenge current understanding.

  20. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  1. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  2. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  3. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall be...

  4. Oil Price Trackers Inspired by Immune Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, WIlliam; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    We outline initial concepts for an immune inspired algorithm to evaluate and predict oil price time series data. The proposed solution evolves a short term pool of trackers dynamically, with each member attempting to map trends and anticipate future price movements. Successful trackers feed into a long term memory pool that can generalise across repeating trend patterns. The resulting sequence of trackers, ordered in time, can be used as a forecasting tool. Examination of the pool of evolving trackers also provides valuable insight into the properties of the crude oil market.

  5. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  6. THE COUPLING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLUORITE MINE AND ORGANIC REEF-BANK OIL POOL OF ORDOVICIAN CARBONATES AND METALLOGENIC MODEL OF FLUORITE MINE IN TARIM BASIN%塔里木盆地奥陶系萤石矿和礁滩相油藏耦合关系与成矿模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周刚; 郑荣才; 罗平; 张兴阳; 刘伟; 宋金民; 饶红娟

    2011-01-01

    According to detailed studies of fluorite mine,their surrounding rocks and oil pool of Ordovician carbonates in Bachu-Kerpin outcrops and drilling wells,Tarim Basin,the coupling relationship between the fluorite mine and oil pool and metallogenic model of fluorite mine have been probed synthetically through different analyses,including drilling core,cast thin section,EPMA, X-ray diffraction, cathode luminescence, fluid inclusion, trace elements and stable isotopes. It is showed that beaded or banded fluorite mine occurred in fault-related karst caves,with reef-bank limestone as their surrounding rocks. Mineral association with fluorite mine includes calcite,bar-ite,anhydrite,quartz and black asphalt et al. Fluorites possess gas-liquid-rich hydrocarbon inclusion, solid bitumen inclusion and columnar gypsum whiskers. Analysis of fluorite trace elements with enrichment of Eu and LREE and weak HREE indicates that the ratio of K/Rb and Sr/Ba is much lower than that of normal seawater. The negative drift of δI3C and δ18O in the surrounding rocks is more and more obvious when the country rocks is approaching the fluorite,and the ratio of fluorite 87Sr/86Sr is higher than that of its surrounding rocks. It was proved that the type of Ordovician fluorite mine in Tarim basin belongs to Mississipp-type stratabound deposit and lithol-ogic reservoirs. Its formation mechanism was characteristic of initial reef bank-type reservoir followed by transformed into fluorite ore deposit,evidenced by hydrocarbon accumulation before ore accumulation and multi-phase hydrocarbon accumulation and mineralization. The geochemical results of fluorite and its surrounding rocks showed that the metallogenic fluids have double natures of the later low-temperature hydrothermal fluids of basin oilfield brine and deep meteoric water, and the metallogenic sources came from the underlying dark siliceous rocks and phosphorite of the Lower Cambrian. The migration path of the hydrothermal fluids and

  7. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  8. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  9. Manitoba 2004 oil activity review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.N. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented data on oil and gas activities in Manitoba during 2004, the busiest year in Manitoba's oil patch since the mid 1980s. Increases in the leasing of Crown and freehold acreage were also noted, with accompanying increases in drilling activity for the latter part of 2004. Details of Crown land sales were presented, with a total of 43,725 hectares of crown oil and gas rights under lease. During 2004, over 15,000 hectares of Crown oil and gas leases were sold, the highest figures since 1997. More wells were licensed and drilled in 2004 than in any year since 1986. Overall drilling success rate was 96.7 per cent. Details of top drillers in Manitoba were presented, with drilling activity focused in Waskada and Daly fields and the Sinclair area. Oil production increased by 0.7 per cent, with 1474 wells in production. Daily oil production statistics were presented, with the total value of Manitoba's oil production being $196 million. Details of the top 5 producers were provided, in addition to details of horizontal well production. Recent developments in Sinclair Field, Pierson L. Amaranth MC 3b A Pool, Waskada L. Amaranth I Pool and Virden Lodgepole D Pool were reviewed. The Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program was discussed with reference to the following enhancements: new well incentives, horizontal well incentives; holiday oil volume accounts; and marginal well major workover programs. Various Oil and Gas Act amendments were reviewed. In addition, the Williston Basin Architecture and Hydrocarbon Potential Project was discussed. 3 figs.

  10. [Infections transmitted in swimming pools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suzani, C; Hazeghi, P

    1976-01-01

    Public swimmingpools can be the source of infections due to micro-organism such as mycobacterium balnei, adeno and enteroviruses, the virus of plantar warts and molluscum contagiosum, the TRIC-Agent of swimmingpool-conjonctivitis and pathogenic fungi. The transmission of trichomonas vaginalis is considered unlikely-Water of pools, supposed to present satisfactory qualities by standard controls, was found to contain pathogenic staphylococci and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective preventive measures include the continuous recording of the redox-potential of the water, limiting the number of visitors to pool design specifications, better desinfection of sanitary installations, regular maintenance of technical equipment including frequent backwashing of filters and exclusion of visitors with communicable disease.

  11. A Consensual Linear Opinion Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We propose a pooling method to aggregate expert opinions. Intuitively, it works as if the experts were continuously updating their opinions in order to accommodate the expertise of others. Each updated opinion takes the form of a linear opinion pool, where the weight that an expert assigns to a peer's opinion is inversely related to the distance between their opinions. In other words, experts are assumed to prefer opinions that are close to their own opinions. We prove that such an updating process leads to consensus, i.e., the experts all converge towards the same opinion. Further, we show that if experts are rewarded using the quadratic scoring rule, then the above mentioned assumption follows naturally. We empirically demonstrate the efficacy of our method using real-world data.

  12. Sustainability of common pool resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as “capitalism,” affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies. PMID:28212426

  13. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.

  14. Essential vernal pool habitat action plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Vernal pool ecosystem conservation and recovery requires the recovery team to develop methods to determine the distribution of vernal pool types throughout the Great...

  15. Pool power control in remelting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rodney L.; Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.

    2011-12-13

    An apparatus for and method of controlling a remelting furnace comprising adjusting current supplied to an electrode based upon a predetermined pool power reference value and adjusting the electrode drive speed based upon the predetermined pool power reference value.

  16. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  17. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Press pools. 540.64 Section 540.64... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a press pool whenever he or she determines that the frequency of requests for interviews and...

  18. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  19. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  20. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  1. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  2. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  3. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  4. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  5. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  6. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  7. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  8. Thermochronologic constraints on hydrocarbon accumulation period of the Penglai 9-1 granite buried-hill oil pool in Bohai,China%蓬莱9-1潜山花岗岩油藏成藏时间的裂变径迹热年代学约束

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 王国芝; 范蕾; 徐亚飞; 唐晓挺

    2016-01-01

    The research of pool-forming period is always a difficult subject in petroleum geology. Apatite fission track technology and thermal history simulation are used to determine the hydrocarbon accumulation period accurately.Two apatite samples from fissured zone and fresh basement zone in Penglai 9-1 buried-hill in Bohai area are selected to analysis the length,age and distribution of track, then to obtain the thermal history by imitating via AFT Solve software.The results indicate that there is abnormal thermal disturbance because of the hydrocarbon accumulation happened during 3.8 ~2.6 Ma B.P..The unusual temperature turned to be highest when the time is 3.2 Ma.Based on the starting time of the temperature disturbance,3.8 ~2.6 Ma B.P.is considered as the hydrocarbon accumulation period of the Penglai 9-1 granite buried-hill oil pool,and the main period is 3.2 Ma B.P..%油气藏成藏时间的确定一直是石油地质研究领域的难点。该文利用磷灰石裂变径迹测龄及温度-时间热史模拟技术探索了如何精确限定油气藏的成藏时间。从渤海蓬莱9-1潜山花岗岩储层裂缝带和基岩带分别获取2件磷灰石样品,根据磷灰石裂变径迹的长度、年龄和径迹分布,利用 AFT Solve 软件模拟获得了它们的温度-时间热史轨迹。2件样品相似的温度-时间热史轨迹表明,在3.8~2.6 Ma B.P.期间,由于受石油流体充注的影响,样品发生异常热扰动和温度突变,在3.2 Ma B.P.时期受扰动的温度达到最大。根据受异常热扰动的起始时间,确定蓬莱9-1潜山花岗岩石油充注时间为3.8~2.6 Ma B.P.,油气藏的主成藏期为3.2 Ma B.P.。

  9. Vortex-Induced Vapor Explosion during Drop Impact on a Superheated Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Alchalabi, M.A.

    2017-04-18

    Ultra high-speed imaging is used to investigate the vapor explosion when a drop impacts onto a high-temperature pool. The two liquids are immiscible, a low boiling-temperature perfluorohexane drop, at room temperature, which impacts a high boiling-temperature soybean-oil pool, which is heated well above the boiling temperature of the drop. We observe different regimes: weak and strong nucleate boiling, film boiling or Leidenfrost regime and entrainment followed by vapor explosion. The vapor explosions were seen to depend on the formation of a rotational flow at the edge of the impact crater, near the pool surface, which resembles a vortex ring. This rotational motion entrains a thin sheet of the drop liquid, to become surrounded by the oil. In that region, the vapor explosion starts at a point after which it propagates azimuthally along the entire periphery at high speed.

  10. POOL development status and production experience

    CERN Document Server

    Chytracek, R; Frank, M; Girone, M; Govi, G; Moscicki, J T; Papadopoulos, I; Schmücker, H; Karr, K; Malon, D; Vaniachine, A; Tanenbaum, W; Xie, Z; Barrass, T; Cioffi, C; IT

    2005-01-01

    The pool of persistent objects for LHC (POOL) project, part of the large Hadron collider (LHC) computing grid (LCG), is now entering its third year of active development. POOL provides the baseline persistency framework for three LHC experiments. It is based on a strict component model, insulating experiment software from a variety of storage technologies. This paper gives a brief overview of the POOL architecture, its main design principles and the experience gained with integration into LHC experiment frameworks. It also presents recent developments in the POOL works areas of relational database abstraction and object storage into relational database management systems (RDBMS) systems.

  11. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  12. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  13. Integrated reservoir characterization of a heterogeneous channel sandstone : the Duchess Lower Manville X pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potocki, D.; Raychaudhuri, I.; Thorburn, L. [PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd. (Canada); Galas, C.; King, H.

    1999-01-01

    The Basal Quartz formation of the Duchess Lower Mannville X pool located in southern Alberta was characterized to determine if the reservoir was a good candidate for waterflooding. Twenty performance predictions were run. The Basal Quartz reservoir sandstones have large unanticipated intrawell and interwell variations in log derived porosity and resistivity. An extensive gas cap was also found in most of the wells. Most wells were producing with a high GOR despite the thick oil zone. It was concluded that conversion of selected wells to injection and horizontal infill wells would increase the oil recovery, but due to geological heterogeneity, the gas cap and a high in situ oil viscosity, the pool could not be considered to be a good candidate for waterflooding. 3 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  15. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  16. Market structure and exhaustible resources: The case of natural gas and crude oil in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czastkiewicz, Carolina

    Using a dataset of natural gas and crude oil production in the state of California, evidence shows overextraction incentives among market participants that shared a common pool. Due to these incentives the supply of gas and crude oil extraction tends to become more inelastic as the number of firms in the pool increases. Using an instrumental variables estimation of the supply function, the results show that the common pool externality caused an average overproduction rate of 11% and 4% over the 1977--2001 period, in natural gas and crude oil, respectively. These figures imply 1 year and 4 years of additional production for natural gas and crude oil, respectively.

  17. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  18. Families of oils and their sources in southeastern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowdon, L.R.; Osadetz, K.G.

    1988-07-01

    Four compositionally distinct families of oils are characterized by gross geochemical and C/sub 15+/ saturated hydrocarbon fraction compositions obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry-gas chromatography. Family A oils (two pools) are characterized by low pristane/nC/sub 17/ and phytane/nC/sub 18/ ratios, high diasterane/regular sterane ratios, and low C/sub 23//C/sub 30/ terpane ratios. This family of oils is restricted to Ordovician pools and is identical to the oils from Ordovician reservoirs in the US portion of the Williston basin. Family R oils (two pools) are characterized by low pristane/phytane and high diasterane/regular sterane ratios. This family of oils is restricted to Winnipegosis Formation pinnacle-reef reservoirs. Family B oils (nine pools) are characterized by crossplots of the ratio of diasteranes/regular steranes against either the ratio of saturate/aromatic hydrocarbons or the ratio of pristane/phytane. Within family B, a group of oils (four pools) with low C/sub 23//C/sub 30/ terpane ratios may represent a mixture of oils from families B and A. Family B oils are restricted to pools in the Birdbear Formation, the Bakken Formation, and the Madison Group. The most abundant family of oils, family C(22 pools), is identified by the same criteria used to characterize family B oils, although they have low diasterane/regular sterane ratios and low pristane/phytane ratios in comparison to family B. Family C occurs in the Madison Group and younger reservoirs. A distinctive subgroup of oils in family C has high saturate/aromatic hydrocarbons ratios. One oil with an intermediate diasterane/regular sterane ratio may represent a mix of oils from families B and C. Oils occur in reservoirs lying stratigraphically close to their sources. Family A is sourced from Ordovician kukersites in the Big Horn Group and family R is derived from organic-rich laminites of the Elk Point Group.

  19. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattouh, Bassam [The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Crude oil price differentials are modelled as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using the method proposed by Caner and Hansen [Caner, M., Hansen, B.E. Threshold autoregression with a unit root. Econometrica 2001; 69; 1555-1596.]. While standard unit root tests suggest that the prices of crude oil of different varieties move closely together such that their price differential is stationary, the TAR results indicate strong evidence of threshold effects in the adjustment process to the long-run equilibrium. These findings suggest that crude oil prices are linked and thus at the very general level, the oil market is 'one great pool' (Adelman, M.A. International oil agreements. The Energy Journal 1984; 5; 1-9.). However, differences in the dynamics of adjustment suggest that within this one pool, oil markets are not necessarily integrated in every time period and hence the dynamics of crude oil price differentials may not follow a stationary process at all times. Although the development of a liquid futures market around the crude oil benchmarks has helped make some distant markets more unified, arbitrage is not costless or risk-free and temporary breakdowns in the benchmarks can lead to decoupling of crude oil prices. (author)

  20. GIPP: Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Haberland

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam (GIPP consists of field instruments, sensors and equipment for temporary seismological studies (both controlled source and earthquake seismology as well as for magnetotelluric (electromagnetic experiments. These instruments are mainly mobile digital recorders, broadband seis­mometers and short period sensors, and they are used to reveal the subsurface structure and to investigate earth­quakes. Sensors for magnetotellurics include induction coil and fluxgate magnetometers and non-polarizing silver / silver-chloride electrodes. It is operated by the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The instru­ment facility is open to all academic applicants, both national and international. Instrument applications are evalu­ated and ranked by an external steering board. Currently, for seismological applications >850 geophysical recorders, >170 broadband seis­mo­meters and >1300 short period geophones are available (among others. Available for magnetotelluric experiments are > 50 real-time data-loggers, >150 induction coils, and >500 electrodes. User guidelines and data policy are in force and data archives are provided (standard exchange formats.

  1. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  2. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  3. Sulfur cycling in two Dutch moorland pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marnette, E.C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Due to atmospheric acid deposition, the chemistry of many moorland pools has changed, resulting in changes in their fauna and flora. Most moorland pools are sensitive to acid loading because underlying and surrounding soils are low in chemical buffering capacity. Biological processes in the

  4. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance... indicator must be provided in a clearly visible location to indicate if the pool water level is below the...

  5. Sulfur cycling in two Dutch moorland pools.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marnette, E.C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Due to atmospheric acid deposition, the chemistry of many moorland pools has changed, resulting in changes in their fauna and flora. Most moorland pools are sensitive to acid loading because underlying and surrounding soils are low in chemical buffering capacity. Biological processes in the sediment

  6. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  7. poolMC: Smart pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiefelbein John

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Typically, pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments implies mixing mRNA from several biological-replicate samples before hybridization onto a microarray chip. Here we describe an alternative smart pooling strategy in which different samples, not necessarily biological replicates, are pooled in an information theoretic efficient way. Further, each sample is tested on multiple chips, but always in pools made up of different samples. The end goal is to exploit the compressibility of microarray data to reduce the number of chips used and increase the robustness to noise in measurements. Results A theoretical framework to perform smart pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments was established and the software implementation of the pooling and decoding algorithms was developed in MATLAB. A proof-of-concept smart pooled experiment was performed using validated biological samples on commercially available gene chips. Differential-expression analysis of the smart pooled data was performed and compared against the unpooled control experiment. Conclusions The theoretical developments and experimental demonstration in this paper provide a useful starting point to investigate smart pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments. Although the smart pooled experiment did not compare favorably with the control, the experiment highlighted important conditions for the successful implementation of smart pooling - linearity of measurements, sparsity in data, and large experiment size.

  8. SAFETY AND MANAGEMENT OF SWIMING POOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal GÜNDOĞDU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study,it was investigated the situation related to the safety and management of swimming pools belongs to municipality This study was planned to determine the present situation related to the safety and management of open,half-olympic and closed swimming pools which are especially used for sports activities,to find out the deficiencies in practise and to overcome these.Our study included totally 80 open,closed,olympic, half-olympic public swimming pools(the pools that belongs to municipality,private administration and university,the colleges connected to the ministry of education, Military schools and police college.In our research,search,natural observation and meeting methods were used.In accordance with this aim the checklist questions,which were prepared for health and safety controls in swimming pools, were tested on the people by face-to-face meeting method. While the statistical evaluation of the available results were being done,frequency and percentage dispersion obtained from checklist was found.It was found that the 52 % of the training and lifeguard choise of the pools in Turkey,64 % of the emergency action equipment,71 % of the signs and signboards for the safety of the pool,75 % of the pool edge and its surroundings are not suitable for the standards and that these threaten the swimmers health importantly.Consequently,we are in the opinion that the pool staff should receive the periodical training about the first aid and using emergency situation equipment.And it is necessary that the Ministry Responsible for sports,Ministry of Interior,Ministry of Health,Ministry of Tourism be cooperate with water sports federations and the related civil society organizationsKey Words: .

  9. LCG POOL development status and production experience

    CERN Document Server

    Chytracek, Radovan; Cioffi, Carmine; Düllmann, Dirk; Frank, Markus; Girone, Maria; Govi, Giacomo; Karr, Kristo; Malon, David; Moscicki, Jakub T; Papadopoulos, Ioannis M; Schmücker, H; Tanenbaum, William; Vaniachine, A; Xie Zhen

    2004-01-01

    The POOL project, as a part of the LHC Computing Grid (LCG), is now entering its third year of active development POOL provides the baseline persistency framework for three LHC experiment and is based on a strict component model, insulating experiment software from a variety of storage technology choices. This paper gives a brief overview of the POOL architecture, its main design principles and the experience gained with integration into LHC experiment frameworks. In also presents recent developments in the area of relational database abstraction and object storage into RDBMS systems.

  10. Airways disorders and the swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougault, Valérie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Concerns have been expressed about the possible detrimental effects of chlorine derivatives in indoor swimming pool environments. Indeed, a controversy has arisen regarding the possibility that chlorine commonly used worldwide as a disinfectant favors the development of asthma and allergic diseases. The effects of swimming in indoor chlorinated pools on the airways in recreational and elite swimmers are presented. Recent studies on the influence of swimming on airway inflammation and remodeling in competitive swimmers, and the phenotypic characteristics of asthma in this population are reviewed. Preventative measures that could potentially reduce the untoward effects of pool environment on airways of swimmers are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectrum pooling in MnWave Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fodor, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    the benefit of coordination among networks of different operators, study the impact of beamforming at both base stations and user terminals, and analyze the pooling performance at different frequency carriers. We also discuss the enabling spectrum mechanisms, architectures, and protocols required to make...... spectrum pooling work in real networks. Our initial results show that, from a technical perspective, spectrum pooling at mmWave has the potential to use the resources more efficiently than traditional exclusive spectrum allocation to a single operator. However, further studies are needed in order to reach...... a thorough understanding of this matter, and we hope that this article will help stimulate further research in this area....

  12. Weld pool visual sensing without external illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Soren Ingvor

    2011-01-01

    Visual sensing in arc welding has become more and more important, but still remains challenging because of the harsh environment with extremely strong illumination from the arc. This paper presents a low-cost camera-based sensor system, without using external Illumination, but nevertheless able...... to sense and model the weld pool. Central is a carefully selected optical filtering as well as an active contour-based tracking of the weld pool boundary. The system is able to extract the 2D shape of the weld pool in real time. The reported experiments show the feasibility of this approach....

  13. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy...

  14. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  15. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  16. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-07-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  17. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  18. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  19. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  20. Microbial quality of a marine tidal pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the source of microbial pollution to a tidal pool was investigated. Both adjacent seawater which could contribute to possible faecal pollution and potential direct bather pollution were studied. The microbial quality of the marine...

  1. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  2. Tehas teisel pool Kuud / Gert Kiiler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiler, Gert

    2009-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli Viljandi kultuuriakadeemia teatrikunsti tudengite seitsmendast lennust kõneleva saate "Tehas teisel pool Kuud" tegemisest. Saade Eesti Televisioonis 3. juunil. Produtsent Kadi Katarina Priske, režissöör Elo Selirand

  3. AE/VCE Confirmed Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  4. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A. (PSE and G Research Corp., Newark, NJ (US)); Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P. (ARD Corp., Columbia, MD (US))

    1987-05-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant.

  5. Analysis of Bitcoin Pooled Mining Reward Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Meni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the various scoring systems used to calculate rewards of participants in Bitcoin pooled mining, explain the problems each were designed to solve and analyze their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  6. How to map your industry's profit pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadiesh, O; Gilbert, J L

    1998-01-01

    Many managers chart strategy without a full understanding of the sources and distribution of profits in their industry. Sometimes they focus their sights on revenues instead of profits, mistakenly assuming that revenue growth will eventually translate into profit growth. In other cases, they simply lack the data or the analytical tools required to isolate and measure variations in profitability. In this Manager's Tool Kit, the authors present a way to think clearly about where the money's being made in any industry. They describe a framework for analyzing how profits are distributed among the activities that form an industry's value chain. Such an analysis can provide a company's managers with a rich understanding of their industry's profit structure--what the authors call its profit pool--enabling them to identify which activities are generating disproportionately large or small shares of profits. Even more important, a profit-pool map opens a window onto the underlying structure of the industry, helping managers see the various forces that are determining the distribution of profits. As such, a profit-pool map provides a solid basis for strategic thinking. Mapping a profit pool involves four steps: defining the boundaries of the pool, estimating the pool's overall size, estimating the size of each value-chain activity in the pool, and checking and reconciling the calculations. The authors briefly describe each step and then apply the process by providing a detailed example of a hypothetical retail bank. They conclude by looking at ways of organizing the data in chart form as a first step toward plotting a profit-pool strategy.

  7. Pooling strategies for St Petersburg gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Csörgö, Sandor; Simons, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Peter offers to play exactly one St Petersburg game with each of [math] players, Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] , whose conceivable pooling strategies are described by all possible probability distributions [math] . Comparing infinite expectations, we characterize among all [math] those admissible strategies for which the pooled winnings, each distributed as [math] , yield a finite added value for each and every one of Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] in comparison with their individual...

  8. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  9. Profit pools: a fresh look at strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadiesh, O; Gilbert, J L

    1998-01-01

    In charting strategy, many managers focus on revenue growth, assuming that profits will follow. But that approach is dangerous: today's deep revenue pool may become tomorrow's dry hole. To create strategies that result in profitable growth, managers need to look beyond revenues to see the shape of their industry's profit pool. The authors define an industry's profit pool as the total profits earned at all points along the industry's value chain. Although the concept is simple, the structure of a profit pool is usually quite complex. The pool will be deeper in some segments of the value chain than in others, and depths will vary within an individual segment as well. Segment profitability may, for example, vary widely by customer group, product category, geographic market, and distribution channel. Moreover, the pattern of profit concentration in an industry will often be very different from the pattern of revenue concentration. The authors describe how successful companies have gained competitive advantage by developing sophisticated profit-pool strategies. They explain how U-Haul identified new sources of profit in the consumer-truck-rental industry; how Merck reached beyond its traditional value-chain role to protect its profits in the pharmaceuticals industry; how Dell rebounded from a misguided channel decision by refocusing on its traditional source of profit; and how Anheuser-Busch made a series of astute product, pricing, and operating decisions to dominate the beer industry's profit pool. The companies with the best understanding of their industry's profit pool, the authors argue, will be in the best position to thrive over the long term.

  10. Pooling strategies for St Petersburg gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Csörgö, Sandor; Simons, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Peter offers to play exactly one St Petersburg game with each of [math] players, Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] , whose conceivable pooling strategies are described by all possible probability distributions [math] . Comparing infinite expectations, we characterize among all [math] those admissible strategies for which the pooled winnings, each distributed as [math] , yield a finite added value for each and every one of Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] in comparison with their individual...

  11. Welding pool measurement using thermal array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that uses a high-power laser beam to melt metal powder in chamber of inert gas. The process starts by slicing the 3D CAD data as a digital information source into layers to create a 2D image of each layer. Melting pool was formed by using laser irradiation on metal powders which then solidified to consolidated structure. In a selective laser melting process, the variation of melt pool affects the yield of a printed three-dimensional product. For three dimensional parts, the border conditions of the conductive heat transport have a very large influence on the melt pool dimensions. Therefore, melting pool is an important behavior that affects the final quality of the 3D object. To meet the temperature and geometry of the melting pool for monitoring in additive manufacturing technology. In this paper, we proposed the temperature sensing system which is composed of infrared photodiode, high speed camera, band-pass filter, dichroic beam splitter and focus lens. Since the infrared photodiode and high speed camera look at the process through the 2D galvanometer scanner and f-theta lens, the temperature sensing system can be used to observe the melting pool at any time, regardless of the movement of the laser spot. In order to obtain a wide temperature detecting range, 500 °C to 2500 °C, the radiation from the melting pool to be measured is filtered into a plurality of radiation portions, and since the intensity ratio distribution of the radiation portions is calculated by using black-body radiation. The experimental result shows that the system is suitable for melting pool to measure temperature.

  12. Recent advances in probabilistic species pool delineations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Nikolaus Karger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A species pool is the set of species that could potentially colonize and establish within a community. It has been a commonly used concept in biogeography since the early days of MacArthur and Wilson’s work on Island Biogeography. Despite their simple and appealing definition, an operational application of species pools is bundled with a multitude of problems, which have often resulted in arbitrary decisions and workarounds when defining species pools. Two recently published papers address the operational problems of species pool delineations, and show ways of delineating them in a probabilistic fashion. In both papers, species pools were delineated using a process-based, mechanistical approach, which opens the door for a multitude of new applications in biogeography. Such applications include detecting the hidden signature of biotic interactions, disentangling the geographical structure of community assembly processes, and incorporating a temporal extent into species pools. Although similar in their conclusions, both ‘probabilistic approaches’ differ in their implementation and definitions. Here I give a brief overview of the differences and similarities of both approaches, and identify the challenges and advantages in their application.

  13. A Review of Selected International Aircraft Spares Pooling Programs: Lessons Learned for F-35 Spares Pooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    international military aircraft support program using true spares pooling for which we have any detailed and reliable data, and it is the closest current...for all F77 spares . The remaining non-C-17 unique spares are managed by the Defense Logistics Agency and the Air Force Air Logistics Centers .50...C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report A Review of Selected International Aircraft Spares Pooling Programs Lessons Learned for F-35 Spares Pooling

  14. Stade NPP. Dismantling of the reactor pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Daniel; Dziwis, Joachim [E.ON Anlagenservice GmbH Nukleartechnik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Kemp, Lutz-Hagen [KKW Stade GmbH und Co. oHG, Stade (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Within the scope of the 4{sup th} partial decommissioning permission of Stade NPP the activated and contaminated structures of the reactor pool had to be dismantled in order to gain a completely non-radioactive reactor pool area for the subsequent clearance measurement of the reactor building. In order to achieve the aim it was intended to remove the activated pool liner sheets, its activated framework and several contaminated ventilation channels made of stainless steel, the concrete walls of the reactor pool entirely or in parts depending on their activation level, as well as the remaining activated carbon steel structures of the reactor pool bottom. Embedded in the concrete walls there were several highly contaminated excore tubes and the contaminated pool top edge, which were intended to be removed to its full extent. The contract of the Stade NPP initiated reactor pool dismantling project had been awarded to E.ON Anlagenservice GmbH (EAS) and its subsupplier sat. Kerntechnik GmbH for the concrete dismantling works and was performed as follows. In order to minimize the radiation level in the main working area in accordance with the ALARA principle, the liner sheets and middle parts of its framework were removed by means of angle grinders first, as they were the most dose rate relevant parts. As a result the primary average radiation level in the reactor pool (measured in a distance of 500 mm from the walls) was lowered from 40 {mu}Sv/h to less than 2 {mu}Sv/h. After the minimization of the radiation level in the working area the main dismantling step started with the cutting of the reactor pool walls in blocks by means of diamond rope cutters. Once a concrete block was cut out, it was transported into the fuel pool by means of a crane and crane fork, examined radiologically, marked area by area and segmented to debris by means of an electrical excavator with a hydraulic chisel. Afterwards the debris and carbon steel parts were fractioned and packed for further

  15. Saving oil in a hurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    During 2004, oil prices reached levels unprecedented in recent years. Though world oil markets remain adequately supplied, high oil prices do reflect increasingly uncertain conditions. Many IEA member countries and non-member countries alike are looking for ways to improve their capability to handle market volatility and possible supply disruptions in the future. This book aims to provide assistance. It provides a new, quantitative assessment of the potential oil savings and costs of rapid oil demand restraint measures for transport. Some measures may make sense under any circumstances; others are primarily useful in emergency situations. All can be implemented on short notice ? if governments are prepared. The book examines potential approaches for rapid uptake of telecommuting, ?ecodriving?, and car-pooling, among other measures. It also provides methodologies and data that policymakers can use to decide which measures would be best adapted to their national circumstances. This ?tool box? may help countries to complement other measures for coping with supply disruptions, such as use of strategic oil stocks.

