WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil pollution containment

  1. Exploring Oil Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  2. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matugina, E. G.; Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; Vusovich, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  3. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    OpenAIRE

    Matyugina, Eleonora Grigorievna; Glyzina, Tatiana Svyatoslavovna; Kolbysheva, Yuliya Vladimirovna; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; O. V. Vusovich

    2015-01-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  4. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Production of oil and coke from sludges containing organic pollutants; Gewinnung von Oel und Koks aus organisch belasteten Schlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, M. [Martin Steger GmbH, Eggenfelden (Germany); Meissner, W.; Herold, R. [Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Since the mid-eighties, Messrs. Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH at Hammerau, Germany have been investigating sewage sludge pyrolysis. Laboratory experiments and semi-industrial investigations led to the construction of a combined sludge drying and conversion plant (``Aicher sludge recycling process``), in which the organic sludge fraction is converted into recyclable or combustible oils. Carbon is obtained as a by-product in solid form as conversion coke which can be utilized. Apart from sewage sludge, also industrial sludges with high organic fractions can be processed, e.g. sludges and sewage sludges from petroleum processing. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland beschaeftigt sich die Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH in Hammerau seit Mitte der Achtzigerjahre mit der Niedertemperaturkonvertierung (Pyrolyse) von Klaerschlamm. Versuche im Labor- und im halbtechnischen Massstab fuehrten zur Realisierung einer betriebstechnischen Anlage mit den Komponenten Schlammtrocknung und Konvertierung. Ziel des Aicher-Schlamm-Recycling-Verfahrens ist die Umwandlung der organischen Schlammfraktion in stofflich und energetisch verwertbare Oele. Bei der Umwandlung entsteht fixer Kohlenstoff, der im festen Rueckstand (Konversionskoks) angereichert wird. Neben dem gewonnenen Oel ist auch der produzierte Koks verwertbar. Einsatzstoffe fuer das Verfahren sind neben Klaerschlamm aus der kommunalen Abwasserreinigung vor allem industrielle Schlaemme mit hohen organischen Anteilen z.B. Schlaemme und Klaerschlaemme aus der Erdoelverarbeitung. (orig.)

  6. International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund was established under a 1971 Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization Convention to supplement the 1969 Civil Liability Convention (CLC) under which shipowners were held liable for damage caused by oil spills up to $18 million per incident; the new fund increases the amount payable per incident to $57 million as of April 1979. A further increase up to about $76 million is now under consideration. During 1979, the Fund has been concerned in particular with claims arising out of oil spills in Japan and the Baltic Sea. In the former case, some 540 tons of oil was lost by Miya Maru No. 8 after a collision in March 1979 in the Japanese Inland Sea; cleanup costs and compensation to fishermen were about (pound sterling)400,000. In the latter phase, crude oil apparently coming from the Russian tanker Antonio Gramsci, which grounded off Ventspils in February 1979, drifted across the Baltic and was trapped in or under the ice. After the ice melted, it spread to more than 2000 islands in the Swedish Archipelaso; cleanup measures may result in claims as high as (pound sterling) 8 million.

  7. Using geosynthetics for oil containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, S. [Albarrie Canada Ltd., Barrie, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    Geosynthetics are a group of manmade synthetic polymeric materials that can be modified and combined with other geosynthetic materials for a variety of applications. Geosynthetics are used in municipal solid waste landfills to prevent the seepage of leachates, as their half-life when buried underground is approximately 400 years. This article discussed a geosynthetics system designed to allow precipitation to pass through a containment system while still containing the hydrocarbons. The Sorweb Plus solution used a modified sodium bentonite-based copolymer capable of absorbing hydrocarbons spread over the surface of water to absorb oils floating on the surface. A geosynthetic clay liner design was used without the addition of sodium bentonite. Tests were then conducted to determine the optimal amount of copolymer needed. A geosynthetic oil mat was placed over porous soil to allow for the drainage of precipitation. The sidewalls around the system's perimeter were lined with an impervious geomembrane to direct the flow of any liquids to the bottom of the system. A number of drainage layers were placed above the oil mat to provide lateral flow. A case study demonstrated that the system was able to contain a 4000 litre spill after an accident at the Don River in Toronto. The containment system was designed to contain 3,600,000 litres of transformer oil. It was concluded that the Sorweb Plus solution provides continuous protection against oil spills, while allowing water to drain through a containment area. 3 figs.

  8. Oil pollution in Chilika lagoon: An anthropogenic threat to biodiversity.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Baliarsingh, S.K.; Sahoo, S.; Acharya, A.; Dalabehera, H.B.; Sahu, K.C.; Lotliker, A.A.

    -continent. This note describes oil pollution from mechanized vessels observed during regular field surveys. It observes that keeping in view of the future adverse impact of oil pollution and hazardous chemicals on the lagoon ecosystem, this anthropogenic pollution...

  9. Oil pollution dangers on the German coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauk, G.

    1984-03-01

    Helgoland waters in the German Bight are a vital wintering area for seabirds. As long as the discharge of waste oil and oily water is not completely avoided, large amounts of oil will continuously get into the sea. Therefore, the danger to the marine life, especially seabirds, increases. Helgoland presents the possibility of determining the extent and the effect of the oil pollution of the North Sea, since it is placed in the point of intersection of important steamship routes and also oil slicks drifted by the north-west winds along the German Bight. Seabirds are indicators for the quantity, the type and the temporal distribution of oil.

  10. Rehabilitation of oil polluted soils by bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Mihail; Parvan, Lavinia; Cioroianu, Mihai; Carmen, Sirbu; Constantin, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    In Romania about 50,000 ha are polluted with oil and/or brine. The main sources of pollution are the different activities using petroleum products: extraction, transport, treatment, refining and distribution. Taking into acoount the large areas and the cost per unit area, bioremediation was tested as a method of rehabilitation. To stimulate the performance of the bioremediation process for a polluted soil (luvisol) by 3% oil, different methods were tested: -application of a bacterial inoculum consisting of species of the Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter genera;- application of two types of absorbent materials, 16 t/ha peat and 16, respectively, 32 kg/ha Zeba (starch-based polymer, superabsorbent); -mineral fertilization with N200P200K200 and 5 different liquid fertilizer based on potassium humates extracted from lignite in a NPK matrix with micronutrients and added monosaccharides (4 and 8%). After 45 days from the treatment (60 days from pollution) the following observations have been noticed: • the application of only bacterial inoculum had no significant effect on the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons; • the use of 650 l/ha AH-SH fertilizer (potassium humate in a NPK matrix) led to a 47% decrease of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons); • the application of 16 t/ha peat, together with the bacterial inoculum and the AH-SG2 liquid fertilizer (containing humates of potassium in a NPK matrix with microelements and 8% monosaccharides, in which the nitrogen is amide form) led to a 50% decrease of the TPH content; • the application of 16 kg/ha Zeba absorbent together with bacterial inoculum and 650 l/ha AH-SG1 liquid fertilizer (containing humates of potassium in a NPK matrix with microelements and 4% monosaccharide in which the nitrogen is in amide form) led to a 57% decrease of the TPH content; • the application of 32 kg/ha Zeba absorbent, together with the AH-SG2 fertilizer, led to a 58% decrease of the TPH content.

  11. Discussion of oil pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Oil pollution in Argentina, at the port of Comodora Rivadavia showed signs of long-term oil pollution of a nature which would not be tolerated in relation to the exploitation of North Sea oil. The field is operated by Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (Argentine), produces 70,000 bbl/day of oil from onshore and offshore wells, and has been in operation since 1907. A very marked ''tideline'' of bituminous oil residues contaminates the harbor installations and completely covers the pebbles, boulders, and rocks in the intertidal region. This material is of a considerable thickness and has completely obliterated any form of littoral marine life in these habitats. The sandy beach does not show signs of accumulative oil, and it is used as an important recreational area. Since seriously oiled seabirds can be seen, it is surprising that Patagonian crested ducks, king cormorants, and kelp gulls occur in large numbers but show little sign of oil contamination. The Magellan penguin, which is much less abundant locally, may have been much more vulnerable to the oil.

  12. 76 FR 18894 - Oil Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 Oil Pollution Prevention CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100 to 135, revised as of July 1, 2010, on page 71, in Appendix E to Part 112, the second...

  13. Short Communication - Aquatic Oil Pollution Impact Indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication - Aquatic Oil Pollution Impact Indicators. ... increased biochemical oxygen demand, increased water temperature and acidity of the water ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol. ... Journal Quality · for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open ...

  14. (Discussion of) oil pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    The port of Comodora Rivadavia shows signs of long-term oil pollution of a nature which would not be tolerated in relation to the exploitation of North Sea oil. The field is operated by Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (Argentine), produces 70,000 bbl/day of oil from onshore and offshore wells, and has been in operation since 1907. A very marked tideline of bituminous oil residues contaminates the harbor installations and completely covers the pebbles, boulders, and rocks in the inertidal region. This material is of a considerable thickness and has completely obliterated any form of littoral marine life in these habitats. The sandy beach does not show signs of accumulative oil, and it is used as an important recretional area. Since seriously oiled seabirds can be seen, it is surprising that Patagonian crested ducks, king cormorants, and kelp gulls occur in large numbers but show little sign of oil contamination. The Magellan penguin, which is much less abundant locally, may have been much more vulnerable to the oil. Photographs are included.

  15. Oil pollution of the sea – global and regional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Begányi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Transport of oil is very important for the world economic and industry. Oil is transported to the countries and states, where it is transformed for the industry. The oil transport is connected with some advantages and disadvantages. One of the disadvantages is the pollution of seas. The pollution is very dangerous for everything and everyone. Transport companies of oil must stop the pollution with new, safety and effective transport technologies.

  16. Efforts Stepped up to Curb Offshore Oil Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    China's oil sector has established the Bohai Sea Offshore Oil Environmental Protection Company to tackle worsening oil leakage pollution in north China's Bohai Sea. The bay of the Bohai Sea has been experiencing extensive offshore oil production and the oil turnover in Tianjin Port has been increasing fast, an expert with the company said.

  17. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  18. 46 CFR 131.935 - Prevention of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of oil pollution. 131.935 Section 131.935... Miscellaneous § 131.935 Prevention of oil pollution. Each vessel must be operated in compliance with— (a) Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1321); and (b) 33 CFR parts...

  19. [Pollution hazard for water bodies at oil production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zholdakova, Z I; Beliaeva, N I

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there have been summarizes the concepts of the danger of the pollution ofwater bodies in oil production (the most dangerous are reagents used in the drilling, drilling waste, oil and petrochemicals, oil biodestructors. There was shown the danger of the spread of oil pollution. New indices, presenting a hazard during drilling and oil production have been substantiated The tasks aimed to the improvement of the standards and methods of the control of the water pollution by oil, as well as of the documents regulating the conditions of environmental protection during the drilling have been conceived.

  20. Oil and Gas Production Wastewater: Soil Contamination and Pollution Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pichtel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During oil and natural gas production, so-called “produced water” comprises the largest byproduct stream. In addition, many oil and gas operations are augmented via injection of hydraulic fracturing (HF fluids into the formation. Both produced water and HF fluids may contain hundreds of individual chemicals, some known to be detrimental to public health and the environment. Oil and gas production wastewater may serve a range of beneficial purposes, particularly in arid regions, if managed correctly. Numerous treatment technologies have been developed that allow for injection, discharge to the land surface, or beneficial reuse. Although many papers have addressed the effects of oil and gas production wastewater (OGPW on groundwater and surface water quality, significantly less information is available on the effects of these fluids on the soil resource. This review paper compiles fundamental information on numerous chemicals used and produced during oil and gas development and their effects on the soil environment. Additionally, pollution prevention technologies relating to OGPW are presented. An understanding of the effects of OGPW on soil chemical, physical, and biological properties can provide a foundation for effective remediation of OGPW-affected soils; additionally, sustainable reuse of oil and gas water for irrigation and industrial purposes may be enhanced.

  1. Life in oil :Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial mineralization in oil spill-polluted marine environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The biodegradation of hydrocarbons by microorganisms is one of the primary ways by which an oil spill is eliminated from contaminated sites.One such spill was that of the Russian tanker the Nakhodka that spilled heavy oil into the Sea of Japan on January 2,1997.This paper describes the three main processes of the Nakhodka oil spill,including:(1) the weathering of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (genus Pseudomonas)and crystallized organic compounds from the Nakhodka oil spill-polluted seashores after nine years;(2) the laboratory-scale biodegradation of the Nakhodka oil spill over a 429-day period;and (3) the bioavailability of kaolinite clay minerals and the role they play in seawater polluted with the Nakhodka oil spill.Upon the slow evaporation of the Nakhodka oil spill during the 9-year weathering,the dendritic crystal growth of paraffin (a mixture of alkanes) occurred in the oil crust under natural conditions.Heavy metals were obtained in the original heavy oil samples of three seashores in the Sea of Japan.Si,S,Ti,Cr,Ni,Cu,and Zn were found in the original Nakhodka oil spill samples whereas these heavy metals and S were no longer present after 9 years.The anaerobic reverse side of the oil crust contained numerous coccus-type bacteria associated with halite.The hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and paraffin wax in the oil crust may have a significant effect on the weathering processes of the Nakhodka oil spill during the 9-year bioremediation.A biodegradation process of heavy oil from the Nakhodka oil spill by indigenous microbial consortia was monitored over 429 days in the laboratory.The indigenous microbial consortia consisted of bacteria and fungi as well as the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Atake seashore,Ishikawa Prefecture,Japan.Both bacteria and fungi had a significant role in the observed biodegradation of heavy oil during the 429-day bioremediation with respect to the pH of the solution.Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria had a tendency to

  2. Oil pollution in soils and sediments from the Northern Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Moraleda-Cibrián, Núria; Cartró-Sabaté, Mar; Colomer-Ventura, Ferran; Mayor, Pedro; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2017-08-23

    Oil has been extracted from the Northern Peruvian Amazon for over four decades. However, few scientific studies have assessed the impacts of such activities in the environment and health of indigenous communities in the region. We have investigated the occurrence of petrogenic hydrocarbon pollution in soils and sediments from areas favoured as hunting or fishing grounds by local indigenous inhabitants. The study was conducted in one of the most productive oil blocks in Peru, located in the headwaters of the Amazon river. Soils and river sediments, in the vicinity of oil extraction and processing infrastructure, contained an oil pollution signature as attested by the occurrence of hopanes and steranes. Given the lack of any other significant source of oil pollution in the region, the sources of hydrocarbons are likely to be the activities of the oil industry in the oil block, from voluntary discharges or accidental spills. Spillage of produced water was commonplace until 2009. Moreover, petrogenic compounds were absent in control samples in sites far removed from any oil infrastructure in the oil block. Our findings suggest that wildlife and indigenous populations in this region of the Amazon are exposed to the ingestion of oil polluted soils and sediments. The data obtained supports previous claims that the local spillage of oil and produced waters in the water courses in the Corrientes and Pastaza basins could have eventually reached the main water course of the Amazon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of pollution from oil shale mining in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallner, L. (AN Ehstonskoj SSR, Tallin (Estonia). Inst. Geologii); Sepp, K. (Taru Univ. (Estonia). Dept. of Geography)

    1993-01-01

    The largest commercially exploited oil shale deposit in the world is in northeast Estonia. The accumulation of solid residues by oil shale mines and processing plants has resulted in numerous dumps and ash hills, which are polluting the environment. The groundwater and streams are highly polluted by sulphates, phenols and oil products. A dump hill of radioactive wastes poses a serious threat to the Baltic Sea. Local people suffer from diseases more often than in other regions of Estonia. (author)

  4. Treatment of Slightly Polluted Wastewater in an Oil Refinery Using a Biological Aerated Filter Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wenyu; ZHONG Li; CHEN Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The slightly polluted wastewater from oil refinery contains some COD, oil pollutants and suspended solids (SS). A small-scale fixed film biological aerated filter (BAF) process was used to treat the wastewater. The influences of hydraulic retention time (HRT), air/water volume flow ratio and backwashing cycle on treatment efficiencies were investigated. The wastewater was treated by the BAF process under optimal conditions: the HRT of backwashing cycle of every 4-7 days. The results showed that the average removal efficiency of COD, oil pollutants and SS was 84.5%, 94.0% and 83.4%, respectively. And the average effluent concentration of COD, oil pollutants and SS was 12.5, 0.27, 14.5the BAF process is a suitable and highly efficient method to treat the wastewater.

  5. Compulsory insurance and compensation for bunker oil pollution damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Ling [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Auslaendisches und Internationales Privatrecht, Hamburg (DE). International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Maritime Affairs at the University of Hamburg

    2007-07-01

    Oil tankers are not the only vessels that have caused oil pollution at sea. Numerous spills in the past have been of heavy fuel oil from non-tankers. However, the international liability and compensation regime covered only oil pollution damage caused by oil tankers. There was thus a need to bring the law on marine oil pollution responsive to oil pollution damage caused by non-tankers. In March 2001, the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage was adopted following a diplomatic conference at the International Maritime Organization. Though this convention has not yet come into force, its various aspects should already be considered as they will surely affect the maritime industry as a whole and the non-tanker sector, in particular. This book provides a timely and comprehensive study on the concept of compulsory insurance, its main purpose of ensuring compensation and its interrelations with other features such as the rule of strict liability and the limitation of liability under the convention. (orig.)

  6. (maize) to a crude oil polluted agricultural soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... respectively for maize growing on crude oil polluted soils. These results .... organic carbon and total nitrogen contents were analyzed using methods .... applied facilitated the degradation of the contaminant by aiding the ...

  7. Impact of Crude-Oil Spillage Pollution and Chemical Remediation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    confirmed the blockage of polluted soils micropores by oil films. Crop growth, indicated by root .... The objectives of this research were to determine: (1) the engineering and ..... phosphorus also confirmed earlier reports (Toogood et al., 1977).

  8. 78 FR 48844 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  9. 75 FR 26166 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... 40 CFR part 300 which is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  10. 78 FR 45167 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances,...

  11. 78 FR 65210 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of California... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  12. 78 FR 49993 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations,...

  13. 75 FR 44932 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... substances, Intergovernmental relations, Natural resources, Oil pollution, Penalties, Reporting and..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, is an Appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous...

  14. Properties of concrete containing used engine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Shafiq

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Since last few years cement replacement materials, industrial by-products and agricultural wastes in concrete production are widely used. It imparts positive environmental effect because the waste materials are not released to the environment. It was reported that the leakage of motor oil onto concrete surfaces in old grinding units increased the resistance such concrete to freezing and thawing, it made to understand that the effect is similar to adding an air-entraining chemical admixture to the concrete. However, the hypothesis is not backed by significant research study and not reported in the available literature. This paper presents results of the experimental study conducted to investigate the effects of used engine oil on properties of fresh and hardened concrete.  With the addition of used engine oil, concrete slump was increased by 18% to 38% and air content by 26% to 58% as compare to the slump of control concrete. Porosity and oxygen permeability of concrete containing used engine oil was also reduced and the compressive strength was obtained approximately same as that of the control mix

  15. 33 CFR 151.26 - Shipboard oil pollution emergency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.26 Shipboard... Protection to the Antarctic Treaty): This plan is written in accordance with the requirements of Regulation... directed to any Antarctic station that may be affected. (4) Steps to control a discharge. This section...

  16. Bioremediation of Southern Mediterranean oil polluted sites comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel; Mapelli, Francesca; Cherif, Ameur; Lafraya, Alvaro; Malkawi, Hanan I; Yakimov, Michail M; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Blaghen, Mohamed; Golyshin, Peter N; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Boon, Nico; Magagnini, Mirko; Fava, Fabio

    2013-09-25

    Mediterranean Sea is facing a very high risk of oil pollution due to the high number of oil extractive and refining sites along the basin coasts, and the intense maritime traffic of oil tankers. All the Mediterranean countries have adopted severe regulations for minimizing pollution events and bioremediation feasibility studies for the most urgent polluted sites are undergoing. However, the analysis of the scientific studies applying modern 'meta-omics' technologies that have been performed on marine oil pollution worldwide showed that the Southern Mediterranean side has been neglected by the international research. Most of the studies in the Mediterranean Sea have been done in polluted sites of the Northern side of the basin. Those of the Southern side are poorly studied, despite many of the Southern countries being major oil producers and exporters. The recently EU-funded research project ULIXES has as a major objective to increase the knowledge of the bioremediation potential of sites from the Southern Mediterranean countries. ULIXES is targeting four major polluted sites on the coastlines of Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia, including seashore sands, lagoons, and oil refinery polluted sediments. The research is designed to unravel, categorize, catalogue, exploit and manage the diversity and ecology of microorganisms thriving in these polluted sites. Isolation of novel hydrocarbon degrading microbes and a series of state of the art 'meta-omics' technologies are the baseline tools for improving our knowledge on biodegradation capacities mediated by microbes under different environmental settings and for designing novel site-tailored bioremediation approaches. A network of twelve European and Southern Mediterranean partners is cooperating for plugging the existing gap of knowledge for the development of novel bioremediation processes targeting such poorly investigated polluted sites.

  17. Microwave Radiometry for Oil Pollution Monitoring, Measurements, and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1986-01-01

    Work is presently carried out in Europe to change the Status of the microwave radiometer, namely, to develop it from a research instrument to an operational instrument-especially for measuring oil pollution on the sea surface. The Technical University of Denmark (TUD), with its long experience...... in airborne microwave radiometry, is heavily involved in this process. The TUD multichannel imaging radiometer system has been flown in several large-scale oil-pollution experiments, the collected data have been analyzed, and they have revealed that care must be exercised to obtain accurate oil volume...

  18. Oil, pollution, and crime: Three essays in public economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Conan Christopher

    The overall goal of this dissertation is to study important questions in public economics. In its three chapters, I look at peak world oil production and its implications for oil prices; cross-country pollution emission rates and implications for institutional quality; and finally, black-white arrest rates and implications for law enforcement discount factors. Each chapter of this dissertation combines new theory with robust empirical work to extend the quantitative frontier of research in public economics.

  19. Monitoring of oil pollution at Gemsa Bay and bioremediation capacity of bacterial isolates with biosurfactants and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheshtawy, H S; Khalil, N M; Ahmed, W; Abdallah, R I

    2014-10-15

    Fifteen crude oil-degrading bacterial isolates were isolated from an oil-polluted area in Gemsa Bay, Red Sea, Egypt. Two bacterial species showed the highest growth rate on crude oil hydrocarbons. From an analysis of 16S rRNA sequences, these isolates were identified as Pseudomonas xanthomarina KMM 1447 and Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 17588. Gas Chromatographic (GC) analysis of the crude oil remaining in the culture medium after one week at 30°C showed that the optimum biodegradation of crude petroleum oil was demonstrated at 50% in medium containing biosurfactant with two types of nanoparticles separately and two bacterial species. The complete degradation of some different members of polyaromatics and the percentage biodegradation of other polyaromatics increased in microcosm containing two different types of nanoparticles with biosurfactant after 7 days. In conclusion, these bacterial strains may be useful for the bioremediation process in the Gemsa Bay, Red Sea decreasing oil pollution in this marine ecosystem.

  20. Temporal displacement of environmental crime : Evidence from marine oil pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, Ben

    We provide evidence for temporal displacement of illegal discharges of oil from shipping, a major source of ocean pollution, in response to a monitoring technology that features variation in the probability of conviction by time of day. During the nighttime, evidence collected by Coast Guard

  1. Bacterial diversity in oil-polluted marine coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-González, Alejandro; Marqués, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Marine environments harbour a persistent microbial seed which can be shaped by changes of the environmental conditions such as contamination by petroleum components. Oil spills, together with small but continuous discharges of oil from transportation and recreational activities, are important sources of hydrocarbon pollution within the marine realm. Consequently, prokaryotic communities have become well pre-adapted toward oil pollution, and many microorganisms that are exposed to its presence develop an active degradative response. The natural attenuation of oil pollutants, as has been demonstrated in many sites, is modulated according to the intrinsic environmental properties such as the availability of terminal electron acceptors and elemental nutrients, together with the degree of pollution and the type of hydrocarbon fractions present. Whilst dynamics in the bacterial communities in the aerobic zones of coastal sediments are well characterized and the key players in hydrocarbon biodegradation have been identified, the subtidal ecology of the anaerobic community is still not well understood. However, current data suggest common patterns of response in these ecosystems.

  2. Temporal displacement of environmental crime : Evidence from marine oil pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, Ben

    2017-01-01

    We provide evidence for temporal displacement of illegal discharges of oil from shipping, a major source of ocean pollution, in response to a monitoring technology that features variation in the probability of conviction by time of day. During the nighttime, evidence collected by Coast Guard aircraf

  3. Integrated pollution control for oil refinery complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiperstok, A. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Sharratt, P.N. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology

    1993-12-31

    Improving environmental performance of oil refineries is a complex task. Emission limits, operating constraints, available technologies, operating techniques, and local environment sensitivity must all be considered. This work describes efforts to build an interactive software to deal with this problem. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Pollution control in oil, gas and chemical plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This unique book covers the fundamental requirements for air, soil, noise and water pollution control in oil and gas refineries, chemical plants, oil terminals, petrochemical plants, and related facilities. Coverage includes design and operational considerations relevant to critical systems such as monitoring of water pollution control, equipment, and engineering techniques as well as engineering/technological methods related to soil, noise and air pollution control. This book also: ·         Covers a diverse list of pollution control strategies important to practitioners, ranging from waste water gathering systems and oil/suspended solids removal to chemical flocculation units, biological treatment, and sludge handling and treatment ·         Provides numerous step-by-step tutorials that orient both entry level and veteran engineers to the essentials of pollution control methods in petroleum and chemical industries ·         Includes a comprehensive glossary providing readers with...

  5. 76 FR 67385 - Claims Procedures Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... interim rule, titled ``Claims Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990'' (Interim Rule, 57 FR 36316, August 12... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 135 and 136 RIN 1625-AA03 Claims Procedures Under the Oil Pollution Act... U.S.C. 9509 note)) OSCLAA Fund The Offshore Oil Spill Pollution Compensation Fund, established...

  6. 77 FR 66729 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... decision. See 55 FR 8666, 8804-5 (March 6, 1990) (National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 RIN 2050-AG73 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), to acknowledge advancements...

  7. 78 FR 73449 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial deletion pertains to...-- NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN 0 1. The authority citation for part...

  8. Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of oil pollution problems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Written by outstanding experts in the fields of marine engineering, atmospheric physics and chemistry, fluid dynamics and applied mathematics, the contributions in this book cover a wide range of subjects, from pure mathematics to real-world applications in the oil spill engineering business. Offering a truly interdisciplinary approach, the authors present both mathematical models and state-of-the-art numerical methods for adequately solving the partial differential equations involved, as well as highly practical experiments involving actual cases of ocean oil pollution. It is indispensable that different disciplines of mathematics, like analysis and numerics,  together with physics, biology, fluid dynamics, environmental engineering and marine science, join forces to solve today’s oil pollution problems.   The book will be of great interest to researchers and graduate students in the environmental sciences, mathematics and physics, showing the broad range of techniques needed in order to solve these poll...

  9. Oil and Gas Production Wastewater: Soil Contamination and Pollution Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    John Pichtel

    2016-01-01

    During oil and natural gas production, so-called “produced water” comprises the largest byproduct stream. In addition, many oil and gas operations are augmented via injection of hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids into the formation. Both produced water and HF fluids may contain hundreds of individual chemicals, some known to be detrimental to public health and the environment. Oil and gas production wastewater may serve a range of beneficial purposes, particularly in arid regions, if managed co...

  10. Oil pollution increases plasma antioxidants but reduces coloration in a seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Lores, Marta; Velando, Alberto

    2010-08-01

    It has been suggested that condition-dependent signals may be a useful measure of environmental quality. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that oil pollution enhances oxidative stress and impairs expression of a carotenoid-based signal in a wild population of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). During the courtship period, a group of gulls were fed a supplementary diet containing heavy fuel oil from the Prestige oil spill and were compared with control gulls fed a similar supplementary diet without fuel oil. Blood levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the most toxic components of crude oils, were higher (30%) in the Prestige oil-fed gulls than in the control gulls. Plasma concentrations of vitamin E and carotenoids were also significantly higher in the Prestige oil-fed gulls (31 and 27%, respectively). Although, the plasma levels of lipid peroxidation markers were higher (13%) in gulls fed with Prestige oil than in the control gulls, these differences were not significant, possibly because of the small number of gulls analyzed. The red bill spot was significantly smaller (16%) in the oil-fed gulls than in the control individuals. This study provides the first experimental evidence that a carotenoid-based signal in a free-living seabird is affected by exposure to oil pollution and is hence indicative of environmental quality. Since the yellow-legged gull belongs to a complex of species widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, the method described may constitute a useful tool for evaluating sub-lethal effects of oil spills in seabirds.

  11. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    ... (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution...

  12. Integrated assessment of oil pollution using biological monitoring and chemical fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ceri; Guitart, Carlos; Pook, Chris; Scarlett, Alan; Readman, James W; Galloway, Tamara S

    2010-06-01

    A full assessment of the impact of oil and chemical spills at sea requires the identification of both the polluting chemicals and the biological effects they cause. Here, a combination of chemical fingerprinting of surface oils, tissue residue analysis, and biological effects measures was used to explore the relationship between spilled oil and biological impact following the grounding of the MSC Napoli container ship in Lyme Bay, England in January 2007. Initially, oil contamination remained restricted to a surface slick in the vicinity of the wreck, and there was no chemical evidence to link biological impairment of animals (the common limpet, Patella vulgata) on the shore adjacent to the oil spill. Secondary oil contamination associated with salvage activities in July 2007 was also assessed. Chemical analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons and terpanes in shell swabs taken from limpet shells provided an unequivocal match with the fuel oil carried by the ship. Corresponding chemical analysis of limpet tissues revealed increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dominated by phenanthrene and C1 to C3 phenanthrenes with smaller contributions from heavier molecular weight PAHs. Concurrent ecotoxicological tests indicated impairment of cellular viability (p oiled animals. These results illustrate the value of combining biological monitoring with chemical fingerprinting for the rapid identification of spilled oils and their sublethal impacts on biota in situ.

  13. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah Ismail

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  14. Oxidative Stability of Nano-Microstructures containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Özdemir, N.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen

    of thermolabile active compounds such as fish oil. Moreover, encapsulates produced present a decreased size, which allows their incorporation into food systems without affecting product sensory qualities. In this work, electrohydrodynamic processing and oxidative stability of NMS containing fish oil were...... solutions and on the morphology of NMS was assayed. Secondly, the oxidative stability of the biopolymer solutions containing emulsified fish oil during storage (14 days at 40 °C) and of NMS loaded with fish oil (e.g. pullulan fibers and dextran and WPC capsules) was determined. Finally, to improve...... the oxidative status of the NMS, pullulan fibers, dextran capsules and WPC capsules were produced by adding neat fish oil instead of emulsified fish oil to the biopolymer solutions. These latter NMS presented a higher oxidative stability, which may be due to a better entrapment of the fish oil into biopolymer...

  15. Bioremediation of oil polluted marine sediments: A bio-engineering treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Simone; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Genovese, Maria; Denaro, Renata; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Mancini, Giuseppe; Yakimov, Michail M

    2015-06-01

    The fate of hydrocarbon pollutants and the development of oil-degrading indigenous marine bacteria in contaminated sediments are strongly influenced by abiotic factors such as temperature, low oxygen levels, and nutrient availability. In this work, the effects of different biodegradation processes (bioremediation) on oil-polluted anoxic sediments were analyzed. In particular, as a potential bioremediation strategy for polluted sediments, we applied a prototype of the "Modular Slurry System" (MSS), allowing containment of the sediments and their physical-chemical treatment (by air insufflations, temperature regulation, and the use of a slow-release fertilizer). Untreated polluted sediments served as the blank in a non-controlled experiment. During the experimental period (30 days), bacterial density and biochemical oxygen demand were measured and functional genes were identified by screening. Quantitative measurements of pollutants and an eco-toxicological analysis (mortality of Corophium orientale) were carried out at the beginning and end of the experiments. The results demonstrated the high biodegradative capability achieved with the proposed technology and its strong reduction of pollutant concentrations and thus toxicity.

  16. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this.

  17. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-07-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  18. Surfactant analysis in oil-containing fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronsveld, J.; Faber, M.J. (Koninklijke Shell Exploratie en Produktie Laboratorium, Rijswijk (Netherlands))

    The total surfactant concentration in aqueous phase samples can be analysed with a potentiometric titration. In enhanced oil recovery research, however, the surfactant is produced not only in aqueous phase samples but also in oleic phase samples. The oleic constituents in the oliec phase samples interfere in the surfactant analysis and, therefore, the titration method has been adapted. (orig.).

  19. 77 FR 46009 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Maine... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...

  20. 76 FR 77457 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...

  1. 75 FR 70947 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to Oil Pollution Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to Oil Pollution Act Notice is hereby given that on November 15... Rhode Island for natural resource damages under the Oil Pollution Act, 33 U.S.C. 2701, et seq... to an oil spill from the tank barge Bouchard No. 120, which occurred in April 2003 in Buzzards...

  2. 19 CFR 4.66c - Oil pollution by oceangoing vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oil pollution by oceangoing vessels. 4.66c Section... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.66c Oil pollution by... officer that an order has been issued to detain a vessel required to have an International Oil...

  3. 77 FR 66783 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 RIN 2050-AG73] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan, to acknowledge advancements in technologies... Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to amend the National Oil and...

  4. 76 FR 64296 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 RIN 2050-AG59 Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and... Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention, Farms, Compliance date... Superfund, TRI, EPCRA, RMP and Oil Information Center at (800) 424-9346 or TDD (800) 553-7672...

  5. 75 FR 45572 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 RIN 2050-AG59 Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and... beginning operations. \\4\\ On December 5, 2008 (73 FR 74236) EPA finalized an amendment to allow a new oil..., Milk, Oil pollution, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Dated: July 28, 2010. Lisa...

  6. 77 FR 74659 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Oil Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Oil Pollution... required to have a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan under the Oil Pollution... facilities and all types of oil are located in part 112.1 of the regulations and apply to any owner or...

  7. Lubricant additive concentrate containing isomerized jojoba oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, G.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes a crankcase motor oil additive concentrate intended to be added to a conventional crankcase motor oil to improve its ability to lubricate and protect the engine. The additive concentrate comprises the following components: A petroleum base stock of lubricating quality and viscosity. The base stock comprises from about 13.5 to 90 weight percent of the additive concentrate; a detergent-inhibitor package. The package is present at from about 7 to about 40 weight percent of the concentrate; a supplemental antiwear additive selected from the salts of dialkyl dithiophosporic acids. The additive is present at a level of from about 1 to about 10 weight percent of the concentrate; and a supplemental antiwear additive selected from the class of sulfurized olefins. The additive is present at a level of from about 1 to about 10 weight percent of the concentrate.

  8. Absorption difference between diacylglycerol oil and butter blend containing diacylglycerol oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Jørgensen, Henry; Mu, Huiling

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating whether the intake of butter blends containing diacylglycerol (DAG) oil may result in reduced fat accumulation, in similarity to DAG oil, and the potential metabolic differences between butter blends and DAG oil. Four experimental diets containing either 10 wt% DAG...... butter blend (BDAG), triacylglycerol (TAG) butter blend (BTAG), DAG oil (ODAG) or TAG oil (OTAG) were prepared, and each was fed to a group of 8 male Wistar rats. The design of the experiment was a combined balance and feeding experiment. The rats fed the BTAG and ODAG‐diets had a significantly higher...... was significantly higher for rats fed the BDAG‐diet than for rats fed the BTAG and ODAG‐diets. To conclude, the beneficial effects of DAG oil in reducing body fat accumulation cannot be observed in DAG oil containing butter blends, and the effect of DAG on bone health requires further investigation....

  9. Simulation of oil pollution in the Persian Gulf near Assaluyeh oil terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihifard, M; Badri, M A

    2016-04-15

    Numerical simulation of oil slick movement with respect to tidal factors and wind effects was performed in order to counteract oil pollution in the Persian Gulf. First, a flow model was invoked with respect to water level fluctuations. The main tidal constituents were applied to the model using the initial conditions of water level variations in the Hormuz Strait near the Hangam Island. The movement of oil pollution was determined due to wind, tide and temperature effects and confirmed by applying a verified field results. Simulations were focused near an important terminal in the Persian Gulf, Assaluyeh Port. The results were led to preparing a risk-taking map in a parallel research for the Persian Gulf.

  10. Oxidative stability of pullulan electrospun fibers containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Damberg, Cecilie; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2017-01-01

    stability of 10wt% oil-loaded fibers, but had a pro-oxidant effect. Finally, the production of pullulan fibers containing 10wt% fish oil from formic acid solutions increased the oxidative stability of the fibers when compared to the same type of fibers obtained from water solutions. The latter was observed...... for fibers without and with antioxidants (500ppm of δ-tocopherol and 500ppm of rosemary extract). Practical applications: Encapsulation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and addition of antioxidants are the most efficient strategies to protect these lipids against oxidation when incorporating them......The effect of oil content and addition of natural antioxidants on the morphology and oxidative stability of pullulan ultra-thin fibers loaded with fish oil and obtained by electrospinning was investigated. Pullulan sub-micron fibers containing 10 and 30wt% fish oil were prepared and both presented...

  11. Chronic oil pollution harms Magellanic penguins in the Southwest Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, P Dee; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Reyes, Laura; Rebstock, Ginger A; Griot, Karen; Rodrigues Heredia, Sergio; Adornes, Andrea Corrado; da Silva, Rodolfo Pinho

    2006-02-01

    Petroleum pollution is a problem for seabirds along the Southwest Atlantic coast. Twenty-five groups from Salvador, Brazil (12 degrees 58'S) to San Antonio Oeste, Argentina (40 degrees 43'S) survey or rehabilitate sick or oiled seabirds. Four groups, one each in Brazil and Uruguay, and two in Argentina, kept counts of birds found alive and in need of rehabilitation. An average of 63.7% of the seabirds found were Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), with 3869 reported since 1987. Mainly adult penguins were found in Argentina (1605 of 2102 penguins of known age class) and Uruguay (158 of 197). Juveniles were most common in Brazil (234 of 325). Oil fouling was the most frequent cause of injury or sickness. The number of oiled penguins reported in their wintering range has greatly increased since the early 1990s and is strongly correlated with petroleum exports from Argentina. Our results show that chronic petroleum pollution is a problem for wildlife from Southern Brazil through Northern Argentina, and regulations and enforcement are failing to protect living resources.

  12. Migration, speciation and distribution of heavy metals in an oil-polluted soil affected by crude oil extraction processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaowen; Cui, Zhaojie; Zang, Guolong

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals are among the major pollutants in the worldwide soil environment. In oilfields, the crude oil extraction process results in the simultaneous contamination of the soil with petroleum and heavy metals. In this work, we investigated the influence of oil extraction on the migration, speciation, and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, V, and Mn) in soils of an oil region of Shengli Oilfield, China. The results showed that oil-polluted soils were contaminated with Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, with mean concentrations of 27.63, 67.12, 0.185 and 33.80 mg kg(-1), respectively (greater than the background values of local surface soils). Compared with the control profile, the vertical distributions of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and V were affected in oil-polluted soils, particularly those of Cd and Ni. The concentrations of Zn, Cd, Ni, V, and Mn in oil-polluted soils increased with the duration of oil well development, which indicated the levels of these metals in the oil field were enhanced by human activities. Fractionation analysis revealed that the mobility potential of heavy metals in oil polluted soil decreased in the sequence Cd > Mn > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cr > V. The most important proportion of Cd is ion exchangeable and acid soluble, which indicates that Cd is the most labile, available, and harmful heavy metal among the elements that damage the soil environment in oil-polluted soil.

  13. Intergraded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis A. Zorpas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700–3100 t y−1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The cocomposting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32% by the application of Fenton and another 10–28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final cocomposted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

  14. Approaches to the Assessment of the Efficiency of Remediation of Oil-Polluted Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchugova, E. M.; Melekhina, E. N.; Markarova, M. Yu.; Shchemelinina, T. N.

    2016-02-01

    Indices characterizing the enzymatic activity of soils and the contents of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been applied for estimating the efficiency of remediation of oil-polluted soils in the north of European Russia. Oil-polluted test plots treated with the Universal and Roder biopreparations and subjected to the agrochemical reclamation have been examined. The suggested indices can be used to diagnose and monitor the oil-polluted soils and to assess the efficiency of their remediation.

  15. 76 FR 57701 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... rule published on July 29, 2011, (76 FR 45484) is withdrawn as of September 16, 2011. ADDRESSES... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  16. 76 FR 57662 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... withdrawal of the direct final action (76 FR 45432) is effective as of September 16, 2011. ADDRESSES... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  17. 78 FR 70231 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... wastes may have included solvents, acids, bases, paints, and heavy metals. The wastes were deposited in..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  18. 33 CFR 151.19 - International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.19... Certificate is issued by a COTP, OCMI, or a classification society authorized under 46 CFR part 8, after...

  19. Oil Pollution in the Southeastern Baltic Sea by Satellite Remote Sensing Data in 2004-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulycheva Elena V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of satellite monitoring of oil pollution in the Southeastern Baltic Sea in 2004-2015 are discussed in the paper. Interannual and seasonal variability of oil pollution is investigated. A steady decrease in total oil pollution was observed from 2004 to 2011. After a sharp increase of oil pollution in 2012, oil pollution level has established at 0.39 PI Index. Maximum of oil spills is observed in the spring and summer, which is probably due to favorable weather conditions for the detection of oil spills on radar images. According to the analysis of the shapes of the detected oil spills, it was concluded that the main polluters of the sea surface are vessels. No oil spills originated from the oil platform D-6 was detected in 2004-2015. Results of numerical experiments with the Seatrack Web oil spill model show that in the case of potential discharge of oil from the D-6 platform, oil will not reach the Curonian Spit beaches during 48 h after an accident.

  20. Modelling the bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF of sea areas polluted by oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Otremba

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the possibilities of modelling the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF in sea areas polluted by oil. Three sea basin models are considered: a coastal one free of oil, one polluted by an oil film and one polluted by an oil emulsion. The following concentrations of oil were compared: for the film, 1 cm3 of oil per 1 m2 water surface, for the emulsion 1 cm3 of oil in 1 m3 of water. The optical properties of Romashkino crude oil were taken into consideration, as were various angles of incident solar light. The conversion of BRDFs into a directional distribution of the optical contrast of polluted areas is demonstrated.

  1. Hedging Strategies and the Financing of the 1992 International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund.

    OpenAIRE

    André SCHMITT; Sandrine SPAETER

    2005-01-01

    The maritime oil transport is regulated by the 1992 Civil Liability Convention for Oil Damage and the 1992 Oil Pollution Compensation Fund. In this compensation regime, contributions of oil firms are based on the aggregate risk of the Fund and are assessed each time an oil spill is registered. In this paper, we present the main characteristics of such a compensation regime and we explain why oil firms would benefit from a reorga- nization of the financing of the Fund by introducing appropriat...

  2. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Pollution above the Oil Sands Region in Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Monika; Whiteway, James; Seabrook, Jeffrey; Gray, Lawrence; Strawbridge, Kevin B.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. For the majority of the flights, significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to an altitude of 2.0 km above sea level (ASL), while the ozone concentration remained at background levels (30-45 ppb) downwind of the industry. On August 24th the lidar measured a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 2.0 km ASL, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppb. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, pollution from the oil sands industry was observed. Measurements of the backscatter linear depolarization ratio were obtained with a ground based lidar operated by Environment Canada within the oil sands region. The depolarization measurements aided in discriminating between the separate sources of pollution from industry and forest fires. The depolarization ratio was 5-6% in forest fire smoke and 7-10% in the industrial pollution.

  3. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Pollution above the Oil Sands Region in Northern Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Monika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. For the majority of the flights, significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to an altitude of 2.0 km above sea level (ASL, while the ozone concentration remained at background levels (30-45 ppb downwind of the industry. On August 24th the lidar measured a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 2.0 km ASL, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppb. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, pollution from the oil sands industry was observed. Measurements of the backscatter linear depolarization ratio were obtained with a ground based lidar operated by Environment Canada within the oil sands region. The depolarization measurements aided in discriminating between the separate sources of pollution from industry and forest fires. The depolarization ratio was 5-6% in forest fire smoke and 7-10% in the industrial pollution.

  4. Considering temperature dependence of thermo-physical properties of sandy soils in two scenarios of oil pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aleksey V.Malyshev; Anatoly M.Timofeev

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the heat conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of sandy soil contaminated in two scenarios of oil pollu tion, and also determined the temperature dependencies of these changed thermophysical properties. In the first pollution scenario, the oil product was introduced into wet river sand, and in the second case, dry sand was contaminated by the oil product and was then moistened with water. By considering these two scenarios as multicomponent dispersion systems with varying degrees of contamination and humidity, and by using a polystructural granular model with pore spaces and closed inclusions, we calculated that the heat conductivity of the sandy soil increased under the first pollution scenario and decreased under the second, but the change in the volumetric heat capacity of the sandy soil was proportional only to the amount of oil pollution, not the manner in which it was introduced. We also determined the temperature dependencies of these two thermophysical properties of sandy soil when polluted by oil, of which information will be useful for future containment and remediation of oil contaminated soil.

  5. Rapid Detection of Oil Pollution in Soil by Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Khumaeni; Wahyu Setia, Budi; Asep Yoyo, Wardaya; Rinda, Hedwig; Koo Hendrik, Kurniawan

    2016-12-01

    Detection of oil pollution in soil has been carried out using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1,064 nm, 8 ns, 200 mJ) was focused onto pelletized soil samples. Emission spectra were obtained from oil-contaminated soil and clean soil. The contaminated soil had almost the same spectrum profile as the clean soil and contained the same major and minor elements. However, a C-H molecular band was clearly detected in the oil-contaminated soil, while no C-H band was detected in the clean soil. Linear calibration curve of the C-H molecular band was successfully made by using a soil sample containing various concentrations of oil. The limit of detection of the C-H band in the soil sample was 0.001 mL/g. Furthermore, the emission spectrum of the contaminated soil clearly displayed titanium (Ti) lines, which were not detected in the clean soil. The existence of the C-H band and Ti lines in oil-contaminated soil can be used to clearly distinguish contaminated soil from clean soil. For comparison, the emission spectra of contaminated and clean soil were also obtained using scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) spectroscopy, showing that the spectra obtained using LIBS are much better than using SEM/EDX, as indicated by the signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio).

  6. Using essential oils to control moss and liverwort in containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil Khadduri

    2011-01-01

    Liverwort and moss are economically significant weeds across a range of US container production sites, including forest seedling greenhouse culture in the Pacific Northwest. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of essential oils, or distilled plant extracts, in controlling liverwort and moss container weeds over three seasons of trials. When applied at the...

