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Sample records for oil palm empty

  1. Torrefaction of Pelletized Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Nyakuma, Bemgba Bevan; Johari, Anwar; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Oladokun, Olagoke

    2015-01-01

    The torrefaction of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) briquettes was examined in this study. The results indicate that temperature significantly influenced the mass yield, energy yield and heating value of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) briquettes during torrefaction. The solid uniform compact nature of EFB briquettes ensured a slow rate of pyrolysis or devolatization which enhanced torrefaction. The mass yield decreased from 79.70 % to 43.03 %, energy yield from 89.44 % to 64.27 % during torrefaction from 250 {\\deg}C to 300 {\\deg}C. The heating value (HHV) of OPEFB briquettes improved significantly from 17.57 MJ/kg to 26.24 MJ/kg after torrefaction at 300 {\\deg}C for 1 hour. Fundamentally, the study has highlighted the effects of pelletization and torrefaction on solid fuel properties of oil palm EFB briquettes and its potential as a solid fuel for future thermal applications.

  2. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm φ, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

  3. STEAM EXPLOSION PULPING OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER

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    Xiwen Wang,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion pulping was evaluated for oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber. The fiber morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. Results indicated that lignin was molten and the cell wall damaged after the steam explosion pulping and that the fiber was partly separated at the same time. The results of handsheet tests showed that the steam exploded pulp had a high yield (78.2%, good physical properties (especially for ring crush 8.6 N•m/g, and low effluent load (SS=910 mg/L; BOD5=3952 mg/L; CODCr=8140 mg/L. The SEP pulp from oil palm EFB fiber was very suitable for packaging paper when combined with American OCC pulp.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  5. Hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Mansur, Dieni; Nurhakim, Boby; Agustin, Astrid; Rinaldi, Nino; Muryanto, Fitriady, Muhammad Ariffudin

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment methods in 2nd generation bioethanol production more profitable to be developed, since the conventional pretreatment, by using acids or alkalis, is associated with the serious economic and environmental constraints. The current studies investigate hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a batch tube reactor system with temperature and time range from 160 to 240 C and 15 to 30 min, respectively. The EFB were grinded and separated into 3 different particles sizes i.e. 10 mesh, 18 mesh and 40 mesh, prior to hydrothermal pretreatment. Solid yield and pH of the treated EFB slurries changed over treatment severities. The chemical composition of EFB was greatly affected by the hydrothermal pretreatment especially hemicellulose which decreased at higher severity factor as determined by HPLC. Both partial removal of hemicellulose and migration of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment caused negatively affect for enzymatic hydrolysis. This studies provided important factors for maximizing hydrothermal pretreatment of EFB.

  6. Characterization of cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisak, Muhammad Asri Abdul; Daik, Rusli; Ramli, Suria

    2015-09-01

    Recently, cellulose has been studied by many researchers due to its promising properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and robustness. Due to that it is applied in many fields such as paper, film, drug delivery, membranes, etc. Cellulose can be extracted from various plants while oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is the one of its sources. In this study, cellulose was extracted by chemical treatments which involved the use of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove hemicellulose and lignin components. Maximum yield was 43.22%. Based on the FT-IR spectra, the peak of wax (1735 cm-1), hemicellulose (1375 cm-1) and lignin (1248 cm-1 and 1037 cm-1) were not observed in extracted cellulose. TGA analysis showed that the extracted cellulose starts to thermally degrade at 340 °C. The SEM analysis suggested that the cellulose extracted from OPEFB was not much different from commercial cellulose.

  7. Feasibility of producing insulation boards from oil palm fronds and empty Fruit bunches

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    Tanasri Sihabut

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the feasibility of producing insulation boards made from oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunches via the wet forming process. Results confirmed no difference in the visual appearance between both board types. Both displayed low thermal conductivity, offering evidence of being good insulators. Boards made from empty fruit bunch weighed less than boards made from oil palm fronds. Other properties such as fire retardant, water absorption and strength still need to be investigated.

  8. Bio-oils from Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

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    Mohamad A. Sukiran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the mesocarp fibre, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB, frond, trunk and palm oil mill effluent (POME. For 80 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunch (FFB processed last year, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 25 million tones. The objectives of this study were to: (i Determine the effect of various pyrolysis parameters on product yields and (ii Characterise liquid product obtained under different condition. Approach: In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB was investigated using quartz fluidized fixed bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures, particle sizes and heating rates on the yield of the products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis and heating rate were varied in the range 300-700 °C and 10-100 °C min1 respectively. The particle size was varied in the range of Results: Under the experimental conditions, the maximum bio-oil yield was 42.28% obtained at 500 ºC, with a heating rate of 100 ºC min-1 and particle size of 91-106 µm. The calorific values of bio-oil ranged from 20-21 MJ kg-1. A great range of functional groups of phenol, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids were indicated in FTIR spectrum. Conclusion: The chemical characterisation results showed that the bio-oil obtained from oil palm EFB maybe a potentially valuable source as fuel or chemical feedstocks.

  9. Bacterial Community Structure and Biochemical Changes Associated With Composting of Lignocellulosic Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Huzairi Mohd Zainudin; Mohd Ali Hassan,; Umi Kalsom Md Shah; Norhani Abdullah; Mitsunori Tokura; Hisashi Yasueda; Yoshihito Shirai; Kenji Sakai; Azhari Samsu Baharuddin

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial community structure and biochemical changes during the composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge were studied by examining the succession of the bacterial community and its association with changes in lignocellulosic components by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the 16S rRNA gene clone library. During composting, a major reduction in cellulose after 10 days from 50% to 19% and the carbon content fro...

  10. Recovery of Palm Oil and Valuable Material from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Sub-critical Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Kurnin, Nor Azrin; Shah Ismail, Mohd Halim; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izhar, Shamsul

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is one of the solid wastes produced in huge volume by palm oil mill. Whilst it still contains valuable oil, approximately 22.6 million tons is generated annually and treated as solid waste. In this work, sub-critical water (sub-cw) was used to extract oil, sugar and tar from spikelet of EFB. The spikelet was treated with sub-cw between 180-280°C and a reaction time of 2 and 5 minutes. The highest yield of oil was 0.075 g-oil/g-dry EFB, obtained at 240°C and reaction time of 5 minutes. Astonishingly, oil that was extracted through this method was 84.5% of that obtained through Soxhlet method using hexane. Yield of oil extracted was strongly affected by the reaction temperature and time. Higher reaction temperature induces the dielectric constant of water towards the non-polar properties of solvent; thus increases the oil extraction capability. Meanwhile, the highest yield of sugar was 0.20 g-sugar/g-dry EFB obtained at 220°C. At this temperature, the ion product of water is high enough to enable maximum sub-critical water hydrolysis reaction. This study showed that oil and other valuable material can be recovered using water at sub-critical condition, and most attractive without the use of harmful organic solvent.

  11. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis. Deligni

  12. Acetylation of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as an adsorbent for removal of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman B; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kakooei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oil spillage from the environment is a global concern. Various methods, including the use of fibers as sorbents, have been developed for oil spill control. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a plant biomass that may be acetylated by acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as a catalyst; here, the extent of acetylation may be calculated in terms of weight percent gain (WPG). The modified fiber was used to remove Tapis and Arabian crude oils. The optimum time, temperature, and catalyst concentration were 4 h, 120 °C, and 3 %, respectively, and these parameters could achieve an 11.49 % increase in WPG. The optimized parameters improved the adsorption capacity of OPEFB fibers for crude oil removal. The acetylated OPEFB fibers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe the functional groups available and morphology. Kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted using different contact times and oil/water ratios. The rate of oil sorption onto the OPEFB fibers can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption studies revealed that adsorption of crude oil on treated OPEFB fiber could be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  13. Production Cost Assessment of Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Conversion to Bio-Oil via Fast Pyrolysis

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    Yoga Peryoga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production cost assessment was based on palm oil mill of 30 metrics tons FFB/h capacity that produced EFB residue at app. 20 % wt of the initial FFB fed to the plant. The bio-oil plant will be located in the palm oil mill complex to eliminate the transportation cost of the EFB feedstock. The process included in this calculation is chopping, drying, grinding, pyrolysis, solid removal, bio oil recovery, and storage. The production cost is influenced by the amount of bio-oil production, material cost, operational cost including labor and utility cost. The sensitivity analysis shows that feedstock price drives the production cost. The result concludes that for the current condition, the bio-oil production cost from palm empty fruit bunch seems promising to be implemented in Indonesia. The best option is to have the bio-oil plant integrated with the palm oil mill, where in this case the EFB can be kept at no cost, off the market influence.

  14. Pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch biomass pellets using multimode microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salema, Arshad Adam; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-12-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch pellets were subjected to pyrolysis in a multimode microwave (MW) system (1 kW and 2.45 GHz frequency) with and without the MW absorber, activated carbon. The ratio of biomass to MW absorber not only affected the temperature profiles of the EFB but also pyrolysis products such as bio-oil, char, and gas. The highest bio-oil yield of about 21 wt.% was obtained with 25% MW absorber. The bio-oil consisted of phenolic compounds of about 60-70 area% as detected by GC-MS and confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Ball lightning (plasma arc) occurred due to residual palm oil in the EFB biomass without using an MW absorber. The bio-char can be utilized as potential alternative fuel because of its heating value (25 MJ/kg).

  15. Pretreatment of empty fruit bunch from oil palm for fuel ethanol production and proposed biorefinery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Yu, Yongcheng; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the effects of some pretreatment processes to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) for ethanol production. The experimental results show that the bisulfite pretreatment was practical for EFB pretreatment. Moreover, the optimum pretreatment conditions of the bisulfite pretreatment (180 °C, 30 min, 8% NaHSO3, 1% H2SO4) were identified. In the experiments, a biorefinery process of EFB was proposed to produce ethanol, xylose products, and lignosulfonates.

  16. Spherical nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp via ultrasound assisted hydrolysis.

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    Zianor Azrina, Z A; Beg, M Dalour H; Rosli, M Y; Ramli, Ridzuan; Junadi, Norhafzan; Alam, A K M Moshiul

    2017-04-15

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP) using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The obtained NCC was analysed using FESEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA, and compared with raw empty fruit bunch fibre (REFB), empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP), and treated empty fruit bunch pulp (TEFBP). Based on FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a spherical shaped after acid hydrolysis with the assistance of ultrasound. This situation was different compared to previous studies that obtained rod-like shaped of NCC. Furthermore, the crystallinity of NCC is higher compared to REFB and EFBP. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained shows remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to REFB and EFBP.

  17. Utilization of palm empty fruit bunch for the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil.

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    Yaakob, Zahira; Sukarman, Irwan Sukma Bin; Narayanan, Binitha; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Ismail, Manal

    2012-01-01

    Transesterification reaction of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol was carried out in the presence of ash generated from Palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a heterogeneous catalyzed process. The ash was doped with KOH by impregnation to achieve a potassium level of 20 wt.%. Under optimum conditions for the EFB-catalyzed (65 °C, oil/methanol ratio of 15, 90 min, 20 wt.% EFB ash catalyst) and the KOH-EFB-catalyzed reactions (65 °C, oil/methanol ratio of 15, 45 min, 15 wt.% of KOH doped EFB ash), biodiesel (>98%) with specifications higher than those stipulated by European biodiesel quality standard EN 14214 was obtained.

  18. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm empty fruit bunches with palm oil mill effluent for efficient biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment methods for improved biodegradability and biogas production of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and its co-digestion with palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. The maximum methane potential of POME was 502mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 33.2m3 CH4/ton POME...... and 98% biodegradability. Meanwhile, the maximum methane potential of EFB was 202mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 79.1m3 CH4/ton EFB with 38% biodegradability. Co-digestion of EFB with POME enhanced microbial biodegradability and resulted in 25–32% higher methane production at mixing ratios of 0.4:1, 0.......8:1 and 2.3:1 on VS basis than digesting EFB alone. The methane yield was 276–340mL CH4/gVS-added for co-digestion of EFB with POME at mixing ratios of 0.4:1–2.3:1, while minor improvement was observed at mixing ratios of 6.8:1 and 11:1 (175–197mL CH4/gVS-added). The best improved was achieved from co...

  19. Palm Oil

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    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  20. Micromechanical modelling of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres containing silica bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Farah Nadia; Hanipah, Suhaiza Hanim; Xiang, Loo Yu; Mohammed, Mohd Afandi P; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Abdullah, Jaafar

    2016-09-01

    Experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to study the micromechanics of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres containing silica bodies. The finite viscoelastic-plastic material model called Parallel Rheological Network model was proposed, that fitted well with cyclic and stress relaxation tensile tests of the fibres. Representative volume element and microstructure models were developed using finite element method, where the models information was obtained from microscopy and X-ray micro-tomography analyses. Simulation results showed that difference of the fibres model with silica bodies and those without ones is larger under shear than compression and tension. However, in comparison to geometrical effect (i.e. silica bodies), it is suggested that ultrastructure components of the fibres (modelled using finite viscoelastic-plastic model) is responsible for the complex mechanical behaviour of oil palm fibres. This can be due to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components and the interface behaviour, as reported on other lignocellulosic materials.

  1. Polyhydroxybutyrate production from oil palm empty fruit bunch using Bacillus megaterium R11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhong; Sun, Wandong; Wang, Hengwei; Geng, Anli

    2013-11-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), contains abundant cellulose and hemicelluloses and can be used as a renewable resource for fuel and chemical production. This study, as the first attempt, aims to convert OPEFB derived sugars to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). OPEFB collected from a Malaysia palm oil refinery plant was chemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed by an in-house prepared cellulase cocktail. The PHB producer, Bacillus megaterium R11, was isolated in Singapore and could accumulate PHB up to 51.3% of its cell dry weight (CDW) from both glucose and xylose. Tryptone was identified as its best nitrogen source. PHB content and production reached 58.5% and 9.32 g/L, respectively, for an overall OPEFB sugar concentration of 45 g/L. These respectively reached 51.6% and 12.48 g/L for OPEFB hydrolysate containing 60 g/L sugar with a productivity of 0.260 g/L/h.

  2. Bioplastic production from cellulose of oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isroi; Cifriadi, A.; Panji, T.; Wibowo, Nendyo A.; Syamsu, K.

    2017-05-01

    Empty fruit bunch is available abundantly in Indonesia as side product of CPO production. EFB production in Indonesia reached 28.65 million tons in 2015. EFB consist of 36.67% cellulose, 13.50% hemicellulose and 31.16% lignin. By calculation, potential cellulose from EFB is 11.50 million tons. Cellulose could be utilized as source for bioplastic production. This research aims to develop bioplastic production based on cellulose from EFB and to increase added value of EFB. Cellulose fiber has no plastic properties. Molecular modification of cellulose, composite with plasticizer and compatibilizer is a key success for utilization of cellulose for bioplastic. Main steps of bioplastic production from EFB are: 1) isolation and purification of cellulose, 2) cellulose modification and 3) synthesis of bioplastic. Cellulose was isolated by sodium hydroxide methods and bleached using sodium hypochlorite. Purity of obtained cellulose was 97%. Cellulose yield could reach 30% depend on cellulose content of EFB. Cellulose side chain was oxidized to reduce hydroxyl group and increase the carboxyl group. Bioplastic synthesis used glycerol as plasticizer and cassava starch as matrix. This research was successfully producing bioplastic sheet by casting method. In future prospects, bioplastic from EFB cellulose can be developed as plastic bag and food packaging.

  3. Mechanical and molecular studies of biocomposites filled with oil palm empty fruit bunches microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmatin, S.; Saepulloh, D. R.; Irmansyah; Syafiuddin, A.

    2017-05-01

    The present work aims to investigate mechanical and molecular characteristics of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composites filled with oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) microfibers. OPEFB microfibers were produced using mechanical milling. Composite granules were fabricated using single screw extruder. These composites were then used for fabricating helmet according to the Indonesian National Standard (SNI). Mechanical testing confirms that the helmet produced using this biocomposites are suitable to the SNI. Molecular interaction between matrix with OPEFB can be described using orbital hybridization theory. In general, this study has successfully investigated mechanical and molecular properties of the biocomposites.

  4. Isolation of Nanocrystalline Cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch – A response surface methodology study

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    Song Yee Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work studied the extraction of Nano Crystalline Cellulose (NCC from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB, with aid of Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Particle size analysis using Malvern Zetasizer had confirmed the extracted NCC fall within the desired nano scaled range. The impact of three input parameters, namely concentration of NaOH solution during alkaline treatment, concentration of H2SO4 solution during acid hydrolysis, and duration for acid hydrolysis on NCC particle were investigated. From ANOVA study, it had suggested that the current RSM model is significant to interpret the interaction among the all three input parameters.

  5. Drying Pre-treatment on Empty Fruit Whole Bunches of Oil Palm Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalib, N. Che; Abdullah, N.; Sulaiman, F.

    2010-07-01

    This study is focused on the drying pre-treatment on whole empty fruit bunches [EFB] oil palm wastes. The drying process of whole EFB wastes by conventional method is investigated using the conventional oven in order to obtain less than 10 mf wt % moisture content. Normally, the biomass is dried to less than 10 mf wt % in most laboratory experiments and commercial processes for thermal conversion technologies such as pyrolysis. The result shows that the moisture content of EFB of less than 10 mf wt % is achieved after 29 hours of drying process.

  6. Morphological and chemical nature of fiber strands of oil palm empty-fruit-bunch (OPEFB

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    Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we examined the morphological and chemical characteristics of the fibrous strands of oil palm empty-fruit-bunch which were left behind after being stripped of their fruits used for oil production. The empty-fruit-bunches were mechanically loosened to yield the fibrous strands, which can be used in paper and board making. We found that the fibrous strands had unique structure by having several large-diameter, long vessel elements in their core region, surrounded by vascular fibers. They had numerous silica-bodies attached to craters on their surfaces; the craters were perforated at the bottom. Many other minerals were also present in the strands. Our microscopic observations suggested that the silica-bodies are connected to a network of siliceous pathway within the fibrous matrix, and minerals tend to concentrate adjacent to the silica-bodies. Our findings could be useful in identifying suitable techniques for processing the oil palm fiber strands into value-added products.

  7. Production of cellulose phosphate from oil palm empty fruit bunch: Effect of chemical ratio

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    Rohaizu, R.; Wanrosli, W. D.

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose phosphate was synthesized from oil palm biomass residue that has the potential to represent a considerable added value product for the oil palm biomass utilization. Cellulose phosphate (CP) is prepared viaa phosphorylation process using the H3PO4/P2O5/Et3PO4/hexanol sequence using oil palm empty fruit bunch microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC) as the starting material. Various factors affect its synthesis; one of them which is the subject of this investigation is the orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4) to triethylphosphate(Et3PO4) ratio which have the capability to increase the phosphorus content of CP. It is believed that during this reaction, the esterification of the free hydroxyl groups of the cellulose occurred. The H3PO4/Et3PO4 ratios applied were 0.16, 1.00, and 1.84. The effect of the H3PO4/Et3PO4 ratio on phosphorus content, yield, water swelling and molecular structure of CP are discussed.

  8. Production of furfural from palm oil empty fruit bunches: kinetic model comparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjaitan, J. R. H.; Monica, S.; Gozan, M.

    2017-05-01

    Furfural is a chemical compound that can be applied to pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, resins and cleaning compound which can be produced by acid hydrolysis of biomass. Indonesia’s demand for furfural in 2010 reached 790 tons that still imported mostly 72% from China. In this study, reaction kinetic models of furfural production from oil palm empty fruit bunches with submitting acid catalyst at the beginning of the experiment will be determine. Kinetic data will be obtained from hydrolysis of empty oil palm bunches using sulfuric acid catalyst 3% at temperature 170°C, 180°C and 190°C for 20 minutes. From this study, the kinetic model to describe the production of furfural is the kinetic model where generally hydrolysis reaction with an acid catalyst in hemicellulose and furfural will produce the same decomposition product which is formic acid with different reaction pathways. The activation energy obtained for the formation of furfural, the formation of decomposition products from furfural and the formation of decomposition products from hemicellulose is 8.240 kJ/mol, 19.912 kJ/mol and -39.267 kJ / mol.

  9. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid from hydrothermal pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches - Its origin and influence on biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helena; Mogensen, Kit H.; Jeppesen, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    An unknown major compound, characteristically occurring during processing of oil palm empty fruit bunches was identified with LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS to be 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunches contains 4-hydroxybenzoic acid so a tempting conclusion was that the 4-hydroxybenzoic...... or fermentation in the quantified range from 0.1 g/L to 1 g/L, indicating an option for reaping the 4-hydroxybenzoic acid from the biomass liquor directly after hydrothermal pretreatment for biorefinery value-addition. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Characterization of Bio-Oil: A By-Product from Slow Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, K.H; Lim, K. O.; Z. A. Zainal

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) are abundant biomass in Malaysia. Studies about production of biofuels using slow pyrolysis of EFB are still lacking. So, this study was aimed to understand the physical and chemical properties of the bio-oil and its simple blends. Approach: EFB was slow pyrolysed with internal heating at terminal temperature of 600°C in a pilot kiln and the main product is the EFB char and the condensates from the emissions were separated into aqueous and...

  11. A Review of Structural Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber in Polymer Composites

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    Reza Mahjoub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to environmental concerns and financial problems, natural fibers have become interesting and fascinating nowadays to be used as an industrial material and structural material for rehabilitating of structures. Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPF is a natural fiber which is found a lot in tropical areas. Scientists have used OPF fiber with many types of resins such as epoxy, polypropylene, polyester, and phenol formaldehyde. Therefore, this paper focused on the properties of OPF fiber and gathered mechanical properties of OPF composites (OPF as reinforcement of polymer reported by other researchers in terms of tensile and flexural properties. Furthermore, the chemical surface modification methods to solve the interfacial bonding of fiber and polymer were mentioned. In addition, the results of hybrid composites of OPF were also discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, the results of composites were compared to pure resin properties and also the stress-strain diagram and internal strain energy of composites were considered. Besides, the effects of adding OPF to other composites to make a new hybrid composite were indicated. Finally, it is clear that the use of oil palm fiber composites for structural elements for bearing loads is not recommended but the usage of OPF composites for secondary structural elements may be recommended due to future researches.

  12. Production of bacterial endoglucanase from pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch by bacillus pumilus EB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Hidayah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shah, Umi Kalsom Md; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2008-09-01

    In this study, endoglucanase was produced from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by a locally isolated aerobic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus EB3. The effects of the fermentation parameters such as initial pH, temperature, and nitrogen source on the endoglucanase production were studied using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the carbon source. Endoglucanase from B. pumilus EB3 was maximally secreted at 37 degrees C, initial pH 7.0 with 10 g/l of CMC as carbon source, and 2 g/l of yeast extract as organic nitrogen source. The activity recorded during the fermentation was 0.076 U/ml. The productivity of the enzyme increased twofold when 2 g/l of yeast extract was used as the organic nitrogen supplement as compared to the non-supplemented medium. An interesting finding from this study is that pretreated OPEFB medium showed comparable results to CMC medium in terms of enzyme production with an activity of 0.063 U/ml. As OPEFB is an abundant solid waste at palm oil mills, it has the potential of acting as a substrate in cellulase production.

  13. Bacterial Community Structure and Biochemical Changes Associated With Composting of Lignocellulosic Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Huzairi Mohd Zainudin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial community structure and biochemical changes during the composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty bunch (EFB and palm oil mill effluent (POME anaerobic sludge were studied by examining the succession of the bacterial community and its association with changes in lignocellulosic components by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and the 16S rRNA gene clone library. During composting, a major reduction in cellulose after 10 days from 50% to 19% and the carbon content from 44% to 27% towards the end of the 40-day composting period were observed. The C/N ratio also decreased. A drastic change in the bacterial community structure and diversity throughout the composting process was clearly observed using PCR-DGGE banding patterns. The bacterial community drastically shifted between the thermophilic and maturing stages. 16s rRNA clones belonging to the genera Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Desemzia, and Planococcus were the dominant groups throughout composting. The species closely related to Solibacillus silvestris were found to be major contributors to changes in the lignocellulosic component. Clones identified as Thermobacillus xylanilyticus, Brachybacterium faecium, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Cellulomonas sp., and Thermobifida fusca, which are known to be lignocellulosic-degrading bacteria, were also detected and are believed to support the lignocellulose degradation.

  14. Optimization studies on acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber for production of xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S H A; Choudhury, J P; Ahmad, A L; Kamaruddin, A H

    2007-02-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber is a lignocellulosic waste from palm oil mills. It is a potential source of xylose which can be used as a raw material for production of xylitol, a high value product. The increasing interest on use of lignocellulosic waste for bioconversion to fuels and chemicals is justifiable as these materials are low cost, renewable and widespread sources of sugars. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of H(2)SO(4) concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time for production of xylose. Batch reactions were carried out under various reaction temperature, reaction time and acid concentrations and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was followed to optimize the hydrolysis process in order to obtain high xylose yield. The optimum reaction temperature, reaction time and acid concentration found were 119 degrees C, 60 min and 2%, respectively. Under these conditions xylose yield and selectivity were found to be 91.27% and 17.97 g/g, respectively.

  15. EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE STEAM TREATMENT ON ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

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    Azhari Samsu Baharuddin,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of high-pressure steam treatment (HPST with various treatment temperatures (170, 190, 210, and 230 °C on the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB was successfully investigated. Analysis of the compositions of raw and treated OPEFB showed that significant changes occurred after the HPST was performed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis showed that the treated OPEFB gave better results in removing the silica bodies as compared to the untreated OPEFB. This analysis was in agreement with FTIR results, which revealed a significant decrease in the content of hemicelluloses after HPST. During saccharification, the amount of sugar produced was higher for treated OPEFB than untreated OPEFB. Thus, the results suggest that HPST can be applied as an alternative treatment method for the alteration of OPEFB structure and to enhance of the digestibility of the biomass, therefore improving enzymatic hydrolysis.

  16. Cellulose acetate from oil palm empty fruit bunch via a one step heterogeneous acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Daud, Wan Rosli; Djuned, Fauzi Muhammad

    2015-11-05

    Acetone soluble oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose acetate (OPEFB-CA) of DS 2.52 has been successfully synthesized in a one-step heterogeneous acetylation of OPEFB cellulose without necessitating the hydrolysis stage. This has only been made possible by the mathematical modeling of the acetylation process by manipulating the variables of reaction time and acetic anhydride/cellulose ratio (RR). The obtained model was verified by experimental data with an error of less than 2.5%. NMR analysis showed that the distribution of the acetyl moiety among the three OH groups of cellulose indicates a preference at the C6 position, followed by C3 and C2. XRD revealed that OPEFB-CA is highly amorphous with a degree of crystallinity estimated to be ca. 6.41% as determined from DSC. The OPEFB-CA films exhibited good mechanical properties being their tensile strength and Young's modulus higher than those of the commercial CA.

  17. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasan, Y. K., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my; Bhat, A. H., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Faiz, A., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC’s were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC’s are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  18. Steam explosion pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) using autocatalytic hydrolysis: A biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Jesus David Coral; Woiciechowski, Adenise; Zandona Filho, Arion; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) are an attractive source of carbon for the production of biochemical products, therefore, the aim of this work is to analyze the effect of the steam explosion (SE) pretreatment under autocatalytic conditions on EFB using a full experimental design. Temperature and reaction time were the operational variables studied. The EFB treated at 195°C for 6 min showed an increase of 34.69% in glycan (mostly cellulose), and a reduction of 68.12% in hemicelluloses, with increased enzymatic digestibility to 33% producing 4.2 g L(-1) of glucose. Scanning electron micrographs of the steam treated EFB exhibited surface erosion and an increased fiber porosity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the solubilization of hemicellulose and modification of cellulose in treated EFB.

  19. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-01

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC's were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC's are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  20. Electron beam processing of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers - polypropylene composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairul Zaman, Hj. Mohd Dahlan [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Manarpaac, Gloria A.; Jalaluddin, Harun [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Forestry, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2002-03-01

    Researches on oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers and thermoplastic composites have been carried out by many workers in the last decade. The main focus was to enhance the properties of the resultant composites in view of the incompatibility of the two components. Thus, efforts have been made to enhance their properties by using coupling agents, treating the fibers and modifying the matrices. In this study, the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation and some reactive additives (RAs) on the mechanical properties of EFB-PP (polypropylene) composites were evaluated. Different modes of irradiation were investigated. Mono, di and tri functional of monomers of RAs were used. Irradiating PP alone, compared to irradiating the EFB fibers or irradiating both components, gave optimum properties for EFB-PP composites. Further improvements of the properties of the composites were achieved with the addition of RAs with TMPTA (trimethylol propane triacrylate) giving the optimum results. (author)

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Cellulose Acetate from TCF Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzi Muhammad Djuned

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA was successfully synthesized by the acetylation of TCF cellulose pulp from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB at room temperature, using acetic anhydride as the acetylating agent and acetic acid as the solvent in the presence of sulfuric acid/sodium bisulfate as catalysts. Degree of substitution (DS was controlled by the variables of acetylation time and acetic anhydride to cellulose ratio, under the heterogeneous state. The product (CA obtained was characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results indicate that the CA obtained has characteristics similar to commercial CA, and DS is significantly dependent on acetylation time and the acetic anhydride-to-cellulose ratio.

  2. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-11-20

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis. Delignification of EFB facilitated the hydrolysis of EFB-xylan by a pure endo-β-1,4-xylanase. Up to 91% (w/w) of the non-extracted xylan in the delignified EFB was hydrolysed compared to less than 4% (w/w) of that in untreated EFB. Alkaline extraction of EFB, without prior delignification, yielded only 50% of the xylan. The xylan obtained was hydrolysed only for 40% by the endo-xylanase used. Hence, delignification alone outperformed alkaline extraction as pretreatment for enzymatic fingerprinting of EFB xylans. From the analysis of the oligosaccharide-fingerprint of the delignified endo-xylanase hydrolysed EFB xylan, the structure was proposed as acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoarabinoxylan.

  3. Abrasive wear: The efects of fibres size on oil palm empty fruit bunch polyester composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasolang, S.; Kalam, A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Suhadah, W. N.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to determine the effect of palm oil empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre size in dry sliding testing of polyester composite. These composite samples were produced by mixing raw OPEFB fibre with resin. The samples were prepared at different sizes of fibre (100, 125, 180 and 250μm). Abrasion Resistance Tester (TR-600) was used to carried out abrasive wear tests in dry sliding conditions. These tests were performed at room temperature for two different loads (10 and 30N) and at a constant sliding velocity of 1.4m/s. The specific wear rates of OPEFB polyester composites were obtained. The morphology of composite surface before and after tests was also examined using 3D microscope imaging. Preliminary work on thermal distribution at the abrasive wheel point was also conducted for selected samples.

  4. Sorption of Pb(ll) by poly(hydroxamic acid) grafted oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, M J; Tiansin, M; Ibrahim, N A; Kassim, A; Wan Yunus, W M Z; Talebi, S M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the sorption of Pb(ll) from aqueous solution. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber was first grafted with poly(methylacrylate) and then treated with hydroxylammonium chloride in alkaline medium to produce hydroxamic acid (PHA) grafted OPEFB. Sorption of Pb(ll) by PHA-OPEFB was maximum at pH 5. The sorption followed the Langmuir model with maximum capacityof 125.0 mg g-1 at 25 degrees C. The sorption process was exothermic, as shown by the negative value of enthalpy change, Delta H0. The free energy change (DeltaG0) for the sorption was negative, showing that the sorption process was spontaneous. A kinetic study showed that the Pb(ll) sorption followed a second order kinetic model.

  5. Autothermal reforming of palm empty fruit bunch bio-oil: thermodynamic modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifita N. Tande

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on thermodynamic analysis of the autothermal reforming of palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB bio-oil for the production of hydrogen and syngas. PEFB bio-oil composition was simulated using bio-oil surrogates generated from a mixture of acetic acid, phenol, levoglucosan, palmitic acid and furfural. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the hydrogen and syngas yields were not sensitive to actual bio-oil composition, but were determined by a good match of molar elemental composition between real bio-oil and surrogate mixture. The maximum hydrogen yield obtained under constant reaction enthalpy and pressure was about 12 wt% at S/C = 1 and increased to about 18 wt% at S/C = 4; both yields occurring at equivalence ratio Φ of 0.31. The possibility of generating syngas with varying H2 and CO content using autothermal reforming was analysed and application of this process to fuel cells and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is discussed. Using a novel simple modelling methodology, reaction mechanisms were proposed which were able to account for equilibrium product distribution. It was evident that different combinations of reactions could be used to obtain the same equilibrium product concentrations. One proposed reaction mechanism, referred to as the ‘partial oxidation based mechanism’ involved the partial oxidation reaction of the bio-oil to produce hydrogen, with the extent of steam reforming and water gas shift reactions varying depending on the amount of oxygen used. Another proposed mechanism, referred to as the ‘complete oxidation based mechanism’ was represented by thermal decomposition of about 30% of bio-oil and hydrogen production obtained by decomposition, steam reforming, water gas shift and carbon gasification reactions. The importance of these mechanisms in assisting in the eventual choice of catalyst to be used in a real ATR of PEFB bio-oil process was discussed.

  6. Physicochemical profile of microbial-assisted composting on empty fruit bunches of oil palm trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Li Yee; Bong, Cassendra Phun Chien; Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Chew Tin

    2015-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical properties of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) inoculated with effective microorganisms (EM∙1™). The duration of microbial-assisted composting was shorter (∼7 days) than control samples (2 months) in a laboratory scale (2 kg) experiment. The temperature profile of EFB compost fluctuated between 26 and 52 °C without the presence of consistent thermophilic phase. The pH of compost changed from weak acidic (pH ∼5) to mild alkaline (pH ∼8) because of the formation of nitrogenous ions such as ammonium (NH4 (+)), nitrite (NO2 (-)), and nitrate (NO3 (-)) from organic substances during mineralization. The pH of the microbial-treated compost was less than 8.5 which is important to prevent the loss of nitrogen as ammonia gas in a strong alkaline condition. Similarly, carbon mineralization could be determined by measuring CO2 emission. The microbial-treated compost could maintain longer period (∼13 days) of high CO2 emission resulted from high microbial activity and reached the threshold value (120 mg CO2-C kg(-1) day(-1)) for compost maturity earlier (7 days). Microbial-treated compost slightly improved the content of minerals such as Mg, K, Ca, and B, as well as key metabolite, 5-aminolevulinic acid for plant growth at the maturity stage of compost. Graphical Abstract Microbial-assisted composting on empty fruit bunches.

  7. Bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts from oil palm empty fruit bunches ash and alum for biodiesel synthesis simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astar, Ismail; Usman, Thamrin; Wahyuni, Nelly; Rudiyansyah, Alimuddin, Andi Hairil

    2017-03-01

    Free fatty acids (FFA) contained in crude palm oil (CPO) and sludge oil has been used as the base material of biodiesel with the aid of a catalyst in the transesterification and esterification reactions. This study aims to synthesize and characterize bifunctional catalysts were synthesized from the ashes of palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and alum based on the analysis of XRD, XRF and acidity test. Bifunctional catalyst obtained was used as a catalyst to production of biodiesel with different levels of FFA. The optimum ratio alum added was 0.2 mol at 3 hours of reaction time and 3% of catalyst by the FFA samples were used 67,40%. The catalyst with optimum alum mole variations subsequently used on samples with varying levels of FFA, namely 1.29%, 4.98%, 29.21%, 67.40% and 74.47%. Optimum conversion of methyl ester in the esterification reaction occurs in the sample with 67.40% FFA content, which reached 86.17%, while the conversion of methyl ester transesterification process optimum amounted to 45.70% in the samples with 4.98% FFA content. Methyl ester produced has a refractive index of 1.448 (29.8 ° C), density of 0.883 g / mL (25 °C) and a viscosity of 8.933 cSt (25 ° C). The results of GC-MS analysis showed that the main composition of methyl ester result of esterification of sludge oil methyl palmitate (36.84%), while the CPO transesterification shows the main composition of methyl ester is methyl oleic (38.87%). Based on the research results, the catalyst synthesized from alum and EFB ash can be used as a Bifunctional catalysts for biodiesel synthesis.

  8. Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tokura, Mitsunori; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2013-11-01

    The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90 days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40 days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified.

  9. Characterization of Bio-Oil: A By-Product from Slow Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Khor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB are abundant biomass in Malaysia. Studies about production of biofuels using slow pyrolysis of EFB are still lacking. So, this study was aimed to understand the physical and chemical properties of the bio-oil and its simple blends. Approach: EFB was slow pyrolysed with internal heating at terminal temperature of 600°C in a pilot kiln and the main product is the EFB char and the condensates from the emissions were separated into aqueous and tarry fractions. Results: 13 wt% of tarry component (referred as EFB oil was obtained as small fraction of co-product. The chemical composition of the EFB oil acquired was analyzed by GC-MS and its elemental composition, stability, miscibility, oil fuel properties and corrosion characteristics were determined. The empirical formula of the EFB oil with heating value of 31.44 MJ kg-1 was established as CH1.41N0.03O0.24. Characterizations of bio-oil, diesel and emulsifier blends were performed. Conclusion/Recommendations: The experimental results showed that the emulsions of EFB oil obtained may be directly used as a fuel oil for combustion in a boiler or a furnace without any upgrading. Alternatively, the fuel may be refined to be used by vehicles.

  10. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-02-14

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  11. Nanoporous separators for supercapacitor using activated carbon monolith electrode from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nor, N. S. M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Deraman, M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Omar, R., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Taer, E.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, 28293 Pekanbaru, Riau (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    Activated porous carbon electrode prepared from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches was used for preparing the carbon based supercapacitor cells. The symmetrical supercapacitor cells were fabricated using carbon electrodes, stainless steel current collector, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, and three types of nanoporous separators. Cells A, B and C were fabricated using polypropylene, eggshell membrane, and filter paper, respectively. Electrochemical characterizations data from Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry, and Galvanic Charge Discharge techniques showed that specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy for cell A were 122 F g{sup −1}, 177 W kg{sup −1}, 3.42 Wh kg{sup −1}, cell B; 125 F g{sup −1}, 179 W kg{sup −1}, and 3.64 Wh kg{sup −1}, and cell C; 180 F g{sup −1}, 178 W kg{sup −1}, 4.27 Wh kg{sup −1}. All the micrographs from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope showed that the different in nanoporous structure of the separators lead to a significant different in influencing the values of specific capacitance, power and energy of supercapacitors, which is associated with the mobility of ion into the pore network. These results indicated that the filter paper was superior than the eggshell membrane and polypropylene nanoporous separators. However, we found that in terms of acidic resistance, polypropylene was the best nanoporous separator for acidic medium.

  12. MODELING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF SODA PULP FROM OIL-PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ferrer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the variables soda (0.5-3.0%, hydrogen peroxide (1.0-6.0% and time (1-5 h in the bleaching of soda pulp of empty fruit bunches (EFB from oil-palm, on the properties of bleached pulps, was studied. Polynomial and neural fuzzy models reproduced the results of brightness, kappa number, and viscosity of the pulps with errors less than 10%. By the simulation of the bleaching of pulp, using the polynomial and neural fuzzy models, it was possible to find optimal values of operating variables, so that the properties of bleached pulps differed only slightly from their best values and yet it was possible to save chemical reagents, energy, and plant size, operating with lower values of operating variables. Thus, operating with 1.13% soda concentration and 2.25% hydrogen peroxide concentration for 3 hours, a pulp with a brightness of 75.1% (8.1% below the maximum and a viscosity of 740 mL/g (10.4% less than the maximum value, was obtained.

  13. Pretreatment of aqueous ammonia on oil palm empty fruit fiber (OPEFB) in production of sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkiple, Nursyafiqah; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Hassan, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) is an agricultural residue that has the potential to become a good source for renewable feedstock for production of sugar. This work evaluated the effectiveness of aqueous ammonia as pretreatment at low (soaking, SAA) and elevated temperature (pressurized chamber) to deconstruct the lignocellulosic feedstock, prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The ammonia pretreatments were compared against the standard NaOH method. The best tested pressurized chamber method conditions were at 100°C with 3 hour retention time, 12.5% ammonium hydroxide and 1:30 solid loading. The digestibility of the feedstock is determined with enzymatic hydrolysis using Cellic Ctech2 and Cellic Htech2. The sugars produced by pressurized chamber method within 24 hour of enzyme hydrolysis are similar to that produced by NaOH method which is 439.90 mg/ml and 351.61 mg/ml, respectively. Compared with optimum SAA method (24 hour, 6.25% of ammonium hydroxide at room temperature), pressurized chamber method was capable of producing enhanced delignification and higher production of sugar upon hydrolysis. These findings were supported by the disappearance peak at 1732, 1512 and 1243 on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectrum) of treated OPEFB by pressurized chamber method. XRD determination showed reduced crystallinity of OPEFB (37.23%) after treatment by pressurized chamber, suggesting higher accessibility toward enzyme hydrolysis. The data obtained suggest that the pressurized chamber pre-treatment method are suitable for OPEFB deconstruction to produce high yield of sugar.

  14. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber reinforced PVC/ENR blend-electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnam, Chantara Thevy [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)], E-mail: chantara@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Raju, Gunasunderi; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang (Malaysia)

    2007-12-15

    The effect of irradiation on the tensile properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)/epoxidized natural rubber (PVC/ENR) blends were studied. The composites were prepared by mixing the fiber and the PVC/ENR blend using HAAKE Rheomixer at 150 deg. C. The composites were then irradiated by using a 3.0 MeV electron beam machine at doses ranging from 0 to 100 kGy in air and room temperature. The tensile strength, Young's modulus, elongation at break and gel fraction of the composites were measured. Comparative studies were also made by using poly(methyl acrylate) grafted OPEFB fiber in the similar blend system. An increase in tensile strength, Young's modulus and gel fraction, with a concurrent reduction in the elongation at break (Eb) of the PVC/ENR/OPEFB composites were observed upon electron beam irradiation. Studies revealed that grafting of the OPEFB fiber with methyl acrylate did not cause appreciable effect to the tensile properties and gel fraction of the composites upon irradiation. The morphology of fractured surfaces of the composites, examined by a scanning electron microscope showed an improvement in the adhesion between the fiber and the matrix was achieved upon grafting of the fiber with methyl acrylate.

  15. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. {yields} Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. {yields} Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  16. Direct Bioconversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Bioethanol Production By Solid State Bioconversion

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    Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production was conducted by utilizing agriculture waste, palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB with the aid of T. harzianum and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae using solid state bioconversion method. The compatibility of various fungal strains was done as to develop the direct bioconversion process of compatible mixed culture. Analyzes such ethanol estimation, reducing sugar and glucosamine as growth indicator were conducted in order to select the best experimented run for optimization. The optimization of process conditions, by using central composite design (CCD was carried out. Optimization of process condition was done with varied level of moisture content, pH, inoculum size, concentration of co-substrate (wheat flour and mineral solutions. Statistical analysis showed that the optimum process condition for moisture content was 50% (v/w, pH of 4, inoculum size of 10% (v/v, concentration of wheat flour of 1% (v/v and mineral solutions 1%(v/v. In this study, the application levels of the methods of environmental management in regards to the maximum production were determined. The final optimization with the developed process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 14.315 (v/v to 34.785(v/v.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Microcrystalline (MCC) from Fiber of Empty Fruit Bunch Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, H.; Yurnaliza; Veronicha; Irmadani; Sitompul, S.