  16. Vernal Pool Distribution - Central Valley, 2005 [ds650

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — "Great Valley Vernal Pool Distribution", originally mapped by Bob Holland, 2005. This dataset contains vernal pool areas mapped over Califorina's Central Valley,...

  17. Swimming pool use and birth defect risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-09-01

    Swimming during pregnancy is recommended. However, the use of swimming pools is also associated with infection by water-borne pathogens and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, which are 2 mechanisms that are suspected to increase risk for birth defects. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between maternal swimming pool use during early pregnancy and risk for select birth defects in offspring. Data were evaluated for nonsyndromic cases with 1 of 16 types of birth defects (n = 191-1829) and controls (n = 6826) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2006. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each birth defect type. Separate analyses were conducted to assess any pool use (yes vs no) and frequent use (5 or more occasions in 1 month) during the month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy. There was no significant positive association between any or frequent pool use and any of the types of birth defects, even after adjustment for several potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, age at delivery, education, body mass index, folic acid use, nulliparity, smoking, annual household income, surveillance center, and season of conception). Frequent pool use was significantly negatively associated with spina bifida (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99). Among offspring of women 20 years old or older, pool use was associated with gastroschisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.8), although not significantly so. We observed little evidence suggesting teratogenic effects of swimming pool use. Because swimming is a common and suggested form of exercise during pregnancy, these results are reassuring. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-formed waterfall plunge pools in homogeneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lo, Daniel Y.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfalls are ubiquitous, and their upstream propagation can set the pace of landscape evolution, yet no experimental studies have examined waterfall plunge pool erosion in homogeneous rock. We performed laboratory experiments, using synthetic foam as a bedrock simulant, to produce self-formed waterfall plunge pools via particle impact abrasion. Plunge pool vertical incision exceeded lateral erosion by approximately tenfold until pools deepened to the point that the supplied sediment could not be evacuated and deposition armored the pool bedrock floor. Lateral erosion of plunge pool sidewalls continued after sediment deposition, but primarily at the downstream pool wall, which might lead to undermining of the plunge pool lip, sediment evacuation, and continued vertical pool floor incision in natural streams. Undercutting of the upstream pool wall was absent, and our results suggest that vertical drilling of successive plunge pools is a more efficient waterfall retreat mechanism than the classic model of headwall undercutting and collapse in homogeneous rock.

  19. SNP calling by sequencing pooled samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raineri Emanuele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Performing high throughput sequencing on samples pooled from different individuals is a strategy to characterize genetic variability at a small fraction of the cost required for individual sequencing. In certain circumstances some variability estimators have even lower variance than those obtained with individual sequencing. SNP calling and estimating the frequency of the minor allele from pooled samples, though, is a subtle exercise for at least three reasons. First, sequencing errors may have a much larger relevance than in individual SNP calling: while their impact in individual sequencing can be reduced by setting a restriction on a minimum number of reads per allele, this would have a strong and undesired effect in pools because it is unlikely that alleles at low frequency in the pool will be read many times. Second, the prior allele frequency for heterozygous sites in individuals is usually 0.5 (assuming one is not analyzing sequences coming from, e.g. cancer tissues, but this is not true in pools: in fact, under the standard neutral model, singletons (i.e. alleles of minimum frequency are the most common class of variants because P(f ∝ 1/f and they occur more often as the sample size increases. Third, an allele appearing only once in the reads from a pool does not necessarily correspond to a singleton in the set of individuals making up the pool, and vice versa, there can be more than one read – or, more likely, none – from a true singleton. Results To improve upon existing theory and software packages, we have developed a Bayesian approach for minor allele frequency (MAF computation and SNP calling in pools (and implemented it in a program called snape: the approach takes into account sequencing errors and allows users to choose different priors. We also set up a pipeline which can simulate the coalescence process giving rise to the SNPs, the pooling procedure and the sequencing. We used it to compare the

  20. Mechanisms for convection triggering by cold pools

    CERN Document Server

    Torri, Giuseppe; Tian, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cold pools are fundamental ingredients of deep convection. They contribute to organizing the sub-cloud layer and are considered key elements in triggering convective cells. It was long known that this could happen mechanically, through lifting by the cold pools' fronts. More recently, it has been suggested that convection could also be triggered thermodynamically, by accumulation of moisture around the edges of cold pools. A method based on Lagrangian tracking is here proposed to disentangle the signatures of both forcings and quantify their importance in a given environment. Results from a simulation of radiative-convective equilibrium over the ocean show that parcels reach their level of free convection through a combination of both forcings, each being dominant at different stages of the ascent. Mechanical forcing is an important player in lifting parcels from the surface, whereas thermodynamic forcing reduces the inhibition encountered by parcels before they reach their level of free convection.

  1. Effects of indoor swimming pools on the nasal cytology of pool workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkul, E; Yaz, A; Cıngı, C; İnançli, H M; San, T; Bal, C

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between swimming pool pollutants and allergic rhinitis in swimming pool workers. Twenty-seven indoor pool workers (group 1) and 49 control subjects (group 2) were enrolled in the study. A skin prick test was performed and a nasal smear was obtained from each subject to evaluate rhinitis. When the groups were compared in terms of epithelial cells, group 1 had significantly more epithelial cells than group 2. When the groups were compared with regard to eosinophils, group 1 had significantly more eosinophils than group 2. The skin prick test results for both groups were not significantly different. Indoor pool workers showed severe symptoms of rhinitis and eosinophilic nasal cytology, likely due to chlorine. Nasal cytology is an easy-to-administer diagnostic test and can be used to follow up rhinitis in indoor pool workers, along with nasal endoscopy, a detailed clinical history and a skin prick test.

  2. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial/Business Pool. 90.35 Section 90.35... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Industrial/Business Radio Pool § 90.35 Industrial/Business Pool. (a) Eligibility... Industrial/Business Pool to provide commercial mobile radio service as defined in part 20 of this chapter...

  3. 48 CFR 232.470 - Advance payment pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advance payment pool. 232... Items 232.470 Advance payment pool. (a) An advance payment pool agreement— (1) Is a means of financing... addition to any other advance payment pool agreement at a single contractor location when it is...

  4. 47 CFR 90.20 - Public Safety Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Safety Pool. 90.20 Section 90.20... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Public Safety Radio Pool § 90.20 Public Safety Pool. (a) Eligibility. The following are eligible to hold authorizations in the Public Safety Pool. (1) Any territory, possession,...

  5. Adrian Poole. Shakespeare and the Victorians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice LAURENT

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dr Adrian Poole of Trinity College, Cambridge offers in this new study a comprehensive panorama of Shakespeare’s influence on the Victorians. Dr Poole investigates the interpretation and appropriation of the plays and, to a lesser extent, of the poems by Shakespeare with a view to demonstrate that they provided a major source of inspiration to Victorian actors, novelists and visual artists.The point of view is that of a distinguished Victorianist, and the reader is supposed to have a sound kn...

  6. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  7. The new pooled cohort equations risk calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Kristensen, Søren L

    2015-01-01

    total cardiovascular risk score. During development of joint guidelines released in 2013 by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA), the decision was taken to develop a new risk score. This resulted in the ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator. This risk...... disease and any measure of social deprivation. An early criticism of the Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator has been its alleged overestimation of ASCVD risk which, if confirmed in the general population, is likely to result in statin therapy being prescribed to many individuals at lower risk than...

  8. Censored Exploration and the Dark Pool Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, Kuzman; Nevmyvaka, Yuriy; Vaughan, Jennifer Wortman

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a natural algorithm for multi-venue exploration from censored data, which is motivated by the Dark Pool Problem of modern quantitative finance. We prove that our algorithm converges in polynomial time to a near-optimal allocation policy; prior results for similar problems in stochastic inventory control guaranteed only asymptotic convergence and examined variants in which each venue could be treated independently. Our analysis bears a strong resemblance to that of efficient exploration/ exploitation schemes in the reinforcement learning literature. We describe an extensive experimental evaluation of our algorithm on the Dark Pool Problem using real trading data.

  9. A Meltwater Pool Discovered in Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On an expedition to northwest China's Glacier 1 in the TianshanMountains, a research team led by Prof. Li Zhongqin from the CAS Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute found a 15-meter-long, 4-meterhigh ice cliff in the northwest of the source area on the glacier top. To their surprise, the south-facing ice cliff overlooked an approximately 30-m2 pool sprawling on the glacial sheet. The experts say the pool is at least 1.5 m deep and formed by the summer melt.

  10. [Pool exercise therapy of rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, E M; Lund, H; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    2001-10-01

    Aquatic therapy is a subgroup of balneotherapy and consists of exercises in a hot water pool. It uses the physical properties of water to achieve better mobility for patients whose pain, lack of muscle strength, and joint deformities are inhibiting factors when exercising on land. Pool therapy shows positive effects as part of the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis patients, but too few studies with an acceptable design and a well-defined patient group have been carried out. The documentation available on aquatic therapy indicates that more large clinical, controlled, and randomised studies must be conducted.

  11. Evolution of the Moxizhuang Oil Field, Central Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Huayao; Zhang Yuanchun; Liu Jianzhang; Shi Jiannan

    2008-01-01

    Current oil saturation in the Moxizhuang (莫西庄) Oil Field in central Janggar (准噶尔) basin was evaluated by logging interpretation and measured on core samples, and the paleo-oil saturation in both the pay zones and water zones was investigated by graln-containing-oil inclusion (GOI) analysis.The pay zones in this field have low oil saturation and display low resistivity and small contrast between pay zones and water zones, and are classified as low-porosity, low oil saturation, and low resistivity reservoirs. Both the current low oil-saturation pay zones and the water zones above 4 365 m have high GOI values (up to 38%), suggesting high paleo-oil saturation. The significant difference between current oil saturation from both logging interpretation and core sample measurement and paleo-oil saturation indicated by GOI analysis suggests that this low oil-saturation field evolved from a high oil-saturation pool. Lateral re-migration and spill of formally trapped oil owing to changes in structural configuration since Neogene was the most plausible mechanism for oil loss in the Moxizhuang Oil Field.The combined effects of differential accumulation in the charge phase and the differential re-migration and spill of accumulated oil in Neogene are responsible for the complicated correlation between residual oil saturation and porosity/permeability of the reservoir sandstones and the distribution of low oil-saturation pay zones and paleo-oil zones (current water zones).

  12. Formation Conditions and Distribution Regularities of Oil—gas Pools in Tertiary Volcanic Rocks in Western Huimin Depression,Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽容; 王永杰; 等

    1989-01-01

    The formation conditions and distribution regularities of oil-gas pools in volcanic rocks in western Huimin Depression have been studied in terms of geolgic,sesmic and well logging information,This paper discusses the types and lithofacies,development and distribution of Tertiary volcanic rocks in the area.The results demonstrate that volcanic activity occurred mainly during the period from the Sha-4 stage to the Guantao episode,i.e.,before the oil-generating period(before the end of the Guantao episode and the Minghuazhen episode).The activity did not destroy oil and gas formation and accumulation,but was favourable for the concentration of organic matter and its conversion to hydrocarbons;besides,volcanic rocks can serve as reservoir rocks and cap rocks,playing a role very similar to that of a syndepositional anticline,The volcanic rocks are distributed near the margins of the oil-generating depression;there are many secondary interstices in the rocks,which are connected with each other.These are the leading conditions for the formation of oil-generating period and their self-sealing or good combination with other cap rocks are important factors for forming volcanic rock-hosted oil and gas pools.The oil-gas pools associated with volcanic rocks in western Huimin are mainly distributed around the deep oil-generating depression,in the central up lift or the high structural levels on the margins of the depression.In particular,the sites where several faults cross are usually locatons where hith-yielding oil-gas pools in volcanic rocks are concentrated.

  13. Vision-based detection of MAG weld pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Jinqiang; Wu Chuansong; Zhang Min; Zhao Yanhua

    2007-01-01

    Weld pool contains significant information about the welding process. The weld pool images of MAG welding are detected by LaserStrobe system. An algorithm for extracting weld pool edge is proposed according to the characteristics of MAG weld pool images. The maximum weld pool length and width are calculated. The measurement data can be used to verify the results of welding process simulation and to provide a good foundation for automatic control of MAG welding process.

  14. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  15. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immune system. Despite coconut oil's high calorie and saturated fat content, some people use it by mouth to ... Coconut oil is high in a saturated fat called medium chain triglycerides. These fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. However, research on the effects ...

  16. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  17. Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

  18. The Pool with the Movable Bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A major diagnostic, therapeutic, educational, and training center for the handicapped has under construction a swimming pool with a floor that will rise to deck level to enable handicapped persons to roll their wheel chairs on and then float free as the floor is lowered. (Author/MLF)

  19. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, C.M.; Lindken, R.; Velthuis, J.F.M.; Westerweel, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found

  20. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rops, C.M. [TNO Science and Industry, P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: cor.rops@tno.nl; Lindken, R. [Laboratory for Aero and Hydrodynamics, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Velthuis, J.F.M. [TNO Science and Industry, P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands); Westerweel, J. [Laboratory for Aero and Hydrodynamics, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found that a reduction of the pool diameter leads to an enhancement of the nucleate boiling heat flux for most of the boiling curve. Our experimental results indicate that this enhancement is not affected by the depth of the boiling pot, the material of the bounding wall, or the diameter of the inlet water supply. High-speed camera imaging shows that the heat transfer enhancement for the spatially confined pool boiling occurs in conjunction with a stable circulating flow, which is in contrast to the chaotic and mainly upward motion for boiling in larger pool diameters. An explanation for the enhancement of the heat transfer and the associated change in flow pattern is found in the singularisation of the nucleate boiling process.

  1. "Teisele poole" Agambeniga ja Agambenita / Ragne Nukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nukk, Ragne, 1984-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna Fotokuu rahvusvahelise fotonäituse "Teisele poole" ideeliste lähtekohtade tõlgendamisest. Autor kõrvutab Adam Budaki kuraatornäituse aluseks olnud Giorgio Agambeni esseed „Viimne kohtupäev“ näitusel eksponeeritud piltidega

  2. 24 CFR 320.9 - Pool administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GUARANTY OF MORTGAGE-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.9 Pool administration. The Association will only guarantee securities if the issuer executes a guaranty agreement or contractual agreement in the form...

  3. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage repr...

  4. Pooling Problems with Polynomial-Time Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haugland, Dag; Hendrix, Eligius M.T.

    2016-01-01

    The computational challenge offered by many traditional network flow models is modest, and large-scale instances can be solved fast. When the composition of the flow is part of the model, the required computation time may increase substantially. This is in particular true for the pooling problem,

  5. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, C.M.; Lindken, R.; Velthuis, J.F.M.; Westerweel, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found

  6. Carbon Residence Times in Pedogenic Carbonate Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, H.; Feng, Y.; Karnjanapiboonwang, A.

    2013-12-01

    Soil carbonate is a huge pool of terrestrial carbon that contains at least 930 to 940 Pg C and has influx rates on the order of 1 to 12 g CaCO3/m2/yr. Such large mass to flux ratios yield long mean residence times for carbon (e.g., 85,000 years)--assuming steady state. Like other global carbon pools, the soil carbonate pool has smaller sub-pools with higher influx rates and shorter mean residence times. For example, pedogenic carbonate in coppice dunes known to have formed since 1858 and carbonate formed on lithic artifacts in soils at archaeology sites suggests mean residence times can be as short as 120 years--again assuming steady state. Harder to assess are efflux rates as CO2 emissions or bicarbonate leaching. Some Bowen-ratio studies have nevertheless found evidence for CO2 emissions resulting from carbonate dissolution, and other studies have found evidence for bicarbonate leaching based on dissolution pipes through calcic horizons using soil morphology studies. Since an understanding of mean residence times are prerequisite for a better understanding of soil carbonate in the global carbon cycle, especially in a scenario of an expanding Aridosphere, more influx and efflux measurements are needed to evaluate the possibility of carbon sequestration by soil carbonate in hyperarid, arid, semiarid, or subhumid soils.

  7. The Pool Is Not Just for Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzker, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Participating in water fitness workouts is one way to benefit one's health at very little cost. If the pool at a school is used only for swimming, then the benefits of having one barely causes a ripple. When the properties of water and how humans react to water are understood and applied to water activity programs, health benefits and enjoyment…

  8. Strategies for chemically healthy public swimming pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht

    of the strategies which can be used to achieve microbiological safe water with low levels of DBPs to ensure healthy environment for bathers. There are different approaches to achieve healthy environment in public swimming pools which in this thesis are divided into three strategies: alternatives to chlorination...

  9. The warm pool in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.

    ) a single maximum/minimum (northern and southern part of the Pacific warm pool and the south Indian Ocean), (iii) two maxima/minima (Arabian Sea, western equatorial Indian Ocean and Southern Bay of Bengal), and (iv) a rapid rise, a steady phase and a...

  10. "Teisele poole" Agambeniga ja Agambenita / Ragne Nukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nukk, Ragne, 1984-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna Fotokuu rahvusvahelise fotonäituse "Teisele poole" ideeliste lähtekohtade tõlgendamisest. Autor kõrvutab Adam Budaki kuraatornäituse aluseks olnud Giorgio Agambeni esseed „Viimne kohtupäev“ näitusel eksponeeritud piltidega

  11. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  12. The Tropical Western Hemisphere Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Enfield, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    The paper describes and examines variability of the tropical Western Hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) of water warmer than 28.5oC. The WHWP is the second-largest tropical warm pool on Earth. Unlike the Eastern Hemisphere warm pool in the western Pacific, which straddles the equator, the WHWP is entirely north of the equator. At various stages of development the WHWP extends over parts of the eastern North Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and the western tropical North Atlantic. It has a large seasonal cycle and its interannual fluctuations of area and intensity are significant. Surface heat fluxes warm the WHWP through the boreal spring to an annual maximum of SST and WHWP area in the late summer/early fall, associated with eastern North Pacific and Atlantic hurricane activities and rainfall from northern South America to the southern tier of the United States. Observations suggest that a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback operating through longwave radiation and associated cloudiness seems to operate in the WHWP. During winter preceding large warm pool, there is an alteration of the Walker and Hadley circulation cells that serves as a "tropospheric bridge" for transferring Pacific ENSO effects to the Atlantic sector and inducing initial warming of warm pool. Associated with the warm SST anomalies is a decrease in sea level pressure anomalies and an anomalous increase in atmospheric convection and cloudiness. The increase in convective activity and cloudiness results in less net longwave radiation loss from the sea surface, which then reinforces SST anomalies.

  13. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deepwater Horizon well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. See a map showing the largest oil spills ... Hurricane Season Meet the New CAMEO Chemicals Mobile App Revised: Sep 25, 2017 10:35pm | Site Map | ...

  14. Alternative heating of a municipal swimming pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.

    1982-03-01

    Swimming pools require great amounts of energy at low temperature levels. Therefore the application of alternative heating systems is very suitable. Four different systems are taken into account: compression heat pump, absorption heat pump, motor driven heat pump with thermal recovery, and a combined system. A short thermodynamic analysis is carried out in order to evaluate operating savings. Initial cost estimates demonstrate the advantages of each proposed solution over the conventional system.

  15. Health risks of early swimming pool attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoefer, Yvonne; Zutavern, Anne; Brockow, Inken; Schäfer, Torsten; Krämer, Ursula; Schaaf, Beate; Herbarth, Olf; von Berg, Andrea; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Swimming pool attendance and exposure to chlorination by-products showed adverse health effects on children. We assessed whether early swimming pool attendance, especially baby swimming, is related to higher rates of early infections and to the development of allergic diseases. In 2003-2005, 2192 children were analysed for the 6-year follow-up of a prospective birth cohort study. Data on early swimming pool attendance, other lifestyle factors and medical history were collected by parental-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations. Babies who did not participate in baby swimming had lower rates of infection in the 1st year of life (i) diarrhoea: OR 0.68 CI 95% 0.54-0.85; (ii) otitis media: OR 0.81 CI 95% 0.62-1.05; (iii) airway infections: OR 0.85 CI 95% 0.67-1.09. No clear association could be found between late or non-swimmers and atopic dermatitis or hay fever until the age of 6 years, while higher rates of asthma were found (OR 2.15 95% CI 1.16-3.99), however, potentially due to reverse causation. The study indicates that, in terms of infections, baby swimming might not be as harmless as commonly thought. Further evidence is needed to make conclusions if the current regulations on chlorine in Germany might not protect swimming pool attendees from an increased risk of gastrointestinal infections. In terms of developing atopic diseases there is no verifiable detrimental effect of early swimming.

  16. Labor market pooling and occupational agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Gabe, Todd M.; Jaison R. Abel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the micro-foundations of occupational agglomeration in U.S. metropolitan areas, with an emphasis on labor market pooling. Controlling for a wide range of occupational attributes, including proxies for the use of specialized machinery and for the importance of knowledge spillovers, we find that jobs characterized by a unique knowledge base exhibit higher levels of geographic concentration than do occupations with generic knowledge requirements. Further, by analyzing co-aggl...

  17. Poole-frenkel piezoconductive element and sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermehl, Scott D.

    2004-08-03

    A new class of highly sensitive piezoconductive strain sensor elements and sensors has been invented. The new elements function under conditions such that electrical conductivity is dominated by Poole-Frenkel transport. A substantial piezoconductive effect appears in this regime, allowing the new sensors to exhibit sensitivity to applied strain as much as two orders of magnitude in excess of prior art sensors based on doped silicon.

  18. Ulk4 Regulates Neural Stem Cell Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Guan, Zhenlong; Shen, Qin; Flinter, Frances; Domínguez, Laura; Ahn, Joo Wook; Collier, David A; O'Brien, Timothy; Shen, Sanbing

    2016-09-01

    The size of neural stem cell (NSC) pool at birth determines the starting point of adult neurogenesis. Aberrant neurogenesis is associated with major mental illness, in which ULK4 is proposed as a rare risk factor. Little is known about factors regulating the NSC pool, or function of the ULK4. Here, we showed that Ulk4(tm1a/tm1a) mice displayed a dramatically reduced NSC pool at birth. Ulk4 was expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner and peaked in G2/M phases. Targeted disruption of the Ulk4 perturbed mid-neurogenesis and significantly reduced cerebral cortex in postnatal mice. Pathway analyses of dysregulated genes in Ulk4(tm1a/tm1a) mice revealed Ulk4 as a key regulator of cell cycle and NSC proliferation, partially through regulation of the Wnt signaling. In addition, we identified hemizygous deletion of ULK4 gene in 1.2/1,000 patients with pleiotropic symptoms including severe language delay and learning difficulties. ULK4, therefore, may significantly contribute to neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. Stem Cells 2016;34:2318-2331.

  19. Vesicle Pools: Lessons from Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Stevens

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. Membrane capacitance measurements in combination with Ca2+ uncaging offers a temporal resolution in the millisecond range and reveals that catecholamine release occurs in three distinct phases. Release of a readily releasable (RRP and a slowly releasable (SRP pool are followed by sustained release, due to maturation and release of vesicles which were not release-ready at the start of the stimulus. Trains of depolarizations, a more physiological stimulus, induce release from a small immediately releasable pool of vesicles residing adjacent to calcium channels, as well as from the RRP. The SRP is poorly activated by depolarization. A sequential model, in which non-releasable docked vesicles are primed to a slowly releasable state, and then further mature to the readily releasable state, has been proposed. The docked state, dependent on membrane proximity, requires SNAP-25, synaptotagmin and syntaxin. The ablation or modification of SNAP-25 and syntaxin, components of the SNARE complex, as well as of synaptotagmin, the calcium sensor, and modulators such complexins and Snapin alter the properties and/or magnitudes of different phases of release, and in particular can ablate the RRP. These results indicate that the composition of the SNARE complex and its interaction with modulatory molecules drives priming and provides a molecular basis for different pools of releasable vesicles.

  20. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. King

    2000-06-19

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  1. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of...

  2. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of...

  3. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of...

  4. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 14

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  5. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  6. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  7. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 10

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  8. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  9. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 13

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  10. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 22

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  11. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 18

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  12. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 5a

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  13. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  14. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  15. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 24

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  16. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  17. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 20

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  18. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 26

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  19. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 09

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  20. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 25

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  1. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  2. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 12

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  3. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  4. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 25

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of...

  5. Performance Study and Dynamic Optimization Design for Thread Pool Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongping [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    Thread pools have been widely used by many multithreaded applications. However, the determination of the pool size according to the application behavior still remains problematic. To automate this process, in this thesis we have developed a set of performance metrics for quantitatively analyzing thread pool performance. For our experiments, we built a thread pool system which provides a general framework for thread pool research. Based on this simulation environment, we studied the performance impact brought by the thread pool on different multithreaded applications. Additionally, the correlations between internal characterizations of thread pools and their throughput were also examined. We then proposed and evaluated a heuristic algorithm to dynamically determine the optimal thread pool size. The simulation results show that this approach is effective in improving overall application performance.

  6. [Tiit Hennoste loengusarjast 'Hüpped modernismi poole'] / Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krull, Hasso, 1964-

    1997-01-01

    Tiit Hennoste loengusarjast 'Hüpped modernismi poole : Eesti 20. sajandi kirjandusest Euroopa modernismi taustal' (1993, nr. 10 - 1997, nr. 10/11).Vastukaja: Hüpped modernismi poole: kajad ja vastukajad // Vikerkaar (1998) nr. 6, lk. 99-111

  7. [Tiit Hennoste loengusarjast 'Hüpped modernismi poole'] / Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krull, Hasso, 1964-

    1997-01-01

    Tiit Hennoste loengusarjast 'Hüpped modernismi poole : Eesti 20. sajandi kirjandusest Euroopa modernismi taustal' (1993, nr. 10 - 1997, nr. 10/11).Vastukaja: Hüpped modernismi poole: kajad ja vastukajad // Vikerkaar (1998) nr. 6, lk. 99-111

  8. Design and implementation of a caustic flooding EOR pilot at Court Bakken heavy oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J.; Chung, B.; Leung, L. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Successful waterflooding has been ongoing since 1988 at the Court Bakken heavy oil field in west central Saskatchewan. There are currently 20 injectors and 28 active oil producers in the Court main unit which is owned by Nexen and Pengrowth. The Court pool has an estimated 103.8 mmbbl of original oil in place (OOIP), of which 24 per cent has been successfully recovered after 20 years of waterflooding. A high-level enhanced oil recovery (EOR) screening study was conducted to evaluate other EOR technologies for a heavy oil reservoir of this viscosity range (17 degrees API). Laboratory studies showed that caustic flooding may enhance oil recovery after waterflooding at the Court Bakken heavy oil pool. A single well test demonstrated that caustic injection effectively reduced residual oil saturation. A sector model reservoir simulation revealed that caustic flood could achieve 9 per cent incremental oil recovery in the pilot area. Following the promising laboratory results, a successful caustic flood pilot was implemented at Court heavy oil pool where the major challenges encountered were low reservoir pressure and water channeling. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Biodegradation of crude oil dispersions by marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Gabriel; Fernandez, Vicente; Stocker, Roman

    2016-11-01

    Dispersants are used to break up marine oil slicks and increase the available surface area for bacteria to degrade oil hydrocarbons. However, this common view neglects key elements of the microscale interactions between bacteria and oil droplets, namely encounters and growth. Utilizing experimental observations of bacteria colonizing oil droplets, we model the interactions affecting hydrocarbon consumption between a collection of oil droplets with varying sizes and a single bacterial pool. The results show that degradation time is minimized for intermediate droplet sizes and that reducing droplet size too much can lead to years in increased degradation time. This mechanical model provides a baseline for understanding oil biodegradation and mitigation strategies in open marine systems.

  10. Understanding the Impacts of Dark Pools on Price Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of dark pools on price discovery (the efficiency of prices on stock exchanges to aggregate information). Assets are traded in either an exchange or a dark pool, with the dark pool offering better prices but lower execution rates. Informed traders receive noisy and heterogeneous signals about an asset's fundamental. We find that informed traders use dark pools to mitigate their information risk and there is a sorting effect: in equilibrium, traders with stron...

  11. A three-pool model dissecting readily releasable pool replenishment at the calyx of held.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Ge, Jian-long; Hao, Mei; Sun, Zhi-cheng; Wu, Xin-sheng; Zhu, Jian-bing; Wang, Wei; Yao, Pan-tong; Lin, Wei; Xue, Lei

    2015-03-31

    Although vesicle replenishment is critical in maintaining exo-endocytosis recycling, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have shown that both rapid and slow endocytosis recycle into a very large recycling pool instead of within the readily releasable pool (RRP), and the time course of RRP replenishment is slowed down by more intense stimulation. This finding contradicts the calcium/calmodulin-dependence of RRP replenishment. Here we address this issue and report a three-pool model for RRP replenishment at a central synapse. Both rapid and slow endocytosis provide vesicles to a large reserve pool (RP) ~42.3 times the RRP size. When moving from the RP to the RRP, vesicles entered an intermediate pool (IP) ~2.7 times the RRP size with slow RP-IP kinetics and fast IP-RRP kinetics, which was responsible for the well-established slow and rapid components of RRP replenishment. Depletion of the IP caused the slower RRP replenishment observed after intense stimulation. These results establish, for the first time, a realistic cycling model with all parameters measured, revealing the contribution of each cycling step in synaptic transmission. The results call for modification of the current view of the vesicle recycling steps and their roles.