  7. Preparation and characterization of polyurethane microcapsules containing functional oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.H.; Seo, J.B.; Kim, Y.J. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    Polyurethane microcapsules containing functional oil (citronella oil) were successfully prepared by conventional interfacial polymerization of tolulene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylene glycol (EG) and characterized by Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet spectroscopy, particle size analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of polymerization variables such as surfactant concentration and agitation speed, on the particle size and particle size distribution were investigated. FT-IR spectroscopic data showed that citronella oil was successfully encapsulated in the microcapsule. Thermogravimetric analysis data showed that the microcapsule was thermally stable up to 220 deg. C. The controlled release of the citronella oil present in the microcapsule core in a methanol medium was demonstrated by ultraviolet spectroscopy, showing that the amount of released citronella oil was increased with increasing time. It was observed that the amount of released citronella oil was increased with increasing stirring speed and emulsifier concentration in the microcapsule preparation step. Polyurethane microcapsules containing citronella oil showed excellent anti-moth property. (author). 28 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  8. Treatment of waters polluted with crude oil and heavy metals by means of a natural wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groudeva, V I; Groudev, S N; Doycheva, A S

    2003-01-01

    In the Dolni Dubnik oil deposit, Northern Bulgaria, waters polluted with crude oil and heavy metals (iron, manganese, zinc, cadmium, lead, copper) were treated by means of a natural wetland located in the deposit. The waters had a pH in the range of about 4.5-6.5 and contained about 1-5 mg/l oil. The concentrations of heavy metals usually were about 2-4 times higher than the relevant permissible levels for waters intended for use in the agriculture and industry. The watercourse through the wetland covered a distance of about 100 m and the water flow rate varied in the range of about 0.2-0.8 l/s. The wetland was characterized by an abundant water and emergent vegetation and a diverse microflora, including different oil-degrading bacteria and fungi. The treatment of the polluted waters by means of the above-mentioned wetland markedly depended on the temperature but was efficient during the different climatic seasons, even during the cold winter months at temperatures close to 0 degrees C. The oil content in the wetland effluents in most cases was decreased to less than 0.2 mg/l, and the concentrations of heavy metals were decreased below the relevant permissible levels. The removal of oil was connected with its microbial degradation. The removal of heavy metals was due to different processes but the microbial dissimilatory sulphate reduction and the sorption of metals on the organic matter and clay minerals present in the wetland played the main role.

  9. Performance of layers fed diets containing different oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Lelis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out at the Animal Science Department of the Federal University of Viçosa to evaluate the performance of heavy and light layers. During four periods of twenty-eight days, 432 layers in the second production cycle, being 216 Hy Line W36 (light birds and 216 Hy Line Brown (heavy birds, were used. A completely randomized experimental design with a 1+(4x2x2 factorial arrangement (one control treatment, four oil sources, two inclusion levels, and two genetic lines with four replicates of six birds per experimental unit, was applied. The treatments consisted of diets containing 16.5% crude protein, formulated to supply the nutritional requirements, and the inclusion of each oil source at 2 or 4%. Soybean, canola, linseed and fish oils were used. The control diet did not contain any oil. The studied parameters were: feed intake (g/hen/day, egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/hen/day, feed conversion ratio (kg feed /dozen of eggs and per kg eggs. Oil levels and sources did not influence egg mass, feed conversion ratio (per kg eggs and dozen eggs, or egg production. During the first three periods, independently of oil source or genetics, eggs from layers fed 4% oil were the heaviest, except for those of light birds fed soybean oil during the third period, which egg weight was similar for the 2 and 4% levels. Light layers presented lower feed intake and better feed conversion ratio (per kg eggs and dozen eggs as compared to heavy layers, and there was no influence of the evaluated oil sources on feed intake.

  10. 78 FR 45905 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through...

  11. 78 FR 1251 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act On December 21, 2012, the...'') natural resource damage claims brought pursuant to Sections 1002 and 1006 of the Oil Pollution Act, 33...

  12. 76 FR 18136 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, through the...

  13. 76 FR 81904 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Florida, through the Florida...

  14. 78 FR 60809 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of New York, through the New York...

  15. 76 FR 71500 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... Superfund) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution... National Priorities List (NPL) on September 30, 2011, (76 FR 60777). The NPL, promulgated pursuant...

  16. 77 FR 43567 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New Jersey, through the NJ...

  17. 75 FR 42361 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Colorado, through the...

  18. 76 FR 51316 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, through the...

  19. 77 FR 21919 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Illinois, through the...

  20. 75 FR 48895 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Arkansas,...

  1. 77 FR 64790 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 ] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Michigan, through...

  2. 76 FR 20605 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Michigan... this Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air...

  3. 78 FR 4333 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 RIN 2050-AG73 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... are withdrawing the direct final rule for National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency... 7, 2012. DATES: Effective January 22, 2013, EPA withdraws the direct final rule published at 77...

  4. 78 FR 47267 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Oklahoma, through the...

  5. 76 FR 58404 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial deletion pertains to the remaining portions of...

  6. 75 FR 53268 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Georgia, through the...

  7. 76 FR 42055 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... 300--NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Accordingly, the amendment to... May 24, 2011, EPA published a Notice of Intent for Partial Deletion (76 FR 30081) and a direct...

  8. 78 FR 44512 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of...

  9. 76 FR 11350 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution... was published in the Federal Register on January 5, 2011 (76 FR 510). The closing date for comments...

  10. 76 FR 50441 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New Jersey, through the New...

  11. 78 FR 56611 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., is an appendix of the National Oil and ] Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The... risk to public health, welfare, or the environment. Deletion from the NPL does not preclude...

  12. 75 FR 55479 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and ] Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial... media of the entire OPS. The rest of the On-Post OU, including groundwater below RMA that is west of E...

  13. 78 FR 69360 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the... Site media, including soil and groundwater, of parcels I-A, II-A, III-A, II-J, II-Q, II-S, II-T, III-C...

  14. 75 FR 34405 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution... entire OPS. The rest of the On-Post OU (Figure 1), including groundwater below RMA that is west of E...

  15. 76 FR 30081 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution...), Arkansas River Floodplain (OU11), and Site-wide Surface and Groundwater Quality (OU12) will remain on the...

  16. 77 FR 31215 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... Area. The groundwater medium associated with OU-11, Basewide Groundwater will remain on the NPL. The...

  17. 78 FR 69875 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act On November 15, 2013, the....) Inc. (``Suncor'') pursuant to the Oil Pollution Act, 33 U.S.C. 2701-2762. The United States'...

  18. 76 FR 70105 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA... surface soils, subsurface soils, structures and groundwater within the boundaries of these parcels....

  19. 76 FR 70057 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., is an appendix to the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This... of these two parcels from the Site affects all surface soils, subsurface soils, structures...

  20. 75 FR 33747 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Agency (EPA) Region 6 is issuing a Notice of Intent to Delete the soils of Operable Unit 1 and the..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency...

  1. A new technique for the solution of references problem in oil pollution measurement by UVF technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım Cemal Güven

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the problems of references used for oil pollution measurement by UVF method were discussed. The main problem of this method is that the origin of the reference for pollutant oil is unknown. The proposed solution for this problem was based on sea water sample which was taken from contaminated area, extracted by DCM, the organic phase was distilled, its calibration curve was plotted with this residue oil and measurement was made on its equation. The oil pollution results for the sea water of K0 station by using this equation for 2013 was 15.21 mg/L and for 2014 15.25 mg/L. for the same samples determination of oil pollution by using crude oil references varies between 0.11 and 1.15 various crude oils and using chrysene reference 0.11-0.19 mg/L. These results show that pollution level varied depending on references used. The proposed method more realistically determines the oil pollution level. The proposed technique is the first for oil pollution measurement by UVF.

  2. Dynamics of ecological and biological characteristics of soddy-podzolic soils under long-term oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. M.; Versioning, A. A.; Karimullin, L. K.; Akaikin, D. V.; Tarasov, O. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of respiratory and enzyme activities and toxicological properties of loamy-sandy and loamy soddy-podzolic soils (Retisols) under the long-term influence of oil pollution were studied. The concentrations of the pollutant, at which the activity (the ability of self-purification) of the indigenous soil microflora is preserved, were determined. The dynamics of the decrease of oil product content and the time of elimination of the toxic effects on higher plants at the initial pollutant contents were revealed. The parameters of the respiratory and enzyme activities in the course of the 365-day experiment showed that the microbial community of the loamy-sandy soil was more sensitive to oil pollution. The phytotoxic characteristics of the oil-containing loamy-sandy and loamy soils did not correlate with their respiratory and enzyme activities. This fact testifies to some differences in the mechanisms of their influence on living organisms with different organizational levels and to the necessity of taking into account a complex of parameters when assessing the state of the soils under the long-term effects of oil and its products.

  3. Instability study of oil slicks contained by a single boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.; Wong, K.-F.V. [Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The different hydrodynamic instabilities that occur in the water-oil-boom systems were discussed. These instabilities are referred to as failures. The three major types of oil containment failures have been identified as being entrainment failure, drainage failure and critical accumulation failure. The primary factors which control instability are gravity, surface tension, current velocity, current depth, boom draft, oil viscosity and oil density. The impact that velocity has on the fluid flow at the water-oil interface was also discussed. This paper focused on a systematic study of the drainage failure and the critical accumulation failure. A numerical model was developed where two-dimensional flow was assumed. Two results were presented. One was characteristic of the interface movement, the other was the coefficient of collected oil and the critical containment conditions. Stability was found to be sensitive to the Froude number. It was also determined that the critical reduced gravity is more appropriate than the critical Froude number. 19 refs., 1 tab., 19 figs.

  4. Phytoecological indicators for biological recultivation of soils polluted with oil in the Absheron peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Gurbanov

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoecological indicators of polluted soils of Amirov Oil-and-Gas Production Department (Garadag district,Baku were studied. Phytocenological and biomorphological analysis of flora was done with the aim of further biological rehabilitation of Absheron peninsula. Oil products (black oil, boring waters, etc. pollution turns the plant cover into a dead mass. Decontamination of soil and rehabilitation of microbial community improve the soil’s fertility. Wild and cultured plant indicators may be used in biopurification of the soils polluted with oil products. Sowing of the fodder crops followed by the technical remediation forms the clean areas of higher productivity.

  5. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  6. Phytoecological indicators for biological recultivation of soils polluted with oil in the Absheron peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    E. M. Gurbanov; A. A. Akhundova

    2009-01-01

    Phytoecological indicators of polluted soils of Amirov Oil-and-Gas Production Department (Garadag district, Baku) were studied. Phytocenological and biomorphological analysis of flora was done with the aim of further biological rehabilitation of Absheron peninsula. Oil products (black oil, boring waters, etc.) pollution turns the plant cover into a dead mass. Decontamination of soil and rehabilitation of microbial community improve the soil’s fertility. Wild and cultured plant indicators may ...

  7. Phylogenetic diversity of dominant bacterial communities during bioremediation of crude oil-polluted soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Thomas Cloete

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of hydrocarbon pollutants is advantageous owing to the cost-effectiveness of the technology and the ubiquity of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms in the soil. Soil microbial diversity is affected by hydrocarbon perturbation thus selective enrichment of hydrocarbon utilizers occurs. Hydrocarbons interact with the soil matrix and soil microorganisms determining the fate of the contaminants relative to their chemical nature and microbial degradative capabilities respectively. Bacterial dynamics in crude oil-polluted soil microcosms undergoing bioremediation were investigated over a 42-day period. Four out of the five microcosms containing 4kg of pristine soil each were contaminated with 4% Arabian light crude oil. Three microcosms were amended with either 25g of NPK fertilizer, calcium ammonium nitrate or poultry droppings respectively while the fourth designated oil-contaminated control was unamended. The fifth microcosm had only pristine soil and was set up to ascertain indigenous bacterial community structure pre-contamination. Biostimulated soils were periodically tilled and watered. Hydrocarbon degradation was measured throughout the experimental period by gas chromatography. Gas chromatographic tracing of residual hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils showed marked attenuation of contaminants starting from the second (day 14 till the sixth (day 42 week after contamination whereas no significant reduction in hydrocarbon peaks was seen in the oil contaminated control soil throughout the 6-week experimental period. Molecular fingerprints of bacterial communities involved in aerobic biodegradation of crude oil hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils and controls were generated with DGGE using PCR-amplification of 16S rRNA gene obtained from extracted total soil community DNA. DGGE fingerprints demonstrated that NPK, calcium ammonium nitrate and poultry droppings selected different bacterial populations during the active phase of oil

  8. 76 FR 45484 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission on... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...

  9. 76 FR 45483 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...

  10. 76 FR 76118 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...

  11. Evaluation of Oil Removal Efficiency and Enzymatic Activity in Some fungal Strains for Bioremediation of Petroleum-Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mohsenzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petroleum pollution is a global disaster and there are several soil cleaning methods including bioremediation.Methods: In a field study, fugal strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites of Arak refinery (Iran and their growth ability was checked in potato dextrose agar (PDA media containing 0-10% v/v crude oil, the activity of three enzymes (Catalase, Peroxidase and Phenol Oxidase was evaluated in the fungal colonies and bioremediation ability of the fungi was checked in the experimental pots containing 3 kg sterilized soil and different concentrations of petroleum (0-10% w/w.Results: Four fungal strains, Acromonium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp., were selected asthe most resistant ones. They were able to growth in the subjected concentrations and Alternaria sp. showed thehighest growth ability in the petroleum containing media. The enzyme assay showed that the enzymatic activity was increased in the oil-contaminated media. Bioremediation results showed that the studied fungi were able to decrease petroleum pollution. The highest petroleum removing efficiency of Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp.,Alternaria sp. and Acromonium sp. was evaluated in the 10%, 8%, 8% and 2% petroleum pollution respectively.Conclusions: Fungi are important microorganisms in decreasing of petroleum pollution. They have bioremediation potency that is related to their enzymatic activities.

  12. Evaluation of oil removal efficiency and enzymatic activity in some fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsenzadeh Fariba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Petroleum pollution is a global disaster and there are several soil cleaning methods including bioremediation. Methods In a field study, fugal strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites of Arak refinery (Iran and their growth ability was checked in potato dextrose agar (PDA media containing 0-10% v/v crude oil, the activity of three enzymes (Catalase, Peroxidase and Phenol Oxidase was evaluated in the fungal colonies and bioremediation ability of the fungi was checked in the experimental pots containing 3 kg sterilized soil and different concentrations of petroleum (0-10% w/w. Results Four fungal strains, Acromonium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp., were selected as the most resistant ones. They were able to growth in the subjected concentrations and Alternaria sp. showed the highest growth ability in the petroleum containing media. The enzyme assay showed that the enzymatic activity was increased in the oil-contaminated media. Bioremediation results showed that the studied fungi were able to decrease petroleum pollution. The highest petroleum removing efficiency of Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp. and Acromonium sp. was evaluated in the 10%, 8%, 8% and 2% petroleum pollution respectively. Conclusions Fungi are important microorganisms in decreasing of petroleum pollution. They have bioremediation potency that is related to their enzymatic activities.

  13. 78 FR 66325 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the Geiger (C&M Oil) Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... issuing a Notice of Intent to Delete the Geiger (C&M Oil) Superfund Site (Site) located in...

  14. 75 FR 13304 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) Notice is hereby given that on March... Decree alleging that on or about October 13, 2004, the oil tank vessel POLAR TEXAS, owned by Polar Tankers, Inc., a subsidiary of ConocoPhillips, Inc., discharged oil into waterways near Vashon and...

  15. 75 FR 49411 - Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability-Vessels and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability--Vessels and Deepwater Ports'' (74 FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 138 RIN 1625-AB25 Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of...; information collection approval. SUMMARY: On July 1, 2009, the Coast Guard amended the Oil Pollution Act...

  16. 75 FR 750 - Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability-Vessels and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... Federal Register, at 73 FR 54997, entitled ``Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 138 RIN 1625-AB25 Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of..., 2008, titled ``Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of...

  17. Monitoring of oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf based on medium resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of inland and offshore oil fields are located in the Arabian Gulf where about 25% of the world's oil is produced by the countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf region. Almost all of this oil production is shipped by sea worldwide through the Strait of Hormuz making the region vulnerable to environmental and ecological threats that might arise from accidental or intentional oil spills. Remote sensing technologies have the unique capability to detect and monitor oil pollutions over large temporal and spatial scales. Synoptic satellite imaging can date back to 1972 when Landsat-1 was launched. Landsat satellite missions provide long time series of imagery with a spatial resolution of 30 m. MODIS sensors onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites provide a wide and frequent coverage at medium spatial resolution, i.e. 250 m and 500, twice a day. In this study, the capability of medium resolution MODIS and Landsat data in detecting and monitoring oil pollutions in the Arabian Gulf was tested. Oil spills and slicks show negative or positive contrasts in satellite derived RGB images compared with surrounding clean waters depending on the solar/viewing geometry, oil thickness and evolution, etc. Oil-contaminated areas show different spectral characteristics compared with surrounding waters. Rayleigh-corrected reflectance at the seven medium resolution bands of MODIS is lower in oil affected areas. This is caused by high light absorption of oil slicks. 30-m Landsat image indicated the occurrence of oil spill on May 26 2000 in the Arabian Gulf. The oil spill showed positive contrast and lower temperature than surrounding areas. Floating algae index (FAI) images are also used to detect oil pollution. Oil-contaminated areas were found to have lower FAI values. To track the movement of oil slicks found on October 21 2007, ocean circulations from a HYCOM model were examined and demonstrated that the oil slicks were advected toward the coastal areas of United Arab

  18. Long-Term Oil Pollution and In Situ Microbial Response of Groundwater in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Lu, Sidan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Ding, Aizhong; Wang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Potential threats exist where groundwater is polluted by high concentrations of oil compounds (980.20 mg L(-1) the highest TPHs). An abandoned petrochemical plant in Lanzhou City, where long-term petrochemical products leakage contaminated the groundwater, was used as a field site in this study. To determine the extent of pollution and find an effective solution, chemical techniques combined with molecular biological techniques were used to survey the migration and decomposition of pollutants. Moreover, Illumina Sequencing was employed to reveal the microbial changes of different sites. Light-chain alkanes (mostly C6-C9), most benzene compounds, and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene) mainly polluted the source. C29 to C36 and chlorobenzenes (hexachlorocyclohexane) polluted the secondary polluted sites. Moreover, chloralkane (trichloroethane and dichloroethane), benzene derivatives (trimethylbenzene and butylbenzene), and PAHs (fluorene and phenanthrene) were present in the other longtime-contaminated water. The bacterial genera are closely related with the chemical matters, and different groups of microorganisms gather in the sample sites that are polluted with different kinds of oil. The biodiversity and abundance of observed species change with pollution conditions. The dominant phyla (81%) of the bacterial community structure are Proteobacteria (62.2% of the total microbes), Bacteroidetes (8.85%), Actinobacteria (6.70%), and Choloroflexi (3.03%). Pseudomonadaceae is significant in the oil-polluted source and Comamonadaceae is significant in the secondary polluted (migrated oil) sample; these two genera are natural decomposers of refractory matters. Amycolatopsis, Rhodocyclaceae, Sulfurimonas, and Sulfuricurvum are the dominant genera in the long-migrated oil-polluted samples. Bioavailability of the oil-contaminated place differs with levels of pollution and cleaning the worse-polluted sites by microbes is more difficult.

  19. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H G; Berntsen, Jannicke A; Skov, Kasper; Sloth, Jens J

    2013-06-01

    The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg(-1). Three dominant arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in addition to one minor unidentified compound were detected in all the oils using GC-ICPMS. The molecular structures of the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons, dimethylarsinoyl hydrocarbons (C17H38AsO, C19H42AsO, C23H38AsO), were verified using GC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and the accurate masses of the compounds were verified using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Additionally, total arsenic and the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons were studied in decontaminated and in non-decontaminated fish oils, where a reduced arsenic concentration was seen in the decontaminated fish oils. This provided an insight to how a decontamination procedure originally ascribed for the removal of persistent organic pollutants affects the level of arsenolipids present in fish oils.

  20. The Effect of Oil Pollution on LathyrusSativus and Lens Culinaris with Potential of Phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R . Noori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil pollution is a worldwide threat to the environment. The remediation of oil contaminated soils, sediments and water is a major challenge for environment. Phytoremediation is an emerging green technology that uses plants to remediate soil, sediment, surface water, and groundwater in environment which contaminated with toxic metal, organics, and radionuclide. In this study, some species of Fabaceae family were chosen and planted in different concentrations of oil pollution in soil, to identify the tolerant species. It was done in period of 40 days in Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The results showed the highest level of light crude contamination, which the plant is able to grow,is 8% with 3.3 cm for lathyrussativus species and 6% with 7cm for Lens culinaris. So among the studied species Lathyrussativus and Lens culinaris were tolerant species that could grow in high concentrations of oil pollution. These species can be suggested to phytoremediation of oil-polluted soils.

  1. Health Risks Associated with Oil Pollution in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Nriagu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is considerable public concern about the environmental impacts of oil pollution in the Niger Delta of Nigeria, actual evidence on the pathological and psychological effects in the health of local communities is minimally known. We sought to associate the perspective measures of exposure to oil pollution with health outcomes (inventory of health symptoms and functional capacity limitations and determine how emotional reactions to environmental risks moderate these health outcomes. Method: The study was conducted with 600 participants selected from five local government areas in Akwa Ibom State where oil pollution is rampant. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data on the respondents’ exposure to oil pollution, self-rated health and disease symptoms, perception of risk of exposure and emotional reactions to local oil pollution. Results: Most of the participants lived in areas with visible oil pollution and/or near gas flaring facilities and regularly suffered direct exposure to oil in their environment. High level of emotional distress was a part of everyone's life for the study population. Risk perception in the study area was mediated, to a large extent, by dreaded hazards (catastrophic fears of pipeline explosions and oil spill fire, visual cues (gas flares and smoke stacks and chemosensory cues (off-flavor in drinking water. The exposure metrics were found to be significant predictors of the health effects and influencing factors (emotional reactions. Multi-levels models suggest that at the individual level, the demographic variables and direct contact with oil pollution were important mediators of functional capacity limitation. At the community level, emotional distress from fear of the sources of exposure was an important mediator of the health symptoms. Conclusions: This study documents high levels of disease symptoms and environmental distress (worry, annoyance and intolerance associated with

  2. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  3. Discrimination of plant stress caused by oil pollution and waterlogging using hyperspectral and thermal remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emengini, Ebele Josephine; Blackburn, George Alan; Theobald, Julian Charles

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing of plant stress holds promise for detecting environmental pollution by oil. However, in oil-rich delta regions, waterlogging is a frequent source of plant stress that has similar physiological effects to oil pollution. This study investigated the capabilities of remote sensing for discriminating between these two sources of plant stress. Bean plants were subjected to oil pollution, waterlogging, and combined oil and waterlogging treatments. Canopy physiological, hyperspectral, and thermal measurements were taken every two to three days after treatment to follow the stress responses. For plants treated with oil, spectral and thermal responses were evident six days before symptoms could be observed visually. In waterlogged plants, only spectral responses were observed, but these were present up to eight days before visual symptoms. A narrowband reflectance ratio was efficient in detecting stress caused by oil and waterlogging. Canopy temperature and a thermal index were good indicators of oil and combined oil and waterlogging stress, but insensitive to waterlogging alone. Hence, this study provides evidence that combined hyperspectral and thermal remote sensing of vegetation has potential for monitoring oil pollution in environments that are also subjected to waterlogging.

  4. Substrate Bioaugmentation of Waste Engine Oil Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckley Ikhajiagbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the impact of substrate microbial augmentation on the bioremediation of Waste Engine Oil (WEO polluted soil. Five different concentrations of WEO in soil on weight basis were obtained by thoroughly mixing WEO in measured soil: 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% w/w. The unpolluted soil was used as the control (0% w/w experiment. The set up was left for 5 months without physically disturbing the soil. After 5 months, the soils were first amended with sawdust and then inoculated with mycelia of Pleurotus tuberregium. Significant (p = 0.05 decreases in soil physicochemical parameters were recorded 9 months after bioaugmentation (9 MAB, excepting total organic carbon and total nitrogen, which showed significant increases throughout the experiment period. Total (100% remediation of some PAH compounds - benzo(aanthracene, benzo(apyrene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(g,h,iperylene, benzo(kfluoranthene, chrysene, dibenzo(a,hanthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,dpyrene - was recorded. Over sixty per cent (66.22% of total individual PAH compounds were completely (100% remediated. Achromobacter sp., Clostridium sp., Sarcina sp., Micrococcus sp., Nocardia sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor sp., Trichoderma sp., Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus and Geotrichum sp. were dominant microorganism species in the WEO polluted soil. Significant decreases in heavy metal concentration resulted in significant reductions in Environmental Risk Factor (ERF, which implied less possibility for ecological risk for heavy metal constituents. ERF presupposes that Pb (ERF range, -69.30 to -14.97 and V (ERF range, -0.01 to 0.86 were significant potential ecological threats at 5MAP, but at 9 MAB, ERF value had decreased, with ERF ranges for Pb and V being 5.64 to 32.64 and 1.70 to 1.83, respectively.

  5. The chronic effects of oil pollution on marine phytoplankton in a subtropical bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jun; Jiang, Zhi-Bing; Zeng, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Quan-Zhen; Zhao, Yong-qiang; Liao, Yi-bo; Shou, Lu; Xu, Xiao-qun

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of crude oil water accommodated fraction (WAF) on marine phytoplankton community, natural phytoplankton collected seasonally from the Yueqing bay were exposed to eight groups of crude oil WAF for 15 days under laboratory conditions. Chlorophyll a and cell density were measured, and species of phytoplankton were identified every 24 h to reflect the change of phytoplankton community. The results showed that (1) High concentrations (≥ 2.28 mg l(-1)) of oil pollution would greatly restrain phytoplankton growth (poil WAF in all seasons (ppollutant concentrations in different seasons. Different species had different tolerances to the oil pollution, thus leading to abnormal succession.

  6. Polarimetric radars and polarimetric SAR data in tasks of detection and identification of marine oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineva, A. A.; Ivanov, A. Yu.

    2016-12-01

    Detecting and distinguishing different kinds of oil pollution, including spills of crude oil on the sea surface, is one important problem of modern remote sensing. The wide use of imaging radars is not always effective. In this review paper, the main principles and methods of polarization radar imaging and radar data processing are discussed based on present theoretical and experimental approaches and ideas. The efficiency of polarimetric methods for oil-spill detection and accurate identification on the sea surface is demonstrated as well. As is shown, modern methods of multipolarimetric radar-signal processing is a powerful means for improving oil-pollution detection and discrimination algorithms.

  7. The toxicity and fate of phenolic pollutants in the contaminated soils associated with the oil-shale industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahru, Anne; Maloverjan, Alla; Sillak, Helgi; Põllumaa, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Phenol, cresols, dimethylphenols and resorcinols considered major pollutants in the oil-shale semi-coke dump leachates (up to 380 mg phenols/L) that contaminate the surrounding soils and pose a threat to the groundwater in the North-East of Estonia. However; despite high residual concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oil products in these soils, the concentration of phenols (especially their water-extractable fraction) was low, not exceeding 0.7 mg/kg dwt. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of biodegradation and aging on the decrease of hazard caused by phenolic pollution. The extractability of phenols (phenol, cresols, dimethylphenols and resorcinols) and their biodegradability by the microbial population was studied in the 13 soils sampled from the Estonian oil-shale region, territories of former gas stations, and from presumably non-polluted areas. Phenol, 5-methylresorcinol, p-cresol and resorcinol could be considered easily degradable in the soils as the microbial populations from majority of the soils studied were able to grow on mineral medium supplemented with these phenols as a single source of carbon. 2,3- and 2,4- and 3,4-dimethylphenols could be considered less easily biodegradable. The semi-coke dump leachate polluted soil (containing no dibasic phenols, 43 mg of monobasic phenols, 1348 mg of oil products and 35 mg of PAHs per g dwt) was analyzed chemically (HPLC) and toxicologically (Flash-Assay using Vibrio fischeri) for the leaching of phenols during shaking of soil-water slurries for 24 h. Only 5.8% of the total concentration of phenols was water-extractable, whereas about 50% of the leached amount was biodegraded by the soil microorganisms. Phenol and cresols were biodegraded by 80%, but the concentration of dimethylphenols practically did not change. The pollutants (measured as total water-extractable toxicity) were desorbed from the soil particles by the 8th h of extraction, whereas the toxicity of the aqueous

  8. Secondary Containment Design for the LLNL B801 Diala Oil Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-14

    Design is to add an extension to the secondary containment of tank T1-A3 at building 801. Piping from the inner tank penetrates the secondary containment tank below the liquid level of the primary tank. To meet Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation 40 CFR 120.7 the single wall piping needs to be provided with secondary containment. Steel Tank Institute (STI) conference publication states: §112.3(d)(1)(iii) –SPCC Plan requirements- Systems shall be designed in accordance with good engineering practice, including consideration of applicable industry standards and that procedures for required inspections and testing have been established. Section 112.7(a)(2) allows for deviations from specific rule requirements, provided the Owner/operator responsible to select, document and implement alternate measure and a PE certifies the SPCC Plan in accordance with good engineering practices, including consideration of industry standards

  9. Modelling and technologies for restoration of oil polluted soils and water bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Pankratova, N. D.; Khokhlova, L. I.

    2011-01-01

    Development and creation a tool set of modeling (forecast and foresight) and highly environmentally friendly technologies to prevent and eliminate pollution of soil and water areas by xenobiotics (oil, petroleum products, pesticides) are presented.

  10. 75 FR 20618 - Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Pollution Research (ICCOPR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... the Technology Plan during the next two fiscal years. Tentative Meeting Agenda The agenda for the May... Coordinating Committee on Oil Pollution Research Biennial Report for Fiscal Years 2008 and 2009, which will...

  11. Investigation and Evaluation of Oil Pollution Sources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shiquan; Huang Shanhong; Wang Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ The onshore petroleum enterprises in China conducted systematic investigation, evaluation and research work on pollution sources from 1992 to 1995 to serve the purposes such as bringing new pollution sources under control,treating old pollution sources, monitoring discharge of pollutants from petroleum enterprises, obtaining a better understanding of consumption and utilization of energy and resources by petroleum enterprises, reducing effectively discharge of pollutants and providing petroleum enterprises with policy-making data for formulation of environmental plans.

  12. The Study of The Oil- contained Mud Automatic Treatment System of Oil Tank%罐体油泥自动清理系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 郭军; 祝金奎; 汪建敏

    2000-01-01

    油田罐体内易沉积泥砂,这些含油泥砂的自动清理及无污排放难题长期无法解决。本文通过介绍一个工程应用,给出了一套解决此问题的工艺流程。%The mud is easy to sedimentate in the big oil tank. It is difficult to automatically clean the tank and make the oil- contained mud pollution less. In this paper, we will describe an engineering application. A technological process will be given to solve the problem.

  13. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  14. Satellite Survey of Inner Seas: Oil Pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mityagina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses our studies of oil pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas. The research was based on a multi-sensor approach on satellite survey data. A combined analysis of oil film signatures in satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR and optical imagery was performed. Maps of oil spills detected in satellite imagery of the whole aquatic area of the Black Sea and the Middle and the Southern Caspian Sea are created. Areas of the heaviest pollution are outlined. It is shown that the main types of sea surface oil pollution are ship discharges and natural marine hydrocarbon seepages. For each type of pollution and each sea, regions of regular pollution occurrence were determined, polluted areas were estimated, and specific manifestation features were revealed. Long-term observations demonstrate that in recent years, illegal wastewater discharges into the Black Sea have become very common, which raises serious environmental issues. Manifestations of seabed hydrocarbon seepages were also detected in the Black Sea, primarily in its eastern part. The patterns of surface oil pollution of the Caspian Sea differ considerably from those observed in the Black Sea. They are largely determined by presence of big seabed oil and gas deposits. The dependence of surface oil SAR signatures on wind/wave conditions is discussed. The impact of dynamic and circulation processes on oil films drift and spread is investigated. A large amount of the data available allowed us to make some generalizations and obtain statistically significant results on spatial and temporal variability of various surface film manifestations.The examples and numerical data we provide on ship spills and seabed seepages reflect the influence of the pollution on the sea environment.

  15. Declines in oil-rates of stranded birds in the North Sea highlight spatial patterns in reductions of chronic oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camphuysen, Kees C J

    2010-08-01

    Strandings of oiled seabirds are used to signal the problem of chronic oil pollution. Species-specific oil rates reflect the risk for marine birds to become oiled at sea. High oil rates were characteristic for seabirds common in areas with frequent oil spills; low oil rates for birds wintering away from the busiest shipping lanes. Declining trends in oil-rates were found, reflecting a reduction in the amount of oil intentionally discharged over the past 50years. Spatial patterns in the risk to become oiled could be identified, when the winter distribution patterns of the affected birds were incorporated in the analysis. Declines in oil rates were most pronounced in coastal birds. These trends were consistent with tendencies to police nearshore waters more effectively than offshore waters. While levels of chronic oil pollution are much reduced, future emphasis should be to reduce chronic oiling more effectively in offshore waters.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, like many emerging countries, has experienced a fast growth in the demand for automobiles in recent decades. This has produced a significant increase in the amount of hazardous waste to be disposed of, including used lubricant oil. Restrictive regulations are being used by many nations to deal with this problem, focusing on treatments, such as recycling, to avoid resource depletion. Specific rules for disposal of used lubricant oil already exist in various countries, including Brazil, but not for its containers. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, this article evaluates different management options for the destination of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers (LOPCs, comparing recycling and incineration to disposal in an industrial landfill. Results show that reducing the proportion of LOPCs destined to the landfill has positive impacts in lowering the burdens caused in the life cycle of LOPCs. Incineration, which is not a technology used for destination of LOPCs in Brazil, proved to be a promising option when combined with recycling for treatment of this kind of waste. Combining different destinations is also a good option as long as economic, logistics and the environment are taken into consideration. The present paper concludes that emerging countries are able to manage hazardous waste provided that there is adequate legislation and political will along with cooperation from the private sector. This study can be helpful to the decision-making processes concerning hazardous waste, especially for industrial strategies and policy makers.

  17. Indigenous hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterioflora in oil-polluted habitats in Kuwait, two decades after the greatest man-made oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadhi, H; Al-Mailem, D; Dashti, N; Khanafer, M; Radwan, S

    2012-08-01

    Kuwaiti habitats with two-decade history of oil pollution were surveyed for their inhabitant oil-utilizing bacterioflora. Seawater samples from six sites along the Kuwaiti coasts of the Arabian Gulf and desert soil samples collected from seven sites all over the country harbored oil-utilizing bacteria whose numbers made up 0.0001-0.01% of the total, direct, microscopic counts. The indigenous bacterioflora in various sites were affiliated to many species. This was true when counting was made on nitrogen-containing and nitrogen-free media. Seawater samples harbored species belonging predominantly to the Gammaproteobacteria and desert soil samples contained predominantly Actinobacteria. Bacterial species that grew on the nitrogen-free medium and that represented a considerable proportion of the total in all individual bacterial consortia were diazotrophic. They gave positive acetylene-reduction test and possessed the nifH genes in their genomes. Individual representative species could utilize a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as sole sources of carbon and energy. Quantitative determination showed that the individual species consumed crude oil, n-octadecane and phenanthrene, in batch cultures. It was concluded that the indigenous microflora could be involved in bioremediation programs without bioaugmentation or nitrogen fertilization. Irrigation would be the most important practice in bioremediation of the polluted soil desert areas.

  18. Protein and Chlorophyll Contents of Solanum melongena on Diesel Oil Polluted Soil Amended with Nutrient Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Akujobi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the remediation effect of nutrient amendments of diesel oil polluted soil on protein and chlorophyll contents of eggplant (Solanum melongena. Soil samples were polluted and amended separately with different weights of poultry waste, pig waste, cow dung and inorganic fertilizer. Soil samples were also polluted with diesel oil without amendment to achieve 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% pollution. Samples were analyzed at two weeks interval for sixteen weeks. The plant protein and chlorophyll were affected adversely by the diesel oil pollution and the higher the level of pollution, the more the effect. The nutrient amendments were able to remedy the effect of the diesel oil pollution. The remediation effect was nutrient weight dependent and the best remediation effect was observed in poultry waste amended samples. This study has shown that diesel oil contaminated soil may have adverse effect on the protein and chlorophyll contents of plants, but this can be remedied by addition of organic nutrient supplements especially poultry waste.

  19. Application of oil spill model to marine pollution and risk control problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, Nikita; Agoshkov, Valery; Sheloput, Tatyana

    2017-04-01

    Oil transportation by sea induces challenging problems of environmental control. Millions of tonnes of oil are yearly released during routine ship operations, not to mention vast spills due to different accidents (e.g. tanker collisions, grounding, etc.). Oil pollution is dangerous to marine organisms such as plants, fish and mammals, leading to widespread damage to our planet. In turn, fishery and travel agencies can lose money and clients, and ship operators are obliged to pay huge penalties for environmental pollution. In this work we present the method of accessing oil pollution of marine environment using recently developed oil spill model. The model describes basic processes of the oil slick evolution: oil transport due to currents, drift under the action of wind, spreading on the surface, evaporation, emulsification and dispersion. Such parameters as slick location, mass, density of oil, water content, viscosity and density of "water-in-oil" emulsion can be calculated. We demonstrate how to apply the model to damage calculation problems using a concept of average damage to particular marine area. We also formulate the problem of oil spill risk control, when some accident parameters are not known, but their probability distribution is given. We propose a new algorithm to solve such problems and show results of our model simulations. The work can be interesting to broad environmental, physics and mathematics community. The work is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 16-31-00510.

  20. [Effects of Oil Pollutants on the Performance of Marine Benthonic Microbial Fuel Cells and Its Acceleration of Degradation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yao; Fu, Yu-bin; Liang, Sheng-kang; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhao-hui

    2015-08-01

    Degradation of oil pollutants under the sea is slow for its oxygen-free environment which has caused long-term harm to ocean environment. This paper attempts to accelerate the degradation of the sea oil pollutants through electro catalysis by using the principle of marine benthonic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs). The influence of oil pollutants on the battery performance is innovatively explored by comparing the marine benthonic microbial fuel cells ( BMFCs-A) containing oil and oil-free microbial fuel cells (BMFCs-B). The acceleration effect of BMFCs is investigated by the comparison between the oil-degrading rate and the number of heterotrophic bacteria of the BMFCs-A and BMFCs-B on their anodes. The results show that the exchange current densities in the anode of the BMFCs-A and BMFCs-B are 1. 37 x 10(-2) A x m(-2) and 1.50 x 10(-3) A x m(-2) respectively and the maximum output power densities are 105.79 mW x m(-2) and 83.60 mW x m(-2) respectively. The exchange current densities have increased 9 times and the maximum output power density increased 1. 27 times. The anti-polarization ability of BMFCs-A is improved. The heterotrophic bacteria numbers of BMFCs-A and BMFCs-C on their anodes are (66 +/- 3.61) x 10(7) CFU x g(-1) and (7.3 +/- 2.08) x 10(7) CFU x g(-1) respectively and the former total number has increased 8 times, which accelerates the oil-degrading rate. The degrading rate of the oil in the BMFCs-A is 18.7 times higher than that in its natural conditions. The BMFCs can improve its electrochemical performance, meanwhile, the degradation of oil pollutants can also be accelerated. A new model of the marine benthonic microbial fuel cells on its acceleration of oil degradation is proposed in this article.

  1. 76 FR 56294 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... of the direct final action (76 FR 41719) is effective as of September 13, 2011. ADDRESSES... in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...

  2. 77 FR 59338 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... withdrawal of the direct final action published August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50038) is effective as of September 27... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  3. 78 FR 57799 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National...: This withdrawal of the direct final action published July 24, 2013 (78 FR 44455), is effective as of....dante@epa.gov . List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  4. 76 FR 56362 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... Register. DATES: The proposed rule published on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41751) is withdrawn as of September 13... INFORMATION: List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  5. 78 FR 11589 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ..., potential adverse effects to the environment as a result of implementation of remedial activities at the... opportunity to comment. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  6. 75 FR 43115 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through the... partial deletion pertains to the soil and groundwater of parcels 24, 27, 28, 2-53, 2-53L, 2-54, 2-54L, 2...

  7. 76 FR 57661 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Texas 75202-2733; Hours of operation: Monday thru Friday, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. and 1 to 4 p.m. Contact...

  8. 76 FR 57702 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National..., Texas 75202-2733; Hours of operation: Monday thru Friday, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. and 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Contact...

  9. 77 FR 1085 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act Notice is hereby given that on December 21... Pollution Act, 33 U.S.C. 2710, et seq., which arose from an alleged August 2008 discharge, from a...

  10. 75 FR 33724 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...) Region 6 is publishing a direct final Notice of Deletion of the soils of Operable Unit 1 and the... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct final partial deletion is...

  11. Lotus corniculatus Crop Growth in Crude Oil Polluted Soil. Part1 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons Reduction of Polluted and Cultivated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of power plant fly ash, by its physical-chemical properties, can significantly change the characteristics of soils polluted with oil (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, TPH, in their rehabilitation process, if combined with biodegradable organic materials, wastes such as sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Maintaining vegetation on soils polluted with 80.5 ± 3.9 g·kg-1 D.M. of TPH under perennial regime specific to bird’s foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, demonstrates the tolerance of the plant to the created conditions by the treatment of polluted soil with adequate amounts of fertilizer and fly ash from burning coal in power stations. The addition of 50-500 g fly ash per vegetation pot equipped with crude oil polluted soil mixed with 250 g sewage sludge per pot has reduced the oil content in the soil, in two ways: on the one hand influenced by the state of development of plants and on the other hand by weather conditions (alternation of seasons. The amount of TPH lost during the 16 months of vegetation in soils polluted with 80.5±3.9 g·kg-1 D.M. was 73.3-77.5 g·kg-1 D.M.

  12. Trends in the International Regime of Liability and Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋荣

    2001-01-01

    Since the entry into force of the International Convention on liability and compensation for oil spill damage, there have been many discussions on the improvement of this regime. Based on the existing tworegimes, the writer tried to analysis the advantages of the new regimes and foresee the trends of the international regime of liability and compensation for oil pollution damage.

  13. Effect of Bonny Light Crude Oil Pollution of Soil on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    ABSTRACT: The effect of Bonny Light Crude oil pollution of soil and ... In the Control treatments, a declining trend in plant growth was observed from .... needed to accommodate 2 oil levels replicated 5 times. Fresh unweathered Bonny Light Crude (BLC) ... Mean * Plant Height (cm) at Different Successive Plantings.

  14. Sulfur containing air pollutants and their effects on plant metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, L.J.; Maas, F.M.; Stulen, I.; Kuiper, P.J.C.; Mathy, P.

    1988-01-01

    H2S and SO2 affected plant yield at relative low levels without causing visible injury. In general H2S was more toxic than SO2. Short-term exposure (24 to 48 h) of plants to the pollutants affected sulfur, nitrogen and energy metabolism. Both exposure of plants to H2S and SO2 resulted in an accumula

  15. Sulfur containing air pollutants and their effects on plant metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, L.J.; Maas, F.M.; Stulen, I.; Kuiper, P.J.C.; Mathy, P.

    1988-01-01

    H2S and SO2 affected plant yield at relative low levels without causing visible injury. In general H2S was more toxic than SO2. Short-term exposure (24 to 48 h) of plants to the pollutants affected sulfur, nitrogen and energy metabolism. Both exposure of plants to H2S and SO2 resulted in an

  16. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2) = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  17. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhai Zhu

    Full Text Available Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2 to 5.3 g m(-2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1 to 652 mg kg(-1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2 = 0.73 and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1. For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1 to 106.8 mg kg(-1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs, produced a prediction (R(2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1 similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  18. Soil TPH Concentration Estimation Using Vegetation Indices in an Oil Polluted Area of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m−2 to 5.3 g m−2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg−1 to 652 mg kg−1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg−1). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg−1 to 106.8 mg kg−1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg−1) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  19. 78 FR 11682 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Clean Water Act On... Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA''), 33 U.S.C. 2702(a), incurred by the United States Oil Spill Liability Trust... and July 1, 2007 discharge of approximately 2,145 barrels of crude oil, diesel fuel, and oily...

  20. The Agreement on Cooperation on Marine Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response in the Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Rise, Ingvild Hoel

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study of the establishment of an oil spill response regime in the Arctic region. The context is the work of the Arctic Council and the development of the Agreement on Cooperation on Marine Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response in the Arctic. Three research topics are studied; regime, response system and the role of politics and professions. The Arctic oil spill response agreement is outlined first, and the principles, norms, rules and decision making procedures...

  1. Beached bird surveys indicate decline in chronic oil pollution in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camphuysen, K.C.J. [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Texel (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Strandings of oiled seabirds have been a signal of the ongoing problem of chronic oil pollution in the North Sea since the beginning of the twentieth century. Overall numbers of beached birds are subject to enormous fluctuations, being the result, for example, of changes in the amount of oil spilled in the marine environment, currents, the frequency of onshore winds and variations in the numbers of seabirds in a given region. In contrast, oil rates, being the fraction of oiled birds of the total stranded, appeared to be relatively constant while specific for different species and regions. A power analysis of the results of beached bird surveys demonstrated the sensitivity of these data as a tool to monitor trends in oil rates of stranded birds. Rather subtle changes in oil rates could be demonstrated, indicating positive results of attempts to protect certain sea areas (e.g. the Wadden Sea) and a decline in oil rates over time. (author)

  2. Mangrove bacterial diversity and the impact of oil contamination revealed by pyrosequencing: bacterial proxies for oil pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Fragoso dos Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mangroves are transitional coastal ecosystems in tropical and sub-tropical regions and represent biologically important and productive ecosystems. Despite their great ecological and economic importance, mangroves are often situated in areas of high anthropogenic influence, being exposed to pollutants, such as those released by oil spills. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A microcosm experiment was conducted, which simulated an oil spill in previously pristine mangrove sediment. The effect of the oil spill on the extant microbial community was studied using direct pyrosequencing. Extensive bacterial diversity was observed in the pristine mangrove sediment, even after oil contamination. The number of different OTUs only detected in contaminated samples was significantly higher than the number of OTUs only detected in non-contaminated samples. The phylum Proteobacteria, in particular the classes Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, were prevalent before and after the simulated oil spill. On the other hand, the order Chromatiales and the genus Haliea decreased upon exposure to 2 and 5% oil, these are proposed as sensitive indicators of oil contamination. Three other genera, Marinobacterium, Marinobacter and Cycloclasticus increased their prevalence when confronted with oil. These groups are possible targets for the biomonitoring of the impact of oil in mangrove settings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest the use of sequences of the selected genera as proxies for oil pollution, using qPCR assessments. The quantification of these genera in distinct mangrove systems in relation to the local oil levels would permit the evaluation of the level of perturbance of mangroves, being useful in field monitoring. Considering the importance of mangroves to many other environments and the susceptibility of such areas to oil spills this manuscript will be of broad interest.

  3. Evaluating the biological activity of oil-polluted soils using a complex index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirov, R. R.; Kireeva, N. A.; Kabirov, T. R.; Dubovik, I. Ye.; Yakupova, A. B.; Safiullina, L. M.

    2012-02-01

    A complex index characterizing the biological activity of soils (BAS) is suggested. It is based on an estimate of the level of activity of catalase; the number of heterotrophic and hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms, microscopic fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria; and the degree of development of higher plants and insects in the studied soil. The data on using the BAS coefficient for evaluating the efficiency of rehabilitation measures for oil-polluted soils are given. Such measures included introducing the following biological preparations: Lenoil based on a natural consortium of microorganisms Bacillus brevis and Arthrobacter sp.; the Azolen biofertilizer with complex action based on Azotobacter vinelandii; the Belvitamil biopreparation, which is the active silt of pulp and paper production; and a ready-mixed industrial association of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that contains hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms of the Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Candida, Desulfovibrio, and Pseudomonas genera.

  4. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL POLLUTION ON SOIL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marinescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollution caused by crude oil is the most prevalent problem in the environment. The release of crude oil into theenvironment by oil spills is receiving worldwide attention. The effect of crude oil pollution on soil properties wasinvestigated by achieving a case study in Perisoru, Braila County. It has been achieved a profile until 120 cm and soilsamples were collected according to the methodology and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. In caseof physical analysis, the values obtained for granulometric fractions were not influenced by the presence of crude oil.Results obtained showed variation in chemical properties of soil. Organic carbon increased from 2.23% for anunpolluted soil to 5.51% in polluted soil. C/N ratios increased from 13.01 for an unpolluted soil to 20.54 in pollutedsoil. Mobile phosphorous and potassium registered in polluted soil similar values with the one characteristic forunpolluted soil. Crude oil at high pollution levels inhibited the growth of crops.