    2017-03-01

    Alpha cellulose which was isolated from cellulose of fiber empty fruit bunch palm oil was hidrolized with hydrochloric acid (2,5N) at 80°C to produce microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). Microcrystalline cellulose is an important additional ingredient in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, and structural composites. In this study, MCC, alpha cellulose, and cellulose were characterized and thereafter were compared. Characterizations were made using some equipment such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy were studied to determine crystallinity and molecular structure of MCC, where scanning electron microscopy images were conducted for information about morfology of MCC. Meanwhile, thermal resistance of MCC was determined using thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). From XRD and FTIR, the obtained results showed that the crystalline part was traced on MCC, where the –OH and C-O groups tended to reduced as alpha cellulose has changed to MCC. From SEM the image showed the reduction of particle size of MCC, while the thermal resistance of MCC was found lower as compared with cellulose and alpha cellulose as well, which was attributed to the lower molecular weight of MCC.

  18. Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

  19. Properties of Lignin from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch and Its Application for Plywood Adhesive

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    Lucky Risanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin from lignocellulosic biomass is a potential biopolymer for wood adhesive. The aims of this study were to characterize lignin isolated from the black liquor of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber pretreated with steam explosion in alkaline conditions and to examine the bond quality of aqueous polymer isocyanate (API adhesive prepared from lignin, natural rubber latex (NRL, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA as base polymers with isocyanate crosslinkers. Lignin was precipitated from the black liquor by adding hydrochloric acid; then the precipitate was separated by filtration, thoroughly washed with water up to pH 2 and pH 5, and dried. The isolated lignin was characterized by ultimate analysis, UV spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. Three-layer plywood samples were prepared, and the bond strengths of the plywood samples were determined in dry conditions and after cyclic boiling. The lignin isolates with different pH values did not have significantly different chemical and thermal properties. Both lignin isolates had similar C, H, and O contents, identical functional groups in the FTIR spectra, similar absorption in the UV spectra, and high decomposition temperatures. The base polymers composition that could produce API adhesive for exterior applications was NRL/PVA/lignin (4/4/2. The use of more lignin in the adhesive formulation decreased the bond strength of the plywood.

  20. Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty-fruit bunches: Application to environmental problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Zahangir ALAM; Suleyman A.MUYIBI; Mariatul F.MANSOR; Radziah WAHID

    2007-01-01

    Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were investigated to find the suitability of its application for removal of phenol in aqueous solution through adsorption process. Two types of activation namely; thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800℃ and physical activation at 150℃ (boiling treatment) were used for the production of the activated carbons. A control (untreated EFB) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced from these processes. The results indicated that the activated carbon derived at the temperature of 800℃ showed maximum absorption capacity in the aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon at 800℃. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data fitted better with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm compared to the Langmuir. Kinetic studies of phenol adsorption onto activated carbons were also studied to evaluate the adsorption rate. The estimated cost for production of activated carbon from EFB was shown in lower price (USD 0.50/kg of AC) compared the activated carbon from other sources and processes.

  1. POTENTIAL OF FINES AS REINFORCING FIBRES IN ALKALINE PEROXIDE PULP OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH

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    Nurul H. Kamaludin,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulp from the alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP of oil palm empty fruit bunch, EFB, was fractionated with varying mesh-size screens to examine the effects imposed by size-specific fines on the produced pulp network. Occurring mainly as a result of refining, fines elements with dimensions almost resembling EFB fibres were the long tube-like tapered vessels from the arrays of adjoined cell walls detached along the perforation lines. These fibrillated vessel elements constituting the P250/R300 fines fraction improved pulp network strength by gluing onto multiple fibres. More profound strength enhancement was promoted by the segments of the fibrillated vessel elements constituted in the P300/R400 fines fraction. With reduced dimensions, these elements enhanced pulp network strength by filling the micro-voids in the pulp network. By eliminating gaps that would otherwise interrupt inter-fiber bonding, 12% P300/R400 fines fraction enhanced the EFB APMP pulp network tensile strength by 100%.

  2. Cellulase production from treated oil palm empty fruit bunch degradation by locally isolated Thermobifida fusca

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    M. Nazli Naim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the production of cellulases from locally isolated bacteria, Thermobifida fusca, using thermal and chemical treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB as substrate in liquid-state fermentation (LSF. T. fusca was successfully isolated and was a dominant cellulase producer in OPEFB composting at the thermophilic stage. Analysis of the surface morphology of OPEFB samples using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM showed that the most significant changes after the combination of thermal and chemical pretreatment was the removal of silica bodies, and this observation was supported by X-ray Diffraction analysis (XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, and Thermogravimetric analysis (TG showing changes on the hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignin structures throughout the pretreatment process. As a result of the pretreatment, higher cellulase production by T. fusca was obtained. The highest activity for CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase using optimally treated OPEFB were 0.24 U/mL, 0.34 U/mL, and 0.04 U/mL, respectively. Therefore, it can be suggested that the combination of chemical and thermal pretreatments enhances the degradation of OPEFB for subsequent use as fermentation substrate, contributing to a higher cellulases yield by T. fusca.

  3. Production of reducing sugar from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB cellulose fibres via acid hydrolysis

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    Siew Xian Chin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic fibre of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB were used as a raw material for acid hydrolysis using mineral acids (H2SO4 and HCl to produce reducing sugar at moderate temperature and atmospheric pressure. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the hydrolysis parameters, including acid concentration, temperature, and reaction time, on the total reducing sugar (TRS yield with the aid of response surface methodology (RSM. The preliminary hydrolysis studies of the EFB fibres showed that the presence of lignin in the fibres significantly affected the TRS yield. The maximum predicted TRS yield using H2SO4 was 30.61% under optimal conditions: acid concentration of 5 N, temperature of 139.65 oC, and reaction time of 4.16 h. For the hydrolysis using HCl, the maximum predicted TRS yield is 39.81% under optimal conditions: acid concentration of 4.63 N, temperature of 133.7 oC, reaction time of 2.05 h.

  4. Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment

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    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB’s cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively.

  5. Alkaline peroxide pulping of oil palm empty fruit bunch by variation of chemical strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermawan, Yunita Megasari; Ghazali, Arniza; Daud, Wan Rosli Wan; Lazin, Mohd Azli Khairil Mat

    2012-09-01

    Papers produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) via Alkaline Peroxide Pulping (APP) was preceded by three main steps; dewaxing of EFB, alkaline peroxide (AP) impregnation into EFB and refining of biomass to generate pulp. The experiment was carried by varying chemical level and number of impregnation stages. For 2:2.5% AP level, two-stage impregnation improved hand sheets tear index by 45%, 164% boost in tensile index, 26% enhancement in zero span index and more than 5% in burst index. By applying 8:10% AP level, significant improvements were gained at the third and fourth stages of AP impregnation. Although there was no significant change in hand sheet strength with multiple impregnation for 4:5% AP level, improvement in brightness of hand sheets was apparent, analogous to the effect of increasing AP level. The found paper properties development show that alkaline peroxide pulping of EFB could be adapted to various targeted properties by adjustment of AP level and impregnation stages.

  6. The Effect of Pretreatment by using Electron Beam Irradiation on Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

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    A. Kristiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB is a potential type of lignocellulosic biomass for second-generation bioethanol production. The pretreatment process is an important process in the series of processes to produce bioethanol. This research aims to study the effects of pretreatment process by using electron beam irradiation to OPEFB’s characterization as raw materials for the hydrolysis reaction to produce monomer sugars which will be fermented into ethanol. The untreated and treated OPEFB are characterized in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Analysis results of the compositional analysis by using NREL/TP-510-42618 method show that after pretreatment by using electron beam irradiation, OPEFB's total lignin content is changed little while its cellulose and hemicellulose contents tend to decrease with increasing irradiation dose. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis shows that there is a decrease of crystallinity compared to untreated OPEFB, except for 200-kGy irradiated OPEFB. The highest decrease of crystallinity was shown by 300-kGy irradiated OPEFB. Further, crystallite sizes of treated OPEFBs are not significantly different from the untreated, except for the 200-kGy irradiated OPEFB. Irradiation pretreatment also increases specific surface area, pore volume, and pore size. The IR spectra analysis show the absorption of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.

  7. Commercial cellulases and hemicellulase performance towards oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Fattah, S. S.; Mohamed, R.; Jahim, J. M.; Illias, R. M.; Abu Bakar, F. D.; Murad, A. M. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, commercial cellulases and hemicellulases were evaluated for their hydrolytic activity towards pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB). A total of three commercial cellulase preparations, Novozyme Celluclast®, Novozyme Cellic®Ctec, Dupont Accellerase®1500, and a commercial hemicellulase preparation, Novozyme Cellic®Htec, were evaluated. The assays were performed either using the cellulase alone or cellulase in combination with the hemicellulase, formulated at different enzyme activity ratios. Among the three cellulases, the Novozyme Cellic®Ctec yielded the highest reducing sugars, whereby 32.9% hydrolysis yield of OPEFB was achieved. The addition of the commercial hemicellulase to Celluclast® and Accellerase®1500 enhanced OPEFB hydrolysis. However, the addition of the hemicellulase to Cellic®Ctec, failed to enhance the production of the reducing sugars. Nevertheless, the amount of reducing sugars produced using Cellic®Ctec alone was the highest when compared to other enzyme combinations. It can be concluded that among the three commercial cellulases evaluated, the Novozyme Cellic®Ctec is the best enzyme for OPEFB hydrolysis.

  8. Enhanced xylose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch by efficient acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hooi Teng; Dykes, Gary A; Wu, Ta Yeong; Siow, Lee Fong

    2013-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is abundantly available in Malaysia and it is a potential source of xylose for the production of high-value added products. This study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis of EFB using dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) via response surface methodology for maximum xylose recovery. Hydrolysis was carried out in an autoclave. An optimum xylose yield of 91.2 % was obtained at 116 °C using 2.0 % (v/v) H2SO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. A lower optimum xylose yield of 24.0 % was observed for dilute H3PO4 hydrolysis at 116 °C using 2.4 % (v/v) H3PO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. The optimized hydrolysis conditions suggested that EFB hydrolysis by H2SO4 resulted in a higher xylose yield at a lower acid concentration as compared to H3PO4.

  9. Structural changes of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isroi; Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Millati, Ria; Syamsiah, Siti; Cahyanto, Muhammad N; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2012-12-17

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI) of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB's cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively.

  10. Hydrothermal pre-treatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch into fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhd Ali, M. D.; Tamunaidu, P.; Nor Aslan, A. K. H.; Morad, N. A.; Sugiura, N.; Goto, M.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Presently oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is one of the solid waste which is produced daily whereby it is usually left at plantation site to act as organic fertilizer for the plants to ensure the sustainability of fresh fruit bunch. The major drawback in biomass conversion technology is the difficulty of degrading the material in a short period of time. A pre-treatment step is required to break the lignocellulosic biomass to easily accessible carbon sources for further use in the production of fuels and fine chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of hydrothermal pre-treatment under different reaction temperatures (100 - 250°C), reaction time (10 - 40 min), solid to solvent ratio of (1:10 - 1:20 w/v) and particle size (0.15 - 1.00 mm) on the solubilization of OPEFB to produce soluble fermentable sugars. The maximum soluble sugars of 68.18 mg glucose per gram of OPEFB were achieved at 175°C of reaction temperature, 20 min of reaction time, 1:15 w/v of solid to solvent ratio for 30 mm of particle size. Results suggest that reaction temperature, reaction time, the amount of solid to solvent ratio and size of the particle are crucial parameters for hydrothermal pretreatment, in achieving a high yield of soluble fermentable sugars.

  11. Degradation of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) into bio-oil in sub-and supercritical solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwono, Rakhman; Pusfitasari, Eka Dian

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothemal Liquefaction (HTL) of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of palm oil in different solvents (water, ethanol and hexane) were comparatively investigated. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave in different EFB loading of 9%, 11%, and 13%. The temperature operation was 350 oC, without any catalysts and reaction time of 5 hours. The efficiency of above solvents in terms of conversion rate, soluble liquid and carbon products were found in this experiments. The water solvent gave higher conversion rate of 35 - 36.5 %, while hexane gave conversion of 17 - 25.25 %, and ethanol gave the lower conversion rate of 12.65 - 30.3%, respectively. Increasing the EFB load decreased the conversion rate for ethanol and hexane solvents, for water there are no significant change in the conversion rate. The bio-oil as soluble liquid produced were in order of water, ethanol, and hexane solvents, respectively. The chemical properties of bio-oil products were significantly affected by the type of liquefaction solvent. The compositional of bio-oil consists of mostly of a mixture of organic acids, ketones, and esters. The hexane and ethanol solvents resulted mostly organic acids. In water solvent resulted 2-pentanone, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl and others substances. According to the bio-oil results, organic solvents resulted higher HHV compared to water solvent. The higher heating value (HHV) of the carbon products were also comparatively, ethanol solvent resulted soluble liquid with higher HHV compared to the water solvent.

  12. Production and purification of xylooligosaccharides from oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre by a non-isothermal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ai Ling; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Luís C; Roseiro, Luísa B; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Rastall, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) fibre, a by-product generated from non-woody, tropical perennial oil palm crop was evaluated for xylooligosaccharides (XOS) production. Samples of OPEFB fibre were subjected to non-isothermal autohydrolysis treatment using a temperature range from 150 to 220 °C. The highest XOS concentration, 17.6g/L which relayed from solubilisation of 63 g/100 g xylan was achieved at 210 °C and there was a minimum amount of xylose and furfural being produced. The chromatographic purification which was undertaken to purify the oligosaccharide-rich liquor resulted in a product with 74-78% purity, of which 83-85% was XOS with degree of polymerisation (DP) between 5 and 40.

  13. Characterisation of palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB) and pinewood bio-oils and kinetics of their thermal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenidou, P; Dupont, V

    2012-04-01

    Ultimate and proximate analyses and thermal degradation of bio-oils from pinewood and palm empty fruit bunches (PEFB) were carried out to evaluate the oils' potential for production of fuels for transport, heat and power generation, and of hydrogen via the calculation of performance indicators. The pinewood and PEFB oils indicated good theoretical hydrogen yields of 13.7 and 15.9 wt.% via steam reforming, but their hydrogen to carbon effective ratios were close to zero, and their propensity for fouling and slagging heat exchanger surfaces via combustion was high. Both oils exhibited two phases during mass loss under nitrogen flow at heating rates of 3-9 Kmin(-1), but the kinetics of their thermal degradation from TGA-FTIR analysis indicated different degradation mechanisms that were well reproduced by a nth order reaction model for pinewood and Jander's 3D-diffusion model for PEFB. These findings lead to recommendations on pretreatments prior to the oils' utilisation.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost

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    Azhari S. Baharuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile at day 7 treatment were 58.3, 8.1 and 65.5°C, respectively. The morphological analysis of the isolated microbes was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Gram stain method. The congo red test was conducted in order to detect 1% CMC agar degradation activities. Total genomic DNAs were extracted from approximately 1.0 g of mixed compost and amplified by using PCR primers. The PCR product was sequent to identify the nearest relatives of 16S rRNA genes. The localization of bacteria chromosomes was determined by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis. Results: Single isolated bacteria species was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME compost at thermophilic stage. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the DNAs coding for the 16S rRNAs with the phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated bacteria from EFB-POME thermophilic compost gave the highest homology (99% with similarity to Geobacillus pallidus. The strain was spore forming bacteria and able to grow at 60°C with pH 7. Conclusion: Thermophilic bacteria strain, Geobacillus pallidus was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mil Effluent (POME compost and characterized.

  15. Electricity generation from palm oil tree empty fruit bunch (EFB) using dual chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, N. F.; Mahmood, N. A. B. N.; Ibrahim, K. A.; Muhammad, S. A. F. S.; Amalina, N. S.

    2017-06-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been discovered and utilized in laboratory scale for electricity production based on microbial degradation of organic compound. However, various source of fuel has been tested and recently complex biomass such as lignocellulose biomass has been focused on. In the present research, oil palm tree empty fruit bunch (EFB) has been tested for power production using dual chamber MFC and power generation analysis has been conducted to address the performance of MFC. In addition, two microorganisms (electric harvesting microbe and cellulose degrading microbe) were used in the MFC operation. The analysis include voltage produced, calculated current and power. The first section in your paper

  16. Comparative studies of products obtained from solvolysis liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres using different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Suet-Pin; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin-Hua; Jamaluddin, Fatin; Nabihah, Sharifah; Liew, Tze-Khong; Pua, Fei-Ling

    2011-02-01

    Solvolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) fibres using different solvents (acetone, ethylene glycol (EG), ethanol, water and toluene) were carried out using an autoclave at 275°C for 60 min. The solvent efficiency in term of conversion yield was found to be: EG>water>ethanol>acetone>toluene. The liquid products and residue obtained were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography/mass selectivity. The obtained results showed that the chemical properties of the oil product were significantly affected by the type of solvent used for the solvolysis process. The higher heating value (HHV) of oil products obtained using ethanol is ∼29.42 MJ/kg, which is the highest among the oil products produced using different solvents. Water, ethanol and toluene yield major phenolic compounds. While EG favors the formation of alcohol compounds and acetone yields ketone and aldehyde compounds.

  17. Hydrothermal liquefaction of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) into bio-oil in different organic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwono, Rakhman; Pusfitasari, Eka Dian; Ghozali, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    Thermochemical Liquefaction of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of palm oil in different organic solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, toluene and hexane) were comparatively investigated. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave at different temperatures of 300, 350 and 400 °C with a fixed solid/liquid rasio of 3 gram in 50 ml solvent, without catalysts and reaction time of 5 hours. The efficiency of above solvents in terms of conversion rate, soluble liquid and carbon products were investigated in the experiments. Increasing the reaction temperature increased the conversion rate in all organic solvents and water, but gaseous products also increased using a reaction temperature of 400 oC. The water solvent gave higher conversion rate of 49.14%, while toluene, acetone, methanol, hexane and ethanol gave conversion of 35.76%, 26.5%, 25.98%, 24.26 %, and 22.24%, respectively. The bio-oil produced in order of the largest amount were using methanol, water, ethanol, toluene, acetone, and hexane solvents. The chemical properties of bio-oil products were significantly affected by the type of liquefaction solvent. The composition of bio-oil consisted of mostly of a mixture of organic acids, ketones, and esters. The methanol and ethanol solvents resulted in mostly esters, while toluene and hexane resulted in mostly organic acids. Acetone solvent resulted in the same amount of organic acid and esters. In water as a solvent resulted in 2-pentanone, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl. The bio-oil consisted of a range of carbon C6 - C20 fragments.

  18. Effect of Seed Sludge Quality using Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB Bio-Char for Composting

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    Wan Aizuddin Wan Razali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparison between oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB composting using palm oil mill effluent bio-char solution (POMEBS aerobic sludge and palm oil mill effluent (POME anaerobic sludge was reported. A set of experiments was designed by central composite design (CCD using response surface methodology (RSM to statistically evaluate the POMEBS aerobic sludge as microbial seeding. The bacteria count of POMEBS aerobic sludge (3.7×106 CFU/mL at the optimum point was higher than that of POME anaerobic sludge (2.5×105 CFU/mL. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were also performed. A rotary drum composter was then used to compost OPEFB with POMEBS aerobic sludge and POME anaerobic sludge, separately. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA showed that composting OPEFB with POMEBS aerobic sludge had a higher degradation rate compared to composting OPEFB with POME anaerobic sludge. In addition, the final N:P:K values for composting OPEFB with POMEBS aerobic and POME anaerobic sludge were 3.7:0.8:6.2 and 1.5:0.3:3.4, respectively. POMEBS aerobic sludge improved the composting process and compost quality.

  19. Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers to Produce Sugar Hydrolyzate as Raw Material for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriani Kasim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted to see the effect of the regulation and control of temperature on the length of the hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber and the resulting hydrolyzate sugar levels, which will be planned to be used as raw material for bioethanol. Therefore do oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber hydrolysis with sulfuric acid (H2SO4 at low concentrations (1% using an autoclave with a temperature of 120 ° C and 130 ° C, and the time for 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes. After that the observed reducing sugar levels by using a method Luff Schoorl. The results showed that setting temperature and time influence on sugar levels resulting hydrolyzate where the optimum temperature and time to produce the highest sugar content reducing at 130 ° C with a long 60 minutes, with the resulting reducing in sugar content was 3.51%. The results obtained are much higher than previous studies conducted by researchers who carried out the straw fibers under the same conditions by using a solution of 1% H2SO4 and hydrolysis time 1 hour, but no temperature control and heating is only done on a gas stove, which acquired sugar 0.22%. As for the gain of 0.78% sugar, hydrolysis takes 4 hours, with a concentration of 10% sulfuric acid.

  20. Hydrothermally treated oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose with urea and its dissolution in NaOH-Urea solvent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharin, Khairunnisa Waznah; Zakaria, Sarani; Gan, Sinyee; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Chia, Chin Hua

    2016-11-01

    Cellulose from Oil Palm Empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber was hydrothermally treated by using autoclave which is immersed in an oil bath at 160 °C for 6 h. OPEFB cellulose was mixed with aqueous urea and stirred for 30 min to obtain a homogenous mixture before transferred into the autoclave. The effect of different cellulose to urea mass ratio (1:4, 1:6 and 1:8) on the molecular weight, degree of polymerization and solubility of the treated cellulose dissolved in NaOH and urea solvent system was studied. The result shows that the solubility of cellulose from OPEFB fiber increased while the molecular weight of cellulose decreased due to the pretreatment done on the OPEFB fiber.

  1. An overview of the Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB potential as reinforcing fibre in polymer composite for energy absorption applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizi M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB natural fibres were comprehensively reviewed to assess their potential as reinforcing materials in polymer composites for energy absorption during low-velocity impact. The typical oil palm wastes include trunks, fronds, kernel shells, and empty fruit bunches. This has a tendency to burden the industry players with disposal difficulties and escalates the operating cost. Thus, there are several initiatives have been employed to convert these wastes into value added products. The objective of this study is to review the potential of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB as natural fibre polymer composite reinforcement to absorb the energy during low-velocity impact as another option for value added products. Initially, this paper reviewed the local oil palm waste issues. Previous research works on OPEFB polymer composite, and their mechanical characterization is appraised. Their potential for energy absorption in low-velocity impact application was also elaborated. The review suggests high potential applications of OPEFB as reinforcing materials in composite structures. Furthermore, it is wisely to utilize the oil palm biomass waste into a beneficial composite, hence, promotes the green environment.

  2. Utilization of oil palm empty bunches waste as biochar-microbes for improving availibity of soil nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G . I . Ichriani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are about 23% waste oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB of total waste generated from the production of crude palm oil in oil palm plantations. Pyrolysis technology can be used to convert waste into biochar and further can be utilized for the improvement of soil. Biochar-microbes of OPEFB are biochar from OPEFB biomass that enriched with soil microbes. Biochar-microbes is expected to be used for the improvement of the soil and plants. Therefore the purpose of this research was to study the ability of biochar-microbes OPEFB to increase availability of the nutrients in sandy soils. The process of making biochar done by using slow pyrolysis technology by heating 300oC and 400oC for 2 and 3 hours, and with sizes 40 and 80 mesh, as well as indigenous microbial Bulkhorderia nodosa G.52.Rif1 and Trichoderma sp. added. The biochar production and research were conducted in the Department of Forestry Laboratory and in the Department of Agronomy Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Palangka Raya University. In general, the study showed that biochar-microbes could maintain the soil pH value and tends to increase the soil pH, increasing the holding capacity of sandy soil to the elements of P and K as well as increasing the availability of nutrients N, P and K. Furthermore, this study showed that the biochar process by 400oC heating for 3 hours and 40 mesh with microbes or without microbes were the best effect on the improvement of the quality of holding capacity and the nutrients supply in sandy soils.

  3. Preparation of highly porous binderless activated carbon electrodes from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches for application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farma, R; Deraman, M; Awitdrus, A; Talib, I A; Taer, E; Basri, N H; Manjunatha, J G; Ishak, M M; Dollah, B N M; Hashmi, S A

    2013-03-01

    Fibres from oil palm empty fruit bunches, generated in large quantities by palm oil mills, were processed into self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). Untreated and KOH-treated SACG were converted without binder into green monolith prior to N2-carbonisation and CO2-activation to produce highly porous binderless carbon monolith electrodes for supercapacitor applications. Characterisation of the pore structure of the electrodes revealed a significant advantage from combining the chemical and physical activation processes. The electrochemical measurements of the supercapacitor cells fabricated using these electrodes, using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques consistently found that approximately 3h of activation time, achieved via a multi-step heating profile, produced electrodes with a high surface area of 1704m(2)g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.889cm(3)g(-1), corresponding to high values for the specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power of 150Fg(-1), 4.297Whkg(-1) and 173Wkg(-1), respectively.

  4. Application of Box-Behnken Design in Optimization of Glucose Production from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satriani Aga Pasma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFB is a lignocellulosic waste from palm oil mills. It contains mainly cellulose from which glucose can be derived to serve as raw materials for valuable chemicals such as succinic acid. A three-level Box-Behnken design combined with the canonical and ridge analysis was employed to optimize the process parameters for glucose production from OPEFB cellulose using enzymatic hydrolysis. Organosolv pretreatment was used to extract cellulose from OPEFB using ethanol and water as the solvents. The extracted cellulose was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Hydrolysis parameters including amount of enzyme, amount of cellulose, and reaction time were investigated. The experimental results were fitted with a second-order polynomial equation by a multiple regression analysis and found that more than 97% of the variations could be predicted by the models. Using the ridge analysis, the optimal conditions reaction time found for the production of glucose was 76 hours and 30 min, whereas the optimum amount of enzyme and cellulose was 0.5 mL and 0.9 g, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the corresponding response value predicted for glucose concentration was 169.34 g/L, which was confirmed by validation experiments.

  5. Growth of SiC nanowires using oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres infiltrated with tetraethyl orthosilicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Y. L.; Cheong, K. Y.

    2012-07-01

    SiC nanowires were produced by pyrolyzing oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres infiltrated with tetraethyl orthosilicate. The effects of the concentration of TEOS (10%, 50% and 100%) and the pyrolysis temperatures (1250 °C, 1300 °C, 1350 °C and 1400 °C) were studied. An increase in TEOS concentration led to an increment in silica content. However, when TEOS was infiltrated into the fibres, the small sizes of the lumens in the oil palm fibres and low fluidity of TEOS resulted in lower amount of silica deposited onto the surface when the concentration was increased to 100%. This in turn resulted in a lower yield of SiC nanowires at higher TEOS concentration. When pyrolysis temperature was raised, there was a decrease in diameter but the lengths of nanowires reached tens of μm. The growth of the nanowires was attributed to the combination of solid-state reaction and vapour-solid growth mechanisms.

  6. Effect of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment on ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Isroi; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), a lignocellulosic residue of palm oil industries was examined for ethanol production. Milled OPEFB exposed to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted just in 14.5% ethanol yield compared to the theoretical yield. Therefore, chemical pretreatment with phosphoric acid, a biological pretreatment with white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, and their combination were carried out on OPEFB prior to the SSF. Pretreatment with phosphoric acid, combination of both methods and just fungal pretreatment improved the digestibility of OPEFB by 24.0, 16.5 and 4.5 times, respectively. During the SSF, phosphoric acid pretreatment, combination of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment and just fungal pretreatment resulted in the highest 89.4%, 62.8% and 27.9% of the theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. However, the recovery of the OPEFB after the fungal pretreatment was 98.7%, which was higher than after phosphoric acid pretreatment (36.5%) and combined pretreatment (45.2%).

  7. Immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using Ca-alginate for bioethanol production from empty fruit bunch of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluyo, Joko; Burhani, Dian; Hikmah, Nurul; Sudiyani, Yanni

    2017-01-01

    Immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using Ca-alginate bead was conducted to investigate the performance of S. cerevisiae in producing ethanol from empty fruit bunch of oil palm. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) methods were used for both free cell and immobilized cell of S. cerevisiae. The result of SSF method for both immobilized and free cell of S. cerevisiae produced the highest ethanol concentration at 3.9% and 3.8%, respectively, after 48 hours fermentation. While the result of SHF method produced the highest ethanol concentration at 3.7% and 3.5%, respectively. Although ethanol concentration obtained with immobilized cell did not presented higher value as expected, it exhibited faster fermentation process, as at 24 hour fermentation, it converted higher ethanol concentration than the free cell.

  8. Oil palm empty fruit bunch as alternative substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium butyricum EB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamad Faizal; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Razak, Mohamad Nafis Abdul; Phang, Lai Yee; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-04-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production from renewable resources has been widely reported. In this study, Clostridium butyricum EB6 was employed for ABE fermentation using fermentable sugar derived from treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). A higher amount of ABE (2.61 g/l) was produced in a fermentation using treated OPEFB as the substrate when compared to a glucose based medium that produced 0.24 g/l at pH 5.5. ABE production was increased to 3.47 g/l with a yield of 0.24 g/g at pH 6.0. The fermentation using limited nitrogen concentration of 3 g/l improved the ABE yield by 64%. The study showed that OPEFB has the potential to be applied for renewable ABE production by C. butyricum EB6.

  9. Oil palm empty fruit bunch to biofuels and chemicals via SO2-ethanol-water fractionation and ABE fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklavounos, Evangelos; Iakovlev, Mikhail; Survase, Shrikant; Granström, Tom; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-11-01

    A process has been developed for conversion of spent liquor produced by SO2-ethanol-water (SEW) fractionation of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibers to biofuels by ABE fermentation. The fermentation process utilizes Clostridia bacteria that produce butanol, ethanol and acetone solvents at a total yield of 0.26 g/g sugars. A conditioning scheme is developed, which demonstrates that it is possible to utilize the hemicellulose sugars from this agricultural waste stream by traditional ABE fermentation. Fractionation as well as sugar hydrolysis in the spent liquor is hindered by the high cation content of OPEFB, which can be partly removed by acidic leaching suggesting that a better deashing method is necessary. Furthermore, it is inferred that better and more selective lignin removal is needed during conditioning to improve liquor fermentability.

  10. Effects of aeration rate on degradation process of oil palm empty fruit bunch with kinetic-dynamic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Ahmad Tarmezee; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Sulaiman, Alawi

    2014-10-01

    The effect of different aeration rates on the organic matter (OM) degradation during the active phase of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB)-rabbit manure co-composting process under constant forced-aeration system has been studied. Four different aeration rates, 0.13 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.49 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) and 0.74 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) were applied. 0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) provided enough oxygen level (10%) for the rest of composting period, showing 40.5% of OM reduction that is better than other aeration rates. A dynamic mathematical model describing OM degradation, based on the ratio between OM content and initial OM content with correction functions of moisture content, free air space, oxygen and temperature has been proposed.

  11. Effect of electrolyte concentration on performance of supercapacitor carbon electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farma, R.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Awitdrus, Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Taer, E.; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M.

    2015-04-01

    Fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches were used to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N2 environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM) and the CM was CO2 activated at 800°C for 4 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells which used H2SO4 electrolyte at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 M were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical properties of the ACM electrodes and the effect of electrolyte concentration on the electrochemical properties the ACM electrodes.

  12. Effect of Reinforcement Shape and Fiber Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch-Polyethylene Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, M. F.; Yusoff, P. S. M. M.; Eng, K. K.

    2010-03-01

    High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) composites were fabricated using oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) as the reinforcing material. The effect of reinforcement shape on the tensile and flexural properties, that is 5 mm average length of short fiber and 325-400 μm size distribution of particulate filler have been studied. Overall, EFB short fiber-HDPE composites yield higher mechanical properties compared to EFB particulate-HDPE composites. For both types of composites, considerable improvement showed in tensile and flexural modulus. However, the tensile strength decreased with increase in EFB content. Attempts to improve these properties using alkali and two types of silane, namely γ-Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MTS) and vinyltriethoxysilane (VTS) were described. It is found that both types of silane enhanced the mechanical properties of composites. MTS showed better tensile strength compared to VTS. However, only marginal improvement obtained from alkali treatments.

  13. Cationic and anionic modifications of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajab, Mohd Shaiful; Chia, Chin Hua; Zakaria, Sarani; Khiew, Poi Sim

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers were employed to remove dyes from aqueous solutions via adsorption approaches. The EFB fibers were modified using citric acid (CA) and polyethylenimine (PEI) to produce anionic and cationic adsorbents, respectively. The CA modified EFB fibers (CA-EFB) and PEI-modified EFB fibers (PEI-EFB) were used to study the efficiency in removing cationic methylene blue (MB) and anionic phenol red (PR) from aqueous solutions, respectively, at different pHs, temperatures and initial dye concentrations. The adsorption data for MB on the CA-EFB fitted the Langmuir isotherm, while the adsorption of PR on the PEI-EFB fitted the Freundlich isotherm, suggesting a monolayer and heterogeneous adsorption behavior of the adsorption processes, respectively. Both modified fibers can be regenerated up to seven adsorption/desorption cycles while still providing as least 70% of the initial adsorption capacity.

  14. Combustion behavior of briquettes from oil palm's empty fruit bunch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratoto, A. [Andalas Univ., Padang (Indonesia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) briquettes from palm plantations are now being considered as a renewable energy source in Indonesia. This paper provided details of a study that investigated the combustion behaviour of an EFB briquette. Thermogravimetry was used to study the briquettes under dynamic conditions at 50 degrees C in a muffle furnace. Thermal decomposition rates and phases were identified, and the effect of the briquette's size on the decomposition rate was evaluated by comparing the combustion behaviour of the briquette to that of loose EFB materials. Rates of devolatilization and char oxidation were also examined. Results of the derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) analysis showed that larger briquettes did not exhibit a sharp peak on the DTG curve. Results suggested that heat transfer was predominant over the kinetic reaction during combustion. The ignition temperature of the briquettes was comparable to typical lignocellulose biomass. Peak combustion temperatures for loose EFB were only slightly lower than other types of biomass. Maximum combustion rates decreased with the size of the fuel. It was concluded that small briquettes are suitable for applications where high rates of heat are required. 16 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  15. Physicochemical and structural characterization of alkali soluble lignins from oil palm trunk and empty fruit-bunch fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R; Fang, J M; Tomkinson, J; Bolton, J

    1999-07-01

    Six alkali soluble lignin fractions were extracted from the cell wall materials of oil palm trunk and empty fruit-bunch (EFB) fibers with 5% NaOH, 10% NaOH, and 24% KOH/2% H(3)BO(3). All of the lignin fractions contained rather low amounts of associated neutral sugars (0.8-1.2%) and uronic acids (1.1-2.0%). The lignin fractions isolated with 5% NaOH from the lignified palm trunk and EFB fibers gave a relatively higher degree of polymerization as shown by weight-average molecular weights ranging between 2620 and 2840, whereas the lignin fractions isolated with 10% NaOH and 24% KOH/2% H(3)BO(3) from the partially delignified palm trunk and EFB fibers showed a relatively lower degree of polymerization, as shown by weight-average molecular weights ranging between 1750 and 1980. The results obtained by alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation showed that all of the lignin preparations contained a high proportion of noncondensed syringyl units with small amounts of noncondensed guaiacyl and fewer p-hydroxyphenyl units. The lignin fraction extracted with 5% NaOH from the lignified EFB fiber was mainly composed of beta-O-4 ether-linked units. Small amounts of 5-5', beta-5, and beta-beta' carbon-carbon linkages were also found to be present between the lignin structural units. Further studies showed that uronic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and ferulic acids in the cell walls of palm fibers were esterified to lignin.

  16. Hemicellulase production by Aspergillus niger DSM 26641 in hydrothermal palm oil empty fruit bunch hydrolysate and transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheim, Christoph; Verdejo, Carl; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2014-12-01

    Palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB) is an abundant and cheap lignocellulose material in Southeast Asia. Its use as the sole medium for producing lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes would increase its commercial value. A newly isolated Aspergillus niger DSM 26641 was investigated for its capability of producing hemicellulases in EFB hydrolysate obtained by treatment with pressurized hot water (1-20%, w/v) at 120-180°C in a 1 L Parr reactor for 10-60 min. The optimal hydrolysate for the fungal growth and endoxylanase production was obtained when 10% (w/v) of empty fruit bunch was treated at 120°C or 150°C for 10 min, giving an endoxylanase activity of 24.5 mU ml(-1) on RBB-Xylan and a saccharification activity of 5 U ml(-1) on xylan (DNS assay). When the hydrolysates were produced at higher temperatures, longer treatment times or higher biomass contents, only less than 20% of the above maximal endoxylanase activity was detected, possibly due to the higher carbohydrate concentrations in the medium. Transcriptome analysis showed that 3 endoxylanases (expression levels 59-100%, the highest level was set as 100%), 2 β-xylosidases (4%), 4 side chain-cleaving arabinofuranosidases (1-95%), 1 acetyl xylan esterase (9%) and 2 ferulic acid esterases (0.3-9%) were produced together.

  17. Synthesizing of oil palm empty fruit bunch lignin derivatives and potential use for production of linerboard coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danupong Narapakdeesakul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the synthesis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB lignin derivatives and their performance for the production of linerboard coating. OPEFB lignin derivatives were synthesized by the reactions of OPEFB lignin and soy bean oil with two proportions (OPEFB lignin: soy bean oil at 1:1 and 1:2. The formation of the derivatives was confirmed by FTIR analysis. OPEFB lignin derivative-based coatings were produced by mixing of oxidized starch solution and 5% lignin derivatives with the addition of 1% arabic gum (w/w of the derivatives as the stabilizer. It was found that the OPEFB lignin derivative-based coatings had low viscosity similar to commercial wax. OPEFB lignin derivative-coated linerboards had a better (p0.05. The mechanical properties, including ring crush, tensile and bursting strength of linerboards coated with OPEFB lignin derivatives and commercial wax were not different (p>0.05. The results point out that the OPEFB lignin derivatives had a performance suitable for use as linerboard coating. It provided a better water resistance of the coated linerboards, and was also more environmental friendly.

  18. Effect of inoculum size on production of compost and enzymes from palm oil mill biogas sludge mixed with shredded palm empty fruit bunches and decanter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanawut Nutongkaew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inoculum size on production of compost and enzymes from palm oil mill biogas sludge (POMS mixed with shredded palm empty fruit bunches (PEFB and decanter cake (DC was studied using the mixed culture LDD1 as an inoculum. Three piles of 50 kg mixture (POMS:PEFB:DC = 2:1:1 with different inoculum sizes of 0.0075% (treatment A, 0.015% (treatment B, and 0.030% (treatment C were set up. The physicochemical parameters were measured during the composting. All the compost appeared dark brown in color, crumbly, attained an ambient temperature and had the C/N ratio of 11:1 after 40 days fermentation, indicating the maturity of the compost. The optimal inoculum size was found to be 0.030% (w/w. For enzyme production, the highest carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase activity was 3.23 Unit/g substrates at 12 days incubation whereas the highest xylanase activity was 3.11 Unit/g substrates at 6 days incubation. At the end of 60 days fermentation, the compost (treatment C had a TN-P2O5 -K2O of 3.10-1.29-2.01% (dry basis. Therefore, the compost quality complied with the national compost standard set by the Ministry of Agriculture, Thailand.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of methanation of palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB pyrolysis oil with and without in situ CO2 sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizah Abdul Halim Yun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic equilibrium analysis for conversion of palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB bio-oil to methane using low-temperature steam reforming (LTSR process was conducted by assuming either isothermal or adiabatic condition, with and without sorption enhancement (SE-LTSR, with CaO(S or Ca(OH2(S as CO2 sorbent. Temperatures of 300-800 K, molar steam to carbon (S/C ratios of 0.3-7.0, pressures of 1-30 atm and molar calcium to carbon ratios (Ca:C of 0.3-1.0 were simulated. For reasons of process simplicity, the best conditions for CH4 production were observed for the adiabatic LTSR process without sorption at S/C between 2.5 and 3 (compared to the stoichiometric S/C of 0.375, inlet temperature above 450 K, resulting in reformer temperature of 582 K, where close to the theoretical maximum CH4 yield of 38 wt % of the simulated dry PEFB oil was obtained, resulting in a reformate consisting of 44.5 vol % CH4, 42.7 vol % CO2 and 12.7 vol % H2 and requiring only moderate heating mainly to partially preheat the reactants. Temperatures and S/C below these resulted in high risk of carbon by-product.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Poly(ethyl hydrazide Grafted Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch for Removal of Ni(II Ion in Aqueous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mariam Mohd Nor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethyl hydrazide grafted oil palm empty fruit bunch (peh-g-opefb fiber has been successfully prepared by heating poly(methylacrylate-g-opefb at 60 °C for 4 h in a solution of hydrazine hydrate in ethanol. The chelating ability of peh-g-opefb was evaluated based on removal of Ni(II ions in aqueous solution. Adsorption of Ni(II by peh-g-opefb was characterized based on effect of pH, isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic study. This cheap sorbent based on oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber has a great future potential in water treatment industries based on high adsorption capacity, biodegradability and renewability.

  1. The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid)/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Marwah Rayung; Nor Azowa Ibrahim; Norhazlin Zainuddin; Wan Zuhainis Saad; Nur Inani Abdul Razak; Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-01-01

    In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of th...

  2. Radiation pasteurised oil palm empty fruit bunch fermented with Pleurotus sajor-caju as feed supplement to ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Mat Rasol; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Mahmud, Mohd. Shukri; Wan Husain, Wan Badrin; Osman, Tajuddin; Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Kassim, Asmahwati; Wan Mahmud, Zal U'yun; Manaf, Ishak; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-10-01

    In solid state fermentation, Pleurotus sajor-caju has been found to be able to degrade at least 30% oil palm empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) fibre leaving 70 % useful materials. Conditions under which fermentation carried out were investigated. It was found that, in the temperature range between 25- 28 °C, relative ph between 6-8, moisture between 60-70 % and medium composition of CaCO 3: rice bran 2 %: 5 % were the optimum conditions. The results showed in fermented products that, there were substantial reduction in cellulosic component such as Crude Fiber (CF, 18 %); Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF, 45 %), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF, 61 %) and Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL, 14 %). However, Crude Protein (CP, 10%) increased resulted from single cell protein enrichment of mycelial microbial mass. The mass reductions of substrate in fermentation process corresponds to the CO 2 released during fermentation. Hence, attributable to the decreased in content of CF, ADF, NDF, and ADL. The digestibility study has also been carried out to determine the useful level of this product to ruminant. Aflatoxin content was detected low in both the initial substrates and products. Based on nutritional value and low content of aflatoxin, the product is useful as a source of roughage to ruminant.

  3. Effect of electrolyte concentration on performance of supercapacitor carbon electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farma, R.; Awitdrus,; Taer, E. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, 28293 Pekanbaru, Riau (Indonesia); Deraman, M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-16

    Fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches were used to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N{sub 2} environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM) and the CM was CO{sub 2} activated at 800°C for 4 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells which used H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 M were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical properties of the ACM electrodes and the effect of electrolyte concentration on the electrochemical properties the ACM electrodes.