  12. 40 CFR 97.143 - Compliance supplement pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance supplement pool. 97.143... Allocations § 97.143 Compliance supplement pool. (a) In addition to the CAIR NOX allowances allocated under... CAIR NOX allowances to CAIR NOX units in the respective State: State Compliancesupplement pool...

  13. 40 CFR 96.143 - Compliance supplement pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance supplement pool. 96.143... CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.143 Compliance supplement pool. (a) In addition to the CAIR NOX... Compliancesupplement pool Alabama 10,166 Delaware 843 District Of Columbia 0 Florida 8,335 Georgia 12,397 Illinois...

  14. 40 CFR 97.43 - Compliance Supplement Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance Supplement Pool. 97.43... Allocations § 97.43 Compliance Supplement Pool. (a) For any NOX Budget unit that reduces its NOX emission rate... State's compliance supplement pool set forth in appendix D of this part has a number of NOX...

  15. 48 CFR 873.114 - Best value pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Best value pool. 873.114... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES FOR HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.114 Best value pool... solicitation. These vendors constitute the best value pool. This determination is within the sole discretion...

  16. 48 CFR 252.232-7000 - Advance payment pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advance payment pool. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.232-7000 Advance payment pool. As prescribed in 232.412-70(a), use the following clause: Advance Payment Pool (DEC 1991) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract,...

  17. New algebraic constructions for pooling design in DNA library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengti; Gao, Suogang; Du, Hongjie; Shi, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Pooling design is an important mathematical tool in DNA library screening. It has been showed that using pooling design, the number of tests in DNA library screening can be greatly reduced. In this paper, we present some new algebraic constructions for pooling design.

  18. Spatial and temporal variation in ephemeral pool crustacean communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janette Holtz; Marie A. Simovich; Thomas Philippi

    2005-01-01

    Vernal pool habitat losses in San Diego County, California, are estimated at 95 percent and will increase as development continues. The majority of San Diego’s remaining pools are located at the Marine Corps Air Station, Miramar. Crustacean communities in eight vernal pools in San Diego County were sampled over 3 years that differed in rainfall amount and pattern. In...

  19. Soil organic carbon pools in the northern circumpolar permafrost region

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Tarnocai; J.G. Canadell; E.A.G. Schuur; P. Kuhry; G. Mazhitova; S. Zimov

    2009-01-01

    The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database was developed to determine carbon pools in soils of the northern circumpolar permafrost region. Here we report a new estimate of the carbon pools in soils of the northern permafrost region, including deeper layers and pools not accounted for in previous analyses.

  20. A Skeleton for Distributed Work Pools in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Berthold, Jost; Loogen, Rita

    2010-01-01

    We present a flexible skeleton for implementing distributed work pools in our parallel functional language Eden. The skeleton manages a pool of tasks (work pool) in a distributed manner using a demand-driven work stealing approach for load balancing. All coordination is done locally within...

  1. NACUBO's Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO's) "Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools" addresses the principles and concepts for administering a consolidated investment pool. Unitization is the mechanism by which investment funds are pooled to maximize investment efficiencies and provide information for donors,…

  2. Combustion: an oil spill mitigation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    The technical feasibility of using combustion as an oil spill mitigation tool was studied. Part I of the two-part report is a practical guide oriented toward the needs of potential users, while Part II is the research or resource document from which the practical guidance was drawn. The study included theoretical evaluations of combustion of petroleum pool fires under the effects of weathering and an oil classification system related to combustion potential. The theoretical analysis of combustion is balanced by practical experience of oil burning and case history information. Decision elements are provided which can be used as a guide for technical evaluations of a particular oil spill situation. The rationale for assessing technical feasibility is given in the context of other alternatives available for response to an oil spill. A series of research and technology development concepts are included for future research. The ethics of using oil burning are discussed as issues, concerns, and tradeoffs. A detailed annotated bibliography is appended along with a capsule review of a decade of oil burning studies and other support information.

  3. Swimming Pools, Swimming pools, licensed - name, address, contact, volume, Published in 2006, Iowa Dept. of Public Health.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Swimming Pools dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'Swimming pools, licensed - name,...

  4. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  5. All About Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats. Oils from plant sources (vegetable and nut oils) ... oil, and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to ...

  6. Geochemistry and origin of gas pools in the Gaoqing-Pingnan fault zone,Jiyang Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the surroundings of the Gaoqing-Pingnan fault zone are developed quite a number of gas reservoirs. Based on gas compositions, they can be divided into two groups, i.e., CO2 and CH4. Their composition and isotope geochemistry were dealt with in this study. The CO2 contents range from 60.72%-99.99%, the (13CCO2 values from -3.41‰- -9.8‰, and the 3He/4He ratios from 4.35×10-6-6.35×10-6 (i.e. R/Ra=4.45-4.35). Based on the data on composition and isotope geochemistry, deep geological background, deep faults and volcanic rocks, it is shown that CO2 ,distributed in the Gaoqing area, mostly originated from mantle-source inorganic matter which is associated with magmatic rocks. The favorable tectonic environment for the formation of CO2 reservoirs is the rift, which is related to great fault-magmatic activity, the formation of CO2 gas pools and their space-time correlation to the most recent magmatic activities. Hydrocarbon gas pools occur in the Huagou area. The CH4 contents are within the range of 88.83%-99.12%, and the (13CCH4 values, -44.7‰- -54.39‰. This indicates that the hydrocarbon gas resulted from the decomposition of oil-type gas at high temperatures. Volcanic rocks in the CO2 gas pool- and CH4 gas pool-distributed areas show significant differences in Fe2O3 and FeO contents. This has proven that the hydrocarbon gas may have resulted from various chemical reactions. Magmatic activities are the primary reason for the distribution of CO2 and CH4 gas pools in the Gaoqing-Pingnan fault zone.

  7. Microbial activities and dissolved organic matter dynamics in oil-contaminated surface seawater from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ziervogel

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill triggered a complex cascade of microbial responses that reshaped the dynamics of heterotrophic carbon degradation and the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC in oil contaminated waters. Our results from 21-day laboratory incubations in rotating glass bottles (roller bottles demonstrate that microbial dynamics and carbon flux in oil-contaminated surface water sampled near the spill site two weeks after the onset of the blowout were greatly affected by activities of microbes associated with macroscopic oil aggregates. Roller bottles with oil-amended water showed rapid formation of oil aggregates that were similar in size and appearance compared to oil aggregates observed in surface waters near the spill site. Oil aggregates that formed in roller bottles were densely colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, exhibiting high rates of enzymatic activity (lipase hydrolysis indicative of oil degradation. Ambient waters surrounding aggregates also showed enhanced microbial activities not directly associated with primary oil-degradation (β-glucosidase; peptidase, as well as a twofold increase in DOC. Concurrent changes in fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM suggest an increase in oil-derived, aromatic hydrocarbons in the DOC pool. Thus our data indicate that oil aggregates mediate, by two distinct mechanisms, the transfer of hydrocarbons to the deep sea: a microbially-derived flux of oil-derived DOC from sinking oil aggregates into the ambient water column, and rapid sedimentation of the oil aggregates themselves, serving as vehicles for oily particulate matter as well as oil aggregate-associated microbial communities.

  8. Cold Pool and Surface Flux Interactions in Different Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, L. D.; van den Heever, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Cold pools play important roles in tropical and midlatitude deep convective initiation and organization through their influence on near-surface kinematic and thermodynamic fields. Because temperature, moisture, and winds are perturbed within cold pools, cold pools can also impact surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. In turn, surface fluxes both within the cold pool and in the environment can modify the characteristics of cold pools and their evolution, with subsequent implications for convective initiation and organization. The two-way interaction between cold pools and surface energy fluxes has not been well studied and is likely to vary according to the environment and surface type. The goal of this study is therefore to investigate the mechanisms by which surface fluxes and cold pools interact in environmental conditions ranging from tropical oceanic to dry continental. This goal will be accomplished using high-resolution (grid spacings as fine as 10 m), idealized, 2D simulations of isolated cold pools; such modeling experiments have proven useful for investigating cold pools and their dynamics in many previous studies. In the proposed experiments, the surface flux formulation, surface type, and environmental conditions will be systematically varied. The impact of surface fluxes on various cold pool characteristics and their evolution, including the buoyancy, maximum vertical velocity, and moisture distribution, will be analyzed and presented. Results suggest that the mechanisms by which surface fluxes and cold pools interact vary substantially with the environment. Additionally, the indirect effects of surface fluxes on turbulent entrainment rates into the cold pool are found to play an important role in cold pool evolution. These results suggest that surface fluxes can impact the timing and manner in which cold pools initiate convection, and that their effects may be important to incorporate into cold pool parameterizations for climate simulations.

  9. An introduction to mid-Atlantic seasonal pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.J.; Jung, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal pools, also known as vernal ponds, provide important ecological services to the mid-Atlantic region. This publication serves as an introduction to seasonal pool ecology and management; it also provides tools for exploring seasonal pools, including a full-color field guide to wildlife. Seasonal pools are defined as having four distinctive features: surface water isolation, periodic drying, small size and shallow depth, and support of a characteristic biological community. Seasonal pools experience regular drying that excludes populations of predatory fish. Thus, pools in the mid-Atlantic region provide critical breeding habitat for amphibian and invertebrate species (e.g., spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), wood frog (Rana sylvatica), and fairy shrimp (Order Anostraca)) that would be at increased risk of predation in more permanent waters. The distinctive features of seasonal pools also make them vulnerable to human disturbance. In the mid-Atlantic region, land-use changes pose the greatest challenges to seasonal pool conservation. Seasonal pools are threatened by direct loss (e.g., filling or draining of the pool) as well as by destruction and fragmentation of adjoining terrestrial habitat. Many of the species that depend on seasonal pools for breeding spend the majority of their lives in the surrounding lands that extend a radius of 1000 feet or more from the pools; these vital habitats are being transected by roads and converted to other land uses. Other threats to seasonal pools include biological introductions and removals, mosquito control practices, amphibian diseases, atmospheric deposition, and climate change. The authors recommend a three-pronged strategy for seasonal pool conservation and management in the mid-Atlantic region: education and research, inventory and monitoring of seasonal pools, and landscape-level planning and management.

  10. Pool boiling visualization on open microchannel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniowski Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents visualization investigations into pool boiling heat transfer for open minichannel surfaces. The experiments were carried out wih saturated water at atmospheric pressure. Parallel microchannels fabricated by machining were about 0.3 mm wide and 0.2 to 0.4 mm deep. High-speed videos were used as an aid to understanding the heat transfer mechanism. The visualization study aimed at identifying nucleation sites of the departing bubbles and determining their diameters and frequency at various superheats.

  11. Subcooled pool boiling CHF in ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jongdoc; Fukuda, Katsuya; Liu, Qiusheng

    2006-01-01

    Steady-state and transient critical heat fluxes (CHFs) were measured using a 1.0 mm diameter horizontal cylinder in a pool of highly wetting liquid, such as ethanol, due to steady and transient heat generation rate for wide range of subcoolings and pressures. Boiling CHF was assumed to happen based on a kind of hydrodynamic instability (HI) at CHF, and the model is supposed that the increase in vapor generation from the cylinder surface causes a limit of the steady-state vapor escape flow whe...

  12. EDITORIAL: In vitro experiments with primary mammalian cells: To Pool or not to Pool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Stoddart

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are various strategies that can be adopted when performing in vitro experiments with primary cells such as mesenchymal stem cells. It is generally accepted that multiple donors need to be investigated to take into account donor to donor variability; this is especially critical when investigating primary human cells. However, increasingly it is being seen that studies are pooling the cells from multiple donors prior to performing the experiment. This has obvious advantages but also many disadvantages, the greatest being loss of statistical power. This loss of statistical power is the reason why the pooling of primary cells for experiments is not to be recommended.

  13. Weld pool vision sensing and image processing for GMAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Jianfeng; LI Liangyu; FAN Fanglei; WU Baolin

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to acquire satisfied weld pool image by CCD sensor during gas metal arc welding(GMAW), for arc disturbs violently, welding current is great and working frequeacy is high. By using CMOS vision sensor to GMA W process, the vivid weld pool image is collected at any time, furthermore, whose gray compression ratio is controllable by sensor hardware circuit developed. Acquired weld pool image is firstly pre-processed by using Wiener filter and Ostu threshold segmentation algorithm. Subsequently separation between weld pool intage and cathode mist region is conducted by means of mathematical morphological algorithm, and the edge of weld pool image is extracted by using Prewitt algorithm.

  14. RECONSTRUCTION OF WELD POOL SURFACE BASED ON SHAPE FROM SHADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Quanying; CHEN Shanben; LIN Tao

    2006-01-01

    A valid image-processing algorithm of weld pool surface reconstruction according to an input image of weld pool based on shape from shading (SFS) in computer vision is presented. The weld pool surface information is related to the backside weld width, which is crucial to the quality of weldjoint. The image of weld pool is recorded with an optical sensing method. Firstly, the reflectance map model, which specifies the imaging process, is estimated. Then, the algorithm of weld pool surface reconstruction based on SFS is implemented by iteration scheme and speeded by hierarchical structure. The results indicate the accuracy and effectiveness of the approach.

  15. THE CLIMATE FEATURES OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA WARM POOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There exists a warm pool in the South China Sea (SCS). The temporal and spatial distribution and evolution of SCS warm pool is investigated using water temperatures at a depth of 20 m in the sea. The formation of the warm pool is discussed by combining water temperatures with geostrophic currents and simulated oceanic circulation. It is found that there are significant seasonal and interannual changes in the warm pool and in association with the general circulation of the atmosphere. The development of SCS warm pool is also closely related to the gyre activities in the sea and imported warm water from Indian Ocean (Java Sea) besides radiative warming.

  16. Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, M.J.; Eganhouse, R.P.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene ≫ o-xylene, benzene, C6 and C10–12n-alkanes > C7–C9n-alkanes > m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene > 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water–oil and air–water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C6–C9n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29 years or an average annual loss of 0.06–0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models.

  17. Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, Mary Jo; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Delin, Geoffrey N.

    2011-11-01

    The light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) oil pool in an aquifer that resulted from a pipeline spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was analyzed for volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) to determine if the composition of the oil remains constant over time. Oil samples were obtained from wells at five locations in the oil pool in an anaerobic part of the glacial outwash aquifer. Samples covering a 21-year period were analyzed for 25 VHCs. Compared to the composition of oil from the pipeline source, VHCs identified in oil from wells sampled in 2008 were 13 to 64% depleted. The magnitude of loss for the VHCs analyzed was toluene ≫ o-xylene, benzene, C 6 and C 10-12n-alkanes > C 7-C 9n-alkanes > m-xylene, cyclohexane, and 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene > 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene. Other VHCs including p-xylene, 1,3,5- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenes, the tetramethylbenzenes, methyl- and ethyl-cyclohexane, and naphthalene were not depleted during the time of the study. Water-oil and air-water batch equilibration simulations indicate that volatilization and biodegradation is most important for the C 6-C 9n-alkanes and cyclohexanes; dissolution and biodegradation is important for most of the other hydrocarbons. Depletion of the hydrocarbons in the oil pool is controlled by: the lack of oxygen and nutrients, differing rates of recharge, and the spatial distribution of oil in the aquifer. The mass loss of these VHCs in the 5 wells is between 1.6 and 7.4% in 29 years or an average annual loss of 0.06-0.26%/year. The present study shows that the composition of LNAPL changes over time and that these changes are spatially variable. This highlights the importance of characterizing the temporal and spatial variabilities of the source term in solute-transport models.

  18. Plant diversity associated with pools in natural and restored peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fontaine

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes plant assemblages associated with the edges of peatland pools. We conducted inventories in six natural peatlands in the province of Québec (Canada in order to measure the contribution of pools to species diversity in climatic regions where peatlands are used for peat extraction. We also carried out vegetation surveys in a peatland that has been restored after peat extraction/harvesting to determine whether pool vegetation establishes along the edges of created pools when dry surface restoration techniques only are used. Pools enhanced plant species richness in natural peatlands. Around created pools, species associated with natural pools were still absent, and non-bog species were present, six years after restoration. On this basis, we emphasise the importance of preserving natural peatlands with pools. In order to restore fully the plant diversity associated with peatlands at harvested sites, it may be necessary to modify pool excavation techniques so that created pools resemble more closely those in natural peatlands. Active introduction of the plant species or communities associated with natural pools may also be needed; candidate species for North America include Andromeda glaucophylla, Cladopodiella fluitans, Carex limosa, Eriophorum virginicum, Rhynchospora alba and Sphagnum cuspidatum.

  19. Opportunities and challenges when pooling milk samples using ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Andresen, Lars Ole; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    to standard pooling. Their efficiency and the potential savings were determined as a function of prevalence and the number of pooled samples. The potential benefit of pooling samples is dependent upon the changes in the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the test used when diluting test......-positive samples by pooling. To illustrate this, the sensitivity of antibody ELISA on pooled samples of bovine milk for Salmonella Dublin, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, and bovine virus diarrhea was tested. For these milk assays, the analytical sensitivity decreased rapidly with increasing pool sizes...... of samples, the two-stage non-hierarchical test may be more efficient, both in terms of number of tests and overall cost. In order to apply these results in different laboratory settings, a free Shiny WebApp was developed, to compare several pooling schemes with different cost parameters....

  20. Design of inventory pools in spare part support operation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Daniel Y.; Tseng, Mitchell M.; Cheung, Raymond K.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of a spare part support operation is to fulfill the part request order with different service contracts in the agreed response time. With this objective to achieve different service targets for multiple service contracts and the considerations of inventory investment, it is not only important to determine the inventory policy but also to design the structure of inventory pools and the order fulfilment strategies. In this research, we focused on two types of inventory pools: multiple inventory pool (MIP) and consolidated inventory pool (CIP). The idea of MIP is to maintain separated inventory pools based on the types of service contract, while CIP solely maintains a single inventory pool regardless of service contract. Our research aims to design the inventory pool analytically and propose reserve strategies to manage the order fulfilment risks in CIP. Mathematical models and simulation experiments would be applied for analysis and evaluation.

  1. Vision detection of weld pool shape parameters and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Youzhi; Liu, Nansheng; Wang, Yanfeng; Luo, Wei; Liu, Xiaorui

    2008-12-01

    An active vision sensing system which established by low power laser and common CCD is used to shoot GTAW welding pool images. Based on choose the appropriate LASER and filters, projected angle of laser and shoot angle of CCD, we avoid the disturbance of arc effectively and obtain clear images of the welding pool. The shape parameters of welding pool can obtain by demarcated and calculated. And then a three-dimentional numerical model of GTAW welding pool is established based on the theories of fluid dynamics and heat transfer. It considered the convection heat transfer of liquid metal and heat conduction of solid metal. And FLUENT software is used for simulate the GTAW welding pool. Extract the weld pool shape parameters and done comparative study with the vision detection of pool. This will be beneficial to avoid repeat experiments and improve work efficiency.

  2. Molecular underpinnings of synaptic vesicle pool heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Devon C; Kavalali, Ege T

    2015-04-01

    Neuronal communication relies on chemical synaptic transmission for information transfer and processing. Chemical neurotransmission is initiated by synaptic vesicle fusion with the presynaptic active zone resulting in release of neurotransmitters. Classical models have assumed that all synaptic vesicles within a synapse have the same potential to fuse under different functional contexts. In this model, functional differences among synaptic vesicle populations are ascribed to their spatial distribution in the synapse with respect to the active zone. Emerging evidence suggests, however, that synaptic vesicles are not a homogenous population of organelles, and they possess intrinsic molecular differences and differential interaction partners. Recent studies have reported a diverse array of synaptic molecules that selectively regulate synaptic vesicles' ability to fuse synchronously and asynchronously in response to action potentials or spontaneously irrespective of action potentials. Here we discuss these molecular mediators of vesicle pool heterogeneity that are found on the synaptic vesicle membrane, on the presynaptic plasma membrane, or within the cytosol and consider some of the functional consequences of this diversity. This emerging molecular framework presents novel avenues to probe synaptic function and uncover how synaptic vesicle pools impact neuronal signaling.

  3. Visual attention and flexible normalization pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Odelia; Coen-Cagli, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Attention to a spatial location or feature in a visual scene can modulate the responses of cortical neurons and affect perceptual biases in illusions. We add attention to a cortical model of spatial context based on a well-founded account of natural scene statistics. The cortical model amounts to a generalized form of divisive normalization, in which the surround is in the normalization pool of the center target only if they are considered statistically dependent. Here we propose that attention influences this computation by accentuating the neural unit activations at the attended location, and that the amount of attentional influence of the surround on the center thus depends on whether center and surround are deemed in the same normalization pool. The resulting form of model extends a recent divisive normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). We simulate cortical surround orientation experiments with attention and show that the flexible model is suitable for capturing additional data and makes nontrivial testable predictions. PMID:23345413

  4. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  5. Price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanouilides, C.; Fousekis, P.; Grigoriadis, V.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the degree and the structure of price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets (Spain, Italy and Greece). To this end, it utilizes monthly olive oil price data and the statistical tool of copulas. The empirical results suggest that prices are likely to boom together but not to crash together; this is especially true for the prices of the two most important players, Italy (importer) and Spain (exporter). The finding of asymmetric price co-movements implies that the three principal spatial olive oil markets in the EU cannot be thought of as one great pool. (Author)

  6. Price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Emmanouilides

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the degree and the structure of price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets (Spain, Italy and Greece. To this end, it utilizes monthly olive oil price data and the statistical tool of copulas. The empirical results suggest that prices are likely to boom together but not to crash together; this is especially true for the prices of the two most important players, Italy (importer and Spain (exporter. The finding of asymmetric price co-movements implies that the three principal spatial olive oil markets in the EU cannot be thought of as one great pool.

  7. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could also be ..... during the domestic deep-frying and pan- frying of potatoes. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 53, ... commercial edible vegetable oils. JAOCS. 84, 31-36.

  8. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  9. Development of Empirical Correlation to Calculate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Tandem Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The heat exchanging tubes are in vertical alignment. For the cases, the upper tube is affected by the lower tube. Since heat transfer is closely related to the conditions of tube surface, bundle geometry, and liquid, lots of studies have been carried out for the several decades to investigate the combined effects of those factors on pool boiling heat transfer. One of the most important parameters in the analysis of a tube array is the pitch ( P ) between tubes. Many researchers have been investigated its effect on heat transfer enhancement for the tube bundles and the tandem tubes. The effect of a tube array on heat transfer enhancement was also studied for application to the flooded evaporators. Cornwell and Schuller studied the sliding bubbles by high speed photography to account the enhancement of heat transfer observed at the upper tubes of a bundle. The study by Memory et al. shows the effects of the enhanced surface and oil adds to the heat transfer of tube bundles. They identified that, for the structured and porous bundles, oil addition leads to a steady decrease in performance. The flow boiling of n-pentane across a horizontal tube bundle was investigated experimentally by Roser et al. They identified that convective evaporation played a significant part of the total heat transfer. The fouling of the tube bundle under pool boiling was also studied by Malayeri et al. They identified that the mechanisms of fouling on the middle and top heater substantially differ from those at the bottom heater.

  10. To pool or not to pool? Impact of the use of individual and pooled fecal samples for in vitro fermentation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre, M.; Ramiro Garcia, J.; Koenen, M.E.; Venema, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the stability and the activity of the microbiota from a single and a pool of donors in the TNO in vitro model of the colon (TIM-2 system). Our findings demonstrate the suitability of the preparation of a pool of fecal sample to be used for fermentation experiments.

  11. To pool or not to pool? Impact of the use of individual and pooled fecal samples for in vitro fermentation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre, M.; Ramiro-Garcia, J.; Koenen, M.E.; Venema, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the stability and the activity of the microbiota from a single and a pool of donors in the TNO in vitro model of the colon (TIM-2 system). Our findings demonstrate the suitability of the preparation of a pool of fecal sample to be used for fermentation experiments. Chemicals/

  12. Statistical implications of pooling RNA samples for microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landfield Philip W

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has become a very important tool for studying gene expression profiles under various conditions. Biologists often pool RNA samples extracted from different subjects onto a single microarray chip to help defray the cost of microarray experiments as well as to correct for the technical difficulty in getting sufficient RNA from a single subject. However, the statistical, technical and financial implications of pooling have not been explicitly investigated. Results Modeling the resulting gene expression from sample pooling as a mixture of individual responses, we derived expressions for the experimental error and provided both upper and lower bounds for its value in terms of the variability among individuals and the number of RNA samples pooled. Using "virtual" pooling of data from real experiments and computer simulations, we investigated the statistical properties of RNA sample pooling. Our study reveals that pooling biological samples appropriately is statistically valid and efficient for microarray experiments. Furthermore, optimal pooling design(s can be found to meet statistical requirements while minimizing total cost. Conclusions Appropriate RNA pooling can provide equivalent power and improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness for microarray experiments with a modest increase in total number of subjects. Pooling schemes in terms of replicates of subjects and arrays can be compared before experiments are conducted.

  13. Next Generation Sequencing of Pooled Samples: Guideline for Variants’ Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Santosh; Mangano, Eleonora; Barizzone, Nadia; Bordoni, Roberta; Sorosina, Melissa; Clarelli, Ferdinando; Corrado, Lucia; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; D’Alfonso, Sandra; De Bellis, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing large number of individuals, which is often needed for population genetics studies, is still economically challenging despite falling costs of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Pool-seq is an alternative cost- and time-effective option in which DNA from several individuals is pooled for sequencing. However, pooling of DNA creates new problems and challenges for accurate variant call and allele frequency (AF) estimation. In particular, sequencing errors confound with the alleles present at low frequency in the pools possibly giving rise to false positive variants. We sequenced 996 individuals in 83 pools (12 individuals/pool) in a targeted re-sequencing experiment. We show that Pool-seq AFs are robust and reliable by comparing them with public variant databases and in-house SNP-genotyping data of individual subjects of pools. Furthermore, we propose a simple filtering guideline for the removal of spurious variants based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test. We experimentally validated our filters by comparing Pool-seq to individual sequencing data showing that the filters remove most of the false variants while retaining majority of true variants. The proposed guideline is fairly generic in nature and could be easily applied in other Pool-seq experiments. PMID:27670852

  14. The flexible gene pool of Propionibacterium acnes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Holger; Lomholt, Hans B; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that is intimately associated with humans. The nature and consequences of this symbiosis are poorly understood; it might comprise both mutualistic and parasitic properties. Recent advances in distinguishing phylotypes of P. acnes have revealed...... that certain type I lineages are predominantly associated with acne vulgaris. Genome analyses revealed a highly conserved core genome and the existence of island-like genomic regions and possible mobile genetic elements as part of the flexible gene pool. The analysis of clustered regularly interspaced short...... palindromic repeats (CRISPR), found exclusively in type II P. acnes, recently revealed the presence of CRISPR spacers that derived from mobile genetic elements. These elements are present in a subset of P. acnes type I lineages. Their significance for type-specific host-interacting properties...

  15. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  16. Drop Impact on to Moving Liquid Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.

  17. Pool Boiling Heat Transfer on structured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, J.; Olbricht, M.; Müller, B.; Luke, A.

    2016-09-01

    The development in the process and energy sector shows the importance of efficient utilization of available resources to improve thermal devices. To achieve this goal, all thermal components have to be optimized continuously. Various applications of multi-phase heat and mass transfer have to be improved. Therefore, the heat transfer and the influence of surface roughness in nucleate boiling with the working fluid propane is experimentally investigated on structured mild steel tubes, because only few data are available in the literature. The mild steel tube is sandblasted to obtain different surface roughness. The measurements are carried out over wide ranges of heat flux and pressure. The experimental results are compared with correlations from literature and the effect of surface roughness on the heat transfer is discussed. It is shown that the heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing surface roughness, heat flux and reduced pressure at nucleate pool boiling.

  18. Estimates of array and pool-construction variance for planning efficient DNA-pooling genome wide association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earp Madalene A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been restricted to research groups with the budget necessary to genotype hundreds, if not thousands, of samples. Replacing individual genotyping with genotyping of DNA pools in Phase I of a GWAS has proven successful, and dramatically altered the financial feasibility of this approach. When conducting a pool-based GWAS, how well SNP allele frequency is estimated from a DNA pool will influence a study's power to detect associations. Here we address how to control the variance in allele frequency estimation when DNAs are pooled, and how to plan and conduct the most efficient well-powered pool-based GWAS. Methods By examining the variation in allele frequency estimation on SNP arrays between and within DNA pools we determine how array variance [var(earray] and pool-construction variance [var(econstruction] contribute to the total variance of allele frequency estimation. This information is useful in deciding whether replicate arrays or replicate pools are most useful in reducing variance. Our analysis is based on 27 DNA pools ranging in size from 74 to 446 individual samples, genotyped on a collective total of 128 Illumina beadarrays: 24 1M-Single, 32 1M-Duo, and 72 660-Quad. Results For all three Illumina SNP array types our estimates of var(earray were similar, between 3-4 × 10-4 for normalized data. Var(econstruction accounted for between 20-40% of pooling variance across 27 pools in normalized data. Conclusions We conclude that relative to var(earray, var(econstruction is of less importance in reducing the variance in allele frequency estimation from DNA pools; however, our data suggests that on average it may be more important than previously thought. We have prepared a simple online tool, PoolingPlanner (available at http://www.kchew.ca/PoolingPlanner/, which calculates the effective sample size (ESS of a DNA pool given a range of replicate array values. ESS can

  19. Sharing as risk pooling in a social dilemma experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd L. Cherry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In rural economies with missing or incomplete markets, idiosyncratic risk is frequently pooled through informal networks. Idiosyncratic shocks, however, are not limited to private goods but can also restrict an individual from partaking in or benefiting from a collective activity. In these situations, a group must decide whether to provide insurance to the affected member. We describe results of a laboratory experiment designed to test whether a simple sharing institution can sustain risk pooling in a social dilemma with idiosyncratic risk. We tested whether risk could be pooled without a commitment device and, separately, whether effective risk pooling induced greater cooperation in the social dilemma. We found that even in the absence of a commitment device or reputational considerations, subjects voluntarily pooled risk, thereby reducing variance in individual earnings. In spite of effective risk pooling, however, cooperation in the social dilemma was unaffected.