  5. The European and International legal framework on monitoring and response to oil pollution from ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Guido; Pavliha, Marko

    2010-03-01

    Oil spills cause damage to the marine environment. Such oil spills originate from land-based or sea-based sources. Sea-based sources are discharges coming from ships or offshore platforms. The origin of the pollution can be accidental or deliberate (defined also as operational). The European and international legislation in the field of monitoring and response to marine oil pollution is mainly based on the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as amended by the Protocol of 1978 thereto (MARPOL 73/78) and the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). To complete the international framework, and with specific reference for European Countries, also the recent European legislation is presented. Special attention is given to the prosecution of polluting vessels. The main legal problem is the coordination and integration of the two principles on jurisdiction which co-exist: the nationality of the ship and the geographical position of the ship.

  6. The Assessment of Oil Pollution in Seribu Islands Based on Remote Sensing and Numerical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Mutiara Rachmat; Setiawan, Agus; Pohlmann, Thomas; Mayer, Bernhard; Gade, Martin

    2016-08-01

    To improve the information on the state of the Indonesian marine environment that is gained from satellite data, the joint German-Indonesian Pilot Study IndoNACE (Indonesian seas Numerical Assessment of the Coastal Environment) aims at producing oil pollution density maps in Indonesian waters.One of the case study areas is Seribu Islands, located in the northern part of Jakarta Bay in the western Java Sea. Seribu Islands is part of several Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) that are vulnerable to oil pollution, since close to those MPAs a number of offshore oil platforms are located. Based on these conditions, and in order to trace both potential oil pollution sources and potential impacts on the environment, the assessment will be based on in-situ measurements and numerical models. This region is strongly influenced by the monsoon, with ocean currents generally flowing from north towards east during the west (winter) monsoon, and flowing westward during the east (summer) monsoon.

  7. Oil pollution and climate have wide-scale impacts on seabird demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votier, Stephen C; Hatchwell, Ben J; Beckerman, Andrew; McCleery, Robin H; Hunter, Fiona M; Pellatt, Jayne; Trinder, Mark; Birkhead, Tim R

    2005-11-01

    Oil spills often spell disaster for marine birds caught in slicks. However, the impact of oil pollution on seabird population parameters is poorly known because oil spills usually occur in wintering areas remote from breeding colonies where birds may be distributed over a wide area, and because it is difficult to separate the effects of oil pollution from the effect of natural environmental variation on seabird populations. Using a long-term data set we show that over-winter survival of adult common guillemots (Uria aalge) is negatively affected by both the incidence of four major oil-spills in their wintering grounds and high values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. After controlling for the effect of the NAO index, we show that winter mortality of adult guillemots is doubled by major oil pollution incidents. Our results demonstrate that oil pollution can have wide-scale impacts on marine ecosystems that can be quantified using populations of marked individuals to estimate survival.

  8. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and Paraffin from Polluted Seashores 9 Years after the Nakhodka Oil Spill in the Sea of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Pollution of petroleum hydrocarbons, in particular oil spills, has attracted much attention in the past and recent decades. Oil spills influence natural microbial community, and physical and chemical properties of the affected sites. The biodegradation of hydrocarbons by microorganisms is one of the primary ways by which oil spill is eliminated from contaminated sites. One such spill was that of the Russian tanker the Nakhodka that spilled heavy oil into the Sea of Japan on January 2, 1997. The impact of the Nakhodka oil spill resulted in a viscous sticky fluid fouling the shores and affected natural ecosystems. This paper describes the weathering of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (genus Pseudomonas) and crystallized organic compounds from the Nakhodka oil spill-polluted seashores after nine years. The Nakhodka oil has hardened and formed crust of crystalline paraffin wax as shown by XRD analysis (0.422, 0.377, and 0.250 nm d-spacing) in association with graphite and calcite after 9years of bioremediation. Anaerobic reverse side of the oil crust contained numerous coccus typed bacteria associated with halite. The finding of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and paraffin wax in the oil crust may have a significant effect on the weathering processes of the Nakhodka oil spill during the 9-year bioremediation.

  9. Study of sorption properties of lignin-derivatized fibrous coposites for the remediation of oil polluted receiving waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nenkova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption properties of lignin-wool composites towards oil pollution at different concentrations of the contamination were studied. The release ability of oil pollutant was studied by a gravimetric method and by determining the chemical oxygen demand of cleaned water. It has been established that technical hydrolysis lignin–wool composites display a low release ability of oil-based pollutants and a slow rate for achieving release equilibrium.

  10. Oil Spill Pollution Treatment by Sorption on Natural Cynanchum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    many different chemicals, consequently the effects of an oil spill on the ... the method is inexpensive while being efficicnt and .... laboratory experiments demonstrated that the ... base line over the scan range and measuring ... scans of standards to prepare a calibration curve as ..... oil absorption”, Advanced Materials from.

  11. Microwave remote sensing measurements of oil pollution on the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croswell, W. F.; Blume, H.-J. C.; Johnson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Microwave and optical remote sensors were flown over fresh and weathered crude oil released from a surface research vessel and also over a slick formed on the sea by frozen oleyl alcohol cubes released from a helicopter. For the crude oil experiments, microwave radiometric measurements at 1.43, 2.65, 22, and 31 GHz are reported, along with the variable incidence angle scattering measurements at 13.9 GHz. For these experiments, unusual depressions in the L-band brightness temperature were observed, possibly related to dispersants applied to the crude oil. Similar depressions, but with much larger values, were observed over the oleyl alcohol monomolecular slicks. Images obtained at 31 and 22 GHz were used to infer oil volume, yielding values which bound the known amounts spilled. Ku band measurements obtained in repeated passes over crude oil slicks are also discussed.

  12. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  13. Re-evaluating the use of beached bird oiling rates to assess long-term trends in chronic oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabina I; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre C; Tobin, Stan F; Elliot, Richard D

    2009-02-01

    The oiling rate (oiled birds/total birds) has become the international standard to analyze beached bird survey data. However, this index may not reliably track long-term changes in marine oil pollution in regions where other activities that kill seabirds vulnerable to oil, such as hunting and gill-netting, are also changing. We compare the oiling rate from beached bird surveys conducted in southeastern Newfoundland between 1984 and 2006 to an alternative approach, namely trends derived from a model examining the linear density of oiled birds (birds/km). In winter, there was no change in the oiling rate since 1984, while in summer oiling rates significantly increased. In contrast, the number of oiled birds/km showed a significant decline in both winter and summer. The discrepancy in these trends was attributed to steep declines in the number of unoiled birds found in both seasons. In winter, the decline in unoiled birds/km was related to a reduction in the legal murre hunt and less onshore winds, while in summer a reduced cod fishery resulting in fewer murres drowning in nets and warming summers may have lead to the decline. The significant declines in oiled birds/km over the past three decades are hopefully an indication of less oil being present in the marine environment. Although oiled bird densities since 2000 have remained relatively low for the region (winter: 0.58 birds/km, summer: 0.27 birds/km), they still exceed densities reported elsewhere in the world.

  14. Chromatium species: an emerging bioindicator of crude oil pollution of tidal mud flats in the Niger Delta mangrove ecosystem, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, J P; Antai, S P

    2009-06-01

    Establishing microbiological indices for the monitoring of environmental decay by crude oil pollution in the Niger Delta region has been a major concern of our current researches. Chromatium species, a purple, Gram positive pleomorphic, motile, microaerophlic sulfur bacterium offers a good potential for use in the assessment of the short term effects of oil pollution of tidal mud flats in the Niger Delta mangrove ecosystem. Its response to the November 22, 2003 spillage at the Qua Iboe Estuary and the adjoining Cross River Estuary was investigated. Our results have revealed that the sulphur bacterium is easily identified and widely distributed in the epipellic sediment of the mangrove ecosystem but very sensitive to hydrocarbon pollution. The bacterium was readily detected in the tidal mud flats containing as much as 2.0 mg kg(-1) but not detected in sediment with THC level of 3.65 mg kg(-1) and above. It is thus, suggestive that the threshold and lethal limits of effect of hydrocarbons against the sulfur bacterium lies between 2.04 and 3.65 mg kg(-1). These imply that in any case of crude oil pollution that Chromatium is not detected during monitoring the THC levels of the sediment may have been raised to a level close to or above 3.65 mg kg(-1). Statistical analysis of the relationship between THC level and density of Chromatium in sediment revealed a significant (p mangrove ecosystem as against an insignificant (p > 0.05) relationship (r = -0.41) recorded for the Cross River mangrove ecosystem which served as the control. The result indicates that oil pollution affect the homeostatic status of Chromatium in tidal mud flats despite its even distribution (R2 = 71.4%). The finding though not definitive may contribute to the hierarchical process of oil pollution assessment in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. However, its effective utilization will require not only the development of a selective medium for enumeration and isolation of the bacterium but also the

  15. Is the increase in oil pollution a possibility of the presence of diverse microorganisms? An experimental dataset on oil prevalent areas of Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahaysa N

    2016-12-01

    Survey data and wet lab reports presented in this paper were collected from Western coastlines of India from Goan beaches. Oil polluted areas were captured on camera as evidence for oil and tar pollution. Several microorganisms showing diverse characteristics such as pigment producers, salt tolerant and hydrocarbon resistance were isolated and cultured in the laboratory. The dataset presented in this paper supports "A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India)" (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2015) [1] and "Microbial diversity of oil spills and tar resistant bacteria isolated from beaches of Goa (India)" (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2016) [2].

  16. Is the increase in oil pollution a possibility of the presence of diverse microorganisms? An experimental dataset on oil prevalent areas of Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survey data and wet lab reports presented in this paper were collected from Western coastlines of India from Goan beaches. Oil polluted areas were captured on camera as evidence for oil and tar pollution. Several microorganisms showing diverse characteristics such as pigment producers, salt tolerant and hydrocarbon resistance were isolated and cultured in the laboratory. The dataset presented in this paper supports “A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India” (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2015 [1] and “Microbial diversity of oil spills and tar resistant bacteria isolated from beaches of Goa (India” (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2016 [2].

  17. Impact of oil pollution on the North-western coast of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksissou, M.

    2003-04-01

    The North-western coast of Morocco has approximately 160 km from Asila city while passing by the towns of Tangier, Fnideq, M'diq and Tetouan to Oued Laou and shelters wetlands (lake Smir.), beaches, cliffs and mountains. Investigations carried out in 2000-2001 in this zone show scattered beaches and wetlands (Smir lake, Maleh river) polluted by oil. These polluted beaches and coastal wetlands are generally close to Marina or fishing ports and to the residential areas. Cases of fish (Rays and other Chondrychtiens), tortoises (Caretta caretta) and dolphins dead have been noted in some of these beaches during spring and summer (2000-2001) most probably because of oil pollution. Increased dredging in beaches (Haouara, Martil...) involves the salinity of the ground water and the disturbance of the marine biodiversity. Some management (construction of Kabila marina and Smir dam) involved disturbance of hydrology (salinity increased) and biodiversity (migration of the Birds from Smir lake towards Smir dam) in Smir lake. This management, dredging, algae extraction and oil act on the coastal biodiversity and involve the deterioration of the natural environment. The beaches polluted by oil obstruct the tourism activity. Measurements of prevention (by prohibition to get rid of the motor oil and the washing of the boats on the open sea, construction of sewage stations and industrial water purification) are necessary for the conservation of biological diversity and the tourism development. The cleaning of the beaches polluted within the framework of the activities of the ONG or the local communities is also necessary. An integrated coastal zone management is necessary for the nature conservation and the sustainable development of the North Western of Morocco. Keywords: Oil pollution, Biodiversity, Coast, Morocco.

  18. Oil palm biomass-based adsorbents for the removal of water pollutants--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tanweer; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ghazali, Arniza; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah

    2011-07-01

    This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based activated carbons, have been reported in recent years. Studies have shown that oil palm-based adsorbent, among the low-cost adsorbents mentioned, is the most promising adsorbent for removing water pollutants. Further, these bioadsorbents can be chemically modified for better efficiency and can undergo multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at an industrial scale. It is evident from a literature survey of more than 100 recent papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants. The conclusion is been drawn from the reviewed literature, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  19. Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Michael Leonidovich; Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich; Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich; Smimova, Olga Alekseevna; Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich; Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan

    2008-08-26

    Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

  20. Bioremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Polluted Soil Using Microorganisms Found in Organic Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Okwute, Ojonoma L.; Ijah, Udeme J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of chicken droppings and cow dung in the amendment of soil polluted with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in bioremediation. Soil polluted with 20 % raw (POME) in the laboratory was amended with different concentrations of chicken droppings, cow dung and a combination of the wastes (10 %, 20 % and 30 %). Isolation, characterization and identification of microorganisms were carried out and compared over time with respect to the different concentrat...

  1. Pollution Response Plan for Oil and Hazardous Substances

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge (MVNWR) Oil and Hazardous Substances Response Plan sets forth procedures for the protection of fish and wildlife...

  2. The effect of oil pollution on marine mammals

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The disastrous effect of petroleum products on marine birds is well known. Hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, have perished because of man-made oil spills in...

  3. Microbial Remediation and Optimization of Oil Polluted Wetlands at Dalian Bay in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The wetland at Dalian Bay in the Northeast of China has been polluted by oil severely. The effect of various microbes and operation parameters on the bioremediation of oil-polluted wetlands at Dalian Bay was investigated and reported previously. In the study,other operation conditions related to the status of medium were investigated via statistical experimental design and analysis and a necessary information is involved to use micro-technology in the application.Methods The method used involved the direct inoculation of selected bacteria,which were capable of degrading oil. The operation conditions were further optimized and evaluated by gravimetrical assay.Results The optimal pH and temperature for the studied bacteria to degrade the existing oil pollutants were established as pH 8.0 and 27℃. The mixed of various bacteria showed better results in terms of oil degradation than any single one. Among the selected four factors,disturbance,oxidant,nutrients,and biosurfactant,the former two contributed more impacts on the oil degradation in the early stage of process,while the latter two became the limiting factors in the late stage. Three sets of optimal conditions were obtained for each individual stage,but no one was suitable for the overall process.Conclusion The study demonstrated the technical feasibility of using direct inoculation into the contaminated soil samples to remove oil pollutants. It suggested that the operation conditions should be monitored and adjusted during the different stages of bio-reactions in the process to achieve the best result of oil degradation.

  4. 77 FR 55861 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (“OPA”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA'') Notice is hereby given... and Section 48-1-90 of the South Carolina Pollution Control Act, S.C. Code Ann. Sec. 48-1-90. In their... sought damages in order to compensate for natural resources injured by the discharge of fuel oil from...

  5. A study of the effects of crude oil pollution and oil-degrading bacteria on some biochemical and growth factors of Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Keramat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria-Plant systems for bioremediation of oil polluted sites are one of the most effective approaches of biotechnology in the recent years. It is well known that oil pollution induces oxidative stress in plants. In this research, the effects of crude oil pollution on Zea mays and bioremediation by synergism between plant and crude oil degrading bacteria, four different treatments were designed. Some physiological and microbial factors were assayed for determining the effects of oil pollution. The results showed that 1% crude oil in soil shoot, dry weight was reduced and the amount of phenolic compounds increased. With crude oil and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium, shoot dry weight, chlorophyll (a, total chlorophyll and anthocyanins decreased wherase phenolic compounds, malodialdehyde and catalase enzyme activity increased. With 1% crude oil and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus bacterium, significant changes were seen in the parameters of growth. Photosynthetic pigment did not increase whereas anthocyanin, phenolic compounds, malodialdehyde and catalase activity increased. White Crude oil and the presence of both bacteria shoot dry weight and chlorophyll levels decreased and increased levels of anthocyanin and malon-dialdehyde were observed. Addition of oil to the soil, increased the numbers of crude oil degrading bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria but crude oil were removed from soil by biodegradation. By application of bacterial-plant systems in the field, industrial wastes from refinery and biochemical factories could be removed oppropriately.

  6. Removal of mineral oil and wastewater pollutants using hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANISLAV R. SIMONOVIĆ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of hard coal as an adsorbent for removal of mineral oil from wastewater. In order to determine the efficiency of hard coal as an adsorbent of mineral oil, process parameters such as sorption capacity (in static and dynamic conditions, temperature, pH, contact time, flow rate, and chemical pretreatment were evaluated in a series of batch and continuous flow experiments. There were significant differences in the mineral oil removal for various pH values examined. The adsorption of mineral oil increased as pH values diverged from 7 (neutral. At lower temperatures, the adsorption was notably higher. The wastewater flow rate was adjusted to achieve optimal water purification. Equilibrium was reached after 10 h in static conditions. At that time, more than 99% of mineral oil had been removed. At the beginning of the filtering process, the adsorption rate increased rapidly, only to show a minor decrease afterwards. Equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich models to determine the water-hard coal partitioning coefficient. Physical adsorption caused by properties of the compounds was the predominant mechanism in the removal process.

  7. State of oil pollution in the northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf oil spill

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Alagarsamy, R.

    Following the enormous oil spills resulting from the 1990-91 military conflict in the Gulf, fears were expressed concerning dissipation of oil from the Gulf into the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. To investigate contamination of the northern Arabian...

  8. On estimating the intensity of oil-pollution in the North-Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmers, R.

    1995-01-01

    In a project, commissioned by the North Sea Directorate, Ministry of Transport and Public Works (RWS), the problem is to estimate the intensity of oil pollution in the Dutch part of the North Sea. A planar inhomogeneous Poisson point process with an intensity function, which is parametrized by a fin

  9. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF AN EMULSIFIED HEAVY FUEL OIL IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of measuring emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion flue gases of a No. 6 fuel oil, both with and without an emulsifying agent, in a 2.5 million Btu/hr (732 kW) firetube boiler with the purpose of determining the impacts of the e...

  10. Influence of different biological factors on the character of biodegradation of oil pollution soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lifshits, S. H.; Chalaya, O. N.; Glaznetsova, Ju. S.; Zueva, I. N.; Лифшиц, С. Х.; Чалая, О. Н.; Глязнецова, Ю. С.; Зуева, И. Н.

    2012-01-01

    The results of laboratory and field experiments on remediation of oil pollution soils showed that for the effective restoration of soils it is possible to recommend performing works with the application of microorganism-plant complexes i.e. combining introduction into contaminated soil of hydrocarbon degradating bacteria with plant seeding.

  11. 76 FR 64245 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 RIN 2050-AG59 Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and...). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to amend the date by which farms must prepare or amend, and implement their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plans to...

  12. 75 FR 64321 - Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Pollution Research (ICCOPR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Interagency Committee is coordinating an update of the Technology Plan during the next two fiscal years. Tentative Meeting Agenda The agenda for the November 17, 2010 Committee meeting is as follows: (1) 9 a.m... Biennial Report The Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Pollution Research Biennial Report for...

  13. Assessment of the use of space technology in the monitoring of oil spills and ocean pollution: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, U. R. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The adequacy of current technology in terms of stage of maturity, of sensing, support systems, and information extraction was assessed relative to oil spills, waste pollution, and inputs to pollution trajectory models. Needs for advanced techniques are defined and the characteristics of a future satellite system are determined based on the requirements of U.S. agencies involved in pollution monitoring.

  14. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y. [City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2002-07-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. Status of oil pollution along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.; Chouksey, M.K.

    The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal have been estimated to annually receive around 5 x 10 sup(6) and 4 x 10 sup(5) t/y petroleum respectively from routine discharges from oil tankers and other ships plying the shipping lanes originating from...

  16. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  17. Multitaxon activity profiling reveals differential microbial response to reduced seawater pH and oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Cleary, Daniel F R; Costa, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Marina; Polónia, Ana R M; Silva, Artur M S; Simões, Mário M Q; Oliveira, Vanessa; Gomes, Newton C M

    2016-09-01

    There is growing concern that predicted changes to global ocean chemistry will interact with anthropogenic pollution to significantly alter marine microbial composition and function. However, knowledge of the compounding effects of climate change stressors and anthropogenic pollution is limited. Here, we used 16S and 18S rRNA (cDNA)-based activity profiling to investigate the differential responses of selected microbial taxa to ocean acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results revealed that a lower relative abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus clade) due to an adverse effect of seawater acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination (reduced pH-oil treatment) may be coupled to changes in sediment archaeal communities. In particular, we observed a pronounced compositional shift and marked reduction in the prevalence of otherwise abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal Marine Benthic Group B and Marine Hydrothermal Vent Group (MHVG) in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Conversely, the abundance of several putative hydrocarbonoclastic fungal OTUs was higher in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Sediment hydrocarbon profiling, furthermore, revealed higher concentrations of several alkanes in the reduced pH-oil treatment, corroborating the functional implications of the structural changes to microbial community composition. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of the response of a complex microbial community to the interaction between reduced pH and anthropogenic pollution. In future acidified marine environments, oil hydrocarbon contamination may alter the typical mixotrophic and k-/r-strategist composition of surface sediment microbiomes towards a more heterotrophic state with lower doubling rates, thereby impairing the ability of the ecosystem to recover from acute oil contamination events.

  18. Assessing pollution-related effects of oil spills from ships in the Chinese Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Guo, Mingxian; Wang, Yebao; Yu, Xiang; Guo, Jie; Tang, Cheng; Hu, Xiaoke; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Baoquan

    2016-09-15

    An analysis of the effects of potential oil spills will provide data in support of decisions related to improving the response to oil spills and its emergency management. We selected the Chinese Bohai Sea, especially the Bohai Strait, as our investigation region to provide an assessment of the effects of pollution from ship-related oil spills on adjacent coastal zones. Ship-related accidents are one of the major factors causing potential oil spills in this area. A three dimensional oil transport and transformation model was developed using the Estuary, Coastal, and Ocean Model. This proposed model was run 90 times and each run lasted for 15days to simulate the spread and weathering processes of oil for each of four potential spill sites, which represented potential sites of ship collisions along heavy traffic lanes in the Bohai Sea. Ten neighboring coastal areas were also considered as target zones that potentially could receive pollutants once oil spilled in the study areas. The statistical simulations showed that spills in winter were much worse than those in summer; they resulted in very negative effects on several specific target zones coded Z7, Z8, Z9, and Z10 in this paper. In addition, sites S3 (near the Penglai city) and S4 (near the Yantai city) were the two most at-risk sites with a significantly high probability of pollution if spills occurred nearby during winter. The results thus provided practical guidelines for local oil spill prevention, as well as an emergency preparedness and response program.

  19. Retardation of Listeria monocytogenes growth in mozzarella cheese using antimicrobial sachets containing rosemary oil and thyme oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung H; Patel, Dhaval; Kim, Jung Eun; Min, Sea C

    2014-11-01

    An antimicrobial sachet containing microcellular foam starch (MFS) with embedded rosemary oil and thyme oil was developed to reduce bacterial growth in shredded mozzarella cheese. The efficacy of the volatiles of oils at various concentrations in reducing Listeria monocytogenes as well as the release of the oils from the MFS have been also determined in this study. The cheese, inoculated with a cocktail of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes (approximately 3 log CFU/g), was packaged in a Nylon/EVOH/PE bag. A paper sachet containing MFS embedded with rosemary oil and thyme oil, separately or together, was inserted into the bag. Rosemary and thyme oil volatiles released from the sachet restricted the growth of L. monocytogenes, resulting in a 2.5 log CFU/g reduction on day 9 at 10 °C. The volatile oils also showed inhibitory effects on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and total aerobic bacteria (TAB). After 15 d at 10 °C, the numbers of LAB and TAB in the samples containing the sachet with both oils experienced a 1.2 and 1.4 log CFU/g reduction, respectively, compared to untreated samples. Nonetheless, the sachet treatment produced a distinct odor, unfavorably received by the panelists. The results suggest the potential for application of the sachet system for the reduction of growth of L. monocytogenes, LAB, and TAB in food products.

  20. Effects of mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) derived from cod liver oil on H295R steroidogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montano, M.; Zimmer, K.E.; Dahl, E.; Berge, V.; Olsaker, I.; Skaare, J.U.; Murk, A.J.; Ropstad, E.; Verhaegen, S.

    2011-01-01

    Crude cod liver oil and liver oil supplements are consumed as a source of vitamin A, D and polyunsaturated fatty acids; during winter and early pregnancy. Crude cod liver oil however constitutes a considerable source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This paper aimed at characterizing and qua

  1. Effects of mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) derived from cod liver oil on H295R steroidogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montano, M.; Zimmer, K.E.; Dahl, E.; Berge, V.; Olsaker, I.; Skaare, J.U.; Murk, A.J.; Ropstad, E.; Verhaegen, S.

    2011-01-01

    Crude cod liver oil and liver oil supplements are consumed as a source of vitamin A, D and polyunsaturated fatty acids; during winter and early pregnancy. Crude cod liver oil however constitutes a considerable source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This paper aimed at characterizing and qua

  2. Physical and nutritional properties of baby food containing added red salmon oil (Oncorhynchus nerka) and microencapsulated red salmon oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unpurified red salmon oil (UPSO) was purified (PSO) using chitosan. Both unpurified and purified oils were evaluated for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), moisture, and color. An emulsion system containing PSO (EPSO) was prepared: system was analyzed for c...

  3. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica.

  4. Dealing with pollution from conflict: Analysis of discourses around the 2006 Lebanon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshe, Aseel A; Huby, Meg; Frantzi, Sofia; Lovett, Jon C

    2010-01-01

    In July 2006 a war between Lebanon and Israel resulted in severe environmental damage in Lebanon from Israeli bombing raids. An attack on the Lebanese Jiyyeh Power Plant released 15,000 tons of heavy fuel oil into the Mediterranean Sea. Remarkably, a clean-up operation was effected despite a continued state of war and lack of capacity in the Lebanese government. Civil society environmentalists played a key role in dealing with the pollution and complying with pollution-control legislation. In this study we use Q-methodology to analyse discourses on the effectiveness of pollution legislation during times of conflict using the Jiyyeh oil spill as an example. We interviewed 35 people from eight different stakeholder groups involved in environmental issues. Five distinct discourses were generated covering compensation schemes, need for new legislation, role of stakeholders during wartime and strengthening government ministries.

  5. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Bacteria Isolated from Light Oil Polluted Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, T.; Suto, K.; Inoue, C.

    2007-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have polluted soil and groundwater widely and for long term because of their low solubility at normal temperature. Several microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas sp., Sphigomonas sp., a white-rot fungus and so on, being able to decompose PAHs, have been isolated and researched. This study reported to investigate biodegradation of low molecule PAH by isolated bacteria from light oil polluted soil. 12 isolates were obtained from a light oil polluted soil using naphthalene, fluorene and anthracene as sole carbon source, of which 4 isolates grew with naphthalene, 4 isolates did with fluorene and 4 isolates did with anthracene. Among them 3 isolates showed the ability to degrade phenanthrene additionally. These phenanthrene degradation and growth rates were almost same as that of S. yanoikuyae (DSM6900), which is the typical bacteria of PAHs degrader. Therefore, the isolate seemed to have an expectation for PAHs degradation.

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes in Plastic Resin Pellets as Markers of Oil Pollution via International Pellet Watch Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Bee Geok; Takada, Hideshige; Hosoda, Junki; Kondo, Atsuko; Yamashita, Rei; Saha, Mahua; Maes, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Oil pollution in the marine environment is an unavoidable problem due to chronic input from local sources, particularly in urban areas and oil spills. Oil pollution not only causes immediate physical damages to surrounding wildlife but also some components, including higher molecular weight PAHs, can persist in the environment for many years and pose insidious threats to the ecosystem. Long-term and nontargeted monitoring of oil pollution is important. This paper examines the ability of International Pellet Watch (IPW) for initial identification and monitoring of oil pollution by analysing PAHs and hopanes in plastic pellet samples collected globally by volunteers. PAH concentrations with the sum of 28 parent and methyl PAHs vary geographically, ranging from 0.035 to 24.4 µg/g-pellet, in line with the presence or absence of local oil pollution sources, such as oil refineries or oil spill sites. This suggests that PAHs can be used to monitor petroleum pollution in IPW. A colour-coded categorization for PAH concentrations within IPW monitoring also is established to facilitate data presentation and understanding. PAH concentrations are generally higher in Western Europe, especially around the North Sea shorelines, moderate in East Asia and North America, and lower in South East Asia, Oceania, South America, and Africa. Hopane concentrations, with a smaller spatial variation (1.7-101 µg/g-pellet), showed no spatial pattern. This result and the poor correlation between hopanes and PAHs suggest that hopane concentrations alone are unsuited to identify petroleum pollution. However, hopane compositions can be used for fingerprinting sources of oil pollution. Thus, both PAHs and hopanes in IPW allow for low cost, remote monitoring of global oil pollution.

  7. A robust sebum, oil, and particulate pollution model for assessing cleansing efficacy of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, G; Rapaka, S; Koski, N; Kearney, M; Ortblad, K; Tadlock, L

    2017-06-01

    With increasing concerns over the rise of atmospheric particulate pollution globally and its impact on systemic health and skin ageing, we have developed a pollution model to mimic particulate matter trapped in sebum and oils creating a robust (difficult to remove) surrogate for dirty, polluted skin. To evaluate the cleansing efficacy/protective effect of a sonic brush vs. manual cleansing against particulate pollution (trapped in grease/oil typical of human sebum). The pollution model (Sebollution; sebum pollution model; SPM) consists of atmospheric particulate matter/pollution combined with grease/oils typical of human sebum. Twenty subjects between the ages of 18-65 were enrolled in a single-centre, cleansing study comparisons between the sonic cleansing brush (normal speed) compared to manual cleansing. Equal amount of SPM was applied to the centre of each cheek (left and right). Method of cleansing (sonic vs. manual) was randomized to the side of the face (left or right) for each subject. Each side was cleansed for five-seconds using the sonic cleansing device with sensitive brush head or manually, using equal amounts of water and a gel cleanser. Photographs (VISIA-CR, Canfield Imaging, NJ, USA) were taken at baseline (before application of the SPM), after application of SPM (pre-cleansing), and following cleansing. Image analysis (ImageJ, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA) was used to quantify colour intensity (amount of particulate pollutants on the skin) using a scale of 0 to 255 (0 = all black pixels; 255 = all white pixels). Differences between the baseline and post-cleansing values (pixels) are reported as the amount of SPM remaining following each method of cleansing. Using a robust cleansing protocol to assess removal of pollutants (SPM; atmospheric particulate matter trapped in grease/oil), the sonic brush removed significantly more SPM than manual cleansing (P pollution method easily allows assessment of efficacy through image analysis. © 2016 The Authors

  8. Oil Shale Core Holes Containing Nahcolite in the State of Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains points that describe locations of oil shale core holes that contain nahcolite in the state of Colorado and is available as an ESRI shapefile,...

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-60 - Systems containing oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operating rods. (e) Fuel oil tanks overhanging boilers are prohibited. (f) Valves for drawing fuel or... is of steel construction, all welded, and not concealed. (d) Piping subject to internal head pressure... installed on the outside of the oil tanks must be made of steel, ductile cast iron ASTM A 395...

  10. Legitimacy in Green: Pollution vs. Profit in Canadian Oil Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Magness

    2007-06-01

    light of changing societal expectations have created an external environment that encourages the development of new technologies that promote cost efficiencies and good environmental performance simultaneously.  Russo and Fouts (1997 argued that industries subject to rapid technological advance are well suited to respond to these changes in the external environment. The findings of this paper suggest that the petroleum refinery sector of the oil and gas industry may be meeting the challenge of the environmental movement.

  11. Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

    2013-11-30

    Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk.

  12. Effectiveness of a model constructed wetland system containing Cyperus papyrus in degrading diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbowo, Danni Gathot; Choesin, Devi Nandita

    2014-03-01

    Synergism between wetland systems and the provision of degrading bacterial inoculum is now being developed for the recovery of areas polluted waters of pollutants. In connection with the frequent cases of diesel oil pollution in the waters of Indonesia, we need a way of water treatment as an efficient. In this study conducted a series of tests to develop an construcred wetland design that can effectively degrade diesel oil. Tested five systems: blanko (A), substrated, without bacterial inoculums, and vegetation (B); with the addition of inoculum (C); subsrated and vegetated (D); substrated and vegetated with the addition of inoculum (E). Vegetation used in this study is Cyperus papyrus because it has the ability to absorb pollutants. Inoculum used was Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes which is a bacteria degrading organic compounds commonly found in water. To measure the effectiveness of the system, use several indicators to see the degradation of pollutants, namely changes in viscosity, surface tension of pollutants, and the emergence of compound degradation. Based on the results of the study can be determined that the substrated and vegetated system with Cyperus papyrus inoculum (E) was considered the most capable of degrading diesel oil due to the large changes in all parameters. In the system E, 40.6% increase viscosity, surface tension decreased 32.7%, the appearance of degradation compounds with relatively 3614.7 points, and increased to 227.8% TDS. In addition the environmental conditions in the system E also supports the growth of vegetation and degrading microbes.

  13. The 2010 Oil Spill: Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill leaked an estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico , damaging the waters, shores, and...The NRDA process for the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico will be conducted pursuant to OPA. Accordingly, this report will only address that...water), soil, sediment, ocean bottom, biota (including bird, fish, and invertebrates), and habitat (for example, marshes, mangroves , mudflats, and

  14. Argan oil-contained antioxidants for human mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Luis C; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Venegas, Carmen; García-Corzo, Laura; Luna-Sánchez, Marta; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; Escames, Germaine

    2013-01-01

    The powerful antioxidant capacity of virgin argan oil is attributed to its content of antioxidant molecules. Recent investigations have identified CoQ10 and melatonin as some of these antioxidant molecules. In this review, we summarize the most recent data about the content of CoQ10 and melatonin in virgin argan oil and the differences found in samples extracted by the traditional and half-industrialized methods. We also emphasize the importance of these two molecules for human health, focusing on their actions in mitochondria. Finally, we refer to other abundant antioxidants in virgin argan oil: tocopherols and polyphenols.

  15. Biodegradation of crude petroleum oil and environmental pollutants by Candida tropicalis strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha Farag

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A local yeast isolate named A was isolated from polluted area of Abou-Qir gulf (Alexandria, Egypt, identified according to a partial sequence of 18sRNA as Candida tropicalis. The isolate showed a high potency in petroleum oil biodegradation as well some hydrocarbons. Morphological changes in cell diameter of this yeast were recognized upon growing the target cell in sea water medium supplemented with petroleum oil as sole carbon source in comparison to the growth in enriched medium. Statistically-based experimental design was applied to evaluate the significance of factors on petroleum oil biodegradation by this yeast isolate. Eleven culture conditions were examined by implementing Plackett-Burman factorial design where aeration, NH4Cl and K2HPO4 had the most positive significance on oil degradation.

  16. Servey of the oil and gas pollutant impacts on the human and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Dobaradaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil has vital importance in many industries and is the main source of energy internationally it supplies 32% of energy in Europe and Asia and more than 53% in Middle East. The most volume of oil industry products includes fuel oil and gasoline (diesel. Oil is used as the basic material in producing chemical products such as medicines, solvents, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and etc. Considering the importance of petroleum industry in the world we should not ignore its harms to humans and the environment and should look for solutions to reduce them. Nowaday petroleum refineries emit million pounds of air pollutants that pose a serious risk of harm to human health and the environment as well as impairs the life quality of the people that living nearby these industries. These pollutants consist of volatile organic compounds, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, CO, H2S and HAPs. These pollutants have different adverse impacts on different parts of ecosystem, environment and animals. So this paper deals with some of these problems.

  17. Measurement of light polarization characteristics from an oil-polluted soil surface in near-infrared bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan; SHENG LianXi; LIKe; ZHAO NaiZhuo; ZHAO YunSheng

    2009-01-01

    Oil pollution can be monitored by infrared remote sensing technology. In this work, the degree of pola-rization (DOP) was established as a quantitative index of oil pollution. The crude oil and the local typical surface soil from the Songyuan oil field in Jilin province were collected. Some soil samples with four levels of oil content and three levels of water content were prepared and measured. The DOP of the polluted soil and the clean soil in the field was also measured at 180° relative viewing azimuth angle, and 10°, 30° and 50° viewing zenith angles. It was found that with rising soil oil content, the DOP of the reflected light on the soil surface increased when the soil water content was low, and decreased when the soil water content was high.

  18. High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Peter M.; Brown, Steven S.; Roberts, James M.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Banta, Robert M.; Degouw, Joost A.; Dubé, William P.; Field, Robert A.; Flynn, James H.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Graus, Martin; Helmig, Detlev; Koss, Abigail; Langford, Andrew O.; Lefer, Barry L.; Lerner, Brian M.; Li, Rui; Li, Shao-Meng; McKeen, Stuart A.; Murphy, Shane M.; Parrish, David D.; Senff, Christoph J.; Soltis, Jeffrey; Stutz, Jochen; Sweeney, Colm; Thompson, Chelsea R.; Trainer, Michael K.; Tsai, Catalina; Veres, Patrick R.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Warneke, Carsten; Wild, Robert J.; Young, Cora J.; Yuan, Bin; Zamora, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts

  19. High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Peter M; Brown, Steven S; Roberts, James M; Ahmadov, Ravan; Banta, Robert M; deGouw, Joost A; Dubé, William P; Field, Robert A; Flynn, James H; Gilman, Jessica B; Graus, Martin; Helmig, Detlev; Koss, Abigail; Langford, Andrew O; Lefer, Barry L; Lerner, Brian M; Li, Rui; Li, Shao-Meng; McKeen, Stuart A; Murphy, Shane M; Parrish, David D; Senff, Christoph J; Soltis, Jeffrey; Stutz, Jochen; Sweeney, Colm; Thompson, Chelsea R; Trainer, Michael K; Tsai, Catalina; Veres, Patrick R; Washenfelder, Rebecca A; Warneke, Carsten; Wild, Robert J; Young, Cora J; Yuan, Bin; Zamora, Robert

    2014-10-16

    The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts

  20. Laboratory-based experiments to investigate the impact of glyphosate-containing herbicide on pollution attenuation and biodegradation in a model pervious paving system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanaso, F U; Coupe, S J; Charlesworth, S M; Nnadi, E O

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to determine the effect of glyphosate-containing herbicides (GCHs) on the hydrocarbon retention and biodegradation processes known to occur in pervious pavement systems (PPSs). The PPS test rigs were based on the four-layered design detailed in CIRIA C582. This enabled the pollutant retention capacity of the PPS and biodegradation of retained pollutants by microorganisms to be investigated. The use of test rigs also enabled the impact of GCH on PPS eukaryotic organisms to be studied, by the monitoring of protist bioindicators. Results showed that GCH disrupted hydrocarbon retention by the geotextiles relative to rigs with mineral oil only added, as 9.3% and 24.5% of added hydrocarbon were found in herbicide only rigs and herbicide plus oil rigs respectively. In previous studies, PPS contaminated by mineral oil had been shown to retain 98.7% of added oils and over several weeks, biodegrade this oil in situ. Where GCH was added to experimental models, much higher concentrations of heavy metals, including Pb, Cu, and Zn, were released from the PPS in effluent, particularly where GCH and mineral oil were added together. The source of the majority of the metal contamination was thought to be the used engine oil. The herbicide generally increased the total activity of microbial communities in rig systems and had a stimulating effect on bacterial and fungal population numbers. Although the protists, which are part of the microbial community directly or indirectly responsible for biodegradation, were initially strongly affected by the herbicide, they showed resilience by quickly recovering and increasing their population compared with rigs without added herbicide, including the rigs with mineral oil added to them. However, the presence of herbicide was associated with a decrease in the species richness of recorded protist taxa and a predominance of robust, cosmopolitan or ubiquitous protist genera.

  1. The influence of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 on structural design and economics of oil tankers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Yousif Ibrahim

    Scope and method of study. Since the discovery of oil in 1859, the transportation of oil and oil products has always been associated with accidents and groundings of the tanker carriers. During the past 25 years, the United States and other nations have become increasingly concerned about oil spills associated with waterborne transportation of oil. Legislative initiatives aimed at reducing oil spills have evolved slowly in direct response to tanker accidents that took place over the years. For the most part, legislation prior to 1990 had been developed under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization. However, the U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA90) was a major departure from the international effort to address the shortcomings in tanker design and operation. In mandating a requirement to change from single-hull to double-hull designs, the United States acted unilaterally. Section 4115 of OPA90 excludes single-hull tankers of 5000 gross tons or more from U.S. waters after the period 2010--2015. This study reviewed and analyzed the history of oil spills and the effectiveness of oil spill regulations. Findings and conclusions. An economic analysis which included costs, risks, and benefits of double-hull technology has proved that the increase in capital and operational costs of double-hull tankers is higher than the expected benefits of reducing oil spills if an accident were to occur. OPA90 and Regulations 13F and 13G, which may be viewed as political mandates, have forced the shipbuilding industry to drastically change its standard for the design of oil tankers from single- to double-hull tankers without giving the industry any clear design guidelines or proven standards. It is a prime example of political expediency taking over the economic and technical factors needed for any new design to be successful and economically feasible. As a general rule of thumb, any new design takes from 15 to 20 years to become mature, error-free, and ready to be

  2. A preliminary spatial assessment of risk: Marine birds and chronic oil pollution on Canada's Pacific coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C H; O'Hara, P D; Bertazzon, S; Morgan, K; Underwood, F E; Paquet, P C

    2016-12-15

    Chronic oil pollution poses substantial risks to marine birds and other marine wildlife worldwide. On Canada's Pacific coast, the negative ecological consequences to marine birds and marine ecosystems in general remain poorly understood. Using information relating to oil spill probability of occurrence, areas of overall importance to marine birds, and the at-sea distribution and density of 12 marine bird species and seven bird groups, including multiple Species at Risk, we undertook a spatial assessment of risk. Our results identify two main areas important to marine birds potentially at higher risk of exposure to oil. For individual bird species or species groups, those predicted to have elevated bird densities near the mainland and the northeast coast of Vancouver Island were identified as being at higher potential risk of exposure. Our results, however, should be considered preliminary. As with other anthropogenic stressors, in order to better understand and subsequently mitigate the consequences of chronic oil pollution on marine birds, improved information relating to marine birds and the occurrence of oil spills on Canada's Pacific coast is needed.

  3. Repellency of aerosol and cream products containing fennel oil to mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Yang, Young-Cheol; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-11-01

    The repellency of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller)-containing products (5% aerosol and 8% cream) against mosquitoes was compared with those of citronella oil, geranium oil and deet, as well as three commercial repellents, Baby Keeper cream containing IR3535, MeiMei cream containing citronella and geranium oils, and Repellan S aerosol containing 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory study with female Aedes aegypti (L), fennel oil exhibited good repellency in a release-in-cage test and repellency in skin and patch tests of the oil was comparable with those of citronella and geranium oils. In paddy field tests with five human volunteers, 5% and 8% fennel oil-containing aerosol and cream produced 84% and 70% repellency, respectively, at 90 min after exposure, whereas Baby Keeper cream and MeiMei cream gave 71% and 57% repellency at 90 min after exposure, respectively, and Repellan S aerosol gave 89% repellency at 210 min. The species and ratio of mosquitoes collected were the genera Culex (44.1%), Anopheles (42.2%), Aedes (7.8%) and Armigeres (5.9%). Fennel oil-containing products could be useful for protection from humans and domestic animals from vector-borne diseases and nuisance caused by mosquitoes.

  4. Oil Pollution Of The Southeastern Baltic Sea By Satellite Remote Sensing Data And In-Situ Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulycheva Elena V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of operational satellite monitoring of oil pollution of the sea surface together with in-situ measurements of the oil products concentration in the water column for the first time allowed to establish relation between the surface pollution originated from ships, and the general characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution of oil products in the water column in the Southeastern Baltic Sea. Areas with heightened concentrations of oil products in the surface and bottom layers were determined for the study area. The main directions of the contamination propagation are agreed with the main direction of annual mean transport of substances in the Gdansk Basin.

  5. Responses of bacterial and archaeal communities to nitrate stimulation after oil pollution in mangrove sediment revealed by Illumina sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Xu; Zheng, Tian-Ling

    2016-08-15

    This study aimed to investigate microbial responses to nitrate stimulation in oiled mangrove mesocosm. Both supplementary oil and nitrate changed the water and sediment chemical properties contributing to the shift of microbial communities. Denitrifying genes nirS and nirK were increased several times by the interaction of oil spiking and nitrate addition. Bacterial chao1 was reduced by oil spiking and further by nitrate stimulation, whereas archaeal chao1 was only inhibited by oil pollution on early time. Sampling depth explained most of variation and significantly impacted bacterial and archaeal communities, while oil pollution only significantly impacted bacterial communities (pmangrove. The findings demonstrate the impacts of environmental factors and their interactions in shaping microbial communities during nitrate stimulation. Our study suggests introducing genera Desulfotignum and Marinobacter into oiled mangrove for bioaugmentation.

  6. Nanostructured systems containing an essential oil: protection against volatilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cramer Flores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of preparing nanocapsules and nanoemulsions using tea tree oil as oily phase aiming to protect its volatilization. The nanostructures presented nanometric mean size (160-220 nm with a polydispersity index below 0.25 and negative zeta potential. The pH values were 6.43 ± 0.37 and 5.98 ± 0.00 for nanoemulsions and nanocapsules, respectively. The oil content after preparation was 96%. The inclusion of tea tree oil in nanocapsules showed higher protection against volatilization. The analysis of mean size and polydispersity index of formulations presented no significant alteration during the storage time.

  7. Removal of Oil and Grease as Emerging Pollutants of Concern (EPC in Wastewater Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alade Abass O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater characteristics, which depend on wastewater source, are increasingly becoming more toxic in recent times. The concentrations of oil and grease in wastewater streams have been observed to increase in wastewater stream with increasing adverse effects on the ecology. This results from the increasing use of oil and grease in high-demanded oil-processed foods, establishment and expansion of oil mills and refineries worldwide, as well as indiscriminate discharge of oil and grease into the water drains, domestically and industrially. This study reports the applications, efficiencies and challenges of the wastewater treatment techniques currently employed in the removal of oil and grease from the industrial wastewater and municipal water stream. The results shows that the concentrations of oil and grease injected into the ecosystem are of higher environmental impact and this needs to be given the desired attention. The desired development for effective removal of oil and grease as emerging pollutants of concern (EPC in wastewater stream are thus proposed. ABSTRAK: Ciri-ciri air sisa, bergantung kepada punca air sisa tersebut, menjadi semakin toksik akhir-akhir ini. Kepekatan minyak dan gris dalam air sisa anak sungai dilihat makin bertambah dalam air sisa anak sungai dengan bertambahnya kesan negatif ke atas ekologi. Ini disebabkan oleh peningkatan penggunaan minyak dan gris dalam makanan berproses yang tinggi permintaannya, penubuhan dan perkembangan kilang pertroleum dan loji penapisan di seluruh dunia. Minyak dan gris juga dibuang sewenang-wenangnya ke dalam parit air, dari kalangan domestik dan industry. Kajian ini membentangkan tentang aplikasi, keberkesanan dan teknik cabaran rawatan air buangan yang kini digunakan dalam pembuangan minyak dan gris dari air sisa industry dan air sungai perbandaran. Keputusan menunjukkan kepekatan minyak dan gris yang wujud dibuang ke dalam ekosistem mempunyai impak yang lebih tinggi terhadap persekitaran

  8. Decreasing emission factor of pollutants in an oil refinery by renovating the furnace design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zabihi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The significant consumption of gas in the World results in the emission of greenhouse gases into atmosphere. Abadan refinery has always been the biggest and oldest oil refinery in the Middle East and has a variety of refined products. After six months of collecting data about pollutant concentration emitted from a stack of old furnaces of units 75 and new unit 200, the emission factor of the pollutant was calculated. The result showed that the emission factor of some hazardous pollutants emitted from old unit 75 was tremendously higher than that of unit 200. This study suggests the installation of a forced fan to provide the excess air and a feed temperature controlling system to control fuel gas consumption. These would make the fuel combustion complete and decrease its consumption. Meanwhile, further results showed that the renovation of unit 75 could lead to a significant annual reduction of some pollutants such as CO, H2S, and CxHx to 66 ton, 3 ton, and 800 kg, respectively; this would increase the emission rate of pollutant SO2 up to 150 ton annually. Finally, the new data of pollution coming from unit 75 were compared to pollution standard at American refineries. Results showed that the emission factor of most pollutants were below the American standard limits. However, the emission factor of sulfur dioxide emitted from upgraded furnace of unit 75 surpassed the American standard values. Fuel gas needs to be free of hydrogen sulfide in order to decrease SO2 emission in unit 75. It is predicted that the renovation of other 11 old furnaces belonging to Abadan refinery will result in significant decrease of pollutants CO, CxHx and H2S up to 320, 94 and 76 ton annually.