  4. Asymmetric supercapacitor based on NiO and activated carbon monolith from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, N. H.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, Md.; Khiew, P. S.; Yatim, B.; Nor, N. S. M.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Hamdan, E.; Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Bakri, W. F. W.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid supercapacitor or asymmetric cell made of composite electrode consists of nanoparticles NiO (75, 80, 85 wt.%), activated carbon powder (ACP) and PTFE binder (5 wt.%) as cathode paired with porous KOH treated activated carbon monolith (ACM) electrode from oil palm empty fruit bunches as anode have been fabricated. The physical characteristics of composite electrodes have been investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The density and resistivity of the composite electrodes have been measured and found to be increased with percentage of NiO composition. The supercapacitor performance of both symmetric and asymmetric configuration have been investigated in 6 M KOH electrolyte medium using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge discharge (GCD) techniques. The CV results at 1 mV s-1 for the asymmetric cell demonstrate that the presence of ACM as an anode can improve the supercapacitor cell performance, as shown by the cell composed of composite electrode that consist 75 wt.% of NiO, which optimally exhibits 164 % increase in the value of Csp. The same trend is observed by the GCD results. The GCD results show that the presence of porous ACM electrodes has increase the specific energy value from 0.14 Wh kg-1 (without ACM) to 0.24, 0.51 and 0.66 W h kg-1, and the specific power from 94.9 to 122.0 W kg-1 corresponding to asymmetric cell consist of 75, 80, 85 wt.% of NiO, respectively.

  5. Physicochemical properties and characteristics of microcrystalline cellulose derived from the cellulose of oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, H.; Yurnaliza; Veronicha; Irmadani; Sitompul, S.

    2017-07-01

    Cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch was hydrolyzed with different concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCl) viz. 2; 2.5; 3; 3.5 N to prepare microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The temperature of hydrolysis process was at 75 °C. The physicochemical properties such as organoleptic characteristic, water soluble substance, and loss on drying were conducted during this study. Infrared, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) image were also performed to investigate the effect of hydrolysis on the molecular structure, crystal structure and morphology of the MCC, respectively. The results have showed, in term of the physicochemical properties, for all concentrations of HCl the MCC was obtained. The FTIR results showed the -OH functional group tended to reduced as alpha cellulose has changed to MCC. The x-ray diffraction pattern revealed that the crystal structure was traced on MCC where the highest was observed at hydrolysis process of 2.5N HCl. The image from SEM displayed an individualized and fibrous MCC on the treatment of 2.5N HCl.

  6. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CHANGES AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS ENHANCEMENT OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES TREATED WITH SUPERHEATED STEAM

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    Ezyana Kamal Bahrin,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of superheated steam treatment on oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB was investigated in terms of physicochemical property changes and enzymatic hydrolysis enhancement. The experimental treatment was carried out at different temperatures (140-210°C and durations (20-90 min. Results showed that as the superheated steam temperature and time increased, the size distribution also changed, resulting in more small particles. Analysis on the surface texture, color, and mechanical properties of the treated OPEFB also showed that significant changes resulted due to the superheated steam treatment. In support to this, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG analyses showed that solubilization and removal of the hemicelluloses component also took place. As a result of this phenomenon, higher total sugar and glucose yield was achieved once the treated OPEFB was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. This suggests that superheated steam treatment could enhance OPEFB structure degradation for the preparation of a suitable substrate in order to produce a higher glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis process.

  7. Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on low temperature acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

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    Yunus, Robiah; Salleh, Shanti Faridah; Abdullah, Nurhafizah; Biak, Dyg Radiah Awg

    2010-12-01

    Various pre-treatment techniques change the physical and chemical structure of the lignocellulosic biomass and improve hydrolysis rates. The effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre prior to acid hydrolysis has been evaluated. The main objective of this study was to determine if ultrasonic pre-treatment could function as a pre-treatment method for the acid hydrolysis of OPEFB fibre at a low temperature and pressure. Hydrolysis at a low temperature was studied using 2% sulphuric acid; 1:25 solid liquid ratio and 100 degrees C operating temperature. A maximum xylose yield of 58% was achieved when the OPEFB fibre was ultrasonicated at 90% amplitude for 45min. In the absence of ultrasonic pre-treatment only 22% of xylose was obtained. However, no substantial increase of xylose formation was observed for acid hydrolysis at higher temperatures of 120 and 140 degrees C on ultrasonicated OPEFB fibre. The samples were then analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to describe the morphological changes of the OPEFB fibre. The SEM observations show interesting morphological changes within the OPEFB fibre for different acid hydrolysis conditions.

  8. An integrative process of bioconversion of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber to ethanol with on-site cellulase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Youshuang; Xin, Fengxue; Zhao, Ying; Chang, Yunkang

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to efficiently convert oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFB), one of the most commonly generated lingo-wastes in Southeast Asia, into both cellulase and bioethanol. The unprocessed cellulase crude (37.29%) produced under solid-state fermentation using OPEFB as substrate showed a better reducing sugar yield using filter paper than the commercial enzyme blend (34.61%). Organosolv pretreatment method could efficiently reduce hemicellulose (24.3-18.6%) and lignin (35.2-22.1%) content and increase cellulose content (40.5-59.3%) from OPEFB. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated OPEFB using the crude cellulase with 20% solid content, enzyme loading of 15 FPU/g OPEFB at 50 °C, and pH 5.5 resulted in a OPEFB hydrolysate containing 36.01 g/L glucose after 72 h. Fermentation of the hydrolysate medium produced 17.64 g/L ethanol with 0.49 g/g yield from glucose and 0.088 g/g yield from OPEFB at 8 h using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  9. Cellulose and hemicellulose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers and production of sugars from the fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamae, Suriya; Dechatiwongse, Pongsathorn; Choorit, Wanna; Chisti, Yusuf; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2017-01-02

    A sequential two-step treatment with peracetic acid (PA) and alkaline peroxide (AP) at mild temperatures (20-35°C) removed more than 98% of the lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber. For each kilogram of EFB fiber treated, 200-250g of a solids fraction and 120-170g of a precipitate fraction were recovered after the treatment. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (45°C, 72h) of the recovered solids (excluding the precipitate) resulted in a glucose yield of 629.8±0.5g per kg of the original dry EFB biomass. Enzymatic hydrolysis of untreated EFB yielded only 3.0±0.0g glucose per kg of dry EFB. Therefore, the PA-AP pretreatment enhanced glucose recovery from EFB by nearly 210-fold. The total treatment time was 93h (a 9h PA treatment at 35°C, a 12h treatment with AP (20°C, 4% NaOH), 72h of enzymatic hydrolysis).

  10. Temperature Effect of Crystalinity in Cellulose Nanocrystal from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB using Sonication-Hydrothermal Methods

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    Zulnazri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs from cellulose of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB have been done. The delignification of OPEFB was mixed with 17,5% NaOH and carried out in the three-neck flask with refluxed for 2 hour at 80oC. Further the suspension was bleached with NaOCl 2% for 1 hour at 70oC. Then, to produce CNCs, Cellulose was firstly sonicated for 30 minutes at 40oC. After that cellulose was hydrolized at hydrothermal reactor for 0,1,2,3,4,5, hours at 110 and 120oC respectively. After filtration and washing, CNCs was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction and the result shows that the grade of the highest CNCs crystalinity at consentration of HCL 2 M at a temperature of 110oC with reaction time of 2 hours is equal to 75.87%. It can be concluded that sonication-hydrothermal can increase the grade of crystalinity of cellulose nanocrystal.

  11. Bisulfite pretreatment changes the structure and properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch to improve enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Sun, Wan; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2015-06-01

    Bisulfite pretreatment is a proven effective method for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm for bioethanol production. In this study, we set out to determine the changes that occur in the structure and properties of EFB materials and fractions of hemicellulose and lignin during the bisulfite pretreatment process. The results showed that the crystallinity of cellulose in EFB increased after bisulfite pretreatment, whereas the EFB surface was damaged to various degrees. The orderly structure of EFB, which was maintained by hydrogen bonds, was destroyed by bisulfite pretreatment. Bisulfite pretreatment also hydrolyzed the glycosidic bonds of the xylan backbone of hemicellulose, thereby decreasing the molecular weight and shortening the xylan chains. The lignin fractions obtained from EFB and pretreated EFB were typically G-S lignin, and with low content of H units. Meanwhile, de-etherification occurred at the β-O-4 linkage, which was accompanied by polymerization and demethoxylation as a result of bisulfite pretreatment. The adsorption ability of cellulase differed for the various lignin fractions, and the water-soluble lignin fractions had higher adsorption capacity on cellulase than the milled wood lignin. In general, the changes in the structure and properties of EFB provided insight into the benefits of bisulfite pretreatment.

  12. Biosynthesis of xylobiose: a strategic way to enrich the value of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, G Suvarna; Rajeswari, B Uma; Prakasham, R S

    2012-08-01

    Xylooligosaccharides are functional foods mainly produced during the hydrolysis of xylan by physical, chemical, or enzymatic methods. In this study, production of xylobiose was investigated using oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFB) as a source material, by chemical and enzymatic methods. Xylanase-specific xylan hydrolysis followed by xylobiose production was observed. Among different xylanases, xylanase from FXY-1 released maximum xylobiose from pretreated OPEFB fiber, and this fungal strain was identified as Aspergillus terreus and subsequently deposited under the accession Number MTCC- 8661. The imperative role of lignin on xylooligosaccharides enzymatic synthesis was exemplified with the notice of xylobiose production only with delignified material. A maximum 262 mg of xylobiose was produced from 1.0 g of pretreated OPEFB fiber using FXY-1 xylanase (6,200 U/ml) at pH 6.0 and 45° C. At optimized environment, the yield of xylobiose was improved to 78.67 g/100 g (based on xylan in the pretreated OPEFB fiber).

  13. The Inhibition of Hepatic and Renal Glucuronidation of p-Nitrophenol and 4-Methylumbelliferone by Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Lignin and Its Main Oxidation Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Norliyana Mohamad; Ismail, Sabariah; Ibrahim, Mohamad Nasir Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    In order to develop oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) lignin as a nutraceutical and health supplement, the investigation of its potential in interacting with other drugs via inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) would ensure product safety. The study was aimed to investigate the in vitro effect of oil palm EFB lignin and its main oxidation compounds on phase II DME UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in rat liver and kidney microsomes. The p-nitrophenol (p-NP) and 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) were employed as probe substrates in glucuronidation assays. The effect of soda oil palm EFB lignin on Vmax, Km, CLint, Ki, and mode of inhibition of 4-MU glucuronidation in RLM was also determined. The inhibitory potency of oil palm EFB lignin for both p-NP and 4-MU glucuronidation in rat liver microsome (RLM) and rat kidneys microsomes (RKM) was found to be in the rank order of soda > kraft > organosolv. However, the inhibitory potency of its main oxidation compounds were in the rank order of vanillin > syringaldehyde > p-hydroxybenzaldehyde. Soda oil palm EFB lignin exhibited mixed-type inhibition against 4-MU glucuronidation in RLM, showing the change in apparent Vmax and with only a minor effect on Km compared with control. The findings showed that effect of oil palm EFB lignin on both p-NP and 4-MU glucuronidation in RLM and RKM was enhanced by the presence of vanillin as well as flavonoids. Kinetic study showed that soda oil palm EFB lignin exhibited strong inhibition on UGT activity in RLM with mixed-type inhibition mode. The inhibitory potential of oil palm EFB lignin extracts for p-NP and 4-MU glucuronidation in RLM and RKM can be listed in the following rank order: soda > kraft > organosolvThe inhibitory potential of oil palm EFB lignin main oxidation compounds for p-NP and 4-MU glucuronidation in RLM and RKM can be listed in the following rank order: vanillin > syringaldehyde > p-hydroxybenzaldehydeResults suggested that the effect of oil palm EFB lignin on

  14. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study of carbon electrodes prepared from date pits and fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, E.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Nor, N. S. M.; Basri, N. H.; Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.; Omar, R.; Othman, M. A. R.; Shamsudin, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we produced pre-carbonized date pits (PDP) and self-adhesive carbon grains (SACGs) from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) by a low temperature (200°C for DP and 280°C for SACGs, respectively) carbonization method followed by KOH treatment to obtain KOH treated PDP (T-PDP) and KOH treated SACGs (T-SACGs). Four sets of green monolith (GMs) denoted as GM-A, GM-B, GM-C and GM-D were prepared respectively from SACGs (100 wt. %), mixture of PDP and SACGs (50:50 wt. %), T-SACGs (100 wt. %), and mixture of T-SACGs and T-PDP (50:50 wt. %), respectively. From these GMs the respective activated carbon monolith (ACMs) electrodes namely ACM-A, ACM-B, ACM-C and ACM-D were prepared via carbonization (N2 carbonization) and activation (CO2 environment). These ACMs electrodes were used to fabricate the corresponding EDLC cells: Cell-A, Cell-B, Cell-C and Cell-D, respectively. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests conducted on the cells found that the Cell-D showed the maximum value of specific capacitance, Csp (˜ 135 F g-1) whereas the Cell-A showed the minimum values of ESR and characteristic response time, respectively, ˜ 2.14 Ω and ˜ 46 s. Therefore, it can be concluded that the KOH treatment can improve the capacitance but caused the increase in the ESR and response time.

  15. Physical Activation of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch via CO2 Activation Gas for CO2 Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, C. G.; Quek, K. S.; Daud, W. M. A. W.; Moh, P. Y.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, different parameters for the preparation of activated carbon were investigated for their yield and CO2 capture capabilities. The activated carbon was prepared from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) via a 2-step physical activation process. The OPEFB was pyrolyzed under inert conditions at 500 °C and activated via CO2. A 2-factorial design was employed and the effects of activation temperature, activation dwell time and gas flow rate on yield and CO2 capture capabilities were compared and studied. The yield obtained ranged from between 20 - 26, whereby the temperature was determined to be the most significant factor in influencing CO2 uptake. The CO2 capture capacity was determined using Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) technique. The CO2 uptake of EFB activated carbon achieved was between 1.85 - 2.09 mmol/g. TPD analysis has shown that the surface of AC were of basic nature. AC was found to be able to withhold the CO2 up to 663°C before maximum desorption occurs. The surface area and pore size of OPEFB obtained from BET analysis is 2.17 m2 g-1 and 0.01 cm3 g-1. After activation, both surface area and pore size increased with a maximum observed surface area and pore size of 548.07 m2 g-1 and 0.26 cm3 g-1. Surface morphology, functional groups, pore size and surface area were analyzed using SEM, FT-IR, TPD and BET.

  16. Production of Monomeric Aromatic Compounds from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Lignin by Chemical and Enzymatic Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Pei-Ling; Hassan, Osman; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Badri, Khairiah

    2015-01-01

    In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBF) was pretreated with alkali, and lignin was extracted for further degradation into lower molecular weight phenolic compounds using enzymes and chemical means. Efficiency of monomeric aromatic compounds production from OPEFBF lignin via chemical (nitrobenzene versus oxygen) and enzymatic [cutinase versus manganese peroxidase (MnP)] approaches was investigated. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (2, 5, and 10% wt.) and reaction time (30, 90, and 180 minutes) on the yield of aromatic compounds were studied. The results obtained indicated that nitrobenzene oxidation produced the highest yield (333.17 ± 49.44 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 5.67 ± 0.25 ppm p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 25.57 ± 1.64 ppm vanillic acid, 168.68 ± 23.23 ppm vanillin, 75.44 ± 6.71 ppm syringic acid, 815.26 ± 41.77 ppm syringaldehyde, 15.21 ± 2.19 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 44.75 ± 3.40 ppm ferulic acid), among the tested methods. High sodium hydroxide concentration (10% wt.) was needed to promote efficient nitrobenzene oxidation. However, less severe oxidation condition was preferred to preserve the hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid). Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis was found to be more efficient than MnP-catalyzed oxidation in the production of aromatic compounds. By hydrolyzed 8% wt. of lignin with 0.625 mL cutinase g(-1) lignin at pH 8 and 55°C for 24 hours, about 642.83 ± 14.45 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 70.19 ± 3.31 ppm syringaldehyde, 22.80 ± 1.04 ppm vanillin, 27.06 ± 1.20 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 50.19 ± 2.23 ppm ferulic acid were produced.

  17. Synthesis optimization of oil palm empty fruit bunch and rice husk biochars for removal of imazapic and imazapyr herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Saba; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Sapari, Nasiman B; Yavari, Sara

    2017-02-18

    Imidazolinones are a family of herbicides that are used to control a broad range of weeds. Their high persistence and leaching potential make them probable risk to the ecosystems. In this study, biochar, the biomass-derived solid material, was produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and rice husk (RH) through pyrolysis process. Feedstock and pyrolysis variables can control biochar sorption capacity. Therefore, the present study attempts to evaluate effects of three pyrolysis variables (temperature, heating rate and retention time) on abilities of biochars for removal of imazapic and imazapyr herbicides from soil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing the variables to achieve maximum sorption performance of the biochars. Experimental data were interpreted accurately by quadratic models. Based on the results, sorption capacities of both biochars raised when temperature decreased to 300 °C, mainly because of increased biochars effective functionality in sorption of polar molecules. Heating rate of 3°C/min provided optimum conditions to maximize the sorption capacities of both biochars. Retention time of about 1 h and 3 h were found to be the best for EFB and RH biochars, respectively. EFB biochar was more efficient in removal of the herbicides, especially imazapyr due to its chemical composition and higher polarity index (0.42) rather than RH biochar (0.39). Besides, higher cation exchange capacity (CEC) values of EFB biochar (83.90 cmolc/kg) in comparison with RH biochar (70.73 cmolc/kg) represented its higher surface polarity effective in sorption of the polar herbicides.

  18. Isolation of Thermophilic Lignin Degrading Bacteria from Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C. M. T.; Chua, H. B.; Danquah, M. K.; Saptoro, A.

    2017-06-01

    Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) is a potential and sustainable feedstock for bioethanol production due to its high cellulosic content and availability in Malaysia. Due to high lignin content of EFB and the lack of effective delignification process, commercial bioethanol production from EFB is presently not viable. Enzymatic delignification has been identified as one of the key steps in utilising EFB as a feedstock for bioethanol conversion. To date, limited work has been reported on the isolation of lignin degrading bacteria. Hence, there is a growing interest to search for new lignin degrading bacteria with greater tolerance to temperature and high level of ligninolytic enzymes for more effective lignin degradation. This study aimed to isolate and screen thermophilic ligninolytic microorganisms from EFB compost. Ten isolates were successfully isolated from EFB compost. Although they are not capable of decolorizing Methylene Blue (MB) dye under agar plate assay method, they are able to utilize lignin mimicked compound - guaiacol as a sole carbon on the agar plate assay. This infers that there is no correlation of ligninolytic enzymes with dye decolourization for all the isolates that have been isolated. However, they are able to produce ligninolytic enzymes (Lignin peroxidase, Manganese peroxidase, Laccase) in Minimal Salt Medium with Kraft Lignin (MSM-KL) with Lignin Peroxidase (LiP) as the predominant enzyme followed by Manganese Peroxidase (MnP) and Laccase (Lac). Among all the tested isolates, CLMT 29 has the highest LiP production up to 8.7673 U/mL following 24 h of growth.

  19. Isolation, Characterization, and Application of Nanocellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber as Nanocomposites

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    N. S. Lani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites, consisting of a polymeric matrix and nanosized elements as reinforcement, have attracted significant scientific attention because of their high mechanical performance. A large variety of nanocomposites have been prepared using bio-based materials as a matrix and nanoreinforcement, so that it can reduce the dependence on nondegradable products and move to a sustainable materials basis. The objective of this study was to isolate nanocellulose from empty fruit bunch (EFB fiber and their reinforcing effect on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/starch blend films. A series of PVA/starch films with different content of nanocellulose were prepared by solution casting method. Nanocellulose fiber with diameters ranging from 4 to 15 nm has been successfully prepared. On the other hand, PVA/starch films reinforced with nanocellulose fiber possess significantly improved properties compared to unreinforced film. From the results, PVA/starch films with the addition of 5% (v/v of nanocellulose exhibited best combination of properties. This nanocomposite was found to have tensile strength at about 5.694 MPa and elongation at break was 481.85%. In addition to good mechanical properties, this nanocomposite has good water resistance and biodegradability.

  20. The effect of fiber bleaching treatment on the properties of poly(lactic acid)/oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayung, Marwah; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Razak, Nur Inani Abdul; Chieng, Buong Woei

    2014-08-22

    In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant.

  1. The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Rayung

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid (PLA and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant.

  2. Production of Monomeric Aromatic Compounds from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Lignin by Chemical and Enzymatic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBF was pretreated with alkali, and lignin was extracted for further degradation into lower molecular weight phenolic compounds using enzymes and chemical means. Efficiency of monomeric aromatic compounds production from OPEFBF lignin via chemical (nitrobenzene versus oxygen and enzymatic [cutinase versus manganese peroxidase (MnP] approaches was investigated. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (2, 5, and 10% wt. and reaction time (30, 90, and 180 minutes on the yield of aromatic compounds were studied. The results obtained indicated that nitrobenzene oxidation produced the highest yield (333.17±49.44 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 5.67±0.25 ppm p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 25.57±1.64 ppm vanillic acid, 168.68±23.23 ppm vanillin, 75.44±6.71 ppm syringic acid, 815.26±41.77 ppm syringaldehyde, 15.21±2.19 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 44.75±3.40 ppm ferulic acid, among the tested methods. High sodium hydroxide concentration (10% wt. was needed to promote efficient nitrobenzene oxidation. However, less severe oxidation condition was preferred to preserve the hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis was found to be more efficient than MnP-catalyzed oxidation in the production of aromatic compounds. By hydrolyzed 8% wt. of lignin with 0.625 mL cutinase g−1 lignin at pH 8 and 55°C for 24 hours, about 642.83±14.45 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 70.19±3.31 ppm syringaldehyde, 22.80±1.04 ppm vanillin, 27.06±1.20 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 50.19±2.23 ppm ferulic acid were produced.

  3. Deep eutectic solvent (DES) as a pretreatment for oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) in production of sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Nur Atikah Md; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Hassan, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) at different parameters to enable a highest yield of sugar. DES is a combination of two or more cheap and safe components to form a eutectic mixture through hydrogen bond interaction, which has a melting point lower than that of each component. DES can be used to replace ionic liquids (ILs), which are more expensive and toxic. In this study, OPEFB was pretreated with DES mixture of choline chloride: urea in 1:2 molar ratio. The pretreatment was performed at temperature 110°C and 80°C for 4 hours and 1 hour. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour). Enzymatic hydrolysis was done by using the combination of two enzymes, namely, Cellic Ctec2 and Cellic Htec2. The treated fiber is tested for crystallinity using XRD and functional group analysis using FTIR, to check the effect of the pretreatment on the fiber and compared it with the untreated fiber. From XRD analysis, DES successfully gave an effect towards degree of crystallinity of cellulose. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours) and B (110°C, 1 hour) successfully reduce the percentage of crystallinity while pretreatment C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) increased the percentage of crystallinity. From FTIR analysis, DES cannot remove the functional group of lignin and hemicellulose but it is believed that DES can expose the structure of cellulose. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis, DES-treated fiber successfully produced sugar but not significantly when compared with raw. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) produced glucose at the amount of 60.47 mg/ml, 66.33 mg/ml, 61.96 mg/ml and 59.12 mg/ml respectively. However, pretreatment C gave the highest xylose (70.01 mg/ml) production compared to other DES pretreatments.

  4. Removal of Organic Pollutants and Decolorization of Bleaching Effluents from Pulp and Paper Mill by Adsorption using Chemically Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers

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    Mohd Shaiful Sajab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bleaching effluents from pulp and paper mills using oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB fibers as an adsorbent was conducted to remove color and organic pollutants. Empty fruit bunch fibers were chemically modified with polyethylenimine to enhance the adsorption capacity toward anionic species in the effluents. Effluents from the primary clarifier and aerated treatment pond were treated, and the performance of the adsorbent was investigated in terms of decolorization, total organic carbon, and oxygen demand level. Increasing adsorbent dosage and lower pH resulted in greater adsorption performance. The highest decolorization and reduction of total organic carbon of the effluents were 95.0% and 58.2%, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium can be achieved after 4 h of the adsorption process.

  5. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH ABU TANDAN KOSONG SAWIT SEBAGAI KATALIS BASA PADA PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK SAWIT (Ash Waste from Empty Palm Fruit Bunches as Base Catalyst for Biodiesel Synthesis from Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoeswono Yoeswono

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pemanfaatan limbah abu tandan kosong sawit (TKS sebagai sumber katalis basa telah dilakukan untuk aplikasi pada proses pembuatan biodiesel dari minyak biji sawit. Kadar logam kalium untuk mengetahui kadar basa dalam abu TKS dianalisis dengan AAS dan kadar ion karbonat diuji dengan uji alkanalis. Komposisi asam lemak dalam bahan minyak biji sawit  dianalisis dengan GC-MS. Abu TKS direndam dalam metanol untuk mendapatkan senyawa kalium metoksida yang selanjutnya digunakan untuk transesterifikasi minyak biji sawit. Rasio persentase berat abu terhadap minyak pada reaksi transesterifikasi tersebut divariasi kemudian persentase konversi biodiesel ditentukan dengan spektrometer 1H NMR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar kalium dalam abu TKS = 29,82 % b/b, dan kadar ion karbonat = 19,63 % b/b, sehingga konversi (% dimungkinkan kalium tersebut dalam bentuk karbonat. Konversi biodiesel meningkat dengan peningkatan persentase berat abu terhadap minyak. Kondisi optimum dicapai pada persentase berat abu terhadap minyak = 6 % b/b dengan diperoleh konversi biodiesel 69,67 %.   ABSTRACT The use of ash waste from empty palm fruit bunches (EFB as a source of base catalyst have been done in biodiesel synthesis from palm kernel oil. The potasium metal content was analyzed using AAS and carbonate ions content was measured by alkalinity test. The fatty acids composition of palm kernel oil were analyzed by GC-MS. The ash was immersed in the methanol to form potassium methoxide, and then used in transesterification of palm kernel oil. Weigth of ratio of ash to oil was varied and then the biodiesel conversion was determined by 1H NMR spectrometer. The results showed that potassium content in the ash was 29.82 wt %, and the carbonate ion content was 19.63 wt %, the potassium might be in carbonate form. The biodiesel conversion increased with increase of weight ratio of ash to oil. The optimum condition was reached at weight ratio of ash to oil = 6 wt

  6. Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) in the new solvent Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)/Tetrabutylammonium Fluoride (TBAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliza, M. Y.; Shahruddin, M.; Noormaziah, J.; Rosli, W. D. Wan

    2015-06-01

    The surplus of Oil Palm is the most galore wastes in Malaysia because it produced about half of the world palm oil production, which contributes a major disposal problem Synthesis from an empty fruit bunch produced products such as Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC), could apply in diverse application such as for paper coating, food packaging and most recently, the potential as biomaterials has been revealed. In this study, CMC was prepared by firstly dissolved the bleached pulp from OPEFB in mixture solution of dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO)/tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) without any prior chemical modification. It took only 30 minutes to fully dissolve at temperature 60°C before sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were added for activation and monochloroacetateas terrifying agent. The final product is appeared in white powder, which is then will be analyzedby FTIR analysis. FTIR results show peaks appeared at wavenumber between 1609 cm-1 to 1614 cm-1 proved the existence of carboxymethyl groups which substitute OH groups at anhydroglucose(AGU) unit. As a conclusion, mixture solution of DMSO/TBAF is the suitable solvent used for dissolved cellulose before modifying it into CMC with higher Degree of Substitution (DS). Furthermore, the dissolution of the OPEFB bleached pulp was easy, simple and at a faster rate without prior chemical modification at temperature as low as 60°C.

  7. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and characterisation of its blend with oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Yoga Sugama; Abdullah, Amirul Al-Ashraf; Nasri, Coswald Stephen Sipaut Mohd; Ibrahim, Mohamad Nasir Mohamad

    2011-02-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-38 mol%-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-38mol%-3HV)] was produced by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 in the presence of oleic acid and 1-pentanol. Due to enormous production of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in the oil palm plantation and high production cost of P(3HB-co-3HV), oil palm EFB fibers were used for biocomposites preparation. In this study, maleic anhydride (MA) and benzoyl peroxide (DBPO) were used to improve the miscibility between P(3HB-co-3HV) and EFB fibers. Introduction of MA into P(3HB-co-3HV) backbone reduced the molecular weight and improved the thermal stability of P(3HB-co-3HV). Thermal stability of P(3HB-co-3HV)/EFB composites was shown to be comparable to that of commercial packaging product. Composites with 35% EFB fibers content have the highest tensile strength compared to 30% and 40%. P(3HB-co-3HV)/EFB blends showed less chemicals leached compared to commercial packaging.

  8. Use of Empty Fruit Bunches from the oil palm for bioethanol production: a thorough comparison between dilute acid and dilute alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, S; Gnansounou, E

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, two pretreatment techniques using either dilute acid (H2SO4) or dilute alkali (NaOH) have been compared for producing bioethanol from Empty Fruit Bunches (EFBs) from oil palm tree, a relevant feedstock for tropical countries. Treatments' performances under different conditions have been assessed and statistically optimized with respect to the response upon standardized enzymatic saccharification. The dilute acid treatment performed at optimal conditions (161.5°C, 9.44 min and 1.51% acid loading) gave 85.5% glucose yield, comparable to those of other commonly investigated feedstocks. Besides, the possibility of using fibers instead of finely ground biomass may be of economic interest. Oppositely, treatment with dilute alkali has shown lower performances under the conditions explored, most likely given the relatively significant lignin content, suggesting that the use of stronger alkali regime (with the associated drawbacks) is unavoidable to improve the performance of this treatment.

  9. PRODUCTION OF FERMENTABLE SUGARS FROM OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH USING CRUDE CELLULASE COCKTAILS WITH TRICHODERMA ASPERELLUM UPM1 AND ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS UPM2 FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Kartini Abu Bakar,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB for bioethanol production with crude cellulase cocktails from locally isolated fungi was studied. Enzymatic saccharification of alkaline pretreated OPEFB was done using different cellulase enzyme preparations. Crude cellulase cocktails from Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2 produced 8.37 g/L reducing sugars with 0.17 g/g yield. Production of bioethanol from OPEFB hydrolysate using Baker’s yeast produced approximately 0.59 g/L ethanol, corresponding to 13.8% of the theoretical yield. High reducing sugars concentration in the final fermentation samples resulted from accumulation of non-fermentable sugars such as xylose and cellobiose that were not consumed by the yeast. The results obtained support the possible utilization of OPEFB biomass for bioethanol production in the future.

  10. Solid-state fermentation for humic acids production by a Trichoderma reesei strain using an oil palm empty fruit bunch as the substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, F L; Santana, M H A

    2014-02-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB), an underutilized waste product of oil palm processing, was studied as a substrate for the production of humic acids (HA) by a Trichoderma reesei strain by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in Raimbault columns. HA have attracted the attention of many investigators due to their applications in agriculture, industry, the environment, and biomedicine. Commercial HA are currently chemically extracted from peat and coal, which are nonrenewable carbon sources. Biotechnological processes are important for their sustainable and controlled production, with SSF being especially promising for mimicking the natural habitat of fungi. Trichoderma sporulation and HA production are related, and the results of this study showed that SSF stimulated fast sporulation. The productivity related to HA was much higher than that of the biomass, indicating an efficient utilization of EFB. These findings, added to the low cost of EFB, make SSF an attractive process for HA production.

  11. Statistical optimization of adsorption processes for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol by activated carbon derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Zahangir ALAM; Suleyman A. MUYIBI; Juria TORAMAE

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of activated carbon produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches through removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solution was carried out in the laboratory. The activated carbon was produced by thermal activation at 800℃ with 30 min of activation time. The adsorption process conditions were determined with the statistical optimization followed by central composite design. A developed polynomial model for operating conditions of adsorption process indicated that the optimum conditions for maximum adsorption of phenolic compound were: agitation rate of 100 r/min, contact time of 8 h, initial adsorbate concentration of 250 mg/L and pH 4. Adsorption isotherms were conducted to evaluate biosorption process. Langmuir isotherm was more favorable (R2=0.93) for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol by the activated carbon produced rather than the Freundlich isotherm (R2=0.88).

  12. Effect of Fiber Esterification on Fundamental Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber/Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Zaki AB Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of biocomposites based on oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT, which is a biodegradable aliphatic aromatic co-polyester, were prepared using melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% and characterized. Chemical treatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB fiber was successfully done by grafting succinic anhydride (SAH onto the EFB fiber surface, and the modified fibers were obtained in two levels of grafting (low and high weight percentage gain, WPG after 5 and 6 h of grafting. The FTIR characterization showed evidence of successful fiber esterification. The results showed that 40 wt% of fiber loading improved the tensile properties of the biocomposite. The effects of EFB fiber chemical treatments and various organic initiators content on mechanical and thermal properties and water absorption of PBAT/EFB 60/40 wt% biocomposites were also examined. The SAH-g-EFB fiber at low WPG in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide (DCP initiator was found to significantly enhance the tensile and flexural properties as well as water resistance of biocomposite (up to 24% compared with those of untreated fiber reinforced composites. The thermal behavior of the composites was evaluated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/differential thermogravimetric (DTG thermograms. It was observed that, the chemical treatment has marginally improved the biocomposites’ thermal stability in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide at the low WPG level of grafting. The improved fiber-matrix surface enhancement in the chemically treated biocomposite was confirmed by SEM analysis of the tensile fractured specimens.

  13. Effect of fiber esterification on fundamental properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyamak, Samira; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Abdolmohammadi, Sanaz; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Rahman, Mohamad Zaki Ab

    2012-01-01

    A new class of biocomposites based on oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), which is a biodegradable aliphatic aromatic co-polyester, were prepared using melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% and characterized. Chemical treatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber was successfully done by grafting succinic anhydride (SAH) onto the EFB fiber surface, and the modified fibers were obtained in two levels of grafting (low and high weight percentage gain, WPG) after 5 and 6 h of grafting. The FTIR characterization showed evidence of successful fiber esterification. The results showed that 40 wt% of fiber loading improved the tensile properties of the biocomposite. The effects of EFB fiber chemical treatments and various organic initiators content on mechanical and thermal properties and water absorption of PBAT/EFB 60/40 wt% biocomposites were also examined. The SAH-g-EFB fiber at low WPG in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) initiator was found to significantly enhance the tensile and flexural properties as well as water resistance of biocomposite (up to 24%) compared with those of untreated fiber reinforced composites. The thermal behavior of the composites was evaluated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential thermogravimetric (DTG) thermograms. It was observed that, the chemical treatment has marginally improved the biocomposites' thermal stability in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide at the low WPG level of grafting. The improved fiber-matrix surface enhancement in the chemically treated biocomposite was confirmed by SEM analysis of the tensile fractured specimens.

  14. THE MANUFACTURE OF NANOCOMPOSITES POLYVINYL ALCOHOL/CELLULOSE NANOFIBER ISOLATED FROM EMPTY BUNCH FRUIT PALM OIL (Elaeis guineensis Jack WITH STEAM EXPLOSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Indria Cherlina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   The manufacture of  nanocomposites polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose nanofiber isolated from empty bunch fruit palm oil has been done. The isolation process was carried out in two stages :  α-cellulose from EBFPO which followed by isolation of CN from  α-cellulose using steam explosion method. The process of α-cellulose hydrolisis was done using  H2C2O4  11%. Nanocomposites PVA/CN were characterized by morphologycal, thermal, and mechanical analysis. FT-IR spectra show C-O-C stretch of cellulose nanofiber at 1059,99 cm-1, which indicated that there are glycoside bonding in  coumpound structure. The peaks near 2900,94 cm-1 and  3348,42 cm-1 are representative of the C-H and OH groups. The result of transmission electron microscopy (TEM image show that diameter of cellulose nanofibre around 44,6 nm. PVA/CN nanocomposites  at the optimum ratio of (80:20% showed the thermal stability around 263,48oC and tensile strength around 17,41 MPa and Young’s Modulus 0,9 GPa, and surface area was smooth and homogen Keywords: Empty Bunch Fruit Palm Oil, α-Cellulose, Cellulose Nanofiber, Nanocomposites,                             Polyvinil Alcohol

  15. Indonesia's palm oil subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald F.

    1996-01-01

    Debate on Indonesia's palm oil policy was stimulated by a sharp increase in cooking oil prices in 1994-95 and a resulting increase in the export tax rate on crude palm oil. Palm oil has been one of the fastest growing subsectors in Indonesia. Using a quantitative model, the author analyzes the effect of government policies, including the export tax, buffer stock operations by the BULOG (the national logistics agency), and directed sales from public estates. The author acknowledges the export ...

  16. Valorization of palm oil (mill) residues. Identifyin and solving the challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2013-01-01

    This report explains in brief how the palm oil production system is set-up and how by-products of palm oil extraction (Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Mesocarp Fibre, Shells and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)) are generated in the Palm oil Mill and what the composition of each stream is. Then the options ar

  17. Effect of carbonization temperature on the physical and electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishak, M. M.; Deraman, M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Talib, I. A.; Basri, N. H.; Omar, R.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Awitdrus,; Farma, R.; Taer, E. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, 28293 Pekanbaru, Riau (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) was prepared from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches. The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N{sub 2} environment at 400, 500, 600 and 700°C to produce carbon monoliths labeled as CM1, CM2, CM3 and CM4 respectively. The CMs were activated in CO{sub 2} surrounding at 800°C for 1 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM1, ACM2, ACM3 and ACM4). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm techniques. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells’ performances were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical and electrochemical properties of the ACM electrodes by analyzing the influence of the carbonization temperature on these properties.

  18. Enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruits bunch fiber using Celluclast® and Accellerase® BG for sugar production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Noor Shafryna; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the ability of commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulases preparation, Celluclast® or in combination with Accellerase®BG β-glucosidase to hydrolyse pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was evaluated. Celluclast® alone hydrolyzed OPEFB to produce 2.41±0.44 mg glucose per gram OPEFB. However, the production of glucose was significantly improved with supplementation of Accellerase®BG (8.12±0.93 mg/g). This result suggested that the endoglucanases and exoglucanases in Celluclast® and β-glucosidase in Accellerase®BG able to work synergistically to increase the production of glucose from OPEFB. In addition, the production of xylose was also improved by 30% when the enzyme mixture was used. The result suggested that the mixture of Celluclast® with Accellerase®BG work synergistically to improve the production of sugars by removing the inhibition by cellobiose for complete cellulose hydrolysis. The production of glucose and xylose from OPEFB wastes showed the potential of this biomass as the source of renewable energy and fine chemicals production in Malaysia.

  19. Whole slurry fermentation of maleic acid-pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunches for ethanol production not necessitating a detoxification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-04-01

    The yield of ethanol from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) was increased on exploiting maleic acid pretreatment combined with fermentation of the pretreated whole slurry. The optimized conditions for pretreatment were to expose EFB to a high temperature (190 °C) with 1 % (w/v) maleic acid for a short time duration (3 min ramping to the set temperature with no holding) in a microwave digester. An enzymatic digestibility of 60.9 % (based on theoretical glucose yield) was exhibited using pretreated and washed EFB after 48 h of hydrolysis. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the whole slurry of pretreated EFB for 48 h resulted in 61.3 % theoretical yield of ethanol based on the initial amount of glucan in untreated EFB. These results indicate that maleic acid is a suitable catalyst not requiring detoxification steps for whole slurry fermentation of EFB for ethanol production, thus improving the process economics. Also, the whole slurry fermentation can significantly increase the biomass utilization by converting sugar from both solid and liquid phases of the pretreated slurry.

  20. Pilot-scale steam explosion for xylose production from oil palm empty fruit bunches and the use of xylose for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangwang, Sairudee; Ruengpeerakul, Taweesak; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Yamsaengsung, Ram; Sangwichien, Chayanoot

    2016-03-01

    Pilot-scale steam explosion equipments were designed and constructed, to experimentally solubilize xylose from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) and also to enhance an enzyme accessibility of the residual cellulose pulp. The OPEFB was chemically pretreated prior to steam explosion at saturated steam (SS) and superheated steam (SHS) conditions. The acid pretreated OPEFB gave the highest xylose recovery of 87.58 ± 0.21 g/kg dried OPEFB in the liquid fraction after explosion at SHS condition. These conditions also gave the residual cellulose pulp with high enzymatic accessibility of 73.54 ± 0.41%, which is approximately threefold that of untreated OPEFB. This study has shown that the acid pretreatment prior to SHS explosion is an effective method to enhance both xylose extraction and enzyme accessibility of the exploded OPEFB. Moreover, the xylose solution obtained in this manner could directly be fermented by Candida shehatae TISTR 5843 giving high ethanol yield of 0.30 ± 0.08 g/g xylose.

  1. Preparation and characterization activated carbon from rice husk and oil palm empty fruit bunches for removal of Zn2+ in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nur Enzati Afwana; Taha, Mohd F.; Ramli, Anita

    2016-11-01

    The ability of activated carbon prepared from rice husk (RH), oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and mixture (Mix) activated carbon in adsorption of Zinc (Zn2+) from aqueous solution was investigated. The Mix activated carbon has prepared from mixture of RH and EFB activated carbon with weight ratio (1:1) The RH and EFB activated carbon were produced by using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as a dehydrating agent in chemical activation process.EFB activated carbon showed excellent efficiency in removing Zn2+ with their percentage removal up to 100% even at low adsorbent dosage. The study also showed that the adsorption of Zn2+ by EFB, RH and Mix activated carbon is dependent on the adsorbent dosage and initial metal concentration. The adsorption isotherms of the Zn2+ of EFB, RH and Mix activated carbon were determined and compared with Langmuir and Freundlich models. It was showed that Langmuir model was more favorable for RH and Mix activated carbon with correlation coefficient (R2) value is 0.9958 and 0.9847. In contrast, EFB activated carbon was more favorable to the Freundlich and Langmuir model with correlation coefficient (R2) are 0.9967 and 0.9967

  2. EFFECT OF VARIOUS PRETREATMENTS OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBRES FOR SUBSEQUENT USE AS SUBSTRATE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS TERREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shahriarinour

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fibres as substrate for cellulase production by Aspergillus terreus was studied using shaking flask fermentation. The effect of different chemical pretreatments, i.e. formic acid, acetic acid, propylamine, phosphoric acid, and n-butylamine, on the suitability of OPEFB fibres as fermentation substrate was investigated. The findings revealed that pretreatment with these chemicals significantly (P<0.05 increased the cellulose and reduced the lignin contents prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fermentation using OPEFB fibres pretreated with phosphoric acid gave the highest cellulase production, which was related to high cellulose content. Further improvement in cellulase production was obtained when the chemically pretreated OPEFB fibres were subsequently treated hydrothermally (autoclaved at 160oC for 10 min and then biologically (using effective microorganisms. The final activity of the three main components of cellulase (FPase, CMCase, and β-glucosidase obtained in fermentation by A. terreus using optimally treated OPEFB fibres was (0.77 U mL−1, 8.5 U mL-1, and 6.1 U mL-1, respectively. The production of all these three major components of cellulase using pretreated OPEFB fibres (i.e. chemical, hydrothermal, and biological were about three times higher than those obtained from fermentation using untreated OPEFB fibres.