  20. Load balancing in distributed framework for frequency based thread pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheraz Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consequence of load balancing algorithms on a thread pool framework name is distributed load balancing frequency based optimization scheme (LDFBOS to increase its execution. Load balancing in distributed frequency based thread pool scheme is residential towards the ground of synchronizing overhead crude named LDFBOS in Java that slows down its execution due to framework exchange and synchronizing overhead in nodes, we are demonstrating the contrive and execution of load balancing in distributed frequency based thread pool LDFBOS to does usage from distributed in frequency based thread pool (DFBOS, synchronizing primitives that propose benefits of significant scalable moreover, dynamism. We have got resembled the execution of some schemes by Thread Pool Tester which is a Java application simulator and the consequence have demonstrated that load balancing in distributed frequency based thread pool LDFBOS exceeds preceding DFBOS scheme.

  1. The Kallisti Limnes, carbon dioxide-accumulating subsea pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Natural CO2 releases from shallow marine hydrothermal vents are assumed to mix into the water column, and not accumulate into stratified seafloor pools. We present newly discovered shallow subsea pools located within the Santorini volcanic caldera of the Southern Aegean Sea, Greece, that accumulate CO2 emissions from geologic reservoirs. This type of hydrothermal seafloor pool, containing highly concentrated CO2, provides direct evidence of shallow benthic CO2 accumulations originating from sub-seafloor releases. Samples taken from within these acidic pools are devoid of calcifying organisms, and channel structures among the pools indicate gravity driven flow, suggesting that seafloor release of CO2 at this site may preferentially impact benthic ecosystems. These naturally occurring seafloor pools may provide a diagnostic indicator of incipient volcanic activity and can serve as an analog for studying CO2 leakage and benthic accumulations from subsea carbon capture and storage sites.

  2. Turbine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eminov, E.A.; Bogdanov, Sh.K.; Dovgopolyi, E.E.; Gryaznov, B.V.; Ivanov, V.S.; Ivanova, Z.M.; Kozlova, E.K.; Nikolaeva, N.M.; Rozhdestvenskaya, A.A.

    1981-03-10

    In the known turbine oil (TO), for the purpose of improving the anticorrosion and demulsifying properties, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether, ethylenediamine or propylene glycol or an alkylphenol are additionally introduced, where the C/sub 8/-C/sub 12/ alkyl has a molecular weight of 2000-10,000. The proportions of the components are: 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol 0.2-1.0%, quinizarin 0.01-0.05%, an acid ester of an alkenylsuccinic acid 0.02-0.1%, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether 0.02-0.2%, polymethylsiloxane 0.003-0.005%, and petroleum oil the remainder. The TO is prepared by mixing the petroleum oil with the additives in any sequence at a temperature of 60-80/sup 0/ by mechanical stirring. On the five TO samples the antioxidative, demulsifying, and anticorrosion properties by comparison with the prototype were investigated. It was shown that the obtained TO possesses improved anticorrosion properties (time until the appearance of Kr (staining.), up to 60 h as against 35 on the prototype) and demulsifying properties (quantity of water separating on breaking the emulsion 10 mg/L as against 65 mg/L on the prototype) for an antioxidative stability equal to that of the analog. The TO is designated for use in various turbo-units, in the first place in marine steam turbine units, where there is the probability of contact of the TO with seawater. Use of the TO makes it possible to increase the service life of the mechanisms, to reduce the amount of oil mixable in the form of an emulsion (by a factor of 1.5 to 2), and to lower the operating expenses.

  3. Aircraft observations of cold pools under marine stratocumulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Terai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although typically associated with precipitating cumuli, cold pools also form under shallower stratocumulus. The NSF/NCAR C-130 made cloud and boundary layer measurements over the southeast Pacific stratocumulus region at an altitude of approximately 150 m during the VOCALS Regional Experiment. Ninety edges of cold pools are found in the C-130 measurements by identifying step-like decreases in the potential temperature. Examination of their mesoscale environment shows that the observed cold pools tend to form under heavier precipitation, thicker clouds, and in cleaner environments. Cold pools are also found to form under clouds with high LWP values over the night of or before sampling. When they form, cold pools often form in clusters or on top of each other, rather than as separate, individual entities. Their sizes range from 2 km to 16 km (middle 50th percentile, where the largest of cold pools are associated with the greatest drops in temperature. Composites of various observed thermodynamic and chemical variables along the cold pool edges indicate increased humidity, equivalent potential temperature, coarse-mode aerosol, and dimethyl sulfide concentration inside cold pools. The enhancements inside cold pools are consistent with increased static stability that traps fluxes from the ocean surface in the lowest levels of the boundary layer. By using pressure perturbations, the average cold pool is estimated to be approximately 300 m deep. The temperature depression in cold pools leads to density-driven flows that drive convergence of horizontal winds and measurable, mechanically-driven vertical wind velocity at the edges of cold pools.

  4. A Study on the Violent Interactions of an Immiscible Drop impacting on a Superheated Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Alchalabi, Mohamad

    2014-05-01

    ABSTRACT A Study on the Violent Interactions of an Immiscible Drop Impacting on a Superheated Pool Mohamad Alchalabi The interactions between two immiscible liquids of different temperatures can be violent to the extent of causing harm to individuals, or damage to equipment, especially when used in the industry. Only a few studies investigated these interactions but they could not produce the violent interactions often reported by the industry, and therefore their results did not help much to develop clear understanding of the dynamics of these interactions. In this work, a high speed imaging system operated at 100,000 frames per second was utilized to record the events and phenomena taking place upon the impact of Perfluorohexane droplet at room temperature onto a hot soybean oil pool at temperatures as high as 300 ºC. The impact velocity was varied by varying the height of the droplet before it pinches off under its own weight. The recorded events identified the occurrence of vortex ring vapor explosions, weak and strong nucleate boiling, and film boiling. An impact velocity vs. oil temperature diagram identifying the regions in which each of these phenomena takes place was generated, and the dynamics driving their occurrences were explored. The vortex ring vapor explosions were found to become less violent as the impact velocity was increased, which was attributed to the existence of a smaller amount of liquid Perfluorohexane within the rings at high speed impacts, which does evaporate but does not expand violently. Weak nucleate boiling occurred at very high impact velocities relatively. As the temperature is increased, however, they start 5 turning into strong nucleate boiling. The strong nucleate boiling usually starts right upon impact, and when the temperature of the oil at one impact velocity is increased, it starts turning into film boiling, in which the liquid Perfluorohexane is covered by a vapor layer of its own vapor.

  5. Chemistry of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.

    1974-01-01

    A review with several references covers the formation, distribution, and mining of oil shales of Fu-Shun colliery; retorting furnaces for oil shale; refining of crude shale oils; and components of oil from Fu-Shun oil shales including pyrolle, matrine, fatty acid anilides, 2,4,5-trimethylpyrrole, and middle-layer bases.

  6. The atmospheric wet pool: definition and comparison with the oceanic warm pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Caiyun; CHEN Ge

    2008-01-01

    The oceanic warm pool (OWP) defined by sea surface temperature (SST) is known as the "heat reservoir" in the ocean. The warmest portion in the ocean mirrors the fact that the wettest region with the largest accumulation of water vapor (WV) in the atmosphere, termed atmospheric wet pool (AWP), should be identified because of the well-known Clausius-Clapeyron relationship between SST and WV. In this study, we used 14-year simultaneous observations of WV and SST from January 1988 to December 2001 to define the AWP and investigate its coupling and co-variations with the OWP. The joint examination of the area variations, centroid locations, and zonal migrations of the AWP and OWP lead to a number of interesting findings. The results hopefully can contribute to our understanding of the air-sea interaction in general and characterization of El Nifio/La Nina events in particular.

  7. The atmospheric wet pool: definition and comparison with the oceanic warm pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caiyun; Chen, Ge

    2008-11-01

    The oceanic warm pool (OWP) defined by sea surface temperature (SST) is known as the “heat reservoir” in the ocean. The warmest portion in the ocean mirrors the fact that the wettest region with the largest accumulation of water vapor (WV) in the atmosphere, termed atmospheric wet pool (AWP), should be identified because of the well-known Clausius-Clapeyron relationship between SST and WV. In this study, we used 14-year simultaneous observations of WV and SST from January 1988 to December 2001 to define the AWP and investigate its coupling and co-variations with the OWP. The joint examination of the area variations, centroid locations, and zonal migrations of the AWP and OWP lead to a number of interesting findings. The results hopefully can contribute to our understanding of the air-sea interaction in general and characterization of El Niño/La Niña events in particular.

  8. Oil Biosynthesis in Underground Oil-Rich Storage Vegetative Tissue: Comparison of Cyperus esculentus Tuber with Oil Seeds and Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenle; Ji, Hongying; Liu, Dantong

    2016-12-01

    Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in its tubers. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tubers revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber: (i) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through the cytosolic glycolytic pathway; (ii) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis; (iii) the expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition; (iv) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER; (v) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool in the Kennedy pathway; and (vi) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis. In contrast to oil-rich fruits, there existed many oleosins, caleosins and steroleosins with very high transcripts in tubers. Surprisingly, only a single ortholog of WRINKLED1 (WRI1)-like transcription factor was identified and it was poorly expressed during tuber development. Our study not only provides insights into lipid metabolism in tuber tissues, but also broadens our understanding of TAG synthesis in oil plants. Such knowledge is of significance in exploiting this oil-rich species and manipulating other non-seed tissues to enhance storage oil production.

  9. Mercury bioaccumulation in wood frogs developing in seasonal pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Cynthia S.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Elskus, Adria; Simon, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal woodland pools contribute significant biomass to terrestrial ecosystems through production of pool-breeding amphibians. The movement of amphibian metamorphs potentially transports toxins bioaccumulated during larval development in the natal pool into the surrounding terrestrial environment. We documented total mercury (THg) in seasonal woodland pool water, sediment, litter, and Lithobates sylvaticus LeConte (Wood Frog) in Acadia National Park, ME. THg concentrations in pool water varied over the study season, increasing during April—June and remaining high in 2 of 4 pools upon October refill. Water in pools surrounded by softwoods had lower pH, greater dissolved organic carbon, and greater THg concentrations than pools surrounded by hardwoods, with seasonal patterns in sediment THg but not litter THg. THg increased rapidly from near or below detection in 1–2 week old embryos (<0.2 ng; 0–0.49 ppb wet weight) to 17.1–54.2 ppb in tadpoles within 6 weeks; 7.2–42.0% of THg was methyl Hg in tadpoles near metamorphosis. Metamorphs emigrating from seasonal pools may transfer mercury into terrestrial food webs.

  10. Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.

  11. Development of two-dimensional hot pool model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Hahn, H. D

    2000-05-01

    During a normal reactor scram, the heat generation is reduced almost instantaneously while the coolant flow rate follows the pump coast-down. This mismatch between power and flow results in a situation where the core flow entering the hot pool is at a lower temperature than the temperature of the bulk pool sodium. This temperature difference leads to thermal stratification. Thermal stratification can occur in the hot pool region if the entering coolant is colder than the existing hot pool coolant and the flow momentum is not large enough to overcome the negative buoyancy force. Since the fluid of hot pool enters IHX{sub s}, the temperature distribution of hot pool can alter the overall system response. Hence, it is necessary to predict the pool coolant temperature distribution with sufficient accuracy to determine the inlet temperature conditions for the IHX{sub s} and its contribution to the net buoyancy head. Therefore, in this study two-dimensional hot pool model is developed instead of existing one-dimensional model to predict the hot pool coolant temperature and velocity distribution more accurately and is applied to the SSC-K code.

  12. Disinfection byproducts in swimming pool: occurrences, implications and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Alhooshani, Khalid; Karanfil, Tanju

    2014-04-15

    Disinfection of swimming pool water is essential to deactivate pathogenic microorganisms. Many swimming pools apply chlorine or bromine based disinfectants to prevent microbial growth. The chlorinated swimming pool water contains higher chlorine residual and is maintained at a higher temperature than a typical drinking water distribution system. It constitutes environments with high levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in water and air as a consequence of continuous disinfection and constant organic loading from the bathers. Exposure to those DBPs is inevitable for any bather or trainer, while such exposures can have elevated risks to human health. To date, over 70 peer-reviewed publications have reported various aspects of swimming pool, including types and quantities of DBPs, organic loads from bathers, factors affecting DBPs formation in swimming pool, human exposure and their potential risks. This paper aims to review the state of research on swimming pool including with the focus of DBPs in swimming pools, understand their types and variability, possible health effects and analyze the factors responsible for the formation of various DBPs in a swimming pool. The study identifies the current challenges and future research needs to minimize DBPs formation in a swimming pool and their consequent negative effects to bathers and trainers.

  13. Marginal granilocytic pool in the treatment of malignant tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelova, I.; Bakalov, M.; Zografov, D. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1982-01-01

    Using the adrenaline test in 57 patients with malignant tumors, the authors examined the marginal granulocytic pool at different time in the course of treatment. The state of the pool was correlated with that of the neutrophilic cells in the circulating blood and with its state before treatment was started. It is concluded that in the course of treatment the neutrophilic cell counts in the marginal cells pool undergo changes similar to those in the circulation pool. It is therefore unjustifiable to include the adrenaline test in the control examination of patients with leucopenia.

  14. Automated management of engineering infrastructure of pools of different purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirokov Lev Alekseevich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pools play an important role in people’s life. They answer people’s demand in rest and improve their health. At the same time pools are rather important for industrial use, for example in construction industry. In order to solve different construction problems it is essential to investigate the influence of microclimatic parameters on construction materials and structures. For this aim pools are in demand as special test sites for construction materials and structures in different environmental conditions including the case of a direct water impact. The efficient use of pools presupposes the necessity of constant hydroclimatic contro: air humidity and temperature, water temperature, chemical composition of water and air. Classification of pools of different purposes is presented in the article. The author considers the main problems of operation of pools as objects with complicated air-and-water environment. The questions of maintaining optimal microclimatic parameters in a pool are considered. The necessity of use of the control system of a microclimate, its efficiency, profitability and social effect of its implementation is described. A mathematical model of the thermal mode of a pool area is constructed. The process of indoor temperature regulation in the pool is considered.

  15. Geological Environments of the Late Cenozoic Lakes and Salt-forming and Oil-gas Pool-forming Actions in the Tibetan Plateau%青藏高原晚新生代湖泊地质环境与成盐成藏作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑绵平; 张雪飞; 侯献华; 王海雷; 李洪普; 施林峰

    2013-01-01

      青藏高原湖泊演化是地质构造和气候环境变化共同作用的产物.湖泊沉积既是地质环境记录器,又是盐类和油气战略资源.但是,以往在高原内部还缺乏连续完整的高分辨率的长达1~2 km的湖芯.本项目在柴达木东、西部获取1~2 km 5支系统的岩芯,取得丰富的高原沉积盆地新纪录.将本轮工作的年代学结果与最新的国际标准相对比,建立了柴达木盆地较精确的磁性地层年代框架.通过柴达木钻孔剖面冷、暖相盐类矿物环境指标研究,从2 Ma BP开始断续出现冷相矿物至今,柴达木盆地西部共出现31个冷系列,这与国外冰期研究结果相近.通过对钻孔沉积速率和粒度的研究,尝试对青藏高原隆升的几个阶段进行划分.对盆地盐沉积的综合研究,首次发现在盆地中部存在古大气环流的明显界限和成盐突变带.在该线以北,反映冷湿期盐沉积的西风优势区,在该区西侧2 Ma出现冷相盐沉积,向东侧渐变至0.72 Ma出现冷相盐沉积;而在该分界线以南,0.048 Ma才突然出现盐沉积.提出在高山深盆背景下多级盐盆迁聚成钾观点,进一步完善陆相成钾理论.本轮工作还在柴达木盆地西部发现富钾卤水的新型矿层.%The evolution of the lakes in the Tibetan plateau is dominated by the change of both the geological structure and the climate. Thus the lacustrine sediments can serve as a good recorder for both the past geological events and the climate change. Besides, the lacustrine sediments are strategic resources for salts, oils and gas. However, there had been no high resolution successive drilling core from the lacustrine sediments in the QT plateau that could reach a length of 1~2 km before this work. Since the beginning of this century, the authors have systematically collected 5 drilling cores with lengths of 1~2 km from the east and west Qaidam basin, and have obtained unprecedented rich information concerning the

  16. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  17. Exploring Oil Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  18. Rheology of Structured Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbaliev, G. I.; Rasulov, S. R.; Rzaev, A. G.; Mustafaeva, G. R.

    2017-07-01

    Rheological models of structured oils are proposed and compared with available experimental data on oils from different deposits. It is shown that structured oils can possess properties of Bingham and power-law non-Newtonian fluids.

  19. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  20. Leidenfrost drops on a heated liquid pool

    CERN Document Server

    Maquet, Laurent; Darbois-Texier, Baptiste; Brandenbourger, Martin; Rednikov, Alexey; Colinet, Pierre; Dorbolo, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    We show that a volatile liquid drop placed at the surface of a non-volatile liquid pool warmer than the boiling point of the drop can experience a Leidenfrost effect even for vanishingly small superheats. Such an observation points to the importance of the substrate roughness, negligible in the case considered here, in determining the threshold Leidenfrost temperature. A theoretical model based on the one proposed by Sobac et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 053011 (2014)] is developed in order to rationalize the experimental data. The shapes of the drop and of the substrate are analyzed. The model notably provides scalings for the vapor film thickness. For small drops, these scalings appear to be identical to the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For large drops, in contrast, they are different and no evidence of chimney formation has been observed either experimentally or theoretically in the range of drop sizes considered in this study. Concerning the evaporation dynamics, the radius is shown to decrea...

  1. Leidenfrost drops on a heated liquid pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquet, L.; Sobac, B.; Darbois-Texier, B.; Duchesne, A.; Brandenbourger, M.; Rednikov, A.; Colinet, P.; Dorbolo, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that a volatile liquid drop placed at the surface of a nonvolatile liquid pool warmer than the boiling point of the drop can be held in a Leidenfrost state even for vanishingly small superheats. Such an observation points to the importance of the substrate roughness, negligible in the case considered here, in determining the threshold Leidenfrost temperature. A theoretical model based on the one proposed by Sobac et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 053011 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.053011] is developed in order to rationalize the experimental data. The shapes of the drop and of the liquid substrate are analyzed. The model notably provides scalings for the vapor film thickness profile. For small drops, these scalings appear to be identical to the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For large drops, in contrast, they are different, and no evidence of chimney formation has been observed either experimentally or theoretically in the range of drop sizes considered in this study. Concerning the evaporation dynamics, the radius is shown to decrease linearly with time whatever the drop size, which differs from the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For high superheats, the characteristic lifetime of the drops versus the superheat follows a scaling law that is derived from the model, but, at low superheats, it deviates from this scaling by rather saturating.

  2. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C.; Maroo, Shalabh C.

    2016-02-01

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  3. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-02-03

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  4. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu Aqoulah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93 in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004. The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection.

  5. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu Aqoulah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93 in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004. The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection.

  6. Mathematical-programming approaches to test item pool design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Ariel, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to item pool design that has the potential to improve on the quality of current item pools in educational and psychological testing andhence to increase both measurement precision and validity. The approach consists of the application of mathematical programming

  7. 41 CFR 109-27.5106 - Precious metals pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precious metals pool. 109-27.5106 Section 109-27.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106 Precious metals pool....

  8. The Solitude of Relevant Documents in the Pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipani, A.; Lupu, M.; Kanoulas, E.; Hanbury, A.

    2016-01-01

    Pool bias is a well understood problem of test-collection based benchmarking in information retrieval. The pooling method itself is designed to identify all relevant documents. In practice, 'all' translates to `as many as possible given some budgetary constraints' and the problem persists, albeit

  9. [Green hair caused by frequent swimming pool use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, K; Kretzschmar, L; Müller, C; Metze, D; Traupe, H

    1997-08-01

    Three patients presented with an acquired green discoloration of their scalp hair. History revealed that all of them swam regularly in private swimming pools. Examination of the hair by atomic emission spectroscopy showed that the green discoloration was caused by an excessively high copper content of the hair. This exogeneous discoloration is characteristically related to the uptake of copper from private swimming pools.

  10. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative...

  11. Odonata (Insecta at a wadi Pool near Nizwa, northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Cowan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen damselfly and dragonfly species were recorded in 68 visits to a wadi pool in northern Oman, March 2012 to June 2014.  All identifications were based on photographs.  Apparently the pool has a core community of eight resident species.  Paragomphus sinaiticus, globally Near Threatened, was regularly  recorded. 

  12. IRT Item Parameter Scaling for Developing New Item Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Lu, Ying; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Increasing use of item pools in large-scale educational assessments calls for an appropriate scaling procedure to achieve a common metric among field-tested items. The present study examines scaling procedures for developing a new item pool under a spiraled block linking design. The three scaling procedures are considered: (a) concurrent…

  13. Pooled screening for synergistic interactions subject to blocking and noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Li

    Full Text Available The complex molecular networks in the cell can give rise to surprising interactions: gene deletions that are synthetically lethal, gene overexpressions that promote stemness or differentiation, synergistic drug interactions that heighten potency. Yet, the number of actual interactions is dwarfed by the number of potential interactions, and discovering them remains a major problem. Pooled screening, in which multiple factors are simultaneously tested for possible interactions, has the potential to increase the efficiency of searching for interactions among a large set of factors. However, pooling also carries with it the risk of masking genuine interactions due to antagonistic influence from other factors in the pool. Here, we explore several theoretical models of pooled screening, allowing for synergy and antagonism between factors, noisy measurements, and other forms of uncertainty. We investigate randomized sequential designs, deriving formulae for the expected number of tests that need to be performed to discover a synergistic interaction, and the optimal size of pools to test. We find that even in the presence of significant antagonistic interactions and testing noise, randomized pooled designs can significantly outperform exhaustive testing of all possible combinations. We also find that testing noise does not affect optimal pool size, and that mitigating noise by a selective approach to retesting outperforms naive replication of all tests. Finally, we show that a Bayesian approach can be used to handle uncertainty in problem parameters, such as the extent of synergistic and antagonistic interactions, resulting in schedules for adapting pool size during the course of testing.

  14. Odonata (Insecta at a wadi Pool near Nizwa, northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Cowan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen damselfly and dragonfly species were recorded in 68 visits to a wadi pool in northern Oman, March 2012 to June 2014.  All identifications were based on photographs.  Apparently the pool has a core community of eight resident species.  Paragomphus sinaiticus, globally Near Threatened, was regularly  recorded. 

  15. (Average-) convexity of common pool and oligopoly TU-games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, T.S.H.; Meinhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The paper studies both the convexity and average-convexity properties for a particular class of cooperative TU-games called common pool games. The common pool situation involves a cost function as well as a (weakly decreasing) average joint production function. Firstly, it is shown that, if the rele

  16. Particles at Oil-Air Surfaces: Powdered Oil, Liquid Oil Marbles, and Oil Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Johnston, Shaun K; Sekine, Tomoko; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2015-07-08

    The type of material stabilized by four kinds of fluorinated particles (sericite and bentonite platelet clays and spherical zinc oxide) in air-oil mixtures has been investigated. It depends on the particle wettability and the degree of shear. Upon vigorous agitation, oil dispersions are formed in all the oils containing relatively large bentonite particles and in oils of relatively low surface tension (γla cyclomethicone containing the other fluorinated particles. Particle-stabilized oil foams were obtained in oils having γla > 26 mN m(-1) where the advancing air-oil-solid contact angle θ lies between ca. 90° and 120°. Gentle shaking, however, gives oil-in-air liquid marbles with all the oil-particle systems except for cases where θ is 24 mN m(-1) with omniphobic zinc oxide and sericite particles for which advancing θ ≥ 90°, dry oil powders consisting of oil drops in air which do not leak oil could be made upon gentle agitation up to a critical oil:particle ratio (COPR). Above the COPR, catastrophic phase inversion of the dry oil powders to air-in-oil foams was observed. When sheared on a substrate, the dry oil powders containing at least 60 wt % of oil release the encapsulated oil, making these materials attractive formulations in the cosmetic and food industries.

  17. Dominant geological element of migration and accumulation about Silurian oil reservoirs in central Tarim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the migration track of the Silurian oil pools along the faults in central Tarim by the nitrogen compounds and the maturity parameters of saturated hydrocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon, the formation of the Silurian oil pools was totally concerned with vertical migration that faults were the dominant migration channels. The comprehensive analysis shows that the dominant geological element, which contributed to the migration and accumulation of the Silurian oil pools in central Tarim,was the strike-slip fault, which developed from Ordovician to Permian. The future work will focus on conducting a more intensive study of the formation, evolution and distribution of the strike-slip faults for making sure of favorable hydrocarbon accumulation and favorable exploration targets.

  18. Research and Application of New Methods to Oil-Gas Geochemical Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the results of researches and applications for many years, it has been discovered that new methods and techniques for geochemical exploration of oil and gas such as D C, altered carbonate, Hg in absorption phase, Ks, Fe2+, d 13C, fluorescence in two and three dimensions, and N2 and O2 in heat release can give full play in the following five fields: (1) optimization of the favourable target or hollow zones and structural zones in a region; (2) evaluation of oil traps and delineation of prospective oil and gas areas; (3) prediction of deep-seated oil-bearing horizons; (4) evaluation of the genesis of oil and gas geochemical anomalies and determination of the types of oil and gas accumulations; (5) forecast of the burial depths of oil and gas pools.

  19. HYDRODYNAMIC UPLIFT FORCE AND STABILITY OF ARCIFORM LUNGE POOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Compared with general trapeziform plunge pools, an arciform plunge pool has its advantages, e.g. Less excavate quantity, higher stability, etc. In this paper, the hy-drodynamic pressure distribution on the soleplate of the arci-form plunge pool is measured under a relatively dangerous condition of operation. The result is helpful to the design of the arciform plunge pool. The result also shows that the difference between the maximum and the minimum pressures on the upward surface of the soleplate may cause an additional uplift force on the soleplate under certain condition and should be taken into consideration in the uplift force calculation of the soleplate. The scour experiment verifies the higher stability of the arciform plunge pool.

  20. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  1. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cristina M; Font-Ribera, Laia

    2012-01-01

    This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  2. Formation of the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Umasankar; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Behara, Ambica

    2016-09-01

    A pool of relatively cooler water, called here as the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool, exists around Sri Lanka and southern tip of India during the summer monsoon. This cold pool is enveloped by the larger Indian Ocean warm pool and is believed to affect the intraseasonal variations of summer monsoon rainfall. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the cold pool using a combination of both satellite data sets and a general circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Sea surface temperature (SST) within the cold pool, after the steady increase during the February-April period, decreases first during a pre-monsoon spell in April and then with the monsoon onset during May. The onset cooling is stronger (~1.8°C) than the pre-monsoon cooling (~0.8°C) and culminates in the formation of the cold pool. Analysis of the model temperature equation shows that SST decrease during both events is primarily due to a decrease in incoming solar radiation and an increase in latent heat loss. These changes in the net heat flux are brought about by the arrival of cloud bands above the cold pool during both periods. During the pre-monsoon period, a cloud band originates in the western equatorial Indian Ocean and subsequently arrives above the cold pool. Similarly, during the monsoon onset, a band of clouds originating in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean comes over the cold pool region. A lead-lag correlation calculation between daily SST and rainfall anomalies suggest that cooling in SST occurs in response to rainfall events with a lag of 5 days. These sequence of events occur every year with certain amount of interannual variability.

  3. Chemical contaminants in swimming pools: Occurrence, implications and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tiffany L L; Coleman, Heather M; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-03-01

    A range of trace chemical contaminants have been reported to occur in swimming pools. Current disinfection practices and monitoring of swimming pool water quality are aimed at preventing the spread of microbial infections and diseases. However, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when the disinfectants used react with organic and inorganic matter in the pool. Additional chemicals may be present in swimming pools originating from anthropogenic sources (bodily excretions, lotions, cosmetics, etc.) or from the source water used where trace chemicals may already be present. DBPs have been the most widely investigated trace chemical contaminants, including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), halobenzoquinones (HBQs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), halonitromethanes (HNMs), N-nitrosamines, nitrite, nitrates and chloramines. The presence and concentrations of these chemical contaminants are dependent upon several factors including the types of pools, types of disinfectants used, disinfectant dosages, bather loads, temperature and pH of swimming pool waters. Chemical constituents of personal care products (PCPs) such as parabens and ultraviolet (UV) filters from sunscreens have also been reported. By-products from reactions of these chemicals with disinfectants and UV irradiation have been reported and some may be more toxic than their parent compounds. There is evidence to suggest that exposure to some of these chemicals may lead to health risks. This paper provides a detailed review of various chemical contaminants reported in swimming pools. The concentrations of chemicals present in swimming pools may also provide an alternative indicator to swimming pool water quality, providing insights to contamination sources. Alternative treatment methods such as activated carbon filtration and advanced oxidation processes may be beneficial in improving swimming pool water quality.