  9. The formation of the marine oil pollution regime: A case of institutional bargaining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkdull, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    International cooperation to control oil pollution has caused a significant reduction in the amount of oil from ships entering the marine environment. The dissertation employs this case to assess the viability of three models of international regime formation: hegemonic stability, epistemic community, and institutional bargaining. Did a predominant actor coerce the international community into achieving solutions to the marine oil pollution problem Did a community of scientists and technical experts create and disseminate a causal framework which became the basis for measures to protect the oceans Were there factors specific to the issue area - low information, high uncertainty, shocks, salient solutions to the problem - which made bargaining an agreement more likely The dissertation concludes that the best fit is the institutional bargaining model, which focuses on context, situation, and the particular features of the issue area. Low levels of information; high uncertainty; the existance of clear, salient technological remedies; the feasibility of enforcement; and the attention to the issue created by oil spills combined to create a productive bargaining environment for the creation of a new international organization. Documents were examined relating to the bargaining process which produced the major treaties governing oil pollution from ships. The study argues that international relations is marked by considerable accomodation, adjustment, bargaining, cooperation, and mutual problem solving - and this is the normal state of affairs in international relations. Contrary to the epistemic community model, new knowledge played little part in the formation of the regime; popular outcry and the attention of elected officials were more important. The study points to the need for research on the significance of popular forces in the development of international environmental policy, and for research on the process of foreign environmental policy making.

  10. An assessment of oil pollution in the coastal zone of patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendatore, Marta Graciela; Esteves, José Luis

    2007-11-01

    The Patagonian coast is considered a relatively pristine environment. However, studies conducted along coastal Patagonia have showed hydrocarbon pollution mostly concentrated at ports that have fishing, oil loading, general merchant, and/or tourist activities. A high value of total aliphatic hydrocarbons (TAH) was found at the Rawson fishing port (741 microg/g dw). In other ports with and without petroleum-related activities, hydrocarbon values were approximately 100 microg/g dw. The highest values for TAH and total aromatic hydrocarbons (TArH) were found in Faro Aristizábal, north of San Jorge gulf (1304 and 737 microg/g dw, respectively). This is very likely the result of petroleum-related activities at the Comodoro Rivadavia, Caleta Cordova, and Caleta Olivia ports located within this gulf. In other coastal areas away from potential anthropogenic sources, hydrocarbon values were less than 2 and 3 microg/g dw for TAH and TArH, respectively. This review of published and unpublished information suggests that ports are important oil pollution sources in the Patagonian coast. More detailed studies are needed to evaluate the area affected by port activities, to understand the mechanisms of hydrocarbon distribution in surrounding environments, and to assess bioaccumulation in marine organisms. Despite that some regulations exist to control oil pollution derived from port and docked vessel activities, new and stricter management guidelines should be implemented.

  11. Petroleum oil and mercury pollution from shipwrecks in Norwegian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Kuria; Beylich, Björnar A; Staalstrøm, André; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Berge, John A; Braaten, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg; Schaanning, Morten; Bergstrøm, Rune

    2017-03-28

    Worldwide there are tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks lying on the coastal seabed. These potentially polluting wrecks (PPW) are estimated to hold 3-25milliont of oil. Other hazardous cargo in PPW includes ordnance, chemicals and radioactive waste. Here, we present and discuss studies on mercury (Hg) and oil pollution in coastal marine sediment caused by two of the >2100 documented PPW in Norwegian marine waters. The German World War II (WWII) submarine (U-864) lies at about 150m below the sea surface, near the Norwegian North Sea island of Fedje. The submarine is estimated to have been carrying 67t of elemental Hg, some of which has leaked on to surrounding sediment. The total Hg concentration in bottom surface sediment within a 200m radius of the wreckage decreases from 100g/kgd.w. at the wreckage hotspot to about 1mg/kgd.w. at 100m from the hotspot. The second wreck is a German WWII cargo ship (Nordvard), that lies at a depth of ca. 30m near the Norwegian harbor of Moss. Oil leakage from Nordvard has contaminated the bottom coastal sediment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The findings from this study provide useful insight to coastal administration authorities involved in assessing and remediating wreck-borne pollution from any of the tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks.

  12. Formulation and stability of topical water in oil emulsion containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate the water in oil (W/O) emulsion of corn silk (CS) extract and to evaluate its ... physical stability of the formulation was evaluated by monitoring these parameters over a period .... level of significance adopted was p < 0.05.

  13. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    stability than their respective control TAG blends. However, they had a significantly less salty and buttery flavour, which was ascribed to a much smaller water droplet size causing a delayed sensory perception in the mouth. The butter blend with DAG oil from rapeseed had a very neutral flavour...

  14. [Adaptability of Helianthus annuus seedlings to crude oil pollution in soil and its improvement measures under salinization stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-lei; Ci, Hua-cong; He, Xing-dong; Liang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Xuan; Sun, Hui-ting; Xie, Hong-tao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the adaptability of plant under salt stress to crude oil pollution of soil and improvement measures, a pot experiment of Helianthus annuus seedlings was conducted using orthogonal experiment method with crude oil-sodium chloride-desulfurization gypsum and cinder-zeolite-desulfurization gypsum-sawdust. The results showed that, with the increase of soil crude oil concentration, the relative growth rate (RGR) of plant height, RGR of aboveground biomass and root N: P ratios of H. annuus seedlings decreased significantly, while the activity of SOD and CAT increased at first and then decreased significantly. The RGR of plant height and aboveground biomass significantly increased (P cinder, zeolite, desulfurization gypsum under salinization condition. The crude oil pollution of soil could decrease the relative growth rate of H. annuus seedling, and sawdust could reduce the influence of crude oil pollution on plant growth under salt stress.

  15. Mercury Pollution Control Technology of Mercury Containing Equipment%含汞设备汞污染控制技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛瑞; 蒋洪; 陈倩

    2016-01-01

    Mercury pollutants in natural gas not only cause pollution and corrosion of equip-ment, the impact of production efficiency, but also on the human body and the environ-ment there is a definite harm. Equipment of mercury exists mainly in the form of elemental mercury, particle size, adsorption and permeation on the inner wall of the equipment, or with the oil, furring together adhesion on the inner wall. Mercury will cause corrosion to equipment, especially for aluminum equipment. This paper summarizes the general methods of domestic and foreign experience and metal cleaning,proposed containing mercury remov-al methods including artificial jet cleaning method,the steam cleaning method,cyclic chem-ical cleaning method. According to the device type and mercury pollution degree, choose suitable mercury cleaning method, and puts forward equipment for mercury technical re-quirements, of containing mercury pollution control, Recommended when mercury envi-ronment homework allows contact concentration (the PEL) for 20 μg/m3. At run time, mercury containing equipment should be timely detection and cleaning,in order to avoid the harm from mercury.%天然气中的汞不仅对设备造成污染和腐蚀,而且对人体及环境都有一定的危害。设备内的汞主要以单质汞的形式存在,颗粒大小不一,吸附渗透在设备内壁或与油污、水垢等一起黏附在内壁上。汞会对设备造成腐蚀,尤其是铝制设备。归纳并综合国内外经验和金属清洗的一般方法,提出了含汞设备的汞清除方法,包括人工喷射清洗法、蒸汽清洗法、循环化学清洗法等,根据设备类型和汞污染程度选择合适的清汞方法;提出了设备清汞的技术要求,推荐含汞环境作业时的允许接触浓度(PEL)为20μg/m3。含汞设备在运行时应及时检测汞含量,定期清汞,以避免汞带来的危害。

  16. Airborne mercury pollution from a large oil spill accident on the west coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yim, Un-Hyuk; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2009-05-15

    Atmospheric mercury pollution was recognized after a large oil spill on the west coast of Korea on 7 December 2007. In this study, the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM: Hg(0)) in air were measured both shortly after the oil spill ( approximately 100h) and 1month after the accident near the accident site. When the Hg concentration levels were compared between two seashore sites and two parallel sites offshore, the values tend to decrease further offshore. The unusual rise in Hg concentration levels observed on the seashore area shortly after the accident (mean of 16.4+/-9.85ngm(-3)) dropped dramatically after 1month with active cleanup activities (2.99+/-1.40ngm(-3)). Because of the connection between crude oil and Hg (one of the major impurities), the unusual rise in the atmospheric Hg after the oil spill can be explained by the active evasion of Hg from the spilled crude oil. Although Hg levels determined a few days after the accident did not exceed the reference exposure limits (REL) proposed by several agencies, the early build-up of elemental mercury level due to the oil spill might have exerted certain impacts on the surrounding environments.

  17. Fifteen-year trends in criteria air pollutants in oil sands communities of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of ambient air quality was undertaken at three communities within the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada (Fort McKay, Fort McMurray, and Fort Chipewyan). Daily and seasonal patterns and 15-year trends were investigated for several criteria air pollutants over the period of 1998 to 2012. A parametric trend detection method using percentiles from frequency distributions of 1h concentrations for a pollutant during each year was used. Variables representing 50th, 65th, 80th, 90th, 95th and 98th percentile concentrations each year were identified from frequency distributions and used for trend analysis. Small increasing concentration trends were observed for nitrogen dioxide (Air quality in Fort Chipewyan was much better and quite separate in terms of absence of factors influencing criteria air pollutant concentrations at the other community stations.

  18. Oil Pollution in the Southeastern Baltic Sea in 2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrova O. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From January 2009 to April 2012 a satellite survey of the central and southeastern parts of the Baltic Sea was carried out by the Space Radar Laboratory at the Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS. The main attention was focused on the detection of oil pollution as well as biogenic and anthropogenic surfactant films. The basic data are high resolution radar images obtained by advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR on board of the Envisat satellite of the European Space Agency. Remotely sensed data in visual and infrared (IR bands acquired by sensors MERIS Envisat, MODIS-Terra and -Aqua, and AVHRR NOAA nearly simultaneously with the ASAR images, were processed and analysed in order to facilitate the discrimination between different types of surface pollutants, to understand a comprehensive features of meteorological and hydrodynamic processes in the sea area of investigation, and to reveal factors determining pollutants spread and drift. The regions of the most intense oil pollution are outlined.

  19. [Experimental research of oil vapor pollution control for gas station with membrane separation technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Hong

    2011-12-01

    Two kinds of membranes modules, vapor retained glassy membrane based on PEEK hollow fiber membrane modules and vapor permeated rubbery membrane system based on GMT plate-and-frame membrane modules, were used to control the oil vapor pollution during the course of receiving and transferring gasoline in oil station. The efficiencies of the membrane module and the membrane system of them were evaluated and compared respectively in the facilities which were developed by ourselves. It was found that both the two kinds of membranes modules had high efficiency for the separation of VOCs-air mixed gases, and the outlet vapor after treatment all can meet the national standard. When the vapor-enriched gas was returned to the oil tank to simulate the continuously cycle test, the concentration of VOCs in the outlet was also below 25 g x m(-3).

  20. Toluene biodegradation in a solid/liquid system involving immobilized activated sludge and silicone oil as pollutant reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz Castro, Manuel; Gómez-Díaz, Diego; Amrane, Abdeltif; Couvert, Annabelle

    2015-01-01

    A solid/liquid system involving activated sludge immobilized in an agar medium and a non-aqueous phase liquid containing the target pollutant has been considered to treat a model hydrophobic volatile organic compound, toluene. The positive impact of the use of a multiphase bioreactor is that the organic phase constitutes a pollutant reservoir and also helps to overcome possible pollutant toxicity. In addition and to overcome the drawbacks of the use of a solid organic phase (high pressure drop and low mass transfer) instead of a liquid organic phase, the considered solid phase was the aqueous. Consequently, silicone oil (polydimethylsiloxane) which showed its relevance for implementation in multiphase bioreactors was used. Promising results were observed from the analysis of toluene in the gaseous phase; for an initial amount of 2 g L(-1) related to the organic phase, a v/v ratio of 0.5 of the organic phase to the aqueous agar phase, total toluene consumption was observed in about 9 days, leading to a global biodegradation rate of approximately 3.1 mg L(-1) h(-1), namely in the range of values previously observed in liquid/liquid systems.

  1. Fatty acid profile of eggs of semi-heavy layers fed feeds containing linseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs by adding oils to the diets has been extensively studied. This experiment aimed at evaluating possible changes in the fatty acid profile of the eggs of layers fed diets supplemented with linseed and soybean oils. The experiment was performed using 192 29 week-old laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design, into six treatments with four replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (no vegetable oil and diets including 2% of vegetable oil. Linseed oil replaced 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% soybean oil in the diets, corresponding to 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of linseed oil in the diet. A pool of two egg yolks from each treatment was submitted to lipid extraction and fatty acid methylation, and subsequent gas chromatography (GC analysis to detect seven fatty acids. Saturated (myristic and palmitic fatty acids concentration was affected by lipid dietary source, with the lowest concentration in birds were fed feeds containing linseed oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA concentration in the eggs was influenced by different levels of linseed oil inclusion. Linoleic acid egg content increased when linseed oil was used on diet as compared to the control diet. Linseed oil was considered an excellent source of linolenic acid incorporation in the eggs.

  2. Damage to and recovery of coastlines polluted with C-heavy oil spilled from the Nakhodka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nomura, Maki; Nakagawa, Takuya; Oguri, Seiji; Kawanishi, Takuya; Toriba, Akira; Kizu, Ryoichi; Sakaguchi, Toshifumi; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2006-03-01

    The damage to and recovery of the Japanese coastline from Suzu, Ishikawa Prefecture to Mikuni, Fukui Prefecture was investigated visually over three years after a C-heavy oil spill from the Russian tanker "Nakhodka" in the Japan Sea on January 2, 1997. The beached C-heavy oil tended to remain for a long time on coasts of bedrock and boulder/cobble/pebble but it was removed rapidly from coasts of gravel/sand and man-made structures such as concrete tetrapods. On the coasts of the latter type, wave energy appeared to be the main force removing the oil. One year after the spill, C-heavy oil tended to remain strongly on the sheltered coasts of bedrock and boulder/cobble/pebble. Even on coasts of this type, the contamination was remarkably absent by 2 years after the spill. The concentration levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oil lumps, sand and seawater were monitored during 3 years following the spill. The concentrations of PAHs having 2 or 3 rings decreased more quickly than did those of PAHs having 4 or more rings, suggesting that volatilization was the main cause of the decrease. On the other hand, the concentrations of PAHs having 4 to 6 rings did not start to decrease until 7 months after the spill. The main cause of the decrease seemed to be photolysis. The concentration of BaP in seawater off the polluted coasts was high 1 month after the spill and then decreased. Three years after the spill, the level fell to the sub ng/L level, which was as low as the level in seawater along unpolluted clean coasts in Japan. The concentration of BaP in greenling was higher than the normal level only during the first two months after the spill. These results suggest that the coastlines in Ishikawa and Fukui Prefectures that were polluted with C-heavy oil recovered in 3 years.

  3. Antifungal activity of nanocapsule suspensions containing tea tree oil on the growth of Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, F C; de Lima, J A; Ribeiro, R F; Alves, S H; Rolim, C M B; Beck, R C R; da Silva, Cristiane Bona

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the antifungal efficacy of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (tea tree oil) in an onychomycosis model. The antifungal activity of nanostructured formulations was evaluated against Trichophyton rubrum in two different in vitro models of dermatophyte nail infection. First, nail powder was infected with T. rubrum in a 96-well plate and then treated with the formulations. After 7 and 14 days, cell viability was verified. The plate counts for the samples were 2.37, 1.45 and 1.0 log CFU mL(-1) (emulsion, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil and nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, respectively). A second model employed nails fragments which were infected with the microorganism and treated with the formulations. The diameter of fungal colony was measured. The areas obtained were 2.88 ± 2.08 mm(2), 14.59 ± 2.01 mm(2), 40.98 ± 2.76 mm(2) and 38.72 ± 1.22 mm(2) for the nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil, emulsion and untreated nail, respectively. Nail infection models demonstrated the ability of the formulations to reduce T. rubrum growth, with the inclusion of oil in nanocapsules being most efficient.

  4. 27 CFR 20.119 - Toilet preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. 20.119 Section 20.119 Alcohol, Tobacco....119 Toilet preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. This general-use formula shall consist of an article containing not less than 10% essential oils by volume...

  5. Investigation on bioremediation of oil-polluted wetland at Liaodong Bay in northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Shuhong [Dalian Maritime Univ. (China). Coll. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Biology and Food Engineering School of Dalian (China). Inst. of Light Industry; Huang Leichang [Biology and Food Engineering School of Dalian (China). Inst. of Light Industry; Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Coll. of Environmental Science; Li Yao Olive [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Ding Ming [Xigang District Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Dalian (China); Hu Yingying; Ding Dewen [Dalian Maritime Univ. (China). Coll. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2006-07-15

    An investigation on the effect of various microbes on degradation was carried out as part of the study on bioremediation of oil-polluted wetland at LiaoDong Bay in northeast China. The method used involved direct inoculation of selected bacteria, which were capable of degrading oil, to the soil samples. The combination of various bacteria showed better results in terms of oil degradation than any single ones due to their synergetic effects. The operation conditions [pH 8.0, 25 C, C/N/P (40:5.6:1)] for these bacteria to degrade the oil content in the soil samples were also studied and optimized. Addition of appropriate surfactants was helpful for bacteria growth, thus favoring the oil degradation. For instance, after adding Tween 80 (300 mg/kg) for 8 days, the number of bacteria was amplified 6.22 times and the rate of oil degradation increased by 20%. Adequate amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was also beneficial for microbes to decompose oil. However, overdosage may cause the death of the bacteria. The addition of 400 mg/l H{sub 2}O{sub 2} each time was suitable. Seven thousand milligrams of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was added entirely in 11 days, and the rate of oil degradation increased significantly from 27% (without H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) up to 67%. The study clearly demonstrated that the direct soil inoculation was an effective method for environmental bioremediation. (orig.)

  6. Effects of nitrate concentration in interstitial water on the bioremediation of simulated oil-polluted shorelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient addition has been proved to be an effective strategy to enhance oil biodegradation in marine shorelines. To determine the optimal range of nutrient concentrations in the bioremediation of oil-polluted beaches, nitrate was added to the simulated shoreline models in the initial concentration of 1, 5 and 10 mg/L. Whenever the NO3-N concentration declined to 70% of its original value, additional nutrients were supplemented to maintain a certain range. Results showed adding nutrients increased the oil biodegradation level, the counts of petroleum degrading bacteria (PDB) and heterotrophic bacteria (HB), and the promoted efficiency varied depending on the concentration of nitrate. Oil degradation level in 5 mg/L (NO3-N) group reached as much as 84.3% accompanied with the consistently highest counts of PDB; while in 1 mg/L group oil removal efficiency was only 35.2%, and the numbers of PDB and HB were relatively low compared to the other groups supplemented with nutrients. Although counts of HB in the 10 mg/L group were remarkable, lower counts of PDB resulted in poorer oil removal efficiency (70.5%) compared to 5 mg/L group. Furthermore, it would need more NO3-N (0.371 mg) to degrade 1 mg diesel oil in the 10 mg/L group than in the 5 mg/L group (0.197 mg). In conclusion, Nitrate concentration in 5 mg/L is superior to 1 and 10 mg/L in the enhancement of diesel oil biodegradation in simulated shorelines.

  7. Containment and attenuating layers: An affordable strategy that preserves soil and water from landfill pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Regadío, Mercedes; Ruiz,Ana I.; Rodríguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Cuevas, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a widely distributed natural clay to attenuate contaminants released from an old landfill was investigated. The objective is to evaluate its potential use as a barrier for waste containment systems. Core samples of the natural clay were collected below the landfill and their parameters distribution with depth was determined. Partition coefficients, retardation factors and percentage values of pollutants concentrations, revealed a rapid decrease of contaminants with depth. T...

  8. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  9. Lubricating oil compositions containing overbased calcium sulfonates and metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Cerrito, E.; Liston, T.V.

    1987-05-26

    This patent describes a lubricating oil composition containing an overbased calcium hydrocarbyl sulfonate. The improvement wherein the lubricating oil composition additionally comprises an effective amount to reduce wear of a metal salt of an alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acid ester of the formula: wherein R is alkyl containing 10 to 18 carbon atoms, or mixtures thereof, M is an alkali or alkaline earth metal or transition metal and n corresponds to the valence of the metal M.

  10. Research on the additives to reduce radioactive pollutants in the building materials containing fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Deng-liang; Yin, Guang-fu; Dong, Fa-qin; Liu, Lai-bao; Luo, Ya-jun

    2010-05-15

    Several kinds of functional additives such as barite, zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement were introduced to prepare a low-radiation cement-based composite to reduce radioactive pollutants contained in fly ash. The effect of content and granularity of the functional additives on the release of radioactive pollutants were investigated. Composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scan electron microscopy. The results indicate that the radioactive pollutants contained in the fly ash can be reduced by adding a proper amount of zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement. The release of radon from fly ash decreases with a decrease in the granularity of additives. Compared with traditional cement-based composite containing fly ash, the release of radon can be reduced 64.8% in these composites, and the release of gamma-ray is decreased 45%. Based on the microstructure and phase analysis, we think that by added functional additives, there are favorable to form self-absorption of radioactivity in the interior composites. This cement-based composite will conducive to fly ash are large-scale applied in the field of building materials.

  11. Innovative eco-friendly bio- solvent for combating sea surface and sedimented oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Paraskevas

    2017-04-01

    The combating of oil spill at sea surface by chemical dispersants accelerates the evaporation and disperse the oil into the water column, where it is broken down by natural processes and/or is sedimented at the sea bottom, especially at near coastal shallow areas, ports and marinas. The usual methodology for cleaning the sedimented oil from the sea bottom is mainly carried out via excavation and dumping of the polluted sediment into deeper sea areas, where the contamination is transferred from one area to another. The eco-friendly bio-solvent MSL Aqua 250 is an innovative new solution based mainly on natural constituents. The action mechanism and the effectiveness of this eco-friendly solvent is based on the high surface tension process. Organic compounds, including hydrocarbons upon coming in contact with MSL Aqua 250 solvent generate a significant surface tension reaction, which is able to alter the organic compounds to liquid form and then to drastically evaporate it. The use of MSL Aqua 250 solvent, both at sea surface and at the bottom, has the following advantages compared to the dispersants: • Efficient solution without transferring the pollution from sea surface to the water column and to the bottom or disturbing the Aquatic Eco System. • Non-Toxic. • Environmentally friendly with a restoration of marine life in the Eco System. • Cost effective. The MSL Aqua 250 solvent has been tested in cooperation with the Cyprus Department of Fisheries and Marine Research and the Technological University of Cyprus and used during the years 2015 and 2016 in marinas and fishing shelters in Cyprus faced oil pollution, with high concentration in the sea water and at the sea bottom of chemical parameters (BOD5, COD, FOG, TKN, TP, TPH), with excellent results.

  12. Fingerprinting aliphatic hydrocarbon pollutants over agricultural lands surrounding Tehran oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Javad; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein; Khoshbakht, Korros; Deihimfard, Reza

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are composed of n-alkanes as well as branched and cyclic alkanes, can be used to distinguish between the sources of hydrocarbon contamination. In this study, the concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons, soil pH, and organic matter in agricultural soils located south of Tehran were monitored. Eighty-three soil samples were taken from two depth ranges of 0-30 and 30-60 cm. The results showed that aliphatic compounds ranged from 0.22-68.11 mg kg(-1) at the top to 0.33-53.18 mg kg(-1) at subsoil. The amount of hydrocarbons increases from the northern parts toward the south, and hydrocarbon pollutants originated from both petroleum and non-petroleum sources. Higher concentrations of aliphatic compounds in the southern parts indicated that, aside from the practice of irrigating with untreated wastewater, leakage from oil refinery storage tanks possibly contributed to soil pollution. The results also showed that several sources have polluted the agricultural soils. It is necessary to develop a new local pollution criterion as a diagnostic index that includes not only hydrocarbons but also other parameters such as heavy metal content in both soil and untreated wastewater, surface runoff, and other irrigation water resources to determine the exact origin of pollution.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of menthol and carvone after administration of an enteric coated formulation containing peppermint oil and caraway oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, H; Kikuta, C; Schiel, H

    2001-01-01

    Enteric coating of peppermint oil/caraway oil capsules avoids subjective discomfort to the patient caused by gastroesophageal reflux. In order to confirm bioequivalence of an enteric coated formulation containing peppermint oil and caraway oil (CAS 277309-55-4, Enteroplant) and an immediate release formulation of both oils, the pharmacokinetics of menthol and carvone after oral administration of the two formulations were studied in a randomized, two-period cross-over study in 16 healthy male volunteers. The subjects received 180 mg peppermint oil and 100 mg caraway oil, once as 2 enteric coated capsules of the fixed enteric coated combination preparation containing 90 mg peppermint oil (WS 1340) and 50 mg caraway oil (WS 1520) each (test) and once in the form of 5 capsules of an immediate release formulation (reference) containing 36 mg peppermint (WS 1340) oil and 20 mg caraway oil (WS 1520) each. The capsules were taken with 250 ml water after a 10 h fast. Both substances were determined in plasma by GC/MS after extraction. The limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml for menthol and 0.5 ng/ml for carvone. The mean maximum plasma levels for menthol were 1196 ng/ml after administration of the test medication and 1492 ng/ml after administration of the reference medication. The bioavailability with respect to the AUC was comparable after administration of test and reference preparation, the 90% confidence interval was 97 to 105%. As expected, there were considerable differences for Tmax. After application of the enteric coated form the maximum concentration was reached significantly later (3.0 h vs. 1.7 h) compared to the immediate release capsule. Corresponding data were also calculated for carvone. After application of the test medication the maxima of 14 ng/ml for both formulations were reached later (2.5 h vs. 1.3 h). The 90% confidence interval of the AUC for carvone was 79 to 119% and therefore slightly outside the acceptable range for bioequivalence of 80 to 125

  14. The feasibility of pneumatic and water spray barriers as fireproof oil slick containment devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comfort, G.; Menon, B.; Purves, W.

    An Artec Canada, Ltd., project assessed the feasibility of using submerged pneumatic barriers and elevated water spray barriers to retain and concentrate a floating oil slick. Maximum wave, wind, and current conditions at which the barriers were able to operate as oil slick containment devices were measured. Various fluid flow rates and barrier configurations were tested. An examination of data and available literature indicate that, in terms of oil slick containment, the water spray barrier is superior to the pneumatic barrier. The construction and field testing of a prototype water spray barrier system should be initiated. (2 diagrams, 7 graphs, 3 tables)

  15. Solvent cleaning of pole transformers containing PCB contaminated insulating oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbe, H; Shibuya, M

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, it was discovered that the recycled insulation oil in pole transformers for electric power supply was contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; maximum 50 mg-PCB/kg-insulation oil). In order to remove the PCBs from transformer components using n-hexane as a solvent, we investigated the relationship between progressive stages of dismantling and cleaning results. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Based on the cleaning test results, we made an estimate of the residual PCB amount on iron and copper components. By dismantling the test pole transformers into the "iron core and coil portion" and cleaning the components, we achieved a residual PCB amount that was below the limit of detection (0.05 mg-PCB/kg-material). To achieve a residual PCB amount below the limit of detection for the transformer paper component, it was necessary to cut the paper into pieces smaller than 5 mm. We were unable to achieve a residual PCB amount below the limit of detection for the wood component. (2) Compared to Japan's stipulated limited concentration standard values for PCBs, the results of the cleaning test show that cleaning iron or copper components with PCBs only on their surface with the solvent n-hexane will satisfy the limited concentration standard values when care is taken to ensure the component surfaces have adequate contact with the cleaning solvent.

  16. Influence of pollution history on the response of coastal bacterial and nanoeukaryote communities to crude oil and biostimulation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, Caroline; Christaki, Urania; Moutsaki, Paraskevi; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Gogou, Alexandra; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2012-08-01

    Pollution history has often been proposed to explain site-dependent bioremediation efficiencies, but this hypothesis has been poorly explored. Here, bacteria and their heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) predators originating from pristine and chronically oil-polluted coastal sites were subjected to crude oil ± nutrients or emulsifier amendments. The addition of crude oil had a more visible effect on bacteria originating from the pristine site with a higher increase in the activity of given OTU and inactivation of other petroleum-sensitive bacteria, as revealed by DNA and RNA-based comparison. Such changes resulted in a delay in microbial growth and in a lower bacterial degradation of the more complex hydrocarbons. Biostimulation provoked a selection of different bacterial community assemblages and stirred metabolically active bacteria. This resulted in a clear increase of the peak of bacteria and their HNF predators and higher oil degradation, irrespective of the pollution history of the site.

  17. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  18. Distribution of selected carcinogenic hydrocarbon and heavy metals in an oil-polluted agriculture zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaichi, E O; Wegwu, M O; Nwosu, U L

    2014-12-01

    Owing to the importance of clean and fertile agricultural soil for the continued existence of man, this study investigated the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some heavy metals in soils and selected commonly consumed vegetables and tubers from oil-polluted active agricultural farmland in Gokana of Ogoniland, Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples from Umuchichi, Osisioma Local Government Area in Abia State, Nigeria, a non-oil-polluted area constituted the control. In test and control, up to 3,830 ± 19.6 mgkg(-1) dw and 6,950 ± 68.3 mgkg(-1) dw (exceeding DPR set limits) and 11.3 ± 0.04 mgkg(-1) dw and 186 ± 0.02 mgkg(-1) dw for TPH and PAHs, respectively, were recorded in test soil and plant samples, respectively. Among the metals studied (Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn), Pb and Cr uptake exceeded WHO set limits for crops in test samples. Combined sources of pollution were evident from our studies. Bitterleaf and Waterleaf could be tried as bioindicators owing to expressed contaminants uptake pattern.

  19. Monitoring coastal pollution associated with the largest oil refinery complex of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croquer, Aldo; Bone, David; Bastidas, Carolina; Ramos, Ruth; García, Elia

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated pollution levels in water and sediments of Península de Paraguaná and related these levels with benthic macrofauna along a coastal area where the largest Venezuelan oil refineries have operated over the past 60 years. For this, the concentration of heavy metals, of hydrocarbon compounds and the community structure of the macrobenthos were examined at 20 sites distributed along 40 km of coastline for six consecutive years, which included windy and calm seasons. The spatial variability of organic and inorganic compounds showed considerably high coastal pollution along the study area, across both years and seasons. The southern sites, closest to the refineries, had consistently higher concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds in water and sediments when compared to those in the north. The benthic community was dominated by polychaetes at all sites, seasons and years, and their abundance and distribution were significantly correlated with physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments. Sites close to the oil refineries were consistently dominated by families known to tolerate xenobiotics, such as Capitellidae and Spionidae. The results from this study highlight the importance of continuing long-term environmental monitoring programs to assess the impact of effluent discharge and spill events from the oil refineries that operate in the western coast of Paraguaná, Venezuela.

  20. Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beškoski Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of soil and water with petroleum and its products occurs due to accidental spills during exploitation, transport, processing, storing and use. In order to control the environmental risks caused by petroleum products a variety of techniques based on physical, chemical and biological methods have been used. Biological methods are considered to have a comparative advantage as cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies. Bioremediation, defined as the use of biological systems to destroy and reduce the concentrations of hazardous waste from contaminated sites, is an evolving technology for the removal and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons as well as industrial solvents, phenols and pesticides. Microorganisms are the main bioremediation agents due to their diverse metabolic capacities. In order to enhance the rate of pollutant degradation the technology optimizes the conditions for the growth of microorganisms present in soil by aeration, nutrient addition and, if necessary, by adding separately prepared microorganisms cultures. The other factors that influence the efficiency of process are temperature, humidity, presence of surfactants, soil pH, mineral composition, content of organic substance of soil as well as type and concentration of contaminant. This paper presents a review of our ex situ bioremediation procedures successfully implemented on the industrial level. This technology was used for treatment of soils contaminated by crude oil and its derivatives originated from refinery as well as soils polluted with oil fuel and transformer oil.

  1. Polymer nanoparticles containing essential oils: new options for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Jesser, Emiliano Nicolás; Yeguerman, Cristhian Alan; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2017-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, two different essential oils (EO) (geranium, Geranium maculatum, and bergamot, Citrus bergamia) loaded polymeric nanoparticle (PN) were elaborated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chitosan (Qx) as the polymeric matrix/coating. In addition, the mosquito larvicidal acute and residual activity of the PN was evaluated on Culex pipiens pipiens. The physicochemical characterization of PN revealed that PEG-PN had sizes eco-friendly mosquito larvicidal products.

  2. Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils contained in waste activated bleaching earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Ana V. Lara; Park, Enoch Y. [Shizuoka Univ., Dept. of Applied Biological Chemistry, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2003-02-28

    Waste bleaching earths from crude vegetable oil refining process contain approximately 40% of its weight as oil. Low valued oils are potential substrates for biodiesel fuel production. Vegetable oils from waste bleaching earth samples were organic-solvent extracted and identified as soybean, palm and rapeseed oil. Methanolysis was efficiently catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of high water content, and by a single addition of methanol. R. oryzae lipase was not inactivated by methanol in concentrations lower than 4 milli-equivalents and 75% water content. Optimum conditions for methanolysis of extracted oils were 75% water content (by weight of substrate), an oil/methanol molar ratio of I:4, and 67 IU/g of substrate with agitation at 175 rpm for 96 h at 35 deg C. The highest conversion yield reached 55% (w/w) with palm oil after 96 h of reaction. Adverse viscosity conditions might have influenced methanolysis of extracted soybean and rapeseed oil in spite of high water or methanol concentrations. (Author)

  3. Trends in chronic marine oil pollution in Danish waters assessed using 22 years of beached bird surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jørn Lennart; Durinck, Jan; Skov, Henrik

    2007-09-01

    Beached bird surveys provide an important tool for monitoring the level of oil pollution at sea, which is the most significant observable cause of death for a large number of waterbird species and pose a serious threat to wintering seabird populations. Linear regression analyses of oil rates from the Danish 22 year dataset show a decline in the oil pollution level in offshore areas of the eastern North Sea and Skagerrak and in near-shore parts of the Kattegat; but a worsening in the offshore areas of the Kattegat. These results raise concern for species such as common scoter, velvet scoter, eider and razorbill, for which the Kattegat serves as a globally important wintering area. It is recommended that surveillance for oil spills is intensified in inner Danish waters, and that action is taken to make responses towards offenders faster, and penalties for oil seepage higher.

  4. Monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment after the Prestige oil spill by means of seabird blood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Velando, Alberto; Munilla, Ignacio; López-Alonso, Marta; Oro, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    In this study we tested the use of seabird blood as a bioindicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in the marine environment. Blood cells of breeding yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) were able to track spatial and temporal changes consistent with the massive oil pollution pulse that resulted from the Prestige oil spill. Thus, in 2004, blood samples from yellow-legged gulls breeding in colonies that were in the trajectory of the spill doubled in theirtotal PAH concentrations when compared to samples from unoiled colonies. Furthermore, PAH levels in gulls from an oiled colony decreased by nearly a third in two consecutive breeding seasons (2004 and 2005). Experimental evidence was gathered by means of an oil-ingestion field experiment. The total concentration of PAHs in the blood of gulls given oil supplements was 30% higher compared to controls. This strongly suggested that measures of PAHs in the blood of gulls are sensitive to the ingestion of small quantities of oil. Our study provides evidence that seabirds were exposed to residual Prestige oil 17 months after the spill commenced and gives support to the nondestructive use of seabirds as biomonitors of oil pollution in marine environments.

  5. Bioremediation (bioaugmentation/biostimulation) trials of oil polluted seawater: a mesocosm simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Emtiazi, Giti; Caruso, Gabriella; Cappello, Simone

    2014-04-01

    Bioaugmentation (amendment with selected bacterial strains) and/or biostimulation (nutrients addition and/or air supply) are relatively new fields in environmental microbiology for preventing pollution and cleanup contamination. In this study, the efficiency of application of bioaugmentation/biostimulation treatments, for recovery of crude oil-polluted seawater, was evaluated. Three different series of experiments were performed in a "Mesocosm Facility" (10.000 L). Natural seawater was artificially polluted with crude oil (1000 ppm) and was amended with inorganic nutrients (Mesocosm 1, M1), inorganic nutrient and an inoculum of Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2(T) (Mesocosm 2, M2) and inorganic nutrient and an inoculum of A. borkumensis SK2(T) and Thalassolituus oleivorans MIL-1(T) (Mesocosm 3, M3), respectively. During the experimental period (20 days) bacterial abundance (DAPI count), culturable heterotrophic bacteria (CFU count), MPN, microbial metabolic activity [Biochemical Oxygen Demand and enzymatic activity (leucine aminopeptidase LAP, β-glucosidase BG, alkaline phosphatase AP)] and quali-, quantitative analysis of the composition of total extracted and resolved hydrocarbons and their derivates (TERHCs) were carried out. The microbiological and physiological analysis of marine microbial community found during the three different biostimulation and bioaugmentation assays performed in mesocosms show that the load of crude oil increases total microbial abundance, inhibits the activity of some enzymes such as LAP while stimulates both AP and BG activities. The biodegradation results show that bioaugmentation with A. borkumensis SK2(T) alone is able to produce the highest percentage of degradation (95%) in comparison with the biostimulation treatment (80%) and bioaugmentation using an Alcanivorax-Thalassolituus bacterial consortium (70%). This result highlights the reduced biodegradation capability of the consortium used in this study, suggesting an unfavourable

  6. Mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of diacylglycerols containing hydroxy FA in castor oil and two normal FA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil can be used in industry. The molecular species of triacylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) in castor oil have been identified. We report here the identification of twelve diacylglycerols (DAG) containing hydroxy FA in castor oil using positive ion electrospray ionization mass ...

  7. Survey of dissolved air flotation system efficiency for reduce of pollution of vegetable oil industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, H; Alidadi, H; Parvaresh, A R; Movahedian, H; Mahvi, A H

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this research was to sudy the reduction of pollution of vegetable oil manufacturing wastewater with DAF system. At first phase of this examination, the optimum dosage of the coagulants was determined. The coagulants that used in this study were Alum and Ferric Chloride. The second phase was flotation in this series of examinations, oil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid measured in raw wastewater and the effluent of the DAF pilot. Optimum value of pH for alum and ferric chloride obtained 7.5 and 5.5, respectively. Optimum dosage for these obtained 30 and 32 mg L(-1) in this research. Mean removal for the parameters ofoil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid obtained 75.85, 78.27, 77.32, 82.47, 73.52 and 85.53%, respectively. With pressure rising from 3 to 4 and 5 atm removing rate of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters reduced, but oil and suspended solid have increase. In addition, following increase of flotation time up to 120 sec all of the measured parameters have increase in removing rate. Optimum A/S for removal of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters obtained 0.001 and for oil and suspended solid obtained 0.0015.

  8. Bioremediation of the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone and its toxicity effect on microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Yongrui; Xu, Nana; Bao, Mutai; Li, Yiming; Lv, Dong; Sun, Peiyan

    2015-04-01

    Custom-designed devices with 0.6 m (L) × 0.3 m (W) × 0.4 m (H) and a microbial consortium were applied to simulate bioremediation on the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone. After the bioremediation, the removal efficiency of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon homologues in crude oil evaluated by GC-MS were higher than 58% and 41% respectively. Besides, the acute toxicity effects of crude oil on three microalgae, i.e. Dicrateria sp., Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, varied with concentration. The effects of microbe and surfactant treated water on the three microalgae followed a decreasing order: the microbial consortium plus Tween-80 > the microbial consortium > Tween-80. During 96 h, the cell densities of the three microalgae in treated seawater increased from 4.0 × 10(5), 1.0 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(5) cells per mL to 1.7 × 10(6), 8.5 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(6) cells per mL, respectively, which illustrated that the quality of seawater contaminated by crude oil was significantly improved by the bioremediation.

  9. Identification of environmental aspects and oil pollution pressure on spontaneous flora in the Patos-Marinëz industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Shehu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil industry activities have contributed to environmental pollution in general showing direct impacts on ecosystems and living creatures. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic or water-insoluble, making difficult their removal or degradation from terrestrial environment. The aim of the study is the "identification of environmental aspects causing environmental impacts and assessment of oil pollution pressure on spontaneous vegetation”. The study area is the oil field of Patos-Marinëz. In the area under study, the pollution lies in about 200 km2, of which 60000 ha are farmland. The water receiver environment of the oil industry emissions is Gjanica River. The effects extend to Seman River delta and then to the Adriatic Sea. Consequently, the water pollution causes impacts on living creatures in marine aquatic environments. These impacts can be accumulated in the marine and terrestrial food chain endangering human health. Leaks from well mouths, oil leaks and water layer leaks from the well hole, discharges and emissions from Ballsh Processing Plant, fluid collection groups and pipelines leaks are some of the most important environmental aspects in the study area. The dominant species of the spontaneous flora are Glyceria plicata dhe Sparganium erectum accompanied by a large number of species. Natural vegetation in this area is degraded and a reduction of the photosynthesis activity is observed. Pollution control and rehabilitation of the area are necessary.

  10. Application of biological markers for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments: Alluvial formation of the Danube river, Oil refinery Pančevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašović Aleksandar S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to examine to which extent the abundance and distribution of certain biological markers may be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments and ground waters. The samples were taken from the area of the Oil Refinery Pančevo (alluvial formation of the Danube River. The organic matter of the investigated samples was isolated using an extraction method with chloroform. The group composition and usual biological markers were analyzed in the obtained extracts. n-Alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids, pristane and phytane were analyzed using gas chromatographie (GC analysis of saturated hydrocarbons. Polycyclic alkanes of the sterane and terpane type were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, i.e. by analyzing the carbamide non-adduct of the total alkane fraction (Single Ion Monitoring SIM-technique. The obtained results indicate that n-alkanes can be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants (for example, if the oil-pollutant is biodegraded or present in very low concentrations, and steranes and triterpanes can be used as very reliable indicators of oil-type pollution in recent sediments and ground waters.

  11. Marine pollution: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  12. Adsorption refinement of waste transformer oil using industrial montmorillonite-containing sorbents

    OpenAIRE

    Koval, Е. О.; Bogomolov, М. S.; Mayer, E. А.; Bondaletov, V. G.

    2007-01-01

    The possibilities of adsorption contact refining of waste transformer oil with active montmorillonite-containing sorbents of «Filtrol» series of BASF Catalysts LLC corporation and Zikeevsk М-80 deposit sorbent have been investigated. Usage of F-160 sorbents of «Filtrol» series in the refinement process allows achieving high quality degree of lean transformer oil, permitting its further use in the equipment with operating voltage to 750 kV.

  13. Autos, tires, aluminum, oil--and cost containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E

    1978-09-01

    Faced with massive increases in the costs of the health care benefits they provide for their employees, many large U.S. corporations are becoming increasingly involved in efforts to contain health care costs. Often seeing their efforts as posing an alternative to direct federal government intervention, business leaders are implementing a wide range of programs, including specific arrangements with providers, education of hospital trustees who are also employees, and fitness and preventive medicine programs.

  14. Microemulsion systems containing bioactive natural oils: an overview on the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier-Junior, F H; Vauthier, C; Morais, A R V; Alencar, E N; Egito, E S T

    2017-05-01

    Natural oils are extremely complex mixtures containing compounds of different chemical nature. Some of them have physiological or therapeutic activities that may act either alone or in synergy. Therefore, they are used in the pharmaceutical, agronomic, food, sanitary and cosmetic industries. Today, the interest in bioactive natural oils is growing due to their immense potential to prevent and treat numerous human diseases. Formulation in microemulsions (MEs) containing natural oils appeared suitable to improve pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical properties of bioactive compound derivatives from these oils. Microemulsion systems are thermodynamically stable, transparent, and are isotropic dispersions consisting of oil and water stabilized by an interfacial film of surfactants, typically in combination with a cosurfactant. They can protect labile compounds from premature degradation, control release, increase solubility and hence enhance the bioavailability of poorly bioavailable compounds. The aim of this work was to review the various advantages of bioactive compounds presented in natural oil loaded ME systems to be used as delivery systems. First, the state of the art of the parameters involved in the ME formation, including the basic concepts of the physicochemical formulation of the ME systems, and the main aspects of production and the energy responsible for their formation were reported. The second section describes the use of ME systems and reviews the recent applications of natural oil-loaded in the ME systems as the bioactive compound in the formulation.

  15. Polyamide microcapsules containing jojoba oil prepared by inter-facial polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, P; Carfagna, C; Danicher, L; Frere, Y

    2005-08-01

    Jojoba oil containing polyamide microcapsules having diameter of approximately 5 microm were prepared by inter-facial polycondensation by direct method (oil-in-water). Qualitative effects of both the formulation and the process parameters on microcapsules characteristics were investigated by SEM observations. Morphological analysis showed the dependence of the external membrane compactness on the chemical nature of the water-soluble polyamine and the oil-soluble acid polychloride: 1,6-hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) and terephthaloyl dichloride (TDC) were found to favour the production of smooth and dense surfaces. The use of ultrasonic irradiations during the dispersion step to get a further reduction of microcapsules size was also evaluated.

  16. Chemical profiling of oil and PAH polluted soil and drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen

    Hydrocarbons are some of the most common pollutants in soil. Groups of hydrocarbons have been classified as toxic, carcinogenic, and/or mutagenic and they pose an existing threat to human health and the environment. However, prohibition of hydrocarbons is not an option as the pollution sources...... concentrations and of varying compounds, depending on the pollution sources and the extent to which contaminants are weathered and degraded. In our work with the complex chemical composition and source identification of hydrocarbon contamination in soil, we have asked the same questions over and over again......-substituted PAHs and as petrogenic sources predominantly contains alkyl-substituted PAHs, derived O-PAHs from alkyl-substituted PAHs are more likely to be found. It is important to know the fate of hydrocarbons and PAHs in soil in order to make a proper risk assessment. The PAHs generally have low water solubility...

  17. Use of gravity drainage and quasi-homogenous dykes for containment of oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, L.; Czajewski, K. [Terracon Geotechnique Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    Solutions to the disposal of byproducts from oil sands processing into tailings ponds in Alberta were examined. Gravity drainage of composite tailings (CT) was used as a mechanism to facilitate the consolidation of CT in critical areas of the containment ponds through the use of internal sand layers within the body of the deposit. Critical areas were defined as the areas around the perimeters of the containment ponds. The aim of the solution was to provide long-term stability to the disposal area through the creation of stiff deposits around the perimeter and through the facilitation of reclamation efforts on the surface. It was concluded that use of the quasi-homogenous dykes is the only commercially proven method of reducing the fine tailings inventory of the oil sands industry. It was concluded that the use of gravity drainage and quasi-homogenous dykes for oil sands containment structures will assist the industry in reducing its environmental footprint.