  3. Preparation of oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol: Optimization using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Tan, I.A.W.; Ahmad, A.L. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-05-30

    The effects of three preparation variables: CO{sub 2} activation temperature, CO{sub 2} activation time and KOH:char impregnation ratio (IR) on the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) uptake and carbon yield of the activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated. Based on the central composite design, two quadratic models were developed to correlate the three preparation variables to the two responses. The activated carbon preparation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by maximizing both the 2,4,6-TCP uptake and activated carbon yield within the ranges studied. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for adsorption of 2,4,6-TCP were found as follows: CO{sub 2} activation temperature of 814 deg. C, CO{sub 2} activation time of 1.9 h and IR of 2.8, which resulted in 168.89 mg/g of 2,4,6-TCP uptake and 17.96% of activated carbon yield. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The activated carbon prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 1141 m{sup 2}/g, total pore volume of 0.6 cm{sup 3}/g and average pore diameter of 2.5 nm. The surface morphology and functional groups of the activated carbon were respectively determined from the scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis.

  4. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, I.A.W.; Ahmad, A.L. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-05-30

    The adsorption characteristics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were evaluated. The effects of TCP initial concentration, agitation time, solution pH and temperature on TCP adsorption were investigated. TCP adsorption uptake was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, agitation time and solution temperature whereas adsorption of TCP was more favourable at acidic pH. The adsorption equilibrium data were best represented by the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. Boyd plot revealed that the adsorption of TCP on the activated carbon was mainly governed by particle diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), standard entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}), standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}) and activation energy were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the spent activated carbon was high, with TCP desorption of 99.6%.

  5. Robust enzymatic hydrolysis of Formiline-pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) for efficient conversion of polysaccharide to sugars and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingkai; Zhao, Xuebing; Zeng, Jing; Loh, Soh Kheang; Choo, Yuen May; Liu, Dehua

    2014-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was pretreated by Formiline process to overcome biomass recalcitrance and obtain hemicellulosic syrup and lignin. Higher formic acid concentration led to more lignin removal but also higher degree of cellulose formylation. Cellulose digestibility could be well recovered after deformylation with a small amount of lime. After digested by enzyme loading of 15 FPU+10 CBU/g solid for 48 h, the polysaccharide conversion could be over 90%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results demonstrated that ethanol concentration reached 83.6 g/L with approximate 85% of theoretic yield when performed at an initial dry solid consistency of 20%. A mass balance showed that via Formiline pretreatment 0.166 kg of ethanol could be produced from 1 kg of dry EFB with co-production of 0.14 kg of high-purity lignin and 5.26 kg hemicellulosic syrup containing 2.8% xylose. Formiline pretreatment thus can be employed as an entry for biorefining of EFB.

  6. Carbon/Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) Composites from Green Pellets Contain CNTs and Self-adhesive Carbon Grains from Fibres of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraman, Mohamad; Saad, Siti Khatijah Md.; Ishak, Maria M.; Awitdrus, Taer, Erman; Talib, Ibrahim; Omar, Ramli; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj.

    2010-10-01

    Nano composites green pellets (GPs) were prepared from the mixtures of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at varying percentage (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) and self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunch. These GPs were carbonized and CO2 activated to produce activated carbon/CNTs composites in the form of pellets (ACPs). It was found that the density (ρ) and electrical conductivity (σ) of the ACPs varied nonlinearly with CNTs content; as for the CNTs content of 3-5%, we observed the peak values of ρ and σ at 1.3781 gcm-3 and 3.4146 (Ωcm)-1 respectively. The presence of the agglomerated and individual particles of CNTs in the pores of the ACPs was clearly shown by the micrograph of the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The nitrogen adsorption isotherm data showed the decrease in surface area, volume and diameter of pores due to the effect of CNTs. The effect of CNTs on the electrochemical behavior of the ACPs were investigated from the supercapacitor cells fabricated using the ACPs as composite electrodes. It was found that the specific capacitance, energy density and power density of the supercapacitor with electrodes containing 10% CNTs were lower than that with electrodes without CNTs. This result is consistent with the change of pores characteristic due to the presence of CNTs in the ACPs, suggesting the need to optimize the pore characteristic for improving the supercapacitor performance.

  7. Effect of carbonization temperature on the physical and electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, M. M.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Basri, N. H.; Awitdrus, Farma, R.; Taer, E.; Omar, R.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M.

    2015-04-01

    Self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) was prepared from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches. The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N2 environment at 400, 500, 600 and 700°C to produce carbon monoliths labeled as CM1, CM2, CM3 and CM4 respectively. The CMs were activated in CO2 surrounding at 800°C for 1 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM1, ACM2, ACM3 and ACM4). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm techniques. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells' performances were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical and electrochemical properties of the ACM electrodes by analyzing the influence of the carbonization temperature on these properties.

  8. Preparation of oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol: optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, B H; Tan, I A W; Ahmad, A L

    2009-05-30

    The effects of three preparation variables: CO(2) activation temperature, CO(2) activation time and KOH:char impregnation ratio (IR) on the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) uptake and carbon yield of the activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated. Based on the central composite design, two quadratic models were developed to correlate the three preparation variables to the two responses. The activated carbon preparation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by maximizing both the 2,4,6-TCP uptake and activated carbon yield within the ranges studied. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for adsorption of 2,4,6-TCP were found as follows: CO(2) activation temperature of 814 degrees C, CO(2) activation time of 1.9h and IR of 2.8, which resulted in 168.89 mg/g of 2,4,6-TCP uptake and 17.96% of activated carbon yield. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The activated carbon prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 1141 m(2)/g, total pore volume of 0.6 cm(3)/g and average pore diameter of 2.5 nm. The surface morphology and functional groups of the activated carbon were respectively determined from the scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis.

  9. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, I A W; Ahmad, A L; Hameed, B H

    2009-05-30

    The adsorption characteristics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were evaluated. The effects of TCP initial concentration, agitation time, solution pH and temperature on TCP adsorption were investigated. TCP adsorption uptake was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, agitation time and solution temperature whereas adsorption of TCP was more favourable at acidic pH. The adsorption equilibrium data were best represented by the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. Boyd plot revealed that the adsorption of TCP on the activated carbon was mainly governed by particle diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ), standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ), standard free energy (DeltaG degrees ) and activation energy were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the spent activated carbon was high, with TCP desorption of 99.6%.

  10. IMPROVED CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY Aspergillus terreus USING OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBRE AS SUBSTRATE IN A STIRRED TANK BIOREACTOR THROUGH OPTIMIZATION OF THE FERMENTATION CONDITIONS

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    Mahdi Shahriarinour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was performed to evaluate the effects of dissolved oxygen tension (DOT and initial pH on the production of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase, filter-paper hydrolase (FPase, and β-glucosidase by Aspergillus terreus in a 2 L stirred tank bioreactor. Delignified oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fibre was used as the main substrate under submerged fermentation. Growth of A. terreus and the production of three main components of cellulase were optimized by central composite design (CCD design. Statistical analysis of results showed that the individual terms of these two variables (DOT and pH had significant effects on growth and the production of all components of cellulase. Maximum growth (13.07 g/L and cellulase activity (CMCase = 50.33 U/mL, FPase = 2.29 U/mL and β-glucosidase = 15.98 U/ml were obtained when the DOT and initial culture pH were set at 55% and 5.5, respectively. A high proportion of β-glucosidase to FPase (8:1 in cellulase of A. terreus could be beneficial for efficient hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. The use of OPEFB as a main substrate would reduce the cost of fermentation for the production of cellulase.

  11. Effects of changes in chemical and structural characteristic of ammonia fibre expansion (AFEX) pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre on enzymatic saccharification and fermentability for biohydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Peer Mohamed; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Harun, Shuhaida; Markom, Masturah; Lutpi, Nabilah Aminah; Hassan, Osman; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Mohd Nor, Mohd Tusirin

    2016-07-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre is widely available in Southeast Asian countries and found to have 60% (w/w) sugar components. OPEFB was pretreated using the ammonia fibre expansion (AFEX) method and characterised physically by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that there were significant structural changes in OPEFB after the pretreatment step, and the sugar yield after enzymatic hydrolysis using a cocktail of Cellic Ctec2® and Cellic Htec2® increased from 0.15gg(-1) of OPEFB in the raw untreated OPEFB sample to 0.53gg(-1) of OPEFB in AFEX-pretreated OPEFB (i.e. almost a fourfold increase in sugar conversion), which enhances the economic value of OPEFB. A biohydrogen fermentability test of this hydrolysate was carried out using a locally isolated bacterium, Enterobacter sp. KBH6958. The biohydrogen yield after 72h of fermentation was 1.68mol H2 per mol sugar. Butyrate, ethanol, and acetate were the major metabolites.

  12. CYANOBACTERIAL BIOMASS AS N-SUPPLEMENT TO OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (OPEFB FIBRE FOR IMPROVEMENT OF CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS TERREUS IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shahriarinour

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using dry biomass of a cyanobacterium, Anacystis nidulans, as nitrogen source supplement for improvement of cellulase production by Aspergillus terreus was studied in submerged fermentation using oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fibre as a carbon source. For comparison, four other nitrogen sources (ammonium sulphate, urea, peptone, and yeast extract were also tested. Growth and cellulase production were greatly enhanced in fermentation using biomass of cyanobacterium as the nitrogen source. The use of cyanobacterial biomass as a nitrogen source also reduced the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of CaCl2 to growth of A. terreus and cellulase production. The addition of 0.3 g L-1 CaCl2 to the medium containing OPEFB fibre and cyanobacterial biomass further enhanced the cellulase production, though growth remained unchanged. The final FPase, CMCase, and β-glucosidase obtained in fermentation using 10 g L-1 OPEFB fibre and 6 g/L cynaobacterial biomass with the addition of 3 mM CaCl2 was 0.97 U mL-1, 14.1 U mL-1, and 10.4 U mL-1, respectively.

  13. Conversion of acid hydrolysate of oil palm empty fruit bunch to L-lactic acid by newly isolated Bacillus coagulans JI12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lidan; Hudari, Mohammad Sufian Bin; Zhou, Xingding; Zhang, Dongxu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2013-06-01

    Cost-effective conversion of lignocellulose hydrolysate to optically pure lactic acid is commercially attractive but very challenging. Bacillus coagulans JI12 was isolated from natural environment and used to produce L-lactic acid (optical purity > 99.5 %) from lignocellulose sugars and acid hydrolysate of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) at 50 °C and pH 6.0 without sterilization of the medium. In fed-batch fermentation with 85 g/L initial xylose and 55 g/L xylose added after 7.5 h, 137.5 g/L lactic acid was produced with a yield of 98 % and a productivity of 4.4 g/L h. In batch fermentation of a sugar mixture containing 8.5 % xylose, 1 % glucose, and 1 % L-arabinose, the lactic acid yield and productivity reached 98 % and 4.8 g/L h, respectively. When EFB hydrolysate was used, 59.2 g/L of lactic acid was produced within 9.5 h at a yield of 97 % and a productivity of 6.2 g/L h, which are the highest among those ever reported from lignocellulose hydrolysates. These results indicate that B. coagulans JI12 is a promising strain for industrial production of L-lactic acid from lignocellulose hydrolysate.

  14. SORPTION OF Cu(II BY POLY(HYDROXAMIC ACID CHELATING EXCHANGER PREPARED FROM POL(YMETHYL ACRYLATE GRAFTED OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (OPEFB

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    Md Jelas Haron

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preparation of chemically modified oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB with hydroxamic acid functional group and its use for the sorption of Cu(II from aqueous solution. OPEFB was grafted with poly(methylacrylate (PMA, using H2O2/Fe2+ as initiator. The PMA grafted OPEFB (PMA-OPEFB was treated with hydroxylammonium chloride in alkaline medium to produce hydroxamic acid grafted fiber (PHA-OPEFB. The FTIR spectrum of OPEFB grafted with PMA showed an intense absorption band at 1734 cm-1 which is attributed to C=O vibration in the grafted ester. After hydroxylamine treatment, the intensity of absorption band at 1734 cm-1 decreased and new bands appeared at the 1640 cm-1 related to C=O vibration in hydroxamic acid and at the 1568 cm-1 related to the N-H amide. Sorption of Cu(II by PHA-OPEFB was effective over a pH range of 4 to 6. The sorption followed the Langmuir model with maximum capacities of 74.1 mg g-1 at 25 °C. The sorption process was exothermic, as shown by the negative value of enthalpy change, H. The free energy change (G for the sorption was negative, showing that the sorption process was spontaneous. A kinetic study showed that the Cu(II sorption followed a second order kinetic model.

  15. Pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) for biogas production: structural changes and digestion improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandari, Fiametta Ayu; Sanjaya, Adhitya Pitara; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2013-01-01

    Pretreatment of OPEFB (oil palm empty fruit bunch) by NMMO (N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide) on its subsequent digestions was investigated. The pretreatments were carried out at 90 and 120 °C for 1, 3, and 5h in three different modes of dissolution (by 85% NMMO solution), ballooning (79% NMMO solution), and swelling (73% NMMO solution). The total solid recovery after the pretreatment was 89-94%. The pretreatment process did not have a major impact on the composition of OPEFB, other than a reduction of ash from 5.4% up to 1.3%. The best improvement in biogas production was achieved by a dissolution mode pretreatment of OPEFB, using conditions of 85% NMMO, 3h, and 120 °C. It resulted in 0.408 Nm(3)/kg VS methane yield and 0.032 Nm(3)CH(4)/kg VS/day initial methane production rate, which correspond in improving by 48% and 167% compared to the untreated OPEFB, respectively.

  16. Production of humic acids from oil palm empty fruit bunch by submerged fermentation with Trichoderma viride: cellulosic substrates and nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, F L; Santana, M H A

    2013-01-01

    The novelty of this study was to produce humic acids by submerged fermentation of empty fruit bunch (EFB) with Trichoderma viride and to investigate the effects of the cellulosic substrates and the organic sources of nitrogen on the biotechnological production of these acids. The results obtained indicate the potential application of EFB, a waste of oil palm processing, for humic acids production. Because EFB contains cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, fermentations were also performed using these polymers as carbon sources, separately or in combination. After 120 h of fermentation, significant production of humic acids was observed only in cultures containing either EFB or a mixture of the three polymers. Use of either potato peptone or yeast extract as a nitrogen source yielded nearly identical patterns of fungal growth and production of humic acids. The data obtained from microscopic imaging of T. viride growth and sporulation in EFB, coupled with the determined rates of production of humic acids indicated that the production of these acids is related to T. viride sporulation.

  17. Preparation and characterization of poly(ethyl hydrazide)-grafted oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre for the removal of Cu(II) ions from an aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Ili Syazana; Yusof, Nor Azah; Haron, Md Jelas; Nor, Siti Mariam Mohd

    2013-07-18

    Poly(ethyl hydrazide)-grafted oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre (peh-g-opefb) was successfully prepared by heating poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted opefb (pma-g-opefb) at 60 °C for 4 h with a solution of hydrazine hydrate (15% v/v) in ethanol. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the product shows a secondary amine peak at 3267 cm⁻¹, with amide carbonyl peaks at 1729 cm⁻¹ and 1643 cm⁻¹. The chelating ability of peh-g-opefb was tested with copper ion in aqueous solution. A batch adsorption study revealed that maximum adsorption of copper ion was achieved at pH 5. An isotherm study showed the adsorption follows a Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 43.48 mg g-1 at 25 °C. A kinetic study showed that the adsorption of copper ion rapidly reaches equilibrium and follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with a constant rate of 7.02 × 10⁻⁴ g mg⁻¹ min⁻¹ at 25 °C. The Gibbs free energy, ∆G⁰, value is negative, indicating a spontaneous sorption process. Entropy, ∆S⁰, gives a positive value, indicating that the system is becoming increasingly disordered after the adsorption of copper ion. A positive enthalpy value, ∆H⁰, shows that the endothermic process takes place during the adsorption and is more favourable at high temperatures.

  18. Thermal Stability of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) Nanocrystalline Cellulose: Effects of post-treatment of oven drying and solvent exchange techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indarti, E.; Marwan; Wanrosli, W. D.

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystallinecellulose (NCC) from biomass is a promising material with huge potentials in various applications. A big challenge in its utilization is the agglomeration of the NCC's during processing due to hydrogen bonding among the cellulose chains when in close proximity to each other. Obtaining NCC's in a non-agglomerated and non-aqueous condition is challenging. In the present work NCC's was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) using TEMPO-oxidation reaction method. To obtain non-agglomerated and non-aqueous products, the NCC's underwent post-treatment using oven drying (OD) and solvent exchanged (SE) techniques. The thermal stability of all samples was determined from TGA and DTG profiles whilst FTIR was used to analyzethe chemical modifications that occurred under these conditions. NCC-SE has better thermal stability than the NCC-OD and its on-set degradation temperature and residue are also higher. FTIR analysis shows that NCC-SE has a slightly different chemical composition whereby the absorption band at 1300 cm-1 (due to C-O symmetric stretching) is absent as compared to NCC-OD indicating that in NCC-SE the carboxylate group is in acid form which contribute to its thermal stability

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Poly(ethyl hydrazide-Grafted Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre for the Removal of Cu(II Ions from an Aqueous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mariam Mohd Nor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethyl hydrazide-grafted oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre (peh-g-opefb was successfully prepared by heating poly(methyl acrylate-grafted opefb (pma-g-opefb at 60 °C for 4 h with a solution of hydrazine hydrate (15% v/v in ethanol. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the product shows a secondary amine peak at 3267 cm−1, with amide carbonyl peaks at 1729 cm−1 and 1643 cm−1. The chelating ability of peh-g-opefb was tested with copper ion in aqueous solution. A batch adsorption study revealed that maximum adsorption of copper ion was achieved at pH 5. An isotherm study showed the adsorption follows a Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 43.48 mg g−1 at 25 °C. A kinetic study showed that the adsorption of copper ion rapidly reaches equilibrium and follows a pseudo–second-order kinetic model, with a constant rate of 7.02 × 10−4 g mg−1 min−1 at 25 °C. The Gibbs free energy, ∆G⁰, value is negative, indicating a spontaneous sorption process. Entropy, ∆S⁰, gives a positive value, indicating that the system is becoming increasingly disordered after the adsorption of copper ion. A positive enthalpy value, ∆H⁰, shows that the endothermic process takes place during the adsorption and is more favourable at high temperatures.

  20. Efficient production of fermentable sugars from oil palm empty fruit bunch by combined use of acid and whole cell culture-catalyzed hydrolyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingxin; Ng, Wei Ting; Puah, Sze Min; Bhaskar, Ravindran Vijay; Soh, Loon Siong; MacBeath, Calum; Parakattil, Pius; Green, Phil; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm trees was converted to fermentable sugars by the combined use of dilute acids and whole fungal cell culture-catalyzed hydrolyses. EFB (5%, w/v) was hydrolyzed in the presence of 0.5% H2 SO4 and 0.2% H3 PO4 at 160 °C for 10 Min. The solid fraction was separated from the acid hydrolysate by filtration and subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis at 50 °C using the whole cell culture of Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 (2%, w/v), which was prepared by cultivation at 30 °C for 7 days to reach its maximal cellulase activity. The combined hydrolyses of EFB gave a total sugar yield of 82.0%. When used as carbon sources for cultivating Escherichia coli in M9 medium at 37 °C, the combined EFB hydrolysates were shown to be more favorable or at least as good as pure glucose for cell growth in terms of the higher (1.1 times) optical density of E. coli cells. The by-products generated during the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis did not seem to obviously affect cell growth. The combined use of acid and whole cell culture hydrolyses might be a commercially promising method for pretreatment of lignocellulose to get fermentable sugars.

  1. Optimization of Two-Step Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch for High Sugar Concentration in Hydrolysate

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    Dongxu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Getting high sugar concentrations in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate with reasonable yields of sugars is commercially attractive but very challenging. Two-step acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB was conducted to get high sugar concentrations in the hydrolysate. The biphasic kinetic model was used to guide the optimization of the first step dilute acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of EFB. A total sugar concentration of 83.0 g/L with a xylose concentration of 69.5 g/L and a xylose yield of 84.0% was experimentally achieved, which is in well agreement with the model predictions under optimal conditions (3% H2SO4 and 1.2% H3PO4, w/v, liquid to solid ratio 3 mL/g, 130°C, and 36 min. To further increase total sugar and xylose concentrations in hydrolysate, a second step hydrolysis was performed by adding fresh EFB to the hydrolysate at 130°C for 30 min, giving a total sugar concentration of 114.4 g/L with a xylose concentration of 93.5 g/L and a xylose yield of 56.5%. To the best of our knowledge, the total sugar and xylose concentrations are the highest among those ever reported for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of lignocellulose.

  2. Exploration of a Chemo-Mechanical Technique for the Isolation of Nanofibrillated Cellulosic Fiber from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as a Reinforcing Agent in Composites Materials

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    Ireana Yusra A. Fatah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of sulphuric acid hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization as an effective chemo-mechanical process for the isolation of quality nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC. The cellulosic fiber was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB using acid hydrolysis methods and, subsequently, homogenized using a high-pressure homogenizer to produce NFC. The structural analysis and the crystallinity of the raw fiber and extracted cellulose were carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The morphology and thermal stability were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric (TGA analyses, respectively. The FTIR results showed that lignin and hemicellulose were removed effectively from the extracted cellulose nanofibrils. XRD analysis revealed that the percentage of crystallinity was increased from raw EFB to microfibrillated cellulose (MFC, but the decrease for NFC might due to a break down the hydrogen bond. The size of the NFC was determined within the 5 to 10 nm. The TGA analysis showed that the isolated NFC had high thermal stability. The finding of present study reveals that combination of sulphuric acid hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization could be an effective chemo-mechanical process to isolate cellulose nanofibers from cellulosic plant fiber for reinforced composite materials.

  3. Characteristic Drying Curve of Oil Palm Fibers

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    Ifa Puspasari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The drying of crushed oil palm fronds was studied in a fluidized bed dryer assisted with mechanical agitation at different inlet air temperature, superficial air velocity, bed loading and agitation speed. The drying kinetics of the fibers under various drying conditions could be described by a single characteristic drying curve. A combined exponential and power law model is proposed to represent the characteristic drying curve which described both the increasing rate and the falling rate periods. The proposed model is also tested for drying kinetics of oil palm empty fruit bunch from previous researcher. It was found that the characteristic curve for both oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunch fibers has similar shape and that the proposed model is acceptable for describing the complete drying characteristics of the fibers.

  4. Crude cellulase from oil palm empty fruit bunch by Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2 for fermentable sugars production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M F; Razak, M N A; Phang, L Y; Hassan, M A; Abd-Aziz, S

    2013-07-01

    Cellulase is an enzyme that converts the polymer structure of polysaccharides into fermentable sugars. The high market demand for this enzyme together with the variety of applications in the industry has brought the research on cellulase into focus. In this study, crude cellulase was produced from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) pretreated with 2% NaOH with autoclave, which was composed of 59.7% cellulose, 21.6% hemicellulose, and 12.3% lignin using Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2. Approximately 0.8 U/ml of FPase, 24.7 U/ml of CMCase and 5.0 U/ml of β-glucosidase were produced by T. asperellum UPM1 at a temperature of 35 °C and at an initial pH of 7.0. A 1.7 U/ml of FPase, 24.2 U/ml of CMCase, and 1.1 U/ml of β-glucosidase were produced by A. fumigatus UPM2 at a temperature of 45 °C and at initial pH of 6.0. The crude cellulase was best produced at 1% of substrate concentration for both T. asperellum UPM1 and A. fumigatus UPM2. The hydrolysis percentage of pretreated OPEFB using 5% of crude cellulase concentration from T. asperellum UPM1 and A. fumigatus UPM2 were 3.33% and 19.11%, with the reducing sugars concentration of 1.47 and 8.63 g/l, respectively.

  5. Enhancement of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate Biocomposites by Matrix Esterification Using Succinic Anhydride

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    Samira Siyamak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB fiber was used as a source of lignocellulosic filler to fabricate a novel type of cost effective biodegradable composite, based on the aliphatic aromatic co-polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate PBAT (EcoflexTM, as a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix. The aim of this research was to improve the new biocomposites’ performance by chemical modification using succinic anhydride (SAH as a coupling agent in the presence and absence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP and benzoyl peroxide (BPO as initiators. For the composite preparation, several blends were prepared with varying ratios of filler and matrix using the melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 (wt % and characterized. The effects of fiber loading and coupling agent loading on the thermal properties of biodegradable polymer composites were evaluated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used for morphological studies. The chemical structure of the new biocomposites was also analyzed using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy technique. The PBAT biocomposite reinforced with 40 (wt % of EFB fiber showed the best mechanical properties compared to the other PBAT/EFB fiber biocomposites. Biocomposite treatment with 4 (wt % succinic anhydride (SAH and 1 (wt % dicumyl peroxide (DCP improved both tensile and flexural strength as well as tensile and flexural modulus. The FTIR analyses proved the mechanical test results by presenting the evidence of successful esterification using SAH/DCP in the biocomposites’ spectra. The SEM micrograph of the tensile fractured surfaces showed the improvement of fiber-matrix adhesion after using SAH. The TGA results showed that chemical modification using SAH/DCP improved the thermal stability of the PBAT/EFB biocomposite.

  6. Enhancement of mechanical and thermal properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) biocomposites by matrix esterification using succinic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyamak, Samira; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Abdolmohammadi, Sanaz; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Bin Wan; Rahman, Mohamad Zaki Ab

    2012-02-16

    In this work, the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber was used as a source of lignocellulosic filler to fabricate a novel type of cost effective biodegradable composite, based on the aliphatic aromatic co-polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) PBAT (Ecoflex™), as a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix. The aim of this research was to improve the new biocomposites' performance by chemical modification using succinic anhydride (SAH) as a coupling agent in the presence and absence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiators. For the composite preparation, several blends were prepared with varying ratios of filler and matrix using the melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 (wt %) and characterized. The effects of fiber loading and coupling agent loading on the thermal properties of biodegradable polymer composites were evaluated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used for morphological studies. The chemical structure of the new biocomposites was also analyzed using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The PBAT biocomposite reinforced with 40 (wt %) of EFB fiber showed the best mechanical properties compared to the other PBAT/EFB fiber biocomposites. Biocomposite treatment with 4 (wt %) succinic anhydride (SAH) and 1 (wt %) dicumyl peroxide (DCP) improved both tensile and flexural strength as well as tensile and flexural modulus. The FTIR analyses proved the mechanical test results by presenting the evidence of successful esterification using SAH/DCP in the biocomposites' spectra. The SEM micrograph of the tensile fractured surfaces showed the improvement of fiber-matrix adhesion after using SAH. The TGA results showed that chemical modification using SAH/DCP improved the thermal stability of the PBAT/EFB biocomposite.

  7. Fractionation of oil palm empty fruit bunch by bisulfite pretreatment for the production of bioethanol and high value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Wang, Meimei; Li, Xuezhi; Li, Hongxing; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, fractionation of empty fruit bunch (EFB) by bisulfite pretreatment was studied for the production of bioethanol and high value products to achieve biorefinery of EFB. EFB was fractionated to solid and liquor components by bisulfite process. The solid components were used for bioethanol production by quasi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The liquor components were then converted to furfural by hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. Preliminary results showed that the concentration of furfural was highest at 18.8g/L with 0.75% sulfuric acid and reaction time of 25min. The conversion of xylose to furfural was 82.5%. Furthermore, we attempted to fractionate the liquor into hemicellulose sugars and lignin by different methods for producing potential chemicals, such as xylose, xylooligosaccharide, and lignosulfonate. Our research showed that the combination of bisulfite pretreatment and resin separation could effectively fractionate EFB components to produce bioethanol and other high value chemicals.

  8. OIL PALM FIBERS AS PAPERMAKING MATERIAL: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES

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    Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics of fibers from the stem, fronds, and empty fruit bunches of oil palm tree in relation to their papermaking properties. Challenges regarding the use of this nonwood material for papermaking are raised, and possible solutions to them are given. A vision for the complete utilization of oil palm biomass is also outlined.

  9. A pilot-scale study of wet torrefaction treatment for upgrading palm oil empty fruit bunches as clean solid fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusman, M. H.; Sastroredjo, P. N. E.; Prawisudha, P.; Hardianto, T.; Pasek, A. D.

    2017-05-01

    Less utilized empty fruit bunch (EFB) is seldom used as solid biofuel due to its high alkali content that potentially cause ash deposit called slagging and fouling. This phenomenon could harm biomass-fired power plant equipment. Some pre-treatment of EFB is needed to reduce EFB ash deposit potential. The effect of wet torrefaction pre-treatment in laboratory scale was successfully proven in decreasing slagging and fouling potential while increasing EFB calorific value that could fulfill clean solid fuel criteria. This research focuses on wet torrefaction process that conducted on a pilot scale with the capacity of 250 liters. It was found that wet torrefaction process can improve the product’s calorific value up to 9.41% while reduce its ash content down to 1.01% comparing to the raw EFB. The reduction of ash content also leads to the reduction of slagging and fouling tendency that presents in terms of alkali index. Alkali index is a quantitative method that can be calculated after obtaining metal oxides fraction on solid fuel. Metal oxides could be obtained by using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy.

  10. Factors Affecting Delignification of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Microwave-assisted Dilute Acid/Alkali Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Akhtar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted dilute acid/alkali pretreatment is an efficient and rapid method of removing lignin and hemicellulose, however, the optimized parameters for the maximum efficiency have to date not been presented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine those conditions by examining the effects of three factors: microwave power, temperature, and time on delignification in microwave-assisted dilute acid/alkali pretreatment. For the control condition of conventional pretreatment (CP, empty fruit bunches (EFBs were soaked in 2.5 M NaOH for two hours in the autoclave. In the experimental condition, EFB were first soaked in dilute sulfuric acid with conventional autoclave heating, which removed 90% of their hemicellulose. The acid-treated EFBs were then soaked in 2.5 M NaOH solution and microwaved at different conditions: microwave power (700 - 100 watts, time (60 - 90 min, and temperature (80 -110 °C. The amount of acid-insoluble lignin was determined by Klason method. Microwave-Alkali (Mw-A pretreatment was modeled until it attained maximum delignification. More than twice the rate of delignification that is, 71.9% was attained with microwave-assisted alkali/acid pretreatment of 900 W microwave power at 110 °C for 80 min compared to 34.6% with conventional pretreatment.

  11. Global oil palm suitability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pirker, J.; Mosnier, A

    2015-01-01

    The palm oil boom of recent years has brought about both positive - economic development - and negative impacts - deforestation, habitat losses and increased GHG emissions - in the main producer countries in South-East Asia. As global demand for palm oil is still increasing, governments of developing and emerging countries increasingly promote oil palm cultivation as a major contributor to economic development, but there are concerns about the potential negative impacts of oil palm expansion ...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH AND RICE HUSK BIOCHARS AND THEIR POTENTIAL TO ADSORB ARSENIC AND CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlina Abu Sari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochar as a new soil amendment has a potential in controlling the fate of trace elements in the soil system. However, the production of biochar from different feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions resulted in variable biochar properties which have an influence on trace elements availability. The experimental works are focused on physical and chemical properties of biochars produced from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Rice Husk (RH as heavy metals adsorbents. The morphology of EFB biochar comprise rigid structure with uniform pores size. The surface area of biochars ranged between 23.22-46.32 m2 g-1, dominated with mesopores. The chemical characterization of biochars revealed high carbon content in EFB biochar compared to RH biochar (54.08 and 7.78%. Both biochars are alkaline in nature (>pH 9 and contain substantial amounts of N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Fourier transform infra-red spectra showed the heterogenic functional groups on EFB biochar surface and domination of silica content in RH biochar. The batch experiment was employed to determine the adsorption capacity of these biochars for As and Cd. The adsorption data were fitted well in Langmuir isotherm with high correlation coefficient (R2>0.9 for As and Cd. The qmax of EFB biochar for As and Cd was higher than RH biochar. The qmax of EFB biochar was 0.4240 and 15.1515 mg g-1 for As and Cd, respectively. In contrast, the qmax of RH biochar for As and Cd was only 0.3522 and 3.1908 mg g-1. The results show that EFB biochar and RH biochar have potentials as good sorbent for As and Cd. Therefore, it can be suggested that the application of these biochars may possibly reduce the trace elements availability in the contaminated soil.

  13. The Potential of Palm Oil Waste Biomass in Indonesia in 2020 and 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, E.; Rivai, M.

    2017-05-01

    During replanting activity in oil palm plantation, biomass including palm frond and trunk are produced. In palm oil mills, during the conversion process of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) into crude palm oil (CPO), several kinds of waste including empty fruit bunch (EFB), mesocarp fiber (MF), palm kernel shell (PKS), palm kernel meal (PKM), and palm oil mills effluent (POME) are produced. The production of these wastes is abundant as oil palm plantation area, FFB production, and palm oil mills spread all over 22 provinces in Indonesia. These wastes are still economical as they can be utilized as sources of alternative fuel, fertilizer, chemical compounds, and biomaterials. Therefore, breakthrough studies need to be done in order to improve the added value of oil palm, minimize the waste, and make oil palm industry more sustainable.

  14. Palm oil and palm olein frying applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Razali

    2005-01-01

    Several million tones of palm oil and palm olein are used annually in the world for frying. This paper will discuss their frying performances in three major applications - industrial production of potato chips/crisps, industrial production of pre-fried frozen French fries and in fast food outlets. In the first study, about four tones of potato chips were continuously fried 8 hours a day and five days a week. The palm olein used (with proper management) performed well and was still in excellent condition and usable at the end of the trial. This was reflected in its low free fatty acid (FFA) content of around 0.23%, peroxide value of 4 meq/kg, anisidine value of 16, low polar and polymer contents of 10% and 2%, respectively, induction period (OSI) of 21 hours and high content of tocopehrols and tocotrienols of 530 ppm even after >1900 hours. In the second study in which an average 12 tones pre-fried frozen French fries were continuously fried a day for 5 days a week, palm oil performed excellently as reflected by its low FFA of 0.34%, food oil sensor reading of 1.1, low polar and polymer contents of 17% and 2.8%, respectively, over the 12 days of trial. In the third study in which palm shortening, palm oil and palm olein were simultaneously used to intermittently fry chicken parts in the laboratory simulating the conditions in fast food outlets, the three frying oils also performed very satisfactorily as reflected by their reasonably low FFA of 180 degrees C, and polar and polymer contents of <25% and <6%, respectively, after 5 days of consecutive frying. All the quality indicators did not exceed the maximum discard points for frying oils/fats in the three applications, while the fried food product was well accepted by the in-house train sensory panel using a-nine point hedonic score.

  15. Quality Improvement of Compost from Empty Oil Palm Fruit Bunch by the Addition of Boiler Ash and its effect on Chemical Properties of Ultisols and the Production of Mustard ( Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Productions of crude palm oil (CPO produce waste which include the empty oil palm fruit bunch (EOPFB, palm oil mill effluent, shells, and fiber. The combustions of shell and fiber as boiler feed produce waste in the form of boiler ash. Boiler ash is very potential to use as an additive to improve quality of the EOPFB compost. The objectives of this research were to study : 1 effect of boiler ash on the quality of the EOPFB compost, 2 effect of EOPFB compost on the chemical properties of Ultisol, and the yield of mustard. The first experiment was about quality improvement of compost from EOPFB by the addition of boiler ash. The treatments applied were four dose levels of boiler ash: K1= 0%, K2 = 15%, K3 = 25%, and K4 = 35%. The second experiment was greenhouse pot experiment. This experiment was consisted of thirteen treatments with three replications arranged in completely randomized design (CRD. The treatments applied were: four types of compost from the first experimental results aplied to the soil with four dose levels, i.e : 0, 10, 20 and 30 Mg ha-1. The results showed that the addition of boiler ash at the beginning of the composting process improved the quality of the EOPFB compost: which increased pH, amount of humic acids, macro and micro nutrients content and decreased content of Pb. The aplication of all compost –K1, K2, K3, K4– to Ultisol increased pH H2O, P2O5, organic-C, total-N, exchangeable-Ca, exchangeable-K and yield of mustard and decreased exchangeable-H, exchangeable-Al. Moreover the yield of mustard was increased about 84% (33.9 g plant-1 with K4 at doses 20 Mg ha-1 and 85% (34.1 g plant-1 with K3 at doses 10 Mg ha-1.

  16. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  17. Effect of physical and chemical properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch, decanter cake and sago pith residue on cellulases production by Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanirun, Zuraidah; Bahrin, Ezyana Kamal; Lai-Yee, Phang; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd-Aziz, Suraini

    2014-01-01

    The effect of cultivation condition of two locally isolated ascomycetes strains namely Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2 were compared in submerged and solid state fermentation. Physical evaluation on water absorption index, solubility index and chemical properties of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content as well as the cellulose structure on crystallinity and amorphous region of treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) (resulted in partial removal of lignin), sago pith residues (SPR) and oil palm decanter cake towards cellulases production were determined. Submerged fermentation shows significant cellulases production for both strains in all types of substrates. Crystallinity of cellulose and its chemical composition mainly holocellulose components was found to significantly affect the total cellulase synthesis in submerged fermentation as the higher crystallinity index, and holocellulose composition will increase cellulase production. Treated OPEFB apparently induced the total cellulases from T. asperellum UPM1 and A. fumigatus UPM2 with 0.66 U/mg FPase, 53.79 U/mg CMCase, 0.92 U/mg β-glucosidase and 0.67 U/mg FPase, 47.56 U/mg and 0.14 U/mg β-glucosidase, respectively. Physical properties of water absorption and solubility for OPEFB and SPR also had shown significant correlation on the cellulases production.

  18. Effect of coagulant/flocculant dosage and pH to water recovery of black liquor wastewater in bioethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunch using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhani, Dian; Winarni, Anissa; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-01-01

    Coagulation and flocculation process was used to treat black liquor wastewater from alkali pretreatment of bioethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunch. The optimization and the effect of pH, coagulant and flocculant dosage against decolorization, TSS reduction, final pH and sludge volume were investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Six combination were used, however, no combination gave good result to all four responses. Decolorization percentage of 99.69% was obtained by the combination of PAC and anionic polyacrylamide. The combination of alum and anionic polyacrylamide gave 91.12% TSS reduction. Final pH of 7.3 was resulted also from the combination of PAC and anionic polyacrylamide While, 50 ml sludge volume was generated from the combination of PAC and anionic polyacrylamide. From RSM with Central Composite Design (CCD) analysis, strong interaction between coagulant dosage and pH revealed to be the significant factor for black liquor wastewater treatment.

  19. Yield gaps in oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  20. Experimental Investigation of 2nd Generation Bioethanol Derived from Empty-fruit-bunch (EFB of Oil-palm on Performance and Exhaust Emission of SI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuandri Putrasari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigation of 2nd generation bioethanol derived from EFB of oil-palm blended with gasoline for 10, 20, 25% by volume and pure gasoline were conducted on performance and exhaust emission tests of SI engine. A four stroke, four cylinders, programmed fuel injection (PGMFI, 16 valves variable valve timing and electronic lift control (VTEC, single overhead camshaft (SOHC, and 1,497 cm3 SI engine (Honda/L15A was used in this investigation. Engine performance test was carried out for brake torque, power, and fuel consumption. The exhaust emission was analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO and hydrocarbon (HC. The engine was operated on speed range from1,500 until 4,500 rev/min with 85% throttle opening position. The results showed that the highest brake torque of bioethanol blends achieved by 10% bioethanol content at 3,000 to 4,500 rpm, the brake power was greater than pure gasoline at 3,500 to 4,500 rpm for 10% bioethanol, and bioethanol-gasoline blends of 10 and 20% resulted greater bsfc than pure gasoline at low speed from 1,500 to 3,500 rpm. The trend of CO and HC emissions tended to decrease when the engine speed increased.

  1. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  2. Economics of alternative palm oil processing technologies in Imo State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of alternative palm oil processing technologies in Imo State. ... This study was designed to analyse the costs and returns of alternative palm oil processing ... Output of Palm oil and consequently net returns would increase if palm oil ...

  3. Biodiesel production from palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiatsimkul, P.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Methyl ester was produced from many sources of oil palm products, namely used frying oil, RBD palm oil, degummed and deacidified palm oil, palm stearin and superhard palm stearin. Production process was a conventional transesterification batch process using methanol as reactant and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Production procedure consisted of oil preparation, solvent preparation, reaction step, glycerol separation, washing step and finishing step. Thin layer chromatograph was used to determine the composition of product and nearly 100% methyl ester was obtained at a suitable condition. Molar ratio of oil: methanol was about 1:6, which equal to 20% by weight of methanol. Sodium hydroxide was 0.5-1 %wt. of oil. The production temperature was 60-80ºC, mixing time was only 15-30 minutes and reaction time was 3-4 hours. Many fuel properties of methyl ester were very close to high-speed diesel such as viscosity, density, heating value and boiling point range. Pour point of methyl ester was higher than diesel owing to the high composition of saturated methyl ester that has a high melting point.

  4. Acetic acid based oil palm biomass refining process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Lips, S.J.J.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Engelen-Smit, N.P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for refining a biomass from empty fruit bunches of oil palm with a dry matter content of 5-95 wt.%, based on the total wt. of the biomass, where the process comprises the subsequent stages of (a) water extn. under atm. pressure conditions and at pH of 5-7, (b) pre

  5. Sustainability in the Malaysian palm oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Choong, CG; McKay, A

    2014-01-01

    With a rapidly growing world population, the demand for palm oil is increasing. In 2010, palm oil accounted for 36.5% of the world's vegetable oil production and it is projected to be the leading vegetable oil in the world by 2016. As the Malaysian palm oil industry is committed to delivering sustainable palm oil products to meet customer demand, this research was to enable identification and prioritisation of areas for improvement. As an example, the Roadmap of Malaysian Palm Oil Industry 20...

  6. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  7. Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

  8. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  9. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  10. Polymeric reaction between aldehyde group in furfural and phenolic derivatives from liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as phenol-furfural resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masli, M. Z.; Zakaria, S.; Chia, C. H.; Roslan, R.

    2016-11-01

    Resinification of liquefied empty fruit bunch with furfural (LEFB-Fu) was performed. During the resinification process, the samples were taken every hour up to 4 hours. FTIR analysis of the samples was conducted to understand the progress of the reaction. It showed that the bands of 1512 cm-1 and 1692 cm-1 evolving and diminishing respectively, indicating the consumption of furfural. The postulation of polymerization was also proven as the increasing extent of substitution of aromatic ring observed.

  11. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röll, A.; Niu, F.; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-10-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25-year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12-year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of 2 years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day-1 in a 2-year old to 2.5 mm day-1 in a 12-year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Comparing sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2-year old stand and 53 % in the 12-year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g., from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk

  12. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Röll

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25 year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12 year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of two years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day−1 in a 2 year old to 2.5 mm day−1 in a 12 year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Confronting sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2 year old stand and 53 % in the 12 year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g. from the soil, the ground

  13. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzherbert, E.B.; Struebig, M.J.; Morel, A.; Danielsen, F.; Brühl, C.A.; Donald, P.F.; Phalan, B.

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This article explores the impacts of oil palm expansion on biodiversity and tropical deforestation. Oil palm plantations support substantially less biodiversity than natural forest or even other tree crops. Because regions with favorable conditions for oil palm plantations tend to be areas of critical importance for biodiversity, the rising international demand for vegetable oils and biofuels could prompt further wide-scale tropical deforestation and large losses of bi...