  4. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  5. poolHiTS: A Shifted Transversal Design based pooling strategy for high-throughput drug screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Peter J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key goal of drug discovery is to increase the throughput of small molecule screens without sacrificing screening accuracy. High-throughput screening (HTS in drug discovery involves testing a large number of compounds in a biological assay to identify active compounds. Normally, molecules from a large compound library are tested individually to identify the activity of each molecule. Usually a small number of compounds are found to be active, however the presence of false positive and negative testing errors suggests that this one-drug one-assay screening strategy can be significantly improved. Pooling designs are testing schemes that test mixtures of compounds in each assay, thereby generating a screen of the whole compound library in fewer tests. By repeatedly testing compounds in different combinations, pooling designs also allow for error-correction. These pooled designs, for specific experiment parameters, can be simply and efficiently created using the Shifted Transversal Design (STD pooling algorithm. However, drug screening contains a number of key constraints that require specific modifications if this pooling approach is to be useful for practical screen designs. Results In this paper, we introduce a pooling strategy called poolHiTS (Pooled High-Throughput Screening which is based on the STD algorithm. In poolHiTS, we implement a limit on the number of compounds that can be mixed in a single assay. In addition, we show that the STD-based pooling strategy is limited in the error-correction that it can achieve. Due to the mixing constraint, we show that it is more efficient to split a large library into smaller blocks of compounds, which are then tested using an optimized strategy repeated for each block. We package the optimal block selection algorithm into poolHiTS. The MATLAB codes for the poolHiTS algorithm and the corresponding decoding strategy are also provided. Conclusion We have produced a practical version

  6. Enhancement of the TORIS data base of Appalachian basin oil fields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-31

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System, or TORIS, was developed by the Department of Energy in the early 1980s with a goal of accounting for 70% of the nation`s original oil in place (OOIP). More than 3,700 oil reservoirs were included in TORIS, but coverage in the Appalachian basin was poor. This TORIS enhancement project has two main objectives: to increase the coverage of oil fields in the Appalachian basin; and to evaluate data for reservoirs currently in TORIS, and to add, change or delete data as necessary. Both of these objectives have been accomplished. The geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia have identified 113 fields in the Appalachian basin to be included in TORIS that collectively contained 80% of the original oil in place in the basin. Furthermore, data in TORIS at the outset of the project was checked and additional data were added to the original 20 TORIS oil fields. This final report is organized into four main sections: reservoir selection; evaluation of data already in TORIS; industry assistance; and data base creation and validation. Throughout the report the terms pool and reservoir may be used in reference to a single zone of oil accumulation and production within a field. Thus, a field is composed of one or more pools at various stratigraphic levels. These pools or reservoirs also are referred to as pay sands that may be individually named sandstones within a formation or group.

  7. Natural oil slicks fuel surface water microbial activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziervogel, Kai; D'souza, Nigel; Sweet, Julia; Yan, Beizhan; Passow, Uta

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a series of roller tank incubations with surface seawater from the Green Canyon oil reservoir, northern Gulf of Mexico, amended with either a natural oil slick (GCS-oil) or pristine oil. The goal was to test whether bacterial activities of natural surface water communities facilitate the formation of oil-rich marine snow (oil snow). Although oil snow did not form during any of our experiments, we found specific bacterial metabolic responses to the addition of GCS-oil that profoundly affected carbon cycling within our 4-days incubations. Peptidase and β-glucosidase activities indicative of bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis of peptides and carbohydrates, respectively, were suppressed upon the addition of GCS-oil relative to the non-oil treatment, suggesting that ascending oil and gas initially inhibits bacterial metabolism in surface water. Biodegradation of physically dispersed GCS-oil components, indicated by the degradation of lower molecular weight n-alkanes as well as the rapid transformation of particulate oil-carbon (C: N >40) into the DOC pool, led to the production of carbohydrate- and peptide-rich degradation byproducts and bacterial metabolites such as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). TEP formation was highest at day 4 in the presence of GCS-oil; in contrast, TEP levels in the non-oil treatment already peaked at day 2. Cell-specific enzymatic activities closely followed TEP concentrations in the presence and absence of GCS-oil. These results demonstrate that the formation of oil slicks and activities of oil-degrading bacteria result in a temporal offset of microbial cycling of organic matter, affecting food web interactions and carbon cycling in surface waters over cold seeps. PMID:24847314

  8. Natural oil slicks fuel surface water microbial activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eZiervogel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a series of roller tank incubations with surface seawater from the Green Canyon oil reservoir, northern Gulf of Mexico, amended with either a natural oil slick (GCS-oil or pristine oil. The goal was to test whether bacterial activities of natural surface water communities facilitate the formation of oil-rich marine snow (oil snow. Although oil snow did not form during any of our experiments, we found specific bacterial metabolic responses to the addition of GCS-oil that profoundly affected carbon cycling within our 4-days incubations. Peptidase and -glucosidase activities indicative of bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis of peptides and carbohydrates, respectively, were suppressed upon the addition of GCS-oil relative to the non-oil treatment, suggesting that ascending oil and gas initially inhibits bacterial metabolism in surface water. Biodegradation of physically dispersed GCS-oil components indicated by the degradation of lower molecular weight n-alkanes as well as the rapid transformation of particulate oil-carbon (C: N >40 into the DOC pool, led to the production of carbohydrate- and peptide-rich degradation byproducts and bacterial metabolites such as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP. TEP formation was highest at day 4 in the presence of GCS-oil; in contrast, TEP levels in the non-oil treatment already peaked at day 2. Cell-specific enzymatic activities closely followed TEP concentrations in the presence and absence of GCS-oil. These results demonstrate that the formation of oil slicks and activities of oil-degrading bacteria result in a temporal offset of microbial cycling of organic matter, affecting food web interactions and carbon cycling in surface waters over cold seeps.

  9. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  10. Performance Aware Service Pool in Dependable Service Oriented Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Huang; Li Zhou; Xuan-Zhe Liu; Hong Mei; Shing-Chi Cheung

    2006-01-01

    As a popular approach to dependable service oriented architecture (SOA), a service pool collects a set of services that provide the same functionality by different service providers for achieving desired reliability. However, if the tradeoff between reliability and other important qualities, e.g., performance, has to be considered, the construction and management of a service pool become much more complex. In this paper, an automated approach to this problem is presented. Based on the investigation of service pools in the typical triangle SOA model, two challenges critical to the effectiveness and efficiency of service pools are identified, including which services should be held by a pool and what order these services are invoked in. A set of algorithms are designed to address the two challenges and then a service pool can be automatically constructed and managed for given reliability and performance requirements in polynomial time. The approach is demonstrated on a J2EE based service platform and the comparison results between different pooling algorithms are evaluated.

  11. Addressing data privacy in matched studies via virtual pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha-Chaudhuri, P; Weinberg, C R

    2017-09-07

    Data confidentiality and shared use of research data are two desirable but sometimes conflicting goals in research with multi-center studies and distributed data. While ideal for straightforward analysis, confidentiality restrictions forbid creation of a single dataset that includes covariate information of all participants. Current approaches such as aggregate data sharing, distributed regression, meta-analysis and score-based methods can have important limitations. We propose a novel application of an existing epidemiologic tool, specimen pooling, to enable confidentiality-preserving analysis of data arising from a matched case-control, multi-center design. Instead of pooling specimens prior to assay, we apply the methodology to virtually pool (aggregate) covariates within nodes. Such virtual pooling retains most of the information used in an analysis with individual data and since individual participant data is not shared externally, within-node virtual pooling preserves data confidentiality. We show that aggregated covariate levels can be used in a conditional logistic regression model to estimate individual-level odds ratios of interest. The parameter estimates from the standard conditional logistic regression are compared to the estimates based on a conditional logistic regression model with aggregated data. The parameter estimates are shown to be similar to those without pooling and to have comparable standard errors and confidence interval coverage. Virtual data pooling can be used to maintain confidentiality of data from multi-center study and can be particularly useful in research with large-scale distributed data.

  12. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  13. Hepatitis E viral loads in plasma pools for fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Sally A; Corman, Victor M; Ong, Edgar; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Nübling, C Micha; Blümel, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    It is now recognized that blood donors may be silently infected with hepatitis E virus (HEV) and that plasma pools used in the manufacture of plasma-derived medicinal products may also contain detectable virus RNA. The occurrence of HEV-infected blood and plasma donors can vary considerably depending on local epidemiology. Manufacturing plasma pools from North America, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia were examined for the presence of HEV using transcription-mediated amplification of HEV RNA; confirmatory testing was performed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. A total of 484 pools were tested. Asian pools were most frequently positive for HEV RNA and had higher viral loads, although none exceeding 300 IU/mL, and the sequenced strains (n = 5) clustered with Genotype 4, including one significantly divergent sequence. Only HEV Genotype 3 was identified in North American (n = 5) and European (n = 5) pools. There was no evidence of HEV in any pools tested from the Middle East. HEV was detected in manufacturing plasma pools from three different continents; viral loads were low-consistent with large pool sizes and moderate levels of HEV viremia at the individual donation level-but are nevertheless informative for risk assessment of plasma-derived medicinal products. Where sequencing was possible, analysis confirmed the presence of viruses consistent with locally circulating genotypes in the respective regions. The absence of HEV in Middle Eastern pools is consistent with the low prevalence of HEV in this region, likely due to low pork consumption. © 2016 AABB.

  14. Pooled DNA genotyping on Affymetrix SNP genotyping arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Michael J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotyping technology has advanced such that genome-wide association studies of complex diseases based upon dense marker maps are now technically feasible. However, the cost of such projects remains high. Pooled DNA genotyping offers the possibility of applying the same technologies at a fraction of the cost, and there is some evidence that certain ultra-high throughput platforms also perform with an acceptable accuracy. However, thus far, this conclusion is based upon published data concerning only a small number of SNPs. Results In the current study we prepared DNA pools from the parents and from the offspring of 30 parent-child trios that have been extensively genotyped by the HapMap project. We analysed the two pools with Affymetrix 10 K Xba 142 2.0 Arrays. The availability of the HapMap data allowed us to validate the performance of 6843 SNPs for which we had both complete individual and pooled genotyping data. Pooled analyses averaged over 5–6 microarrays resulted in highly reproducible results. Moreover, the accuracy of estimating differences in allele frequency between pools using this ultra-high throughput system was comparable with previous reports of pooling based upon lower throughput platforms, with an average error for the predicted allelic frequencies differences between the two pools of 1.37% and with 95% of SNPs showing an error of Conclusion Genotyping thousands of SNPs with DNA pooling using Affymetrix microarrays produces highly accurate results and can be used for genome-wide association studies.

  15. A simplified model of decontamination by BWR steam suppression pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A.

    1997-05-01

    Phenomena that can decontaminate aerosol-laden gases sparging through steam suppression pools of boiling water reactors during reactor accidents are described. Uncertainties in aerosol properties, aerosol behavior within gas bubbles, and bubble behavior in plumes affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools. Uncertainties in the boundary and initial conditions that are dictated by the progression of severe reactor accidents and that will affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools are discussed. Ten parameters that characterize boundary and initial condition uncertainties, nine parameters that characterize aerosol property and behavior uncertainties, and eleven parameters that characterize uncertainties in the behavior of bubbles in steam suppression pools are identified. Ranges for the values of these parameters and subjective probability distributions for parametric values within the ranges are defined. These uncertain parameters are used in Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses to develop uncertainty distributions for the decontamination that can be achieved by steam suppression pools and the size distribution of aerosols that do emerge from such pools. A simplified model of decontamination by steam suppression pools is developed by correlating features of the uncertainty distributions for total decontamination factor, DF(total), mean size of emerging aerosol particles, d{sub p}, and the standard deviation of the emerging aerosol size distribution, {sigma}, with pool depth, H. Correlations of the median values of the uncertainty distributions are suggested as the best estimate of decontamination by suppression pools. Correlations of the 10 percentile and 90 percentile values of the uncertainty distributions characterize the uncertainty in the best estimates. 295 refs., 121 figs., 113 tabs.

  16. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiment on jet injection regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez, J.

    1995-07-01

    Plant analyses nave shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination of boundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanism acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence. a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei in the pool were measured and fitted to a lognormal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inlet gas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90 consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major high lights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  17. Proposal for a mutual insurance pool for transplant organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, R; Vining, A

    1998-10-01

    Over the past decade there have been numerous proposals to use market system incentives to attenuate the persistent shortage of transplantable human organs. While shortages have grown, opposition to market-based solutions has remained adamant. Much of the opposition has focused on monetary incentives. This article explores an alternative--a mutual insurance pool to increase the supply of organs. In the process, criticisms of earlier proposals (specifically the future delivery scheme) are addressed, the operation of an insurance pool is described, and problems associated with insurance markets are identified and addressed. The article concludes that an insurance pool could overcome public and political resistance to more explicit market-based solutions.

  18. Steam-air mixture condensation in a subcooled water pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy Linhurst

    2007-12-01

    In any conceptual reactor design under postulated accidental conditions, one parameter that is considered as being highly ranked in determining the thermal-hydraulic conditions of the reactor safety components is the system pressure. To obtain a satisfactory prediction of steam partial pressure, within reasonable uncertainty in the gas space of a confined SP (suppression pool) bounded to the steam source of the break flow, one must establish a means by which local phenomena associated with steam direct contact condensation in the subcooled water pool can be fully addressed to predict the global component thermal response. For this purpose a scaled down, reduced pressure, suppression pool was designed and built to study condensation and mixing phenomena. The scaled test facility represented an idealized trapezoidal cross section, 1/10 sector of the SP with scaled height ratio of 1/4.5 and volume ratio of 1/400. The design and test conditions were based on a hierarchical scaling principle that preserves the transfer of mass, momentum, energy and condensation phenomena. Distributed thermocouples within the pool provided a means to quantify the pool thermal response. The test loop was not only instrumented with thermocouples for monitoring pool stratification but also with high speed photography for flow visualization from which to build a comprehensive database to identify the regions of the pool that were thermally stratified or mixed. Data were obtained for different pool initial subcooling and steam/air mixture flow rates. Dimensionless boundary maps were plotted from several experimental runs of pure steam injection to determine conditions when the pool transits from being homogeneously mixed to being thermally stratified. Steam-air mixture injection cases for single horizontal venting indicated that above a pool temperature of 40°C with airmass flow rates below 0.1 g/s the pool can attain thermal stratification. Models of a single phase liquid

  19. 13 CFR 120.1712 - Seller responsibilities with respect to Seller's Pool Loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... respect to Seller's Pool Loan. 120.1712 Section 120.1712 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Loan Pools § 120.1712 Seller responsibilities with respect to Seller's Pool Loan. Seller shall remain obligated for servicing and liquidating Seller's Pool Loan until the Pool Loan is repaid in full unless...

  20. Novel pathways for injury from offshore oil spills: direct, sublethal and indirect effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on pelagic Sargassum communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sean P; Hernandez, Frank J; Condon, Robert H; Drymon, J Marcus; Free, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    The pelagic brown alga Sargassum forms an oasis of biodiversity and productivity in an otherwise featureless ocean surface. The vast pool of oil resulting from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill came into contact with a large portion of the Gulf of Mexico's floating Sargassum mats. Aerial surveys performed during and after the oil spill show compelling evidence of loss and subsequent recovery of Sargassum. Expanding on the trends observed in the aerial surveys, we conducted a series of mesocosm experiments to test the effect of oil and dispersants on the vertical position and weight of the Sargassum complex (Sargassum natans and S. fluitans), as well as on the dissolved oxygen concentrations surrounding the algae. Dispersant and dispersed-oil had significant effects on the vertical position of both species of Sargassum over a period of 72 hours. Similarly, dissolved oxygen concentrations were lowest in dispersant and dispersed-oil treatments, respectively. Cumulatively, our findings suggest three pathways for oil-spill related injury: (1) Sargassum accumulated oil on the surface exposing animals to high concentrations of contaminants; (2) application of dispersant sank Sargassum, thus removing the habitat and potentially transporting oil and dispersant vertically; and (3) low oxygen surrounded the habitat potentially stressing animals that reside in the alga. These pathways represent direct, sublethal, and indirect effects of oil and dispersant release that minimize the ecosystem services provided by floating Sargassum - the latter two effects are rarely considered in assessing impacts of oil spills or response procedures.

  1. Novel pathways for injury from offshore oil spills: direct, sublethal and indirect effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on pelagic Sargassum communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Powers

    Full Text Available The pelagic brown alga Sargassum forms an oasis of biodiversity and productivity in an otherwise featureless ocean surface. The vast pool of oil resulting from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill came into contact with a large portion of the Gulf of Mexico's floating Sargassum mats. Aerial surveys performed during and after the oil spill show compelling evidence of loss and subsequent recovery of Sargassum. Expanding on the trends observed in the aerial surveys, we conducted a series of mesocosm experiments to test the effect of oil and dispersants on the vertical position and weight of the Sargassum complex (Sargassum natans and S. fluitans, as well as on the dissolved oxygen concentrations surrounding the algae. Dispersant and dispersed-oil had significant effects on the vertical position of both species of Sargassum over a period of 72 hours. Similarly, dissolved oxygen concentrations were lowest in dispersant and dispersed-oil treatments, respectively. Cumulatively, our findings suggest three pathways for oil-spill related injury: (1 Sargassum accumulated oil on the surface exposing animals to high concentrations of contaminants; (2 application of dispersant sank Sargassum, thus removing the habitat and potentially transporting oil and dispersant vertically; and (3 low oxygen surrounded the habitat potentially stressing animals that reside in the alga. These pathways represent direct, sublethal, and indirect effects of oil and dispersant release that minimize the ecosystem services provided by floating Sargassum - the latter two effects are rarely considered in assessing impacts of oil spills or response procedures.

  2. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  3. Oil spill contingency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kip, S.H. (Sarawak Shell Bhd/Saban Shell Petroleum Co. Ltd. (MY))

    1988-01-01

    Oil spill contingency planning is an essential feature required in present day activities involving oil and gas exploration, production and transportation. A well through out continency plan will not only eliminate or minimize the sense of panic, normally associated with oil spill emergency, but also can minimize damage and cost involved. Oil spill contingency planning is a process of predetermining a response to an oil spill emergency. The process of preparing a contingency plan is discussed in this paper.

  4. Developments in Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    demonstration (RD&D). The ongoing program will confirm whether an economically significant shale oil volume can be extracted under current operating...Petroleum Trade, [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/pdf/pages/sec1_15.pdf]. 2 Oil sands yield a bitumen substantially heavier most crude oils and shale oil. 3...hydrocarbon products that can be extracted from the shale. The most promising oil shales occur in the Green River formation that underlies 16,000 square

  5. Swimming pools and health-related behaviours: results of an Italian multicentre study on showering habits among pool users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, C; Veronesi, L; Napoli, C; Castaldi, S; Pasquarella, M L; Saccani, E; Colucci, M E; Auxilia, F; Gallè, F; Di Onofrio, V; Tafuri, S; Signorelli, C; Liguori, G

    2013-07-01

    Showering before entering a swimming pool is highly recommended to reduce the risk of biological and chemical contamination. This study evaluated the behaviour of indoor swimming pool users; analysed the variables associated with lack of showering; and assessed awareness of the importance of showering. Cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about users of swimming pools located in five different Italian cities. The association between specific variables and the lack of showering was assessed. P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. In total, 4356 questionnaires were analysed. Sixty-five percent of interviewees always showered before entering the pool. The main reason given for pre-swim showering was 'to wash oneself' (50.5%); or 'to get used to the temperature of the water' (44.3%); and 5.2% answered 'for both reasons'. Risk factors significantly associated with lack of showering were: female sex (odds ratio (OR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.59), age 14-17 years (OR 5.09, 95% CI 3.40-7.64); not reading the swimming pool rules (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.41); living in Central Italy (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.65-4.1) or Southern Italy (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.18-1.55); and previous/current attendance of a swimming course (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.48-1.97). The results revealed low compliance with the rule of showering before entering a swimming pool, and little awareness of the preventive role of showering in the hygienic management of swimming pools. There is a need for targeted educational interventions to inform swimming pool users of the reasons for the importance of showering before entering a pool. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles

    2009-01-30

    In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources

  7. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  8. Vernal Pool Study 2005 Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are data sheets from Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge that will be part of a larger study to estimate the amphibian occupancy of vernal pool habitat at...

  9. LCG Persistency Framework (POOL, CORAL, COOL) - Status and Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The LCG Persistency Framework consists of three software packages (POOL, CORAL and COOL) that address the data access requirements of the LHC experiments in several different areas. The project is the result of the collaboration between the CERN IT Department and the three experiments (ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) that are using some or all of the Persistency Framework components to access their data. The POOL package is a hybrid technology store for C++ objects, using a mixture of streaming and relational technologies to implement both object persistency and object metadata catalogs and collections. POOL provides generic components that can be used by the experiments to store both their event data and their conditions data. The CORAL package is an abstraction layer with an SQL-free API for accessing data stored using relational database technologies. It is used directly by experiment-specific applications and internally by both COOL and POOL. The COOL package provides specific software components and tools for the h...

  10. 49 CFR 1184.2 - Contents of a pooling application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... description of the projected volume of traffic, the revenues, and the commodities which will be subject to the...) A narrative statement as to the relative transportation importance of the pooling agreement as...

  11. Waterfowl Count over Pool 9 Erie National Wildlife Refuge 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This presents the observations of waterfowl flying over Pool 9 at Erie National Wildlife Refuge from late-August through early October, 1970.

  12. Allegheny County Public Swimming Pool, Hot Tub, and Spa Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Public swimming pool, hot tub, and spa facilities are licensed and inspected once each year to assure proper water quality, sanitation, lifeguard coverage and...

  13. Cumulative Permitted Vernal Pool Losses - Mitigation Sites [ds652

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This shapefile represents mitigation areas included in the Vernal Pool Clean Water Act Permit Database, developed by AECOM for the Placer Land Trust. The permit...

  14. schwimmbad: A uniform interface to parallel processing pools in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Many scientific and computing problems require doing some calculation on all elements of some data set. If the calculations can be executed in parallel (i.e. without any communication between calculations), these problems are said to be perfectly parallel. On computers with multiple processing cores, these tasks can be distributed and executed in parallel to greatly improve performance. A common paradigm for handling these distributed computing problems is to use a processing "pool": the "tasks" (the data) are passed in bulk to the pool, and the pool handles distributing the tasks to a number of worker processes when available. schwimmbad provides a uniform interface to parallel processing pools and enables switching easily between local development (e.g., serial processing or with multiprocessing) and deployment on a cluster or supercomputer (via, e.g., MPI or JobLib).

  15. Vernal Pool Complexes - Central Valley, 1989-1998 [ds36

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Arc/Info coverage is a polygon layer of vernal pool complexes greater than 40 acres in size for 29 counties throughout the greater Central Valley, and some...

  16. 41 CFR 101-25.109-2 - Equipment pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... number and location of equipment pools, consideration shall be given to economy of operation, mobility of... available for sharing or loan. Information concerning the availability of this equipment can be...

  17. Incidence of otitis externa following swimming pool attendance--a case study in 6 indoor pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borneff, M.; Geyer, G.

    1982-08-01

    A bacteriological study of the microflora in the auditory meatus of patients with otitis externa after swimming in correlation to the water flora was done during winter 80/81. Six indoor-pools (monthly controls ahead had proven unobjectionable water quality) were analyzed daily, while all swimmers were asked to come for otologic examination whenever symptoms of otitis externa appeared. In a control group without otitis externa the auditory canal was inspected and swabs were taken immediately after swimming. The results indicate, that a short term contamination of the ear canal is possible by swimming in water of unobjectionable quality; this however does not necessarily lead to clinical appearances. Since the incidence of otitis externa in our study (0.01%) was not higher than the morbidity rate in nonswimmers, the data support the concept of the multiplex etiology for otitis externa.

  18. Economic and Innovative Spent Fuel Pool Level Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legrand, R.; Scecina, J.; Koenig, W.

    2014-07-01

    At Fukushima, significant attention and resources were concentrated on providing makeup water to the Spent Fuel Pools (SFP). No level indication was available and the assumption was that the water level was dangerously low. As it later turned out, the applied resources could have been used more effectively elsewhere. In reaction, Nuclear Regulatory Authorities worldwide have issued orders to add rugged, seismically qualified level instrumentation to Spent Fuel Pools. (Author)

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OFBENTHIC FISH COMMUNITY OF DNIEPER STORAGE POOL LITTORAL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novitskiy R. A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Specific composition of bull-calves is analyzed together with their quantitative and quality parameters in the littoral zone of the Dnepr storage pool. The structural-functional features of organization of littoral communities of bull-calves were studied. The patterns of spatial distribution of Bull-calf (Gobiidae representatives were analyzed for the storage pool; their role in the littoral fish communities was clarified.

  20. Pooling score: an endoscopic model for evaluating severity of dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    FARNETI, D.

    2008-01-01

    The finding of secretions and bolus pooling is of great diagnostic interest in the evaluation of subjects with swallowing disorders. Bedside evaluation alone, in subjects at risk for aspiration, can underestimate this parameter. The usefulness of endoscopic investigation for the evaluation of subjects with swallowing disorders is stressed, in order to plan treatment and follow-up. Based on endoscopic evaluation of material pooling we devised a score expressing the severity of dysphagia. This ...

  1. Condensation pool experiments with steam using DN200 blowdown pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2005-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the condensation pool experiments with steam using a DN200 blowdown pipe. Altogether five experiment series, each consisting of several steam blows, were carried out in December 2004 with a scaled-down test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. The main purpose of the experiments was to increase the understanding of different phenomena in the condensation pool during steam discharge. (au)

  2. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Laia Font-Ribera

    2012-01-01

    This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemio...

  3. Off-exchange Trading, Dark Pools and their Regulatory Dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Zsuzsánna Biedermann

    2015-01-01

    Exemption from pre-trade transparency on dark platforms enables the prevention of information leakage and a major market impact, thus block traders prefer these platforms to public ones. There are several dark trading facilities: systematic internalisers, crossing networks, etc. In this study, I focus explicitly on dark pools, and analyse why average trade size is decreasing while the number of transactions and the popularity of these venues continue to increase even though dark pools do not ...

  4. [Gene pool and gene geography of the USSR population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychkov, Iu G; Balanovskaia, E V

    1992-01-01

    Gene pool and gene geography are discussed from the point of view of their conceptual history beginning from the original concept of A.S. Serebrovskiĭ (1928). Difference between the present-day gene geography and gene geography of gene pool is accentuated: the former only represents a portion of the latter. Historical and territorial integrity of the USSR population gene pool, in conjunction with its huge diversity, is the main problem being analysed by various means of computerized genetic cartography. Coupled with the gene frequency mapping, following methods were also used: mapping of average heterozygosity, of interpopulation differentiation, of principal component scores and mapping of geographical trend for each mapped genetic parameter. The work is based on 100 allelic genes and haplotypes from 30 independent loci studied on the average in 225 local populations. Statistical analysis of gene geographical maps is based on 3975 nodes of regular cartographic net for the USSR territory. The wind rose of systematic changes in the USSR gene pool has three main geographic orientations: W-E, SW-NE and S-N. At the same time, there are only two main systematic forces of gene pool evolution: the force of social history with predominant W-E orientation and the force of natural history with predominant S-N orientation of their actions. The heterozygosity level of gene pool declines strictly in accordance with the resultant in the SW-NE direction.

  5. NEW VISUAL PERCEPTUAL POOLING STRATEGY FOR IMAGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Wujie; Jiang Gangyi; Yu Mei

    2012-01-01

    Most of Image Quality Assessment (IQA) metrics consist of two processes.In the first process,quality map of image is measured locally.In the second process,the last quality score is converted from the quality map by using the pooling strategy.The first process had been made effective and significant progresses,while the second process was always done in simple ways.In the second process of the pooling strategy,the optimal perceptual pooling weights should be determined and computed according to Human Visual System (HVS).Thus,a reliable spatial pooling mathematical model based on HVS is an important issue worthy of study.In this paper,a new Visual Perceptual Pooling Strategy (VPPS) for IQA is presented based on contrast sensitivity and luminance sensitivity of HVS.Experimental results with the LIVE database show that the visual perceptual weights,obtained by the proposed pooling strategy,can effectively and significantly improve the performances of the IQA metrics with Mean Structural SIMilarity (MSSIM) or Phase Quantization Code (PQC).It is confirmed that the proposed VPPS demonstrates promising results for improving the performances of existing IQA metrics.

  6. Seasonal variation in Chironomid emergence from coastal pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander T. Egan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the phenology of emergences can be useful in determining seasonal chironomid life cycle patterns, which are often influenced by ice cover and temperature in cold climates. Lake Superior is the largest lake in North America and with a mean surface temperature of 3.9 °C influences regional climate. Coastal pools at Isle Royale, a wilderness archipelago in the northern part of the lake, occur in dense patches on low-gradient volcanic bedrock between the lakeshore and forest, creating variable microhabitats for Chironomidae. Four sites were sampled monthly from April to October, 2010. Surface-floating pupal exuviae were collected from a series of pools in two zones: a lower zone near the lake influenced by wave splash, and an upper zone near the forest and influenced by upland runoff. We used Jaccard’s and Whittaker’s diversity indexes to test community similarity across months. Temperature loggers in pools collected hourly readings for most of the study. Assemblage emergences were stable in upper pools, with significant similarity across late spring and summer months. Assemblages were seasonally variable in lower pools, with significant dissimilarity across spring, summer, and fall months. Few species in either zone were unique to spring or fall months. However, many summer species in the splash zone had a narrow emergence period occurring during calm weather following distinct increases in mean water temperature. Regardless of input of cold lake water to the lower zone, pools from both zones generally had corresponding temperature trends.