  18. Human health cost of hydrogen sulfide air pollution from an oil and gas Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenessary, Dinara; Kenessary, Almas; Kenessariyev, Ussen Ismailovich; Juszkiewicz, Konrad; Amrin, Meiram Kazievich; Erzhanova, Aya Eralovna

    2017-06-08

    Introduction and objective. The Karachaganak oil and gas condensate field (KOGCF), one of the largest in the world, located in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RoK) in Central Asia, is surrounded by 10 settlements with a total population of 9,000 people. Approximately73% of this population constantly mention a specific odour of rotten eggs in the air, typical for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions, and the occurrence of low-level concentrations of hydrogen sulfide around certain industrial installations (esp. oil refineries) is a well known fact. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the impact on human health and the economic damage to the country due to H2S emissions. Materials and method. Dose-response dependency between H2S concentrations in the air and cardiovascular morbidity using multiple regression analysis was applied. Economic damage from morbidity was derived with a newly-developed method, with Kazakhstani peculiarities taken into account. Results.Hydrogen sulfide air pollution due to the KOGCF activity costs the state almost $60,000 per year. Moreover, this is the reason for a more than 40% rise incardiovascular morbidity in the region. Conclusion. The reduction of hydrogen sulfide emissions into the air is recommended, as well as successive constant ambient air monitoring in future. Economic damage evaluation should be made mandatory, on a legal basis, whenever an industrial facility operation results in associated air pollution.

  19. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia.

  20. On the synthesis of oil-containing microcapsules and their electrolytic codeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandridou, S. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chem. Eng. and Chem. Process. Eng. Res. Inst.; Kiparissides, C. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chem. Eng. and Chem. Process. Eng. Res. Inst.; Fransaer, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, de Croylaan 2, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Celis, J.P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, de Croylaan 2, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    1995-04-01

    Composite coatings consisting of a metal matrix in which ceramic particles are embedded have recently been developed and used in industry as wear-resistant coatings. The present paper deals with the development of oil-containing self-lubricating metallic coatings. These have been produced by electrolytic codeposition of oil-containing microcapsules from Watts nickel plating baths. For this purpose, oil-containing polyterephthalamide microcapsules were synthesized based on the interfacial polymerization of an oil-soluble monomer (terephthaloyl dichloride) and a mixture of two water-soluble monomers (diethylenetriamine and 1,6-hexamethylenediamine). The influence of several synthesis parameters (e.g. type of encapsulated organic phase, monomer concentration(s) and concentration ratio of the two amine monomers) on the size distribution and morphology of the oil-containing polyamide microcapsules as well as on their electrolytic codeposition behaviour is discussed. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy analysis, the morphological characteristics of the microcapsules were affected to a great extent by the functionality of the water-soluble amine monomer. Furthermore, the composition of the core material of the microcapsules showed a marked influence on their stability upon aging in the Watts nickel plating bath. Finally, codeposition experiments using a laboratory rotating electrode showed that the level of codeposition was influenced by the presence of additives in the nickel electrolyte and was strongly dependent on the polymerization conditions employed in the microcapsule synthesis. ((orig.))

  1. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  2. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  3. Containment and attenuating layers: An affordable strategy that preserves soil and water from landfill pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadío, Mercedes; Ruiz, Ana I; Rodríguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Cuevas, Jaime

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a widely distributed natural clay to attenuate contaminants released from an old landfill was investigated. The objective is to evaluate its potential use as a barrier for waste containment systems. Core samples of the natural clay were collected below the landfill and their parameters distribution with depth was determined. Partition coefficients, retardation factors and percentage values of pollutants concentrations, revealed a rapid decrease of contaminants with depth. The background values of the pollutants were below the maximum limits for drinking and irrigation water and with no need of reactors, collectors, aeration or recirculation systems. Impermeable waste capping is discouraged in order to decrease leachate toxicity, decomposition time and conservative species, and in order to avoid high-reducing conditions that would mobilize redox-sensitive contaminants. A review on leachate-composition evolution and on natural-attenuation processes was undertaken to understand the interactions leachate-substratum, which is essential to properly estimate the leachate transport and implement the attenuation strategy. This strategy complements the traditional containment one regarding (1) the susceptibility of engineering liners to fail, (2) the inevitable diffusion of contaminants through them, (3) the remaining high number of old landfills before the requirements of liner systems and (4) the low-cost and feasibility for developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the impact of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on the coastal ecosystem of Goa. The factors responsible for degrading the marine ecosystem of the Goan coastline are analyzed. Uncontrolled activities were found to degrade the marine and coastal biodiversity, in turn polluting all beaches. This had a direct impact on the Goan economy through a decline in tourism. The government must adopt the necessary control measures to restore Goan beaches and the surrounding coastal areas.

  5. Optimization of purification processes to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted raw fish oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Fernández-González, Ricardo; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-02-01

    Fish oils are one of the main sources of health promoting nutrients such as n-3 fatty acids in animal and human diet. Nevertheless, they could be an important source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Different strategies of decontamination processes to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in fish oils, such as solvent extraction (ethanol) and adsorbent extraction using commercially available (activated carbon) and sustainable adsorbents (mussel shell and wood ashes), were compared. Adsorption conditions were evaluated and optimized by an experimental design and the experimental results were adjusted to response surfaces. In this way, PAH removals increased with increasing of individual PAH molecular weight and they range from 80% to 100% using activated carbon and from 10% to 100% using wood ashes. Pine wood ashes showed similar removal rates to activated carbon (87%-100%) excluding F (51%) and P (42%). No PAH removal was observed using mussel shell ashes. Ethanol extraction was also optimized and showed a good performance in the extraction of PAHs. However, it does affect their ω-3 fatty acid contents. Finally, real oil samples from different fishing areas: Spain, South America, and North Europe were selected for the decontamination experiments under experimental conditions previously optimized.

  6. Secondary successions of biota in oil-polluted peat soil upon different biological remediation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekhina, E. N.; Markarova, M. Yu.; Shchemelinina, T. N.; Anchugova, E. M.; Kanev, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    The effects of different bioremediation methods on restoration of the oil-polluted peat soil (Histosol) in the northernmost taiga subzone of European Russia was studied. The population dynamics of microorganisms belonging to different trophic groups (hydrocarbon-oxidizing, ammonifying, nitrifying, and oligonitrophilic) were analyzed together with data on the soil enzyme (catalase and dehydrogenase) activities, population densities of soil microfauna groups, their structures, and states of phytocenoses during a sevenyear-long succession. The remediation with biopreparations Roder composed of oil-oxidizing microorganisms-Roder with Rhodococcus rubber and R. erythropolis and Universal with Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodococcus sp.-was more efficient than the agrochemical and technical remediation. It was concluded that the biopreparations activate microbiological oil destruction, thereby accelerating restoration succession of phytocenosis and zoocenosis. The succession of dominant microfauna groups was observed: the dipteran larvae and Mesostigmata mites predominant at the early stages were replaced by collembolans at later stages. The pioneer oribatid mite species were Tectocepheus velatus, Oppiella nova, Liochthonius sellnicki, Oribatula tibialis, and Eupelops sp.

  7. Marine oil spill pollution and cleaning method%海上溢油污染及清理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康维; 魏志强

    2012-01-01

    To introduce the environment pollution damage and the traditional scale classification of the marine oil spill. To discuss and outlook the cleaning method for spill oil.%介绍了海上溢油对环境的污染危害及溢油事件的传统规模分级;对溢油的清理方法进行了探讨和展望。

  8. Seabird feathers as monitors of the levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Rocio, E-mail: rocio@rociomoreno.com [Dept. Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis, E-mail: lluis_jover@ub.edu [Dept. Salut Publica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Diez, Carmen, E-mail: karminha13@gmail.com [Dept. Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Sanpera, Carola, E-mail: csanpera@ub.edu [Dept. Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We measured heavy metal concentrations in yellow-legged gulls (n = 196) and European shags (n = 189) in order to assess the temporal pattern of contaminant exposure following the Prestige oil spill in November 2002. We analysed Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and V levels in chick feathers sampled at four colonies during seven post-spill years (2003-2009), and compared results with pre-spill levels obtained from feathers of juvenile shag corpses (grown in spring/summer 2002). Following the Prestige wreck, Cu (4.3-10 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and Pb concentrations (1.0-1.4 {mu}g g{sup -1}) were, respectively, between two and five times higher than pre-spill levels (1.5-3.6 and 0.1-0.4 {mu}g g{sup -1}), but returned to previous background concentrations after three years. Our study highlights the suitability of chick feathers of seabirds for assessing the impact of oil spills on heavy metal contamination, and provides the best evidence to date on the persistence of oil pollution after the Prestige incident. - Highlights: > Seabirds as sentinel species of levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after oil spills. > Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, V in chick feathers of Phalacrocorax aristotelis and Larus michahellis. > Chronic oil pollution in the marine food web for at least three years after the Prestige oil spill. - Monitoring heavy metal in seabird feathers indicated chronic oil pollution in the marine food web for at least three years after the Prestige oil spill.

  9. Increasing Oil Concentration Affects Consumer Perception and Physical Properties of Mayonnaise-type Spreads Containing KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, Damir Dennis; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2017-08-01

    Reducing sodium intakes remains a global challenge for the food industry. KCl is a potential salt substitute but imparts bitterness when used at high concentrations. Little is known about how oil concentrations (OC) affect consumers' perception of saltiness and bitterness in emulsion products such as mayonnaise containing KCl. We evaluated consumers' perception and physical properties of mayonnaise-type spreads at various oil and tastant (NaCl or KCl) concentrations. Consumers (N = 306) evaluated saltiness, bitterness, overall taste liking (OTL) and purchase intent (PI). Viscosity, pH, water activity, and consistency/texture were also measured. Oil and tastant (NaCl or KCl) concentrations had significant effects on saltiness, viscosity, and pH. As OC increased, saltiness intensity slightly decreased for spreads. Increasing oil concentration increased viscosity. Generally, spreads containing KCl had higher bitterness and pH than spreads containing NaCl. All spreads containing KCl were penalized for being "too bitter." PI was affected by OTL for all spreads but OC was also a significant factor in the purchase decision of spreads containing NaCl. This study demonstrated that increasing OC affected consumers' taste perception (saltiness and bitterness) and spreads' physical properties including pH and viscosity. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Long-term monitoring study of beached seabirds shows that chronic oil pollution in the southern North Sea has almost halted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Eric W M; Courtens, Wouter; Van de Walle, Marc; Vanermen, Nicolas; Verstraete, Hilbran

    2017-02-15

    Trends in oil rates of beached seabirds reflect temporal and spatial patterns in chronic oil pollution at sea. We analysed a long-term dataset of systematic beached bird surveys along the Belgian North Sea coast during 1962-2015, where extreme high oil contamination rates and consequently high mortality rates of seabirds during the 1960s used to coincide with intensive ship traffic. In the 1960s, >90% of all swimming seabirds that washed ashore were contaminated with oil and estimated oil-induced mortality of seabirds was probably several times higher than natural mortality. More than 50years later oil rates of seabirds have dropped to historically low levels while shipping is still very intense, indicating that chronic oil pollution has significantly declined. The declining trend is discussed in the light of a series of legislative measures that were enacted in the North Sea region to reduce oil pollution.

  11. Nanocapsules Containing Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Oil: Development, Characterization, And Toxicity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquoto-Stigliani, Tatiane; Campos, Estefânia V R; Oliveira, Jhones L; Silva, Camila M G; Bilesky-José, Natalia; Guilger, Mariana; Troost, Johann; Oliveira, Halley C; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F; de Lima, Renata

    2017-07-19

    In this study, we prepared, characterized, and performed toxicity analyses of poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules loaded with neem oil. Three formulations were prepared by the emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The nanocapsules showed a mean size distribution around 400 nm, with polydispersity below 0.2 and were stable for 120 days. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity results showed an increase in toxicity of the oleic acid + neem formulations according to the amount of oleic acid used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations demonstrated that all the formulations containing neem oil were active. The nanocapsules containing neem oil did not affect the soil microbiota during 300 days of exposure compared to the control. Phytotoxicity studies indicated that NC_20 (200 mg of neem oil) did not affect the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of maize plants, whereas use of NC_10 (100:100 of neem:oleic acid) and NC_15 (150:50 of neem:oleic acid) led to negative effects on these physiological parameters. Hence, the use of oleic acid as a complement in the nanocapsules was not a good strategy, since the nanocapsules that only contained neem oil showed lower toxicity. These results demonstrate that evaluation of the toxicity of nanopesticides is essential for the development of environmentally friendly formulations intended for applications in agriculture.

  12. An Overview of the Summer 2014 Airborne Study of Oil Sands Air Pollutants in Support of the Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. M.; Hayden, K. L.; Cober, S.; Wolde, M.; Liggio, J.; Liu, P.; Leithead, A.; O'brien, J.; Wang, D. K.; Moussa, S. G.; Gordon, M.; Darlington, A. L.; McLaren, R.; Makar, P.; Stroud, C.; Wentzell, J. J. B.; Brook, J.; Narayan, J.; Elford, A.; Sung, K.; Sheppard, A.

    2014-12-01

    A short term airborne study of oil sands air pollutants was carried out in August and September 2013. The study had three objectives: 1. to validate emissions of criteria air contaminants (CACs) and other air pollutants from surface mining facilities in the Athabasca oil sands region, using airborne ambient air measurements; 2. to understand the transport and transformation of primary pollutants; and 3. to provide data for model and satellite retrieval validation. The data will be used for the evaluation and improvement of high-resolution air quality models for eventual application in determining the fates of these pollutants and their deposition to the downwind ecosystems. Various chemical species were measured from the National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 aircraft at high time resolution of 1-10 seconds. A total of 22 flights were flown, with 14 flights dedicated to emission validation, 5 flights to transport and transformation of oil sands pollutants, and 5 flights to satellite data validation. An algorithm will be shown to demonstrate how the data from the emission flights can be used to derive a top-down estimate of SO2 emission rates.

  13. Economic viability of feeding dairy cows on diets containing different levels of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic viability of feeding dairy cows with diets containing different levels of soybean oil. Cows were fed diets based on tropical forage (Pennisetum purpureum Schum supplemented with different levels of soybean oil (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of diet DM. The calculations were made considering the prices of the dietary ingredients and the daily consumption of each dietary treatment. The milk quality-based payment was estimated on the bonus paid for milk fat and protein contents according to two systems used by companies of the dairy sector. The economic benefit was calculated as the difference between the income obtained from milk sale and the cost associated with animal feeding. The MOP scenario analysis (most likely - optimistic - pessimistic was performed on the basis of the real scenario and variations in milk price and inputs observed in season and off-season periods over the years under study. The diet with 1.5% soybean oil had higher economic benefit when compared with those containing 3.0 and 4.5% soybean oil. All the dietary soybean oil levels would result in bonuses for milk protein content (higher than 3.03 and 3.21. Only the control diet showed a positive economic balance. The bonuses paid for milk protein content were insufficient to cover the additional costs associated with the inclusion of soybean oil in the diets, resulting in negative balances for the treatments with 1.5; 3.0 and 4.5% soybean oil, demonstrating the economic non-viability of supplementing diets of lactating cows with soybean oil.

  14. Application of remote sensing data to monitoring of oil pollution as part of the environmental expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagarova, Lyudmila; Muratova, Mira; Abuova, Sholpan

    2016-07-01

    The impact of oil-producing facilities on the environment is caused by toxicity of hydrocarbons and by-products, a variety of chemicals used in industrial processes, as well as specificity of production, treatment, transportation and storage of oil and oil products. To predict the state of the geological environment, scientists carry out investigations, which help to choose the optimal strategy for creation of the expert system taking into account simulations and to provide efficient use of available environmentally relevant information related to the current state of the geological environment. The expert system is a complex of interconnected blocks, one of which is the information on the presence of oil pollution, which can be identified using satellite imagery. The satellite imagery has practical application in monitoring of oil pollution, as it allows specialists to identify oil spills remotely and to determine their characteristics based on the differentiation of the surface reflectance spectra. Snapshots are used to estimate the area of oil-contamination and location of spills. To detect contaminants it is necessary to perform the following steps in processing of the remote sensing data: - Identify and isolate all the dark deformations in the satellite images, as a result of processing of segmentation and threshold processing; - Calculate statistical parameters of dark deformations, i.e., signs similar to areas prone to contamination. These signs are related to the geometry of formation, their physical changes (backscattering value) and the image context; - Classify the selected spectral anomalies as oil pollution and oil sludge. On the basis of classification of satellite imagery, the objects of oil pollution are detected and deciphering signs are analyzed in order to refer classified objects to implicit or explicit contaminations. To detect oil pollution, pixels are classified into categories with learning on the given areas with creation of the

  15. [Bioremediation of oil-polluted soils: using the [13C]/[12C] ratio to characterize microbial products of oil hydrocarbon biodegradation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziakun, A M; Brodskiĭ, E S; Baskunov, B P; Zakharchenko, V N; Peshenko, V P; Filonov, A E; Vetrova, A A; Ivanova, A A; Boronin, A M

    2014-01-01

    We compared data on the extent of bioremediation in soils polluted with oil. The data were obtained using conventional methods of hydrocarbon determination: extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, extraction IR spectroscopy, and extraction gravimetry. Due to differences in the relative abundances of the stable carbon isotopes (13C/12C) in oil and in soil organic matter, these ratios could be used as natural isotopic labels of either substance. Extraction gravimetry in combination with characteristics of the carbon isotope composition of organic products in the soil before and after bioremediation was shown to be the most informative approach to an evaluation of soil bioremediation. At present, it is the only method enabling quantification of the total petroleum hydrocarbons in oil-polluted soil, as well as of the amounts of hydrocarbons remaining after bioremediation and those microbially transformed into organic products and biomass.

  16. Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats focuses on food stability and shelf life, both important factors in the improvement and development of food products. This book, relevant for professionals in the food and pet food industries, presents an evaluation of methods f...

  17. Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  18. Electrophoresis of oil-containing edible microcapsules with protein-polyuronic shells

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baerle; O. Dimova; L. Zadorojnai; P. Tatarov; A. Zenkovich

    2015-01-01

    Introduction.The aim of this work is to determine the sign of the charge of microcapsules shells, containing oil composition and to estimate stability of microcapsules with different diameters in the electric field. Materials and methods. The microcapsules were prepared by complex coacervation method. Remains of electrolytes were removed by dialysis or electro-dialysis. Purified microcapsules were subjected to electrophoresis at 1...

  19. Effects of plants containing secondary compounds and plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Kongmun, Pongthon; Poungchompu, Onanong; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Kaenpakdee, Sujittra

    2012-03-01

    A number of experiments have been conducted to investigate effects of tropical plants containing condensed tannins and/or saponins present in tropical plants and some plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology in ruminants. Based on both in vitro and in vivo trials, the results revealed important effects on rumen microorganisms and fermentation including methane production. Incorporation and/or supplementation of these plants containing secondary metabolites have potential for improving rumen ecology and subsequently productivity in ruminants.

  20. Modeling of Electrochemical Process for the Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Cañizares, Pablo; Lobato, Justo; Sáez, Cristina

    Electrocoagulation and electrooxidation are promising electrochemical technologies that can be used to remove organic pollutants contained in wastewaters. To make these technologies competitive with the conventional technologies that are in use today, a better understanding of the processes involved must be achieved. In this context, the development of mathematical models that are consistent with the processes occurring in a physical system is a relevant advance, because such models can help to understand what is happening in the treatment process. In turn, a more detailed knowledge of the physical system can be obtained, and tools for a proper design of the processes, or for the analysis of operating problems, are attained. The modeling of these technologies can be carried out using single-variable or multivariable models. Likewise, the position dependence of the model species can be described with different approaches. In this work, a review of the basics of the modeling of these processes and a description of several representative models for electrochemical oxidation and coagulation are carried out. Regarding electrooxidation, two models are described: one which summarizes the pollution of a wastewater in only one model species and that considers a macroscopic approach to formulate the mass balances and other that considers more detailed profile of concentration to describe the time course of pollutants and intermediates through a mixed maximum gradient/macroscopic approach. On the topic of electrochemical coagulation, two different approaches are also described in this work: one that considers the hydrodynamic conditions as the main factor responsible for the electrochemical coagulation processes and the other that considers the chemical interaction of the reagents and the pollutants as the more significant processes in the description of the electrochemical coagulation of organic compounds. In addition, in this work it is also described a multivariable model

  1. Hair care formulations containing argan oil: development, stability and texture profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefânia Duz Delsin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop hair care cosmetic formulations containing argan oil to evaluate the stability and texture profile of these formulations. Shampoos, conditioners and leave-in formulations were developed with or without (vehicle argan oil in concentrations of 0.1, 2.0 and 2.0% (w/w respectively. The formulations were stored at room temperature (25°C, 37°C and 45°C for a period of 28 days and submitted to spreadability and texture tests using the Texture Analyser. For this purpose, work of shear and consistency parameters were determined. The results have shown that all formulations were stable and the argan oil-based formulations had a better spreadability when compared with the vehicle. This is a desirable effect, once cosmetic formulations which presents a lower values of work of shear are better accepted by cosmetic sensory panels. In addition, no difference was found between conditioners with or without argan oil in terms of texture profile, and leave-informulation with argan oil showed an increased consistency when compared with the vehicle. Finally, formulations with argan oil showed better the texture profile, therefore, it is a potential ingredient for use in hair care formulations.

  2. Potential application of oxygen containing gases to enhance gravity drainage in heavy oil bearing reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, I. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miscolc (Hungary). Lab. for Mining Chemistry; Bauer, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miscolc (Hungary). Lab. for Mining Chemistry; Lakatos-Szabo, J. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miscolc (Hungary). Lab. for Mining Chemistry

    1997-06-01

    In the frame of laboratory studies the effect of air/natural CO{sub 2} mixtures on chemical composition of crude oil and gas phase, the rheological and interfacial properties, the flow mechanism and the safety measures were analyzed. The tests were performed at reservoir conditions (200 bar and 109 C) using natural rock, oil and gas samples. The oxygen content of the gas phase and the gas/oil ratio varied within wide limits. Both crude and asphaltene-free oil were used to determine the consequences of the low temperature oxidation. On the basis of the experimental results it was found that the oxygen content of the cap gas had been completely consumed by the chemical reactions (oxidation, condensation and water formation) before the asphaltene content set in equilibrium. Nearly 9% excess asphaltene formation was observed in both the crude and the asphaltene-free oils. The substantial increase in asphaltene content and the presence of colloidal water results in a measurable change in rheological and interfacial properties. Despite these factors the flow and displacement mechanism is only slightly influenced if the reservoir is of fractured character. On the other hand the in-situ oxidation of this heavy crude oil improves the efficiency of bitumen production and the quality of product used mostly for road construction. As a final statement, it was concluded that replacing the CO{sub 2} with oxygen containing inert gas, the chemical reactions can be in-situ regulated without jeopardizing the recovery efficiency. Application of the artificial gas cap concept opens new perspectives in EOR technology of karstic and fractured reservoirs containing medium and heavy crude oils in those cases where CO{sub 2} or CH gas is not available. (orig./MSK)

  3. Analysis of snow-cap pollution for air quality assessment in the vicinity of an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastinyte, Viktorija; Baltrenaite, Edita; Lietuvninkas, Arvydas

    2013-01-01

    Snow-cap can be used as a simple and effective indicator of industrial air pollution. In this study snow-cap samples were collected from 11 sites located in the vicinity of an oil refinery in Mazeikiai, a region in the north-west of Lithuania, in the winter of 2011. Analysis of snowmelt water and snow-dust was used to determine anthropogenic pollutants such as: sulphates and chlorides, nitrites, nitrates, ammonium nitrogen, total carbon, total nitrogen; heavy metals: lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd). Concentrations of heavy metals in snow-dust were detected thousands of times higher than those in the snowmelt water. In this study, analysis of heavy metal concentration was conducted considering different distances and the wind direction within the impact zone of the oil refinery. The sequence of heavy metals according to their mean concentrations in the snow-dust samples was the following: Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. Heavy metals highly correlated among each other. The load of snow-dust was evaluated to determine the pollution level in the study area. The highest daily load of snow-dust was 45.81 +/- 12.35 mg/m2 in the north-western direction from the oil refinery. According to classification of the daily load of snow-dust a lower than medium-risk level of pollution was determined in the vicinity of the oil refinery.

  4. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  5. 77 FR 9303 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ..., for example, biomass co-fired EGUs because their use is not yet commonplace, we believe this... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial- Commercial-Institutional,...

  6. Effects of oil pollution and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on glycerophospholipids in liver and brain of male Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratberg, Mari; Olsvik, Pål A; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Brekken, Hans Kristian; Vadla, Reidun; Meier, Sonnich

    2013-02-01

    Fish in the North Sea are exposed to relatively high levels of halogenated compounds in addition to the pollutants released by oil production activities. In this study male Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were orally exposed to environmental realistic levels (low and high) of weathered crude oil and/or a mixture of POPs for 4weeks. Lipid composition in brain and in liver extracts were analysed in order to assess the effects of the various pollutants on membrane lipid composition and fatty acid profiles. Transcriptional effects in the liver were studied by microarray and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Chemical analyses confirmed uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in the liver and excretion of metabolites of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the bile. Treatment with POPs and/or crude oil did not induce significant changes in lipid composition in cod liver. Only a few minor changes were observed in the fatty acid profile of the brain and the lipid classes in the liver. The hypothesis that pollution from oil or POPs at environmental realistic levels alters the lipid composition in marine fish was therefore not confirmed in this study. However, the transcriptional data suggest that the fish were affected by the treatment at the mRNA level. This study suggests that a combination of oil and POPs induce the CYP1a detoxification system and gives an increase in the metabolism and clearing rate of PAHs and POPs, but with no effects on membrane lipids in male Atlantic cod.

  7. Study on Surface Adsorption and Inhibition Behavior of Corrosion Inhibitors Contained in Copper Foil Rolling Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Sang; Sun Jianlin; Jiang Wei; Xu Yang; Zeng Yingfeng; Xia Lei

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption and inhibition behavior of 2,5-bis(ethyldisulfanyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMTDA) andN-((6-methyl-1H -benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)methyl)-N-octyloctan-1-amine (EAMBA) as corrosion inhibitors contained in copper foil roll-ing oil have been investigated using gravimetric and electrochemical techniques. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) have been employed to observe the surface topography and analyze the components on copper foil. The results show that the rolling oil containing DMTDA and EAMBA can signiifcantly decrease the dissolution rate and increase the inhibition efifciency of samples, especially in the case of best compounded rolling oil system. The SEM and EDS investigations also conifrmed that the protection of the copper foil surface is achieved by strong adsorption of the molecules which can prevent copper from being corroded easily. Reactivity descriptors of the corrosion inhibitors have been calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) and the reactivity has been analyzed through the molecular orbital and Fukui indices. Active sites of inhibitor are mainly concentrated on the ring and the polar functional groups, and in the meanwhile, the distribution is helpful to form coordination and backbonding among molecules and then to form stable adsorption on the metal surface. And this work provides theoretical evidence for the selection of corrosion inhibitors contained in copper foil rolling oil.

  8. Development of high temperature resistant geomembranes for oil sands secondary containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A. [Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Martin, D. [Layfield Geosynthetics and Industrial Fabrics Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Plastic liner materials are often adversely impacted by chemicals at elevated temperatures. Heat accelerates the oxidation of the polymeric chains, which in turn accelerates the degradation of the plastic. This paper discussed geomembrane containment systems placed under heated petroleum storage tanks at an oil sands processing plant. Various high temperature-resistant geomembrane materials were tested. Compatibility testing procedures for the various fluids contained by the systems were outlined. Installation procedures for the membranes were also discussed. The membrane systems were designed for use with heavy gas oil; light gas oil; and naphtha. Temperatures in the ground below the tanks were approximately 79 degrees C. Testing was done using sealed containers held in an oil bath at temperatures of 105 degrees C. Heat applied to the chemicals during the tests pressurized the test vessels. Liner materials used in the initial tests included an ester-based thermoplastic polyurethane liner; high density polyethylene (HDPE); linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polypropylene (PP) olefins; polyvinyl chloride (PVC); and polyvinylidene (PVDF) materials. A second set of tests was then conducted using alloy materials and PVC. Heat stability tests demonstrated that the blue 0.75 mm alloy showed a tensile strength ratio within the industry's 15 per cent pass criteria. The samples were then tested with diluted bitumen and diluents at 65, 85 and 100 degrees C. The developed liners were installed underneath petroleum tanks with leak detection chambers. It was concluded that the geomembrane liners prevented the hot liquids from leaking. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  9. Arsenolipids in oil from blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou – evidence for arsenic-containing esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleshi, Mojtaba S.; Raber, Georg; Edmonds, John S.; Jensen, Kenneth B.; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic-containing lipids in the oil from the blue whiting fish (Micromesistius poutassou) were separated into three broad polarity groups and investigated by HPLC and mass spectrometry. A total of 11 arsenolipids including 4 new compounds were identified. The polar lipid fraction constituting 24% of the total arsenolipid content (which totalled 2.16 μg As/g) contained four known dimethylarsinoyl fatty acids and three known dimethylarsinoyl hydrocarbons. The less polar fraction (ca 30% of the total arsenolipids) contained four new dimethylarsinoyl hydrocarbons with chain lengths 22–30 carbons, in addition to more complex arsenicals that hydrolysed to known dimethylarsinoyl fatty acids suggesting they were conjugated carboxylic acids, presumably esters. The rest of the lipid-soluble arsenic (ca 45% of the total) remained in the non-polar fraction together with the bulk of the fish oil lipids, a complex mixture of compounds that precluded identification of the small amounts of arsenolipids. PMID:25502848

  10. [Pollution by wastewater from olive oil mills and drinking-water production. Case study of the Sebou river in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutlane, A; Saadallah, M; Echihabi, L; Bourchich, L

    2002-01-01

    The National Office for Drinking Water (ONEP), responsible for the drinking-water supply in Morocco, faces serious difficulties in producing water of good quality at a reasonable price from the River Sebou waters. The ONEP's three water treatment plants have been disrupted or even stopped due to the poor quality of waters received. The main source of pollution is the urban and industrial waste of the town of Fes, compounded by episodic pollution caused by the olive oil mills of Fes and its surrounding area. The ONEP study shows that the additional production costs incurred as a result of the pollution by wastewater from olive oil mills far exceeds the drinking-water rates charged in the study area.

  11. EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM TWO-STROKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM VARIOUS WASTE OILS AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Nikolić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping represents a significant source of diesel emissions, which affects global climate, air quality and human health. As a solution to this problem, biodiesel could be used as marine fuel, which could help in reducing the negative impact of shipping on environment and achieve lower carbon intensity in the sector. In Southern Europe, some oily wastes, such as wastes from olive oil production and used frying oils could be utilized for production of the second-generation biodiesel. The present research investigates the influence of the second-generation biodiesel on the characteristics of gaseous emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO from marine diesel engines. The marine diesel engine that was used, installed aboard a ship, was a reversible low-speed two-stroke engine, without any after-treatment devices installed or engine control technology for reducing pollutant emission. Tests were carried out on three regimes of engine speeds, 150 rpm, 180 rpm and 210 rpm under heavy propeller condition, while the ship was berthed in the harbor. The engine was fueled by diesel fuel and blends containing 7% and 20% v/v of three types of second-generation biodiesel made of olive husk oil, waste frying sunflower oil, and waste frying palm oil. A base-catalyzed transesterification was implemented for biodiesel production. According to the results, there are trends of NOx, SO2, and CO emission reduction when using blended fuels. Biodiesel made of olive husk oil showed better gaseous emission performances than biodiesel made from waste frying oils.

  12. Plant biotests in the bioindication of the rainfall pollution in an oil refinery region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukowska-Wieszczek, D.; Zimny, H.

    1980-01-01

    Rainfall was collected during spring and summer at four points localized in the vicinity of the largest oil refinery in Europe. The rain water was analyzed chemically by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Sulfur was estimated by nephelometric methods, chlorine was measured argentometrically and pH, electrometrically. Beans, beetroot and cucumber were grown in the rainwater. Rainwater collected near the industrial and oil refinery regions had a pH value ranging from 2.4 to 4.4. Chemical analysis showed that the water was high in minerals and pollution by heavy metal ions as well as having increased acidity due to sulfates, nitrates and nitrites. The germination capacity of seeds treated with rain water from the refinery region was significantly decreased in comparison to those germinating on distilled water. Impairment of seed germination capacity was higher for seeds germinating on water from the summer than from the spring rainfalls. Seedling growth, while vigorous at first, soon showed signs of shortening and thickening of the hypocotyl and maceration of root-cap. Beetroot showed the most significant changes. 5 references, 4 tables.

  13. Phytoassessment of a 5-Month Old Waste Engine Oil Polluted Soil after Augmentation with Pleurotus tuberregium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckley Ikhajiagbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a bioassessment of the effects of of substrate microbial augmentation on the bioremediation of Waste Engine Oil (WEO polluted soil. Four different concentrations of WEO in soil on weight basis were obtained by thoroughly mixing WEO in measured soil: 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% w/w. The unpolluted soil was used as the control (0% w/w experiment. The set up was left for 5 months without physically disturbing the soil. After 5 months, the soils were first amended with sawdust and then inoculated with mycelia of Pleurotus tuberregium. Nine months after bioaugmentation (9 MAB there was total (100% remediation of some PAH compounds (benzo(aanthracene, benzo(apyrene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(g,h,iperylene, benzo(kfluoranthene, chrysene, dibenzo(a,hanthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,dpyrene was recorded. Significant (p = 0.05 decreases in heavy metal concentration from 5-9 MAB resulted in significant reductions in Hazard Quotients (HQ, which implied less possibility for ecological risk for heavy metal constituents. Phytoassessment of the polluted soil was carried at 5MAP, and results showed that virtually all the cowpea seedlings died within 2 weeks. Only those seedlings in unpolluted soils survived. Nine months after readjustment of soil treatments, all cowpea plants survived up to fruiting, with grain yields in the most polluted soil being 15.25 g/plant compared to 26.01 g/plant in the control experiment. Although heavy metals were minimally accumulated in leaves and seeds of cowpea, bioaccumulation was not significant when Bioaccumulation Quotients (BQ were computed, with BQ value ranges as 0.01-0.05 in seeds and 0.0 -0.80 in leaves. Hydrocarbons was detected in cowpea leaves but not in the seeds.

  14. Role of environmental pollutants in liver physiology: special references to peoples living in the oil drilling sites of Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Tapan; Gogoi, Kabita; Unni, Balagopalan; Bharadwaz, Moonmee; Kalita, Munmi; Ozah, Dibyajyoti; Kalita, Manoj; Kalita, Jatin; Baruah, Pranab Kumar; Bora, Thaneswar

    2015-01-01

    The populations residing near polluted sites are more prone to various types of diseases. The important causes of air pollution are the suspended particulate matter, respirable suspended particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. As limited information is available enumerating the effect of these pollutants on liver physiology of the population living near the polluted sites; in the present study, we tried to investigate their effect on liver of the population residing near the oil drilling sites since birth. In this study, a randomly selected 105 subjects (46 subjects from oil drilling site and 61 subjects from control site) aged above 30 years were taken under consideration. The particulate matter as well as the gaseous pollutants, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, were analyzed through a respirable dust sampler. The level of alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase enzymes in serum were measured by spectrophotometer. The generalized regression model studies suggests a higher concentration of respirable suspended particulate matter, suspended particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide lowers the alkaline phosphatase level (pparticulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in air was associated with increase in alanine transaminase level (pliver abnormality or injury of populations living in polluted sites.

  15. Elaboration of Nanoparticles Containing Indomethacin: Argan Oil for Transdermal Local and Cosmetic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waisudin Badri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the preparation of nanocapsules which are intended for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We use Argan oil as vehicle of hydrophobic drugs such as indomethacin. Nanoprecipitation technique was used like a method for preparation of nanocapsules, where polycaprolactone, acetone, and Argan oil are used as polymer, solvent, and carrier, respectively. Primarily, investigation of Argan oil amount addition was performed; then systematic study to optimize the formulation was done. Nanocapsules containing indomethacin (loaded nanocapsules and others without indomethacin (blank nanocapsules were characterized by studying particles size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. It is shown that particle size ranged between 290 nm and 350 nm. The zeta potential values were negative (from −40 up to −50 mV while encapsulation efficiency ranged between 65 and 75%.

  16. Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

    2008-06-01

    Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

  17. Survey of Modified Clinoptilolite Zeolite and Cooper Oxide Nanoparticles-Containing Modified Clinoptilolite Efficiency for Polluted Air BTX Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhollah Rostami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives:Benzene, toluene and Xylenes (BTX are organic pollutants, which are mainly associated with oil and its derivatives. BTX is environmental contaminants and considered harmful to human health. Application of surface absorbents such as zeolite is one of several methods for the removal of these compounds. In this study, BTX compounds' removal efficiencies were investigated and compared by using clinoptilolite type zeolite and zeolite with copper oxide nanoparticles.Materials and Methods: In this study, the modified zeolite by hydrochloric acid in the grain size 1-2 mm and modified zeolite with nano particle of copper oxide were used.  Artificially- Contaminated Air flow was used continuously .To determine BTX concentrations, samplings were done by charcoal tube in current input and output. The concentrations of contaminants were determined by gas chromatography with FID detector.Results: Removal efficiency of benzene, toluene, p-xylene, m-xylene and o-xylene by clinoptilolite were 78.3%, 62.1%, 32.2% 32.15% and 18.8%, respectively. For the clinoptilolite containing copper oxide nano particles efficiency were 25.42%, 35.65%, 36.33%, 33.24% and 29.39%, respectively. Average removal efficiency of BTX compounds observed when the zeolite without nanoparticles used (43.31% was more than zeolite with nanoparticles (32%. The results showed that the concentration of CO2 in the outlet air of the zeolite-containing nanoparticle (550 ppm was more than the zeolite without nanoparticle (525 ppm.Conclusion: Results showed that adding nanoparticles to the zeolite, although the removal efficiency of benzene and toluene can be reduced. The results showed that adding nanoparticles to the zeolite, although can be reduced removal efficiency of benzene and toluene, which may be due to occupying or blocking of the pollution absorption sites by the nanoparticles on the

  18. Biodiesel Production from Waste Edible Oils and Grease Containing Free Fatty Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Fenghong; Guo Pingmei; Huang Qingde

    2005-01-01

    Till now, most part of the biodiesel is produced from the refined vegetable oils using methanol as feedstock in the presence of an alkali catalyst. However, large amount of waste edible oils and grease are available. The difficulty with alkali-catalyzed esterification of these oils is that they often contain large amount of free fatty acids (FFA), polymers and decomposition products. These free fatty acids can quickly react with the alkali catalyst to produce soaps that inhibit the separation of the ester and glycerine. An esterification and transesterification process is developed to convert the high FFA oil to its monoesters. The first step, the acidcatalyzed esterification with glycerine and these FFA reduces the FFA content of the oil and grease to less than3%, and then an azeotropic distillation solvent is used to remove the water. The major factors affecting the conversion efficiency of the process such as glycerol to free fatty acid molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction temperature and reaction duration are analyzed. The second step, alkali-catalyzed transesterification process converts the products of the first step to its monoesters and glycerol, and then the glycerol is recycled for utilization in the first step. Technical indicators of the biodiesel product can meet the ASTM 6751 standard.

  19. Effect of crude oil pollution on organic carbon and humus content in grey-brown soils in Mangyshlak,Pre-Caspian Sea Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saimbulek; DOSBERGENOV

    2010-01-01

    The organic carbon and humus content in oil polluted brown and grey-brown soils in Mangyshlak,Pre-Caspian Sea Region,was analyzed from 2000 to 2008.The results indicated that bitumen substances from crude oil pollution deteriorated the soil property,however,the organic carbon content increased significantly.The products of oil pollution changed the composition of car-bonaceous substances which formed soil humus,and changed the ratios of the humus components.Residual insoluble carbon increased with the rise of oil organic carbon.The mobility of humus components was significantly increased because of the high oxidation-reduction process in the topsoil,and the humus content and microorganism activity increased.The organic carbon content increased significantly,while it decreased with the distance away from the oil well.The rearrangement of physical,physical-chemical and chemical properties of the polluted soils was significant.

  20. Application of microwave energy for curing of molding sands containing oil binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This works presents the results of studies concerning possibility of application of microwave heating in the curing process of molding sands containing oil binders. Molding sands prepared with three kinds of binders, that is oils C, DL and Retanol, have been subject to experiments. The sands have been dried with two methods: in a microwave chamber of 750W power and, for comparison, with classical method at the temperature of 200°C for 120 minutes. Tensile and bending strength of the samples have been determined after cooling down. It has been found that microwave drying in the low-power device used for experiments is effective only in case of molding sand prepared with addition of DL binder. The temperature of heated, even up to 32 minutes in a microwave chamber, blocks prepared from the remaining two masses, was insufficient to initiate binding process. The undertaken attempts of binder modification and introduction of additives intensifying microwave heating process allowed for achievement of satisfactory results. It has been found that power of the heating device is the main factor determining efficiency of microwave curing of molding sands containing oil binders. An additional experiment has been conducted on a laboratory workstation allowing for microwave heating of small mass samples with a high output power of magnetron concentrated in a small substrate volume. It has been observed that microwave drying process of molding sands was of dynamic character over a short period of time, not exceeding 120 seconds, thus assuring efficient curing of the sands containing the used oil binders. Therefore, application of devices of properly high microwave output power allows for efficient drying of oil molding sands, while simultaneously assuring the possibility to reduce time and energy consumption necessary for production of foundry cores of proper functional characteristics.

  1. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigations on reliability of air barrier on oil containment in flowing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinshu; Xu, Zhenfeng; Xu, Song; Xie, Sensen; Wu, Haoxiao; Yang, Zhenbo; Liu, Xueqiang

    2015-06-15

    Air barriers have been recently developed and employed as a new type of oil containment boom. This paper presents systematic investigations on the reliability of air barriers on oil containments with the involvement of flowing water, which represents the commonly-seen shearing current in reality, by using both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Both the numerical and experimental investigations are carried out in a model scale. In the investigations, a submerged pipe with apertures is installed near the bottom of a tank to generate the air bubbles forming the air curtain; and, the shearing water flow is introduced by a narrow inlet near the mean free surface. The effects of the aperture configurations (including the size and the spacing of the aperture) and the location of the pipe on the effectiveness of the air barrier on preventing oil spreading are discussed in details with consideration of different air discharges and velocities of the flowing water. The research outcome provides a foundation for evaluating and/or improve the reliability of a air barrier on preventing spilled oil from further spreading.

  3. Research on the bioremediation of oil-polluted seawater in harbors%港口海域油污染生物修复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄耀明; 刘玉明; 陈伟; 李珂娴; 侯登勇; 罗群; 沈先荣; 吕立明; 何颖; 王庆蓉; 刘琼; 蒋定文

    2016-01-01

    目的:为港口海域油污染提供一种有效的生物修复手段。方法通过将分离获得的4株海洋油污染降解菌按比例混合,构成高效降解菌群,并将菌群固定在一种可降解可漂浮的生物固定载体上,制备成一种海洋油污染生物修复菌剂。利用围油栏在港口海域围成海水池,在海水池中加入柴油和原油混合物,模拟海洋环境油污染。在模拟油污染池中加入生物修复菌剂和亲油营养剂,进行生物修复。结果生物修复15 h后,肉眼观察对照池中还有较大量的浮油,生物修复栏中几乎看不到浮油。降解率测定结果显示生物修复的油污染去除率达到96.7%。结论制备的海洋油污染生物修复菌剂能快速高效地降解海洋油污染物。%Objective To provide an effective method for the bioremediation of seawater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon in harbors.Methods Four marine diesel-degrading strains isolated from diesel-polluted seawater were mixed proportionally to form an efficient bacterial consortium,and the consortium was immobilized on a floating and biodegradable carrier.The mixture of diesel and crude oil were added to the seawater pool which was constructed with an oil containment boom for the simulation of oil-polluted seawater in the harbor.The bacterial consortium formulation and oleophilic fertilizers were added to the seawater pool for bioremediation.Results Observation by the naked eye revealed that there was no obvious floating oil on the sea surface in the bioremediation pool,while there was plenty of floating oil in the control pool after 15 h.Test results showed that the degradation rate was as high as 96.7%.Conclusions The prepared bacterial consortium could effectively biodegrade oil pollutant in the harbor in a short time.

  4. Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait's greater Al-Burgan oil field on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the tissues of the desert lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus and their ant prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashem, Mona A; Brain, Paul F; Omar, Samira A

    2007-11-01

    Using indicator species to monitor the effects of oil pollution was thought to be useful to assess whether local desert reptiles and their insect prey could fulfill such a role in an area damaged in the second Gulf War (1990). Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot, and clear sites) located at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field were compared with control areas outside this region in study conducted in 2002. Five Acanthodactylus scutellatus lizards from each study and control site were humanely killed and stored in a freezer at -20 degrees C until analysis. Ants from the same sites were also collected and treated in a similar manner. Lizard and ant whole body tissues were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs). The study concentrated on sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), EPA priority pollutants used as indicators of petrogenic HC contamination. There were significantly different concentrations of total PAHs in lizards and ants among all four study sites. Of the 16 PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene were present in both lizard and ant samples from the Greater Al-Burgan oil field sites irrespective of the apparent degree of pollution but were undetectable in materials from the control sites. The range of total PAHs in lizards was 26.5-301 ng g(-1) and it was 6.7-82.1 ng g(-1) in ants. Concentrations increased progressively along an expected contamination gradient. Total PAHs were detected in biota even in an area (clear site) that did not appear, virtually, to contain petroleum soil pollution which supports the value of indicator biota species. For all three sites where PAHs were found in biota, the ratio of total PAHs in ants to lizards was consistently 3.3-3.4. These data show that, although 12 years have passed since the Kuwait oil spill catastrophe, all sites are still contaminated with PAHs. Use of

  5. Responses of macrobenthos colonizing estuarine sediments contaminated with drilling mud containing diesel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagatz, M.E.; Plaia, G.R.; Deans, C.H.

    1985-07-01

    Acute toxicities and sublethal effects were determined in several investigations for 11 types of drilling muds obtained from offshore drilling sites in the Gulf of Mexico, which the Petroleum Equipment Suppliers Association supplied to the Environmental Protection Agency. All were used muds that had been recycled during drilling. Those containing the highest amounts of No. 2 diesel fuel oil were the most acutely toxic to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), quahog clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), and sand dollars (Echinarachnius parma) and elicited the greatest sublethal responses in corals (Acropora cervicornis). A lignosulfonate mud was the most toxic, followed by a lime mud containing 3.98 mg diesel/g. The present study was initiated to determine the impact of the lime mud with its diesel oil component on field colonization by macrobenthos.

  6. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  7. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Chen, Grace Q

    2011-02-28

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fatty acid was proposed as 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid by the mass spectrometry of the lithiated adducts of acylglycerols in the HPLC fractions of castor oil. The fragmentation pathways of the lithiated adduct of 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid were proposed. We also proposed the biosynthetic pathways of polyhydroxy fatty acids in castor.