  14. Commercially available alternatives to palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Nils

    2016-04-01

    Since several years there has been a demand for food products free of palm oil, noticeable in the Western European market. Alternatives based on liquid oils, fully hydrogenated fats, and exotic fats like shea and sal etc., have been developed by the research groups of several specialty oils and fats suppliers. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of those products and compares them to similar products based on palm oil. It is also discussed how reasonable the replacement of palm products would be, since sustainable and 3-MCPD/glycidolester-reduced palm based specialty oils are also available on the market.

  15. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  16. VISCOSITY ANALYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (EFB BIO-OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.S. Nazirah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Empty fruit bunches (EFB are one of the solid wastes produced by the palm oil industry, which is increasing rapidly. The aim of this paper is to analyse the viscosity of empty fruit bunch (EFB bio-oil that can be extracted from all solid waste EFB as a sample, and a few processes were executed. The samples underwent two processes, which were pre-treatment and pyrolysis. The pre-treatment involved three processes, namely, cutting, shredding and sieving, which were necessary in order to prepare EFB into a particle size suitable for the reactor. After that, the samples were fed into the feedback reactor as feedstock for the pyrolysis process to produce bio-oil. Once the bio-oil was produced, its viscosity was tested using the Brookfield Viscometer in two conditions: before and after the chemical reaction. The bio-oil was treated by adding 10 ml and 20 ml of acetone respectively through the chemical reaction. The viscosity test was carried out at different temperatures, which were 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C and 50°C respectively. The observed viscosity of the EFB bio-oil varied and was higher as the temperature decreased. In addition, the viscosity of the EFB bio-oil was higher when it reacted chemically with the acetone added. Therefore, the results showed that the chemical reaction with acetone has the potential to increase the viscosity of EFB bio-oil.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life c...

  18. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzherbert, Emily B; Struebig, Matthew J; Morel, Alexandra; Danielsen, Finn; Brühl, Carsten A; Donald, Paul F; Phalan, Ben

    2008-10-01

    Oil palm is one of the world's most rapidly increasing crops. We assess its contribution to tropical deforestation and review its biodiversity value. Oil palm has replaced large areas of forest in Southeast Asia, but land-cover change statistics alone do not allow an assessment of where it has driven forest clearance and where it has simply followed it. Oil palm plantations support much fewer species than do forests and often also fewer than other tree crops. Further negative impacts include habitat fragmentation and pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions. With rising demand for vegetable oils and biofuels, and strong overlap between areas suitable for oil palm and those of most importance for biodiversity, substantial biodiversity losses will only be averted if future oil palm expansion is managed to avoid deforestation.

  19. Commercially available alternatives to palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Since several years there has been a demand for food products free of palm oil, noticeable in the Western European market. Alternatives based on liquid oils, fully hydrogenated fats, and exotic fats like shea and sal etc., have been developed by the research groups of several specialty oils and fats suppliers. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of those products and compares them to similar products based on palm oil. It is also discussed how reasonable the replacement of...

  20. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  1. Cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Engelmann, Florent

    2017-08-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a tropical plant, is the leading source of edible oil. This review deals with the cryopreservation of oil palm as a way to preserve this important tropical germplasm. Somatic embryos have been the most popular source of material for cryopreservation as they are propagules that are effectively produced during micropropagation. In contrast, fewer studies exist on the cryopreservation of pollen, zygotic embryos, seeds, kernels and embryogenic cell suspensions. This review highlights the ideal protocols, in detail, in a bid to offer guidance for further advances in oil palm cryopreservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainable biogas and biomass utilization in Malaysian palm oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito (Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Yacob, Shahrakbah (Advanced Agriecological Research Sdn Bhd, Selangor (Malaysia)); Ali Hassan, M. (Dept. of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia))

    2007-07-01

    Palm oil industry in Malaysia is producing palm oil more than 12 million tones every year, while yielding more than 14 million of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and 25 million tones of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the POME treatment, huge anaerobic ponds (lagoon) are adopted, generating large amount of methane, more than 20 times global warming effect than CO{sub 2}. The objective of this research is to estimate actual methane emission from the POME treatment and to find out any possibility to utilize generated methane as an energy source under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Methane emission of 0.238 kg CH{sub 4} per kg COD removed or 12.36 kg CH{sub 4} per tone POME are obtained from actual mill operation throughout annual measurement. This indicates that more than 200,000 tones of methane, which is equivalent to 4 million tones of carbon dioxide, are estimated to be emitted from whole Malaysia. 500 tones of methane fermentor installed to palm oil mill to prevent GHG emission under the CDM. By this, lagoon system as major source of local environment pollution necessary no more, thus obtaining another 3 to 4 times large land area than mill. Our proposal is to establish novel industry utilizing biogas energy for value added material or energy conversion of excess biomass, thus enabling reduction of GHG and local environment pollution and sustainable development of local community. (orig.)

  3. Cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, J. A. T.; Engelmann, Florent

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a tropical plant, is the leading source of edible oil. This review deals with the cryopreservation of oil palm as a way to preserve this important tropical germplasm. Somatic embryos have been the most popular source of material for cryopreservation as they are propagules that are effectively produced during micropropagation. In contrast, fewer studies exist on the cryopreservation of pollen, zygotic embryos, seeds, kernels and embryogenic cell suspensions....

  4. Potential Oil Palm Industry Development in Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasdi Syahza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of Indonesia’s main commodities that play a role in the growth of the national economy. It has a considerable contribution in generating foreign exchange and employment. Development of Indonesia’s CPO processing industry and its derivatives is in line with the growth of plantation area and production of oil palm as a source of raw materials. Until 2011, Indonesia’s oil palm plantation area reached 2,103,175 ha with an FFB production of 36,809,252 tons. Meanwhile, oil palm mill (OPM processing capacity was 30,019,200 tons only. The analysis showed the regional carrying capacity (RCC was 1.584. Each FFB should be processed in less than 8 hours or RCC for OPM must be smaller than 1 (RCC, 1. Higher production of oil palm plantations in Riau is the potency to increase the OPM. The results of calculations by land development and farm productivity, Riau region is still lacking of 16 OPM units with a capacity of 60 tons / hour or identical to 21 OPM units at a capacity of 45 tons / hour. The deficiency in OPM impacts the price and income of oil palm farmers in rural areas. High demand for OPM in Riau is a business opportunity for investors to develop an OPM and industry of products derived from oil palm.

  5. A case study of pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2013-05-01

    Biomass seems to have a great potential as a source of renewable energy compared with other sources. The use of biomass as a source of energy could help to reduce the wastes and also to minimize the dependency on non-renewable energy, hence minimize environmental degradation. Among other types of biomass, oil palm wastes are the major contribution for energy production in Malaysia since Malaysia is one of the primary palm oil producers in the world. Currently, Malaysia's plantation area covers around 5 million hectares. In the oil palm mill, only 10% palm oil is produced and the other 90% is in the form of wastes such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm shells (OPS), oil palm fibre (OPFb) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). If these wastes are being used as a source of renewable energy, it is believed that it will help to increase the country's economy. Recently, the most potential and efficient thermal energy conversion technology is pyrolysis process. The objective of this paper is to review the current research on pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia. The scope of this paper is to discuss on the types of pyrolysis process and its production. At present, most of the research conducted in this country is on EFB and OPS by fast, slow and microwave-assisted pyrolysis processes for fuel applications.

  6. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  7. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia, Jundika C.; Sachin V. Jangam; Saad Akhtar; Agus P. Sasmito; Mujumdar,Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet) which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further...

  8. Boron toxicity in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaratnam, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    Potted oil palms were treated with fertilizer of borate-46 at several concentrations and the plants were observed for boron toxicity effects. Toxicity symptoms were apparent at high rates but not at rates equivalent to typical Malaysian soils.

  9. Valorization of residual Empty Palm Fruit Bunch Fibers (EPFBF) by microfluidization: production of nanofibrillated cellulose and EPFBF nanopaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ana; Filpponen, Ilari; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Laine, Janne; Rojas, Orlando J

    2012-12-01

    Different cellulose pulps were produced from sulfur-free chemical treatments of Empty Palm Fruit Bunch Fibers (EPFBF), a by-product from palm oil processing. The pulps were microfluidized for deconstruction into nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and nanopaper was manufactured by using an overpressure device. The morphological and structural features of the obtained NFCs were characterized via atomic force and scanning electron microscopies. The physical properties as well as the interactions with water of sheets from three different pulps were compared with those of nanopaper obtained from the corresponding NFC. Distinctive chemical and morphological characteristics and ensuing nanopaper properties were generated by the EPFBF fibers. The NFC grades obtained compared favorably with associated materials typically produced from bleached wood fibers. Lower water absorption, higher tensile strengths (107-137 MPa) and elastic modulus (12-18 GPa) were measured, which opens the possibility for valorization of such widely available bioresource.

  10. Present and future position of palm oil industry in Malasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Akio

    1988-04-20

    This paper introduces the present and future problems on the palm oil industry in Malaysia. The author was dispatched as an expert to the Malaysia Palm Oil Laboratory which is a governmental investigation organization. The cultivation area of oil palms were increased with the production of palm oil in 1990 - 1985. The oil mills produce average 20,000 tons/year of raw palm oil. 38 refining factories of the approved 75 factories are in work. The treatment capability of raw palm oil is 8.86 million tons/year. The palm oil is a solid vegetable oil at room temperature. For use the palm oil is fractionated into liquid palm olein, solid palm stearin, and palm oil with an intermediate melting point. About 90% of palm oil is edible. The leaves contain about 0.49% of alpha-tocopherol. The future problems to be solved lie in that the palm oil is improved to have a high liquid content, the production cost is reduced, and new uses for the palm oil are developed. (15 tabs, 37 refs)

  11. Dilute Ionic Liquids Pretreatment of Palm Empty Bunch and Its Impact to Produce Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Arianie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production through ionic liquids pretreatment of palm empty bunch (PEB was carried out. This research aims to investigate impact of ionic liquids synthetic i.e 1-butyl- 3-methyl imidazoliumbromide or [BMIM]bromide toward cellulose’s palm empty bunch and convert its cellulose into bioethanol. Ionic liquid was synthesized through reflux and microwave assisted synthesis methods. Research investigation showed that microwave assisted synthesis produce [BMIM]bromide 90% faster than reflux method. The characterization of synthesized product using FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and LC-MS showed that these reactions have been carried out successfully. Scanning electron microscope figure out changes morphological surface of palm empty bunch caused by ionic liquid pretreatment. Crystallinity index of PEB milled and cellulose of PEFB after [BMIM]bromide dissolution were identified using comparison of PEB FTIR spectrum. Cellulose without dilute [BMIM]bromide have higher LOI number than cellulose after [BMIM]bromide dissolution. It indicated that a large part of cellulose after dissolution has been changed into amorf. Hydrolysis residue of palm empty bunch hydrolyzed by sulfuric acids 5%, 100 0C for 5 hours and produce 685 ppm of reducing sugar. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation using Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyce cerevisiae for 5 days produce 0,69% of bioethanol.

  12. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibragimov Abdulla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011, to encourage more downstream investments and production of refined palm oil products. Under the revised export duty structure, crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil are cheaper for downstream activities in Indonesia. The new structure is expected to reduce Malaysia’s competitiveness in the world market as its export duty is relatively higher. A high export duty results in high price of crude palm oil which is the raw material for processed palm oil. The research questions are: (i What are the likely future trends of crude palm oil exports under the new crude palm oil export duties? Will it increase, reduce or stabilize? (ii What are the likely future trends of processed palm oil exports? Will it increase exponentially, stabilize or reduce? To answer these questions, a system dynamics model was developed for the Malaysian palm oil. Application of the system dynamics model provides a framework to understand the feedback structure and how changes in variables impact the behavior of the palm oil industry. This research suggests that with low crude palm oil export duties crude palm oil domestic price, profitability of plantation owners, immature crop, mature crop, total planted area, production and exports of crude palm oil increase, however exports of processed palm oil decrease.

  13. Alkaline Treatment of Oil Palm Frond Fibers by Using Extract of Oil Palm EFB Ash for Better Adhesion toward Polymeric Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warman Fatra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, 187 million tons of biomass were produced from 8.11 million ha of oil palm plantation in 2009. This massive amount of biomass mainly consists of oil palm fronds (OPF and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB, which are normally categorized as waste. The properties of OPF fibers compared to those of synthetic fibers, such as low density, low cost, less abrasion of equipment, and safer production, makes them an attractive reinforcement for composite materials. In this work, the utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash for OPF fiber-polyester resin composite and the effect of process conditions were studied. Water absorption, tensile and flexural strength were used to characterize the effects of alkaline treatment on modified OPF fibers in polyester resin. The investigation focused on the effect of alkaline treatment time. Treatment temperature and liquid to solid ratio were analyzed using Response Surface Method-Central Composite Design (RSM-CCD. The highest tensile strength (44.87 MPa was achieved at 12 hours soaking time, at 40°C treatment temperature and 5:1 water to ash ratio. The highest flexural strength (120.50 MPa was obtained at 1.3 hours soaking time, 4 dissolving ratio and 35°C treatment temperature. The lowest water absorption of composite (3.00% was achieved at the longest soaking time (14.7 hours, 4 dissolving ratio and 35°C treatment temperature. Variance of soaking time, dissolving ratio and temperature in the alkaline treatment process using extract of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash significantly affected the mechanical and physical properties of the oil palm frond fibers reinforced composite.

  14. European Policies towards Palm Oil - Sorting Out some Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Pehnelt, Gernot; Vietze, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of palm oil and its sustainability from different perspectives. We consider the role of palm oil within the GHG context. We discuss the impact of palm oil on biodiversity and analyse how palm oil can contribute to economic growth and development in tropical countries. Finally, based on this analysis, we assess the current concerns about and politics towards palm oil with special focus on the EU. Palm oil is a low-energy and low-fertilizer crop that offers much hig...

  15. EFFECT OF TRIMETHYLOLPROPANE TRIACRYLATE (TMPTA ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PALM FIBER EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH AND CELLULOSE FIBER BIOCOMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. KHALID

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA as a coupling agent, on the mechanical and morphological properties of the PP-cellulose (derived from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and PP-oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF biocomposites has been studied. The ratio of PP:cellulose and PP:EFBF is fixed to 70:30 (wt/wt% while the concentration of the coupling agent is varied from 2.0 to 7.0 wt%. Results reveal that at 2.0 wt% of TMPTA concentration, tensile strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and Rockwell hardness of PP-cellulose biocomposite are significantly improved. The enhancement of mechanical properties in the presence of TMPTA is believed to be attributed to crosslinking of multifunctional monomer with the hydroxyl groups of cellulose resulting in better adhesion and superior PP-cellulose biocomposite properties. However, there are no significant changes observed in the PP-EFBF biocomposite properties upon the addition of TMPTA.

  16. Characterization of Palm Oil as Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorey, Neeraj; Ghosh, Shankha; Srivastava, Priyank; Kumar, Vivek

    2017-08-01

    The various sources of energy from which mechanical energy is obtained are non-renewable and are thus considered to be unsustainable. These sources include the various fossil fuels like the petroleum, coal and the natural gas. The burning of fossil fuels led to the production of the greenhouse gases increasing the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. The adverse effects are the global warming and the ozone layer depletion. In a nation like India, where consumable oils are still transported in, it is advantageous to investigate the likelihood of utilising such non-palatable oils as a part of CI motors which are not by and by used as cooking oil. Palm oil (otherwise called dendê oil, from Portuguese) is a consumable vegetable oil got from the monocarp (ruddy mash) of the product of the oil palms. The major objective is to provide a cheap and effective alternative to diesel. This paper is an exploration of the capability of the palm oil as a practical, modest and effective hotspot for the generation of biodiesel. the paper is based on the characterisation of palm oil compare to diesel.

  17. Health promoting effects of phytonutrients found in palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, R; Selvaduray, K R; Nesaretnam, K; Radhakrishnan, A K

    2010-08-01

    The oil palm tree, Elaeis guineesis, is the source of palm oil, otherwise known as the "tropical golden oil". To date, Malaysia and Indonesia are the leading producers of palm oil. Palm oil is widely used for domestic cooking in Malaysia. Palm oil is a rich source of phytonutrients such as tocotrienols, tocopherol, carotene, phytosterols, squalene, coenzyme Q10, polyphenols, and phospholipids. Although the phytonutrients constitute only about 1% of its weight in crude palm oil, these are the main constituents through which palm oil exhibits its nutritional properties. Among the major health promoting properties shown to be associated with the various types of phytonutrients present in palm oil are anti-cancer, cardio-protection and anti-angiogenesis, cholesterol inhibition, brain development and neuro protective properties, antioxidative defence mechanisms, provitamin A activity and anti-diabetes.

  18. Factors affecting oil palm production in Ondo state of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    Regression analysis showed that only two of the variables; level of education ... were predicted to have significant relationship with the yield of oil palm. ..... Table 5: Multiple Regression analysis of factors affecting oil palm production in.

  19. development of motorized development of motorized oil palm fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Cameroon, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Malaysia and. Indonesia. Nigeria used .... of the oil palm fruits relevant to their behaviour ..... industrial raw material development as well as food security ... industry, local consumption and for export. Oil palm.

  20. A Survey on the Usage of Biomass Wastes from Palm Oil Mills on Sustainable Development of Oil Palm Plantations in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, K. Y.; Lau, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    As one of the world’s largest palm oil producers and exporters, Malaysia is committed to sustainable management of this industry to address the emerging environmental challenges. This descriptive study aims to evaluate the oil palm planters’ opinions regarding the usage of biomass wastes from palm oil mills and its impact on sustainable development of oil palm plantations in Sarawak. 253 planters across Sarawak were approached for their opinions about the usage of empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), mesocarp fibre (MF), and palm kernel shell (PKS). This study revealed that the planters had generally higher agreement on the beneficial application of EFB and POME in oil palm plantations. This could be seen from the higher means of agreement rating of 3.64 - 4.22 for EFB and POME, compared with the rating of 3.19 - 3.41 for MF and PKS in the 5-point Likert scale (with 5 being the strongest agreement). Besides, 94.7 percent of the planters’ companies were found to comply with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requirements where nearly 38 percent carried out the EIA practice twice a year. Therefore high means of agreement were correlated to the compliance of environmental regulations, recording a Likert rating of 3.89 to 4.31. Lastly, the usage of EFB and POME also gained higher Likert scale point of 3.76 to 4.17 against MF and PKS of 3.34 to 3.49 in the evaluation of the impact of sustainability in oil palm plantations. The planters agreed that the usage of EFB and POME has reduced the environmental impact and improved the sustainable development, and its application has been improved and increased by research and development. However the planters were uncertain of the impact of usage of biomass wastes with respect to the contribution to social responsibility and company image in terms of transparency in waste management.

  1. Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

    The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of o...

  2. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  3. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  4. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  5. Exploratory Study of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Muthusamy, K.; Z. Nur Azzimah

    2014-01-01

    In Malaysia, issue of environmental pollution resulting from disposal of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) which is a by-product from palm oil mill has initiated research to incorporate this waste in Oil Palm Shell (OPS) lightweight aggregate concrete production. The current study investigates the effect of palm oil fuel ash content as partial cement replacement towards compressive strength OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Several OPS lightweight aggregate concrete mixes were produced by replacing ...

  6. for palm kernel oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    OEE), ... designed (CRD) experimental approach with 4 factor levels and 2 replications was used to determine the effect of kernel .... palm kernels in either a continuous or batch mode ... are fed through the hopper; the screw conveys, crushes,.

  7. Ball milling pretreatment of oil palm biomass for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2014-08-01

    Oil palm biomass, namely empty fruit bunch and frond fiber, were pretreated using a planetary ball mill. Particle sizes and crystallinity index values of the oil palm biomass were significantly reduced with extended ball mill processing time. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by the generation of glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields from the pretreatment process compared to the amount of sugars from raw materials. Glucose and xylose contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. An increasing trend in glucose and xylose yield as well as total sugar conversion yield was observed with decreasing particle size and crystallinity index. Oil palm frond fiber exhibited the best material yields using ball milling pretreatment with generated glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields of 87.0, 81.6, and 85.4%, respectively. In contrast, oil palm empty fruit bunch afforded glucose and xylose of 70.0 and 82.3%, respectively. The results obtained in this study showed that ball mill-treated oil palm biomass is a suitable pretreatment method for high conversion of glucose and xylose.

  8. Oil palm and the emission of greenhouse gasses- from field measurements in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Niharika; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Giller, Ken E.; Magid, Jakob; van de Ven, Gerrie; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Palm oil from the oil palm (Elaeis guianensis) has in recent years become the world's most important vegetable oil. The increasing demand for palm oil has led to expansion of oil palm plantations, which has caused environmental controversies associated with carbon losses and the use of large amounts of mineral fertilizers. Efforts to increase sustainability of oil palm cultivation, include recycling of oil-mill residues and pruning's, but with this comes increased potential for methane emission from the plantations. Until now no field-based data on greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm plantations have been reported. Here for the first time we present data from a long term (360 days) field trial in Bah Lias Research Station, North Sumatra, Indonesia on greenhouse gas emissions from an oil palm plantation with various treatments of recycled oil palm waste products, fertilizers and simulated rainfall. The first experiment was conducted over a full year (dry + wet season) with mineral fertilizer treatments including urea and ammonium sulphate, and organic fertilizer treatments constituting: empty fruit bunches (EFB), enriched mulch (EFB + palm oil mill effluent (POME) ) and pruned oil palm fronds (OPF). Treatment doses represent the current management in Indonesian plantations and the higher doses that are expected in the imminent future. For the organic treatments several methods of application (applied in inter-rows, piles, patches or bands) were evaluated. The second experiment investigated effects of soil water saturation on GHG emissions through adding 25 mm simulated rainfall per day for 21 days. Each palm tree received 1 kg of N fertilizer as urea or ammonium sulphate and enriched mulch. The gas fluxes in the fields was measured by a large static-chamber (1.8 m x 1.2 m) method and CH4 and N2O concentrations were determined using gas chromatographs. We found that emissions were significantly affected by the type and dose of mineral fertilizers. Application of

  9. Ecosystem functions of oil palm plantations - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C.; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M.; Corre, Marife D.; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in the last decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. Howev-er, research on the impacts of oil palm agriculture is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview ex-ists. Here, we address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosys-tem functions in oil palm plantations. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those ...

  10. By-products of palm oil extraction and refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yew-Ai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the utilisation of by-products resulting from the extraction and refining of palm oil. It summarises research by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB directed at producing zero waste from the palm oil industry. MPOB regards by-products of the palm oil industry not as waste but resources. It will be evident that by-products from the palm oil industry can be and have been used extensively and that the research carried out is relevant to both the milling and refining sectors.

  11. Physicochemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira P. Olaniyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out on palm kernel oil (Adin and the following results were obtained: Saponification value; 280.5±56.1 mgKOH/g, acid value; 2.7±0.3 mg KOH/g, Free Fatty Acid (FFA; 1.35±0.15 KOH/g, ester value; 277.8±56.4 mgKOH/g, peroxide value; 14.3±0.8 mEq/kg; iodine value; 15.86±4.02 mgKOH/g, Specific Gravity (S.G value; 0.904, refractive index; 1.412 and inorganic materials; 1.05%. Its odour and colour were heavy burnt smell and burnt brown, respectively. These values were compared with those obtained for groundnut and coconut oils. It was found that the physico-chemical properties of palm kernel oil are comparable to those of groundnut and coconut oils except for the peroxide value (i.e., 14.3±0.8 mEq which was not detectable in groundnut and coconut oils. Also the odour of both groundnut and coconut oils were pleasant while that of the palm kernel oil was not as pleasant (i.e., heavy burnt smell.

  12. Governing the palm oil sector through finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramudya, E.P.; Hospes, O.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    By analysing the roles performed by the Indonesian state since 1945 in arranging finance schemes for palm oil development, this article aims to answer two questions: what were these different roles? And to what extent do these roles prioritise or balance economic growth, environmental protection and

  13. Simulation of oil palm growth and yield.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraalingen, van D.W.G.; Breure, C.J.; Spitters, C.J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented to simulate growth and yield formation of oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) in dependence of weather data and plant characteristics. From incoming amounts of light, light interception of the foliage and photosynthetic characteristics of individual leaflets, daily rates

  14. Simulation of oil palm growth and yield.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraalingen, van D.W.G.; Breure, C.J.; Spitters, C.J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented to simulate growth and yield formation of oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) in dependence of weather data and plant characteristics. From incoming amounts of light, light interception of the foliage and photosynthetic characteristics of individual leaflets, daily rates

  15. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  16. Sustainability of palm oil production and opportunities for Finnish technology and know-how transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panapanaan, V.; Helin, T.; Kujanpaeae, M.; Soukka, R.; Heinimoe, R.; Linnanen, L.

    2009-07-01

    The global demand for palm oil is growing, thus prompting an increase in the global production particularly in Malaysia and Indonesia. Such increasing demand for palm oil is due to palm oil's relatively cheap price and versatile advantage both in edible and non-edible applications. Along with the increasing demand for palm oil, particularly for the production of biofuel, is a heated debate on its sustainability. Ecological degradation, climate change and social issues are among the main sustainability issues pressing the whole palm oil industry today. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects fulfilling the imperatives of the Kyoto Protocol are starting to gain momentum in Malaysia as reflected by the increasing registration of CDM projects in the palm oil mills. Most CDM projects in palm oil mills are on waste-to-energy, cocomposting, and methane recovery with the latter being the most common. The study on greenhouse gases (GHG) in the milling process points that biogas collection and energy utilisation has the greatest positive effect on GHG balance. On the other hand, empty fruit bunches (EFB) end-use as energy and high energy efficiency of the mill have the least effect on GHG balance of the mill. The range of direct GHG emissions from the palm oil mill is from 2.5 to 27 gCO{sub 2}e/MJ{sub CPO}, while the range of GHG emissions with all indirect and avoided emissions included is from -9 to 29 gCO{sub 2}e/MJ{sub CPO}. Comparing this GHG balance result with that of the EU RES-Directive suggests a further check on the values and emissions consideration of the latter. (orig.)

  17. Effect of kaolin addition on ash characteristics of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) upon combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konsomboon, Supatchaya; Pipatmanomai, Suneerat [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Madhiyanon, Thanid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, 51 Cheum-Sampan Road, Nong-Chok, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Tia, Suvit [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2011-01-15

    Palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), a by-product of the palm oil industry, is being recognized as one of the most potential kinds of biomass for energy production in Thailand. However, it has been reported that, in combusting EFB in boilers, some compounds evolving from abundant alkali metals in EFB into gas-phase condense and deposit on low-temperature surfaces of heat exchange equipment, causing fouling and corrosion problems. To come up with a solution to impede the deposition, kaolin, which is abundant in kaolinite (Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}), is employed to capture the alkali metal vapours eluding from the combustion region. The experiments were designed to simulate the combustion situations that may take place when kaolin is utilized in two different approaches: premixing of kaolin with EFB prior to combustion and gas-phase reaction of volatiles from EFB with kaolin. The amounts of kaolin used were 8% and 16% by weight based on dry weight of EFB, which were equivalent to one and two times of the theoretical kaolin requirement to capture all potassium originally present in the EFB. The furnace temperatures used for EFB combustion were 700-900 C and ashes were analyzed by XRF and XRD. The results revealed that, under the kaolin premixing condition, 8% kaolin addition was sufficient to capture the potassium compounds at low temperature, i.e. 700 and 800 C. However, when the temperature was increased to 900 C, 16% kaolin addition was needed to completely capture the potassium compounds. The results from gas-phase experiments showed that kaolin can capture volatile potassium at maximum 25% at 900 C. The XRD results showed, for both experimental cases, the evidence of formation of the high melting temperature potassium-alumino-silicates, which confirmed the reaction of potassium compounds with kaolin. The study also suggests that the premixing method is better than the other because of its higher overall capture efficiency. (author)

  18. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  19. Liquefaction of empty palm fruit bunch (EPFB) in alkaline hot compressed water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Javaid; Kuang, Soo Kim; Amin, NorAishah Saidina [Chemical Reaction Engineering Group (CREG), Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering (FKKKSA), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    Effect of alkalis (NaOH, KOH and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) on liquefaction of EPFB (empty palm fruit bunch) biomass liquefaction was investigated under subcritical water conditions in a batch reactor operating at 270 C and 20 bars for a period of 20 min. Catalytic performance and suitable biomass to water ratio that supported higher EPFB conversion, liquid hydrocarbons yield and lignin degradations were screened. Analytical results indicate that maximum of 68 wt% liquids were produced along with 72.4 wt% EPFB mass conversions and 65.6 wt% lignin degradation under 1.0 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/2:10 (biomass/water) conditions. In comparison, the experiments that were performed in the absence of alkalis yielded only 30.4 wt% liquids, converted 36 wt% EPFB and degraded 24.3 wt% lignin. Furthermore, biomass to water ratios >2:10 decreased both solid mass conversion and liquid hydrocarbons' yield. The reactivity of the alkalis was in the order of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} > KOH > NaOH. The liquid compositions were dominantly phenols and esters; the highest value of phenol (60.1 wt% of liquid yield) was achieved in the case of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (1.0 M) with 5 g EPFB/25 ml water ratio while 1.0 M NaOH yielded maximum esters (86.4 wt% of liquid yield). The alkali promoted process assisted with hot water treatments seemed promising for production of bio-oils from EPFB. (author)

  20. Nutrition & health implications of palm oil in Indian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorunissa

    1995-11-01

    To boost the edible oil production and attain self-sufficiency, one of the long-term strategies undertaken by the Indian government is promotion of palm oil production through oil palm cultivation. Compared to other traditional oils (except coconut oil) used in India, palm oil and palmolein have high saturated fatty acids and low linoleic acid levels. Studies conducted to evaluate the nutritional and health implications of substituting other oils with palmolein show that despite having low linoleic acid, the use of palm oil may not adversely affect the linoleic acid status of Indian population. Substitution of groundnut oil with palmolein in cereal based lactovegetarian diets providing about 30 per cent total fat calories, doubles the saturated fatty acids and reduces by half the linoleic acid content. The effects of this substitution in volunteers from the middle income group did not raise serum cholesterol and aggregability of platelets indicating that palm oil may not produce the deleterious effects associated with saturated fatty acids. The tocols present in palm oil are natural biological antioxidants and can therefore augment the antioxidant potential of Indian diets. Red palm oil is the richest natural source of carotenes which are powerful biological antioxidants. The major carotene in red palm oil is beta-carotene. Therefore, red palm oil can be used to prevent vitamin A deficiency which is widespread in India.

  1. Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Keywords: Palm kernel shell; Mesocarp fibre; Briquette; Biomass solid fuel; proximate analysis.

  2. Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, D.; Abd Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

  3. Oil palm mapping for Malaysia using PALSAR-2 dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, P.; Qi, C. Y.; Yu, L.; Cracknell, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is one of the most productive vegetable oil crops in the world. The main oil palm producing areas are distributed in humid tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, western and central Africa, northern South America, and central America. Increasing market demands, high yields and low production costs of palm oil are the primary factors driving large-scale commercial cultivation of oil palm, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Global demand for palm oil has grown exponentially during the last 50 years, and the expansion of oil palm plantations is linked directly to the deforestation of natural forests. Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring expansion of oil palm. However, optical remote sensing images are difficult to acquire in the Tropics because of the frequent occurrence of thick cloud cover. This problem has led to the use of data obtained by synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is a sensor capable of all-day/all-weather observation for studies in the Tropics. In this study, the ALOS-2 (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR-2 (Phased Array type L-band SAR) datasets for year 2015 were used as an input to a support vector machine (SVM) based machine learning algorithm. Oil palm/non-oil palm samples were collected using a hexagonal equal-area sampling design. High-resolution images in Google Earth and PALSAR-2 imagery were used in human photo-interpretation to separate oil palm from others (i.e. cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, water, hard surface and bareland). The characteristics of oil palms from various aspects, including PALSAR-2 backscattering coefficients (HH, HV), terrain and climate by using this sample set were further explored to post-process the SVM output. The average accuracy of oil palm type is better than 80% in the final oil palm map for Malaysia.

  4. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions.

  5. Rigid polyurethane/oil palm fibre biocomposite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alis, Adilah; Majid, Rohah A.; Nasir, Izzah Athirah Ahmad; Mustaffa, Nor Syatika; Hassan, Wan Hasamuddin Wan

    2017-07-01

    Rigid polyurethane (PU) biocomposite foam had been successfully prepared by reacting palm oil-derived polyol (PO-p) with polymeric 4, 4-diphenylmethane diisocynate (p-MDI). Two types of alkali-treated oil palm fibres namely, empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm pressed fibre (PPF) were used as fillers to be incorporated into PU foam at 2.5 wt%, 5 wt% and 7.5 wt% fibre loadings. The effects of these fibres on surface morphology, compressive strength and thermal transition behaviours of biocomposite foams were investigated. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis confirmed the formation of urethane linkages (-NHCOO) in all samples at 1530-1540 cm-1. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed the average melting peak temperature (Tm) of biocomposite foams (132°C) were lower Tm than that of pure PU foam (161.67°C) and the increase amount of fibres did not give significant effect on the Tm of both biocomposite systems. Meanwhile, the microscopic images of PU-PPF foams exhibited smaller and uniform cell size morphologies compared with the PU-EFB foams that had coarse and irregular cell sizes, especially at 7.5wt% EFB. These findings were manifested with the gradually increase of compressive strength of PU-PPF at all PPF ratios while for PU-EFB system, the compressive strength increased up to 5 wt% before reduced at 7.5 wt% loading. It was thought due to the residual oil in PPF fibre had plasticized the PU matrix to a little extent, thus helping the dispersion of PPF fibre across the matrix.

  6. Palm oil and the heart:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osaretin; J; Odia; Sandra; Ofori; Omosivie; Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a Pub Med, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in

  7. Oil palm deserves government attention in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, José R.; Goldemberg, José

    2015-07-01

    Englund et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 044002) have recently analyzed biodiesel production from oil palm plantations as one possible way to mitigate climate change while providing cost effective results. They show that data for detailed quantification of biological carbon sequestration is available allowing a high confidence evaluation of positive impacts when oil palm plantation for food and biodiesel production is carried out in degraded, cultivated soil, and also with some varieties of natural vegetation in the Amazon. Nevertheless, economic risk associated with the future price of fossil fuels and uncertainties related with carbon subsidy are barriers. Here we discuss the assumptions under which such controversial proposal is based and suggest further analysis for Brazilian decision makers.

  8. Modulation of human lipids and lipoproteins by dietary palm oil and palm olein: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, K

    1997-03-01

    Several human clinical trials have now evaluated palm oil's effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins. These studies suggest that palm oil and palm olein diets do not raise plasma TC and LDL-cholesterol levels to the extent expected from its fatty acid composition. With maximum substitution of palm oil in a Western type diet some coronary heart disease risk factors were beneficially modulated: HDL2-cholesterol was significantly increased while the apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio was beneficially lowered by palm oil. Comparison of palm olein with a variety of monounsaturated edible oils including rapeseed, canola, and olive oils has shown that plasma and LDL-cholesterol were not elevated by palm olein. To focus these findings, specific fatty acid effects have been evaluated. Myristic acid may be the most potent cholesterol raising saturated fatty acid. Palmitic acid effects were largely comparable to the monounsaturated oleic acid in normolipidaemic subjects while trans fatty acids detrimentally increased plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein Lp(a) and lowered the beneficial HDL-cholesterol. Apart from these fatty acids there is evidence that the tocotrienols in palm oil products may have a hypocholesterolaemic effect. This is mediated by the ability of the tocotrienols to suppress HMG-CoA reductase. These new findings on palm oil merit a scientific reexamination of the classical saturated fat-lipid hypothesis and its role in lipoprotein regulation.

  9. PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Chiew Wei Puah; Yuen May Choo; Soon Hock Ong

    2013-01-01

    The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of...

  10. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained.

  11. Feasibility study of gasification of oil palm fronds

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, S. A.; S. Balamohan; M.N.Z. Moni; S.M. Atnaw; Mohamed, A O

    2015-01-01

    Considering the large and consistent supply, oil palm fronds could be a promising source of biomass energy through gasification. There is very scarce information on the characteristics of oil palm fronds, which is vital in deciding if such biomass is technically suitable for gasification. In the present work, the feasibility of oil palm fronds for biomass gasification is studied. The study is conducted experimentally via standard tests to determine their thermochemical characteristics. Ultim...

  12. Oil palm genetic improvement and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochard Benoît

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of the oil palm may have a role to play in the sustainability of this crop. Given the criticism aimed at this commodity chain, notably due to the extension of oil palm plantations to the detriment of forests, providing very high-yielding planting material might be a solution, particularly as world demand is continually increasing. This crop is mostly managed by agroindustrialists, but the smallholder sector is developing. It happens that this sector is classed as a sustainable type of agriculture by numerous NGOs, which are also asking plant breeders to take the specificities of smallholdings into consideration. Oil palm genetic improvement takes numerous criteria into account, many of which fit in with sustainable agriculture. For example, this crop is subject to pressure from different pests and diseases. In each case, a genetic hence eco-friendly approach has been taken and, in particular, vascular wilttolerant planting material has been a successfully produced. Moreover, for the future of this crop, planting material needs to be developed that requires fewer inputs, and consideration has to be given to extending this crop in less favourable zones, by developing planting material that consumes less water. Lastly, it is important to disseminate genetically diversified planting material.

  13. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  14. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  15. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson eBarcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfil the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step towards this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  16. Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments...... on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas energy...... extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production...

  17. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; de Almeida, Arlete Silva; Vieira, Ima C G

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  18. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  19. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011...

  20. BIODIESEL FUELS FROM PALM OIL, PALM OIL METHYLESTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    energy source is renewable, it could reduce the risk of unavailability of fossil diesel and could to a large extent reduce pollution effects resulting from their wastes. ... engine and decline in diesel supply, there is need to produce vegetable oils ...

  1. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.

  2. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ajiboye, John A.; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A.; Nwachukwu, Viola A.; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O.; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p 

  3. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including p...

  4. Material-mass Balance of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah I. Ohimain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the material-mass balance of smallholder oil palm processing in Niger Delta Nigeria. Ten smallholder oil palm processing mills were randomly sampled. Measuring scale was used to measure the weight of the Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB and all the processing intermediates/products including Threshed Fresh Fruit (TFF, Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB, Crude Palm Oil (CPO, chaff and nut. During the study period (13-22 April 2012, 8 of the mills processed 90-400 bunches of Dura variety, while the remaining 2 mills processed 65-200 bunches of Tenera variety. During the batch processing of Dura variety, the proportion of the intermediate products computed in relation to the weight of the FFB (100% are as follows; TFF (66.0-75.0%, mesocarp (44.8-51.1%, nuts (19.0-27.5%, kernel (5.7-7.2%, water in mesocarp (9.0-12.1% and water in nut (2.4-3.4%, EFB (23.7-32.4%, chaff (0.8-2.4%, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS (10.0-18.8%, Palm Press Fibre (PPF (23.2-28.1% and Crude Palm Oil (CPO (9.4-12.8%. For the Tenera varieties, the compositions are as follows; TFF (70.9-72.9%, mesocarp (56.4-58.0%, nuts (14.5-14.9%, kernel (5.5-5.6%, water in mesocarp (10.1-10.4% and water in the nut (1.9-2.1%, EFB (25.7-28.2%, chaff (0.9-1.4%, PKS (6.8-7.5%, (19.1-20.3% and CPO (26.0-28.2%. This result shows that Tenera produces more oil and less wastes compared to the Dura variety. The solid wastes fractions are used as energy sources during the processing of oil palm and as filling materials for upgrading access roads to palm plantations. Except the huge volume of wastes (71.8-90.6% generated by smallholder oil palm processors is effectively utilized, the process will be unsustainable.

  5. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products.

  6. Minimizing the biodiversity impact of Neotropical oil palm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Prescott, Graham W; Cardenas, Johann S; Castañeda, Pamela González del Pliego; Sánchez, Andrés; Rojas-Murcia, Luis E; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm agriculture is rapidly expanding in the Neotropics, at the expense of a range of natural and seminatural habitats. A key question is how this expansion should be managed to reduce negative impacts on biodiversity. Focusing on the Llanos of Colombia, a mixed grassland-forest system identified as a priority zone for future oil palm development, we survey communities of ants, dung beetles, birds and herpetofauna occurring in oil palm plantations and the other principal form of agriculture in the region--improved cattle pasture--together with those of surrounding natural forests. We show that oil palm plantations have similar or higher species richness across all four taxonomic groups than improved pasture. For dung beetles, species richness in oil palm was equal to that of forest, whereas the other three taxa had highest species richness in forests. Hierarchical modelling of species occupancy probabilities indicated that oil palm plantations supported a higher proportion of species characteristic of forests than did cattle pastures. Across the bird community, occupancy probabilities within oil palm were positively influenced by increasing forest cover in a surrounding 250 m radius, whereas surrounding forest cover did not strongly influence the occurrence of other taxonomic groups in oil palm. Overall, our results suggest that the conversion of existing improved pastures to oil palm has limited negative impacts on biodiversity. As such, existing cattle pastures of the Colombian Llanos could offer a key opportunity to meet governmental targets for oil palm development without incurring significant biodiversity costs. Our results also highlight the value of preserving remnant forests within these agricultural landscapes, protecting high biodiversity and exporting avian 'spill-over' effects into oil palm plantations.

  7. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-12-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber.

  8. Fungal degradation of oil palm cellulosic wastes after radiation pasteurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Mat Rasol Awang; Fajah Bt Ali

    1990-10-01

    The fungal degradation ability was appreciated for upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes. In this work, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm press Fiber (PPF) were fermented in an attempt to upgrade to animal feed. However, the heavy contamination of microorganisms in EFB and PPF was observed, and they consist of largely spore forming bacteria and toxigenic moulds of Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus and etc. Therefore, pasteurisation was necessary to be carried out before fermentation, and gamma-irradiation of ca. 10 kGy was employed. Solid-state culture media from EFB and PPF for cultivation of cellulolytic fungi were prepared by addition of some inorganic salts as nitrogen source. The degradation of crude fibre by Coprinus cinereus, Pleurotus species, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, and T. viride was obtained in the range between 18 to 76 % after 18 to 20 days cultivation on non-alkali treated cellulosic wastes. C. cinereus could degradate crude fiber more than 50 %, and which resulted in reduction of crude fibre content to 20{approx}28 % and giving to 10-13 % crude protein content. Release of reducing sugars was obtained as 40 to 145 mg glucose/g after saccharification of precultivated alkali-treated EFB by C. cinereus, A. niger, T. knoningi and T. viride. (author).

  9. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenario

  10. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored

  11. Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution Raw Materials For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Nasrin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB, in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE and sawdust were densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw extrusion technology. The briquettes were analysed to determine its physical and chemical properties, mechanical strength and burning characteristics. It was found that briquettes made either from 100% pulverized EFB or mixed with sawdust exhibited good burning properties. EFB fibre and PKE, due to their physical properties, were recommended to be blended with sawdust in producing quality briquettes. In overall, converting palm biomass into briquettes has increased its energy content and reduced moisture content about minimum of 5% and 38% respectively compared to its raw materials. The properties of palm biomass briquettes obtained from the study were compared to the commercial sawdust briquettes properties and to the minimum requirements of DIN 51731. The details of the study were highlighted in this paper. Palm biomass briquettes can become an important renewable energy fuel source in the future.