  7. Inorganic Chemical Composition of Swimming Pools in Amman-Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bety Saqarat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring was carried out during summer 2011 in three types of swimming pools in Amman-Jordan. Thirty six water samples, collected from three users type of swimming pools (adults, family and infants, were examined for its major ionic composition (HCO3-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4=, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, K+ and PO4+4 in addition to its BOD and COD content. All of the examined samples from the swimming pools water were acceptable according to the local and WHO standards. The type and number of users as well as the maintenance of the swimming pool water influenced the water quality. The results showed that there was a noticeable increase in NO3, PO4 and Cl than other ions. All of the examined samples from the swimming pools water were acceptable according to the local and WHO standards and although the water of the infant’s users changed frequently, it showed the highest concentration of most of the parameters and Adults’ pool showed the lowest.

  8. Visual crowding cannot be wholly explained by feature pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, Edward F; Klee, Daniel; Awh, Edward

    2014-06-01

    Visual perception is dramatically impaired when a peripheral target is embedded within clutter, a phenomenon known as visual crowding. Despite decades of study, the mechanisms underlying crowding remain a matter of debate. Feature pooling models assert that crowding results from a compulsory pooling (e.g., averaging) of target and distractor features. This view has been extraordinarily influential in recent years, so much so that crowding is typically regarded as synonymous with pooling. However, many demonstrations of feature pooling can also be accommodated by a probabilistic substitution model where observers occasionally report a distractor as the target. Here, we directly compared pooling and substitution using an analytical approach sensitive to both alternatives. In four experiments, we asked observers to report the precise orientation of a target stimulus flanked by two irrelevant distractors. In all cases, the observed data were well described by a quantitative model that assumes probabilistic substitution, and poorly described by a quantitative model that assumes that targets and distractors are averaged. These results challenge the widely held assumption that crowding can be wholly explained by compulsory pooling. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Oil sector expansion hits small road bump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2002-04-01

    Indications are that the upward production trend in Saskatchewan's oil industry, evident in recent years, will be reversed in 2002. Predictions are that the drop in production will be a modest one, reflecting the slower economy and the lag time between drilling activity and produced barrels of oil. Also a contributing factor is the fact that the year 2001 marked a decline of 20 per cent in oil well drilling from the previous year, down from 2,401 wells drilled to 1,931 wells. Expansions of last year such as PanCanadian's carbon dioxide project, Husky Energy's heavy oil project at Pike's Peak, northeast of Lloydminster, PanCanadian's SAGD project, Conoco's project at the Kerrobert Pool and Apache Canada's Midale area project southeast of Regina, are all likely to see more modest development during 2002. Similar retrenchment is expected at Nexen's (Wascana) Williston Basin area operations, due in part to the increased drilling cost resulting from the intense activity during 2001, and a 5 to 10 per cent rise in operating costs.

  10. Kuwaiti oil fires — Air quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohamed B.; Husain, Tahir

    Just before the Gulf War was concluded in early March 1991, more than 700 wells in Kuwaiti oil fields were set on fire. About 6 million barrels per day of oil were lost in flames and a large number of pools and lakes were formed. Burning wells in Kuwait emitted several thousand tons of gases such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and the oxides of nitrogen, as well as particulate matter, on a daily basis containing partially burned hydrocarbons and metals, all of which were potential for affecting human health and vegetation growth. This paper summarizes the real-time measurements of various gaseous pollutants in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia in Dhahran, Abqaiq, Rahimah, Jubail and Tanajib. The statistics on monthly variation of gaseous pollutants showed that pollution concentration in general was high in May 1991. The levels of typical pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (SO 2), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) in the ambient air were much lower than the permissible limits defined in the Meteorology and Environmental Protection Agency (MEPA) standards. The pollutants measured during the Kuwaiti Oil Fires were compared with the corresponding values measured in the previous year. The comparison shows that although the concentration of gaseous pollutants were within the MEPA limits, during the period of oil well fires, the concentration level increased persistently which might have been harmful for human health. The harmful effects of the major pollutants on human health and vegetation are also briefly discussed in the paper.

  11. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2005-10-15

    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs.

  12. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-10-01

    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs.

  13. The experience of arranging a back-up oil well group using the seventh bed at the Zhetybai field as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysenko, V.D.; Ermekov, A.K.; Leibin, E.L.; Savvin, K.F.; Vaslavskii, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    A method is proposed for arranging a back-up series of oil wells using the oil pool of the eighth bed located at the Zhetybai field, which has an underlying layer of water, as an example. Using a record of tapped and remaining oil reserves together with maps of existing isopachs, which were drafted accounting for the rising velocities of the water-oil contact at various sections in the bed, the placement of oil wells at one section or another of the bed is calculated. The number of oil wells is substantiated using a record of the remaining oil reserves together with a proposed oil yield standard for a single oil well.

  14. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  15. Pooled versus separate measurements of tree-ring stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorado Linan, Isabel, E-mail: isabel@gfz-potsdam.de [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Gutierrez, Emilia, E-mail: emgutierrez@ub.edu [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Helle, Gerhard, E-mail: ghelle@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Heinrich, Ingo, E-mail: heinrich@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Andreu-Hayles, Laia, E-mail: laiandreu@ub.edu [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades NY (United States); Planells, Octavi, E-mail: leocarpus@hotmail.com [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Leuenberger, Markus, E-mail: leuenberger@climate.unibe.ch [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre of Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Zaehringerstrasse 25, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Buerger, Carmen, E-mail: buerger@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Schleser, Gerhard, E-mail: schleser@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-05-01

    {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of tree rings contain time integrated information about the environmental conditions weighted by seasonal growth dynamics and are well established as sources of palaeoclimatic and ecophysiological data. Annually resolved isotope chronologies are frequently produced by pooling dated growth rings from several trees prior to the isotopic analyses. This procedure has the advantage of saving time and resources, but precludes from defining the isotopic error or statistical uncertainty related to the inter-tree variability. Up to now only a few studies have compared isotope series from pooled tree rings with isotopic measurements from individual trees. We tested whether or not the {delta}{sup 13}C and the {delta}{sup 18}O chronologies derived from pooled and from individual tree rings display significant differences at two locations from the Iberian Peninsula to assess advantages and constraints of both methodologies. The comparisons along the period 1900-2003 reveal a good agreement between pooled chronologies and the two mean master series which were created by averaging raw individual values (Mean) or by generating a mass calibrated mean (MassC). In most of the cases, pooled chronologies show high synchronicity with averaged individual samples at interannual scale but some differences also show up especially when comparing {delta}{sup 18}O decadal to multi-decadal variations. Moreover, differences in the first order autocorrelation among individuals may be obscured by pooling strategies. The lack of replication of pooled chronologies prevents detection of a bias due to a higher mass contribution of one sample but uncertainties associated with the analytical process itself, as sample inhomogeneity, seems to account for the observed differences. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pooled {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O chronologies are expected to be similar to the mean. {yields} Empirical pooled chronologies {delta}{sup 13}C and

  16. SUITABILITY OF SOYBEAN SEED OIL AS TRANSFORMER OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Egbuna, S.O.*, Ude, O.C., Ude, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    In search of solution to the harmful ecological problems due to toxicity and non-biodegradability posed by conventional transformer insulation oil (mineral oil), the production of transformer oil from soybean seed oil (vegetable oil) was carried out. The oil was extracted using n-hexane and was refined. The transformer oil was produced by transesterification and was characterized using American Society for Testing Material (ASTM) standard test. The solvent employed gave good yield of oil from...

  17. Variability and Expansion of the Tropical Ocean Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, C. D.; Webster, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    The tropical warm pool plays a determining role in the global climate since it acts as a sorce of thermodynamic forcing for the atmospheric general circulation. The warm pools (SST>28°C) extend from the Indian Ocean, across the Indonesian Archipelago into the western Pacific with a secondary area crossing Central America into the Caribbean and the central Atlantic ocean. The heating in the atmosphere above the warm pool influences climate over wide ranges of the planet. As there are zonal asymmetries in the extent of the warm pool, and hence variations in the locations of total heating of the atmospheric column, the warm pools also create centers of diabatic heating along the equator which set up the position and strength of the east-west Circulations which play integral roles in the coupled ocean-atmosphere tropical climate. In fact, almost all of the global vertically integrated heating resides over waters >27°C. The tropical warm pool is characterized by large-scale variations of SST on time scales that range from intraseasonal to interdecadal, considerably altering the forcing to the atmosphere. In addition to the existence of the large variability of the tropical warm pool SST, there is an upward trend in the tropical warm pool area, which is evident in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans with the area encompassed by the 28C isotherm groewing by 67% since 1920. Changes in the zonal and meridional circulation associated with the variability and expansion of the warm pool are studied using NCEP-NCAR and ERA40 reanalsysis. It is found that the impacts extend around the tropics and are associated with a slowing down of the Asian monsoon circulation and modulation of the of the equatorial Walker cells. Analysis of the IPCC-CMIP3 models for the 20th century show similar changes in the warm pool extent suggesting that changes that occur under different future emission scenarios may poossess credence. With greenhouse warming it is found that the warm pool

  18. HEAVY OIL DEVELOPMENT KEY TO CHINA'S OIL PRODUCTION GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ How to raise the heavy oil production rate has long been a difficult research project focused by international oil giants while the super-heavy oil development is particularly a world-class bottleneck for many oil producers. However, China's main oil companies will give priority to heavy oil exploration and production in the next decade to meet China's increasing energy needs.

  19. salinity Budget analysis of of Western Pacific Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; nie, xunwei; Qu, Tangdong

    2013-04-01

    Western pacific warm pool plays an important role in governing global climate variability. In particular, the unique salinity structures of warm pool, barrier layer and salinity front, have significant impacts on the heat content accumulation and zonal migration of warm pool surface water, which further modulate the formation and development of tropical climate phenomenon, such as El Niño, MJO and EAM. In order to have better understanding of how warm pool salinity contributes to climate change the salinity budget of warm pool are investigated using results from a model of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO). The results show that the salinity budget of warm pool and its components have significant seasonal and annual variability. The surface freshwater flux is the dominant element of salinity budget, which is well balanced by the other ocean dynamic terms. However among all the terms of ocean dynamics, mixing is most significant, whereas advection and entrainment are not dominant, unlike most other region. The further analysis of lagged correlation coefficient between the salinity budget, salinity budget components and NIÑO 3.4 reveals that the salinity budget is highly related to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results indicate that the annual variability of warm pool salinity budget has a notable correlation coefficient with NIÑO 3.4 (0.7); Mealwhile,variabilities of each components of Ocean dynamics,including diffusion, advection and mixing are found to be highly correlated to ENSO.The local barrier layer is believed to be a major reason.

  20. Pooled versus separate measurements of tree-ring stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado Liñán, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Helle, Gerhard; Heinrich, Ingo; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Planells, Octavi; Leuenberger, Markus; Bürger, Carmen; Schleser, Gerhard

    2011-05-01

    δ(13)C and δ(18)O of tree rings contain time integrated information about the environmental conditions weighted by seasonal growth dynamics and are well established as sources of palaeoclimatic and ecophysiological data. Annually resolved isotope chronologies are frequently produced by pooling dated growth rings from several trees prior to the isotopic analyses. This procedure has the advantage of saving time and resources, but precludes from defining the isotopic error or statistical uncertainty related to the inter-tree variability. Up to now only a few studies have compared isotope series from pooled tree rings with isotopic measurements from individual trees. We tested whether or not the δ(13)C and the δ(18)O chronologies derived from pooled and from individual tree rings display significant differences at two locations from the Iberian Peninsula to assess advantages and constraints of both methodologies. The comparisons along the period 1900-2003 reveal a good agreement between pooled chronologies and the two mean master series which were created by averaging raw individual values (Mean) or by generating a mass calibrated mean (MassC). In most of the cases, pooled chronologies show high synchronicity with averaged individual samples at interannual scale but some differences also show up especially when comparing δ(18)O decadal to multi-decadal variations. Moreover, differences in the first order autocorrelation among individuals may be obscured by pooling strategies. The lack of replication of pooled chronologies prevents detection of a bias due to a higher mass contribution of one sample but uncertainties associated with the analytical process itself, as sample inhomogeneity, seems to account for the observed differences.

  1. UPDG: Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Daniel WH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a well-established strategy for cost reduction in disease gene mapping, pooled DNA association study is much less popular than the individual DNA approach. This situation is especially true for pooled DNA genomewide association study (GWAS, for which very few computer resources have been developed for its data analysis. This motivates the development of UPDG (Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS. Results UPDG represents a generalized framework for data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS with the integration of Unix/Linux shell operations, Perl programs and R scripts. With the input of raw intensity data from GWAS, UPDG performs the following tasks in a stepwise manner: raw data manipulation, correction for allelic preferential amplification, normalization, nested analysis of variance for genetic association testing, and summarization of analysis results. Detailed instructions, procedures and commands are provided in the comprehensive user manual describing the whole process from preliminary preparation of software installation to final outcome acquisition. An example dataset (input files and sample output files is also included in the package so that users can easily familiarize themselves with the data file formats, working procedures and expected output. Therefore, UPDG is especially useful for users with some computer knowledge, but without a sophisticated programming background. Conclusions UPDG provides a free, simple and platform-independent one-stop service to scientists working on pooled DNA GWAS data analysis, but with less advanced programming knowledge. It is our vision and mission to reduce the hindrance for performing data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS through our contribution of UPDG. More importantly, we hope to promote the popularity of pooled DNA GWAS, which is a very useful research strategy.

  2. Fatty acid profile of eggs of semi-heavy layers fed feeds containing linseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs by adding oils to the diets has been extensively studied. This experiment aimed at evaluating possible changes in the fatty acid profile of the eggs of layers fed diets supplemented with linseed and soybean oils. The experiment was performed using 192 29 week-old laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design, into six treatments with four replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (no vegetable oil and diets including 2% of vegetable oil. Linseed oil replaced 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% soybean oil in the diets, corresponding to 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of linseed oil in the diet. A pool of two egg yolks from each treatment was submitted to lipid extraction and fatty acid methylation, and subsequent gas chromatography (GC analysis to detect seven fatty acids. Saturated (myristic and palmitic fatty acids concentration was affected by lipid dietary source, with the lowest concentration in birds were fed feeds containing linseed oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA concentration in the eggs was influenced by different levels of linseed oil inclusion. Linoleic acid egg content increased when linseed oil was used on diet as compared to the control diet. Linseed oil was considered an excellent source of linolenic acid incorporation in the eggs.

  3. Predictive modeling of subsurface shoreline oil encounter probability from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-04-07

    To better understand the distribution of remaining lingering subsurface oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) along the shorelines of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, we revised previous modeling efforts to allow spatially explicit predictions of the distribution of subsurface oil. We used a set of pooled field data and predictor variables stored as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data to generate calibrated boosted tree models predicting the encounter probability of different categories of subsurface oil. The models demonstrated excellent predictive performance as evaluated by cross-validated performance statistics. While the average encounter probabilities at most shoreline locations are low across western PWS, clusters of shoreline locations with elevated encounter probabilities remain in the northern parts of the PWS, as well as more isolated locations. These results can be applied to estimate the location and amount of remaining oil, evaluate potential ongoing impacts, and guide remediation. This is the first application of quantitative machine-learning based modeling techniques in estimating the likelihood of ongoing, long-term shoreline oil persistence after a major oil spill.

  4. The spatial variability of water chemistry and DOC in bog pools: the importance of slope position, diurnal turnover and pool type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Joseph; Turner, Ed; Baird, Andy; Beadle, Jeannie; Billett, Mike; Brown, Lee; Chapman, Pippa; Dinsmore, Kerry; Dooling, Gemma; Grayson, Richard; Moody, Catherine; Gee, Clare

    2017-04-01

    We have previously shown that marine influence is an important factor controlling regional variability of pool water chemistry in blanket peatlands. Here we examine within-site controls on pool water chemistry. We surveyed natural and artificial (restoration sites) bog pools at blanket peatland sites in northern Scotland and Sweden. DOC, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, cations, anions and absorbance spectra from 220-750nm were sampled. We sampled changes over time but also conducted intensive spatial surveys within individual pools and between pools on the same sampling days at individual study sites. Artificial pools had significantly greater DOC concentrations and different spectral absorbance characteristics when compared to natural pools at all sites studied. Within-pool variability in water chemistry tended to be small, even for very large pools ( 400 m2), except where pools had a layer of loose, mobile detritus on their beds. In these instances rapid changes took place between the overlying water column and the mobile sediment layer wherein dissolved oxygen concentrations dropped from values of around 12-10 mg/L to values less than 0.5 mg/L over just 2-3 cm of the depth profile. Such strong contrasts were not observed for pools which had a hard peat floor and which lacked a significant detritus layer. Strong diurnal turnover occurred within the pools on summer days, including within small, shallow pools (e.g. dissolved oxygen concentrations which originated at the surface and was then cycled downwards as the pool surface waters cooled. Slope location was a significant control on several pool water chemistry variables including pH and DOC concentration with accumulation (higher concentrations) in pools that were located further downslope in both natural and artificial pool systems. These processes have important implications for our interpretation of water chemistry and gas flux data from pool systems, how we design our sampling strategies and

  5. Migration of carbon nanotubes from liquid phase to vapor phase in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Hao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The migration characteristics of carbon nanotubes from liquid phase to vapor phase in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling were investigated experimentally. Four types of carbon nanotubes with the outside diameters from 15 to 80 nm and the lengths from 1.5 to 10 μm were used in the experiments. The refrigerants include R113, R141b and n-pentane. The oil concentration is from 0 to 10 wt.%, the heat flux is from 10 to 100 kW·m-2, and the initial liquid-level height is from 1.3 to 3.4 cm. The experimental results indicate that the migration ratio of carbon nanotube increases with the increase of the outside diameter or the length of carbon nanotube. For the fixed type of carbon nanotube, the migration ratio decreases with the increase of the oil concentration or the heat flux, and increases with the increase of the initial liquid-level height. The migration ratio of carbon nanotube increases with the decrease of dynamic viscosity of refrigerant or the increase of liquid phase density of refrigerant. A model for predicting the migration ratio of carbon nanotubes in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling is proposed, and the predictions agree with 92% of the experimental data within a deviation of ±20%.

  6. Migration of carbon nanotubes from liquid phase to vapor phase in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The migration characteristics of carbon nanotubes from liquid phase to vapor phase in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling were investigated experimentally. Four types of carbon nanotubes with the outside diameters from 15 to 80 nm and the lengths from 1.5 to 10 μm were used in the experiments. The refrigerants include R113, R141b and n-pentane. The oil concentration is from 0 to 10 wt.%, the heat flux is from 10 to 100 kW·m-2, and the initial liquid-level height is from 1.3 to 3.4 cm. The experimental results indicate that the migration ratio of carbon nanotube increases with the increase of the outside diameter or the length of carbon nanotube. For the fixed type of carbon nanotube, the migration ratio decreases with the increase of the oil concentration or the heat flux, and increases with the increase of the initial liquid-level height. The migration ratio of carbon nanotube increases with the decrease of dynamic viscosity of refrigerant or the increase of liquid phase density of refrigerant. A model for predicting the migration ratio of carbon nanotubes in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling is proposed, and the predictions agree with 92% of the experimental data within a deviation of ±20%. PMID:21711730

  7. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    Although food grains are commonly protected by insecticidal application and fumigation, ... (1978) reported that groundnut oil applied to cowpeas has no effect on mortality or .... Effectiveness of vegetable oil fractions in controlling the Mexican.

  8. Examination of homogeneity of selected Irish pooling groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood frequency analysis is a necessary and important part of flood risk assessment and management studies. Regional flood frequency methods, in which flood data from groups of catchments are pooled together in order to enhance the precision of flood estimates at project locations, is an accepted part of such studies. This enhancement of precision is based on the assumption that catchments so pooled together are homogeneous in their flood producing properties. If homogeneity is assured then a homogeneous pooling group of sites lead to a reduction in the error of quantile estimates, relative to estimators based on single at-site data series alone. Homogeneous pooling groups are selected by using a previously nominated rule and this paper examines how effective one such rule is in selecting homogeneous groups. In this paper a study, based on annual maximum series obtained from 85 Irish gauging stations, examines how successful a common method of identifying pooling group membership is in selecting groups that actually are homogeneous. Each station has its own unique pooling group selected by use of a Euclidean distance measure in catchment descriptor space, commonly denoted dij and with a minimum of 500 station years of data in the pooling group. It was found that dij could be effectively defined in terms of catchment area, mean rainfall and baseflow index. The study then investigated how effective this selected method is in selecting groups of catchments that are actually homogenous as indicated by their L-Cv values. The sampling distribution of L-CV (t2 in each pooling group and the 95% confidence limits about the pooled estimate of t2 are obtained by simulation. The t2 values of the selected group members are compared with these confidence limits both graphically and numerically. Of the 85 stations, only 1 station's pooling group members have

  9. Evaluation of Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform and Residual Chlorine in Swimming Pools in Kermanshah on the Season, the type of Pool, Disinfection System and Source of Water Supply in the during of three years (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SHarafi

    2014-11-01

    From the results , although the pools of water quality parameters has been studied in almost ideal But in summer, especially on a female pools and pools with wells water supply source than other pools , to be more oversight .

  10. Experimental investigation of particulate debris spreading in a pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalenko, A., E-mail: kono@kth.se [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) , Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden); Basso, S., E-mail: simoneb@kth.se [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) , Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden); Kudinov, P., E-mail: pkudinov@kth.se [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) , Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden); Yakush, S.E., E-mail: yakush@ipmnet.ru [Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ave. Vernadskogo 101 Bldg 1, Moscow 119526 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Termination of severe accident progression by core debris cooling in a deep pool of water under reactor vessel is considered in several designs of light water reactors. However, success of this accident mitigation strategy is contingent upon the effectiveness of heat removal by natural circulation from the debris bed. It is assumed that a porous bed will be formed in the pool in the process of core melt fragmentation and quenching. Debris bed coolability depends on its properties and system conditions. The properties of the bed, including its geometry are the outcomes of the debris bed formation process. Spreading of the debris particles in the pool by two-phase turbulent flows induced by the heat generated in the bed can affect the shape of the bed and thus influence its coolability. The goal of this work is to provide experimental data on spreading of solid particles in the pool by large-scale two-phase flow. The aim is to provide data necessary for understanding of separate effects and for development and validation of models and codes. Validated codes can be then used for prediction of debris bed formation under prototypic severe accident conditions. In PDS-P (Particulate Debris Spreading in the Pool) experiments, air injection at the bottom of the test section is employed as a means to create large-scale flow in the pool in isothermal conditions. The test section is a rectangular tank with a 2D slice geometry, it has fixed width (72 mm), adjustable length (up to 1.5 m) and allows water filling to the depth of up to 1 m. Variable pool length and depth allows studying two-phase circulating flows of different characteristic sizes and patterns. The average void fraction in the pool is determined by video recording and subsequent image processing. Particles are supplied from the top of the facility above the water surface. Results of several series of PDS-P experiments are reported in this paper. The influence of the gas flow rate, pool dimensions, particle density

  11. China Aviation Oil Acquires Overseas Oil Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Aviation Oil (Singapore) announced an acquisition of a 20.6 percent stake in Singapore Petroleum Company (SPC) from Satya Capital Inc Ltd, the largest investment the company has ever made in its history. China Aviation Oil (Singapore),which is the largest Chinese enterprise Singapore,will become the second largest shareholder of SPC after the acquisition.

  12. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  13. [ATP pool and bioluminescence in psychrophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekserova, L É; Alenina, K A; Efremenko, E N; Mazhul', M M; Piskunova, N F; Ismailov, A D

    2014-01-01

    Bioluminescence activity and ATP pool were investigated in the culture of psychrophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum collected-from the exponential and stationary growth phases, as well as immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel. In liquid culture, ATP pool remained at an almost a constant level throughout the luminescence cycle (over 100 h). The ATP pool in the stationary-phase and PVA-immobilizedl cells remained constant throughout their incubation in the medium (over 200 h) and in 3% NaCl solution (over 100 h): Quantitative assessment of integral photon yield and ATP pool indicated that bioluminescence decay in growing or stationary cells was not caused by limitation by the energy substrates of the luciferase reaction. Kinetic and quantitative parameters of emission activity and ATP pool excluded the possibility of formation of the aldehyde substrate for luciferase via reduction of the relevant fatty acids in NADPH and ATP-dependent reductase reaction and its oxidation in the monooxygenase reaction. Our results indicate that the aliphatic aldehyde is not utilized in the process of light emission.

  14. Swimming pool attendance and hay fever rates later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhammer, Y; Döring, A; Schäfer, T; Wichmann, H-E; Heinrich, J

    2006-11-01

    Exposure to chlorination by-products through swimming pool attendance showed adverse health effects on children. The aim of our study was to assess whether pool attendance in childhood would be related to higher rates of allergic diseases in adulthood, with special regard to hay fever. 2606 adults aged 35-74 years provided retrospectively collected information on swimming pool attendance and medical history, including data on atopic diseases. Information was assessed by a combination of a personal interview and a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were applied to study associations between hay fever and swimming pool attendance, adjusted for potentially relevant confounders, such as age, gender, region, education and smoking. Higher rates of hay fever could be seen when frequently exposed at school age (aOR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.09-2.77), frequently exposed during the past 12 months (aOR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.92-1.89) and ever exposed (aOR: 1.65, 95% CI: 0.98-2.78). Strongest associations were found for the youngest subjects and were dose-related to the extent of current and school-age pool attendance. Impaired integrity of the lung epithelial by exposure to chlorination by-products might facilitate a closer contact to allergens and therefore could result in higher rates of hay fever.

  15. Research progresses and future directions on pool boiling heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the previous work carried on pool boiling heat transfer during heating of various liquids and commodities categorized as refrigerants and dielectric fluids, pure liquids, nanofluids, hydrocarbons and additive mixtures, as well as natural and synthetic colloidal solutions. Nucleate pool boiling is an efficient and effective method of boiling because high heat fluxes are possible with moderate temperature differences. It is characterized by the growth of bubbles on a heated surface. It occurs during boiling of liquids for excess temperature ranging from 5 to 30 °C in various processes related to high vaporization of liquid for specific purposes like sugarcane juice heating for jaggery making, milk heating for khoa making, steam generation, cooling of electronic equipments, refrigeration and etcetera. In this review paper, pool boiling method during heating of liquids for specific purpose is depicted. It is inferred that enhancement in pool boiling heat transfer is a challenging and complex task. Also, recent research and use of various correlations for natural convection pool boiling is reviewed.

  16. Identification of homogeneous and heterogeneous variables in pooled cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin; Lu, Wenbin; Liu, Mengling

    2015-06-01

    Pooled analyses integrate data from multiple studies and achieve a larger sample size for enhanced statistical power. When heterogeneity exists in variables' effects on the outcome across studies, the simple pooling strategy fails to present a fair and complete picture of the effects of heterogeneous variables. Thus, it is important to investigate the homogeneous and heterogeneous structure of variables in pooled studies. In this article, we consider the pooled cohort studies with time-to-event outcomes and propose a penalized Cox partial likelihood approach with adaptively weighted composite penalties on variables' homogeneous and heterogeneous effects. We show that our method can characterize the variables as having heterogeneous, homogeneous, or null effects, and estimate non-zero effects. The results are readily extended to high-dimensional applications where the number of parameters is larger than the sample size. The proposed selection and estimation procedure can be implemented using the iterative shooting algorithm. We conduct extensive numerical studies to evaluate the performance of our proposed method and demonstrate it using a pooled analysis of gene expression in patients with ovarian cancer. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  17. Oil Module Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    in any a^regate sense, or (b) to be "valid" for crude oil production in all countries. Neither, however, is it to provide detailed point... oil production by the oil companies through their regular channels. Such oil is said to be "sold back" by the countries to the coirpanies...a royalty to the producing country government. revenue received by the producing country government as a result of sales of its share of crude

  18. Indonesia's palm oil subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald F.

    1996-01-01

    Debate on Indonesia's palm oil policy was stimulated by a sharp increase in cooking oil prices in 1994-95 and a resulting increase in the export tax rate on crude palm oil. Palm oil has been one of the fastest growing subsectors in Indonesia. Using a quantitative model, the author analyzes the effect of government policies, including the export tax, buffer stock operations by the BULOG (the national logistics agency), and directed sales from public estates. The author acknowledges the export ...

  19. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  20. Scaling of the burning efficiency for multicomponent fuel pool fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Farahani, Hamed Farmahini; Rangwala, Ali S.;

    In order to improve the validity of small scale crude oil burning experiments, which seem to underestimate the burning efficiency obtained in larger scales, the gasification mechanism of crude oil was studied. Gasification models obtained from literature were used to make a set of predictions...... for relevant burning related parameters which were then compared to experimental results. These parameters, the surface temperature, mass loss rate, flame height and residue composition, were studied for three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane) and two crude oils (DUC and REBCO). Based...... on the models-experiments comparison, it was suggested that crude oil burns according to a distillation-like mechanism, with the light components burning off first, followed by increasingly heavier components as the burning progresses. Thus, in order for the crude oil to burn near 100%, the surface temperature...

  1. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  2. Natural oils as lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  3. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  4. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  5. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  6. Lubricating oil; Junkatsuyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H.