  8. Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field on the timing of morning emergence, basking and foraging behaviors by the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashem, M Abdulla; Brain, P F; Omar, S Ahmad

    2008-02-15

    An attempt was made to study the effects of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the second Gulf War) in Kuwait on the behaviour of the Sand lizard A. scutellatus. Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control areas outside this region. Between 2002 and 2003, ten lizards (5 of each sex) on each polluted and each control site were observed in the field at a time of the year when they were highly active. Air, substrate and burrow temperatures were recorded and lizards were monitored for their morning emergence times, as well as their basking and foraging activities. The present study confirmed that the morning emergence times and the basking behavior varied in sand lizards among the different pollution site categories. Physical changes in the tar mat sites caused the substrate temperatures in these locations to rise more quickly in the morning in response to solar gain than was the case in the other sites. This gives lizards in these locations the opportunity to emerge earlier and to start eating more quickly, giving them an energetic advantage (perhaps, in turn, influencing their rates of growth and fecundity). The clear sites had the next earliest emergence and were the next hottest but it is difficult to account for this in terms of the physical characteristics of this site. The basking times were clearly shorter on the dark soot and tar mat sites that appeared to have higher solar gain than control or clear sites. There did not appear to be any obvious differences in foraging activity of lizards in the different locations. It appears that some aspects of simple behaviour in these lizards provides a reliable, noninvasive indices for assessing oil pollution in desert locations. The precise impact of these changes in these reptiles on their long-term viability needs to be evaluated.

  9. Chronic consumption of farmed salmon containing persistent organic pollutants causes insulin resistance and obesity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Madani Ibrahim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary interventions are critical in the prevention of metabolic diseases. Yet, the effects of fatty fish consumption on type 2 diabetes remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a diet containing farmed salmon prevents or contributes to insulin resistance in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were fed control diet (C, a very high-fat diet without or with farmed Atlantic salmon fillet (VHF and VHF/S, respectively, and Western diet without or with farmed Atlantic salmon fillet (WD and WD/S, respectively. Other mice were fed VHF containing farmed salmon fillet with reduced concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (VHF/S(-POPs. We assessed body weight gain, fat mass, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, ex vivo muscle glucose uptake, performed histology and immunohistochemistry analysis, and investigated gene and protein expression. In comparison with animals fed VHF and WD, consumption of both VHF/S and WD/S exaggerated insulin resistance, visceral obesity, and glucose intolerance. In addition, the ability of insulin to stimulate Akt phosphorylation and muscle glucose uptake was impaired in mice fed farmed salmon. Relative to VHF/S-fed mice, animals fed VHF/S(-POPs had less body burdens of POPs, accumulated less visceral fat, and had reduced mRNA levels of TNFα as well as macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue. VHF/S(-POPs-fed mice further exhibited better insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance than mice fed VHF/S. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that intake of farmed salmon fillet contributes to several metabolic disorders linked to type 2 diabetes and obesity, and suggest a role of POPs in these deleterious effects. Overall, these findings may participate to improve nutritional strategies for the prevention and therapy of insulin resistance.

  10. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of nanoemulsions containing Eucalyptus globulus oil against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatrin, Priscilla Maciel; Verdi, Camila Marina; Ebling de Souza, Márcia; Nunes de Godoi, Samantha; Klein, Bruna; Gundel, Andre; Wagner, Roger; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Vianna Santos, Roberto Christ

    2017-09-29

    Candida species are the main responsible microorganisms for causing fungal infections worldwide, and Candida albicans is most frequently associated with infectious processes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium commonly found in immunocompromised patients. The infection persistence caused by these microorganisms is often related to antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. In this context, the objective of the present study was to prepare and characterize nanoemulsions containing Eucalyptus globulus oil and to verify its antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities against P. aeruginosa and Candida spp. The nanoemulsions had a size of approximately 76 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.22, a zeta potential of - 9,42 mV and a pH of approximately 5.0. The E. globulus oil was characterized by gas chromatography, being possible to observe its main components, such as 1-8-Cineol (75.8%), p- Cymene (7.5%), α-Pinene (7.4%) and Limonene (6.4%). The antimicrobial activity of the nanoemulsion was determined from the macrodilution tests and the cell viability curve, where the minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.7 mg/mL for C. albicans and 1.4 mg/mL for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata were obtained. However, the nanoemulsions did not present antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, since it contains only 5% of the oil, being ineffective for this microorganism. The nanoencapsulated oil action against the formed biofilm was evaluated by atomic force microscopy and calcofluor staining, and the nanoemulsion was more efficient for two of the three Candida species when compared to free oil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Assessment of the physicochemical and microbiological status of western Niger Delta soil for crude oil pollution bioremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejechi, Bernard O; Ozochi, Chizoba A

    2015-06-01

    The physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil across the western Niger Delta area of Nigeria were determined to assess its potential for natural remediation of crude oil pollution. The pH (oil-producing area, 6.1 ± 1.1; non-oil producing, 5.9 ± 0.9) and temperature (28-35 °C in both areas) were favourable to natural remediation, while the fluctuating moisture (7.7-45.6 %) and the dominant sandy soil textural classes (70 %) were limitations. The carbon nitrogen phosphorus (CNP) ratio markedly exceeded recommended 100:10:1, while the cation exchange capacity was below acceptable range. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and hydrocarbon-utilising and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (mean range log10 3.8 ± 1.5-6.52 ± 0.9 cfu/g) were favourable having markedly exceeded the minimum counts required. Crude oil loss was highest in loam soil, but significantly (P = 0.00) increased in all soil textural classes including sandy soils after amendment with cow dung/poultry dropping and manual aeration in laboratory and 8-month field tests as indicated by two-way ANOVA. Thus, the overall assessment is that while CNP can be viewed as the major limiting factor to natural oil pollution remediation in the western Niger Delta soil, its influence can be minimised by the amendment indicated in the study.

  12. Hindcast of oil-spill pollution during the Lebanon crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean, July-August 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppini, Giovanni; De Dominicis, Michela; Zodiatis, George; Lardner, Robin; Pinardi, Nadia; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Bignami, Francesco; Hayes, Daniel R; Soloviev, Dmitry; Georgiou, Georgios; Kallos, George

    2011-01-01

    MOON (Mediterranean Operational Oceanography Network http://www.moon-oceanforecasting.eu) provides near-real-time information on oil-spill detection (ocean color and SAR) and predictions [ocean forecasts (MFS and CYCOFOS) and oil-spill predictions (MEDSLIK)]. We employ this system to study the Lebanese oil-pollution crisis in summer 2006 and thus to assist regional and local decision makers in Europe, regionally and locally. The MEDSLIK oil-spill predictions obtained using CYCOFOS high-resolution ocean fields are compared with those obtained using lower-resolution MFS hydrodynamics, and both are validated against satellite observations. The predicted beached oil distributions along the Lebanese and Syrian coasts are compared with in situ observations. The oil-spill predictions are able to simulate the northward movement of the oil spill, with the CYCOFOS predictions being in better agreement with satellite observations. Among the free MEDSLIK parameters tested in the sensitivity experiments, the drift factor appears to be the most relevant to improve the quality of the results.

  13. Effects of mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) derived from cod liver oil on H295R steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño, M; Zimmer, K E; Dahl, E; Berg, V; Olsaker, I; Skaare, J U; Murk, A J; Ropstad, E; Verhaegen, S

    2011-09-01

    Crude cod liver oil and liver oil supplements are consumed as a source of vitamin A, D and polyunsaturated fatty acids; during winter and early pregnancy. Crude cod liver oil however constitutes a considerable source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This paper aimed at characterizing and quantifying the influence of POP mixtures extracted from three different steps in the cod liver oil industrial process on hormone production and the expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in H295R cells. Exposure to extracts from crude cod liver oil and from its industrial waste increased progesterone (P4), cortisol (Cort), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) production; and among others, the expression of MC2R, CYP11B1 and HSD3B2 genes. Observed effects after exposure to pharmaceutical cod liver oil extract were considerably lower. The type of effects on gene expression and hormone production were similar to those induced by forskolin and PCBs, the latter being the major contaminants within the extracts. Additional research is required to further unveil the mechanisms behind the observed steroidogenic effects and to assess whether the potential risk might outweigh the potential benefits of crude and processed cod liver oil consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Oil pollution status expressed as the fraction of dissolved and dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A; Gómez-Ramírez, Eddy; García-Céspedes, Jairo

    2004-12-01

    Four coastal ecosystems with contrasting characteristics were sampled in Costa Rica (2000-2002). Oil pollution status, expressed as the fraction of dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons related to chrysene equivalents, was determined by the molecular fluorescence analytical technique. A total of 130 water samples were taken, from the Caribbean (Moín Bay), and from the Pacific (Bahía Culebra, Gulf of Nicoya and Dulce Gulf). On one occasion, seven samples along the Puntarenas estuary were also analysed. In Moín the mean and standard deviation were 0.10 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.18 micro x L(-1), ranging from non detectable (nd) to 0.65 microg x L(-1). For the Pacific ecosystems the total range was from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). In Bahia Culebra no fluorescence signals were obtained. In the Gulf of Nicoya the mean and standard deviation were 0.04 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.09 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.33 microg x L(-1). Values in Dulce Gulf were 0.05 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.11 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). Along the Puntarenas estuary the range was 0.17 to 5.91 microg x L(-1), with a mean of 1.21 microg x L(-1) and a standard deviation of +/- 2.10 microg x L(-1). The four coastal ecosystems had concentrations below the 10 microg x L(-1) limit for polluted oceanic areas. The Puntarenas estuary reflects the influence of antropogenic activities from and around the City of Puntarenas. These levels are considered low for inshore waters.

  15. Interactive factors leading to dying-off Carex tato in Momoge wetland polluted by crude oil, Western Jilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiangliang; Zhang, Daoyong; Quan, Liu

    2006-12-01

    Momoge wetland is an internationally important wetland not only because it is a habitat for many rare bird species but also because it is an internationally important stopover for some rare global migratory bird species. However the petroleum exploitation in wetland has brought about many environmental problems. One of the most severe problems is crude oil pollution, which has caused the dying-off Carex tato and imposes great threat on survival of rare birds. This work studied the factors that caused the dying off of Carex tato. The results showed that death of Carex tato was the result narcosis toxicity of alcohols, intermediate biodegradation products of crude oil, on the root tissue, and the fragmentization of cuticle of leaves by light components of crude oil volatized from soil surface. However, the mechanism involved was much more complex and three interactive factors including crude oil pollution of soil, long-term drought and poor permeability of soil were responsible for the dying-off of Carex tato grassland. The distribution of crude oil in soil profile was characterized with high concentrations at top silty layer and the layer below root zone and low or no crude oil at root zone layer. This distribution was relative to root system characteristics and rhizospheric biodegradation. In root zone, substantive oxygen could be transported to root zone through dense root system and well developed aerenchyma. The crude oil in root zone was easily biodegraded by aerobic rhizosphere microbes. However, some toxic intermediate products, such as some alcohols, was sealed in root zone due to poor permeability of the top soil layer and the deeper soil layer and they had lethal effects on root tissue. Above ground, low molecular components of crude oil in top soil layer was easily volatized into atmosphere during long-term drought. Some of the volatized components were adsorbed onto leaves. SEM analysis showed that these components destroyed the leaves by fragmentization

  16. Rheological and tribological behaviour of lubricating oils containing platelet MoS2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qingming; Jin, Yi; Sun, Pengcheng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-05-01

    This work concerns rheological and frictional behaviour of lubricating oils containing platelet molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoparticles (average diameter 50 nm; single layer thickness 3 nm). Stable nano-MoS2 lubricants were formulated and measured for their rheological behaviour and tribological performance. Rheological experiments showed that the nano-MoS2 oils were non-Newtonian following the Bingham plastic fluid model. The viscosity data fitted the classic Hinch-Leal (H-L) model if an agglomeration factor of 1.72 was introduced. Tribological experiments indicated that the use of MoS2 nanoparticles could enhance significantly the tribological performance of the base lubricating oil (reduced frictional coefficient, reduced surface wear and increased stability). Scanning electron microscopy, laser confocal microscope and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses suggested that the reduced frictional coefficient and surface wear be associated with surface patching effects. Such patching effects were shown to depend on the concentration of MoS2 nanoparticles, and an effective patching required a concentration over approximately 1 wt%. The increased stability could be attributed to the enhanced heat transfer and lubricating oil film strength due to the presence of nanoparticles.

  17. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H. G.;

    2013-01-01

    dominant arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in addition to one minor unidentified compound were detected in all the oils using GC-ICPMS. The molecular structures of the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons, dimethylarsinoyl hydrocarbons (C17H38AsO, C19H42AsO, C23H38AsO), were verified using GC coupled to tandem......The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted...... of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg-1. Three...

  18. Receptor Modeling of Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and SpatialDistribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of inorganic air pollutant emissions to atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada was investigated in the surrounding boreal forests, using a common epiphytic lichen bio-indicator species (Hypogymnia physodes) and applyi...

  19. Receptor Modeling of Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and SpatialDistribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of inorganic air pollutant emissions to atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada was investigated in the surrounding boreal forests, using a common epiphytic lichen bio-indicator species (Hypogymnia physodes) and applyi...

  20. Subchronic toxicity of Baltic herring oil and its fractions in the rat I: Fractionation and levels of organohalogen pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Mattias; Stern, Natalia; Jensen, Sören; Wesén, Clas; Haglund, Peter; Casabona, Helena; Johansson, Niklas; Blomgren, Kajsa; Håkansson, Helen

    2002-11-01

    Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) oil was extracted and fractionated. To examine the contribution to toxicity and biological effects of different halogenated organic pollutants, the herring oil and the fractions were mixed into pelleted food and given to Sprague-Dawley female rats at three levels, corresponding to a human intake of 1.6, 8.2 and 34.4 kg fish per week. Herring oil, its fractions, as well as liver tissues from exposed rats, were analyzed for: eight chlorinated biphenyls, all 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorocyclohexanes, hexachlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), DDT-metabolites, three brominated diphenylethers as well as extractable organically bound chlorine and halogenated fatty acids. A bioassay (EROD) was used for measuring the dioxin-like enzyme induction activity. Nordic Sea lodda (Mallotus villosus) oil was used as a nutritionally equivalent control, with much lower levels of halogenated organic pollutants. A full toxicological subchronic examination is reported in the following paper (Stern et al. 2002). In this study, we report that the fractionation procedure resulted in a substantial reduction of most of the pollutants in the triacylglycerol fraction, and a pronounced enrichment of most of the pollutants into the two other fractions. However, all contaminants were present at some levels in all of the fractions. The concentrations of organohalogens found in this study were representative for Baltic herring during the mid-1990s. Rat liver tissue showed similar residue patterns as the diet, with the exception of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners that had a higher liver retention than pesticides, chlorinated biphenyls and brominated diphenylethers.

  1. Synergistic action of rhizospheric fungi with Megathyrsus maximus root speeds up hydrocarbon degradation kinetics in oil polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemoloye, Michael Dare; Ahmad, Rafiq; Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed at combining the potentials of plant and some rhizospheric fungal strains in remediation of crude-oil polluted soil. Four new rhizospheric fungi were identified from an aged crude-oil polluted site and used with Megathyrsus maximus (guinea grass) for a 90 day synergistic remediation experiment. Cultures of these strains were first mixed with spent mushroom compost (SMC), the mixture was then applied to a sterilized crude oil polluted soil at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% potted in three replicates. Soil with plant alone (0%1) and soil with fungi-SMC alone (0%2) served as controls. The soil's initial and final pH, nutrient, 16 EPA PAHs and heavy metal contents were determined, degradation rate, half-life and percentage loss of the total polyaromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) were also calculated. Finally, the remediated soils were further screened for seed germination supporting index. The fungal strains were identified and registered at NCBI as Aspergillus niger asemoA (KY473958.1), Talaromyces purpurogenus asemoF (KY488463.1), Trichoderma harzianum asemoJ (KY488466.1) and Aspergillus flavus asemoM (KY488467.1). We observed for the first time that the synergistic mechanism improved the soil nutrient, reduced the heavy metal concentration and sped up hydrocarbon degradation rate. Using the initial and final concentrations of the TPAH, we recorded highest biodegradation rates (K1) and half-life (t1/2) in 30 and 40% treatments over controls, these treatments also had highest seed germination supporting index. This work suggests that the set-up synergistic remediation could be used to remediate crude oil polluted soil and this could be used in large scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN LIFE CYCLE OF DIESEL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Haller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following article is an analysis of designed processes of the life cycle of the most popular fuel for Diesel engines: diesel oil. This fuel is produced from petroleum, which is a non-renewable source of energy. Analysis was carried out with the assumptions of Life Cycle Assessment, which is a tool to test the environmental impact of the product. The life cycle of diesel was divided into five unit processes: petroleum extraction, transport of petroleum to the refinery, refining petroleum to diesel, transport of diesel to the recipient and utilization of delivered fuel by transport company. For every process the energy consumption and emission of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulphursulphur oxides was calculated, with assumption of probable data, that could occur in real processes. The analysis has shown, that the process of refining petroleum is highly pollution-intensive. Also the combustion of diesel generates a significant amount of pollutants’ emission, which is why it is necessary to develop technologies that could contribute to the reduction of emission.

  3. Crude Oil-polluted Soil Induces Ultrastructural and Enzyme Activity Changes in the Shoot of Lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Minai-Tehrani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are always under threat due to various biotic and abiotic stresses. They respond to such threats by an efficient antioxidative enzyme system such as catalase. The presence of petroleum in soil is a stressful environmental factor for plants. In this study, cellular and biochemical changes were investigated in the shoot of lentil grown in the crude oil-polluted soil. Transmission electron microscope micrographs showed various injuries in the level of subcellular content including nucleus, chloroplast and mitochondria. In the treated samples, catalase activity and its kinetics factors (Vmax and Km were different from the control. In the treated, Km of the enzyme was lower than that of the control. Temperature and pH profiles of the enzyme were different in the control and treated samples. Catalase purification in both treated and control samples showed that two catalase isoforms were expressed in the treated sample in comparison to the control, in which only one type of catalase was detected.

  4. Effect of oil pollution on gluthione and relative enzyme in oyster (Saccostrea cuculiata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣; 郑微云; 余群; 郁昂; 彭荔红

    2003-01-01

    The oysters ( Saccostrea cuculiata ) were collected from four stations around Xiamen Is-land (Lundu Port, Xinglin Bay, Tong' an Bay, Huangcuo). The relation between the level ofpetroleum hydrocarbon in whole tissue and the contents of glutathione (GSH), the activity of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in digestive gland andgill were investigated. The results showed: (1) The contents of petroleum hydrocarbon in oyster collect-ed from four stations (Lundu Port, Xinglin Bay, Tong' an Bay, Huangcuo) were 380.68, 112.34,27.31, 20.37 μg/g wet weight, respectively; (2) the activity of Se-GPx and GST in digestive glandwas lower than that in gill, and the content of GSH seemed reversibly; (3) among the four stations,both Se-GPx and GST activity of digestive gland and gill in Saccostrea cuculiata sampled from the fourstations showed a good correlation with whole tissue petroleum hydrocarbon, could be as biomarkers ofsea oil pollution.

  5. Measures to prevent oil pollution in oceans, and their preservation effect; Kaiyo no abura osen no boshi taisaku to hozen koka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoda, T.; Fukuchi, N.; Fujii, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sato, S.

    1996-04-10

    It was intended to confirm, based on various problems surrounding oil flow-out accidents, that oil fences whose use is first considered when an oil flow-out accident occurs cause oil leakage due to oil pass-through phenomenon as the largest defect in performance of oil fences. Therefore, oil fence performance was analyzed by using a simulation. Furthermore, several types of diffusion prevention and avoidance measures, and combinations thereof were evaluated by using multi-criteria analysis. It was also elucidated how recognitions on the importance of methods to prevent oil pollution differ depending on standpoints. Difference in oil flow-out prevention performance of oil fences due to variation in tidal currents was made clear by combining a diffusion simulation using the finite element method with the prevention performance of oil fences relative to the tidal currents. In areas with no good hydrographic conditions where pollution spreads rapidly, it is necessary to suppress oil diffusion by extending oil fences double or triple, and using gelling agents. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Influence of satellite alerts on the efficiency of aircraft monitoring of maritime oil pollution in German waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmke, Peer; Baschek, Björn; Hunsänger, Thomas; Kranz, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    For detecting accidental and illegal pollution by mineral oil, the German exclusive economic zone and surrounding waters have been monitored by aircraft operationally for more than 25 years. Aircraft surveillance uses predominantly Side-Looking-Airborne-Radar for visualization of the effect of oil to smoothen capillary waves. A set of near range sensors complements the remote sensing data available for the human operator to classify the detected features as "mineral oil", "natural phenomenon", "other substance" or "unknown" pollution. Today, as an add-on to aerial surveillance, the German Central Command of Maritime Emergencies uses the operational satellite service "CleanSeaNet" provided by the European Maritime Safety Agency: Radar satellite data is analyzed in near real time and alerts of potential pollution are sent out. Shortly after receiving the results, aircraft surveillance flights are started by the 3rd Naval Air Wing and the locations of the satellite alerts are checked. Thus, a combined system of satellite and aerial surveillance is in place. The German Federal Institute of Hydrology, BfG, has access to the data of the pollution events detected during these flights and the corresponding meta-data of flights and satellite images. In this work, a period of two years of this data is analyzed. The probability to detect pollutions is evaluated for (A) flight missions associated with satellite scenes, and (B) additional flights performed independently from satellite scenes. Thus, the influence of satellite alerts on the efficiency of aircraft monitoring is investigated. Coverage and coordination of the monitoring by aircraft and satellite are assessed and implications for the operational monitoring are discussed.

  7. Assessment of Metal Pollution of Soil and Diagnostic Species Associated with Oil Spills in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O Fatoba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An ecological impact assessment of crude-oil spills was carried out on the environment of an oil-rich community in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Samples of the topsoil (0−15 cm, subsoil (15−25 cm and the dominant species Gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus were collected using the transect method from the point of spills. The samples were also collected from an unimpacted location (control. The samples were wet-digested and the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while the physico-chemical properties of the topsoil were determined by standard methods. The data were subjected to Student t test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation analysis, and the models for pollution assessment were employed to assess the pollution status of the soil and plant species. The results showed that concentrations of Pb, Cu and Zn in the topsoil exceeded international standards at close proximity to point of spills (0−200 m, while Cd concentrations exceeded the international standard at all the locations. Only Cd exceeded the international standard in the subsoil. Contamination (Pi and integrated pollution (Pc indices of the topsoil showed reducing trends from the point of pollution, and locations at 0 m and 100 m exhibited high Pc, while those at 200 m showed moderate Pc by all metals. The levels of Pb and Cd in the diagnostic species exceeded the World Health Organization limits and the pollution load index (PLI portrayed severe contamination. In conclusion, the impact of crude-oil spills in the area was significant; soil remediation is important to avert ecological and human health disasters. Moreover, these findings will be useful for designing strategic measures for environmental control in the area. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.3.12474

  8. Micromechanical modelling of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres containing silica bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Farah Nadia; Hanipah, Suhaiza Hanim; Xiang, Loo Yu; Mohammed, Mohd Afandi P; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Abdullah, Jaafar

    2016-09-01

    Experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to study the micromechanics of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres containing silica bodies. The finite viscoelastic-plastic material model called Parallel Rheological Network model was proposed, that fitted well with cyclic and stress relaxation tensile tests of the fibres. Representative volume element and microstructure models were developed using finite element method, where the models information was obtained from microscopy and X-ray micro-tomography analyses. Simulation results showed that difference of the fibres model with silica bodies and those without ones is larger under shear than compression and tension. However, in comparison to geometrical effect (i.e. silica bodies), it is suggested that ultrastructure components of the fibres (modelled using finite viscoelastic-plastic model) is responsible for the complex mechanical behaviour of oil palm fibres. This can be due to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components and the interface behaviour, as reported on other lignocellulosic materials.

  9. Organic geochemical approach in the identification of oil-type pollutants in water and sediment of the River Ibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an applied organic geochemical approach in studying the nature of organic matter (OM in water and sediments of the River Ibar (upsteream and downstream of towns Kosovska Mitrovica and Kraljevo was used. A forensic approach that relies on the fact that the composition of OM of recent sediments and oil varies due to geological age and maturity was applied. The content of bitumen, its group composition of saturated, aromatic and NSO compounds (nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen compounds and the distribution of n-alkanes in saturated fractions identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (in almost all samples incorporated into the colloidal micelles formed by water and NSO compounds could not answer the question whether OM in isolated extracts has native or anthropogenic origin. However, the presence of sterane and terpane, with the distribution of structural and stereochemical isomers characteristic of oil, as a form of most matture OM in sediments, unambiguously confirmed presence of oil type pollutants in anlayzed samples. Based on significant differences in the distributions of these polycyclic alkane (water–water, sediment–sediment and water–sediment, it was concluded that they have more than one source of pollution, and that the River Ibar is permanently exposed to this form of pollution. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 176006

  10. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Arcinas, Arthur; Harden, Leslie A

    2009-04-01

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C(18) HPLC fractions of castor oil were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of lithium adducts to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids and the dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were diOH18:1-diOH18:1, diOH18:2-OH18:1, diOH18:1-OH18:1 and diOH18:0-OH18:1. Eight triacylglycerols identified were diOH18:1-diOH18:1-diOH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:1-diOH18:0, diOH18:2-diOH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:0-OH18:1, diOH18:2-OH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-OH18:1-OH18:1 and diOH18:0-OH18:1-OH18:1. The locations of fatty acids on the glycerol backbone were not determined. The structures of these three newly identified dihydroxy fatty acids were proposed as 11,12-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid, 11,12-dihydroxy-9,13-octadecadienoic acid and 11,12-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid. These individual acylglycerols were at the levels of about 0.5% or less in castor oil and can be isolated from castor oil or overproduced in a transgenic oil seed plant for future industrial uses.

  11. Fatty Acid Digestion and Deposition in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Either Native or Randomized Palm Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Lobee, H.W.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that randomization of palm oil would increase its digestibility, especially that of its palmitic acid (C16:0) component, with subsequent changes in the fatty acid composition in body tissues. Broiler chickens were fed diets containing either native or randomized palm oil. D

  12. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor (Ricinus communis L.)oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spectrometry to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were...

  13. Tribological Behaviors of S,B-Containing Morpholine Derivatives as Additives in Rapeseed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Chengkai; Li Fenfang; Sheng Liping

    2008-01-01

    Two novel ashless and non-phosphorus S,B-containing morpholine derivatives,MBOC and MBOD,were prepared and their tribological behaviors in rapeseed oil (RSO) were evaluated using a four-ball tester.Thermal degradation tests were conducted to identify their thermal stabilities using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer.The worn surfaces of the steel balls were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The results indicated that the additives possessed high thermal stabilities and good load-carrying capacities.Moreover,they both had good anti-wear and friction reducing property at a relatively high concentration (1.5 m%) and under all test loads.The resuits of XPS analyses illustrated that the prepared compounds as additives in RSO could form a protective film containing inorganic sulfide,sulfate,oxidized compounds and organic nitrogen-containing compounds on the metal surface during the sliding process.

  14. Twenty years of Belgian North Sea aerial surveillance: a quantitative analysis of results confirms effectiveness of international oil pollution legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagring, Ruth; Degraer, Steven; de Montpellier, Géraldine; Jacques, Thierry; Van Roy, Ward; Schallier, Ronny

    2012-03-01

    Over the years many policy measures have been taken to prevent illegal oil discharges from ships, like the MARPOL 73/78 Convention (1983) and the Bonn Agreement (1969/1983). However, the number of discharges remained high, leading to chronic oiling of seabirds and sensitive coastlines, therefore further measures were taken. The aim of this study is to quantify the effectiveness of two key legislative regulations: the IMO-designation of the North Sea as MARPOL Special Area which took effect in 1999, and the adoption of the EU Directive on Port Reception Facilities in 2000. Under study is the heavily navigated Belgian Surveillance Area, monitored since 1991, characterised by shallow waters with ecologically important sandbanks. The aerial surveillance data from 1991 to 2010 show a stepwise decrease in ship-source oil pollution. Three time periods can be distinguished with two turning points coinciding with the actual implementation of these key legislative measures, confirming their effectiveness.

  15. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  16. Effect of an essential oil-containing mouth rinse on VSC-producing bacteria on the tongue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of a commercially available essential oil-containing mouth rinse 12 hours after a single rinse and two weeks of twice daily...

  17. Preparation and Evaluation of Microcapsule Containing Volatile Oil of Herba Schizonepetae by Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立国; 欧阳霄雯; 倪力军; 史万忠

    2014-01-01

    Microcapsules of volatile oil containing Herba Schizonepetae (VOHS) were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method to improve the drug loading and reduce the amount of pharmaceutical excipients. Orthogonal assay was applied to optimize the preparation condition of microcapsulation, and the results illustrated that the ratio of ethyl cellulose (EC) to VOHS influenced the property of VOHS microcapsule significantly. GC-MS analysis indicated that some volatile components with low concentration in VOHS were lost after microencapsulation. The microcapsules prepared with optimum condition had good fluidity, and the holes on the surface of the microcapsules contributed to the release of VOHS. The particles of the microcapsule conformed to a normal distribution with the diameter of 45-220 µm. In the simulated intestinal fluid containing 0.2% sodium dodecyl sulfate, pulegone in VOHS microcapsule showed a certain degree of slow release. Compared withβ-cyclodextrin method, the microencapsulation used in the present work could reduce the amount of excipients and increase the drug loading. It was beneficial to reduce the dose of Chinese medicines containing volatile oils.

  18. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soressa M. Kitessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3. However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  19. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-05-22

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  20. Implications of crude oil pollution on natural regeneration of plant spe-cies in an oil-producing community in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U.D Chima; G. Vure

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the impact of crude oil pollution on natu-ral regeneration of plant species in a major oil-producing community in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three sites-unpolluted site (US), polluted and untreated site (PUS), and polluted and treated site (PTS)-were purposively chosen for the study. The seedling emergence method was used to evaluate soil seed banks in the various sites at two depths, 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm. Woody-plant species richness, abundance, and diversity were higher in the US seed bank than in the PUS and PTS seed banks. The highest number of non-woody plants was observed in the US, followed by the PTS, and then the PUS. Both species richness and diversity of non-woody plants were highest at the US, followed by the PUS, and lowest in the PTS. Woody species in the US seed bank were 87.5% and 80% dissimilar with those of the PUS and PTS at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm respectively. No variation was observed between woody species in the PUS and PTS seed banks. Non-woody species at 0-10 cm US seed bank were 73.08% dissimilar with those of PUS at the two soil depths and 81.48/88.46%dissimilar with those of the 0-10/10-20 cm of the PTS respectively. At 10-20 cm, non-woody species of the US were 69.66% dissimilar with those from each of the two soil depths in PUS;and 73.91/81.82% dissimilar with those of 0-10/10-20 cm of the PTS respectively. Non-woody species variation between the PUS and PTS was higher at 10-20 cm than 0-10 cm. The poor seed bank attributes at the polluted sites demonstrates that crude oil pollution negatively af-fected the natural regeneration potential of the native flora because soil seed banks serve as the building blocks for plant succession. Thorough remediation and enrichment planting are recommended to support the recovery process of vegetation in the polluted areas.

  1. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, C N; MacKenzie, A R; Di Carlo, P; Di Marco, C F; Dorsey, J R; Evans, M; Fowler, D; Gallagher, M W; Hopkins, J R; Jones, C E; Langford, B; Lee, J D; Lewis, A C; Lim, S F; McQuaid, J; Misztal, P; Moller, S J; Monks, P S; Nemitz, E; Oram, D E; Owen, S M; Phillips, G J; Pugh, T A M; Pyle, J A; Reeves, C E; Ryder, J; Siong, J; Skiba, U; Stewart, D J

    2009-11-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an "environmentally friendly" fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O(3)), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O(3) concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O(3) concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (10(9)) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  2. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nick; Lee, James

    2010-05-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an ‘‘environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  3. ANTIFUNGAL EFFECT OF ZINC OXIDE BASED PASTES CONTAINING VARIOUS ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS AND COMPARISON OF ITS EFFECT WITH ZINC OXIDE EUGENOL

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Nilima Thosar*, Dr. Manoj Chandak, Dr.Manohar Bhat, Dr.Silpi Basak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endodontic treatment of primary teeth is required to eliminate microorganisms from the infected root canals having complex root canal anatomy. Objectives: To assess the antifungal effect of zinc oxide paste with tea tree oil, thyme oil, peppermint oil on candida albicans and to compare it with zinc oxide eugenol paste. Materials and methods: Zinc oxide pastes containing essential oils used in the present study were zinc oxide tea tree oil paste (ZOT); zinc oxide thyme oil ...

  4. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DENTAL GEL CONTAINING ESSENTIAL OIL OF CORIANDER AGAINST ORAL PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar Vinita A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potency of essential oil of Coriander against clinical samples isolated from the oral cavity of various patients and to formulate a suitable topical preparation containing Coriander oil. A total of 41 swabs were obtained from patients (age between 20 - 50 years which were diagnosed with oral infections like periodontal abscess, periapical abscess, chronic periodontities, periapical granuloma, dental caries, root caries and plaque samples. These samples were inoculated on Blood agar, Mac-conkeys agar and MRS Lactobacilli MRS agar, Mutans Sanguis agar, KF Streptococcal agar at 37°C for 24 – 48 h aerobically except for KF Streptococcal agar and Mutans Sanguis agar, which was incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 – 48 h. The isolates were identified by standard microbiological procedures. The samples had positive cultures of Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Lactobacilli, CONS. The susceptibility of these isolates was determined using agar disc diffusion method for zone of inhibition. The evaluation of antimicrobial potency was studied prior to gel formulation to compare the changes in activity after incorporation in polymer gel. The topical formulations were developed using different concentrations of polymers and evaluated for various physicochemical parameters like pH, color, clarity, viscosity, consistency, homogeneity, spread ability. The activity of oil was not much affected by incorporation in gel. The gel showed promising antimicrobial activity against the strains used for the study.

  5. [Influence of dietary therapy containing sunflower oil fortified with phospholipids on the lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshigina, S; Gapparov, M M; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Kulakov, S N

    2007-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of dietary therapy containing sunflower oil with phospholipids (PL) on the lipid profile of plasma and composition of fatty acids of red blood cells in patients with hypertension and obesity. The results show that after the period of three weeks for each diet the unrefined sunflower oil supplemented with PL (30 gr oil containing 10, 8 gr PL) in diet had more influence on lowering of blood pressure (specially on diastolic BP). This diet reduced serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein A 1, apoB and fibrinogen more than the refined sunflower oil diet. This oil presents useful source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and essential PL for diets aimed at prevention of heart disease.

  6. A comparative analysis of eco-toxicity of crude oil pollution on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A short-term ecological study was conducted to ascertain the degree of envisaged impact of petroleum pollution to biota (macrophyte) in a polluted habitat. ... To this end, this study has elucidated the importance of petroleum on photosynthetic ...

  7. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils. Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  8. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils.  Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  9. Oxidative stability of fish and algae oils containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bulk and in oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, E.N.; Satue-Gracia, T.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2002-01-01

    , and the presence and activity of transition metals. Fish and algal oils were initially much more stable to oxidation in bulk systems than in the corresponding oil-in-water emulsions. The oxidative stability of emulsions cannot, therefore, be predicted on the basis of stability data obtained with bulk long...... from algae are unusually stable to oxidation, Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prevented oxidation of both fish and algal oil emulsions without added iron and at low iron:EDTA molar concentrations. EDTA, however, promoted the oxidation of the corresponding emulsions that contained......The oxidative stability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing fish and algae oils varies widely according to their fatty acid composition, the physical and colloidal states of the lipids, the contents of tocopherols and other antioxidants...

  10. Geodiametris: an integrated geoinformatic approach for monitoring land pollution from the disposal of olive oil mill wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Soupios, Pantelis; Doula, Maria; Cavvadias, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The olive-oil industry is one of the most important sectors of agricultural production in Greece, which is the third in olive-oil production country worldwide. Olive oil mill wastes (OOMW) constitute a major factor in pollution in olivegrowing regions and an important problem to be solved for the agricultural industry. The olive-oil mill wastes are normally deposited at tanks, or directly in the soil or even on adjacent torrents, rivers and lakes posing a high risk to the environmental pollution and the community health. GEODIAMETRIS project aspires to develop integrated geoinformatic methodologies for performing monitoring of land pollution from the disposal of OOMW in the island of Crete -Greece. These methodologies integrate GPS surveys, satellite remote sensing and risk assessment analysis in GIS environment, application of in situ and laboratory geophysical methodologies as well as soil and water physicochemical analysis. Concerning project's preliminary results, all the operating OOMW areas located in Crete have been already registered through extensive GPS field campaigns. Their spatial and attribute information has been stored in an integrated GIS database and an overall OOMW spectral signature database has been constructed through the analysis of multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI satellite images. In addition, a specific OOMW area located in Alikianos village (Chania-Crete) has been selected as one of the main case study areas. Various geophysical methodologies, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Induced Polarization, multifrequency electromagnetic, Self Potential measurements and Ground Penetrating Radar have been already implemented. Soil as well as liquid samples have been collected for performing physico-chemical analysis. The preliminary results have already contributed to the gradual development of an integrated environmental monitoring tool for studying and understanding environmental degradation from the disposal of OOMW.

  11. GEO-ECOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION WITH OIL PRODUCTS EMITTED BY RAILROAD FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senyushchenkova Irina Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Linear railroad facilities have been producing an adverse impact on the environment by polluting it with oil products for an extensive period of time. The authors of the article consider several mechanisms of contamination and the pattern of its spread into soils. Currently, areas that used to be unsuitable for development as urban lands for geological or environmental reasons are now being intensively developed. The study is exemplified by a city outstretched onto the complex terrain. Complex topography contemplates geological, tectonics-related, hydrological conditions, exogenous processes and anthropogenic factors. In this connection, the main purpose of the study is to analyze the geo-ecological factors that impact urban lands in complex geo-morphological conditions with a view to their functional use against minimal environmental risks to assure the most favorable conditions for humans. Towards this end, the authors have applied the following theoretical and practical methods of research, including a pilot study, namely (1 the geomorphological analysis of urban lands, (2 the monitoring and analysis of the anthropogenic impact produced onto various constituents of the environment, and (3 development of methods of functional use of urban lands in complex geomorphological conditions. The authors have monitored contaminated lands to develop their recommendations for their development in complex geomorphological conditions, namely: 1. Urban development planning should be performed with consideration for the geomorphological elements taken as a whole, as they are closely connected to one another. 2. Selection of methods of rehabilitation of urban lands must be preceded by the zoning of the territory based on its geological and environmental properties.

  12. Pollution risk assessment of oil spill accidents in Garorim Bay of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonjin; Jung, Jung-Yeul

    2015-11-15

    This study presents a model to assess the oil spill risk in Garorim Bay in Korea, where large-scale oil spill accidents frequently occur. The oil spill risk assessment is carried out by using two factors: 1) The impact probability of the oil spill, and 2) the first impact time of the oil that has been spilt. The risk assessment is conducted for environmentally sensitive areas, such as the coastline and aquaculture farms in the Garorim Bay area. Finally, Garorim Bay is divided into six subareas, and the risks of each subarea are compared with one another to identify the subarea that is most vulnerable to an oil spill accident. These results represent an objective and comprehensive oil spill risk level for a specific region. The prediction of the oil spill spread is based on real-time sea conditions and can be improved by integrating our results, especially when sea conditions are rapidly changing.

  13. Process and device for obtaining oil from cleared oil-containing fruit and seeds. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Oelgewinnung aus gereinigten Oelfruechten und Oelsaaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, M.; Homann, T.

    1980-10-23

    Cleaned oil-containing fruit and seeds can be used to obtain oil without mechanical and thermal conditioning by energy-saving and economical means. According to the invention, the fruit or seeds are prepressed immediately after cleaning in the cold state (approx. 20/sup 0/C) in a filter screw press and the remaining solid is then extracted. The text describes the construction of the press used. (UWI).

  14. Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sousa VP

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Valeria Pereira de Sousa,1 Joanne Crean,2 Vinícius Raphael de Almeida Borges,1 Carlos Rangel Rodrigues,1 Lidia Tajber,2 Fabio Boylan,2 Lucio Mendes Cabral1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: The oil of babassu tree nuts (Orbignya speciosa is a potential alternative for treatment and prophylaxis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Improved results can be obtained by drug vectorization to the hyperplastic tissue. The main objective of this work was the preparation and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle and clay nanosystems containing babassu oil (BBS. BBS was extracted from the kernels of babassu tree nuts and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. BBS-clay nanosystems were obtained by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone, Viscogel B8®, and BBS at a 2:1:1 mass ratio and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. The PLGA-BBS nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation-solvent evaporation method. Mean diameter, polydispersity, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopic images of the nanosystems were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed successful formation of the nanocomposite. PLGA nanoparticles containing BBS were obtained, with a suitable size that was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Both nanostructured systems showed active incorporation yields exceeding 90%. The two systems obtained represent a new and potentially efficient therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Keywords: babassu oil, nanocomposite, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, nanoparticles, benign prostatic hyperplasia, treatment, nanotechnology

  15. Short-term changes in the composition of active marine bacterial assemblages in response to diesel oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Bosch, Rafael; Nogales, Balbina

    2010-09-01

    The changes caused by diesel oil pollution in the metabolically active bacterioplankton from an oligotrophic coastal location were analysed in laboratory microcosms (44 l) using 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) as molecular marker. The aim was to simulate typical hydrocarbon pollution events in a coastal area exploited for seasonal touristic activities. The experiment consisted in addition of low amounts of diesel oil without nutrients to seawater collected at different times (winter and summer). Bacterial diversity was analysed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiling of 16S rRNAs after reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and by generation of 16S rRNA clone libraries in control and diesel-polluted microcosms. Diesel addition caused a twofold increase in prokaryotic numbers in comparison with controls at the end of the experiment, both in winter and summer microcosms. Bacterioplankton composition, determined by 16S rRNA T-RFLP data, changed rapidly (within 17 h) in response to treatment. The resulting communities were different in microcosms with water collected in summer and winter. A reduction in diversity (Shannon index, calculated on the basis of T-RFLP data) was observed only in summer microcosms. This was due to the rapid increase of phylotypes affiliated to the Oceanospirillaceae, not observed in winter microcosms. After diesel treatment there was a reduction in the number of phylotypes related to SAR11, SAR86 and picocyanobacteria, while phylotypes of the Roseobacter clade, and the OMG group seemed to be favoured. Our results show that diesel pollution alone caused profound effects on the bacterioplankton of oligotrophic seawater, and explained many of the differences in diversity reported previously in pristine and polluted sites in this coastal area.

  16. Native carbonoxidation microorganisms in bioremedetion Northern Caspian sea from oil pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gridneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 26 strains microorganisms - degradation oil have been isolated from shelf water North Caspian. The high emulsifying ability relative to benzine, kerosene and diesel-fuel oil relevantly were possessed the 11 strains. The 4 cultures exhibiting degradation of oil rates 43-49 %, respectively, were selected.

  17. Analysis of method of polarization surveying of water surface oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of polarization surveying of oil films on the water surface is analyzed. Model calculations of contrasted oil and water obtained with different orientations of the analyzer are discussed. The model depends on the spectral range, water transparency and oil film, and the selection of observational direction.

  18. Crude oil degradation potential of bacteria isolated from oil-polluted soil and animal wastes in soil amended with animal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voke O. Urhibo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of animal wastes on crude oil degradation potential of strains of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis isolated from animal wastes (poultry and pig droppings and petroleum-polluted soil was compared in laboratory studies. Both bacterial strains were selected for high crude oil degradation ability after screening many isolates by the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol method. Analyses by gas chromatography (GC showed that degradation of crude oil was markedly enhanced (88.3–97.3% vs 72.1–78.8% in soil amended with animal wastes as indicated by the reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH. TPH reduction by animal waste bacterial strains in animal waste-amended soil was more than the reduction by strains from soil contaminated with petroleum (P < 0.001. The greatest reduction of TPH (96.6–97.3% vs 80.4–95.9% was by poultry waste strains and it occurred in soil amended with poultry waste. GC analyses of n-alkanes showed that although shorter chains were preferentially degraded [32.0–78.5% (C8–23 vs 6.3–18.5% (C24–36] in normal soil, biodegradation of longer chains increased to 38.4–46.3% in animal waste-amended soil inoculated with the same animal wastes’ strains. The results indicate that these animal waste strains may be of potential application for bioremediation of oil-polluted soil in the presence of the wastes from where they were isolated.

  19. Extractable hydrocarbons, nickel and vanadium contents of Ogbodo-Isiokpo oil spill polluted soils in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Adesiyan, Samuel O

    2005-11-01

    An oil spill polluted site at Ogbodo-Isiokpo in Ikwere Local Government Area of Rivers State in southern Nigeria, was identified for study following three successive reconnaissance surveys of oil fields in the Agbada west plain of Eastern Niger Delta. A sampling area of 200 m x 200 m was delimited at the oil spill impacted site using the grid technique and soils were collected at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths from three replicate quadrats. A geographically similar, unaffected area, located 50 m adjacent to the polluted site, was chosen as a control (reference) site. Total extractable hydrocarbon contents of the polluted soils ranged from 3.02-4.54 and 1.60-4.20 mg/kg (no overlap in standard errors) at surface and subsurface depths respectively. The concentrations of two "diagnostic" trace heavy metals, nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V), which are normal constituents of crude oil, were also determined in the soils by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method after pre-extraction of cations with dithionite-citrate carbonate. Ni varied from 0.15 to 1.65 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.18 to 0.82 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots; vanadium varied from 0.19 to 0.70 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.14 to 0.38 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots. Ni and V were more enhanced (p vanadium via the injection and availability of the petroleum hydrocarbons that might have increased the activities of biodegradation on site, the physico-chemical properties of the soils and inherent mobility of metals, as well as the intense rainfall and flooding that characterized the period of study, may have also contributed, at least in part, to these enhanced concentrations. Such levels of Ni and V may result to enhanced absorption by plants, which may bring about possible bioaccumulation in such plants and the animals that depend on them for survival and all of these may lead to toxic reactions along the food chain.

  20. Total microbial activity and microbial composition of a mangrove sediment are reduced by oil pollution at a site in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabily, Khaled A

    2002-02-01

    In a study carried out to determine the effect of oil pollution on the microbiota of sediment associated with mangroves in the United Arab Emirates, sediment samples were collected from oil-polluted and nonpolluted mangrove sites. The levels of the total recoverable hydrocarbons and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons assayed were noticeably higher in the polluted sediment. Microbial activity as measured by the hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate and by the total populations of the culturable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, streptomycete and non-streptomycete actinomycetes, and filamentous fungi and yeasts was significantly (P 50%. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of oil pollution on aerobic and anaerobic microbial flora of sediment of mangrove communities.

  1. The isotopic fingerprint. Investigation of pollution levels and identification of pollution sources in case of mineral oil pollution; Der isotopische Fingerabdruck. Schadensuntersuchungen und Stoerbestimmung bei Mineraloelschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertl, T.

    1998-09-01

    It is often difficult to identify soil or water polluters, especially when land was sold and resold several times, or if there are several neighbours that may be the source of pollution. Where classic chemical analyses can no longer help, the isotopic fingerprint may offer a solution. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oft laesst sich der Verursacher eine Boden- oder Grundwasserverunreinigung nur schwer zur Verantwortung ziehen. Vor allem, wenn ein Grundstueck oefter den Besitzer gewechselt hat. Oder wenn mehrere Nachbarn fuer den Schaden verantwortlich sein koennten. Wenn die klassische chemische Analytik zur Entlarvung der Zustandsstoerer am Ende ist, hilft eine neue Methode weiter: Der isotopische Fingerabdruck. (orig.)