  12. Transesterification of Palm Oil for the Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalizani Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil is known as an important source of edible oil with significant values of renewable energy. Depletion of petroleum had captured much attention on producing biodiesel from the palm oil. Approach: The most concerning methods for the production of biodiesel were discussed, namely transesterification (alkali and acid, enzymetic approach and supercritical alcohol. Results: The results showed the vis-a-vis of the methods for possible consideration of research. Conclusion: Concerning the importance of this vegetable oil, the contribution of palm oil towards diminution of fossil fuel, possible methods for the production of biodiesel and the opportunity for the futures is very much important.

  13. Improving environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production in 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit; Hein, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil production has increased in Thailand with considerable environmental impacts. The aim of this study is to analyse possibilities to examine how the environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production can be improved in the coming decades. To this end, we integrated a sectoral and a l

  14. Functional palm oil-based margarine by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    Palm stearin, palm kernel and fish oils were blended to a various composition ratios and enzymatically interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM lipase (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor. The ratio of the oils ranged from 60-90%, 10-40% and 0-10% respectively. The enzyme was a...

  15. Cogeneration potential in the Columbian palm oil industry: Three case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, F.N.; Lora, E. [Federal University of Itajuba/Excellence Group in Thermal and Distributed Generation, Itajuba-MG (Brazil); Yanez, E. [CENIPALMA (Colombia); Castillo, E. [UIS, (Colombia); Arrieta, F.R.P.

    2007-07-15

    The palm oil mills are characterized by the availability of considerable amounts of by-products of high-energy value such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), fibers, shells and liquid effluents with high content of organics called palm oil mill effluent (POME). A palm oil mill produces residues equivalent to almost three times the amount of oil produced by biomass, showing a huge potential for increasing the power efficiency of the plants and installed power, mainly by the use of by-products in cogeneration plants with high steam parameters and by reducing steam consumption in process. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the study about the cogeneration potential for three representative palm oil mills located in two important palm oil producing regions in Colombia (South-America), fifth palm oil producers of the world. The sizing of the cogeneration system was made assuming it operation during the greatest possible number of hours throughout the year (based on the seasonal availability of fruit) considering parameters for the steam at 2 MPa and 350 C, using a condensing-extraction turbine. The balance of mass and energy was made by using the Gate Cycle Enter Software, version 5.51, to estimate the potential of electricity generation. The results showed that for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processing capacities between 18 and 60 t FFB h{sup -1}, it is possible to have surplus power ranging between 1 and 7 MW, if the plants are self-sufficient in electric energy and steam for process. With an average Capacity Factor (approximately 0.4), it is possible to expect a generation index of 75 and 160 kWh t{sup -1} FFB when the processing plant is operating or shutdown, respectively, 3 or 4 times better than when a traditional system with a back-pressure steam turbines is used. This analysis used up to 60% of EFB produced in plant as fuel, considering its value as fertilizer for the palm crop. Several economic conditions were considered to estimate the economic

  16. Recycled palm oil spoilage: Correlation between physicochemical properties and oleophilicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Ili Afiqa Ab; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Jurid, Lailatul Syema

    2016-11-01

    Palm oil is widely used for domestic and commercial frying due to its techno-economic advantages as compared to other vegetable oils. However, if the oil is used beyond its recommended usage cycle, it might lead to oil spoilage. Therefore this study focuses on the comprehensive analysis of chemical and physical properties of recycled palm oil. Recycled palm oil was prepared by frying potato strips up to 4 batches; 5 cycles for each batch) was carried out with potato (g)-to-oil (ml) ratio of 3/20 prior to physico-chemical analysis (moisture content, color measurement, viscosity, density and iodine value. From 5 tests used to indicate physico-chemical properties of recycled palm oil, only color measurement, viscosity and IV shows results accordingly to theories. Whereas moisture content and density were not comply to theories. With increasing frying times, recycled palm oil color has been darker due to chemical reaction that occurs during frying. The trend line illustrates that with increasing frying times, recycled palm oil lightness decreases. It also means that its color has been darker. Meanwhile, b* rate increase indicating that recycled palm oil show tendency towards green color. Whereas, a* rate decreased, showing low tendency towards red color. Viscosity and moisture content increase with frying cycle. This situation occurred might be due to formation of hydrolysis products which are volatile while frying process. But the remaining non-volatile compounds among the hydrolysis products might also accumulate in palm oil and thus affect the total oil/fat chemical changes. Meanwhile the density of palm oil was quite constant at 0.15 g/cm3 except for cycle 2 with 0.17 g/cm3. The result obtained from this experiment were comply with previous study that stated frying batch number is a significant variable (a = 0.05) affecting the density of oil only after 20 frying batch. The contact angle of recycled palm oil on PHBV thin film was more than 90 °. Hence it shows

  17. Collective action in a smallholder oil palm production system in Indonesia: The key to sustainable and inclusive smallholder palm oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Idsert; Slingerland, Maja; Giller, Ken E.; Bijman, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Indonesian smallholder oil palm generally yield much less than corporate plantations. We analysed a smallholder oil palm production system in West Sumatra which outperformed its nucleus estate plantation, consistently producing yields far above the national average for over 25 years. Its

  18. The Usage of BIOM3G-Biofertilizer to Improve and Support Sustainability of Land System of Independent Oil Palm Smallholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Adiprasetyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is one of the key success factors for managing independent smallholder oil palm plantation sustainably.  To improve soil fertility, the smallholder oil palm farmers depend highly on the chemical fertilizer which emits greenhouse gases N2O and are fragile to chemical fertilizer shortage. This dependency to chemical fertilizer and increased price of chemical fertilizer may cause some independent smallholder plantations are neglected and fruitless due to late nor absence of fertilizers.  In the country with plentiful of oil palm plantations, biomass of oil palm empty fruit bunch should be considered as a sustainable source of organic fertilizers.  This research examined the effect of dosage of composted oil palm empty fruit bunch enriched with multi functions multi microbial biofertilizer implanted within the soil below canopy edges of oil palm plants towards the growth and yield of oil palm plants. The treatments consisted of 3.5, 7.0, and 10.5 ton biofertilizer/ha and standard chemical fertilizer treatment as control. Each treatment was applied on ten plants. The results of this study showed that the biofertilizer application at 10.5 ton/ha improved the quality of soil better than other treatment of biofertilizer and standard chemical fertilizer.  The production yield of fresh fruit brunches of 10.5 ton biofertilizer/ha treatment was 31.5 ton/hectare/year. If the oil palm production is compared to farmer’s practice that produces 24 ton/hectare/year, these research results may promote better organic wastes management of oil palm plantation to better nourish the plants and improve sustainability of oil palm land system.

  19. Sequential acid-/alkali-pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

    2012-04-01

    Pretreatment processes are key technologies for generating fermentable sugars based on lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we developed a novel method for empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) using sequential pretreatment with dilute acid and then alkali. Dilute sulfuric acid was used in the first step, which removed 90% of the hemicellulose and 32% of the lignin, but left most of the cellulose under the optimum pretreatment condition. Sodium hydroxide was then applied in the second step, which extracted lignin effectively with a 70% delignification yield, partially disrupting the ordered fibrils of the EPFBF and thus enhancing the enzyme digestibility of the cellulose. The sequentially pretreated biomass consisted of 82% cellulose, less than 1% hemicellulose, and 30% lignin content afterward. The pretreated biomasses morphologically revealed rough, porous, and irregularly ordered surfaces for enhancing enzyme digestibility. These results indicate that the sequentially acid/alkali-pretreated EPFBF could be broadly useful as a novel biomass.

  20. Pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch for production of chemicals via catalytic pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misson, Mailin; Haron, Roslindawati; Kamaroddin, Mohd Fadhzir Ahmad; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina

    2009-06-01

    The effect of chemical pretreatments using NaOH, H(2)O(2), and Ca(OH)(2) on Empty Palm Fruit Bunches (EPFB) to degrade EPFB lignin before pyrolysis was investigated. Spectrophotometer analysis proved consecutive addition of NaOH and H(2)O(2) decomposed almost 100% of EPFB lignin compared to 44% for the Ca(OH)(2), H(2)O(2) system while NaOH and Ca(OH)(2) used exclusively could not alter lignin much. Next, the pretreated EPFB was catalytically pyrolyzed. Experimental results indicated the phenolic yields over Al-MCM-41 and HZSM-5 catalysts were 90 wt% and 80 wt%, respectively compared to 67 wt% yield for the untreated sample under the same set of conditions. Meanwhile, the experiments with HY zeolite yielded 70 wt% phenols.

  1. KARAKTERISTIK MINYAK CAMPURAN RED PALM OIL DENGAN PALM KERNEL OLEIN (Characteristics of Oil Blends from Red Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of oil blends has been produced from red palm oil (RPO and palm kernel olein (PKOo with seven ratios with a total of 100, namely A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 and G (100:0 v/v investigated with randomized complete block design. The result showed that different of ratio levels RPO and PKOo have some effects on peroxide value, saponification value, melting point, cloud point and β-carotene content from RPO-PKOo oil blends, but has not effect on free fatty acid content. Higher level of PKOo content on formulas oil blends were decreased of saponification value and melting point, but was increased of cloud point. The best of RPOPKOo oil blends has been obtained at ratio 50:50 (v/v, with 459.52 ppm β-carotene, 1.35 meq/kg peroxide value, 0.09 % free fatty acid, 202.60 saponification value, 24.15 oC melting point and 7.15 oC cloud point. Fatty acids composition were 1.24 % capric acid, 29.00 % lauric acid, 10.09 % miristic acid, 23.10 % palmitic acid, 5.84 linoleic acid, 27.30 % oleic acid and 3.43 % stearic acid. Keywords: Red palm oil, palm kernel olein, oil blends, chemical and physical properties ABSTRAK Sifat-sifat minyak campuran yang dihasilkan dari red palm oil (RPO dan palm kernel olein (PKOo dengan tujuh tingkat rasio yang totalnya 100, yaitu A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 dan G (100:0 (v/v dikaji menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap kelompok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio RPO:PKOo mempengaruhi angka peroksida, angka penyabunan, melting point, cloud point dan kadar β-karoten dari minyak campuran RPO-PKOo yang dihasilkan, namun tidak mempengaruhi kadar asam lemak bebas. Peningkatan jumlah PKOo yang ditambahkan dalam minyak campuran RPO-PKOo, akan menurunkan angka penyabunan dan melting point, namun akan menaikkan cloud point. Produk minyak campuran RPO-PKOo terbaik diperoleh pada rasio 50:50 (v/v, dengan kadar β-karoten 459,52 ppm, angka peroksida 1,35 meq

  2. Molecular defense response of oil palm to Ganoderma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C-L; Tan, Y-C

    2015-06-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed.

  3. Study on Fired Clay Bricks by Replacing Clay with Palm Oil Waste: Effects on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Perju, M. C.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil is one of the major agricultural industries in Malaysia. Due to the poor management system, the discarded palm oil waste has always been linked to the environment issues. During processing of palm oil, a considerable amount of solid waste by-products in the form of fibres, shells, empty fruit bunches and fly ashes are produce rapidly. Therefore, this study was conducted to incorporate 1%, 5% and 10% of palm oil waste into fired clay brick. Samples of brick were fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. Manufactured bricks were tested with physical and mechanical properties including firing shrinkage, dry density, water absorption and compressive strength. The results demonstrated that the replacement of 1% up to 5% of palm oil waste had improved several properties, although, a decrease of performance in certain aspects has also been observed. As a result, palm oil waste can be utilized in an environmentally safe way into fired clay brick thus providing adequate properties of fired clay brick.

  4. Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle; Preece, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The global thirst for vegetable oil can be regarded as one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st Century and interest has intensified with the prospect of biofuels. Palm oil has risen to become the dominant player on the vegetable oil market – and the main recipient of environmental...... scrutiny. Focusing specifically on the Malaysian context, this paper analyses the major environmental, social and economic impacts associated with palm oil production. Drawing on recently published research, publicly available data and a comparison made with a recent sustainability initiative undertaken...... by the hydropower industry – an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector – it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative and one...

  5. Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2012-01-01

    on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas energy......This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments...

  6. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ermy Teti; Sakti Hutabarat; Asriati Nofionna

    2011-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  7. Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available By-product produced from plantation and palm oil mill can be utilized for energy and protein source of ruminant feed. Thus, it still has potency for further exploration. The objective of the research was to investigate the nutrient value of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product used to formulate ruminant feed. The research located in 66,118.5 ha of palm oil plantation in Paser regency, East Kalimantan province. The research was carried out in palm oil plantation and mill of PTPN XIII comprising productive plants (TM in +14,000 ha arranged in 9 divisions (afdeling. Measured variables consisted of: 1 dry mass production (mass of midrib every cutting and frond (kg;                        2 Centrosema sp mass production (kg; 3 mass of empty fruit bunches (kg; palm pressed fiber (PPF (kg, palm kernel cake (PKC (kg dan palm oil sludge (POS (kg; 4 nutrient content analyzed under proximate analysis in accordance with the procedure of Ruminant Feed Nutrient Laboratory, Faculty of Livestock, Diponegoro University. The result showed that total dry matter (DM production was 14.82 ton/ha/year, consisting: midrib 29.09% (crude protein (CP 3.16% and crude fiber (CF 37.85%, frond 10.31% (CP 6.53% dan CF 30.39%, Centrosema sp. 2.48% (CP 22.58% and CF 35.12, EFB 24.31% (CP 7.01% and CF 40.22%, PPF 1.23% (CP 5.56% and CF 50.36%, PKC 1.29% (CP 15.49% and CF10.45 and POS 1.20% (CP 17.86% and CF 45.99%. This could be concluded that palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product was recommended for ruminant feed as it had huge amount and appropriate nutrient contentDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60 [How to cite this article: Mayulu, H., Sunarso, C. I. Sutrisno, Sumarsono, M. Christiyanto, K. Isharyudono. (2013.  Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan, 5(2,56-60. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60

  8. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value.

  9. Nutritional imbalance in smallholder oil palm plantations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, L.S.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an exceptionally efficient producer of vegetable oil. Its potential production is estimated to
    be well over 10 tons of oil per hectare per year, at least three times more than the second most efficient vegetable oil producer,
    canola. The cultivation of

  10. The hidden carbon liability of Indonesian palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    This report highlights the urgent need for global palm oil consumers and investors to support Unilever's call for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance in Indonesia. This report focuses on Unilever, which shares major institutional investors with other leading corporations including Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft. Not only do these corporations share investors, they also share growing carbon liability within their raw material supply chains through the expansion in the palm oil sector in Indonesia. Unilever has recognised the global problems associated with palm oil expansion and the need for drastic reform to this sector. Unilever has taken a bold move in calling for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance. While Unilever's position is strengthened by its status as the largest palm oil consumer in the world, this report shows how, unless companies like Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft support its call for a halt to deforestation, the palm oil industry will continue to present a massive carbon liability over the coming years. This report uses Unilever's palm oil supply chains as a case study to help quantify the carbon liability and collateral risks associated with the Indonesian palm oil sector. It shows how, by buying palm oil from suppliers who account for more than one-third of Indonesia's palm oil production, Unilever and its competitors are increasing their potential carbon liability and thus leaving investors exposed to potentially significant levels of hidden risk, compromising long-term financial and brand stability.

  11. Fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell (OPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is an important renewable source of energy. Residues that are obtained from harvesting and agricultural products can be utilised as fuel for energy generation by conducting any thermal energy conversion technology. The conversion of biomass to bio oil is one of the prospective alternative energy resources. Therefore, in this study fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell was conducted. The main objective of this study was to find the optimum condition for high yield bio-oil production. The experiment was conducted using fixed-bed fluidizing pyrolysis system. The biomass sample was pyrolysed at variation temperature of 450°C - 650°C and at variation residence time of 0.9s - 1.35s. The results obtained were further discussed in this paper. The basic characteristic of the biomass sample was also presented here. The experiment shows that the optimum bio-oil yield was obtained at temperature of 500°C at residence time 1.15s.

  12. Chemical, structural and combustion characteristics of carbonaceous products obtained by hydrothermal carbonization of palm empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshetti, Ganesh K; Kent Hoekman, S; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2013-05-01

    A carbon-rich solid product, denoted as hydrochar, was synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB), at different pre-treatment temperatures of 150, 250 and 350 °C. The conversion of the raw biomass to its hydrochar occurred via dehydration and decarboxylation processes. The hydrochar produced at 350 °C had the maximum energy-density (>27 MJ kg(-1)) with 68.52% of raw EFB energy retained in the char. To gain a detailed insight into the chemical and structural properties, carbonaceous hydrochar materials were characterized by FE-SEM, FT-IR, XRD and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. This work also investigated the influence of hydrothermally treated hydrochars on the co-combustion characteristics of low rank Indonesian coal. Conventional thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) parameters, kinetics and activation energy of different hydrochar and coal blends were estimated. Our results show that solid hydrochars improve the combustion of low rank coals for energy generation.

  13. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine L.Y. Man

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm kernel cake, oleo-chemicals and finished products, equivalent to RM 49.59 billion of export revenue. However, cost of production for Crude Palm Oil (CPO varies in a big gap. Therefore, it is essential to identify the major cost influencing factors in the production of CPO. Approach: The study system started with collection of Fresh Fruits Bunches (FFB from oil palm plantation to the production of CPO at palm oil mills. Two palm oil mills of different production capacity were chosen for this study. Statistical analysis was done to identify the major cost influencing factors of production cost for CPO. Results: The production cost of CPO for small scale palm oil mills preferably lied between RM 45 to RM 50 per metric tons while large scale palm oil mills lied below RM 45 per metric tons. Conclusion: Palm oil mills with higher production capacity were efficient in producing CPO than lower production capacity palm oil mills. Thus, the production cost of CPO was lower compared to that of small scale palm oil mills.

  14. Utilization of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Binder in Lightweight Oil Palm Shell Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Yong Jing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally fly ash (FA has been used to replace cement as binder in the geopolymer concrete. The utilization of palm oil industrial waste materials known as palm oil fuel ash (POFA and oil palm shell (OPS that are abundantly available in South East Asia as binder and coarse aggregate in geopolymer concrete would give an added advantage in both the environmental and economic aspects. The mechanical properties of the OPS geopolymer concrete (OPSGC through the use of POFA, FA, and OPS are investigated and reported. A total of ten OPSGC mixtures were prepared with varying percentages of POFA and FA such as 0, 10, 20, 40, and 100%. The specimens prepared with two alkaline solution to binder (AK/B ratios of 0.35 and 0.55 were oven cured at 65°C for 48 hours. The experimental results showed that the highest compressive strength of 30 MPa was obtained for the mix with 20% replacement of FA by POFA and AK/B ratio of 0.55, which underwent oven curing. Further, the mix of up to 20% POFA (with AK/B ratio of 0.55 can be categorized as structural lightweight concrete. An increase of the POFA content beyond 20% decreases the mechanical properties, and hence this mix is recommended to be used.

  15. Palm oil boom in Indonesia: from plantation to downstream products and biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosa, Sri J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-06-15

    Indonesia has been the biggest producer of palm oil (PO) in the world since 2005. The total production in 2007 was 17.0 and 1.9 million tons of crude palm oil (CPO) and crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), respectively. More than 70% of the CPO was exported and 87% of the domestic consumption was used for food. The production and subsequent refining and fractionation of CPO and CPKO generated biomass by-products that consists of trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fiber, shell, and palm kernel meal (PKM), and discharged wastes of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as well as palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). The amount of by-products and wastes produced has been growing very rapidly and efforts to diversify and improve their utilization are a great challenge. As claimed in many research reports, the by-products and wastes could be potentially utilized as sources of energy, animal feed, chemicals, paper pulp, advanced materials, medicines and food ingredients. A more important role may be played by PO as the Indonesian Government took further steps in 2006 to become the world's largest producer of biodiesel. As a starting point, Presidential Instruction No. 1/2006 for the Production and Use of Biofuel as Alternative Fuel was issued in January 2006. Responding to this Presidential Instruction, at least 15 companies are planning to establish new larger biodiesel refineries to enhance the currently produced 82.5 million L of biodiesel. It is planned to start production in 2008/2009 with two new refineries that have a total capacity of ca. 1,600 million L/year. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiew Wei Puah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG such as methane and carbon dioxide emissions by avoiding the formation of liquid biomass in the form of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. The attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA shows the improved milling process contributes to significant reduction of GHG emission from palm oil mills as compared to the process of capturing biogas from POME. The palm based food source contains phytonutrients, namely carotenoids, tocols (tocopherol and tocotrienols and water soluble polyphenols.

  17. Production of Cellulase from Oil Palm Biomass as Substrate by Solid State Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Z. Alam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state bioconversion (SSB of lignocellulosic material oil palm biomass (OPB generated from palm oil industries as waste was conducted by evaluating the enzyme production through filamentous fungus in lab-scale experiment. OPB in the form of empty fruit bunches (EFB was used as the solid substrate and treated with the fungus Trichoderma harzianum to produce cellulase. The results presented in this study revealed that the higher cellulase activity of 0.0413 unit was achieved at the day 3 of fermentation. While the optimum study indicated the enzyme production of 0.0433 unit with moisture content of 50%, 0.0413 unit with 5% v/w of inoculum size and 0.0413 unit with co-substrate concentration of 2% (w/w at days 9, 9 and 12 of fungal treatment, respectively. The parameters glucosamine and reducing sugar were observed to evaluate the growth and substrate utilization in the experiment.

  18. Oil palm biomass-based adsorbents for the removal of water pollutants--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tanweer; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ghazali, Arniza; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah

    2011-07-01

    This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based activated carbons, have been reported in recent years. Studies have shown that oil palm-based adsorbent, among the low-cost adsorbents mentioned, is the most promising adsorbent for removing water pollutants. Further, these bioadsorbents can be chemically modified for better efficiency and can undergo multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at an industrial scale. It is evident from a literature survey of more than 100 recent papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants. The conclusion is been drawn from the reviewed literature, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  19. Evaluation of Some Finishing Properties of Oil Palm Particleboard for Furniture Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingam, J.; Nyugen, V.; Ioras, F.

    The finishing properties of particleboard made from the Empty-Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were evaluated for its suitability for furniture applications, using different coating and overlay materials. The results found that the thick plastic-formica overlay provided the best surface finish, in terms of surface smoothness, adhesion strength and impact resistance. Although the polyurethane lacquer provided an acceptable finish, its quality and performance is not comparable to that of the thick plastic overlay. Despite the fact that the use of such overlay material may render the material not aesthetically appealing and limit it to concealed applications or where the thick overlay material is tolerated, its cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness may be able to position the oil palm particleboard as a substitute for the conventional wood-based particleboard in the furniture manufacturing industry.

  20. Palm oil: a healthful and cost-effective dietary component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, A S H; Goh, S H

    2002-03-01

    Palm oil is an excellent choice for food manufacturers because of its nutritional benefits and versatility. The oil is highly structured to contain predominantly oleic acid at the sn2-position in the major triacylglycerols to account for the beneficial effects described in numerous nutritional studies. Oil quality and nutritional benefits have been assured for the variety of foods that can be manufactured from the oil directly or from blends with other oils while remaining trans-free. The oxidative stability coupled with the cost-effectiveness is unparalleled among cholesterol-free oils, and these values can be extended to blends of polyunsaturated oils to provide long shelf-life. Presently the supply of genetic-modification-free palm oil is assured at economic prices, since the oil palm is a perennial crop with unparalleled productivity. Numerous studies have confirmed the nutritional value of palm oil as a result of the high monounsaturation at the crucial 2-position of the oil's triacylglycerols, making the oil as healthful as olive oil. It is now recognized that the contribution of dietary fats to blood lipids and cholesterol modulation is a consequence of the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of the fats. Lipolytic hydrolysis of palm oil glycerides containing predominantly oleic acid at the 2 position and palmitic and stearic acids at the 1 and 3 positions allows for the ready absorption of the 2-monoacrylglycerols while the saturated free fatty acids remain poorly absorbed. Dietary palm oil in balanced diets generally reduced blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides while raising the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Improved lipoprotein(a) and apo-A1 levels were also demonstrated from palm oil diets; an important benefits also comes from the lowering of blood triglycerides (or reduced fat storage) as compared with those from polyunsaturated fat diets. Virgin palm oil also provides carotenes apart from

  1. Enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (Ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, A; Sudharto, P S; Purba, R Y

    2005-01-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative control measures to overcome the Ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and planting resistant material. Present studies conducted at Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) are focused on enhancing the use of biological control agents for Ganoderma. These activities include screening biological agents from the oil palm rhizosphere in order to evaluate their effectiveness as biological agents in glasshouse and field trials, testing their antagonistic activities in large scale experiments and eradicating potential disease inoculum with biological agents. Several promising biological agents have been isolated, mainly Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus sp. A glasshouse and field trial for Ganoderma control indicated that treatment with T. harzianum and G. viride was superior to Bacillus sp. A large scale trial showed that the disease incidence was lower in a field treated with biological agents than in untreated fields. In a short term programme, research activities at IOPRI are currently focusing on selecting fungi that can completely degrade plant material in order to eradicate inoculum. Digging holes around the palm bole and adding empty fruit bunches have been investigated as ways to stimulate biological agents.

  2. Comparison of Acoustic Characteristics of Date Palm Fibre and Oil Palm Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyaa Abd ALRahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated and compared the acoustic characteristics of two natural organic fibres: date palm fibre and oil palm fibre, these materials eligible for acoustical absorption. During the processing stage, both fibre sheets are treated with latex. The two fibres are compressed after latex treatment Circular samples (100 mm in diameter and 28 mm, based on the measurement tube requirements are cut out of the sheets. The density of the date palm fibre sheet is 150 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thickness and 130 kg/m3 for a 30 mm thickness. In contrast, the density of oil palm fibre is 75 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thickness and 65 kg/m3 for a 30 mm thickness. An impedance tube was used to test the thicknesses of both samples based on international standards. The results show that the date palm fibre exhibits two Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC peaks: 0.93 at 1356 Hz and 0.99 at 4200-4353 Hz for the 50-mm-thick sample. In contrast, the 30-mm-thick sample has a single AAC peak of 0.83 at 2381.38-2809.38 Hz. However, the 50-mm-thick oil palm fibre has an AAC peak of 0.75 at 1946.88-2178.13 Hz and the 30-mm-thick oil palm fibre has an acoustic absorption coefficient peak 0.59 at 3225-3712.5 Hz. Thus, the date palm fibre has a higher acoustic absorption coefficient for high and low frequencies than does oil palm fibre. Both fibres are promising for use as sound absorber materials to protect against environmental noise pollution.

  3. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Palm Oil with Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the isothermal crystallization kinetics of palm oil with additives by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. The induction time of nucleation and crystallization are obtained by simulating the crystal process using the Gompertz model. The equilibrium melting temperature is obtained via the Hoffman-Weeks methods. The Gibbs free energy of nucleation was calculated by using the Fisher-Turnbull equation and the equilibrium melting temperature. The results indicate that the span 85 has an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of palm oil. The span 85 can raise the equilibrium melting temperature of palm oil. The span 85 can obviously delay the induction time of nucleation and crystallization at 0.01 and 0.1% level. Although span 85 at 0.05% concentration level also can delay the induction time, it exhibits an effect of promoting nucleation. However, the crystal is uncomplicated in the system containing additives compared to the pure palm oil.

  4. How Unilever palm oil suppliers are burning up Borneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    New evidence shows expansion by Unilever palm oil suppliers is driving species extinction in Central Kalimantan, and fuelling climate change. In November 2007, Greenpeace released 'Cooking the Climate', an 82-page report summarizing the findings of a two-year investigation that revealed how the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel companies were driving the wholesale destruction of Indonesia's rainforests and peatlands through growing palm oil consumption. This follow-up report provides further evidence of the expansion of the palm oil sector in Indonesia into remaining rainforests, orang-utan habitat and peatlands in Kalimantan. It links the majority of the largest producers in Indonesia to Unilever, probably the largest palm oil corporate consumer in the world.

  5. MIX DESIGN FOR OIL-PALM-BOILER CLINKER (OPBC) CONCRETE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    Keywords: Oil-Palm-Boiler Clinker (OPBC), Solid Waste, Mix Design, Lightweight Concrete, ... pality. These solid wastes and by-products, ... alternative to the conventional concrete materi- ... to produce steam to generate electricity for the.

  6. Accelerated in vitro propagation of elite oil palm genotypes (Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usuario

    2016-12-14

    Dec 14, 2016 ... published, since researches are conducted by companies with commercial interests ..... Corley RHV, Lee CH, Law IH, Wong CY (1986). Abnormal flower ... Clones with High Bunch Index for Recloning at Malaysian Palm Oil.

  7. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and

  8. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil

  9. Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on oil palm residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwised, A.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to use oil palm residues to cultivate the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most important mushrooms cultivated worldwide. Spawn was prepared on sorghum seeds and inoculated on substrate in plastic bags. Oil palm fronds were cut and used to grow Pleurotus ostreatus. The first fructification occurred 20 days after waterring. The biological efficiency reached at 28.6%. When sawdust of para rubber logs was added to the cut oil palm fronds at the rate of 1:1 (vol : vol., the biological efficiency reached at 39.3%.Supplementary material at the rate of 5% was also added into the combination of cut oil palm frond and sawdust. The result showed that rice bran, corn meal or oil palm-kernel meal give yields between 142.2-165.0 g/bag (B.E. = 42.8-49.6, which were not statistically different. Oil palm pericarp waste was also used as main substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation. The average yield obtained during 40 days havesting period was 112.6 g/bag (B.E. = 64.3%. Addition of sawdust or rice bran into pericarp waste decreased the yield of the basidiocarps. Palm-kernel meal at the rate of 5-20% was used as a supplement material. Addition of 20% palmkernel meal into sawdust supported higher yield. The biological efficiency reached 55.8%. From the above results, four formulae of the substrate were prepared. Treatment of oil palm pericarp waste + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca(OH2 supported higher yield of the basidiocarps. The average yield obtained from 950 g of substrate was 190.2 g during 60 days havesting (B.E. = 57.2%. Using 6% palm-kernel substitute 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal supported the same yield (B.E. = 56.2% Using sawdust as the main substrate, the yield achieved was less than that obtained with oil palm pericarp waste. The average yield from treatment of sawdust + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 154.0 g/bag (B.E. = 46.3% while treatment of sawdust + 6% palm-kernel meal + 0

  10. Oil palm expansion in Indonesia : serving people, planet and profit?

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide a more holistic understanding of how drivers at various levels interplay and continue to feed the expansion of oil palm plantations with its associated land use/cover change (LUCC) particularly deforestation, local economic development and people’s livelihoods. Recent studies suggested that the underlying causes and drivers of deforestation lie beyond the forest and forestry sector. The expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has severely influenced the LUCC...

  11. Successful scaling-up of self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass under pool-type reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Juferi; Shirai, Yoshihito; Andou, Yoshito; Mohd Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin; Othman, Mohd Ridzuan; Ibrahim, Izzudin; Yamamoto, Akio; Yasuda, Nobuhiko; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-02-01

    An appropriate technology for waste utilisation, especially for a large amount of abundant pressed-shredded oil palm empty fruit bunch (OFEFB), is important for the oil palm industry. Self-sustained pyrolysis, whereby oil palm biomass was combusted by itself to provide the heat for pyrolysis without an electrical heater, is more preferable owing to its simplicity, ease of operation and low energy requirement. In this study, biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass in the form of oil palm empty fruit bunch was tested in a 3-t large-scale pool-type reactor. During the pyrolysis process, the biomass was loaded layer by layer when the smoke appeared on the top, to minimise the entrance of oxygen. This method had significantly increased the yield of biochar. In our previous report, we have tested on a 30-kg pilot-scale capacity under self-sustained pyrolysis and found that the higher heating value (HHV) obtained was 22.6-24.7 MJ kg(-1) with a 23.5%-25.0% yield. In this scaled-up study, a 3-t large-scale procedure produced HHV of 22.0-24.3 MJ kg(-1) with a 30%-34% yield based on a wet-weight basis. The maximum self-sustained pyrolysis temperature for the large-scale procedure can reach between 600 °C and 700 °C. We concluded that large-scale biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis was successfully conducted owing to the comparable biochar produced, compared with medium-scale and other studies with an electrical heating element, making it an appropriate technology for waste utilisation, particularly for the oil palm industry.

  12. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with palm oil clinker powder as a binder material in self-compacting mortar. The fresh, hardened and microstructure properties were evaluated throughout this study. In addition, sustainability component analysis was also carried out to assess the environmental impact of introducing palm oil clinker powder as a replacement material for cement. It can be inferred that approximately 3.3% of cement production can be saved by substituting palm oil clinker powder with cement. Reducing the utilization of cement through a high substitution level of this waste material will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 52%. A cleaner environment free from pollutants can be created to ensure healthier living. Certain industries may benefit through the inclusion of this waste material as the cost and energy consumption of the product can be minimized.

  13. Oil palm for biodiesel in Brazil—risks and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Oskar; Berndes, Göran; Persson, U. Martin; Sparovek, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    Although mainly used for other purposes, and historically mainly established at the expense of tropical forests, oil palm can be the most land efficient feedstock for biodiesel. Large parts of Brazil are suitable for oil palm cultivation and a series of policy initiatives have recently been launched to promote oil palm production. These initiatives are however highly debated both in the parliament and in academia. Here we present results of a high resolution modelling study of opportunities and risks associated with oil palm production for biodiesel in Brazil, under different energy, policy, and infrastructure scenarios. Oil palm was found to be profitable on extensive areas, including areas under native vegetation where establishment would cause large land use change (LUC) emissions. However, some 40-60 Mha could support profitable biodiesel production corresponding to approximately 10% of the global diesel demand, without causing direct LUC emissions or impinging on protected areas. Pricing of LUC emissions could make oil palm production unprofitable on most lands where conversion would impact on native ecosystems and carbon stocks, if the carbon price is at the level 125/tC, or higher.

  14. Feasibility study of gasification of oil palm fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sulaiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the large and consistent supply, oil palm fronds could be a promising source of biomass energy through gasification. There is very scarce information on the characteristics of oil palm fronds, which is vital in deciding if such biomass is technically suitable for gasification. In the present work, the feasibility of oil palm fronds for biomass gasification is studied. The study is conducted experimentally via standard tests to determine their thermochemical characteristics. Ultimate analysis is conducted to determine the contents of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphide in oil palm fronds. Proximate analysis is performed to identify the burning characteristics of the biomass. The energy content in the fronds is determined by using a bomb calorie meter and is around 18 MJ/kg. The ignitability of the fronds is also studied experimentally to assess the ease to start-up combustion of the fronds. The characteristics of the flame of the resulting syngas from gasification of oil palm fronds are qualitatively studied. Simulated syngas composition study reveals potentials of 22% CO, 1.3% H2, 18.5% CO2 and traces of CH4. The study is extended to computer simulation to predict composition of the syngas. It is found from this work that oil palm fronds are feasible for gasification and has a good potential as a renewable energy source.

  15. Predicting fresh fruit bunch yield of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilnond, C.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop the simulation model for predicting fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield of oil palm through multiple linear regression analysis. Two experiments were conducted at the oil palm plantation of Agricultural and Technology College, Krabi province. Six-year-old Tenera hybrid palms were used for the experiments. These palms were planted in Tha-sae soil series (Typic Paleudults; Fine loamy mixedwith spacing of 9x9x9 m. In the first experiment, 151 Tenera palms were selected and marked randomly throughout an area of plantation about 16 ha. For each selected palm, FFB yield and yield component characters (FFB number and bunch weight were recorded at every harvesting time for four consecutive years (June 1993 to May 1997. The results showed that the FFB number and bunch weight could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield. In the second experiment, nine plots of Tenera hybrid palms were arranged. The plot size was 0.48 ha and had twenty palms per plot for data collection for three consecutive years (January 1994 to December 1996. These data included leaf nutrient (N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the 17th frond, the fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield and the amount of rainfall. The results showed that N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves, the amount of rainfall and FFB yield in the previous year, together with the N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves (in the predicting year could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  17. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ngoot-Chin Ting; Noorhariza Mohd Zaki; Rozana Rosli; Eng-Ti Leslie Low; Maizura Ithnin; Suan-Choo Cheah; Soon-Guan Tan; Rajinder Singh

    2010-08-01

    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification.

  18. Ethyl ester production from (RBD palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Mauricio Martínez Ávila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a methodology for obtaining ethyl esters from RBD (refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil by evaluating the oil’s transesterification and separation. Two catalysts were first tested (KOH and NaOH by studying the effect of water presence on the reaction. The separation process was then evaluated by using water and water-salt and water-acid mixtures, establishing the agent offering the best results and carrying out the purification stage. Raw materials and products were characterised for comparing the latter with those obtained by traditional means and verifying the quality of the esters so produced; minimum differences were found bet-ween both. The proposed methodology thus allows esters to be used as raw material in petrochemical industry applications. A more profitable process can be obtained compared to those used today, given the amounts of separation agent so established (1% H3PO4 solution, in water. The overall process achieved 74.4% yield, based on the oil being used.

  19. Production of cellulase enzymes during the solid-state fermentation of empty palm fruit bunch fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun; Kim, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    Penicillium verruculosum COKE4E is a fungal strain isolated from bituminous coal. The microorganism cultivated in a minimal medium supplemented with Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, and oat spelt xylan produced cellulase enzymes as exhibiting carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), Avicelase, xylanase, and cellobiosidase activities. In this study, the productivity of the extracellular enzymes in the strain was evaluated by using empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF), a lignocellulosic biomass, as a substrate for solid-state bioconversion. The highest cellulase activities were observed after 6 days of fermentation at pH 6.0 and 30 °C. The enzymes were secreted as cellulosomes for the degradation of EPFBF as a sole carbon source. Focused ion beam analysis showed that P. verruculosum COKE4E produced cellulolytic enzymes that were able to effectively biodegrade EPFBF during solid-state fermentation. In this process, 6.5 U of CMCase, 6.8 U of Avicelase, and 8.8 U of xylanase per gram of dry solid EPFBF were produced. These results demonstrate that EPFBF may be a potential raw material in solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulase enzymes to be used for biofuel production.

  20. Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch in a bubbling fluidized bed: a performance and agglomeration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin

    2011-01-01

    Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was investigated in a pilot-scale air-blown fluidized bed. The effect of bed temperature (650-1050 °C) on gasification performance was studied. To explore the potential of EFB, the gasification results were compared to that of sawdust. Results showed that maximum heating values (HHV) of 5.37 and 5.88 (MJ/Nm3), dry gas yield of 2.04 and 2.0 (Nm3/kg), carbon conversion of 93% and 85 % and cold gas efficiency of 72% and 71 % were obtained for EFB and sawdust at the temperature of 1050 °C and ER of 0.25. However, it was realized that agglomeration was the major issue in EFB gasification at high temperatures. To prevent the bed agglomeration, EFB gasification was performed at temperature of 770±20 °C while the ER was varied from 0.17 to 0.32. Maximum HHV of 4.53 was obtained at ER of 0.21 where no agglomeration was observed.

  1. Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-11-01

    In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid as well as gaseous biofuels. There are number of challenges to find suitable catalytic technology to be used in a typical biorefinery. These challenges include (1) economic barriers, (2) catalysts that facilitate highly selective conversion of substrate to desired products and (3) the issues related to design, operation and control of catalytic reactor. Therefore, the catalytic technology is one of the critical factors that control the successful operation of biorefinery. There are number of catalytic processes in a biorefinery which convert the renewable feedstocks into the desired biofuels. These include biodiesel production from palm oil, catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels, the production of hydrogen as well as syngas from biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of syngas into liquid fuels and upgrading of liquid/gas fuels obtained from liquefaction/pyrolysis of biomass. The selection of catalysts for these processes is essential in determining the product distribution (olefins, paraffins and oxygenated products). The integration of catalytic technology with compatible separation processes is a key challenge for biorefinery operation from the economic point of view. This paper focuses on different types of catalysts and their role in the catalytic processes for the production of biofuels in a typical palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

  2. Palm oil based surfactant products for petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permadi, P.; Fitria, R.; Hambali, E.

    2017-05-01

    In petroleum production process, many problems causing reduced production are found. These include limited oil recovery, wax deposit, asphaltene deposit, sludge deposit, and emulsion problem. Petroleum-based surfactant has been used to overcome these problems. Therefore, innovation to solve these problems using surfactant containing natural materials deserves to be developed. Palm oil-based surfactant is one of the potential alternatives for this. Various types of derivative products of palm oil-based surfactant have been developed by SBRC IPB to be used in handling problems including surfactant flooding, well stimulation, asphaltene dissolver, well cleaning, and wax removal found in oil and gas industry.

  3. Palm olein oil produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiton, Z; Merican, Z; Khalid, B A; Mohamed, J B; Baharom, S

    1997-06-01

    The soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats were used to investigate the effect of palm olein oil and soya bean oil on the production of lipid peroxidation products. It was found that palm olein oil but not soya bean oil significantly decreased malonaldehyde and conjugated diene levels of the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats. These findings suggest that palm olein per se produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil. Such an assay method gives a composite net picture of the propensity of an oil to produce lipid peroxidation products.

  4. Population density of oil palm pollinator weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus based on seasonal effect and age of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Syarifah Nadiah Syed Mat; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2016-11-01

    The pollinating weevil, Elaedobius kamerunicus (EK) has been known to be the most efficient insect pollinator of oil palm, and has successfully improved the oil palm pollination and increased the yield. Its introduction has greatly reduced the need for assisted pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify the population density of oil palm pollinator weevil EK using the concept of pollinator force and to relate the population density with the seasonal effect and the age of oil palm at Lekir Oil Palm Plantation Batu 14, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. The pollinator force of the weevil was sustained at a range between 3095.2 to 19126.1 weevils per ha. The overall mean of weevil per spikelet shows that the range of weevil was between 13.51 and 54.06 per spikelet. There was no correlation between rainfall and population density of EK. However, positive correlation was obtained between weevil density and the number of anthesising female inflorescence of oil palm (r= 0.938, ppollinator force per spikelete and the Fresh fruit Bunch (FFB), fruit set or fruit to bunch ratio.