    1999-07-20

    As a reflection of business recession, sales amount of lubricating oils in 1998 in Japan was 2.334 million kl that is 96.1% of that in the previous year. In addition, export amount was 394 thousand kl that also decreased sharply to 81.9% of that in the previous year. In this situation, researches and developments of environment-adaptable lubricating oils such as fuel consumption-saving engine oils, new mechanism-corresponding drive system oils (AFT, CVT), refrigerating machine oils for substitute coolants, biodegradable oils and greases, environment corresponding processing oils (non-chlorine type cutting oils), and so on have been executed actively. In respect to lubricating oils for vehicles, numerous researches and developments of engine oils are executed while putting stress on the improvement of fuel consumption saving for reducing CO{sub 2} exhaust; improvement of adaptability to exhaust treating apparatus for purging harmful components from exhaust gas; and environmental corresponding of long drain for reducing waste oils. In respect to lubricating oils for industry, basic characteristics and utility characteristics of fire-resistant working fluids and biodegradable working fluids; and utility characteristics of new functional fluids and electric viscous fluids are reported in view of their relationship with environmental protection. (NEDO)

  7. Human parvovirus PARV4 in plasma pools of Chinese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y-Y; Guo, Y; Zhao, X; Wang, Z; Lv, M-M; Yan, Q-P; Zhang, J-G

    2012-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is present in blood and blood products. As the presence and levels of PARV4 in Chinese source plasma pools have never been determined, we implemented real-time quantitative PCR to investigate the presence of PARV4 in source plasma pools in China. Results showed that 26·15% (51/195) of lots tested positive for PARV4. The amounts of DNA ranged from 2·83 × 10(3) copies/ml to 2·35×10(7) copies/ml plasma. The high level of PARV4 in plasma pools may pose a potential risk to recipients. Further studies on the pathogenesis of PARV4 are urgently required. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. Retakaful Pool Framework for Takaful Operators in Malaysia: Experts’ Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Nu Nu Htay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is trying to position itself as a hub of Islamic finance and the government is promoting the Islamic finance industry. Takaful industry is rapidly increasing however, Retakaful industry is not catching up with the dynamic and complex needs of Takaful industry. In addition, the existence of the limited number of Retakaful operators causes Takaful operators not much bargaining power in negotiating the Retakaful agreement andTakaful operators have no option except to follow the requirements set by Retakaful operators. Thus, this study intends to propose framework forRetakaful pool mechanism by seeking the opinions of experts in Malaysia. By introducingRetakaful pool among the Takaful operators, it will create mutual and friendly business environment among them and reduce dependency on Retakaful operators. In addition, the experts believe that Retakaful pool will bring more benefit to the Takaful operators, compared to the traditional Retakaful method, i.e., engaging with Retakaful operators.

  9. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  10. Does carbon dioxide pool or stream in the subsurface?

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Silvana S S

    2014-01-01

    Pools of carbon dioxide are found in natural geological accumulations and in engineered storage in saline aquifers. It has been thought that once this CO2 dissolves in the formation water, making it denser, convection streams would transport it efficiently to depth, but this may not be so. Here, we assess the impact of natural chemical reactions between the dissolved CO2 and the rock formation on the convection streams in the subsurface. We show that, while in carbonate rocks the streaming of dissolved carbon dioxide persists, the chemical interactions in silicate-rich rocks may curb this transport drastically and even inhibit it altogether. New laboratory experiments confirm the curtailing of convection by reaction. Wide and narrow streams of dense carbon-rich water are shut-off gradually as reaction strength increases until all transport of the pooled carbon dioxide occurs by slow molecular diffusion. These results show that the complex fluid dynamic and kinetic interactions between pooled carbon dioxide an...

  11. Mathematical model and simulation of partial penetrated weld pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The qualitative analysis on the behavior of partial penetrated weld pool transferring from pulsed peak current to base current in pulsed TIG welding is carried out in this paper. Based on the analysis results, the mathematical models for 3D liquid surface shape of partial penetrated weld pool in pulsed TIG welding are created including surface potential energy model, gravitational energy model and volumetric potential energy. The numerical simulation with these models and the experiments on low carbon steel are carried out using the software Surface Evolver. The simulation results and model are then amended with experimental results. Two important characteristic quantities, the liquid metal coverage ratio and the stripping width of liquid metal, are put forward in this paper, which paves a way for further weld pool full penetration control.

  12. Weld pool image sensor for pulsed MIG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Pengfei; Sun Zhenguo; Huang Cao; Chen Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Visual image sensor is developed to detect the weld pool images in pulsed MIG welding. An exposure controller, which is composed of the modules of the voltage transforming, the exposure parameters presetting, the complex programmable logic device (CPLD) based logic controlling, exposure signal processing, the arc state detecting, the mechanical iris driving and so on, is designed at first. Then, a visual image sensor consists of an ordinary CCD camera, optical system and exposure controller is established. The exposure synchronic control logic is described with very-high-speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) and programmed with CPLD, to detect weld pool images at the stage of base current in pulsed MIG welding. Finally, both bead on plate welding and V groove filled welding are carried out, clear and consistent weld pool images are acquired.

  13. Models for Pooled Time-Series Cross-Section Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E Raffalovich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several models are available for the analysis of pooled time-series cross-section (TSCS data, defined as “repeated observations on fixed units” (Beck and Katz 1995. In this paper, we run the following models: (1 a completely pooled model, (2 fixed effects models, and (3 multi-level/hierarchical linear models. To illustrate these models, we use a Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimator with cross-section weights and panel-corrected standard errors (with EViews 8 on the cross-national homicide trends data of forty countries from 1950 to 2005, which we source from published research (Messner et al. 2011. We describe and discuss the similarities and differences between the models, and what information each can contribute to help answer substantive research questions. We conclude with a discussion of how the models we present may help to mitigate validity threats inherent in pooled time-series cross-section data analysis.

  14. A new kind of Molotov? Gasoline-pool chlorinator mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutches, Katherine; Lord, James

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the reaction between pool chlorinators and gasoline. In particular, the propensity for self-ignition and the resulting chemical products were studied. An organic pool chlorinator was combined with gasoline in varying proportions in an attempt to form a hypergolic mixture. None of the combinations resulted in self-ignition, but larger quantities of chlorinator produced vigorous light-colored smoke and a solid mass containing isocyanuric acid and copper chloride. Additionally, the chlorinating abilities of different commercially available pool chlorinators were explored. When Ca(ClO)(2) and sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinators were used, the presence of gasoline was still visible after 10 days, despite limited chlorination. The trichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinator, however, caused efficient chlorination of the C(2)- and C(3)-alkylbenzenes, making gasoline no longer identifiable.

  15. Inferring local ecological processes amid species pool influences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Belmaker, Jonathan; Myers, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Resolving contingencies in community ecology requires comparative studies of local communities along broad-scale environmental gradients and in different biogeographic regions. However, comparisons of local ecological processes among regions require a synthetic understanding of how the species pool...... of potential community members influences the structure of ecological communities. Here, we outline an integrative approach for quantifying local ecological processes while explicitly accounting for species pool influences. Specifically, we highlight the utility of combining geographically replicated local...... studies, null models of community structure, and ecologically explicit definitions of the species pool as a means to compare predominant ecological processes among regions. By uniting concepts and tools from community ecology and macroecology, this approach might facilitate synthesis and resolve many...

  16. Inferring local ecological processes amid species pool influences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Belmaker, Jonathan; Myers, Jonathan A.;

    2012-01-01

    studies, null models of community structure, and ecologically explicit definitions of the species pool as a means to compare predominant ecological processes among regions. By uniting concepts and tools from community ecology and macroecology, this approach might facilitate synthesis and resolve many......Resolving contingencies in community ecology requires comparative studies of local communities along broad-scale environmental gradients and in different biogeographic regions. However, comparisons of local ecological processes among regions require a synthetic understanding of how the species pool...... of potential community members influences the structure of ecological communities. Here, we outline an integrative approach for quantifying local ecological processes while explicitly accounting for species pool influences. Specifically, we highlight the utility of combining geographically replicated local...

  17. Features of molten pool free surface in laser processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of static characteristics of free surface of molten pools in laser processing, starting with the change of surface tension, the uniform numerical models are developed for both the liquid and solid regions of metals by applying the enthalpy source method and the porous region model. The flow and heat transfer characteristics in the molten pools and the distribution of surface tension on free surface are disclosed. The shape of free surface is analyzed by considering the static forces on the free surface and by combining with the calculated results of the molten pool. The model is applied to analyzing the laser processing of AISI 304 stainless steel, and the effects of different processing tech nics and material properties on shaping of free surface are discussed.

  18. Improving video foreground segmentation with an object-like pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoliu; Lv, Wei; Liu, Huawei; You, Xing; Li, Baoqing; Yuan, Xiaobing

    2015-03-01

    Foreground segmentation in video frames is quite valuable for object and activity recognition, while the existing approaches often demand training data or initial annotation, which is expensive and inconvenient. We propose an automatic and unsupervised method of foreground segmentation given an unlabeled and short video. The pixel-level optical flow and binary mask features are converted into the normal probabilistic superpixels, therefore, they are adaptable to build the superpixel-level conditional random field which aims to label the foreground and background. We exploit the fact that the appearance and motion features of the moving object are temporally and spatially coherent in general, to construct an object-like pool and background-like pool via the previous segmented results. The continuously updated pools can be regarded as the "prior" knowledge of the current frame to provide a reliable way to learn the features of the object. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach exceeds the current methods, both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  19. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  20. Study of Fungal Contamination of Indoor Public Swimming Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nanbakhsh

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are found in different environments with variable distribution patterns depending on various factors. The aim of this study was determination of fungal contaminants in public swimming pools in Uromia, Iran. The fungal contaminations of four indoor swimming pools were studied by using membrane filtration and swab sampling method. Samples were collected by a manual plastic pump, in a 200 ml sterilized bottle. All samples were collected within 2 hours and then transferred to the laboratory. A total of 384 samples including water and environmental surfaces were collected and tested for the presence of fungi in different seasons within one year. In addition to the above information, some physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, residual chlorine, pH, turbidity of water and the number of swimmers were studied. Findings indicated that, the average temperature, pH, residual chlorine and turbidity of water in the swimming pools within one year were: 29.9°C, 8.1, 0.6 ppm and 0.8 NTU respectively. The most common fungi recovered were as follows: Asepergillus Spp. 56.25%, Candida spp. 22.9%, Rhizopus spp. 4.16 %, other filamentous fungi 16.6% and other yeast species 2.8%. The fungi such as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Philophora and Trichophyton mentagrophytis were isolated from dressing room, bathing room and other places out of pools. According to these results and previous studies on pools, it has been indicated that contamination by fungi in the pools is not significant in water and environment. Presence of dermatophytic fungus from dressing room is probably due to human contact.

  1. The pool chlorine hypothesis and asthma among boys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2012-01-31

    Swimming pool sanitation has largely been concerned with the microbiological quality of pool water, which is normally treated using a number of chlorine products. Recent studies have pointed to the potential hazards of chlorine by-products to the respiratory epithelium, particularly in indoor, poorly ventilated, pools. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether chronic exposure to indoor chlorinated swimming pools was associated with an increased likelihood of the development of asthma in boys. METHODS: The subjects were boys aged between 6 and 12 years. Data was collected by means of parental responses to a standardized asthma questionnaire (ISAAC: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), supplemented with additional questions regarding frequency of attendance, number of years attendance, whether the child is a swimming team member. The questionnaire return rate was 71\\/% (n = 121). 23 boys were excluded on the basis that they had asthma before they started swimming (n = 97). There was a significant association between number of years a boy had been swimming and the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months (p = 0.009; OR = 1.351; 95% CI = 1.077-1.693) and diagnosed asthma (p = 0.046; OR = 1.299; 95% CI = 1.004-1.506). The greater the number the number of years a boy had been attending an indoor, chlorinated pool, the greater the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months or "had asthma". Age, parental smoking habits and being a swimming team member had no association with any of the asthma variables examined. Swimming pool attendance may be a risk factor in asthma in boys.

  2. Temperature dependent fission product removal efficiency due to pool scrubbing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke, E-mail: suchida@iae.or.jp [Institute of Applied Energy, 1-14-2, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Itoh, Ayumi; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Institute of Applied Energy, 1-14-2, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Hanamoto, Yukio [KAKEN, Inc., 1044, Hori-machi, Mito 310-0903 (Japan); Osakabe, Masahiro [Tokyo University of Marine Science & Technology, Koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Fujikawa, Masahiro [Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 2-2-1, Jinnan, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8001 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Pool temperature effects on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications. • It was confirmed that the removal efficiency decreased with temperature around the boiling point. • A modified empirical formula for FP removal was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature. • DF could be predicted with an accuracy within a factor of 2 with the proposed formula. - Abstract: The wet-well of boiling water reactors plays important roles not only to suppress the pressure in the primary containment vessel due to steam scrubbing effects during severe accidents but also to mitigate release of radioactive fission products (FP), aerosols and particulates, into the environment. The effects of steam scrubbing in the wet-well on FP removal have been well studied and reported by changing major parameters determining the removal efficiencies, e.g., aerosol diameters, submergence (depth of scrubbing nozzles) and steam/non-condensable gas volume fraction. Unfortunately, the effects of pool temperature on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications, though it would be easily expected that boiling in the pool resulted in reduced aerosol removal efficiency. In order to determine the temperature effects on FP removal efficiency, amounts of cesium in aerosols released from scrubbing pool were measured by changing pool temperature in mini and medium scale scrubbing experiments, and then, it was confirmed that the removal efficiency clearly decreased with temperature around the boiling point. Then, a modified empirical formula to express the FP removal around the boiling point temperature was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature by applying the effective steam volume fraction, which was designated as the volume ratio of condensed steam in the pool versus the sum of input steam and non-condensable gas. By comparing the measured removal efficiency with the calculated, it was validated that the

  3. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  4. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bluff, Fla.; pool level. 207.170 Section 207.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (a) The level of the pool shall normally be maintained at elevation 56.5 feet above sea level: Provided, That the level of the pool may be raised to not exceeding 58.5...

  5. 33 CFR 207.60 - Federal Dam, Hudson River, Troy, N.Y.; pool level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., N.Y.; pool level. 207.60 Section 207.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., N.Y.; pool level. (a) Whenever the elevation of the pool created by the Federal dam at Troy, N.Y... automatically when the pool level rises to an elevation of +18.5 feet mean sea level, and conform in...

  6. Pool sajandit geenilugu, pikk tee veel käia / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2003-01-01

    Vt. ka Koit 22. apr., lk. 7 pealkirja all: Tänavu täitub pool sajandit geenilugu. Võrumaa Teataja 26. apr., lk. 7 pealkirja all: Pool sajandit geeniuuringuid. Inimese genoom on lõplikult järjestatud. Vooremaa 29. apr., lk. 5 pealkirja all: Pool sajandit geenilugu. Virumaa Teataja 23. juuli, lk. 7 pealkirja all: Pool sajandit geenilugu

  7. Cool Water Formation and Trout Habitat Use in a Deep Pool in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    KATHLEEN R. MATTHEWS; NEIL H. BERG; AZUMA DAVID L.

    1994-01-01

    We documented temperature stratification in a deep bedrock pool in the North Fork of the American River, described the diel movement of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta. and determined whether these trout used cooler portions of the pool.From July 30 to October 10, 1992, the main study pool and an adjacent pool were stratified(temperature...

  8. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States); Easley, S. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  9. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  10. Pooled credit plans offer financing alternatives to independent hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziglar, J W

    1983-06-01

    Using the collective financial strength of a group of not-for-profit health care institutions to finance capital needs has become an increasingly popular concept. This article discusses the significant advantages and disadvantages of the concept, provides an overview of the development of multi-institutional financing arrangements, and describes the generic forms of credit poolings. It also outlines three broad areas of inquiry to be explored by potential participants before entering a pooled credit arrangement: the relationships among participants, the availability of assets to support debt, and corporate planning and strategy.

  11. The CERN Electronics Pool moves to Building 13

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    After 32 years in Building 4 R‐050, the CERN Electronics Pool will re‐open in Building 13 R009 on Monday 13 December at 10:00 As of this date, you will be able to come and choose the instruments you want: oscilloscopes and other measurement instruments, low and high voltage power supplies, modular instrumentation, etc. Please do not hesitate to consult the catalogue and give us any input you may have. The CERN Electronics Pool operates on a self-service basis (with a CERN budget code) and is available for any help you may need.

  12. Molten pool and temperature field in CO2 laser welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Aiqin; Chen Li; Wang Yajun; Hu Lunji

    2006-01-01

    Two measuring methods, high-speed camera and optical monitoring system, were used to study processes of laser welding. Molten pool, cooling time and temperature field were analyzed based on real measured images and optical signal data. The results show that the width of molten pool is almost equal to the width of weld, and length is about 7.8 mm. The solidification time is about 0. 5 s and the temperature gradient is great, so HAZ is very small. The method and results will be of benefit to build the relationship between welding parameters and microstructure.

  13. Criticality safety calculations of the Soreq research reactor storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caner, M.; Hirshfeld, H.; Nagler, A.; Silverman, I.; Bettan, M. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Levine, S.H. [Penn State University, University Park 16802 (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The IRR-l spent fuel is to be relocated in a storage pool. The present paper describes the actual facility and summarizes the Monte Carlo criticality safety calculations. The fuel elements are to be placed inside cadmium boxes to reduce their reactivity. The fuel element is 7.6 cm by 8.0 cm in the horizontal plane. The cadmium box is effectively 9.7 cm by 9.7 cm, providing significant water between the cadmium and the fuel element. The present calculations show that the spent fuel storage pool is criticality safe even for fresh fuel elements. (author)

  14. ITC-Euromaster Course Pool for AEC Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Tibaut

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the ITC-Euromaster Course Pool. It is a concept that powers e-learning environment for conducting an international Master’s level programme in information technologies for Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC. The e-learning environment integrates resources (units of study, learning management system, virtual classroom, teachers and students from five European universities. In the paper following aspects of the system are presented: concept and methodology of the Course Pool, technology for e-learning and evaluation results.

  15. Analysis of swimming pool accidents resulting in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B A; Gabrielsen, M A; Hall, W J; O'Heir, J

    1980-04-01

    This paper is a summary of a study of 72 cases of swimming-pool accidents resulting in serious injuries with the potential of permanent disability. Sixty-four of the 72 cases resulted in spinal cord injuries, 57 of which involved quadriplegic lesions. The authors observed that the majority of these injuries resulted from a lack of good judgement and common sense rather than from intoxication or pool structural deficiencies. Also of note was the lack of appropriate first-aid and extrication rendered, as well as the absence of uniform treatment and care received by the majority of the patients.

  16. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-29

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  17. Price manipulation in a market impact model with dark pool

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Kl\\"ock; Alexander Schied; Yuemeng Sun

    2012-01-01

    For a market impact model, price manipulation and related notions play a role that is similar to the role of arbitrage in a derivatives pricing model. Here, we give a systematic investigation into such regularity issues when orders can be executed both at a traditional exchange and in a dark pool. To this end, we focus on a class of dark-pool models whose market impact at the exchange is described by an Almgren--Chriss model. Conditions for the absence of price manipulation for all Almgren--C...

  18. FEATURES OF CENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT OF THE FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF LARGE CORPORATIONS FOR EXAMPLE COMPANIES OIL AND GAS COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Yu. Zaitsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the need to centralize corporatefinancial management, examines the difficulties faced bylarge companies in the fi eld of financial management in theapplication of traditional control systems. It proves that forthe optimal management of the financial resources of oil and gas companies a single centralized treasury shouldbe used. The experiences of Cash Management andCash Pooling systems, which are the main tool for centralized management of cash flow Corporation. Examplesof active Cash Pooling system for Russian participants:Russia’s largest oil and gas companies Lukoil, Rosneft and Gazprom.

  19. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  20. Calibration of the Standards and Calibration Laboratory`s Co{sup 60} Radiation Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtenson, G.R.; White, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The authors report measurements of dose rates at various locations in the LLNL Standards and Calibrations Laboratory`s Co{sup 60} Radiation Pool. Plots show the dependence of dose rate on radius near the bottom of the pool and the dependence of dose rate on height at a fixed distance from the pool center. The effect of varying sample location within the pool`s dry-well was also investigated.

  1. Stress, seismicity and structure of shallow oil reservoirs of Clinton County, Kentucky. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton-Smith, T. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-12

    Between 1993 and 1995 geophysicists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in a project funded by the US Department of Energy, conducted extensive microseismic monitoring of oil production in the recently discovered High Bridge pools of Clinton County and were able to acquire abundant, high-quality data in the northern of the two pools. This investigation provided both three-dimensional spatial and kinetic data relating to the High Bridge fracture system that previously had not been available. Funded in part by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kentucky Geological Survey committed to develop a geological interpretation of these geophysical results, that would be of practical benefit to future oils exploration. This publication is a summary of the results of that project. Contents include the following: introduction; discovery and development; regional geology; fractured reservoir geology; oil migration and entrapment; subsurface stress; induced seismicity; structural geology; references; and appendices.

  2. Nutritional properties of poppyseed oil relative to some other oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L; Nera, E A; Levin, O L

    1979-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed a purified basal diet with 20% lard and corn oil (3:1), sunflower oil, poppyseed oil, low-erucic rapeseed oil from Brassica napus, cultivar Tower, or mixtures of these oils, for 1 or 26 weeks. None of the hearts exhibited lipidosis at 1 week. At 26 weeks, the level of serum triglycerides was higher in rats fed the mixture of lard and corn oil than in those fed only vegetable oil, and the incidence of cardiac necrosis and fibrosis was higher in rats fed the rapeseed oil than in the other animals. Cardiac phospholipids in rats fed the rapeseed oil contained an elevated level of omega 3 docosahexaenoic acid, particularly in phosphatidylethanolamine. Poppyseed oil exhibited properties similar to those of sunflower oil, was absorbed as well as olive oil, and appeared to be a promising oil for human consumption.

  3. Fish oil supplementation and insulin sensitivity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huanqing; Geng, Tingting; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Qinghua

    2017-07-03

    Fish oil supplementation has been shown to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome and benefit a wide range of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and several types of cancers. However, the evidence of fish oil supplementation on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still controversial. This meta-analysis summarized the exist evidence of the relationship between fish oil supplementation and insulin sensitivity and aimed to evaluate whether fish oil supplementation could improve insulin sensitivity. We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase database for the relevant studies update to Dec 2016. Two researchers screened the literature independently by the selection and exclusion criteria. Studies were pooled using random effect models to estimate a pooled SMD and corresponding 95% CI. This meta-analysis was performed by Stata 13.1 software. A total of 17 studies with 672 participants were included in this meta-analysis study after screening from 498 published articles found after the initial search. In a pooled analysis, fish oil supplementation had no effects on insulin sensitivity compared with the placebo (SMD 0.17, 95%CI -0.15 to 0.48, p = 0.292). In subgroup analysis, fish oil supplementation could benefit insulin sensitivity among people who were experiencing at least one symptom of metabolic disorders (SMD 0.53, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.88, p oil supplementation or duration of the intervention. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were robust. Short-term fish oil supplementation is associated with increasing the insulin sensitivity among those people with metabolic disorders.

  4. Solidification microstructures in single-crystal stainless steel melt pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipf, J.B.; Boatner, L.A.; David, S.A.

    1994-03-01

    Development of microstructure of stationary melt pools of oriented stainless steel single crystals (70%Fe-15%Ni-15%Cr was analyzed. Stationary melt pools were formed by electron-beam and gas-tungsten-arc heating on (001), (011), and (111) oriented planes of the austenitic, fcc-alloy crystals. Characterization and analysis of resulting microstructure was carried out for each crystallographic plane and welding method. Results showed that crystallography which favors ``easy growth`` along the <100> family of directions is a controlling factor in the microstructural formation along with the melt-pool shape. The microstructure was found to depend on the melting method, since each method forms a unique melt-pool shape. These results are used in making a three-dimensional reconstruction of the microstructure for each plane and melting method employed. This investigation also suggests avenues for future research into the microstructural properties of electron-beam welds as well as providing an experimental basis for mathematical models for the prediction of solidification microstructures.

  5. Dynamic behavior of the weld pool in stationary GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soulié F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Because hump formation limits welding productivity, better understanding of the humping phenomena during the welding process is needed to access to process modifications that decrease the tendency for hump formation and then allow higher productivity welding. From a physical point of view, the mechanism identified is the Rayleigh instability initiated by strong surface tension gradient which induces a variation of kinetic flow. But the causes of the appearance of this instability are not yet well explained. Because of the phenomena complex and multi-physics, we chose in first step to conduct an analysis of the characteristic times involved in weld pool in pulsed stationary GMAW. The goal is to study the dynamic behavior of the weld pool, using our experimental multi physics approach. The experimental tool and methodology developed to understand these fast phenomena are presented first: frames acquisition with high speed digital camera and specific optical devices, numerical library. The analysis of geometric parameters of the weld pool during welding operation are presented in the last part: we observe the variations of wetting angles (or contact lines angles, the base and the height of the weld pool (macro-drop versus weld time.

  6. Gamification is broken. An interview with Steven Poole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Benoit Carbone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Steven Poole is the author of Trigger Happy (2000. New York, NY: Arcade Publish, Unspeak (2006. New York, NY: Grove Press, and You Aren’t What You Eat (2012. In press. He has written extensively on books, culture, and videogames for The Guardian and other publications.

  7. Convective cooling in a pool-type research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaun, Susan; Usman, Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    A reactor produces heat arising from fission reactions in the nuclear core. In the Missouri University of Science and Technology research reactor (MSTR), this heat is removed by natural convection where the coolant/moderator is demineralised water. Heat energy is transferred from the core into the coolant, and the heated water eventually evaporates from the open pool surface. A secondary cooling system was installed to actively remove excess heat arising from prolonged reactor operations. The nuclear core consists of uranium silicide aluminium dispersion fuel (U3Si2Al) in the form of rectangular plates. Gaps between the plates allow coolant to pass through and carry away heat. A study was carried out to map out heat flow as well as to predict the system's performance via STAR-CCM+ simulation. The core was approximated as porous media with porosity of 0.7027. The reactor is rated 200kW and total heat density is approximately 1.07+E7 Wm-3. An MSTR model consisting of 20% of MSTR's nuclear core in a third of the reactor pool was developed. At 35% pump capacity, the simulation results for the MSTR model showed that water is drawn out of the pool at a rate 1.28 kg s-1 from the 4" pipe, and predicted pool surface temperature not exceeding 30°C.

  8. Conjugative plasmids: Vessels of the communal gene pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Comparative whole-genome analyses have demonstrated that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) provides a significant contribution to prokaryotic genome innovation. The evolution of specific prokaryotes is therefore tightly linked to the environment in which they live and the communal pool of genes avai...... mechanistic framework for obtaining adaptability and functional diversity that alleviates the need for large genomes of specialized ‘private genes'....

  9. Mitochondria as determinant of nucleotide pools and chromosomal stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial function plays an important role in multiple human diseases and mutations in the mitochondrial genome have been detected in nearly every type of cancer investigated to date. However, the mechanism underlying the interrelation is unknown. We used human cell lines depleted of mitochon......Mitochondrial function plays an important role in multiple human diseases and mutations in the mitochondrial genome have been detected in nearly every type of cancer investigated to date. However, the mechanism underlying the interrelation is unknown. We used human cell lines depleted...... of mitochondrial DNA as models and analyzed the outcome of mitochondrial dysfunction on major cellular repair activities. We show that the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools are affected, most prominently we detect a 3-fold reduction of the dTTP pool when normalized to the number of cells in S......-phase. It is known that imbalanced dNTP pools are mutagenic and in accordance, we show that mitochondrial dysfunction results in chromosomal instability, which can explain its role in tumor development. We did not find any straightforward correlation between ATP levels and dNTP pools in cells with defective...

  10. Mitochondria as determinant of nucleotide pools and chromosomal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desler, Claus; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Stevnsner, Tinna [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Matsui, Sei-Ichi; Kulawiec, Mariola; Singh, Keshav K. [Department og Cancer Genetics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Rasmussen, Lene Juel [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)], E-mail: ljr@ruc.dk

    2007-12-01

    Mitochondrial function plays an important role in multiple human diseases and mutations in the mitochondrial genome have been detected in nearly every type of cancer investigated to date. However, the mechanism underlying the interrelation is unknown. We used human cell lines depleted of mitochondrial DNA as models and analyzed the outcome of mitochondrial dysfunction on major cellular repair activities. We show that the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools are affected, most prominently we detect a 3-fold reduction of the dTTP pool when normalized to the number of cells in S-phase. It is known that imbalanced dNTP pools are mutagenic and in accordance, we show that mitochondrial dysfunction results in chromosomal instability, which can explain its role in tumor development. We did not find any straightforward correlation between ATP levels and dNTP pools in cells with defective mitochondrial activity. Our results suggest that mitochondria are central players in maintaining genomic stability and in controlling essential nuclear processes such as upholding a balanced supply of nucleotides.

  11. Book by Book, College Libraries Pool Their Collected Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The Orbis Cascade Alliance is a consortium of 35 college libraries in Washington State and Oregon which allows the libraries to pool their resources in pursuit of what librarians call collaborative collection development. In its scope and diversity, Orbis Cascade is unusual among groups of colleges that collaboratively buy and share books, with…

  12. Theoretical assessment of particle generation from sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M., E-mail: monica.gmartin@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kissane, M.P., E-mail: Martin.KISSANE@oecd.org [Nuclear Safety Technology and Regulation Division, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), 46 quai Alphonse Le Gallo, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Development of particle generation model for sodium-oxides aerosol formation. • Development of partially validated numerical simulations to build up maps of saturation ratio. • Nucleation of supersaturated vapours as relevant source of aerosols over sodium pools. • Prediction of high concentrations of primary particles in the combustion zone. - Abstract: Potential sodium discharge in the containment during postulated Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs) in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) would have major consequences for accident development in terms of energetics and source term. In the containment, sodium vaporization and subsequent oxidation would result in supersaturated oxide vapours that would undergo rapid nucleation creating toxic aerosols. Therefore, modelling this vapour nucleation is essential to proper source term assessment in SFRs. In the frame of the EU-JASMIN project, a particle generation model to calculate the particle generation rate and their primary size during an in-containment sodium pool fire has been developed. Based on a suite of individual models for sodium vaporization, oxygen natural circulation (3D modelling), sodium-oxygen chemical reactions, sodium-oxides-vapour nucleation and condensation, its consistency has been partially validated by comparing with available experimental data. As an outcome, large temperature and vapour concentration gradients set over the sodium pool have been found which result in large particle concentrations in the close vicinity of the pool.