  2. Impact of air pollution control regulations on thermal enhanced oil recovery production in the United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, J.F.; Rouge, J.D.; Beekley, P.K.; Husband, S.N.; Arnold, C.W.; Menzies, W.R.; Balentine, H.W.

    1982-03-01

    This study assesses the impact of air pollution control regulations on the costs of present and future thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) production. The conclusions of this study indicate that lengthy permitting processes, limited control sytem availability, and costly control system requirements complicate regulatory compliance and constrain TEOR production expansion. Seven heavy oil production areas with potential for increased TEOR production were selected for detailed analyses. Five of these areas are in California: central Kern County, western Kern County, Coalinga, San Ardo, and Los Angeles Basin. The other two areas are the Slocum field in Texas and the Smackover field in Arkansas. Air pollution control rule and regulation requirements were determined for each production area. State-of-the-art air pollution control technology was assessed and costs were estimated for the control systems needed to comply with previous new source review (NSR) and retrofit rules in each area. For each California production area, the maximum potential increase in TEOR production was estimated, based on available emission offsets. Potential increases in the Texas and Arkansas fields were not projected because production is expected to decrease in these areas. Costs were calculated for the control systems required to allow the maximum increase in TEOR production. An air quality impact analysis was performed for the four largest production areas in California. The results of this analysis allowed estimation of the air quality changes associated with the maximum TEOR production increase and compliance with retrofit and NSR rules.

  3. Combining ocean numerical model and SAR imagery to investigate the occurrence of oil pollution, a case study for the Java Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, A.; Putri, M. R.; Gade, M.; Pohlmann, T.; Mayer, B.

    2017-01-01

    IndoNACE is an abbreviation of Indo nesian Seas N umerical A ssessment of the C oastal E nvironment, a pilot study between Indonesia and Germany that combining analysis of oil spills from SAR images and numerical tracer studies from 3-D numerical model. Aim of this study is to understand the observed seasonal variations in marine oil pollution. Within this study, a visual inspection of all available SAR images is performed in order to generate maps of oil pollution occurrence in the Java Sea. Afterward, a set of numerical models is applied to trace back the origin of oil pollution. Our results showed that by analysing 706 ENVISAT ASAR images, the highest number of oil spills occurrence in the Java Sea was found during the transition monsoons, i.e. March to May and September to November. Assuming Marine Protected Area (MPA) of Seribu Islands as the end position of oil trajectory, we found that the origins of oil pollutions in that area were mostly from north and east.

  4. Effects of Maternal Isocaloric Diet Containing Different Amounts of Soy Oil and Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Weight, Serum Glucose, and Lipid Profile of Female Mice Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Koohdani, Fariba; Shidfar, Farzad; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Izadi, Pantea; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Shafieineek, Leila; Tohidinik, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health status of offspring is programmed by maternal diet throughout gestation and lactation. The present study investigates the lasting effects of maternal supplementation with different amounts of soy oil or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on weight and biochemical parameters during gestation and lactation of female mice offspring. Methods: Eight weeks old female C57BL/6 mice (n=40) were assigned through simple randomization into four isocaloric dietary groups (16% of calories as soy oil (LSO) or EVOO (LOO) and 45% of calories as soy oil (HSO) or EVOO (HOO)) during three weeks of gestation and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks), all offspring received a diet containing 16% of calories as soy oil and were sacrificed at 6 weeks. Two-way ANOVA was used to adjust for confounding variables and repeated measures test for weight gain trend. Statistical analyses were performed with the IBM SPSS package. Results: At birth and adolescence, the weight of offspring was significantly higher in the soy oil than the olive oil groups (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Adolescence weight was significantly higher in the offspring born to mothers fed with 16% oil than those with 45% oil (P=0.001). Serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the LSO than LOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001), LSO than HSO (P<0.001, P=0.03 and P<0.001), and LOO than HOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001) dietary groups, respectively. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the offspring of HSO than HOO fed mothers (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: A maternal diet containing EVOO has better effects on birth weight, as well as weight and serum biochemical parameters in offspring at adolescence. PMID:28360442

  5. Sulphur-containing compounds in the essential oil of Ferula alliacea roots and their mass spectral fragmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaian, Jamal; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    Context GC-MS analysis is the best way to characterize volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Ferula (Apiaceae) is a genus of perennial herbs. Due to the occurrence of essential oils or oleoresins in the Ferula species, these plants usually possess strong aromatic scent. Terpenoid compounds were the most abundant constituents of Ferula oils, however, in some of Ferula species, the essential oils were dominated by volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Objectives Ferula alliacea Boiss. is considered one of the sources of the oleo-gum-resin asafoetida. In this study, we analyzed the hydrodistilled essential oil from its dried roots and provide new data about retention indices and mass fragmentation patterns of some volatile sulphur-containing compounds that are useful for future studies on this class of compounds. Materials and methods The roots of F. alliacea were collected during the flowering stage of plant, from Bezgh, Kashmar to Neishabour road, Khorasan-Razavi province, Iran, in June 2012. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS. Results This is the first report on phytochemical analysis of F. alliacea roots. Seventy-six components, representing 99.5% of the oil, were characterized. The major components were 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (22.3%), valerianol (12.5%), hinesol (8.3%), guaiol (7.3%) and Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%). Predominant mass fragment ions of the identified sulphur-containing compounds are explained in this paper. Conclusion The volatile oil of F. alliacea mostly contains oxygenated sesquiterpenes, however, its odour was dominated by sulphur-containing compounds. The most abundant sulphur-containing compound includes Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%).

  6. Application of Lemongrass Oil-Containing Polylactic Acid Films to the Packaging of Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and renewable polymer, which represents a valuable alternative to plastic packaging films, often associated with environmental problems. In this study, we tested the suitability of PLA as a biodegradable packaging film and assessed the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil (LO), incorporated into the PLA film in different concentrations. To obtain the optimal physical properties for PLA films, tensile strength, elongation at break, and water vapor permeability were measured under different preparation conditions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the LO contained in the PLA film against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated by disc diffusion and viable cell count. Among all concentrations tested, 2% LO was the most suitable in terms of antimicrobial activity and physical properties of the PLA film. Based on these results, we used the PLA film containing 2% LO to pack pork sausages; after 12 d of storage at 4℃, the population of inoculated L. monocytogenes in the sausage samples wrapped with the PLA film containing 2% LO was reduced by 1.47 Log CFU/g compared with the control samples. Our data indicate that PLA films containing 2% LO represent a valuable means for antimicrobial sausage packaging.

  7. Role of environmental pollutants in liver physiology: special references to peoples living in the oil drilling sites of Assam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Dey

    Full Text Available The populations residing near polluted sites are more prone to various types of diseases. The important causes of air pollution are the suspended particulate matter, respirable suspended particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. As limited information is available enumerating the effect of these pollutants on liver physiology of the population living near the polluted sites; in the present study, we tried to investigate their effect on liver of the population residing near the oil drilling sites since birth. In this study, a randomly selected 105 subjects (46 subjects from oil drilling site and 61 subjects from control site aged above 30 years were taken under consideration. The particulate matter as well as the gaseous pollutants, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, were analyzed through a respirable dust sampler. The level of alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase enzymes in serum were measured by spectrophotometer. The generalized regression model studies suggests a higher concentration of respirable suspended particulate matter, suspended particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide lowers the alkaline phosphatase level (p<0.0001 by 3.5 times (95% CI 3.1-3.9, 1.5 times (95% CI 1.4-1.6 and 12 times (95% CI 10.74-13.804, respectively in the exposed group. The higher concentration of respirable suspended particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in air was associated with increase in alanine transaminase level (p<0.0001 by 0.8 times (95% CI 0.589-1.049 and by 2.8 times (95% CI 2.067-3.681 respectively in the exposed group. The increase in nitrogen dioxide level was also associated with increase in aspartate transaminase level (p<0.0001 by 2.5 times (95% CI 1.862-3.313 in the exposed group as compared to control group. Thus, the study reveals that long-term exposure to the environmental pollutants may lead to liver abnormality or injury of populations living in polluted sites.

  8. Wettability alteration: A comprehensive review of materials/methods and testing the selected ones on heavy-oil containing oil-wet systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammedalmojtaba; Babadagli, Tayfun

    2015-06-01

    inefficiently low recoveries. After the solvent phase, the samples were exposed to wettability alteration through selected chemicals at different temperature conditions through spontaneous imbibition tests to recover more oil and retrieve the solvent diffuse into the sample back. The most promising wettability alteration agents for each type of rock were marked and optimal application conditions (temperatures, injection sequence) were identified. Selected wettability alteration chemicals were finally tested on the bitumen (5-9° API-1,600,000cp) containing Grosmont carbonate sample from Alberta, Canada. It is hoped that this review fills in the gap in the area of wettability alteration processes by summarizing, critically analyzing, and testing the methods suggested in the literature.

  9. Development of new mineral oil-based antifoams containing size-controlled hydrophobic silica particles for gloss paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kiyokazu; Ishizuka, Motoyoshi; Shimabayashi, Katsuomi; Ando, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Water-based architectural paints commonly contain either mineral oil-based or silicone-based antifoams. Mineral oil-based antifoams generally reduce the gloss of paint films; thus, silicone-based antifoams are mainly used in the field of architectural paints. The relationship between the antifoaming performance and the particle size of hydrophobic silica for mineral oil-based antifoams was investigated and a novel mineral oil-based antifoam that provided a glossy surface to the paint films equivalent to the surface obtained with silicone-based antifoams and with excellent antifoaming performance compared to silicone-based antifoams was developed. The novel mineral oil-based antifoam exhibits better performance than silicon-based antifoam, and thus the former is a perfect alternative to the latter for use in architectural paints.

  10. Deacidification of high free fatty acid-containing rice bran oil by non-conventional reesterification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sibban; Singh, R P

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran (Oryza sativa) oil is known for containing higher amount of free fatty acid (FFA) generated by hydrolytic enzyme. This FFA causes heavy neutral oil losses due to saponification and emulsification since it produces large amount of soap in the conventional alkali refining process. In the present study the FFA of degummed rice bran oil (RBO) was significantly reduced by reesterifying it with glycerol. The reesterification process was carried out by varying the temperature and amount of excess glycerol using 0.2% catalyst (SnCl(2)). The maximum efficiency of the process could be attained at 200 degrees C using 70% excess glycerol and the maximum reduction in acid value (from 24.3 to 3.0) of RBO was observed within 4 h. The reesterified RBO was used to prepare stand oil and varnish and their performance characteristics were compared with those of the products obtained from dehydrated castor oil (DCO).

  11. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito

  12. Oil sands development and its impact on atmospheric wet deposition of air pollutants to the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Mary M; Dvonch, J Timothy; Barres, James A; Morishita, Masako; Legge, Allan; Percy, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Characterization of air pollutant deposition resulting from Athabasca oil sands development is necessary to assess risk to humans and the environment. To investigate this we collected event-based wet deposition during a pilot study in 2010-2012 at the AMS 6 site 30 km from the nearest upgrading facility in Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium deposition was (kg/ha) 1.96, 1.60 and 1.03, respectively. Trace element pollutant deposition ranged from 2 × 10(-5) - 0.79 and exhibited the trend Hg < Se < As < Cd < Pb < Cu < Zn < S. Crustal element deposition ranged from 1.4 × 10(-4) - 0.46 and had the trend: La < Ce < Sr < Mn < Al < Fe < Mg. S, Se and Hg demonstrated highest median enrichment factors (130-2020) suggesting emissions from oil sands development, urban activities and forest fires were deposited. High deposition of the elements Sr, Mn, Fe and Mg which are tracers for soil and crustal dust implies land-clearing, mining and hauling emissions greatly impacted surrounding human settlements and ecosystems.

  13. 78 FR 63099 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: September... offering critical comments. The comments reflected concern that the Site is a continuing source of...

  14. Are pioneer mangroves more vulnerable to oil pollution than later successional species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Gonasageran; Naidoo, Krishnaveni

    2017-08-15

    Propagules of Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Rhizophora mucronata were cultivated in rhizotrons (root observation chambers) and subjected to sediment oiling treatments for 409days to determine the effects of oil on root growth. Oiling reduced root length, specific root length, relative root growth rate and root diameter, while specific root volume increased. Oiling reduced root length by 96% in A. marina, 99% in B. gymnorrhiza and 80% in R. mucronata, while specific root volume increased by 34%, 29% and 23% respectively. Relative root growth rate decreased in the oiled treatments by 84%, 80% and 73% respectively. Avicennia exhibits typical root traits of a pioneer species compared to slower-growing later successional species like B. gymnorrhiza and R. mucronata. These traits of A. marina not only allow more rapid establishment of seedlings, but also expose a larger root surface area and therefore greater susceptibility to oil contamination than the other species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A simulation analysis of the migration and transformation of pollutants contained in landfill leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-qi; TIAN Kai-ming; QI Yong-qiang; CHEN Jia-jun; WANG Ya-nan

    2003-01-01

    A dynamic composite model for a soil-water system that can be used to simulate the movement of leachate from a landfill. The composite model includes nine sub-models that trace water movement and the migration and transformation of five pollutants(organic N, NH4- ,NO3- , NO2- , and Cl- ) in saturated and unsaturated soil. The model to simulate the movement of leachate from a landfill in Laogang Town,Shanghai City was used. In this application, the values for the model parameters were obtained by performing a laboratory simulation experiment of water movement and pollutant migration and transformation in soil colunms. Soil and leachate obtained from the landfill site and its vicinity were used in the laboratory experiments. The model was then used to simulate leachate movement and pollutant activity during the ten-year period when the landfill was in operation and in the twenty-year period following its closure. The simulation results revealed that the leachate migrated into the groundwater at the rate of 90-100 meters per year. This model can be applied in the design of future landfills in China for the purpose of assessing and forecasting leachate plumes.

  16. Lipase cocktail for efficient conversion of oils containing phospholipids to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Jerome; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Hama, Shinji; Yoshida, Ayumi; Nakanishi, Akihito; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-07-01

    The presence of phospholipid has been a challenge in liquid enzymatic biodiesel production. Among six lipases that were screened, lipase AY had the highest hydrolysis activity and a competitive transesterification activity. However, it yielded only 21.1% FAME from oil containing phospholipids. By replacing portions of these lipases with a more robust bioFAME lipase, CalT, the combination of lipase AY-CalT gave the highest FAME yield with the least amounts of free fatty acids and partial glycerides. A higher methanol addition rate reduced FAME yields for lipase DF-CalT and A10D-CalT combinations while that of lipase AY-CalT combination improved. Optimizing the methanol addition rate for lipase AY-CalT resulted in a FAME yield of 88.1% at 2h and more than 95% at 6h. This effective use of lipases could be applied for the rapid and economic conversion of unrefined oils to biodiesel.

  17. A lethal ingestion of a household cleaner containing pine oil and isopropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the case of a woman with a history of schizophrenia found deceased in her residence after she apparently ingested an unknown quantity of a pine oil-containing product. A strong lemon-pine odor emanated from the body. Autopsy revealed a large volume of oily fluid in the stomach. The lungs were heavy, hemorrhagic, and necrotic. There was no evidence of significant recent injury or pre-existing disease. The toxicological screening and quantitation of 1-alpha-terpineol in postmortem fluids was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isopropanol and its metabolite acetone were determined by means of flame-ionization gas chromatography. Postmortem blood, urine, and stomach content levels of 1-alpha-terpineol were 276 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, and 4.0 g/total contents, respectively, and isopropanol levels were 730 mg/dL, 20 mg/dL, and 1000 mg/dL, respectively. No acetone could be detected. Her death was attributed to the combined toxicity of isopropanol and pine oil.

  18. Identification of volatile degradants in formulations containing sesame oil using SPME/GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wencan; Zhou, Pengzu; Wong-Moon, Kirby C; Cauchon, Nina S

    2007-06-28

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), was used to identify an unknown degradant observed during stability studies of a pharmaceutical formulation containing sesame oil. SPME is a solvent-less, rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive extraction method that minimizes sample preparation. SPME combined with GC is a widely used technique in certain fields, such as food, environmental analysis, forensics, and consumer products, but has only rarely been used for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations. Hexanal, octanal, 2-octenal, 2-decenal, 2-undecenal, and 2,4-decadienal can be detected and identified by GC/MS, but they cannot be detected by LC/MS due to their volatility and low ionization efficiency under atmospheric pressure ionization conditions. Combining the MS data from the GC/MS with LC/DAD data resulted in the identification of the unknown degradant in the formulation as 2,4-decadienal. The presence of this and other aldehydes was attributed to the oxidative degradation of the unsaturated fatty-acid component in vegetable oils.

  19. Pollution Control: How Feasible is Zero Discharge Concepts in Malaysia Palm Oil Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya S. Madaki

    2013-01-01

    Many palm oil mills in Malaysia still discharged either partially treated or raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) into nearby rivers. Either partially treated or untreated POME depletes a water body of its oxygen and suffocates aquatic life. Vast amounts of biogas are also generated during anaerobic digestion of POME. This paper presented the key findings from the survey mailed to 86 palm oil mills located in Sarawak and Sabah. The survey results provide an overview of the position of the palm o...

  20. Potential biodegradation of crude petroleum oil by newly isolated halotolerant microbial strains from polluted Red Sea area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetaia, Yousseria M H; El Khalik, Wafaa A A; Mohamed, Tarek M; Farahat, Laila A; ElMekawy, Ahmed

    2016-10-15

    Two microbial isolates from oil polluted Red Sea water in Egypt, designated as RS-Y1 and RS-F3, were found capable of degrading Belayim mix (BX) crude oil. Strains RS-Y1 and RS-F3 were assigned to the genera Lipomyces tetrasporus and Paecilomyces variotii based on their morphological and physiological characteristics. Both isolates were compared for the biodegradation of crude petroleum-oil hydrocarbons in basal salt medium supplemented with 5% (w/v) of BX-crude oil. Gas chromatography profile showed that the biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) inoculated with L. tetrasporus (68.3%) and P. variotii (58.15%) along with their consortium (66%) significantly reduced TPHs levels as compared to the control after 30days. L. tetrasporus (44.5%) was more effective than P. variotii strain (32.89%) in reducing the unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) content from the medium. Both isolates exhibited a strong growth over a wide range of salinity (5-45g/L NaCl). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  2. Potential of used frying oil in paving material: solution to environmental pollution problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Ackbarali, Dimple; Maharaj, Rean; Mohamed, Nazim; Ramjattan-Harry, Vitra

    2017-05-01

    The improper disposal of used frying oil (UFO) presents numerous ecological, environmental and municipal problems. Of great concern is the resultant blockage of municipal drainage systems and water treatment facilities, harm to wildlife when they become coated in it and detriment to aquatic life and ecosystems due to the depletion of the oxygen content in water bodies such as rivers and lakes that have become contaminated. Statistics show that in Trinidad and Tobago, in excess of one million liters of used cooking oil is collected annually from various restaurant chains. This paper investigated the potential of using UFO as a performance enhancing additive for road paving applications utilizing Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA) and Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB) as a mitigation strategy for improper UFO disposal. Modified blends containing various additions of UFO (2-10% wt) were prepared for the TLA and TPB asphaltic binders. Results demonstrated in terms of stiffness, increasing the dosage of UFO in TLA and TPB base binders resulted in a gradual decrease in stiffness (G* value decreased). In terms of elasticity, increasing the dosage of the UFO additive in TLA resulted in a general decrease in the elasticity of the blends indicated by an increase in phase angle or phase lag (δ). Increasing dosages of the UFO additive in TPB resulted in a significant decrease in δ where the most elastic blend was at the 6% UFO level. TLA and UFO-TLA modified blends exhibited significantly lower values of δ and higher values of G* confirming the superiority of the TLA material. Incorporation of the UFO in the blends led to a decrease in the rutting resistance and increase in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G*/sinδ and G*sinδ, respectively). This study highlighted the potential for the reuse of UFO as an asphalt modifier capable of producing customized UFO modified asphaltic blends for special applications and confirms its feasibility as an environmentally attractive

  3. New industrial titania photocatalysts for the solar detoxification of water containing various pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Jean-Marie; Guillard, Chantal; Disdier, Jean [URA au CNRS, Photocatalyse, Catalyse et Environment, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, B.P. 163, 69131 Ecully -Cedex (France); Lehaut, Corinne [Millennium Inorganic Chemicals, 85 Avenue Victor Hugo, 92563 Cedex Rueil-Malmaison (France); Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julian [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, 04200 Tabernas (Spain)

    2002-01-25

    A new series of titania industrial photocatalysts have been elaborated by Millennium Inorganic Chemicals and were denoted Millennium-PC/10, PC/25 and PC/50 with respective specific surface areas equal to 11, 23 and 43m{sup 2}g{sup -1}. Their photocatalytic activities have been determined and compared in the solar pilot CPC-photoreactor at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) (Spain) in the photocatalytic degradation of four different representative pollutants (4-chlorophenol, nitrobenzene, 2-chlorobenzoic acid and hydrobutanedioic (malic) acid), whose degradation pathways had previously been elucidated in laboratory experiments with artificial light, using titania Degussa P-25 as a reference photocatalyst. The study concerned the influence of (1) the nature of organic pollutants, (2) the surface area and (3) the concentration of suspended TiO{sub 2}. The affinity of the pollutants for TiO{sub 2} and the presence of heteroatoms in the reactant molecules intervened on the activities of Millennium-PCs when compared to Degussa P-25. The higher the affinity of the organic pollutants for titania, the higher the efficiency of Millennium-PC/10 photocatalyst calibrated on the initial rate of pollutant disappearance. The degradation pathways were found similar for both photocatalysts and the primary steps of the degradation for the different types of molecules were discussed. 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP), a model pollutant for waste waters, was then chosen for the study of the influence of the surface areas and of the concentration of Millennium-PC photocatalysts. The initial apparent rate constants of 4-CP degradation in presence of all Millennium-PC catalysts were all higher than that obtained with Degussa P-25. When choosing the total organic carbon (TOC) disappearance rate as an overall kinetic parameter, Millennium-PC/10 and PC/25 appeared as less active than Degussa P-25, with longer solar exposures (by about 10%) necessary to obtain a total mineralisation. However

  4. The anthropogenic magnetic particles contain in indoor dust as markers of pollution emitted by different outside sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Iga; Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the impact of magnetic particles originated from different external sources of pollution on the air quality inside apartments. We used the indoor dust as an indicator of air pollution inside apartments. For the study, a small town was chosen, in which dominated the local sources of pollution: (1) vehicle traffic (in the city center), (2) local heating plant, (3) individual households (in the suburbs) and (4) re-emission of soil particles from the contaminated post-industrial area. In each of four areas were selected several private apartments as a sampling points. Dust samples were collected by the owners of apartments from the floor surface using vacuum cleaners in the same time period (September 2014). The concentration-dependent magnetic parameters (magnetic susceptibility - and magnetization MS) were used to determine the level of the magnetic pollution of the indoor dust. The properties of magnetic particles (mineralogy, domain structure and grain size), and their chemical composition were used to describe and identify the source of air pollution inside the apartments. Generally, the results showed that in each of studied areas were observed flats with both: very high and low values of parameters depending on the concentration of magnetic particles. The biggest differences between the areas were visible in mineralogy of magnetic fraction of pollution. The research of apartments exposed to pollution generated by vehicle traffic (located in the city center) show a wide range of values χ (75-1021 -10-8 m3kg-1) and MS (35-656 -10-3 Am2kg-1). These differences were due to the high contribution of pure iron to magnetic fraction of pollution. Detailed analysis of the M (T) curves revealed two magnetic transitions: first at a temperature Tc = 585oC for magnetite and the second at Tc = 760oC for pure iron. For the dust samples from the city center the high values of χ and MS well correlated with high level of anthropogenic elements

  5. Modeling of oil spreading in a problem of radar multiangle diagnostics of Sea surface pollutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, A. Ya.; Kubryakov, A. A.; Boev, A. G.; Bychkov, D. M.; Ivanov, V. K.; Stanichny, S. V.; Tsymbal, V. N.

    2016-12-01

    The possibilities of a multiangle method of radar diagnostics to determine thickness of an oil film on a sea surface by comparing the radar data with the quantitative modeling results obtained using the model of oil spreading dynamics are analyzed. The experimental results of the remote sensing of the Caspian Sea water area near the Neftyanye Kamni oil field by the Envisat-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the new Floating Objects Tracking System (FOTS) model of oil spreading are used for the analysis. The model allows to calculate the dynamics and change in the mass and size of an oil slick basing only on the available data of satellite measurements and atmospheric reanalysis.The model takes into account the main processes that influence the slick formation (gravity spreading, advective transport, dispersion, emulsification, turbulent mixing, and evaporation). This model is used to calculate the thickness evolution and dynamics of the displacement of oil slicks in the period between two consecutive radar images of this region (0.5-4 days) and to estimate the volumes of oil spilled in the field. The good consistence of the height of the oil film calculated using radar measurements and the modeling results confirms the method's reliability.

  6. Solid lipid nanoparticles containing copaiba oil and allantoin: development and role of nanoencapsulation on the antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlichny, G; Külkamp-Guerreiro, I C; Cunha, S L; Silva, F E K; Bueno, K; Pohlmann, A R; Fuentefria, A M; Guterres, S S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing copaiba oil with and without allantoin (NCOA, NCO, respectively) and to evaluate their antifungal activity. Nanoparticle suspensions were prepared using a high homogenisation technique and characterised by dynamic light scattering, laser diffraction, nanoparticle tracking analysis, multiple light scattering analysis, high-pressure liquid chromatography, pH and rheology. The antifungal activities of the formulations were tested in vitro against the emergent yeasts Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis, and the fungal pathogens of human skin Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis. The dynamic light scattering analysis showed z-average diameters (intensity) between 118.63 ± 8.89 nm for the nanoparticles with both copaiba oil and allantoin and 126.06 ± 9.84nm for the nanoparticles with just copaiba oil. The D[4,3] determined by laser diffraction showed similar results of 123 ± 1.73 nm for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin and 130 ± 3.6 nm for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil alone. Nanoparticle tracking analysis demonstrated that both suspensions had monomodal profiles and consequently, the nanoparticle populations were homogeneous. This analysis also corroborated the results of dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction, exhibiting a smaller mean diameter for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin (143 nm) than for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil (204 nm). The physicochemical properties indicated that the dispersions were stable overtime. Rheology evidenced Newtonian behaviour for both suspensions. Antifungal susceptibility showed a MIC90 of 125 μg/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil) and 7.8 μg/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin) against C. parapsilosis. The nanoparticles with copaiba oil and the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin presented a MIC90 of 500 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively, against C. krusei. The MIC90

  7. Treatment of engine-oil polluted wastewater with a mixed bacterial flora and kinetics of biodegradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang; WANG Lei; LI Feng-ting; LIU Hua

    2007-01-01

    A mixed bacterial flora was isolated from the soil of two petroleum-contaminated sites, then cultivated and domesticated in an open environment. The bacteria were used to degrade engine oil in wastewater. The optimum biodegradation conditions for all engine oil concentrations of respectively 489 mg L(1, 1 075 mg L(1 and 2 088 mg L(1 are bacterial inoculum concentration of 0.1%, temperature at 30 (C to 35 (C, pH 7.0 to 7.5, and rotation at 190 r min(1 to 240 r min(1. The second-order kinetic model proposed by Quiroga and Sales describes the characteristics of the biodegradation of the engine oil very well. Engine oil concentration barely changes the growth rate of the bacterial consortium. The mixed bacterial flora has a high biodegrading capability for engine oil.

  8. Light Penetration in Seawater Polluted by Dispersed Oil: Results of Radiative Transfer Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haule, K.; Darecki, M.; Toczek, H.

    2015-11-01

    The downwelling light in seawater is shaped by natural seawater constituents as well as by some external substances which can occur locally and temporally. In this study we focused on dispersed oil droplets which can be found in seawater after an oil spill or in the consequence of intensive shipping, oil extraction and transportation. We applied our modified radiative transfer model based on Monte Carlo code to evaluate the magnitude of potential influence of dispersed oil droplets on the downwelling irradiance and the depth of the euphotic zone. Our model was validated on the basis of in situ measurements for natural (unpolluted) seawater in the Southern Baltic Sea, resulting in less than 5% uncertainty. The optical properties of dispersed Petrobaltic crude oil were calculated on the basis of Mie theory and involved into radiative transfer model. We found that the changes in downwelling light caused by dispersed oil depend on several factors such as oil droplet concentration, size distribution, and the penetration depth (i.e. vertical range of oil droplets occurrence below sea surface). Petrobaltic oil droplets of submicron sizes and penetration depth of 5 m showed a potentially detectable reduction in the depth of the euphotic zone of 5.5% at the concentration of only 10 ppb. Micrometer-sized droplets needed 10 times higher concentration to give a similar effect. Our radiative transfer model provided data to analyse and discuss the influence of each factor separately. This study contributes to the understanding of the change in visible light penetration in seawater affected by dispersed oil.

  9. [Comparison of efficiencies of oil-oxidizing Dietzia maris strain and stimulation of natural microbial communities in remediation of polluted soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleshakova, E V; Dubrovskaia, E V; Turkovskaia, O V

    2008-01-01

    Two approaches to bioremediation of oil-polluted soils are compared: use of active degrader strain Dietzia maris AM3 and stimulation of natural microflora. Introduction of D. maris AM3 to soil freshly polluted with oil accelerated its remediation twofold within the first month in comparison with the stimulation. After three months, the purification degrees were approximately equal. By the end of bioremediation, the soil with the introduced strain had higher dehydrogenase and catalase activities. In soil with multiyear pollution, introduced strain D. maris AM3 did not affect the rate of oil product degradation, and no significant differences between the two bioremediation methods were detected in purification degree and biological activity of soil after three months.

  10. A two-stage anaerobic system for biodegrading wastewater containing terephthalic acid and high strength easily degradable pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high strength easily biodegradable pollutants(represented by CODE) are strong inhibitors of terephthalic acid(TA) anaerobic biodegradation. At the same time, TA can inhibiteasily biodegradable pollutants removal under anaerobic conditionsto a limited extent. This mutual inhibition could happen and causea low removal efficiency of both TA and CODE, when the effluentfrom TA workshops containing TA and easily biodegradable pollutantsare treated by a single anaerobic reactor system. Based upon thetreatment kinetics analysis of both TA degradation and CODEremoval, a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket and up-flowfixed film reactor(UASB-UAFF) system for dealing with this kind ofwastewater was developed and run successfully at laboratory scale.An UASB reactor with the methanogenic consortium as the first stageremoves the easily biodegradable pollutants(CODE). An UAFF reactor as the second stage is mainly in charge of TA degradation. At aHRT 18.5h, the CODE and TA removal rate of the system reached 89.2% and 71.6%, respectively.

  11. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Górecki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  12. Moisturizing effect of a cosmetic formulation containing pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense) from the Brazilian cerrado biome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faria, Wanessa Costa Silva; Damasceno, Gabriel Azevedo de Brito; Ferrari, Márcio

    2014-01-01

    .... The seeds are surrounded by a woody endocarp coated with a yellow fleshy mesocarp rich in oil and vitamin A, whose oil has a useful role in the treatment of skin aging and protection of human skin...

  13. Pomelo peel modified with acetic anhydride and styrene as new sorbents for removal of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zou, Junchen; Zhang, Xinying; Li, Beibei; Yin, Tiantian

    2015-11-01

    Pomelo peel (PP), as one of the well-known agricultural wastes, is cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Based on PP, two new kinds of oil sorbents were prepared by using acetic anhydride and styrene. The structures of raw pomelo peel (RP), acetic anhydride-treated pomelo peel (AP) and styrene-treated pomelo peel (SP) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact-angle (CA) measurements. The optimum reaction conditions for preparation of AP and SP were also investigated. The resulting products exhibited better oil sorption capacity than that of RP for diesel and lubricating oil, also SP had better oil sorption capacity than AP, while the oil sorption capacities of SP for diesel and lubricating oil reached 18.91 and 26.36 g/g, respectively. Adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that AP and SP, especially SP could be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials.

  14. Pollution Control: How Feasible is Zero Discharge Concepts in Malaysia Palm Oil Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya S. Madaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many palm oil mills in Malaysia still discharged either partially treated or raw palm oil mill effluent (POME into nearby rivers. Either partially treated or untreated POME depletes a water body of its oxygen and suffocates aquatic life. Vast amounts of biogas are also generated during anaerobic digestion of POME. This paper presented the key findings from the survey mailed to 86 palm oil mills located in Sarawak and Sabah. The survey results provide an overview of the position of the palm oil mills operators on current advance POME treatment technology (PTT in relation to achieving zero discharge concepts. The survey attempted to identify the key issues about the PTT in respect to feasibility of zero discharge concepts in palm oil mills. The results shows that, although palm oil mills generate a lot of different types of wastes during processing of Fresh Fruit Bunches, according to the operators and available literature, POME is the most difficult waste to manage. The results also shows that, palm oil mills cannot meet up with the new discharge limits of 20ppm of BOD and zero emission using only conventional open or closed pounding system

  15. Evaluation of noninvasive approach for monitoring PCB pollution of seabirds using preen gland oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige; Murakami, Michio; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2007-07-15

    Oil secreted from the preen gland (located at the base of the tail feathers) of seabirds can be collected from live birds. We determined PCB concentrations and profiles in the preen gland oil and corresponding abdominal adipose tissue collected from 30 seabirds (2 orders, 3 families, 10 genera, 13 species) to examine the utility of the oil as a monitoring medium. Samples were collected from seabirds that had died in traffic accidents or had become caught unintentionally in experimental drift nets and long-lines in the North Pacific Ocean. Significant concentrations of PCBs were detected in all oil samples, with a concentration range of 9-4834 ng/g-lipid and a geometric mean of 404 ng/ g-lipid. PCBs in the oil had more lower-chlorinated congeners than those in corresponding abdominal adipose, suggesting that they had less opportunity to undergo metabolism before they were secreted from the gland. We observed a weak but significant correlation between the PCB concentrations in the oil and abdominal adipose tissue (R2 = 0.19, P < 0.05). Correcting for the metabolic loss of PCBs on the basis of congener profiles improved the correlation (R2 = 0.48, P < 0.001), implying that congener-specific determination of PCBs in the preen gland oil enables us to estimate PCB concentrations in the abdominal adipose within 1 order of magnitude difference. The differences in PCB concentrations among the 13 species are discussed in terms of dietary behavior, habitat, and migration.

  16. Microencapsulation of menhaden fish oil containing soluble rice bran fiber using spray drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuting; Bankston, Joseph David; Bechtel, Peter J; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-05-01

    Emulsion (EFMO) containing purified menhaden oil (PMO) and soluble rice bran fiber (SRBF) was dried in a pilot scale spray dryer and produced microencapsulated PMO with SRBF (MFMO). EFMO had well isolated spherical droplets with the size of 1 to 10 μm and showed pseudoplastic fluid and viscoelastic characteristics. EFMO had lower lipid oxidation than the emulsion containing PMO without SRBF when both emulsions were stored at 20 and 40 °C for 88 h, which indicated that the SRBF reduced the lipid oxidation in the EFMO. The estimated MFMO production rate (3.45 × 10(-5) kg dry solids/s) was higher than the actual production rate (2.31 × 10(-5) kg dry solids/s). The energy required to spray dry the EFMO was 12232 kJ/kg of emulsion. EPA and DHA contents of MFMO were 11.52% and 4.51%, respectively. The particle size of 90% MFMO ranged from 8 to 62 μm, and the volume-length diameter of MFMO was 28.5 μm.

  17. Fractionation of persistent organic pollutants in fish oil by high-performance liquid chromatography on a 2-(1-pyrenyl)ethyl silica column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, X.; Marti, R.; Montana, M.J.; Gasser, M.; Margarit, L.; Broto, F.; Diaz-Ferrero, J. [Institut Quimic de Sarria, Ramon Llull University, Analytical Chemistry Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    The analysis of persistent organic pollutants in foodstuffs has become necessary for control of their levels in products for human and animal consumption. These analytical procedures usually require a fractionation step in order to separate the different families of pollutants to avoid interferences during the instrumental determination. In this study the separation was carried out on a 2-(1-pyrenyl)ethyl silica column, where analyte fractionation was based on differences in planarity and aromaticity. The fractionation of several types of persistent organic pollutants found in fish oil samples was studied; the pollutants included polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and some organochlorine pesticides. Fractions were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and high-resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectroscopy. Finally, the whole method (including the purification, fractionation, and instrumental determination steps) was validated and successfully applied to the analysis of several samples of fish oil. (orig.)

  18. 76 FR 18066 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ..., Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: March 17, 2011. Ira W. Leighton, Acting Regional... buildings around the footprint of the capped portion of the site. This reuse would ensure that none of the...

  19. Case Studies in the Electrochemical Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants Using BDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcaro, Anna Maria; Mascia, M.; Palmas, S.; Vacca, A.

    A critical review is presented in this chapter on the possible applications of boron-doped diamond (BDD) as anode material to perform oxidation of organic compounds in aqueous solution. The oxidation of model substances is studied as well as that of the main classes of pollutants, such as phenols, dyes, pesticides and drugs, surfactants, which make some problems of degradation with the traditional wastewater treatments. The presented results indicate that organic compounds refractory to other oxidation techniques are successfully oxidized at BDD, even if the reaction mechanism is differently dependent on the organic compound and the electrolyte composition. Economic considerations reveal that electrochemical oxidations at BDD are less expensive than other advanced oxidation processes, indicating that in the near future this technology can become a competitive treatment for the removal of refractory compounds from wastewater.

  20. Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, D.; Lefefre, S.; Feron, D. [CEA-Saclay, Lab. d' Etude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vaillant, F. [EDF-Les Renardieres - DRD/EMA, Moret-sur-Loing (France)

    2002-07-01

    In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

  1. Characterization of EPA's 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tank bottom solids and associated contaminated soils at oil exploration and production sites in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojes, Heidi K; Pope, Peter G

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration and types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of environmentally toxic and persistent chemicals, at contaminated oil exploration and production (E&P) sites located in environmentally sensitive and geographically distinct areas throughout Texas. Samples of tank bottom solids, the oily sediment that collects at the bottom of the tanks, were collected from inactive crude oil storage tanks at E&P sites and hydrocarbon contaminated soil samples were collected from the area surrounding each tank that was sampled. All samples were analyzed for the 16 PAH priority pollutant listed by US EPA and for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The results demonstrate that overall average PAH concentrations were significantly higher in tank bottom solids than in contaminated soils. Total PAH concentrations decreased predictably with diminishing hydrocarbon concentrations; but the percent fraction of carcinogenic PAHs per total measured PAH content increased from approximately 12% in tank bottom solids to about 46% in the contaminated soils. These results suggest that the PAH content found in tank bottom solids cannot reliably be used to predict the PAH content in associated contaminated soil. Comparison of PAHs to conservative risk-based screening levels for direct exposure to soil and leaching from soil to groundwater indicate that PAHs are not likely to exceed default risk-based thresholds in soils containing TPH of 1% (10,000mg/kg) or less. These results show that the magnitude of TPH concentration may be a useful indicator of potential risk from PAHs in crude oil-contaminated soils. The results also provide credibility to the 1% (10,000mg/kg) TPH cleanup level, used in Texas as a default management level at E&P sites located in non-sensitive areas, with respect to PAH toxicity.

  2. Influence of environmental conditions on the stability of oil in water emulsions containing droplets stabilized by lecithin-chitosan membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Decker, Eric A; McClements, D Julian

    2003-08-27

    Oil-in-water emulsions containing cationic droplets stabilized by lecithin-chitosan membranes were produced using a two-stage process. A primary emulsion containing anionic lecithin-coated droplets was prepared by homogenizing oil and emulsifier solution using a high-pressure valve homogenizer (5 wt % corn oil, 1 wt % lecithin, 100 mM acetic acid, pH 3.0). A secondary emulsion containing cationic lecithin-chitosan-coated droplets was formed by diluting the primary emulsion with an aqueous chitosan solution (1 wt % corn oil, 0.2 wt % lecithin, 100 mM acetic acid, and 0.036 wt % chitosan). The stabilities of the primary and secondary emulsions with the same oil concentration to thermal processing, freeze-thaw cycling, high calcium chloride concentrations, and lipid oxidation were determined. The results showed that the secondary emulsions had better stability to droplet aggregation during thermal processing (30-90 degrees C for 30 min), freeze-thaw cycling (-10 degrees C for 22 h/30 degrees C for 2 h), and high calcium chloride contents (

  3. Phototoxic properties of perfumes containing bergamot oil on human skin: photoprotective effect of UVA and UVB sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubertret, L; Serraf-Tircazes, D; Jeanmougin, M; Morlière, P; Averbeck, D; Young, A R

    1990-11-01

    As part of an international cooperative study of the photophysical, photomutagenic and photocarcinogenic properties of bergamot oil and the effect of UVA and UVB sunscreens, the phototoxic properties of model perfumes containing 5, 15 and 50 ppm 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) in bergamot oil with and without a sunscreen have been investigated on human skin. It has been confirmed that the photosensitivity of human skin is maximal 2 h after perfume application. Interestingly the addition of a UVA sunscreen is more efficient for decreasing the phototoxic properties of bergamot oil than is a UVB sunscreen. The addition of sunscreens in a model perfume containing 50 ppm 5-MOP in bergamot oil can reduce the phototoxic properties of this perfume to a toxicity equivalent to that produced by the application of a model perfume containing 15 ppm 5-MOP without sunscreens. However, despite their promising protective effect in vitro, UVB and UVA sunscreens at low concentration (0.5%-1%) in perfumes cannot suppress the phototoxicity of bergamot oil on human skin.

  4. Combination of ozonation and photocatalysis for purification of aqueous effluents containing formic acid as probe pollutant and bromide ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, F; Camera-Roda, G; Loddo, V; Palmisano, G; Augugliaro, V

    2014-03-01

    The treatment by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) of waters contaminated by organic pollutants and containing also innocuous bromide ions may generate bromate ions as a co-product. In the present work heterogeneous photocatalysis and ozonation have individually been applied and in combination (integrated process) to degrade the organic compounds in water containing also bromide anions. The results show that: i) the sole photocatalysis does not produce bromate ions and in the case of its presence, it is able to reduce bromate to innocuous bromide ions; ii) the integration of photocatalysis and ozonation synergistically enhances the oxidation capabilities; and iii) in the integrated process bromate ions are not produced as long as some oxidizable organics are present.

  5. Bacterial diversity in a tropical crude oil-polluted soil undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... received each 4 L of Bonny light crude oil while three treatment plots received 3 kg of NPK, urea ..... level decreased by 97, 96 and 95% respectively, by day .... the removal of fuel contaminants: perspective for monitoring.

  6. Water-oil separation performance of technical textiles used for marine pollution disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddighi, Mahdi; Hejazi, Sayyed Mahdi

    2015-07-15

    Oil is principally one of the most important energy sources in the world. However, as long as oil is explored and transported for being used, there will be the risk of the spillage into the marine environment. The use of technical textiles, i.e. fibrous beds, is a conventional separation technique for oil/water emulsion since it is efficient and easy to design. In this paper, the recovery of oil by technical textiles was mathematically modeled based on the structural parameters of textile and the capillary mechanism. Eleven types of commercial technical textiles with different properties were prepared for the experimental program. The experimental design included fiber type (polypropylene and polyester), fabric type (woven and/or nonwoven), fabric thickness and fabric areal density. Consequently, the absorption capacities of different technical textile samples were derived by the use of theoretical and experimental methods. The results show that there is a well fitness between theoretical outputs and experimental data.

  7. Bioremediation of oil-polluted soil by Lentinus subnudus, a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    has been very little work on indigenous white-rot fungi in Nigeria, a leading oil – producing country. The ability .... Influence of cadmium and mercury on activities of Ligninolytic enzymes and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by.

  8. Developing sorbent standards for spill response: Effects of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Free Trade Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, E.L.; Westover, E.S. [Millsaps College, Jackson, MI (United States)

    1993-09-01

    For the past five years the Millsaps Sorbent Laboratory has been actively engaged in developing standards for initial and long-term oil spill remedial technologies. As a voting member of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) F-20 Committee, Canadian General Standards Board, and the US Coast Guard Sorbents Task Force, and laboratory has been engaged in developing useful, pragmatic protocols for various chemical and physical sorbent and filtration technologies driven by the deadlines imposed by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90). The {open_quotes}open border{close_quotes} approach to certification of technologies and products promulgated by the US/Canadian Free Trade Agreement has placed the US users and producers of such products and systems in a unique and tenuous position. Canadian standards and goals are grandfathered into the United States under this agreement and products have official US government certification based on Canadian regulations. This situation is unfavorable to the US domestic environment and economy for several specific scenarios. Included in these scenarios are: abundant warm-water zones and inland waters of the US versus Canada, the basic chemical variation between Canadian and US crude oils, the different generally accepted remediation technologies in the US versus Canadian, and the technology validation procedures prior to purchase inherent to both countries. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Seabird feathers as monitors of the levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Rocío; Jover, Lluís; Diez, Carmen; Sanpera, Carola

    2011-10-01

    We measured heavy metal concentrations in yellow-legged gulls (n = 196) and European shags (n = 189) in order to assess the temporal pattern of contaminant exposure following the Prestige oil spill in November 2002. We analysed Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and V levels in chick feathers sampled at four colonies during seven post-spill years (2003-2009), and compared results with pre-spill levels obtained from feathers of juvenile shag corpses (grown in spring/summer 2002). Following the Prestige wreck, Cu (4.3-10 μg g(-1)) and Pb concentrations (1.0-1.4 μg g(-1)) were, respectively, between two and five times higher than pre-spill levels (1.5-3.6 and 0.1-0.4 μg g(-1)), but returned to previous background concentrations after three years. Our study highlights the suitability of chick feathers of seabirds for assessing the impact of oil spills on heavy metal contamination, and provides the best evidence to date on the persistence of oil pollution after the Prestige incident.

  10. Developing sorbent standards for spill response: Effects of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, E. L.; Westover, E. S.

    1993-09-01

    For the past five years the Millsaps Sorbent Laboratory has been actively engaged in developing standards for initial and long-term oil spill remedial technologies. As a voting member of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) F-20 Committee, Canadian General Standards Board, and the US Coast Guard Sorbents Task Force, the laboratory has been engaged in developing useful, pragmatic protocols for various chemical and physical sorbent and filtration technologies driven by the deadlines imposed by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90). The “open border” approach to certification of technologies and products promulgated by the US/Canadian Free Trade Agreement has placed the US users and producers of such products and systems in a unique and tenuous position. Canadian standards and goals are grandfathered into the United States under this agreement and products have official US government certification based on Canadian regulations. This situation is unfavorable to the US domestic environment and economy for several specific scenarios. Included in these scenarios are: abundant warmwater zones and inland waters of the US versus Canada, the basic chemical variation between Canadian and US crude oils, the different generally accepted remediation technologies in the US versus Canadian, and the technology validation procedures prior to purchase inherent to both countries.

  11. Apparatus for towing by ships for removal of oil slicks and other forms of buoyant pollutants from a water surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrick, A.P.

    1971-06-30

    This device may be towed behind crude oil tankers and other ships for the purpose of removing oil slicks, or other flotsam, from the surface of the water in which they are buoyant. The device consists of a coil of hose, a substantial part of which can float above the water surface. By operation of controls on the towing ship, a drum of drums may be rotated within the device to payout the coils of hose to such an extent that they take up an arcuate shape at the water surfaces so that by continued forward movement of the towing vessel, oil slicks and other pollutants at the water surface are swept towards the outer ends of the arcuate lengths of hose. From here they may be sucked and pumped into tanks inboard of the towing vessel through lengths of nonbuoyant hose linking the outer ends of the buoyant hose lengths to pumps near the stren of the towing vessel or ship. (1 claim)

  12. The microbiological activity and toxicity of oil-polluted playa solonchaks and filled grounds within the Severnye Buzachi Oil Field (Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynybaeva, T. G.; Kostina, N. V.; Terekhov, A. M.; Kurakov, A. V.