  5. Potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon for transesterification of palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon was developed for transesterification of palm oil. The Central Composite Design (CCD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst loading and methanol to oil molar ratio on the production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst. The highest yield was obtained at 64.1 C reaction temperature, 30.3 wt.% catalyst loading and 24:1 methanol to oil molar ratio. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel met the standard specifications. This study proves that activated carbon supported potassium hydroxide is an effective catalyst for transesterification of palm oil. (author)

  6. Palm oil and derivatives: fuels or potential fuels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pioch Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technical information including field trials about uses of palm oil as fuel has been available for more than half a century now. Several ways were investigated, from the simple mixture with petroleum Diesel fuel, to more sophisticated solutions. The quality of vegetable oils in natura as fuel is difficult to assess because of interferences between properties of the triacylglycerols – the main components – and those of the many minor components, their content varying significantly from sample to sample. A methodology set up at Cirad allowed to investigate separately natural triacylglycerols alone and the effect of minor components. In addition to these laboratory experiments, engine test at bench and field trials performed in palm oil producing countries, show that this oil is among the best oils as fuel; palm kernel oil whose chemical and physical properties are very close to those of the best of the series investigated, namely copra oil, should display also very interesting properties as Diesel biofuel. Both oils do require external adaptation of the engine when using an indirect injection type engine but even heavier adaptations for a direct injection model. Thus for use as Diesel fuel palm and palm kernel oils are suitable for captive fleets or for engine gensets, to balance the adaptation cost by a scale-up effect either on the number of identical engines or on the nominal vegetable oil consumption per set. Direct use of palm et palm kernel oils fits very well with technical and economical conditions encountered in remote areas. It is also possible to mix palm oil to Diesel fuel either as simple blend or as micro-emulsion. Out of the direct use, palm oil methyl or ethyl ester, often referred to as biodiesel, displays properties similar to those of petroleum Diesel fuel. This technical solution which is suitable to feed all kinds of standard compression ignited engines requires a chemical plant for carrying out the

  7. Agroecological practices in oil palm plantations: examples from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessou Cécile

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is nowadays the first vegetable oil consumed worldwide. Given the world population growth and the increasing demand in fat for food and fuel, the increase in oil palm production is expected to continue. It is thus important to find ways of reducing the ecological impact of oil palm plantations at both the agroecosystem and the mill supply area levels, by improving agricultural practices and land uses. This is where agroecology can play a very critical role. The present article gathers short stories on agroecological practices currently taking place in oil palm plantations in South-East Asia. Such stories notably highlight the importance of the various palm co-products and how appropriate recycling strategies can allow for reducing external inputs to both the field and the mill. Besides limiting environmental impacts thanks to such savings, several co-products used as organic amendments can even help to maintain or enhance soil quality. Other stories explored agroecological practices developed for biological controls. Although integrated pest management has been applied in palm plantations for a long time, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully deciphered and practices still need to be improved. More knowledge is needed in order to better account for the holistic role of biodiversity and arbitrate trade-offs between practices and ecosystem services, at both plantation and landscape levels.

  8. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE that uses carbon dioxide (CO2 as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  9. Applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of palm oil and oil from natural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Mohammed Jahurul Haque; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO₂ refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO₂) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  10. Climate, soil and land-use based land suitability evaluation for oil palm production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Tiemen; Fairhurst, Thomas; Zingore, Shamie; Fisher, Myles; Oberthür, Thomas; Whitbread, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has become the world's most important oil crop. The large demand for palm oil has resulted in a rapid expansion of oil palm cultivation across the globe. Because of the dwindling availability of land in Southeast Asia, most expansion of the i

  11. Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia – two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that the effects on agricultural land demand and consequently impact upon the environment will ...

  12. Devolatilization Studies of Oil Palm Biomass for Torrefaction Process through Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, D.; Abd. Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, palm oil biomass consisting of empty fruit bunch (EFB), mesocarp fibre and palm kernel shell (PKS) were chosen as raw material for torrefaction process. Torrefaction process was conducted at various temperatures of 240 °C, 270 °C and 300 °C with a residence time of 60 minutes. The morphology of the raw and torrefied biomass was then observed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. Also, through this experiment the correlation between the torrefaction temperatures with the volatile gases released were studied. From the observation, the morphology structure of the biomass exhibited inter-particle gaps due to the release of volatile gases and it is obviously seen more at higher temperatures. Moreover, the change of the biomass structure is influenced by the alteration of the lignocellulose biomass.

  13. Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate from palm oil and some new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudesh, Kumar; Bhubalan, Kesaven; Chuah, Jo-Ann; Kek, Yik-Kang; Kamilah, Hanisah; Sridewi, Nanthini; Lee, Yan-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a potential substitute for some petrochemical-based plastics. This biodegradable plastic is derived from microbial fermentation using various carbon substrates. Since carbon source has been identified as one of the major cost-absorbing factors in PHA production, cheap and renewable substrates are currently being investigated as substitutes for existing sugar-based feedstock. Plant oils have been found to result in high-yield PHA production. Malaysia, being the world's second largest producer of palm oil, is able to ensure continuous supply of palm oil products for sustainable PHA production. The biosynthesis and characterization of various types of PHA using palm oil products have been described in detail in this review. Besides, by-products and waste stream from palm oil industry have also demonstrated promising results as carbon sources for PHA biosynthesis. Some new applications in cosmetic and wastewater treatment show the diversity of PHA usage. With proper management practices and efficient milling processes, it may be possible to supply enough palm oil-based raw materials for human consumption and other biotechnological applications such as production of PHA in a sustainable manner.

  14. Kinetic of biogas production from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danay Carillo-Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de aceite de la palma Elaeis guineensis aporta residuales orgánicos como los racimos sin frutos (RSF que representan un 7%. Actualmente los RSF no se aprovechan en su totalidad consti tuyendo un problema medioambiental. Se estudia el empleo de RSF pretratados con NaOH para la producción de biogás. El tiempo de pretratamiento (TP de los RSF influye directamente sobre la c antidad de biogás producida logrando conversiones de sólidos volátiles a biogás de 96%, para TP = 60 min y 29 días de reacción. La pro ducción de biogás se ajusta a una ley cinética de orden 1 obteniéndose las constantes cinéticas de la generación de CH 4 (0,108 d -1 y CO 2 (0,107 d - 1 a la temperatura de operación del reactor (55°C. Se presenta un modelo generalizador que permite estimar la conversión de s ólidos volátiles a biogás en función del tiempo de pretratamiento y de l tiempo de permanencia en el reactor.

  15. Sustainability of smallholder palm oil production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Bertule, Maija; Degn, Lasse Twiggs

    2009-01-01

    Palm oil is a widely used commodity and is part of a number of daily products. It is the most used vegetable oil, not just for food consumption, but also for soap and cosmetics. Recently the search for co2 neutral fuels have spurred demand for palm oil to be used in diesel cars. The large demand have led to a dramatic increase in production in Malaysia and Indonesia, and those two producers make up over total production. This dramatic increase in plantations have led to severe environmental p...

  16. Bunch yield of interspecific hybrids of American oil palm with oil palm in the juvenile phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Alberto Gomes Junior

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify superior genotypes, 42 progenies of interspecific hybrids between American oil palm and oil palm were evaluated in an area with incidence of bud rot. The following variables were assessed: total bunch yield (TBY, number of bunches (NB and mean bunch weight (MBW from the third to the sixth year of cultivation and estimates of genetic parameters obtained by REML/BLUP procedures. High heritability values of the evaluated traits were observed. The gain estimates for TBY were 14.49% for the selection of the five best progenies and 33.36% for the selection of the five best trees, considering multiplication by cloning. A medium correlation was observed between TBY and NB (r2 = 0.33±0.021, a high correlation between TBY and MBW (r2 = 0.53±0.019 and a negative high correlation between NB and MBW (r2 = –0.60±0.018. The results indicate a high expectation of gains with selection for TBY.

  17. Risks and opportunities from key importers pushing for sustainability: the case of Indonesian palm oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jafari, Yaghoob; Othman, Jamal; Witzke, Peter; Jusoh, Sufian

    2017-01-01

    Growing concerns in the major importing countries on the socio-environmental sustainability of oil palm farming may affect the import demand of palm oil and hence the economy of the exporting countries...

  18. Evaluation of the Effect of Oil Palm on some Physical and Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords : Evaluation, oil palm, soil physical properties, soil chemical properties. INTRODUCTION ... investigating long-term changes under oil palm was conducted by Tinker (1963) .... The region has a humid, tropical climate with total annual ...

  19. Will Improved Palm Oil Yields suffice to the Development of Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstock in indonesia?

    OpenAIRE

    Palmén, Carl; Silveira, Semida; Khatiwada, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    By the expansion of oil palm plantations, Indonesia has become a world leading producer of crude palm oil. However, Indonesia has also been largely criticized due to issues of land use change and deforestation. The country now promotes the use of palm oil for biodiesel production as part of policies to achieve renewable energy targets. Currently yields on palm oil plantations are far from optimal. Do new policies promoting biodiesel production address the issue of yields properly? This study ...

  20. Palm Oil as a Transnational Crisis in South-East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pye, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    "This paper discusses the recent palm oil expansion as a multiple crisis of climate change, biodiversity loss, and (failed) development. It draws on recent research on the Malaysian 'Palm Oil Industrial Complex' and on transnational campaign coalitions around palm oil to explore the transnational dimensions of the palm oil crisis. It argues that a new campaign coalition around the issue of agrofuel policies in the European Union has emerged that links social and environmental s...

  1. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI EKSPOR CRUDE PALM OIL INDONESIA DALAM PERDAGANGAN INTERNASIONAL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    fakhrus radifan

    2014-01-01

    Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Crude Palm Oil merupakan salah satu komoditas perkebunan ekspor unggulan yang mampu memberikan kontribusi dan sebagai salah...

  2. The Role of Markets, Technology, and Policy in Generating Palm-Oil Demand in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskell, Joanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia produces more palm oil and consumes more palm oil per capita than any country in the world. This article examines the processes through which Indonesia has promoted palm-oil consumption and some of the consequences of that promotion. Partial equilibrium modelling shows that Indonesia's remarkable increase in palm-oil consumption since 1985 is not largely attributable to population and income growth. Instead, much of this consumption growth has resulted from substitution away from co...

  3. Sulfonation of phenols extracted from the pyrolysis oil of oil palm shells for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Mariyamni; Seng, Goh Meng

    2008-01-01

    The cost of chemicals prohibits many technically feasible enhanced oil recovery methods to be applied in oil fields. It is shown that by-products from oil palm processing can be a source of valuable chemicals. Analysis of the pyrolysis oil from oil palm shells, a by-product of the palm oil industry, reveals a complex mixture of mainly phenolic compounds, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The phenolic compounds were extracted from the pyrolysis oil by liquid-liquid extraction using alkali and an organic solvent and analyzed, indicating the presence of over 93% phenols and phenolic compounds. Simultaneous sulfonation and alkylation of the pyrolysis oil was carried out to produce surfactants for application in oil fields. The lowest measured surface tension and critical micelle concentration was 30.2 mNm(-1) and 0.22 wt%, respectively. Displacement tests showed that 7-14% of the original oil in place was recovered by using a combination of surfactants and xanthan (polymer) as additives.

  4. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-07-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenarios for palm oil production in Indonesia until 2050, focusing on Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. Our scenarios describe possible trends in crude palm oil production in Indonesia, while considering the demand for cooking oil and biodiesel, the available land for plantations, production capacity (for crude palm oil and fresh fruit bunches) and environmentally restricting conditions. We first assessed past developments in palm oil production. Next, we analysed scenarios for the future. In the past 20years, 95% of the Indonesian oil palm production area was in Sumatra and Kalimantan and was increasingly cultivated in peatlands. Our scenarios for the future indicate that Indonesia can meet a considerable part of the global and Asian demand for palm oil, while avoiding further cultivation of peatlands and forest. By 2050, 264-447Mt crude palm oil may be needed for cooking oil and biodiesel worldwide. In Indonesia, the area that is potentially suitable for oil palm is 17 to 26Mha with a potential production rate of 27-38t fresh fruit bunches/ha, yielding 130-176Mt crude palm oil. Thus Indonesia can meet 39-60% of the international demand. In our scenarios this would be produced in Sumatra (21-26%), Kalimantan (12-16%), and Papua (2%). The potential areas include the current oil palm plantation in mineral lands, but exclude the current oil palm plantations in peatlands.

  5. Options to reduce environmental impacts of palm oil production in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit; Hein, Lars

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for palm oil worldwide. In Thailand, oil palm is being promoted by the government but this expansion is associated with several environmental impacts. We identified 26 options for reducing the environmental impact of palm oil production in Thailand, and assessed their c

  6. A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seed system in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpo, E.; Vissoh, P.V.; Tossou, R.C.; Crane, T.; Kossou, D.K.; Richards, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed system (OPSS) was conducted along a gradient of rainfall and distance to the oil palm research centre across the oil palm growing belt of Benin. The objective was to identify, jointly with key actors, the constraints in

  7. Oil palm expansion drives avifaunal decline in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Srinivas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the world’s most rapidly expanding crops, replacing humid forests across tropical regions. Studies examining the effect of this land conversion on biodiversity have tended to focus predominantly on Southeast Asia, where the majority of the world’s oil palm is produced. Because the Amazon possesses the greatest area of suitable land for oil palm expansion, oil palm is considered an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity. This is the first study to examine how oil palm agriculture affects avian diversity within the context of Western Amazonia. We used mist nets to conduct avifaunal surveys of forest and oil palm habitat in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia. Bird species richness, species evenness, and overall abundance were all significantly higher in the forest than in oil palm habitat. Strikingly, less than 5% of all captured species were common to both forest and oil palm habitat. The species absent from the oil palm plantations were disproportionately habitat specialists, forest interior birds, birds with high sensitivity to disturbance, and insectivores and frugivores. The results suggest that oil palm is particularly poor habitat for Amazonian birds, and that the species that are persist on them are of lower conservation value. Given the apparent lack of diversity on oil palm plantations, preventing further conversion of forests to oil palm should be prioritized.

  8. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  9. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Ajiboye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05 in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05 in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  11. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of

  12. Synthesis And Characterization of Biodiesel From Nigerian Palm Kernel oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGBOKWE, J. O.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced from Nigerian Palm kernel oil through direct base- catalyzed transesterification process using methanol and sodium hydroxide as alcohol and catalyst respectively. The transesterification process involved 1 liter of Palm kernel oil, 200ml of methanol, 1.0% NaOH, reaction temperature of 65 degree Celsius and reaction time of 90mins and an average biodiesel yield of 87.67% was obtained. The produced biodiesel was blended with diesel fuel at a ratio of 20% biodiesel to 80% diesel fuel (by volume. The neat biodiesel and its blend were characterized using the ASTM methods. The results showed that the properties of the neat palm kernel oil biodiesel and its blend fall within the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM specifications for Biodiesel fuels hence confirming their suitability as alternative fuels for modern diesel engines.

  13. Optimization of the cemical interesterification reaction of palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Grimaldi; Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo Gonçalves; Marlene Yumi Ando

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian market has been showing a growing concern with nutritional values of oil components of foods. Chemical interesterification is a promising alternative to the current processes of modifying the consistency of oils. Chemical interesterification of deodorized palm oil was studied on a laboratory scale. The best results were obtained with 0.4% MeONa and heating for 20 min at 100 °C. These conditions are based on the largest variation in triacylglycerols as compared to a control. ...

  14. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  15. Optimization of Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliza Hidayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of making North Sumatera  as a barometer of national oil palm industry require efforts commodities and agro-industry development of oil palm. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financed plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement obliged and bound to make at least the same smallholder plantation productivity with business partners, so that the refund rate to banks become larger and prosperous people as a plantation owner. Generally low productivity of smallholder plantations under normal potential caused a lot of old and damaged plants with plant material at random. The purpose of revitalizing oil palm plantations which are to increase their competitiveness through increased farm productivity. The research aims to identify potential criteria in influencing plantation productivity improvement priorities to be observed and followed up in order to improve the competitiveness of destinations and make North Sumatera barometer of national palm oil can be achieved. Research conducted with Analytical Network Process (ANP, to find the effect of dependency relationships between factors or criteria with the knowledge of the experts in order to produce an objective opinion and relevant depict the actual situation. 

  16. An Investigation of Sustainable Power Generation from Oil Palm Biomass: A Case Study in Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin Aghamohammadi; Stacy Simai Reginald; Ahmad Shamiri; Ali Akbar Zinatizadeh; Li Ping Wong; Nik Meriam Binti Nik Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia, with 22% of the nation's oil palm plantation area, making it the second largest contributor to palm biomass production. Despite the enormous amount of palm biomass in the state, the use of biomass as fuel for power generation remains low. This study is designed to investigate the sustainability of power generation from palm biomass specifically in Sarawak by conducting a survey among the palm oil mill developers. To conduct this investigation, several...

  17. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RyoheiTanaka; LehCheuPeng; WanRosliWanDaud

    2004-01-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world's largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country's economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10-15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia. Here we would like to introduce recent situation of palm oil and oil palm lignocellulosic residues at the first part of this paper. In the second part, our recent studies on the preparation of pulps for different purposes will be summarized.

  18. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species.

  19. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

    2013-05-09

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  20. Kinetic Study on Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Frond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, V. S. Y.; Chin, B. L. F.; Lim, A. C. R.

    2016-03-01

    The pyrolysis of oil palm frond is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. The present study investigates the thermal degradation behaviour and determination of the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (EA ) and pre-exponential factor (A) values of oil palm frond under pyrolysis condition. The kinetic data is produced based on first order rate of reaction. In this study, the experiments are conducted at different heating rates of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 K/min in the temperature range of 323-1173 K under non-isothermal condition. Argon gas is used as an inert gas to remove any entrapment of gases in the TGA equipment.

  1. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-01-01

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ≈880,000 ha) of...

  2. Exports of Palm Oil from Ghana: A Demand Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    John K.M. Kuwornu; Darko, Francis A.; Osei-Asare, Yaw B.; Irene S. Egyir

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that the economy of Ghana cannot afford to rely solely on cocoa exports. It is imperative to diversify the export base of the Ghanaian economy. In this respect, the palm oil sub-sector of the agricultural sector, which until the early part of the 20th century was the major agricultural export commodity of Ghana, needs to be considered for promotion. Currently the palm oil industry faces the challenge of bleak export potential. This study examines trends in the quantity expo...

  3. A REVIEW OF OIL PALM BIOCOMPOSITES FOR FURNITURE DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS: POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Suhaily,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the potential and challenges of using agro-based oil palm biomasses, including the trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch, and palm press fiber biocomposites, for furniture applications. Currently, design and quality rather than price are becoming the primary concern for consumers when buying new furniture. Within this context, this paper focuses on the design of innovative, sustainable furniture from agro-based biocomposites to meet the needs of future population growth and technology. This research also discusses the need for biocomposite materials that do not depend on the growth of populations, but on the growth and development of the economy. This study focuses on globally available agro-based biocomposites, especially those from oil palm biomass: plywood, medium density fiberboard (MDF, wood plastic composite (WPC, laminated veneer lumber (LVL, oriented strand board (OSB, hardboards, and particleboard. Additional positive aspects of biocomposites are their environmentally friendly character, high quality, competitive design, and capacity to improve the value proposition of high-end products. These attributes increase the demand for agro-based biocomposite furniture on the international market.

  4. Modification of palm oil for anti-inflammatory nutraceutical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Zaida; Longman, Andrea J; Hurst, Samantha; Duggan, Katrina; Hughes, Clare E; Caterson, Bruce; Harwood, John L

    2009-07-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important edible oils in the world. Its composition (rich in palmitate and oleate) make it suitable for general food uses but its utility could be increased if its fatty acid quality could be varied. In this study, we have modified a palm olein fraction by transesterification with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-linolenate or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Evaluation of the potential nutritional efficacy of the oils was made using chondrocyte culture systems which can be used to mimic many of the degenerative and inflammatory pathways involved in arthritis. On stimulation of such cultures with interleukin-1alpha, they showed increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1alpha and IL-1beta and the proteinase ADAMTS-4. This increased expression was not affected by challenge of the cultures with palm olein alone but showed concentration-dependent reduction by the modified oil in a manner similar to EPA. These results show clearly that it is possible to modify palm oil conveniently to produce a nutraceutical with effective anti-inflammatory properties.

  5. Palm oil industry in Ecuador. Good business for small farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley P. Potter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the second largest producer in Latin America of crude palm oil and is the seventh largest producer worldwide, but with yields per hectare still lower than Colombia and Costa Rica. Although producers with over 1 000 hectares have the leadership in the palm oil industry, 87% of producers produce with less than 50 hectares. Moreover, the deforestation rate in Ecuador is ranked by FAO as the ninth highest in the world and the highest in South America. The African palm plantations have been criticized for causing deforestation and worsening work conditions. However, government sectors see the oil palm companies as a source of employment and development for poor regions. This fieldwork shows that there is a difference in perception among small farmers. Farmers from Quinindé-La Concordia were satisfied with the income they earn and the rising prices of land planted with palm. Farmers in San Lorenzo, in contrast, are not happy since the survey shows that a disease devastated trees and as a result, land prices have fallen in San Lorenzo.

  6. The Nutrient Digestibility of Locally Sheep Fed with Amofer Palm Oil Byproduct-Based Complete Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Utilization of palm oil by-product such as palm fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches (EFB, fiber fruit juice (FFJ, palm kernel cake (PKC, and palm oil sludge (POS as the source of energy and protein for ruminants, especially sheep is an efficient effort to make a new opportunities in term of economical and beneficial product that will reduce environmental pollution. The objectives of this research were to analyze the effect of palm oil’s byproduct-based complete feed on sheep’s nutrient digestibility. Sixteen male sheeps of nine month old with average body weight 14.69+0.82 kg were used. The complete feed was formulated by ammoniated-fermented technology from palm fronds and leaves, EFB and FFJ, also Centrosema sp., PKC, POS, ground corn, rice bran, cassava, molasses, urea, mineral mix and salt. The complete feed with different levels of crude protein (CP and TDN were used in this research which consisted of T1=10,63% CP; 63.46% TDN; T2=12.27% CP; 62.38% TDN; T3=13.70% CP; 64.11% TDN; and T4=15.90% CP; 61.28% TDN. The study used a completely randomized design (CRD which consisted of four treatments and four replications. Data was analyzed using ANOVA with significance level at 95% and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The experimental results showed that the protein level affected the feed digestibility. The highest digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein were 65.79%, 70.30%, and 84.34% respectively, resulting in 14% protein level (T3 were significantly different with treatment at protein level 10% (T1, 12% (T2 and 16% (T4 at p <0.05. It can be concluded that by-product of palm oil plantation and mill had good nutritional value. Therefore, this feedstuff can be used to formulate complete feed for sheep and it successfully increased the nutrient digestibility /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso

  7. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA... comment on EPA's analyses of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel...

  8. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... types of biofuel shows that biodiesel and renewable diesel produced from palm oil have estimated... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil...

  9. Pollution Control: How Feasible is Zero Discharge Concepts in Malaysia Palm Oil Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya S. Madaki

    2013-01-01

    Many palm oil mills in Malaysia still discharged either partially treated or raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) into nearby rivers. Either partially treated or untreated POME depletes a water body of its oxygen and suffocates aquatic life. Vast amounts of biogas are also generated during anaerobic digestion of POME. This paper presented the key findings from the survey mailed to 86 palm oil mills located in Sarawak and Sabah. The survey results provide an overview of the position of the palm o...

  10. Understanding the oil palm change in Nong Khai Province: the farmers perspectives and the policy processes of the oil palm plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Sethaputra, Kampree

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005, the Thai government has, as a matter of policy, been seeking to increase production of biodiesel from oil palms. As a result, the number of oil palm plantations in the Northeast region has been growing, particularly in Nong Khai province. Nong Khai is a relatively remote, predominantly agricultural area and is the field site for this research. However, oil palm production is a complex and hotly contested issue both globally and in Thailand and it has ardent critics and supporters....

  11. Investigation on the Use of Palm Olein as Lubrication Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. RATCHEL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work is on the possibility of producing lubricating oil from vegetable oil with palm olein as a case study. The sample analysed was obtained from Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State. Some of the physical and chemical properties such as viscosity, flash/fire point, pour point and specific gravity were analysed. This sample was bleached to remove the red colour (carotene and gummy materials. The bleached sample was tested to determine the above mentioned properties. Comparison of the crude palm olein and the bleached sample with the conventional lubricants obtained from Elf Plc, Kaduna and Unipetrol Plc, Kaduna was made. Finally, it was discovered that the crude palm olein and the bleached sample exhibit a good base as a lubricant.

  12. Bioactive Compounds of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD from Several Palm Oil Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the characteristics of Palm Fatty Acids Distillates (PFADs from several palm oil refineries. It was aimed to know the potency of PFAD as bioactive compounds source, including vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols, phytosterols, squalene and possibly co-enzyme Q10 and polycosanol. Sampling was conducted at 6 palm oil refineries. The results showed that PFAD was dominated by free fatty acids of 85-95% with low oxidation level indicated by peroxide value of 1-10 meq/kg and anisidin value of 6-31. Bioactive compounds found were vitamin E 60-200 ppm, phytosterols 400-7500 ppm and squalene 400-2800 ppm, meanwhile polycosanol and co-enzyme Q10 were not found. Vitamin E was dominated by tocotrienols and γ tocotrienol was the major vitamin E, followed by α and δ tocotrienols. Phytosterols in PFADs from several palm oil refineries had variety in quantity and composition. Generally it was dominated by &beta sitosterol, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol

  13. Development of young oil palm tree recognition using Haar- based rectangular windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliman, S.; Abu-Bakar, S. A. R.; Nor Azam, S. H. Md

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents development of Haar-based rectangular windows for recognition of young oil palm tree based on WorldView-2 imagery data. Haar-based rectangular windows or also known as Haar-like rectangular features have been popular in face recognition as used in Viola-Jones object detection framework. Similar to face recognition, the oil palm tree recognition would also need a suitable Haar-based rectangular windows that best suit to the characteristics of oil palm tree. A set of seven Haar-based rectangular windows have been designed to better match specifically the young oil palm tree as the crown size is much smaller compared to the matured ones. Determination of features for oil palm tree is an essential task to ensure a high successful rate of correct oil palm tree detection. Furthermore, features that reflects the identification of oil palm tree indicate distinctiveness between an oil palm tree and other objects in the image such as buildings, roads and drainage. These features will be trained using support vector machine (SVM) to model the oil palm tree for classifying the testing set and subimages of WorldView-2 imagery data. The resulting classification of young oil palm tree with sensitivity of 98.58% and accuracy of 92.73% shows a promising result that it can be used for intention of developing automatic young oil palm tree counting.

  14. CREATING THE STANDARD FOR SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfa Firdaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no standard for the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC in the palm oil industry. SEC is a value that can be used as an indicator to measure the optimization level in the use of energy. Indonesia as one of the largest palm oil producing countries requires a standard for energy intensity in the palm oil industry. SEC in palm oil mill is defined in the amount of energy per unit of production (kWh/kg. The classifying method that has been used in this study is K-means cluster analysis with the measurement samples in 14 palm oil mills for 12 months of period. This study has suggested the SEC standard for Indonesian palm oil industry and it is expected to be SEC reference for other studies in the palm oil industry.

  15. Suitability of online 3D visualization technique in oil palm plantation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Ruzinoor Che; Nordin, Norani; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm industry has been the backbone for the growth of Malaysia economy. The exports of this commodity increasing almost every year. Therefore, there are many studies focusing on how to help this industry increased its productivity. In order to increase the productivity, the management of oil palm plantation need to be improved and strengthen. One of the solution in helping the oil palm manager is by implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation using game engine technology. The potential of this application is that it can helps in fertilizer and irrigation management. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to investigate the issues in managing oil palm plantation from the view of oil palm manager by interview. The results from this interview will helps in identifying the suitable issues could be highlight in implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation management.

  16. Use of calcium oxide in palm oil methyl ester production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducing an untreated calcium oxide (CaO as a solid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil by transesterification was studied in this work. The four studied parameters were methanol to oil molar ratio, CaO catalyst concentration, reaction time, and water content. The results for palm oil show that when the water content is higher than 3%wt and the amount of CaO greater than 7%wt soap formation from saponification occurs. A higher methanol to oil molar ratio requires a higher amount of CaO catalyst to provide the higher product purity. The appropriate methanol to CaO catalyst ratio is about 1.56. Commercial grade CaO gives almost the same results as AR grade CaO. In addition, reusing commercial grade CaO for about 5 to 10 repetitions without catalyst regeneration drops the percentage of methyl ester purity approximately 5 to 10%, respectively.

  17. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole in ambient air above oil palm canopies flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the Afric...

  18. Determinants of profitability of smallholder palm oil processing units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of profitability of smallholder palm oil processing units in Ogun state, Nigeria. ... as well as their geographical spread covering the entire land space of the state. ... The F-ratio value is statistically significant (P<0.01) implying that the model is ...

  19. Oil palm expansion in Indonesia : serving people, planet and profit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343704676

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide a more holistic understanding of how drivers at various levels interplay and continue to feed the expansion of oil palm plantations with its associated land use/cover change (LUCC) particularly deforestation, local economic development and people’s livelihoods. Recent

  20. Response of Palm Oil Sludge on Sexual Reproductive Biology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doris

    Experiment on the influence of different rates of palm oil sludge (0, 4000lit/ha, 8000lit/ha, ... practice is gradually phased out so as to facilitate continuous cropping system to meet ... principally used for human consumption and livestock feed.

  1. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for clea

  2. The application of foliar analysis in oil palm cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeshart, H.

    1955-01-01

    The chemical analysis of leaves was studied as an indication of fertilizer requirements of the oil-palm in the former Belgian Congo. Position and age of the leaf both markedly influenced chemical composition. Leaflets from the same position in leaf and plant must be compared. The age of the whole

  3. Oil palm expansion without enclosure: smallholders and environmental narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Navarrete, A.; Jansen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent debates on land grabbing and biofuels tend to link oil palm expansion to rural dispossession, environmental degradation and rural resistance. In this paper, we examine to what extent ‘enclosure’, a central concept in two critiques – ‘environmentalism of the poor’ and ‘green grabbing’ – is int

  4. Oil palm expansion in Indonesia : serving people, planet and profit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide a more holistic understanding of how drivers at various levels interplay and continue to feed the expansion of oil palm plantations with its associated land use/cover change (LUCC) particularly deforestation, local economic development and people’s livelihoods. Recent stu

  5. Quantifying nitrogen losses in oil palm plantations: models and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Lénaïc; Bessou, Cécile; Saint-Geours, Nathalie; Gabrielle, Benoît; Khasanah, Ni'matul; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Nelson, Paul N.

    2016-09-01

    Oil palm is the most rapidly expanding tropical perennial crop. Its cultivation raises environmental concerns, notably related to the use of nitrogen (N) fertilisers and the associated pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. While numerous and diverse models exist to estimate N losses from agriculture, very few are currently available for tropical perennial crops. Moreover, there is a lack of critical analysis of their performance in the specific context of tropical perennial cropping systems. We assessed the capacity of 11 models and 29 sub-models to estimate N losses in a typical oil palm plantation over a 25-year growth cycle, through leaching and runoff, and emissions of NH3, N2, N2O, and NOx. Estimates of total N losses were very variable, ranging from 21 to 139 kg N ha-1 yr-1. On average, 31 % of the losses occurred during the first 3 years of the cycle. Nitrate leaching accounted for about 80 % of the losses. A comprehensive Morris sensitivity analysis showed the most influential variables to be soil clay content, rooting depth, and oil palm N uptake. We also compared model estimates with published field measurements. Many challenges remain in modelling processes related to the peculiarities of perennial tropical crop systems such as oil palm more accurately.

  6. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm with PALMSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.P.; Vera, A.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthur, R.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.; Fisher, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for palm oil can be met by reducing the gap between potential yield and actual yield. Simulation models can quantify potential yield, and therefore indicate the scope for intensification. A relatively simple physiological approach was used to develop PALMSIM, which is a model that

  7. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm with PALMSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.P.; Vera, A.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthur, R.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.; Fisher, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for palm oil can be met by reducing the gap between potential yield and actual yield. Simulation models can quantify potential yield, and therefore indicate the scope for intensification. A relatively simple physiological approach was used to develop PALMSIM, which is a model that

  8. The application of foliar analysis in oil palm cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeshart, H.

    1955-01-01

    The chemical analysis of leaves was studied as an indication of fertilizer requirements of the oil-palm in the former Belgian Congo. Position and age of the leaf both markedly influenced chemical composition. Leaflets from the same position in leaf and plant must be compared. The age of the whole pa

  9. Comparison Study of Thermal Insulation Characteristics from Oil Palm Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, investigation was conducted to study the use of solid biomass from palm oil mill as insulation material. The experimental study concentrates on using oil palm fiber to determine the unidirectional thermal conductivity, k. The experiment was conducted at different temperature ranges and packing density. The values of k obtained were found to be 0.2 W/m.K to 0.069 W/m.K for a packing density between 66 kg/m3 to 110 kg/m3, and at a temperature between 40ºC to 70ºC. Comparisons were made with others common insulating materials, and it was found that the experimental k values for oil palm waste insulation was lower by between 4 to 56 times for rockwool and between 7 to 57 times for glass fiber at low temperatures. The value k of oil palm fiber however showed an increase at higher temperatures and was lower at lower packing densities. Although not being able to match the k values of common insulators at higher temperatures, other factors such as cost and environmental benefits of using waste material should be taken into consideration and hence encouraging its use as at least a supplement to existing insulation materials

  10. Economic potential of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sierra Márquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to highlight the economic importance of the optimal use of products and byproducts of oil palm. In Colombia, productive crops per hectare can generate, over one year, an average of 3.14 tons of oil, and up to 21.68 t of solid and liquid waste when the plant is on a productive stage. These data allowed the researcher to estimate that more than nine million of t of solid and liquid waste was produced from the 450 131 ha present in 2014, in Colombia; the produced biomass was used to generate energy and steam, releasing carbon dioxide back again into the environment. These residues have great potential in many industries, some to be developed, therefore, it is of special importance to try to maximize the use of waste produced by oil palm production, to generate economic and environmental benefits. An example of this is the palm kernel cake, with a nutritional potential in animal feed, fiber in the biocompound industry, biomass and stipe in the timber industry, glycerol, biodiesel, and liquid effluents in the chemical and biotechnological industry. The use of these raw materials may help to establish a positive balance in the cultivation of this species of oil palm in the country.

  11. A sub-canopy structure for simulating oil palm in the Community Land Model (CLM-Palm): phenology, allocation and yield

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.; Roupsard, O.; M. Bernoux; Le Maire, G.; Panferov, O.; Kotowska, M. M.; Knohl, A

    2015-01-01

    In order to quantify the effects of forests to oil palm conversion occurring in the tropics on land–atmosphere carbon, water and energy fluxes, we develop a new perennial crop sub-model CLM-Palm for simulating a palm plant functional type (PFT) within the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). CLM-Palm is tested here on oil palm only but is meant of generic interest for other palm crops (e.g., coconut). The oil palm has monopodial morphology and sequential phenology of around 40 stac...

  12. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m−2 h−1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y−1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m−2 h−1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic

  13. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

    2010-05-01

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been

  14. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m−2 h−1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios, respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y−1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m−2 h−1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a combination of a modified G06 algorithm for emission and a canopy resistance approach for deposition. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works

  15. Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The

  16. Development of an aerial counting system in oil palm plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulyma Miserque Castillo, Jhany; Laverde Diaz, Rubbermaid; Rueda Guzmán, Claudia Leonor

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes the development of a counting aerial system capable of capturing, process and analyzing images of an oil palm plantation to register the number of cultivated palms. It begins with a study of the available UAV technologies to define the most appropriate model according to the project needs. As result, a DJI Phantom 2 Vision+ is used to capture pictures that are processed by a photogrammetry software to create orthomosaics from the areas of interest, which are handled by the developed software to calculate the number of palms contained in them. The implemented algorithm uses a sliding window technique in image pyramids to generate candidate windows, an LBP descriptor to model the texture of the picture, a logistic regression model to classify the windows and a non-maximum suppression algorithm to refine the decision. The system was tested in different images than the ones used for training and for establishing the set point. As result, the system showed a 95.34% detection rate with a 97.83% precision in mature palms and a 79.26% detection rate with a 97.53% precision in young palms giving an FI score of 0.97 for mature palms and 0.87 for the small ones. The results are satisfactory getting the census and high-quality images from which is possible to get more information from the area of interest. All this, achieved through a low-cost system capable of work even in cloudy conditions.

  17. SUSTAINABILITY OF SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL: A MARKET INTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Chalil

    2016-01-01

    Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is the biggest consumed vegetable oil in the world. The increase in CPO production raises concern on the environmental impact even outside the producing countries. As a response to this matter, the EU has made a requirement to only import certified CPO (CSPO). India and China, the two biggest importers in the world, are less restrictive to the environmental issues, and their demands are more influenced by CPO price levels. These countries are the main export markets for I...

  18. Palm oil and derivatives: fuels or potential fuels?

    OpenAIRE

    Pioch Daniel; Vaitilingom Gilles

    2005-01-01

    Scientific and technical information including field trials about uses of palm oil as fuel has been available for more than half a century now. Several ways were investigated, from the simple mixture with petroleum Diesel fuel, to more sophisticated solutions. The quality of vegetable oils in natura as fuel is difficult to assess because of interferences between properties of the triacylglycerols – the main components – and those of the many minor components, their content varying significant...

  19. Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.A.O. Martins

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace metal composition in relation to corrosion. Also the bond structure/stability of the samples in relation to diesel were monitored with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Results confirmed that most methylester blends with diesel fell within the grade 2D while the oil, methylester and 90:10 blend fell into 4D grade diesel fuels. From bond structure/stability comparison, all the samples were stable at 28 oC and had similarity in structure with diesel. All samples are commercializable. The trace metal composition of most samples was below that of the diesel with exception of Mn, Pb and Zn. The total acid numbers of all samples were below that of diesel and would not cause corrosion. It is recommended that processing of these samples should be done to conserve fossil fuel and as alternative diesel fuels in diesel engines.

  20. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL JUSTIFICATION OF IDENTITY FEATURE CHOICE OF PALM OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. V. Kadolich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of thermally activated current spectroscopy was used for identification of two popular types of palm oils. The spectrum of thermally stimulated currents represents sufficiently intensive (up to 10-11 А current peaks conditioned by differences in fatty-acid composition of oils. Introduction of representation on unstable associates, in which coordination bonds connect molecules of fat acid’s glycerides, allow interpret the experimental data about the current response at oil specimens heating. The current’s peaks location in a certain temperature range of TSC spectrum can be considered as an identify feature of investigated vegetable oils

  2. Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croxford Adam E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H and doubled haploid (DH palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest.

  3. Ergonomic Risk Assessment on Oil Palm Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Mohd DEROS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was an investigation conducted at two oil palm plantations in Slim River District, Perak, Malaysia on the prevalence of back pain among workers in the Malaysian oil palm industry. Many manual handling activities and tasks performed were not designed ergonomically, thus a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was found among oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs manual workers. The three main objectives of this study were to determine the level of employee awareness on health and safety of manual handling tasks; to recognize the musculoskeletal symptom on the workers body parts; and to analyze their working postures and identify the relevant risk factors.Methods: Modified Nordic questionnaire was used to collect data in 2012 at two oil palm plantations located in Slim River District, Perak, Malaysia. Later, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA analysis was conducted for high risk working postures. Seventy workers participated in the study.Results: 81.4% of workers were aware on the correct methods to perform the manual handling tasks. The upper back and lower back pain were experienced by 87.1% and 94.3% of the workers respectively.Conclusion: Manual workers have high level (81.4% health and safety awareness on manual handling tasks but failed to practice it. As a result, 87.1% of them are sufferring from lower back and 94.3% from upper back pain. FFBs loading activity into the lorry is a high risk and changes needed to be done immediately. The two major risk factors identified were awkward lifting postures and repetitive lifting of FFBs. Keywords: Oil palm industry, Ergonomics, Posture, Musculoskeletal pain, workers

  4. Modification of oil palm wood using acetylation and impregnation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagiyo, Lambang; Rosamah, Enih; Hesim

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is chemical modification by process of acetylation and impregnation of oil palm wood to improve the dimensional stability. Acetylation process aimed at substituting the hydroxyl groups in a timber with an acetyl group. By increasing the acetyl groups in wood is expected to reduce the ability of wood to absorb water vapor which lead to the dimensions of the wood becomes more stable. Studies conducted on oil palm wood (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) by acetylation and impregnation method. The results showed that acetylated and impregnated wood oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq) were changed in their physical properties. Impregnation with coal ashfly provide the greatest response to changes in weight (in wet conditions) and after conditioning (dry) with the average percentage of weight gain of 198.16% and 66.41% respectively. Changes in volume indicates an increase of volume in the wet condition (imbibition) with the coal ashfly treatment gave highest value of 23.04 %, whereas after conditioning (dry) the highest value obtained in the treatment of gum rosin:ethanol with a volume increase of 13:44%. The highest changes of the density with the coal ashfly impregnation in wet condition (imbibition) in value of 142.32% and after conditioning (dry) of 57.87%. The result of reduction in water absorption (RWA) test showed that in the palm oil wood samples most stable by using of gum rosin : ethanol of 0.97%, whereas the increase in oil palm wood dimensional stability (ASE) is the best of 59.42% after acetylation with Acetic Anhydride: Xylene.

  5. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-03-22

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ≈880,000 ha) of tropical peatlands in the region had been converted to oil-palm plantations by the early 2000s. Conversion of peatswamp forests to oil palm led to biodiversity declines of 1% in Borneo (equivalent to four species of forest-dwelling birds), 3.4% in Sumatra (16 species), and 12.1% in Peninsular Malaysia (46 species). This land-use change also contributed to the loss of ≈140 million Mg of aboveground biomass carbon, and annual emissions of ≈4.6 million Mg of belowground carbon from peat oxidation. Additionally, the loss of peatswamp forests implies the loss of carbon sequestration service through peat accumulation, which amounts to ≈660,000 Mg of carbon annually. By 2010, 2.3 million ha of peatswamp forests were clear-felled, and currently occur as degraded lands. Reforestation of these clearings could enhance biodiversity by up to ≈20%, whereas oil-palm establishment would exacerbate species losses by up to ≈12%. To safeguard the region's biodiversity and carbon stocks, conservation and reforestation efforts should target Central Kalimantan, Riau, and West Kalimantan, which retain three-quarters (3.9 million ha) of the remaining peatswamp forests in Southeast Asia.

  6. Gallbladder emptying and cholecystokinin response to fish oil and trioleate ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, C; Hojgaard, L; Madsen, J L

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare gallbladder emptying, gastric emptying and release of cholecystokinin (CCK), gastrin and secretin after intragastric administration of fish oil and trioleate. After intravenous injection of 99mTc-HIDA, 30 ml of a lipid labelled with 111In was administer...

  7. Exploratory Study of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthusamy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, issue of environmental pollution resulting from disposal of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA which is a by-product from palm oil mill has initiated research to incorporate this waste in Oil Palm Shell (OPS lightweight aggregate concrete production. The current study investigates the effect of palm oil fuel ash content as partial cement replacement towards compressive strength OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Several OPS lightweight aggregate concrete mixes were produced by replacing various percentage of POFA ranging from 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively by weight of cement. All the mixes were cast in form of cubes and then subjected to water curing until the testing date. The compressive strength test is conducted in accordance to BSEN 12390 (2009 at 7 and 28 days. From the results, it was observed that the combination of appropriate POFA content would enhance the compressive strength of OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Specimen produced using 20% POFA as partial cement replacement exhibit higher value of compressive strength than that of control OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. However, mixes consisting POFA up to 50% is also suitable for structural application.