  13. Can Human Subject Pool Participation Benefit Sociology Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lynn Gencianeo; Gibbs Stayte, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Instructors at non-research institutions are less able to expose their students to research firsthand. Utilizing human subject pools (HSPs) in class may be a solution. Given that HSPs tend to be used in introduction to psychology classes at research institutions, we examine a community college HSP to answer three questions: (1) Do community…

  14. Molten pool characterization of laser lap welded copper and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhiqing; Hu, Shengsun; Zuo, Di; Cai, Wayne; Lee, Dongkyun; Elijah, Kannatey-Asibu, Jr.

    2013-12-01

    A 3D finite volume simulation model for laser welding of a Cu-Al lap joint was developed using ANSYS FLUENT to predict the weld pool temperature distribution, velocity field, geometry, alloying element distribution and transition layer thickness—all key attributes and performance characteristics for a laser-welded joint. Melting and solidification of the weld pool was simulated with an enthalpy-porosity formulation. Laser welding experiments and metallographic examination by SEM and EDX were performed to investigate the weld pool features and validate the simulated results. A bowl-shaped temperature field and molten pool, and a unique maximum fusion zone width were observed near the Cu-Al interface. Both the numerical simulation and experimental results indicate an arch-shaped intermediate layer of Cu and Al, and a gradual transition of Cu concentration from the aluminum plate to the copper plate with high composition gradient. For the conditions used, welding with Cu on top was found to result in a better weld joint.

  15. Pool Rules: A Survival Guide for Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    In most sports and physical activities rules are present to facilitate participation, outlining courtesy during play as well as establishing guidelines for keeping any competition fair. In contrast, rules for appropriate behavior in swimming pools serve a much more important purpose--that of ensuring health and safety for all participants.…

  16. Initial surface deformations during impact on a liquid pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, W.; Hendrix, M.H.W.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2015-01-01

    A tiny air bubble can be entrapped at the bottom of a solid sphere that impacts onto a liquid pool. The bubble forms due to the deformation of the liquid surface by a local pressure buildup inside the surrounding gas, as also observed during the impact of a liquid drop on a solid wall. Here, we

  17. Using pool noodles to teach mitosis and meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John; McDermid, Heather E

    2005-05-01

    Although mitosis and meiosis are fundamental to understanding genetics, students often find them difficult to learn. We suggest using common "pool noodles" as teaching aids to represent chromatids in classroom demonstrations. Students use these noodles to demonstrate the processes of synapsis, segregation, and recombination. Student feedback has been overwhelmingly positive.

  18. Multi-objective gene-pool optimal mixing evolutionary algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luong, N.H.; La Poutré, J.A.; Bosman, P.A.N.; Igel, C.

    2014-01-01

    The recently introduced Gene-pool Optimal Mixing Evolutionary Algorithm (GOMEA), with a lean, but sufficient, linkage model and an efficient variation operator, has been shown to be a robust and efficient methodology for solving single objective (SO) optimization problems with superior performance c

  19. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool formation requirements. 120.1705 Section 120.1705 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS... purchase the Loan Interest and take it into inventory or settle the purchase of the Loan Interest through...

  20. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SPENT FUEL POOL DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Demmer

    2011-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been at the forefront of developing methods to reduce the cost and schedule of deactivating spent fuel pools (SFP). Several pools have been deactivated at the INL using an underwater approach with divers. These projects provided a basis for the INL cooperation with the Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 SFP (Exelon Generation Company) deactivation. It represents the first time that a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) SFP was decommissioned using this underwater coating process. This approach has advantages in many aspects, particularly in reducing airborne contamination and allowing safer, more cost effective deactivation. The INL pioneered underwater coating process was used to decommission three SFPs with a total combined pool volume of over 900,000 gallons. INL provided engineering support and shared project plans to successfully initiate the Dresden project. This report outlines the steps taken by INL and Exelon to decommission SFPs using the underwater coating process. The rationale used to select the underwater coating process and the advantages and disadvantages are described. Special circumstances are also discussed, such as the use of a remotely-operated underwater vehicle to visually and radiologically map the pool areas that were not readily accessible. A larger project, the INTEC-603 SFP in-situ (grouting) deactivation, is reviewed. Several specific areas where special equipment was employed are discussed and a Lessons Learned evaluation is included.

  1. 3D Simulation of a Medium scale Pool Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pool fires represent the most frequently encountered accidents of the different types of fires that are known to occur in the Chemical Process Industry (CPI. Exhaustive analysis of the history of past accidents in CPI's that have occurred across the world since early 1900's reveal that pool fires are major threats to industrial safety, and result in huge losses of life and property. Studies have been going on to study the interaction mechanisms of the fire and models have been developed which were mostly empirical, zone models and field models developed according to and based on the conditions available for the experiment. The experiment considered consisted of a 2-m-diameter methanol pool in an unconfined area with a cross-wind velocity of 13 m/s. Steady state simulations with uniform time step were done using computational fluid dynamics and the simulations showed sensitivity to the grid refinement, size of the pool and wind profiles.Comparison between calculated and experimental results are also made.Turbulence models were also investigated, and was observed that RNG model gave more predictable results for the test cases to the accuracy of almost 80%.

  2. Acanthamoeba species in Swimming Pools of Cairo, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Herrawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba spp. have been recognized as etiologic agents of amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, otitis, lung lesions and other skin infections mainly in immuno-compromised individuals. The purpose of this study is to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba in swimming pools in Egypt using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR method.Water samples were collected from 10 different swimming pools in Cairo, Egypt. Samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar for the detection of Acanthamoeba isolates that were confirmed by PCR amplification using genus specific primers. The molecularly confirmed Acanthamoeba isolates were morphologically identified to the species level.Members of genus Acanthamoeba were detected in 49.2% of the examined swimming-pool water samples. Morphologically, six Acanthamoeba species were isolated from the examined swimming pool water namely A. polyphaga, A.castellanii, A. rhysodes, A. mauritaniensis, A. royreba and A. triangularis. All the identified species of Acanthamoeba were molecularly confirmed to be related to the genus Acanthamoeba.The isolated species of Acanthamoeba could provoke variable degrees of infections to the swimmers. The culture method is cheaper and easier than PCR techniques that are faster for the detection of free-living amoebae.

  3. Hydrology and landscape connectivity of vernal pools. Chapter 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott G. Liebowitz; Robert T. Brooks

    2008-01-01

    Hydrology is fundamental to wetland establishment and maintenance of wetland processes (Cole et al. 2002). Hydrology has been shown to affect, if not control, many aspects of wetland ecology, including litter decomposition and the accumulation of organic matter and sediment (Barlocher et al. 1978), the composition and productivity of pool fauna (Paton and Couch 2002),...

  4. Accounting Considerations in Public Sector Risk Management Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, Harriet V.

    1987-01-01

    The Government Accounting Standards Board's Insurance Issues Project has issued an invitation to comment on two issues: (1) whether governmental risk pools should follow the same accounting principles as commercial insurance companies and (2) financial statement disclosures required of entities with public accountability (MLF)

  5. Can Human Subject Pool Participation Benefit Sociology Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lynn Gencianeo; Gibbs Stayte, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Instructors at non-research institutions are less able to expose their students to research firsthand. Utilizing human subject pools (HSPs) in class may be a solution. Given that HSPs tend to be used in introduction to psychology classes at research institutions, we examine a community college HSP to answer three questions: (1) Do community…

  6. [An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with swimming pools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Masaaki; Toriumi, Hiroshi; Endo, Takuro; Yamamoto, Norishige; Kuroki, Toshiro

    2008-01-01

    A waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred among visitors at a hotel with a swimming pool, gymnasium, and other sports facilities, in northern Nagano Prefecture. The outbreak began in late August, peaked on August 27 and 28, and tapered off at the beginning of September 2004. On August 30, 288 clinical cases with digestive symptoms, including watery diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and tenesmus, were reported to local authorities. Among case-patients who submitted stool samples, 74 were positive for Cryptosporidium. Descriptive epidemiology, environmental investigations, and laboratory tests suggested that a fecal accident in the swimming pool by swimmers infected before attending the summer training camp was thought to be the source of contamination, and case-patients were mostly among swimmers. Some other clinical-cases had no history of swimming in the pool during their stay and likely were infected through drinking contaminated self-made sports drinks dissolved in water from contaminated faucets and/or sinks nearby the gymnasium toilet. The sink was used to deal with the aftermath of a toilet accident at the entrance of the toilet by a swimming school attendee on August 21. This report is, to our knowledge, the first of a cryptosporidiosis outbreak associated with swimming pools in Japan.

  7. Pooling data for the analysis of dynamic marketing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, C.; Wieringa, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Vector autoregressive (VAR) models have become popular in marketing literature for analyzing the behavior of competitive marketing systems. One drawback of these models is that the number of parameters can become very large, potentially leading to estimation problems. Pooling data for multiple cross

  8. Domain-Size Pooling in Local Descriptors: DSP-SIFT

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Jingming; Soatto, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a simple modification of local image descriptors, such as SIFT, based on pooling gradient orientations across different domain sizes, in addition to spatial locations. The resulting descriptor, which we call DSP-SIFT, outperforms other methods in wide-baseline matching benchmarks, including those based on convolutional neural networks, despite having the same dimension of SIFT and requiring no training.

  9. Football Pools and the Reactivity Series of Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heselden, Russ

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity which presents the reactivity of metals series as a football pool with more reactive metals at the top of the table and unreactive metals at the bottom. Describes how the activity can be applied in different ways for different ability groups. (Author/MM)

  10. Osmotic regulation of intracellular solute pools in Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaasker, E; Konings, W.N; Poolman, B.

    Bacteria respond to changes in medium osmolarity by varying the concentrations of specific solutes in order to maintain constant turgor pressure. The cytoplasmic pools of K+, proline, glutamate, alanine, and glycine of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 increased when the osmolarity of the growth

  11. The care and handling of the forest gene pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy R. Silen; Ivan Doig

    1976-01-01

    What must be the world's most magnificent pool of forest genes has timbered our Pacific slopes.Why else do the tallest firs, pines, spruces, hemlocks, redwoods, and larches all rise along the Pacific Coast of North America? Does their hugeness simply thrust up from our deep soils and mild, rainy climate? From a vantage point of three...

  12. [Swimming pool lung -- extrinsic allergic alveolitis or mycobacterial disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschel, D; Pietrzyk, C; Sennekamp, J; Müller-Wening, D

    2006-05-01

    There have been several recent reports of pulmonary disease resulting from exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex in indoor hot tubs. The disease is thought to be due either to infection or extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA). In this report we describe the case of a patient who developed episodes of fever, dyspnea and cough 4-6 hours after cleaning his indoor swimming pool. A diagnosis of EAA was made on finding a restrictive lung function pattern with gas exchange abnormalities, a predominant lymphocytosis in the bronchoalveolar lavage, diffuse ground-glass opacities in the lower lobes on high-resolution computer tomography, and specific IgG antibody activity to the swimming pool water. There was no precipitin reaction or specific IgG antibody activity to microbes extracted from the water. Interestingly, the water contained Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in huge amounts and in this case the histopathological features of the lung biopsy specimens differed from those seen in typical EAA, but were similar to those described in "hot tub lung" caused by mycobacteria. Solely by avoidance of cleaning the swimming pool, without any pharmacological treatment, the patient recovered completely within three months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of EAA possibly associated with MAC exposure in a swimming pool environment.

  13. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  14. Consequences of Pool Habitat Isolation on Stream Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Lonzarich; Melvin L. Warren; Mary E. Lonzarich

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - For fishes, stream habitat units (i.e., pools and riffles) often exist as relatively discrete patches of varying quality that are distributed in a mosaic along the stream continuum. Under these conditions, the possibility exists that the spacing of suitable patches within a stream reach may affect interhabitat movements of fishes and their...

  15. The Redox Potential of the Plastoquinone Pool of the Cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, R.M.; Schuurmans, J.M.; Bekker, M.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Matthijs, H.C.P.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented for rapid extraction of the total plastoquinone (PQ) pool from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 cells that preserves the in vivo plastoquinol (PQH(2)) to -PQ ratio. Cells were rapidly transferred into ice-cold organic solvent for instantaneous extraction of the cellular PQ plu

  16. Pronksist Theodor Pool ilmestab kooli aulat / Silvia Paluoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paluoja, Silvia, 1956-

    2006-01-01

    Pärnu Kuninga Tänava Põhikooli aulas avasid põllumajandusteadlase ja Eesti esimese põllutööministri tütar Mall Pool ja põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo Theodor Pooli pronksbüsti, mille autoriks on skulptor Mare Mikof

  17. Towards a pooling of ITIL V3 and COBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Bahsani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose a pooling of ITIL and COBIT. This is to make a projection of ITIL processes and their structures on COBIT as well as positioning the two references one compared to the other for a better use in the Information Technology governance.

  18. Sense and sensitivity in pooled analysis of political data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kittel, B.E.A.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, pooled time-series cross-section data analysis has been advocated as a method for overcoming the small N, many variables problem in comparative political economy in order to derive valid inferences from statistical comparisons of nation states. Moreover, the approach seemed promisin

  19. Vene maagaasi hind kerkis poole võrra / Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 2. juuli lk. 4. Venemaa Euroopasse müüdava maagaasi hind tõuseb sel aastal 2007. aastaga võrreldes ligi poole võrra, 410 dollarini tuhande kuupmeetri eest. Kommenteerib Sirje Riivald

  20. Hiring Practices Initiative: Uncovering an Untapped Employment Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Patrick; Repetto, Jeanne B.; Andrews, Drew; Gritz, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Through current hiring practices, many school districts may be missing an untapped pool of potential employees--individuals with disabilities. In this article, the authors describe the Hiring Practice Initiative (HPI) and its implementation in 17 Florida school districts. The Hiring Practice Initiative Project goals are to: (a) increase the…

  1. Iron deficiency in chronic heart failure : An international pooled analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klip, IJsbrand T.; Comin-Colet, Josep; Voors, Adriaan A.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Enjuanes, Cristina; Banasiak, Waldemar; Lok, Dirk J.; Rosentryt, Piotr; Torrens, Ainhoa; Polonski, Lech; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van der Meer, Peter; Jankowska, Ewa A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency (ID) is an emerging problem in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and can be a potential therapeutic target. However, not much is known about the prevalence, predictors, and prognosis of ID in patients with chronic HF. Methods In an international pooled cohort compri

  2. LCG Persistency Framework (CORAL, COOL, POOL): Status and Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Valassi, A; Dykstra, D; Frank, M; Front, D; Govi, G; Kalkhof, A; Loth, A; Nowak, M; Pokorski, W; Salnikov, A; Schmidt, S A; Trentadue, R; Wache, M; Xie, Z

    2011-01-01

    The LCG Persistency Framework consists of three software packages (POOL, CORAL and COOL) that address the data access requirements of the LHC experiments in several different areas. The project is the result of the collaboration between the CERN IT Department and the three experiments (ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) that are using some or all of the Persistency Framework components to access their data. The POOL package is a hybrid technology store for C++ objects, using a mixture of streaming and relational technologies to implement both object persistency and object metadata catalogs and collections. POOL provides generic components that can be used by the experiments to store both their event data and their conditions data. The CORAL package is an abstraction layer with an SQL-free API for accessing data stored using relational database technologies. It is used directly by experiment-specific applications and internally by both COOL and POOL. It includes the CORAL server component, described in more detail in a sepa...

  3. Melt pool vorticity in deep penetration laser material welding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Kumar; S Dash; A K Tyagi; Baldev Raj

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, the vorticity of melt motion in the keyhole and weld pool has been evaluated in case of high power CO2 laser beam welding. The circulation of vorticity is obtained as a function of Reynolds number for a given keyhole volume which is linked to Mach number variation. The shear stress and thermal fluxes present in the turbulent pool are linked to diffusivity and Prandtl number variation. It was shown that below a critical value of Rayleigh number, the conduction mode of melt transfer signifying beam absorption becomes dominant. Above this value, convective heat transfer indicates melting and evaporation occurring in the weld pool during laser welding. The evaporative recoil pressure expels the liquid while surface tension and hydrostatic pressure help to retain the melt in the keyhole cavity in this high power laser beam welding. The understanding of several hydrodynamic phenomena occuring in the weld pool is valuable not only for understanding basic mechanistic aspects but also for process optimization involved in laser beam welding.

  4. Simulation modeling of pooling for combinatorial protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, Karen M; Spencer, Cody U; Dubey, Anshul; Matsumura, Ichiro; Lee, Jay H; Realff, Matthew J; Bommarius, Andreas S

    2005-12-01

    Pooling in directed-evolution experiments will greatly increase the throughput of screening systems, but important parameters such as the number of good mutants created and the activity level increase of the good mutants will depend highly on the protein being engineered. The authors developed and validated a Monte Carlo simulation model of pooling that allows the testing of various scenarios in silico before starting experimentation. Using a simplified test system of 2 enzymes, betagalactosidase (supermutant, or greatly improved enzyme) and beta-glucuronidase (dud, or enzyme with ancestral level of activity), the model accurately predicted the number of supermutants detected in experiments within a factor of 2. Additional simulations using more complex activity distributions show the versatility of the model. Pooling is most suited to cases such as the directed evolution of new function in a protein, where the background level of activity is minimized, making it easier to detect small increases in activity level. Pooling is most successful when a sensitive assay is employed. Using the model will increase the throughput of screening procedures for directed-evolution experiments and thus lead to speedier engineering of proteins.

  5. Designing ARVs Patent Pool Up to Trade & Policy Evolutionary Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Daniele; Racalbuto, Vincenzo; Messeri, Daniela

    2010-01-19

    Patent pools for second and third-line Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) should not be delayed as they are instrumental to urgent public health needs in the under-served markets.Nonetheless, multinational originator companies still seem to perceive patent pooling for ARVs as a minefield that would offer the generic competitors lots of deeply exploitable opportunities, to the detriment of patent owner's rights.This paper analyses the brand industry concerns, while looking for a strategy up to a really equitable and free world market, without any discrimination between end-users in wealthy and resource-limited countries.This strategy would urge partnerships between originator companies first to make newer FDC ARVs quickly available and allow patent pool agreements with generic counterparts to be negotiated straight afterwards.The patent pool strategy highlighted in this paper would assert the primacy of health over for-profit policies, while aligning with the 61(st) WHO's Assembly recommendations and G7, G8 and World Trade Organisation's warnings and pledges against trade protectionism.

  6. On some aspects of Indian Ocean warm pool

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saji, P.K.; Balchand, A.N; RameshKumar, M.R.

    Annual and interannual variation of Indian Ocean Warm Pool (IOWP) was studied using satellite and in situ ocean temperature data IOWP surface area undergoes a strong annual cycle attaining a maximum of 24x106km2 during April...

  7. Poole-Frenkel (PF) effect high field saturation

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    An improved Poole Frenkel (PF) effect, based upon a rigorous methodological approach, is proposed. The chosen model is stated precisely, emphasis being made explicitly on the subtending hypotheses. A systematic reference to Fermi-Dirac function, allows to establish quantitatively the concept of PF saturation. The resulting general theory integrates, as particular applications, the previous one-dimensional PF theories.

  8. Species pool versus site limitations of macrophytes in urban waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; van der Velde, G.

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity in urban areas is affected by a multitude of stressors. In addition to physico-chemical stress factors, the native regional species pool can be greatly reduced in highly urbanized landscapes due to area loss and fragmentation. In this study, we investigated how macrophyte composition...

  9. Convective cooling in a pool-type research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipaun, Susan, E-mail: susan@nm.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Industrial Technology Division, Blok 29T, Bangi 43200, Selangor (Malaysia); Usman, Shoaib, E-mail: usmans@mst.edu [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Nuclear Engineering, 222 Fulton Hall 301 W.14th St., Rolla 64509 MO (United States)

    2016-01-22

    A reactor produces heat arising from fission reactions in the nuclear core. In the Missouri University of Science and Technology research reactor (MSTR), this heat is removed by natural convection where the coolant/moderator is demineralised water. Heat energy is transferred from the core into the coolant, and the heated water eventually evaporates from the open pool surface. A secondary cooling system was installed to actively remove excess heat arising from prolonged reactor operations. The nuclear core consists of uranium silicide aluminium dispersion fuel (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}Al) in the form of rectangular plates. Gaps between the plates allow coolant to pass through and carry away heat. A study was carried out to map out heat flow as well as to predict the system’s performance via STAR-CCM+ simulation. The core was approximated as porous media with porosity of 0.7027. The reactor is rated 200kW and total heat density is approximately 1.07+E7 Wm{sup −3}. An MSTR model consisting of 20% of MSTR’s nuclear core in a third of the reactor pool was developed. At 35% pump capacity, the simulation results for the MSTR model showed that water is drawn out of the pool at a rate 1.28 kg s{sup −1} from the 4” pipe, and predicted pool surface temperature not exceeding 30°C.

  10. Accounting Considerations in Public Sector Risk Management Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, Harriet V.

    1987-01-01

    The Government Accounting Standards Board's Insurance Issues Project has issued an invitation to comment on two issues: (1) whether governmental risk pools should follow the same accounting principles as commercial insurance companies and (2) financial statement disclosures required of entities with public accountability (MLF)

  11. Large-Scale Aquifer Test at the Bemidji, Minnesota, Oil-Spill Site: Implications for Modeling Multiphase Flow, Natural Attenuation, and LNAPL Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkelrath, W. N.; Delin, G. N.

    2005-12-01

    A large-scale aquifer test was carried out at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. The spill occurred in 1979 when a pipeline ruptured, spreading oil over a large area and creating three subsurface "pools" of high oil saturation near the water table. USGS scientists, in cooperation with researchers from several universities, have investigated the fate and transport of separate phase oil and hydrocarbons dissolved in ground water at this site since 1983. The primary goal of the aquifer test was to estimate parameters used in modeling processes such as subsurface flow of oil and water as well as natural attenuation of dissolved hydrocarbons in the plume. A secondary goal was to evaluate the effects of the oil on the parameters. Our aquifer test was carried out in July 2005 beneath the "north" oil pool, which occupies a 20x100 meter footprint. Prior to the test, the water table was about 6 meters below land surface, and the oil thickness in wells at the center of the pool was about 0.4 meters. A pumping well was installed near the center of the oil pool and screened 4-10 meters below the floating oil. During the test, water was pumped out at about 240 liters/min for 48 hours. Water levels were monitored in 21 wells that were screened below the water table and did not contain oil. Data loggers and pressure transducers were used to monitor 17 of these wells, and 4 wells were measured by hand using a tape. In 20 other wells that were screened at the water table and contained oil, depths to the oil-air and oil-water interfaces were monitored by hand using an oil-interface meter. Preliminary results indicate that oil thickness in wells within about 5 meters of the pumped well increased rapidly during the test to more than a meter. Oil also entered the top of the pumped well screen and filled the well bore to a thickness of about 3 meters. Preliminary analysis of water table drawdown vs. time data implies that the horizontal hydraulic conductivity is about 60 m

  12. Atlantic Warm Pool Trigger for the Younger Dryas Climate Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Teneva, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that variability in the size and heat content of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool impacts circum-North Atlantic climate via the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation mode (Wang et al., 2008). The Atlantic Warm Pool spans the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the western tropical North Atlantic. Barbados is located near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool and coupled ocean models suggest that Barbados remains near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool under varying wind stress simulations. Measurements of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer in Acropora palmata coral species recovered from cores offshore Barbados, show a 3oC monotonic decrease in sea surface temperature from 13106 ± 83 to 12744 ± 61 years before present (errors given as 2 sigma). This interval corresponds to a sea level rise from 71.4 meters to 67.1 meters below present levels at Barbados. The 3oC temperature decrease is captured in eight A. palmata specimens that are in stratigraphic sequence, 230Th/234U dated, and analyzed for oxygen isotopes. All measurements are replicated. We are confident that this is the warm pool equivalent of the Younger Dryas climate event. The initiation of this temperature drop in the Atlantic Warm Pool predates the Younger Dryas start in Greenland ice cores, reported to start at 12896 ± 138 years (relative to AD 2000) (Rasmussen et al., 2006), while few other Younger Dryas climate records are dated with similar accuracy to make the comparison. Rasmussen, S.O., Andersen, K.K., Svensson, A.M., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., Clausen, H.B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.L., Johnsen, S.J., Larsen, L.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., Fischer, H., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M.E., and Ruth, U., 2006, A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination: J. Geophys. Res., v. 111, p. D06102. Wang, C., Lee, S.-K., and Enfield, D.B., 2008, Atlantic Warm Pool acting as a link between Atlantic Multidecadal

  13. Tarim Oil Field Company Oil Output Exceeds 5 Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Tarim Oil Field Company (Tarim Oil Field), located in the hinterland of Takelamagan Desert in Northwest Xinjiang Autonomous Region,produced 5.006 million tons of crude oil in 2002,ranking it as the sixth largest onshore oil field in China. This is the first time Tarim Oil Field has topped 5 million tons for its crude production.

  14. Oil: Economics and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, A. (Laval Univ., PQ (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs.

  15. Pooling, meta-analysis, and the evaluation of drug safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leizorovicz Alain

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "integrated safety report" of the drug registration files submitted to health authorities usually summarizes the rates of adverse events observed for a new drug, placebo or active control drugs by pooling the safety data across the trials. Pooling consists of adding the numbers of events observed in a given treatment group across the trials and dividing the results by the total number of patients included in this group. Because it considers treatment groups rather than studies, pooling ignores validity of the comparisons and is subject to a particular kind of bias, termed "Simpson's paradox." In contrast, meta-analysis and other stratified analyses are less susceptible to bias. Methods We use a hypothetical, but not atypical, application to demonstrate that the results of a meta-analysis can differ greatly from those obtained by pooling the same data. In our hypothetical model, a new drug is compared to 1 a placebo in 4 relatively small trials in patients at high risk for a certain adverse event and 2 an active reference drug in 2 larger trials of patients at low risk for this event. Results Using meta-analysis, the relative risk of experiencing the adverse event with the new drug was 1.78 (95% confidence interval [1.02; 3.12] compared to placebo and 2.20 [0.76; 6.32] compared to active control. By pooling the data, the results were, respectively, 1.00 [0.59; 1.70] and 5.20 [2.07; 13.08]. Conclusions Because these findings could mislead health authorities and doctors, regulatory agencies should require meta-analyses or stratified analyses of safety data in drug registration files.

  16. Comprehensive Information Interpretation in Oil and Gas Exploration—An Example of Buried-Hill Oil and Gas Field in the Jizhong area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangShengzheng

    2003-01-01

    The petroleum geophysical and geological comprehensive interpretation with whole-information of gravitational, magnetic, electrical and seismic methods has played an important role in the exploration and development of the buried-hill oil and gas pools in the Jizhong area, including the oil pools in the weathering surface of the buried-hill with “oil generated in the Cenozoic and accumulated in thePaleozoic”, and the gas pools in the buried-hill with “oil generated in both the Cenozoic and the Paleozoic, accumulated in the Paleozoic and sealed by the Mesozoic”. In recent years,high-precision gravitational and magnetic surveying and continuous electromagnetic profile (CEMP) prospecting were carried out on the Yangcun Slope that had been preliminarily recognized as a monocline in the Paleozoic structural-stratigraphy. After the geophysical and geological comprehensive interpretation with whole-information of gravitational,magnetic, electric and seismic data, the gas-bearing buriedhill zone of Matou-Huanghuadian was discovered.

  17. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Spectroscopic study of Mentha oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Singh, A. K.

    The visible fluorescence and excitation spectra of Mentha oils (Japanese mint oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil) have been recorded. Different physical constants which are characteristic of the fluorescent molecules have been calculated for all three oils. Results reveal that the same group of organic compounds dominate in the oils of peppermint and spearmint, whereas some different compound is present in Japanese mint oil. It is also found that the fluorescence intensity of these oils is comparable to that of Rhodamine 6G dye in methanol solution. Our studies suggest that Mentha oils may be a useful lasing material in the 450-600 nm wavelength range.

  19. Methods for pooling results of epidemiologic studies: The pooling project of prospective studies of diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Ritz, J.; Albanes, D.; Beeson, W.L.; Bernstein, L.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Cho, E.; Colditz, G.A.; Folsom, A.R.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Horn-Ross, P.L.; Krogh, V.; Leitzmann, M.F.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Shore, R.; Virtanen, M.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Hunter, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    With the growing number of epidemiologic publications on the relation between dietary factors and cancer risk, pooled analyses that summarize results from multiple studies are becoming more common. Here, the authors describe the methods being used to summarize data on diet-cancer associations within

  20. Methods for pooling results of epidemiologic studies: The pooling project of prospective studies of diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Ritz, J.; Albanes, D.; Beeson, W.L.; Bernstein, L.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Cho, E.; Colditz, G.A.; Folsom, A.R.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Horn-Ross, P.L.; Krogh, V.; Leitzmann, M.F.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Shore, R.; Virtanen, M.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Hunter, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    With the growing number of epidemiologic publications on the relation between dietary factors and cancer risk, pooled analyses that summarize results from multiple studies are becoming more common. Here, the authors describe the methods being used to summarize data on diet-cancer associations within