    2008-10-01

    The number of colony-forming units of microorganisms, the viable biomass, and also the intensity of the microbiological processes (respiration, nitrogen fixation, denitrification, and cellulose decomposition) in playa solonchaks and sandy-loamy filled grounds in the territory of the Severnye Buzachi Oilfields (Kazakhstan) were much lower than in other soil types attesting to the limited capability of these substrates for selfpurification. Upon pollution by oil at concentrations of 100 600 mg/kg, the number of copiotrophic bacteria increased, whereas the actinomycetal and fungal populations were reduced and the biomass pool, the rates of CO2 emission, the potential nitrogen fixation, and denitrification became higher. The microbial communities of the playa solonchaks were weakly active and consumed few applied substrates. The biotesting with Artemia salina L. showed that some areas belonged to the lands of the 4th danger class, although the majority of the soil and substrate samples were not toxic. The germination of Lepidium sativum L. seeds was suppressed because of the salt toxicity, which is not related to the oil concentration (30 to 600 mg/kg).

  13. Hydrogels Containing Nanocapsules and Nanoemulsions of Tea Tree Oil Provide Antiedematogenic Effect and Improved Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Fernanda C; De Lima, Julia A; Da Silva, Cássia R; Benvegnú, Dalila; Ferreira, Juliano; Burger, Marilise E; Beck, Ruy C R; Rolim, Clarice M B; Rocha, Maria Isabel U M; Da Veiga, Marcelo L; Da Silva, Cristiane de B

    2015-01-01

    In previous works, we developed nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing the tea tree oil. The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize hydrogels containing these nanocarriers, and to evaluate their in vivo efficacy in protecting skin damage induced by UVB and cutaneous wound healing. Hydrogels were prepared using Carbopol Ultrez and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated: macroscopic analysis, pH, spreadability and rheological properties. The in vivo antiedematogenic effect was evaluated by ear thickness measurement after UVB-irradiation. In order to evaluate healing action of hydrogels, we investigated the regression of the cutaneous lesion in rats. Hydrogels showed homogeneous aspect and pH values between 5.6-5.8 and a non-Newtonian behavior. The presence of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions in hydrogels did not change their spreadability profile. The inclusion of tea tree oil in the nanocapsules and nanoemulsions allowed reducing the edema induced by UVB exposure. Hydrogel containing nanocapsules presented a higher reduction of the wound area compared to the hydrogel containing nanoemulsions and hydrogel containing allantoin. This study shows the feasibility of obtained dermatological formulations containing the tea tree oil associated in nanostructured systems. These formulations represent a promising approach to topical treatment of inflammatory disorders and wound healing.

  14. Formation and stability of oil-in-water nanoemulsions containing rice bran oil: in vitro and in vivo assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha-Filho Pedro A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoemulsions have practical application in a multitude of commercial areas, such as the chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Cosmetic industries use rice bran oil in sunscreen formulations, anti ageing products and in treatments for skin diseases. The aim of this study was to create rice bran oil nanoemulsions using low energy emulsification methods and to evaluate their physical stability, irritation potential and moisturising activity on volunteers with normal and diseased skin types. Results The nanoemulsion developed by this phase diagram method was composed of 10% rice bran oil, 10% surfactants sorbitan oleate/PEG-30 castor oil, 0.05% antioxidant and 0.50% preservatives formulated in distilled water. The nanoemulsion was stable over the time course of this study. In vitro assays showed that this formulation has a low irritation potential, and when applied to human skin during in vivo studies, the nanoemulsion improved the skin's moisture and maintained normal skin pH values. Conclusion The results of irritation potential studies and in vivo assessments indicate that this nanoemulsion has potential to be a useful tool to treat skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  15. Degradation of water polluted with used cooking oil by solar photolysis, Fenton and solar photo Fenton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Sánchez, J; Silva-Martínez, S

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of used cooking safflower oil aqueous solutions by photolysis, Fenton, and photo Fenton under solar light is reported. The processes were carried out in a photochemical reactor with recirculation. Operating variables such as, pH, oil concentration and molar ratio of [H(2)O(2)]:[oil] were investigated to test their effects on the treatment efficiency of Fenton process. Also the iron catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the solar photo Fenton reaction was studied under different experimental conditions. The degree of oil oxidation was monitored by the measurements of chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyses. It was found that at pH 2.6 and a molar ratio of [H(2)O(2)]:[oil] of 489:1 were more efficient for COD abatement. The experimental results showed that the sole effect of the solar irradiation (photolysis) aided to decrease approximately 65% of COD at neutral pH in a reaction time period of 15 h; whereas a decrease of 47% and approximately 90% of COD was obtained by Fenton and photo Fenton treatment, respectively, after a reaction time of 50 min. It was observed a decrease in the decomposition of H(2)O(2) in the solar photo Fenton process, in subsequent additions of H(2)O(2), and H(2)O(2) + Fe(2+).

  16. Interactions between oil-spill pollutants and natural stressors can compound ecotoxicological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Coastal estuaries are among the most biologically productive habitats on earth, yet are at risk from human activities including marine oil spills. The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill contaminated hundreds of kilometers of coastal habitat, particularly in Louisiana's delta. Coastal estuaries are naturally dynamic habitats where periodic and stochastic fluctuations, for example in temperature, salinity, nutrients, and hypoxia, are common. Such environmental variability regularly imposes suboptimal conditions for which resident species must continually compensate by drawing on diverse physiological abilities. However, exposures to oil, in addition to their direct toxic effects, may interfere with functions that normally enable physiological compensation for suboptimal conditions. This review summarizes the panoply of naturally-encountered stressors that may interact with oil, including salinity, hypoxia, pathogens, and competition, and the mechanisms that may underlie these interactions. Combined effects of these stressors can amplify the costs of oil-exposures to organisms in the real world, and contribute to impacts on fitness, populations, and communities, that may not have been predicted from direct toxicity of hydrocarbons alone. These interactions pose challenges for accurate and realistic assessment of risks and of actual damage. To meet these challenges, environmental scientists and managers must capitalize on the latest understanding of the complexities of chemical effects of natural stressors on organisms, and adopt integrative and holistic measures of effect from the molecular to whole-animal levels, in order to anticipate, characterize, diagnose, and solve, ecotoxicological problems.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of Schiff base contained dextran microgels in water-in-oil inverse microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongying; Jia, Qingming; Shan, Shaoyun

    2016-11-05

    Polysaccharide-based microgels with high water content, excellent biocompatibility and controllable particle size have been widely studied as ideal candidates for drug release and delivery. In this study, microgels based on dextran were developed via the Schiff base formation between aldehyded dextran and ethylenediamine in a water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion. Particle size of the resulted microgel was controllable between 800 and 1100nm by modulating the amount of the employed co-surfactants (Span 80/Tween 80). Furthermore, fluoresceins (e.g., aminofluorescein) and drugs (e.g., doxorubicin) with free amino groups can be conjugated onto the network of the dextran-based microgel via Schiff base linkages. Since the Schiff base linkages are degradable via hydrolysis and their stability decreases with the environmental pH decreases, the resulted Schiff bases contained microgel showed a pH dependent degradation profile. These results indicated that the pH-sensitive microgel based on dextran could be used as promising drug delivery systems for biomedical applications.

  18. Tribological study of a highly hydrolytically stable phenylboronic acid ester containing benzothiazolyl in mineral oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhipeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 (China); Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Xiufeng; Zhang, Yawen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 (China); Ren, Tianhui, E-mail: thren@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 (China); Zhao, Yidong [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zeng, Xiangqiong; Heide, E. van der [Laboratory for Surface Technology and Tribology, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    A novel long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester containing heterocyclic compound, bis (1-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio) propan-2-yl)-4-dodecylphenylboronic acid ester (DBBMT), was synthesized and characterized. The hydrolytic stability of the DBBMT was evaluated and the results show that DBBMT is of outstanding hydrolytic stability compared with normal borate esters, which indicates that the designed molecular structure, by introducing benzene ring to conjugate with the electron-deficient boron and the benzothiazole as a hinder group, is effective on obtaining a hydrolytically stable long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester. The tribological properties of DBBMT and ZDDP in mineral base oil were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer, which suggests that the DBBMT possesses comprehensive tribological properties and could be a potential candidate for the replacement of ZDDP. Furthermore, in order to understand the tribological behaviors, the worn surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the elements S, B, O and Fe perform complicated tribochemical reactions to form the compact tribological film composed of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeSO{sub 4}.

  19. Electrophoresis of oil-containing edible microcapsules with protein-polyuronic shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baerle

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.The aim of this work is to determine the sign of the charge of microcapsules shells, containing oil composition and to estimate stability of microcapsules with different diameters in the electric field. Materials and methods. The microcapsules were prepared by complex coacervation method. Remains of electrolytes were removed by dialysis or electro-dialysis. Purified microcapsules were subjected to electrophoresis at 100-400 V/m. Polydispersity was determined by means of our own method. Results and discussion. Small microcapsules with protein-poliuronate shells moves from the cathode (- to the anode (+ during electrophoresis. Microcapsules with a diameter much than 35μm are most susceptible to degradation in the cathode space, while remaining stable at low pH values at the anode surface. Conclusions. Gelatin-Alginat and Gelatin-Hyaluronat shells have a negative electric charge. Electrophoresis can be used to obtain required diameter of coacervate microcapsules. High stability of the microcapsules in the anode space (acid confirms the validity of their introduction into fermented dairy products.

  20. Economic Efficiency of Artisanal Fishing Households under Oil Pollution Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbigbi, TM.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish supplies more than 87% of the animal protein in Nigeria, and more than 90% of coastal communities depend solely on fishing and fisheries related activities for their survival. Available information however, shows that Nigeria's inland water bodies are producing less than 13% of their estimated fishery potential. And domestic demand for fish has never been met by dependence on output from available aquatic sources. Nigeria therefore imports over US$ 200 million worth of frozen fish per annum. The capacity of artisanal fisheries to play its role of bridging this food gap, providing employment and generating income, particularly for the coastal communities in Nigeria, will largely depend on the adoption of appropriate management strategies that will ensure efficiency and sustainability given their debilitating oil pollution environment. This study employed a Cobb- Douglas stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants among these households. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 160 respondents from whom input-output data, prices and socioeconomic characteristics were obtained. The results of the analysis showed that individual levels of economic efficiency ranged from 0.10 - 0.96 with a mean of 0.68. While age, household size and number of fishing trips made in a week decreased, access to credit, membership of co-operative society, and oil spill increased, significantly, the respondents' level of economic inefficiency. These observations particularly suggest that the farmers were yet to harness the potentials of farm credit and membership of cooperative societies in their farm business, perhaps as a result of poverty. We recommend training workshops and seminars to remedy this. There is also the need for policies that could compel oil companies to minimize oil spill within the farmers' fishing environment. The adverse effects of oil spill on the environment and the

  1. High-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil affect differently pancreas function of young male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, C A S; Carlos, A S; de Sousa Dos Santos, A; de Moura, E G; Nascimento-Saba, C C A

    2013-09-01

    The excessive fat intake generally might induce obesity and metabolic disturbances. Thus, the goal of the study was to assess the role of high-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil on intra-abdominal adiposity and pancreatic morphology and function of young rats. After weaning, rats were fed with a control diet (7S) or a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old, when they were sacrificed. Food intake (g/day), body mass and length, retroperitoneal and epididymal fat mass, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and area of pancreatic islets were assessed. The results were considered different with a significant level of pfat mass. The 19C group showed higher HOMA-IR (+43% and +78%) and HOMA-β (+40% and +59%) than 19S and 7S groups, respectively. Both 19S and 19C groups showed lower pancreatic islets area in relation to 7S group. Meantime, 19C presented lower percentage of pancreatic islets area in comparison to 19S (-41%) and 7S group (-70%, poil, the high fat diet promoted development of the obesity. Comparing 19C and 19S groups, the higher concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids, present in the canola oil were worse than higher concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, present in the soybean oil.

  2. Measurement of glycidol hemoglobin adducts in humans who ingest edible oil containing small amounts of glycidol fatty acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi; Onishi, Masayuki; Fujii, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Naohiro; Yamaguchi, Tohru; Fujimori, Taketoshi; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Kasamatsu, Toshio

    2011-10-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts are frequently used to address and/or monitor exposure to reactive chemicals. Glycidol (G), a known animal carcinogen, has been reported to form Hb adducts. Here, we measure G adduct levels in humans who daily ingest DAG oil, an edible oil consisting mainly of diacylglycerol. Since DAG oil contains a small amount of glycidol fatty acid esters (GEs), possible exposure to G released from GEs has been raised as a possible concern. For measurement of Hb adducts, we employed the N-alkyl Edman method reported by Landin et al. (1996) using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with minor modifications to detect G-Hb adducts as N-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)valine (diHOPrVal). Blood samples were collected from 7 DAG oil users and 6 non-users, and then G-Hb adduct levels were measured. G-Hb adducts were detected in all samples. The average level of diHOPrVal was 3.5±1.9pmol/g globin in the DAG oil users and 7.1±3.1pmol/g globin in the non-users. We conclude that there is no increased exposure to G in individuals who daily ingest DAG oil.

  3. Surveying and Comparing Thermal Conductivity and Physical Properties of Oil Base NanoFluids Containing Carbon and Metal Oxide Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ahmadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, nano materials with tubular structures are added to SAE 20W50 engine oil to study the rate of their effects on the properties of engine oil. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and vanadium oxide nanotubes (VONTs has been used as two different additive materials, one of them is carbonic and the other is metallic oxides and their effect on  different parameters containing viscosity, thermal conductivity coefficient, flash point and pour point of engine oil as the quality properties of engine oil has been studied and compared. The samples of two concentrations 0.1 and 0.2 wt% with using planetary ball mill were made. The obtained results show that MWCNTs in all cases, which  have been evaluated, had better functionality with respect to vanadium oxide nanotubes. In the 0.1 wt% concentration, flash point of MWCNTs/oil and VONTs/oil increased about 9.3% and 5.8% respectively. In addition, thermal conductivity of them increased 13.2% and 10.2% respectively.

  4. Formulation and evaluation of an effective pH balanced topical antimicrobial product containing tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, S S; Ahuja, A; Khar, R K; Chaudhry, R

    2005-03-01

    The effect of pH on the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil formulations was studied. Microemulsions, liposomal dispersions, multiple emulsions and a colloidal bed of sterile clay were formulated using 5% w/w of tea tree oil. A number of formulations were prepared at various pH values (5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0). Thermal stability studies showed that the formulations were stable for more than eight months. Agar dilution tests showed MICs of 1.0% v/v S. aureus and S. epidermidis. In the broth dilution test, MBC of the oil for P. acnes was 0.5% v/v. MIC and MBC values were comparable to those of non-formulated tea tree oil, indicating that tea tree oil retained its activity in the above-mentioned formulations. The microbiological evaluation showed that the formulations containing 5% w/w tea tree oil had a maximum effect at pH 5.5.

  5. Studies of new emulsifiers to obtention of emulsions containing naphthenic basic oils; Estudo de novos emulsificantes visando a obtencao de emulsoes com oleos basicos naftenicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegado, Roberta de Melo; Alves, Davidson Willans da Silva; Dantas Neto, Afonso Avelino [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Dantas, Tereza Neuma de Castro [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Rede N/NE de Pesquisa em Combustiveis e Lubrificantes]. E-mail: tereza@eq.ufrn.br

    2003-07-01

    The based naphtenic oils are produced in the Brazilian Northeast Region. They can be used in lubricant formulations specially in cutting oils. This work shows the study of the influence of the surfactants Tensiofix CS and Goldmul SF in the viscosity and the stability of formulations containing NH-10 and NH-20 oils. The best results were obtained with NH-20 oil and Goldmul SF as emulsifier. (author)

  6. Activated Orange Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC; An Acceptable Remediation Techniques for Crude Oil Pollution Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atulegwu Patrick Uzoije

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange mesocarp with its potentials application to remove spilled crude oil was used to prepare an activated adsorbent. Therefore, adsorption of crude oil onto the activated orange meso-carp (AOMC was investigated. Batch experiment was adopted for the equilibrium studies and the studies were conducted for various operational parameters such as varying crude oil concentration and temperature values. The crude oil samples of A, B, C, D and E, with concentrations 6045, 4393, 8508, 11583, and 5220, respectively and temperature values varied between 10-50ºC were used for the experiment. The adsorption equilibrium was established at 40 min of adsorption time. Partition coefficients, kd (L/kg for various samples reacted inversely with temperature and were in the ranges of 0.37-0.69, 0.65-1.11, 1.28-2.04, 1.17-1.39 and 1.23-4.53 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. percentage of crude oil samples on the AOMC decreased with low crude oil hydrocarbons and the trend was shown as follows D>C >A>E>B. Percentage ranges for samples A, B, C,D and E were given to be 86.8-88%, 60.5-72.4, 52.5-55.2, 47.9-55.4 and 45.3-49.2%, respectively. Sorption of the crude oil samples to AOMC was found to be spontaneous, exothermic, and physio-sorption controlled with G values being in the ranges of -71.49 to -21.29, -18.25 to -5.43, -30.24 to -21.11, -28.55 to -11.33 and -50.74 to -50.12 KJ/mol for samples A ,B , C , D and E, respectively. Enthalpy(H and Entropy changes(S were also found to be -10.28, -12.24, -8.92, -6.9, -50.28 J/mol/K and -2.92, -0.32, -0.50, -0.44, -0.01 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. Activated orange meso-carp provides a veritable environmentally remediation technique for crude oil spillage.

  7. Weathering patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained in submerged Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues when re-exposed to sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Gerald F; Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2016-12-15

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill event released a large amount of sweet crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). An unknown portion of this oil that arrived along the Alabama shoreline interacted with nearshore sediments and sank forming submerged oil mats (SOMs). A considerable amount of hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were trapped within these buried SOMs. Recent studies completed using the oil spill residues collected along the Alabama shoreline have shown that several PAHs, especially higher molecular weight PAHs (four or more aromatic rings), are slowly weathering compared to the weathering levels experienced by the oil when it was floating over the GOM. In this study we have hypothesized that the weathering rates of PAHs in SOMs have slowed down because the buried oil was isolated from direct exposure to sunlight, thus hindering the photodegradation pathway. We further hypothesized that re-exposing SOMs to sunlight can reactivate various weathering reactions. Also, SOMs contain 75-95% sand (by weight) and the entrapped sand could either block direct sunlight or form large oil agglomerates with very little exposed surface area; these processes could possibly interfere with weathering reactions. To test these hypotheses, we completed controlled experiments to study the weathering patterns of PAHs in a field recovered SOM sample after re-exposing it to sunlight. Our experimental results show that the weathering levels of several higher molecular weight PAHs have slowed down primarily due to the absence of sunlight-induced photodegradation reactions. The data also show that sand particles in SOM material could potentially interfere with photodegradation reactions.

  8. 76 FR 30027 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... ] requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: May 10, 2011. James Martin, Regional... sampling and cleanup for soil, dust and paint are only offered: (1) When children or pregnant/nursing... with no preconditions. This service is no longer available. In addition, the work group may not offer...

  9. 76 FR 50164 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of New York, through the Department...

  10. 76 FR 49397 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Utah, through the Utah Department...

  11. 76 FR 76336 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ...); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission...

  12. Human health cost of hydrogen sulfide air pollution from an oil and gas Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinara Kenessary

    2017-06-01

    The reduction of hydrogen sulfide emissions into the air is recommended, as well as successive constant ambient air monitoring in future. Economic damage evaluation should be made mandatory, on a legal basis, whenever an industrial facility operation results in associated air pollution.

  13. Assessment of Volatile Organic Compound and Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Well Pads using Mobile Remote and On-site Direct Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from oil and natural gas production were investigated using direct measurements of component-level emissions on well pads in the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) Basin and remote measurements of production pad-...

  14. Assessment of the use of space technology in the monitoring of oil spills and ocean pollution: Technical volume. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, U. R. (Editor); Chafaris, G.; Chestek, J.; Contrad, J.; Frippel, G.; Gulatsi, R.; Heath, A.; Hodara, H.; Kritikos, H.; Tamiyasu, K.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of space systems and technology for detecting and monitoring ocean oil spills and waste pollution was assessed as well as the impact of this application on communication and data handling systems. Agencies charged with responsibilities in this area were identified and their measurement requirements were ascertained in order to determine the spatial resolution needed to characterize operational and accidental discharges. Microwave and optical sensors and sensing techniques were evaluated as candidate system elements. Capabilities are described for the following: synthetic aperture radar, microwave scatterometer, passive microwave radiometer, microwave altimeter, electro-optical sensors currently used in airborne detection, existing space-based optical sensors, the thematic mapper, and the pointable optical linear array.

  15. 75 FR 63093 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... extending the compliance date for drilling, production or workover facilities that are offshore or that have... their SPCC Plans. However, EPA is not extending the compliance date for drilling, production or workover... Facilities Using and 311, 325 Storing Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils. Metal Manufacturing 331, 332...

  16. 77 FR 21870 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... federal holidays. Greenup City Clerk's Office, Greenup Municipal Building, 115 Cumberland Avenue, Greenup... railroad right-of-way west of the Site and east of the municipal wastewater treatment plant. The local... a recycling plant. The facility processed waste materials such as oil, sludge, caustics,...

  17. Phytase activity of fungi from oil polluted soils and their ability to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. Ekundayo Esther

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... into 10 ml sterilized water in a test tube to form stock solution. This ... prepared by transferring 2 x 107 spores per ml from stock slants to. 50 ml of ..... lubricating oil on the growth of Pleurotus tuber-regium Fries Singer. Nig.

  18. Physicochemical Property and Oxidative Stability of Whey Protein Concentrate Multiple Nanoemulsion Containing Fish Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Young; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Lee, Mee-Ryung; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Won-Jae

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to produce whey protein concentrate (WPC) multiple nanoemulsion (MNE) and to study how whey protein concentration level and antioxidant type affected the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of fish oil in MNE. The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of MNE were investigated by using transmission electron microscopy and particle size analyzer, respectively. The oxidative stability of fish oil in MNEs was assessed by measuring peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value, and volatile compounds. The spherical forms of emulsions with size ranging from 190 to 210 nm were observed indicating the successful production of MNE. Compared with free fish oil, fish oil in MNE exhibited lower PV, p-anisidine value, and formation of maker of oxidation of fish oil indicating the oxidative stability of fish oil in MNE was enhanced. PV, p-anisidine value, and makers of oxidation of fish oil were decreased with increased WPC concentration level. The combined use of Vitamin C and E in MNE resulted in a reduction in PV and p-anisidine value, and development of maker of oxidation. In conclusion, WPC concentration level and antioxidant type are key factors affecting the droplet size of MNE and oxidative stability of fish oil.

  19. Lipase-Secreting Bacillus Species in an Oil-Contaminated Habitat: Promising Strains to Alleviate Oil Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li Pin; Karbul, Hudzaifah Mohamed; Citartan, Marimuthu; Gopinath, Subash C B; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2015-01-01

    Lipases are of great interest for different industrial applications due to their diversity and versatility. Among different lipases, microbial lipases are preferable due to their broad substrate specificity, and higher stability with lower production costs compared to the lipases from plants and animals. In the past, a vast number of bacterial species have been reported as potential lipases producers. In this study, the lipases-producing bacterial species were isolated from an oil spillage area in the conventional night market. Isolated species were identified as Bacillus species by biochemical tests which indicate their predominant establishment, and further screened on the agar solid surfaces using lipid and gelatin as the substrates. Out of the ten strains tested, four potential strains were subjected to comparison analysis of the lipolytic versus proteolytic activities. Strain 10 exhibited the highest lipolytic and proteolytic activity. In all the strains, the proteolytic activity is higher than the lipolytic activity except for strain 8, suggesting the possibility for substrate-based extracellular gene induction. The simultaneous secretion of both the lipase and protease is a mean of survival. The isolated bacterial species which harbour both lipase and protease enzymes could render potential industrial-based applications and solve environmental issues.

  20. Lipase-Secreting Bacillus Species in an Oil-Contaminated Habitat: Promising Strains to Alleviate Oil Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are of great interest for different industrial applications due to their diversity and versatility. Among different lipases, microbial lipases are preferable due to their broad substrate specificity, and higher stability with lower production costs compared to the lipases from plants and animals. In the past, a vast number of bacterial species have been reported as potential lipases producers. In this study, the lipases-producing bacterial species were isolated from an oil spillage area in the conventional night market. Isolated species were identified as Bacillus species by biochemical tests which indicate their predominant establishment, and further screened on the agar solid surfaces using lipid and gelatin as the substrates. Out of the ten strains tested, four potential strains were subjected to comparison analysis of the lipolytic versus proteolytic activities. Strain 10 exhibited the highest lipolytic and proteolytic activity. In all the strains, the proteolytic activity is higher than the lipolytic activity except for strain 8, suggesting the possibility for substrate-based extracellular gene induction. The simultaneous secretion of both the lipase and protease is a mean of survival. The isolated bacterial species which harbour both lipase and protease enzymes could render potential industrial-based applications and solve environmental issues.

  1. IMPACT OF IODINE-CONTAINING PUMPKIN OIL ON THE COURSE OF CARDIAC ISCHEMIA IN THE RESIDENTS OF ZAKARPATTYA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALINT LYUBOV

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was exploration of the impact of the conventional treatment in combination with simvastatin and iodine-containing pumpkin oil “Fortuna vita” on the values of lipid metabolism in cardiac ischemia patients residing in the setting of iodine deficit. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1– patients underwent conventional treatment with application of simvastatin of 20mg/day during the whole course of observation; group 2 – same treatment in combination with iodine-containing pumpkin oil “Fortuna vita” of 10ml/day, which contains 200μg of organically combined iodine form. The level of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol and lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol in serum, and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotrasferase in patients before treatment, after 10 days, and after 1 month of treatment was measured. It was determined, that simvastatin is an effective and safe cholesterol-reducing preparation for cardiac ischemia patients which results in reduction of cholesterol level by 18% and LDL by 23% in one month. A combination of simvastatin and iodine-containing pumpkin oil appears more effective, probably because of potentiation of their effects, which also facilitate growth of antiatherogenic HDL and consequently decrease the atherogenicity coefficient. The general clinical state of both groups improved as a result of the treatment, though more so for the patients treated in combination with iodine-containing pumpkin oil. We are inclined to explain this fact by normalization of iodine-thyroid status, and consequently, of the general metabolism of the patients in the setting of ecologic iodine deficit because of iodine-containing fatty acids.

  2. Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; P, Kumaran; M, Jayakumar

    2013-06-01

    One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane - a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

  3. Liposome containing cinnamon oil with antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haiying; Li, Wei; Li, Changzhu; Vittayapadung, Saritporn; Lin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of bacterial disease remains high and is set against a backdrop of increasing antimicrobial resistance. There is a pressing need for highly effective and natural antibacterial agents. In this work, the anti-biofilm effect of cinnamon oil on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. Then, cinnamon oil was encapsulated in liposomes to enhance its chemical stability. The anti-biofilm activities of the liposome-encapsulated cinnamon oil against MRSA biofilms on stainless steel, gauze, nylon membrane and non-woven fabrics were evaluated by colony forming unit determination. Scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy analyses were employed to observe the morphological changes in MRSA biofilms treated with the encapsulated cinnamon oil. As a natural and safe spice, the cinnamon oil exhibited a satisfactory antibacterial performance on MRSA and its biofilms. The application of liposomes further improves the stability of antimicrobial agents and extends the action time.

  4. Phytoassessment of a waste engine oil-polluted soil exposed to two different intervals of monitored natural attenuation using African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhajiagbe, B; Anoliefo, G O; Jolaoso, M A; Oshomoh, E O

    2013-07-15

    The present study comparatively investigated the phytotoxic effects of waste engine oil (WEO)-polluted soil exposed to monitored natural attenuation up to 5 and 14 months respectively. Soil was previously polluted with WEO at 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% w/w oil in soil. Although, there was significant reduction in heavy metal concentration of soil as well as total hydrocarbon contents, performance of Sphenostylis stenocarpa was greatly retarded when sown at 5 months after pollution (MAP), with death of all seedlings except in the control. However, growth and yield performances were significantly (p > 0.05) enhanced at 14 MAP. Computation of hazard quotient showed that ecological risk factor initially posed by the presence of heavy metals in the soil at 5 MAP was significantly (p > 0.05) reduced to safe levels at 14 MAP.

  5. The Arctic is no longer put on ice: evaluation of Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) as a monitoring species of oil pollution in cold waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Henrik; Sundt, Rolf C; Aas, Endre; Sanni, Steinar

    2010-03-01

    The withdrawing Arctic ice edge will facilitate future sea transport and exploration activities in the area, which calls for the establishment of relevant cold water monitoring species. The present study presents first results of field baseline levels for core oil pollution biomarkers in Polar cod (Boreogadussaida) sampled from pristine, Arctic waters. Furthermore, biomarker response levels were characterized in controlled laboratory exposure experiments running over 2 weeks. Fish exposed to a simulated petrogenic spill (1ppm dispersed, crude oil) exhibited elevated hepatic EROD activity, bile PAH-metabolites, and hepatic DNA-adducts, whereas male individuals exposed to simulated produced water (30ppb nonylphenol) exhibited a strong induction of plasma vitellogenin. In conclusion, the results demonstrated low and robust biomarker baseline levels that were clearly different from exposure responses. In combination with its high abundance and circumpolar distribution, the Polar cod seems well qualified for oil pollution monitoring in Arctic waters.

  6. Effect of seawater desalination and oil pollution on the lipid composition of blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from the White Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokina, N N; Bakhmet, I N; Shklyarevich, G A; Nemova, N N

    2014-12-01

    A study on the effect oil pollution under normal and reduced salinity had on blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from the White Sea in an aquarium-based experiment and in the natural habitat revealed a change in gill total lipids as a compensatory response. The cholesterol concentration and the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio in gills were found to reflect the impact of the environmental factors (oil pollution and desalination), and evidence adaptive changes in the cell membrane structure. An elevated content of storage lipids (chiefly triacylglycerols) in the mussels in the aquarium experiment indicates, first of all, the uptake and accumulation of oil products in gill cells under both normal and reduced seawater salinity, while high triacylglycerols level in gill littoral mussels from 'control' biotope in the Gulf of Kandalaksha is primarily associated with the mussel׳s pre-spawning period.

  7. Biostimulation of soil polluted by 40000 ppm of waste motor oil and phytoremediation with Cicer arietinum and Burkholderia cepacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meza-Ramírez Janitzi Yunuén

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil polluted by 40000 ppm of waste residual oil (WRO, is a relative high hydrocarbons mix concentration according to Mexican regulation related with as the well know NOM-138-SEMARNAT/SSA1-2003 (NOM-138. Due to cause lost soil´s fertility, inhibiting microbial life and reducing vegetal production. To NOM-138 the highest limit of hydrocarbons mix allowed in soil is equal to 4400 ppm/kg. Aims of this research were: i Biostimulation of soil polluted by 40000 ppm of WRO by vermicompost and/or bovine compost, ii Phytoremediation by Cicer arietinum and Burkholderia cepacia to reduce WRO at below value compared to highest according to NOM-138. Results showed that biostimulation of soil with bovine compost eliminated WRO at 24000 ppm in 49 days. Then phytoremediation by C. arietinum and B. cepacia decreased WRO at 2760 ppm value below to compare to highest concentration allowed to NOM-138. It´s concluded that biore-mediation of soil impacted by relatively high concentration of WRO, the best strategy was to apply both biostimulation/phytoremediation that separate.

  8. 含油含醇污泥脱水性能分析与应用%Analysis and application of dewatering performance of sludge containing alcohol and oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴新民; 曹岗; 刘昂; 王海蒙; 姚炬

    2013-01-01

    Gas field exploitation often produce some oil-alcohol-containing components of the sludge generated in the process of gathering and transportation complex, direct emissions will lead to the pollution of the surrounding environment. Experimental research concentrated on the settlement of oily alcohol-containing sewage to reduce the emissions of harmful sludge to improve the treatment process, sludge samples, the experimental determination of the composition and particle size distribution analysis of the reasons for the poor separation, oil-containing alcohol to a gas field in northern Shaanxi; sludge dewatering performance, screening effective flocculant, to determine the best complex solutions and the dosage. Experimental results show that; mass concentration of 500 mg/L of PAC and 30 mg/L SC—3 formula composite the flocculant sludge dewatering performance sedimentation treatment concentrated oil-alcohol-containing sludge volume is reduced, the water content rate decreased, and the processing time is shortened. Field application test; formulation can effectively improve the treatment process and play a good role in the protection of the gas field environment.%在气田开采、集输过程中产生的含油含醇污泥成分复杂,直接排放将导致周围环境污染.为减少有害污泥排放,改善处理工艺流程,以陕北某气田含油含醇污泥为样品,实验测定组分与粒度分布,分析分离效果差的原因;通过浓缩沉降实验研究含油含醇污泥脱水性能,筛选有效絮凝剂,确定最佳复配方案及投加剂量.实验结果表明:以质量浓度分别为500 mg/L的PAC与40 mg/L的SC-3为配方的复合絮凝剂具有良好的污泥脱水性能,浓缩沉降处理后含油含醇污泥体积缩小、含水率下降,且处理时间缩短.现场应用结果表明:文中配方可有效改善处理工艺流程,对保护气田环境起到良好作用.

  9. Ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (RHD) expression in a microbial community during the early response to oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paissé, Sandrine; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Stalder, Thibault; Stadler, Thibault; Budzinski, Hélène; Duran, Robert

    2012-04-01

    The early functional response of a bacterial community from the sediments of a chronically oil-polluted retention basin located at the Etang de Berre (France) was investigated just after petroleum addition. After removing hydrocarbon compounds by natural abiotic and biotic processes, the sediments were maintained in microcosms and Vic Bilh petroleum was added. The diversity and the expression of genes encoding ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (RHD) were examined just after the petroleum addition until 14 days focussing on the first hours following the contamination. RHD gene copy numbers and diversity were maintained throughout all the incubation period; however, transcripts were detected only during the first 2 days. One dominant RHD gene, immediately and specifically expressed in response to petroleum contamination, was related to RHD gene carried by a plasmid found in Pseudomonas spp. The expression of the RHD genes was correlated with high biodegradation levels observed for low molecular weight PAHs at 7 days of incubation. The study shows that the bacterial metabolism induced just after the oil input is a key stage that could determine the bacterial community structure changes. Monitoring the expression of RHD genes, key genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation, may provide useful information for managing bioremediation processes.

  10. Production and clearance of plasma triacylglycerols in ponies fed diets containing either medium-chain triacylglycerols or soya bean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallebeek, J M; Beynen, A C

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis was tested that feeding ponies a diet containing medium-chain triacylglcyerols (MCT) instead of soya bean oil causes an increase in the production of plasma triacylglycerols, which, under steady-state conditions, is associated with an increased clearance of triacylglycerols. Six ponies were fed rations containing either MCT or an isoenergetic amount of soya bean oil according to a cross-over design. The concentration of MCT in the total dietary dry matter was about 13%. When the ponies were fed the diets for 3 weeks, plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were 0.42 +/- 0.09 and 0.17 +/- 0.03 mmol/l (mean +/- SE, n = 6; p bean-oil treatment, respectively. Plasma triacylglycerol production was assessed using the Triton method and clearance with the use of Intralipid(R) infusion. Plasma triacylglycerol production was 2.91 +/- 0.88 and 0.50 +/- 0.14 micromol/l.min (means +/- SE, n = 4; p bean oil, respectively. It is suggested that the calculated rates of triacylglycerol production are underestimated, the deviation being greatest when the ponies were fed the ration of soya bean oil. Triacylglycerol clearance rates were calculated on the basis of group mean values for both the fractional clearance rate and the baseline levels of plasma triacylglycerols; the values were 4.28 and 3.52 micromol/l.min for MCT and soya bean oil feeding, respectively. The mean, absolute clearance rates as based on those found in individual ponies did not show an increase when the diet with MCT was fed. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the data obtained support our hypothesis.

  11. Live-dead agreement of benthic communities under pressure by chronic oil pollution in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Paolo G.; Tomašových, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Filippova, Nadezhda; Steger, Jan; Zuschin, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Mismatch between the richness or species composition of a death assemblage (DA) and the local living assemblage (LA) is typically attributed to natural post-mortem processes, particularly preservational bias. Recent research, however, suggests that live-dead (LD) agreement is significantly lower in anthropogenically disturbed settings. This reflects the so-called "compositional inertia" of DAs to recent environmental change, i.e., DAs still capture earlier community states not affected by such disturbance. The inertia to changing ecological conditions should be particularly likely under conditions of anthropogenic modification because the rapidity of many human-driven changes is unprecedented in natural systems. Our research tests this hypothesis by evaluating the agreement between the LA and DA in benthic communities around the Zakum oil field in the Southern Arabian Sea, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates. This is an area of intense oil extraction, with almost 800 offshore oil and gas platforms and 25 major terminals, but no studies on the related impacts are widely available. This approach also sheds light on chronic pollution in tropical settings, an underrepresented topic in the literature. The size fraction between 2 and 5 mm was sorted for living molluscs and empty shells, which were then segregated to morphospecies and identified. The agreement was evaluated in terms of fidelity of species richness, evenness, and rank-order agreement. Compositional fidelity was also evaluated by multivariate analysis. The communities are dominated by bivalves. Polyplacophorans and scaphopods are occasionally present. Gastropod abundance is marginal compared to the bivalves, although their contribution is more significant when species diversity is taken into consideration. Moreover, the living assemblage in the studied size range was particularly poor in terms of species abundance.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of polyurethane-urea microcapsules containing galangal essential oil: statistical analysis of encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podshivalov, Alexander V; Bronnikov, Sergei; Zuev, Vjacheslav V; Jiamrungraksa, Thichanee; Charuchinda, Sireerat

    2013-01-01

    Galangal essential oil (GEO) is known to possess antimicrobial activity (e.g. against Staphylococcus aureus). A way to increase oil lifetime in plants is encapsulation in polyurethane-urea (PUU) microcapsules. In this study, PUU microcapsules with GEO were synthesized by interfacial polymerization at oil-water interface in oil-water emulsion. A statistical analysis of the microcapsule size was successfully applied for characterization of the encapsulation process. Using the model of reversible aggregation, it was shown that the process of encapsulation takes place in the conditions of thermodynamic control. The polymerization conditions (agitation rate in the range 2000-10 000 rpm/min) are the key factors that affect the mean microcapsule size of primary capsules formed during encapsulation. Two complementary processes were determined the mean capsule size during a transformation of these primary microcapsules: break-up and coalescence of oil droplets in the oil-in-water emulsion. The agitation rate does not influence the coalescence of the oil droplets, but the threshold value of agitation speed (in this system 4000 rpm/min) does exist and that is what strongly increases break-up of oil droplets. The higher agitation rate resulted in smaller size of microcapsules (mean diameter decreasing from 5.6 to 4.9 µm for primary capsules and from 13.8 to 9.8 µm for secondary capsules) and with a narrower size distribution. The last mode of encapsulation allows the more effective use the shell material for encapsulating of larger amount of oil.

  13. Development of a self-contained device for rapid detection of volatile impurities in the oil system of a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostin, A. A.; Shangin, V. V.; Bukhman, V. G.; Volosnikov, D. V.; Skripov, P. V.

    2016-08-01

    The research is devoted to development of a self-contained device for rapid detection of volatile impurities in the oil system of a turbine and testing it using the operating equipment. The device consists of a remote sensor, whose sensitive element is a 3-5-mm long wire probe 20 microns in diameter, and a measurement unit that comprises a microcontroller with a set of peripherals. The design of the device enables automation of the measurement procedure with a minimum number of preset settings and real-time output of information to the operator console. The software of the device provides two-stage pulse heating of the wire probe and a resistance temperature detector. The two-stage mode proves to be the most sensitive to appearance in the system of moisture, including its trace amounts. The characteristic time of the heating is of the order of 10 ms. The measurement procedure is based on a method that consists in automatic search for spontaneous boiling-up temperature of the oil accompanied by a characteristic response signal. The results were interpreted by formal correlation of the measured values with an array of calibration data obtained in similar experiments with well-defined oil samples. An experimental method for application of the device has been developed that takes into account technological factors, such as comparatively high values of the flow rate and the temperature of the oil in locations of the oil drain from bearings, the variability of these values, and the variety of noise types that accompany the operation of the thermal power equipment that complicate the online measurements. Tests of the device were carried out in locations of oil drain from supporting bearings. The test results have demonstrated the possibility of applying the device directly in the oil system of a turbine and provided a practical basis for development of a system of multipoint control of the technological scheme in real time.

  14. [Efficiency of the preparation "Ekolan-M" for purification of oil polluted soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogina, T M; Dumanskaia, T U; Khomenko, L A; Podgorskiĭ, V S

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of purification of oil contaminated loamy chernozem by the preparation "Ekolan-M" was investigated. During 12 months a complex soil bioremediation using the preparation and alfalfa, as the land-improving plant, at the final stage of purification resulted in the reduction of hydrocarbon content by 97.0%, and without the preparation - by 65.5 %. In the version of experiment with the preparation a 100% decrease of soil phytotoxicity was achieved and a significant stimulation of plant growth and development was observed. The process of soil purification was accompanied by intensive development of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms, the amount of which during the process of oil concentration gradually decreased, approaching the level in the control uncontaminated soil.

  15. Self-healing epoxy coating containing linseed oil loaded micro capsules for steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahmoudian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of epoxy coatings filled with linseed oil loaded micro capsules was investigated for healing the cracks generated on steel. Micro capsules were synthesized by in-situ polymerization method. Characteristics of these micro capsules were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Thermal gravimetric analysis, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM for chemical investigation, thermal stability and surface morphology respectively. Anti-corrosion effect of prepared coating was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Cracks in a paint film were successfully healed when linseed oil was released from microcapsules ruptured under simulated mechanical action.Linseed oil healed area was found to prevent corrosion of the substrate.

  16. U.S. Coast Guard 1994 Oil Pollution Research Grants Publications - Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    1 1 5 R. Paul Philp , University of Oklahoma 1 . S u m m ary...SAMPLES R. Paul Philp , University of Oklahoma 115 SUMMARY The determination of the source of oils spilt into the environment is an extremely difficult task...the distribution of hydrocarbons in carbon number ranges (i.e. >C35) that are not normally detected by conventional gas chromatography( PHILP , 1994

  17. Modeling to Evaluate Contribution of Oil and Gas Emissions to Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tammy M; Shepherd, Donald; Stacy, Andrea; Barna, Michael G; Schichtel, Bret A

    2017-04-01

    Oil and gas production in the Western United States has increased considerably over the past 10 years. While many of the still limited oil and gas impact assessments have focused on potential human health impacts, the typically remote locations of production in the Intermountain West suggests that the impacts of oil and gas production on national parks and wilderness areas (Class I and II areas) could also be important. To evaluate this, we utilize the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) with a year-long modeling episode representing the best available representation of 2011 meteorology and emissions for the Western United States. The model inputs for the 2011 episodes were generated as part of the Three State Air Quality Study (3SAQS). The study includes a detailed assessment of oil and gas (O&G) emissions in Western States. The year-long modeling episode was run both with and without emissions from O&G production. The difference between these two runs provides an estimate of the contribution of the O&G production to air quality. These data were used to assess the contribution of O&G to the 8 hour average ozone concentrations, daily and annual fine particulate concentrations, annual nitrogen deposition totals and visibility in the modeling domain. We present the results for the Class I and II areas in the Western United States. Modeling results suggest that emissions from O&G activity are having a negative impact on air quality and ecosystem health in our National Parks and Class I areas.

  18. Modelling of a captive unmanned aerial system teledetecting oil pollution on sea surface

    CERN Document Server

    Muttin, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Recent major oil-spills were tracked using observations with sufficient altitudes over the sea surface, to detect oil slick locations. For oil-spill responders, we propose a captive Unmanned Aerial System, UAS acting like a periscope over a ship or supply vessel. The system is composed of an umbilical deployed from ship deck, and there are few studies that have examined elasticity within cable dynamic during take-off or landing (TOL) and normal flight phases. Therefore, the safest approach for the control-commands of the system is through umbilical dynamic modelling. We give a time-dependant finite-element formulation, using improved elastic non-linear cable elements. Two kinds of boundary condition, natural or essential, are discussed for roll-in or roll-out of the umbilical. A numerical convergence and a validation with an exact solution are provided, using two examples for the flight parameters. Finally, sensitivity of the model potentially extends its capacity for the system equilibrium prediction, under ...

  19. CONTAINER DISTRIBUTION AND SLOW RELEASE FERTILIZERS APPLICATION ALONG THE PRE-NURSERY INFLUENCING OIL PALM SEEDLINGS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This research had as objective to verify the influence in growth, nutrition and dry matter partition in oil palm seedling by type and dosages of slow release fertilizers (SRF and percentage of tray occupation by plastic containers during pre-nursery. The experiment consisted of 16 treatments, in factorial scheme: two types of SRF (Osmocote® e Basacote mini, two dosages (0 and 3 kg/m3 and four schemes for the container distribution used to attain 100%, 66%, 50% and 25% of tray occupation. An additional treatment composed of 15 x 15 cm plastic bags filled with soil was added. Pre-germinated seeds of oil palm were put in plastic containers of 120 cm3 containing substratum and in plastic bags containing soil. After three months, the seedlings were transplanted to 40 x 40 cm plastic bags containing soil. At this time, height, diameter, dry matter and concentration of N, P, K, Ca and Mg were evaluated. After 10 months, seedlings were evaluated for height and diameter and after 16 months, seedlings had the height, diameter and dry matter weight evaluated. Addition of SRF was fundamental for seedlings development. Different percentages of tray occupation by containers during pre-nursery did not influence height and diameter of oil palm seedlings at 10 and 16 months old. The evaluation after 10 months showed that plants fertilized with Osmocote® were higher than those fertilized with Basacote mini. The evaluations after 16 months showed that plants fertilized during the pre-nursery had higher height, diameter and leaflets, leaf, aboveground and total dry matter than plants not fertilized.

  20. 海洋油污损害之救济机制的解构与重构%Deconstruction and Reconstruction on Relief Mechanism of Marine Oil Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马得懿

    2014-01-01

    It is well proved that the categorization of marine oil pollution is the foundation and precondition for the establishment of the relief mechanism.The relief system dealing with the marine oil pollution caused by oil exploration is different from that caused by vessel accidents.One of the possible approaches of the integration of those two mechanisms is to interpret drilling platforms as “ships”under maritime law.Base on the explanation of different approaches to cope with marine oil pollution,China must build the relief mechanism of marine oil pollution under state centralism,enhance the root measures and functions of state responsibility,clarify state’s claimant of marine oil pollution,state compensation liability and the multi-level admittance system of mineral resource,making it an important element of relief mechanism of marine oil pollution in its reconstruction.%海洋油污损害的类型化是完善海洋油污损害之救济机制的基础和前提。海上石油勘探平台与船舶溢油所致海洋油污损害是两种不同的救济体系与机制,而将海上钻井平台解释为海商法意义上的“船舶”,是整合两种救济机制的可能性途径。基于海洋油污损害之不同进路救济机制的诠释,应构架“国家责任中心”主义下海洋油污损害之救济机制,提升国家责任的根源性手段和功能,明确海洋油污损害之国家索赔主体资格、国家赔偿责任以及阶梯矿产资源税费的准入制度,使之成为海洋油污损害救济机制重构进程中的重要因子。