  8. An investigation into physicochemical characteristics of ash produced from combustion of oil palm biomass wastein a boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Chun Yang; Kadir, Sharifah Aishah Syed Abdul; Lim, Ying Pei; Syed-Ariffin, Sharifah Nawirah; Zamzuri, Zurinawati [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2008-07-15

    Ash derived from combustion of Malaysian oil palm biomass (empty fruit bunches consisting of fibers) was physically and chemically characterized in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of its specific properties in terms of toxicity, compositions and reusability. Principal analyses conducted include particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, elemental dispersive X-ray, elemental analysis, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) as well as thermogravimetric, X-ray diffractometry and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. TCLP result indicated that the oil palm ash (OPA) should not be classified as toxic wastes in terms of heavy metal leachability since leachable copper, cadmium, lead and nickel concentrations were detected below the stipulated leachability limits. It was determined that the OPA contained high amount of potassium as well as presence of silica which implied its suitability to be reused as crude fertilizer or cement replacement material. (author)

  9. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Vijay; Pimm, Stuart L.; Clinton N Jenkins; Smith, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to...

  10. TRANSFORMATION VERSUS STAGNATION IN THE OIL PALM INDUSTRY: A COMPARISON BETWEEN MALAYSIA AND NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kajisa, Kei; Maredia, Mywish K.; Boughton, Duncan

    1997-01-01

    This paper contrasts the successful transformation of the oil palm sector in Malaysia with the stagnation of the oil palm sector in Nigeria, and examines the factors determining the different paths that the oil palm sectors took in these two countries with the aim of drawing lessons for future development and transfer strategy in Nigeria. Comparing two countries in different regions is not easy, especially when Nigeria has been in political chaos and the agro-climatic environments for oil-pal...

  11. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shamim Ahmad; Vijaya Subramaniam; Halimah Mohammad; Anis Mokhtar; B. S. Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefor...

  12. Phenology of the oil palm interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Hormaza; Eloina Mesa Fuquen; Hernán Mauricio Romero

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm is one of the most important oil crops in the world. Because of its high productivity and perennial nature, it has been expanding quickly. Commercial plantations consist mostly of the African palm E. guineensis Jacq. However, producers in Latin America are increasingly planting the O × G interspecific hybrid, a cross between African palm (E. guineensis) and the American palm (E. oleifera (Kunth) Cortés). This interspecific hybrid has emerged as a promising solution to diseases such a...

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis

  14. Stability analysis of oil yield in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, M Y; Jalani, B S; Rajanaidu, N; Kushairi, A; Puteh, A; Latif, M A

    2012-10-04

    We evaluated 38 dura x pisifera (DP) oil palm progenies in four locations in Malaysia for genotype by environment interaction and genotypic stability studies. The DP progenies derived from crosses between pisifera palms of AVROS, Serdang S27B, Serdang 29/36, and Lever Cameroon were chosen to be the males' parent and Deli dura palms designated as females' parent. All the locations differed in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, and the soil types ranged from coastal clay to inland soils. The genotype by environment interaction and stability of the individual genotypes were analyzed for oil yield trait using several stability techniques. A genotype by environment interaction was detected for oil yield and it had a larger variance component than genotypic variance (σ(2)(gl)/σ(2)(g) = 139.7%). Genotype by environment interaction of oil yield was largely explained by a non-linear relationship between genotypic and environmental values. Overall assessment of individual genotypic stability showed that seven genotypes were highly stable and had consistent performance over the environments for the oil yield trait [total individual genotype stability scored more than 10 and mean oil yielded above the average of the environment (genotype means are more than 34.37 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1))]. These genotypes will be useful for oil palm breeding and tissue culture programs for developing high oil yielding planting materials with stable performance.

  15. Hydrological and economic effects of oil palm cultivation in Indonesian peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Sumarga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm has increasingly been established on peatlands throughout Indonesia. One of the concerns is that the drainage required for cultivating oil palm in peatlands leads to soil subsidence, potentially increasing future flood risks. This study analyzes the hydrological and economic effects of oil palm production in a peat landscape in Central Kalimantan. We examine two land use scenarios, one involving conversion of the complete landscape including a large peat area to oil palm plantations, and another involving mixed land use including oil palm plantations, jelutung (jungle rubber; (Dyera spp. plantations, and natural forest. The hydrological effect was analyzed through flood risk modeling using a high-resolution digital elevation model. For the economic analysis, we analyzed four ecosystem services: oil palm production, jelutung production, carbon sequestration, and orangutan habitat. This study shows that after 100 years, in the oil palm scenario, about 67% of peat in the study area will be subject to regular flooding. The flood-prone area will be unsuitable for oil palm and other crops requiring drained soils. The oil palm scenario is the most profitable only in the short term and when the externalities of oil palm production, i.e., the costs of CO2 emissions, are not considered. In the examined scenarios, the social costs of carbon emissions exceed the private benefits from oil palm plantations in peat. Depending upon the local hydrology, income from jelutung, which can sustainably be grown in undrained conditions and does not lead to soil subsidence, outweighs that from oil palm after several decades. These findings illustrate the trade-offs faced at present in Indonesian peatland management and point to economic advantages of an approach that involves expansion of oil palm on mineral lands while conserving natural peat forests and using degraded peat for crops that do not require drainage.

  16. Re-esterified palm oils, compared to native palm oil, do not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia or growth performance in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarrasa, E; Tres, A; Bayés-García, L; Parella, T; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2014-08-01

    Re-esterified palm oils are obtained from the chemical esterification of palm acid oils (rich in free fatty acids) with glycerol, both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively. Thus, re-esterified palm oils could be an economically interesting alternative to native palm oil in broiler chick diets. However, because they may have different physicochemical properties than have their corresponding native oil, we assessed the effect of fatty acid (FA) positional distribution within acylglycerol molecules and the effect of acylglycerol composition on FA apparent absorption, and their possible consequences on the evolution of postprandial lipemia and growth performance in broiler chicks. Seventy-two 1-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 18 cages. The three treatments used were the result of a basal diet supplemented with 6 wt% of native palm oil (N-TAG), re-esterified palm oil (E-TAG), or re-esterified palm oil high in mono- and diacylglycerols (E-MDAG). Chemical esterification raised the fraction of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position from 9.63 mol% in N-TAG oil to 17.9 mol% in E-TAG oil. Furthermore, E-MDAG oil presented a high proportion of mono- (23.1 wt%) and diacylglycerols (51.2 wt%), with FA mainly located at the sn-1,3 positions, which resulted in a lower gross-energy content and an increased solid-fat index at the chicken's body temperature. However, re-esterified palm oils did not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia, or growth performance, compared to native palm oil, so they can be used as alternative fat sources in broiler chick diets.

  17. Improved Method for the Qualitative Analyses of Palm Oil Carotenes Using UPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mei Han; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is the richest source of natural carotenes, comprising 500-700 ppm in crude palm oil (CPO). Its concentration is found to be much higher in oil extracted from palm-pressed fiber, a by-product from the milling of oil palm fruits. There are 11 types of carotenes in palm oil, excluding the cis/trans isomers of some of the carotenes. Qualitative separation of these individual carotenes is particularly useful for the identification and confirmation of different types of oil as the carotenes profile is unique to each type of vegetable oil. Previous studies on HPLC separation of the individual palm carotenes reported a total analyses time of up to 100 min using C30 stationary phase. In this study, the separation was completed in <5 min. The qualitative separation was successfully carried out using a commonly used stationary phase, C18.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of lipid composition in crude palm oil using multiple lipidomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Wei Fun; Wenk, Markus R; Shui, Guanghou

    2014-05-20

    Palm oil is currently the leading edible oil consumed worldwide. Triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are the dominant lipid classes in palm oil. Other lipid classes present in crude palm oil, such as phospholipids and galactolipids, are very low in abundance. These low-abundance lipids constitute key intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we applied multiple lipidomic approaches, including high-sensitivity and high-specificity multiple reaction monitoring, to comprehensively quantify individual lipid species in crude palm oil. We also established a new liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry method that allows direct quantification of low-abundance galactolipids in palm oil without the need for sample pretreatment. As crude palm oil contains large amounts of neutral lipids, our direct-detection method circumvents many of the challenges encountered with conventional lipid quantification methods. This approach allows direct measurement of lipids with no hassle during sample preparation and is more accurate and precise compared with other methods.

  19. Effects of palm and sunflower oils on serum cholesterol and fatty liver in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hee; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ∼49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver.

  20. Comparative microstructure study of oil palm fruit bunch fibre, mesocarp and kernels after microwave pre-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jessie S. L.; Chan, Y. S.; Law, M. C.; Leo, C. P.

    2017-07-01

    The implementation of microwave technology in palm oil processing offers numerous advantages; besides elimination of polluted palm oil mill effluent, it also reduces energy consumption, processing time and space. However, microwave exposure could damage a material’s microstructure which affected the quality of fruit that can be related to its physical structure including the texture and appearance. In this work, empty fruit bunches, mesocarp and kernel was microwave dried and their respective microstructures were examined. The microwave pretreatments were conducted at 100W and 200W and the microstructure investigation of both treated and untreated samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscope. The micrographs demonstrated that microwave does not significantly influence kernel and mesocarp but noticeable change was found on the empty fruit bunches where the sizes of the granular starch were reduced and a small portion of the silica bodies were disrupted. From the experimental data, the microwave irradiation was shown to be efficiently applied on empty fruit bunches followed by mesocarp and kernel as significant weight loss and size reduction was observed after the microwave treatments. The current work showed that microwave treatment did not change the physical surfaces of samples but sample shrinkage is observed.

  1. Oil palm biotechnologies are definitely out of infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rival Alain

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Although biotechnologies and sustainable development are often considered as antagonists, there is increasing evidence for a role for this approach in the ecological intensification of oil palm cultivation. Ecological intensification is based on the understanding of how nature functions so as to exploit its resources without destroying it. Living organisms are supported by the genome (DNA through the action of the transcriptome (RNAs, proteome, metabolome, and ionome, the four basic pillars of functional genomics. These pillars represent the sum of all the expressed genes, proteins, metabolites, and elements within an organism. The dynamic response and interaction of these biochemical “omes” defines how a living system functions, and its study, systems biology, is now one of the biggest challenges in life sciences. In oil palm, as in many major crops, functional genomics is still at its beginning, although there are no reasons why oil palm should not rapidly benefit from the fast progresses generated by automated and high-throughput technologies. The success of sequencing projects on model plants has created a widespread interest in exploring the structure and expression patterns of the genome. Indeed, several institutions have now achieved the full sequencing of the oil palm genome, paving the way for the rapid evolution of various genomics-based approaches. Oil palm breeding has provided an average 1% of genetic gain per year since the early 1960s and such an impressive increase in oil yield will be maintained in future generations with a major contribution from biotechnology. Indeed, the recent adoption of biotechnological approaches has already proven very useful in major areas such as cloning of outstanding material, identity checking of progenies/mother palms, identification and characterization of genes underlying agricultural traits, etc. Phenotypic differences among individuals are partly the result of quantitative differences in

  2. The oil palm SHELL gene controls oil yield and encodes a homologue of SEEDSTICK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; Rosli, Rozana; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; Budiman, Muhammad A; Hogan, Michael; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Ordway, Jared M; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Martienssen, Robert A

    2013-08-15

    A key event in the domestication and breeding of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis was loss of the thick coconut-like shell surrounding the kernel. Modern E. guineensis has three fruit forms, dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), a hybrid between dura and pisifera. The pisifera palm is usually female-sterile. The tenera palm yields far more oil than dura, and is the basis for commercial palm oil production in all of southeast Asia. Here we describe the mapping and identification of the SHELL gene responsible for the different fruit forms. Using homozygosity mapping by sequencing, we found two independent mutations in the DNA-binding domain of a homologue of the MADS-box gene SEEDSTICK (STK, also known as AGAMOUS-LIKE 11), which controls ovule identity and seed development in Arabidopsis. The SHELL gene is responsible for the tenera phenotype in both cultivated and wild palms from sub-Saharan Africa, and our findings provide a genetic explanation for the single gene hybrid vigour (or heterosis) attributed to SHELL, via heterodimerization. This gene mutation explains the single most important economic trait in oil palm, and has implications for the competing interests of global edible oil production, biofuels and rainforest conservation.

  3. Breeding the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. for climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rival Alain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. for climate change requires multidisciplinary and collaborative research by nature: indeed – besides genetics and structural and functional genomics – almost all disciplines related to life sciences are involved. Research work also relies on the identification of genetic variation in the strategies of response to stress developed by the plant: this implies the exploration of resources provided by natural variation, germplasm collections, selected genitors from breeding programs together with material of interest collected from smallholders. The phenotyping of selected plant material under biotic/abiotic stress will involve new methods for high-throughput phenotyping and genomic approaches will be followed for the identification of genes underlying the variation of traits which will be used as selection targets. Also, improvements in understanding how climate change may influence chemical and physical processes in soils, how this may affect nutrient availability, and how the plant responds to changed availability of nutrients will also influence oil palm breeding programs. Molecular approaches and tools have great potential to optimize patterns of plant breeding, especially for perennial species. In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in molecular resources and methods aimed at identifying polymorphisms which control the traits of interest and exploring the mechanisms linking these polymorphisms to phenotypes. With genomic resources becoming increasingly available for the oil palm (sequencing, resequencing and chips development the exploration of the genetic basis of complex traits such as oil yield or resistance to disease is now possible. Consequently the availability and sharing of such a large amount of data is currently reshaping most of oil palm breeding strategies.

  4. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions.

  5. Simple Arm Muscle Model for Oil Palm Harvesting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Aliff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arm are essential in order to perform manual material handling work that normally involves lifting, handling, placing, push and pull, carrying and moving heavy loads. When these work elements are performed over prolonged periods repeatedly, it will expose workers arm to awkward posture and possible ergonomic risk factor. For example, work element that requires repetitions frequently may lead the arm to face physical stress and mental fatigue. The situation can be extremely risky if the worker task requires higher focus or time consumable. These issues are unavoidable in palm oil harvesting process since the workers are still using manual handling when harvesting the fresh fruit bunch (FFB. The worker using a chisel to harvest the young palms and a sickle mounted on a bamboo or aluminum pole to harvest taller palms. When perform this work element combining with heavy physical workload, it may lead to work-related muscle disorders (WSMDs. This study was conducted to identify the force reaction and inverse dynamic analysis during oil palm harvesting process using ergonomics software called Anybody Technology. Inverse dynamic analysis is a technique for figuring strengths and/or moments of power (torques taking into account the kinematics (movement of a body and the body’s inertial properties.

  6. Morphology and protein molecular weight analysis from three variant of oil palm pollen; Dura, Pisifera, and Tenera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priambodo, R.; Witarto, A. B.; Salamah, A.; Setiorini, Triyono, D.; Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    Oil palm is a plant that widely cultivated in Indonesia, with an area of about 11 million hectares in 2014. There are three main variants that most cultivated; Dura, Pisifera, and Tenera. Oil palm pollen was spread through the wind. The very wide area of oil palm plantation and those characteristics of oil palm pollen dispersion makes oil palm pollen may give negative effect to the people around plantation, such as an allergy. The research on the morphology and protein characters of the oil palm pollen from three variants has not done yet. This research aims to observe the morphology and protein character from three variants of oil palm pollen. The study begins with the pollen collection from three variants of oil palm. Oil palm pollen was observed using the light and scanning electron microscope. Oil palm pollen protein was extracted and the molecular weight of these proteins was analyzed. The result of this research was the morphology character from three variants of oil palm pollen have successfully been observed. Those three variant of oil palm have no differences structures; triangular shaped with round edge, tricolpate with connected colpus aperture, psilate exine ornamentation at the front side and peripheral side, while at the back side has microreticulate exine ornamentation. Three variants of oil palm pollen protein show the same characteristics. The molecular weight of the protein was ranged from 10-00 KDa. The information can be useful for the next research to figure out component of proteins inside the oil palm pollen.

  7. Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumongkol, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand thirty eight plants were grown at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, in 1989. Forty five palms consisted of Dura, Tenera and Pisifera types with 18, 18 and 9 plants respectively, were selected by randomization and tagged for investigation. The oil palm bunch yield and yield component characters were observed from individual palm for 4 years (February 1998 to January 2002. The bunch composition characters were analysed from a single bunch of each palm, sampled between June to October 1999. The results showed that in F2 plants of oil palm, the correlation and the path coefficient between characters relating to oil yield and %oil/bunch varied according to oil palm types (Dura, Tenera and Pisifera. In Dura and Tenera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, %oil/bunch, %fruit/bunch and %oil/fruit. In case of Pisifera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, number of bunches, single bunch weight, %oil/bunch and %fruit/bunch. However, from all investigated characters in F2 plants, only %mesocarp/fruit, %oil/fruit and %fruit/bunch showed the high values of broad sense heritabilities.

  8. Drying of oil palm frond particles in a fluidized bed dryer with inert medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun May Tee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drying characteristic of oil palm frond fibres was investigated in a fluidized bed dryer with the presence of inert particles. Sand was used as inert material. Effects of air temperature (60, 70 and 80ºC, air velocity (0.79 and 0.85 m/s and mass ratio of fibres to sand (1:0, 1:1 and 1:2 on the drying curves were investigated. The results showed that the shortest drying time was obtained with the highest air temperature, air velocity and fibres to sand mass ratio. The experimental drying data were fitted to nine existing drying models namely Lewis, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Two-term, Two-term exponential and Wang and Singh models and a proposed new model. The goodness-of-fit was determined based on the values of r2, c2 and RMSE. The results showed that the best quality of the fit was obtained using the proposed model. The new model was also validated for the superheated steam drying of oil palm empty fruit bunch from other work.

  9. Development of Binderless Fiberboards from Steam-exploded and Oxidized Oil Palm Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mejía Henao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards were made from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis empty fruit bunches with two treatments: steam explosion and Fenton reagent oxidation. Fiberboards were prepared with a targeted density of 1.20 g/cm3 and a thickness of 4 mm. A factorial experimental design 22 with two center repetitions and one repetition was applied for each treatment. The oil palm waste was oxidized with Fenton reagent using a H2O2/Fe2+ ratio of 2%/0.2% to 4%/0.4% and a pressing temperature of 170 to 190 °C. Steam explosion was carried out at a severity factor of 3.5 to 4.0 at the same pressing temperature. Both treatments were examined under two major response variables: mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, MOR, and modulus of elasticity, MOE and physical properties (thickness swelling, TS, and water absorption, WA. Steam-exploded samples developed better physico-mechanical properties than those that underwent Fenton reagent oxidation. The best results were obtained from fiberboards treated with the highest steam explosion design conditions (severity 4 and pressing temperature 190 °C to give optimum values of MOE 3100.09 MPa, MOR 28.49 MPa, TS 11.80%, and WA 22.74%. Binderless fiberboards made from steam explosion-treated pulp satisfied favorably well the Colombian Standard NTC 2261.

  10. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  11. Neural Network in Modeling Malaysian Oil Palm Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhaimy Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Forecasting of palm oil yield has become an important element in the management of oil palm industry for proper planning and decision making. The importance of yield forecasting has led us to explore modeling of palm oil yield for Malaysia using the most recent development of Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The main issue in yield forecasting is to predict the future value with the minimum error. Approach: Artificial neural networks are computing systems containing many interconnected nonlinear neurons, capable of extracting linear and nonlinear regularity in a given data set. It is an artificial intelligence model originally designed to replicate the human brains learning process, a network with many elements or neurons that are connected by communications channels or connectors. The ANN can perform a particular function when certain values are assigned to the connections or weights between elements. In this study, a secondary data set from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB on the foliar nutrient composition, fertilizer trials and Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB yield were taken and analyzed. The foliar nutrient composition variables are the nitrogen N, phosphorus P, potassium K, calcium Ca and magnesium Mg concentration, while the fertilizer trials data are the N, P, K and Mg fertilizers and are measured in kg per palm per year. The foliar composition data was presented in the form of measured values whiles the fertilizer data in ordinal levels, from zero to three. Results: Two experiments were conducted to demonstrate the implementation ANN and for both experiment, the result demonstrated that the number of hidden nodes produces an effect to the overall forecast performance of the ANN architecture. From the first experiment, it shows that the number of runs does not affect the ANN performance, but changing the momentum to learning rates, due to shows a significant improvement in the forecast result. The experimental result will be

  12. Comparison on pore development of activated carbon produced by chemical and physical activation from palm empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, A.; Sutrisno, B.

    2016-11-01

    It is well-known that activated carbon is considered to be the general adsorbent due to the large range of applications. Numerous works are being continuously published concerning its use as adsorbent for: treatment of potable water; purification of air; retention of toxins by respirators; removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from flue gases and industrial waste gases and water; recuperation of solvents and hydrocarbons volatilized from petroleum derivatives; catalysis; separation of gas mixtures (molecularsieve activated carbons); storage of natural gas and hydrogen; energy storage in supercapacitors; recovery of gold, silver and othernoble metals; etc. This work presents producing activated carbons from palm empty fruit bunch using both physical activation with CO2 and chemical activation with KOH. The resultant activated carbons were characterized by measuring their porosities and pore size distributions. A comparison of the textural characteristics and surface chemistry of the activated carbon from palm empty fruit bunch by the CO2 and the KOH activation leads to the following findings: An activated carbon by the CO2 activation under the optimum conditions has a BET surface area of 717 m2/g, while that by the KOH activation has a BET surface area of 613 m2/g. The CO2 activation generated a highly microporous carbon (92%) with a Type-I isotherm, while the KOH activation generated a mesoporous one (70%) with a type-IV isotherm, the pore volumes are 0.2135 and 0.7426 cm3.g-1 respectively. The average pore size of the activated carbons is 2.72 and 2.56 nm for KOH activation and CO2 activation, respectively. The FT-IR spectra indicated significant variation in the surface functional groups are quite different for the KOH activated and CO2 activated carbons.

  13. EFFECT OF OIL PALM EFB-BIOCHAR ON PROPERTIES OF PP/EVA COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD REZA KETABCHI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the race for producing biodegradable products has increased tremendously. Different approaches have been attempted to utilise biomass as filler for the production of composites. In this work, biochar from oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre (EFB was used as reinforcing filler. The biochar was produced by pyrolysis of EFB at 700˚C under nitrogen environment. Later, the biochar was added in different ratios up to 40 wt% in PP/EVA/MAPP blend using internal mixer Brabender PL200 twin-screw extruder. The composition ratio of EVA and MAPP was kept constant to 20 wt% and 5wt% respectively. Effects of biochar on the mechanical and thermal properties of the composite were investigated. Results reveal that the addition of 30 wt% biochar enhances thermal properties whilst having no detrimental effect on any mechanical properties. Studies on the morphological properties have shown good compatibility between biochar and polymer matrix at moderate addition of MAPP.

  14. Isolation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose from oil palm biomass residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Haafiz, M K; Eichhorn, S J; Hassan, Azman; Jawaid, M

    2013-04-02

    In this work, we successfully isolated microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber-total chlorine free (TCF) pulp using acid hydrolysis method. TCF pulp bleaching carried out using an oxygen-ozone-hydrogen peroxide bleaching sequence. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that acid hydrolysis does not affect the chemical structure of the cellulosic fragments. The morphology of the hydrolyzed MCC was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showing a compact structure and a rough surface. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of the surface indicates the presence of spherical features. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the MCC produced is a cellulose-I polymorph, with 87% crystallinity. The MCC obtained from OPEFB-pulp is shown to have a good thermal stability. The potential for a range of applications such as green nano biocomposites reinforced with this form of MCC and pharmaceutical tableting material is discussed.

  15. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Varsha; Pimm, Stuart L; Jenkins, Clinton N; Smith, Sharon J

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems.

  16. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Vijay

    Full Text Available Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems.

  17. DNA polymorphism among Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis populations from oil palm, using a repeated and dispersed sequence "Palm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyna, I; Renard, J L; Brygoo, Y

    1996-07-31

    A worldwide collection, of 76 F. oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis isolates (Foe), and of 21 F. oxysporum isolates from the soil of several palm grove was analysed by RFLP. As a probe, we used a random DNA fragment (probe 46) from a genomic library of a Foe isolate. This probe contains two different types of sequence, one being repeated and dispersed in the genome "Palm", the other being a single-copy sequence. All F. oxysporum isolates from the palm-grove soils were non-pathogenic to oil palm. They all had a simple restriction pattern with one band homologous to the single-copy sequence of probe 46. All Foe isolates were pathogenic to oil palm and they all had complex patterns due to hybridization with "Palm". This repetitive sequence reveals that Foe isolates are distinct from the other F. oxysporum palm-grove soils isolates. The sequence can reliably discriminate pathogenic from non-pathogenic oil palm isolates. Based on DNA fingerprint similarities, Foe populations were divided into ten groups consisting of isolates with the same geographic origin. Isolates from Brazil and Ecuador were an exception to that rule as they had the same restriction pattern as a few isolates from the Ivory Coast, suggesting they may originated from Africa.

  18. Oil Palm Tree Detection with High Resolution Multi-Spectral Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Srestasathiern

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm tree is an important cash crop in Thailand. To maximize the productivity from planting, oil palm plantation managers need to know the number of oil palm trees in the plantation area. In order to obtain this information, an approach for palm tree detection using high resolution satellite images is proposed. This approach makes it possible to count the number of oil palm trees in a plantation. The process begins with the selection of the vegetation index having the highest discriminating power between oil palm trees and background. The index having highest discriminating power is then used as the primary feature for palm tree detection. We hypothesize that oil palm trees are located at the local peak within the oil palm area. To enhance the separability between oil palm tree crowns and background, the rank transformation is applied to the index image. The local peak on the enhanced index image is then detected by using the non-maximal suppression algorithm. Since both rank transformation and non-maximal suppression are window based, semi-variogram analysis is used to determine the appropriate window size. The performance of the proposed method was tested on high resolution satellite images. In general, our approach uses produced very accurate results, e.g., about 90 percent detection rate when compared with manual labeling.

  19. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation on empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) for cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ming J; Lau, Ming W; Gunawan, Christa; Dale, Bruce E

    2010-11-01

    Empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF), a readily available cellulosic biomass from palm processing facilities, is investigated as a potential carbohydrate source for cellulosic ethanol production. This feedstock was pretreated using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and enzymatically hydrolyzed. The best tested AFEX conditions were at 135 °C, 45 min retention time, water to dry biomass loading of 1:1 (weight ratio), and ammonia to dry biomass loading of 1:1 (weight ratio). The particle size of the pretreated biomass was reduced post-AFEX. The optimized enzyme formulation consists of Accellerase (84 μL/g biomass), Multifect Xylanase (31 μL/g biomass), and Multifect Pectinase (24 μL/g biomass). This mixture achieved close to 90% of the total maximum yield within 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation on the water extract of this biomass affirms that nutrients solely from the pretreated EPFBF can support yeast growth for complete glucose fermentation. These results suggest that AFEX-treated EPFBF can be used for cellulosic biofuels production because biomass recalcitrance has been overcome without reducing the fermentability of the pretreated materials.

  20. Ash of palm empty fruit bunch as a natural catalyst for promoting the CO₂ gasification reactivity of biomass char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-03-01

    Palm empty fruit bunch ash (EFB-ash) was used as a natural catalyst, rich in potassium to enhance the CO2 gasification reactivity of palm shell char (PS-char). Various EFB-ash loadings (ranging from 0 to 12.5wt.%) were implemented to improve the reactivity of PS-char during CO2 gasification studies using thermogravimetric analysis. The achieved results explored that the highest gasification reactivity was devoted to 10% EFB-ash loaded char. The SEM-EDS and XRD analyses further confirmed the successful loading of EFB-ash on PS-char which contributed to promoting the gasification reactivity of char. Random pore model was applied to determine the kinetic parameters in catalytic gasification of char at various temperatures of 800-900°C. The dependence of char reaction rate on gasification temperature resulted in a straight line in Arrhenius-type plot, from which the activation energy of 158.75kJ/mol was obtained for the catalytic char gasification.

  1. Breeding the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) for climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Rival Alain

    2017-01-01

    Breeding the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) for climate change requires multidisciplinary and collaborative research by nature: indeed – besides genetics and structural and functional genomics – almost all disciplines related to life sciences are involved. Research work also relies on the identification of genetic variation in the strategies of response to stress developed by the plant: this implies the exploration of resources provided by natural variation, germplasm collections, selecte...

  2. Auto Guided Oil Palm Planter by using multi-GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Aini, I.; W, Aimrun; Amin, M. S. M.; Ezrin, M. H.; Shafri, H. Z.

    2014-06-01

    Planting is one of the most important operations in plantation because it could affect the total area of productivity since it is the starting point in cultivation. In oil palm plantation, lining and spacing of oil palm shall be laid out and coincided with the topographic area and a system of drains. Conventionally, planting of oil palm will require the polarization process in order to prevent and overcome the lack of influence of the sun rise and get a regular crop row. Polarization is done after the completion of the opening area by using the spike wood with 1 m length painted at the top and 100 m length of wire. This process will generally require at least five persons at a time to pull the wire and carry the spikes while the other two persons will act as observer and spikes craftsmen respectively with the ability of the team is 3ha/day. Therefore, the aim of this project is to develop the oil palm planting technique by using multi- GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). Generally, this project will involve five main steps mainly; design of planting pattern by using SOLIDWORKS software, determine the boundary coordinate of planting area, georeference process with ArcGIS, stakeout process with Tracy software and finally marking up the location with the wooden spikes. The results proved that the multi- GNSS is capable to provide the high accuracy with less than 1 m in precise positioning system without augmentation data. With the ability of one person, time taken to complete 70 m × 50 m planting area is 290 min, which is 25 min faster than using GPS (Global Positioning System) only.

  3. Promoting sustainable palm oil: viewed from a global networks and flows perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Global demand for palm oil is increasing to fulfil worldwide needs for cooking oil, food ingredients, biofuels, soap and other chemicals. In response, palm oil production is rapidly expanding which promotes economic growth in producing countries but also leads to serious environmental and social pro

  4. Promoting sustainable palm oil: viewed from a global networks and flows perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Global demand for palm oil is increasing to fulfil worldwide needs for cooking oil, food ingredients, biofuels, soap and other chemicals. In response, palm oil production is rapidly expanding which promotes economic growth in producing countries but also leads to serious environmental and social

  5. Dual resonant frequencies effects on an induction-based oil palm fruit sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Mohd Sidek, Roslina; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-11-19

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  6. Conservation value and permeability of neotropical oil palm landscapes for orchid bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Livingston

    Full Text Available The proliferation of oil palm plantations has led to dramatic changes in tropical landscapes across the globe. However, relatively little is known about the effects of oil palm expansion on biodiversity, especially in key ecosystem-service providing organisms like pollinators. Rapid land use change is exacerbated by limited knowledge of the mechanisms causing biodiversity decline in the tropics, particularly those involving landscape features. We examined these mechanisms by undertaking a survey of orchid bees, a well-known group of Neotropical pollinators, across forest and oil palm plantations in Costa Rica. We used chemical baits to survey the community in four regions: continuous forest sites, oil palm sites immediately adjacent to forest, oil palm sites 2 km from forest, and oil palm sites greater than 5 km from forest. We found that although orchid bees are present in all environments, orchid bee communities diverged across the gradient, and community richness, abundance, and similarity to forest declined as distance from forest increased. In addition, mean phylogenetic distance of the orchid bee community declined and was more clustered in oil palm. Community traits also differed with individuals in oil palm having shorter average tongue length and larger average geographic range size than those in the forest. Our results indicate two key features about Neotropical landscapes that contain oil palm: 1 oil palm is selectively permeable to orchid bees and 2 orchid bee communities in oil palm have distinct phylogenetic and trait structure compared to communities in forest. These results suggest that conservation and management efforts in oil palm-cultivating regions should focus on landscape features.

  7. Strengths and weaknesses of the smallholder oil palm sector in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Nkongho Raymond N.; Feintrenie Laurène; Levang Patrice

    2014-01-01

    The present study is an evaluation of the current strengths and weaknesses of the oil palm smallholder sector in Cameroon, or more precisely of the non-industrial sector, as some holdings owned by elites can reach hundreds of hectares. A randomized sample of oil palm producers was chosen after categorization into elites, migrants, natives and company workers (past and present) in four palm oil production basins in the Southern part of the ...

  8. Strengths and weaknesses of the smallholder oil palm sector in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Nkongho, R. N.; Feintrenie, L.; Levang, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    The present study is an evaluation of the current strengths and weaknesses of the oil palm smallholder sector in Cameroon, or more precisely of the non-industrial sector, as some holdings owned by elites can reach hundreds of hectares. A randomized sample of oil palm producers was chosen after categorization into elites, migrants, natives and company workers (past and present) in four palm oil production basins in the Southern part of the country. 176 semi-structured questionnaires were admin...

  9. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hasmiza Harun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB. Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB. A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA. To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  10. Monitoring of oil palm plantations and growth variations with a dense vegetation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Khar Chun; Koay, Jun Yi; Tey, Seng Heng

    2014-01-01

    -PACT) and Fresnel Phase Corrections. The iterative solutions of the radiative transfer model are computed with input based on ground truth measurements of physical parameters of oil palm plantations in the state of Perak, Malaysia, and compared with the SAR images obtained from RADARSAT2. Preliminary results...... are analyzed for dominant scattering mechanisms as well as monitoring of growth variation of oil palm trees for further development of operation models for long term monitoring of oil palm plantations....

  11. Statistical Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Cellulase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal I. Daoud; Md. Z. Alam

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil mill effluent discharged by the oil palm industries is considered as the mixed of high polluted effluent which is abundant (about 20 million tonnes year-1) and its effect contributes to the serious environmental problems through the pollution of water bodies. Approach: The aim of this study was to identify the potential of low cost substrate such as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for the production of cellulase enzyme by liquid state bioconversion. The filamentous f...

  12. An Evaluation of Holistic Sustainability Assessment Framework for Palm Oil Production in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chye Ing Lim; Wahidul Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil based biodiesel offers an alternative energy source that can reduce current dependence on conventional fossil fuels and may reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions depending on the type of feedstock and processes used. In the Malaysian context, the palm oil industry not only provides high-yield, renewable feedstock to the world, it brings socio-economic development to the Malaysian rural community and contributes to the national income. However, the sustainability of palm oil remains c...

  13. Role of Methane Capture for Sustainable Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil: A Life Cycle Assessment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawan Prasetya; Yandra Arkeman; Erliza Hambali

    2013-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is one of the major wastes generated by palm oil milling which is a part of palm oil diesel production chain. POME contain of methane (about 60-70 %), which contribute to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission. Due to reduction GHG emission is one of indicator bioenergy sustainability, some alternatives have been implementing to reduction it. One of the alternatives is implementing of methane capture technology which able to capture and/or utilize it for energy source. In...

  14. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shamim Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefore.establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil plywood is essential. Data from this study on the environmental impact for the production of palm plywood would help to develop sustainable palm plywood product. The results will provide information to identify ways and measures to reduce the environmental impacts. Most foreground data were collected directly from numbers oil palm plywood factories which represent 40% of the palm plywood industry in Peninsular Malaysia. Data gaps were filled by information obtained through questionnaires which were developed specifically for data collection, literature, public database or further calculated from obtained data. The outputs and inputs from production activities were quantified on the basis of functional unit of production of 1 m3from different types of oil palm based plywood i.e., Moisture Resistant (MR, Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 1 and Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 2. The life cycle impact assessment was carried out using SimaPro 7.1 software and the eco-indicator 99 methodology. The weighting results of LCA for the production of 1 cubic meter of oil palm based plywood showed significant impact in descending order i.e., fossil fuel, respiratory inorganic and climate change. The most significant process contributing to these environmental impacts came from the production and usage of adhesives, transportation of oil palm trunks from plantation to factory and

  15. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  16. Development and Characterization of Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride with Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Sabeti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox. The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453 nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 ± 0.8 and 0.22 ± 1.3 and zeta potentials of about −31 and −32 mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4 at 37°C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with CaelyxR on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes.

  17. Development and characterization of liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride with palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Bahareh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohd, Shaharuddin; Hashim, Rosnani; Dahlan, Afendi; Javar, Hamid Akbari

    2014-01-01

    The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox). The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV) were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453 nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 ± 0.8 and 0.22 ± 1.3 and zeta potentials of about -31 and -32 mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37°C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with Caelyx(R) on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes.

  18. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.

  19. Catalytic Cracking of Palm Oil Over Zeolite Catalysts: Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. A. Twaiq and S. Bhatia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic cracking of palm oil was conducted in a fixed bed micro-reactor over HZSM-5, zeolite ? and ultrastable Y (USY zeolite catalysts. The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of cracking reaction variables such as temperature, weight hourly space velocity, catalyst pore size and type of palm oil feed of different molecular weight on the conversion, yield of hydrocarbons in gasoline boiling range and BTX aromatics in the organic liquid product.  Statistical Design of Experiment (DOE with 24 full factorial design was used in experimentation at the first stage.  The nonlinear model and Response Surface Methodology (RSM were utilized in the second stage of experimentation to obtain the optimum values of the variables for maximum yields of hydrocarbons in gasoline boiling range and aromatics.  The HZSM-5 showed the best performance amongst the three catalysts tested.  At 623 K and WHSV of 1 h-1, the highest experimental yields of gasoline and aromatics were 28.3 wt.% and 27 wt.%, respectively over the HZSM-5 catalyst.  For the same catalyst, the statistical model predicted that the optimum yield of gasoline was 28.1 wt.% at WHSV of 1.75 h-1 and 623 K.  The predicted optimum yield of gasoline was 25.5 wt.% at 623 K and WHSV of 1 h-1.KEY WORDS: Catalytic Cracking, Palm Oil, Zeolite, Design Of Experiment, Response Surface Methodology.

  20. Crystallization Kinetics of Fully Hydrogenated Palm Oil in Sunflower Oil Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Walstra, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2000-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of mixtures of fully hydrogenated palm oil (HP) in sunflower oil (SF) was studied. The thermal properties and phase behavior of this model system were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. From the melting enthalpy and clear p

  1. Crystallization Kinetics of Fully Hydrogenated Palm Oil in Sunflower Oil Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Walstra, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2000-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of mixtures of fully hydrogenated palm oil (HP) in sunflower oil (SF) was studied. The thermal properties and phase behavior of this model system were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. From the melting enthalpy and clear

  2. Towards more efficient selection for oil yield in the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, van der H.A.M.

    1974-01-01

    Detailed studies are made of the variability and heritability of a number of components of oil yield in the oil palm using published data of the breeding programme of the NIFOR in Nigeria and results of a number of experiments carried out at the OPRC in Ghana during the period 1965-1971.

  3. Towards more efficient selection for oil yield in the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, van der H.A.M.

    1974-01-01

    Detailed studies are made of the variability and heritability of a number of components of oil yield in the oil palm using published data of the breeding programme of the NIFOR in Nigeria and results of a number of experiments carried out at the OPRC in Ghana during the period 1965-1971. Estimations

  4. Age of oil palm plantations causes a strong change in surface biophysical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabajo, Clifton; le Maire, Guerric; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, Indonesia has experienced dramatic land transformations with an expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests. As vegetation is a modifier of the climate near the ground these large-scale land transformations are expected to have major impacts on the surface biophysical variables i.e. surface temperature, albedo, and vegetation indices, e.g. the NDVI. Remote sensing data are needed to assess such changes at regional scale. We used 2 Landsat images from Jambi Province in Sumatra/Indonesia covering a chronosequence of oil palm plantations to study the 20 - 25 years life cycle of oil palm plantations and its relation with biophysical variables. Our results show large differences between the surface temperature of young oil palm plantations and forest (up to 9.5 ± 1.5 °C) indicating that the surface temperature is raised substantially after the establishment of oil palm plantations following the removal of forests. During the oil palm plantation lifecycle the surface temperature differences gradually decreases and approaches zero around an oil palm plantation age of 10 years. Similarly, NDVI increases and the albedo decreases approaching typical values of forests. Our results show that in order to assess the full climate effects of oil palm expansion biophysical processes play an important role and the full life cycle of oil palm plantations need to be considered.

  5. Environmental Performance of the Milling Process Of Malaysian Palm Oil Using The Life Cycle Assessment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaya Subramaniam; Ma A. Ngan; Choo Y. May; Nik M.K. Sulaiman

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia is currently the world leader in the production and export of palm oil. This study has a gate to gate system boundary. The inventory data collection starts at the oil palm fresh fruit bunch hoppers when the fresh fruit bunch is received at the mill up till the production of the crude palm oil in the storage tanks at the mill. The plantation phase and land use for the production of oil palm fresh fruit bunch is not included in this system boundary. This gate to gate case study of 12 m...

  6. Trading Fat for Forests: On Palm Oil, Tropical Forest Conservation, and Rational Consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isenhour, Cindy

    2014-01-01

      The longstanding butter vs margarine debate has recently become more complex as the links between margarine, industrial palm oil plantations, and tropical deforestation are made increasingly clear...

  7. Effect of oil palm on the Plecoptera and Trichoptera (Insecta) assemblages in streams of eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Carina Kaory Sasahara; de Faria, Ana Paula Justino; Calvão, Lenize Batista; Juen, Leandro

    2017-08-01

    The production of oil palm is expected to increase in the Amazon region. However, expansion of oil palm plantation leads to significant changes in the physical structure of aquatic ecosystems, mainly through the reduction of riparian vegetation that is essential for aquatic biodiversity. Here, we evaluated the effects of oil palm on the physical habitat structure of Amazonian stream environments and assemblages of Plecoptera and Trichoptera (PT), ​both found in these streams. We compared streams sampled in oil palm plantations (n = 13) with natural forest areas ("reference" streams, n = 8), located in the eastern Amazon, Brazil. Our results showed that oil palm streams were more likely to be in close proximity to roads, had higher pH values, and higher amounts of fine substrate deposited in the channel than reference streams. Further, these environmental changes had important effects on the aquatic invertebrate assemblages, reducing the abundance and richness of PT. Nevertheless, the genera composition of the assemblages did not differ between reference and oil palm (PERMANOVA, pseudo-F (1,19) = 1.891; p = 0.111). We conclude that oil palm production has clear negative impacts on aquatic environments and PT assemblages in Amazonian streams. We recommend that oil palm producers invest more in planning of road networks to avoid the construction of roads near to the riparian vegetation. This planning can minimize impacts of oil palm production on aquatic systems in the Amazon.

  8. Palm oil – strategic source of renewable energy in Indonesia and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Prokurat, Sergiusz

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question of how the global industry of palm oil is affecting the economies and natural environments of its two main producers – Indonesia and Malaysia. The first section examines the contemporary uses of palm oil in a variety of products and industries. It also sets out to describe the global palm oil market. The second section takes a historical perspective, analysing the origins of palm oil cultivation and trade and its rapid rise to global prominence. The thi...

  9. THE DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC FERN ON THE OIL PALM TREE (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. IN PEKANBARU, RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nery Sofiyanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is one  main commodity in Riau Province. Morphologically, the trunk of oil palm  has suitable environment for the growth of epiphytic fern, due to its broaden base of petiole that may accumulate organic and anorganic debrish. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of epiphytic fern on the oil palm tree. A total of 125 oil palm trees from seven  study sites in Pekanbaru, Riau were observed. The number of epiphytic ferns identified in this study was 16 species belongs to six families.

  10. Economic potential of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Sierra Márquez; Lucellys Sierra Márquez; Jesus Olivero-Verbel

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to highlight the economic importance of the optimal use of products and byproducts of oil palm. In Colombia, productive crops per hectare can generate, over one year, an average of 3.14 tons of oil, and up to 21.68 t of solid and liquid waste when the plant is on a productive stage. These data allowed the researcher to estimate that more than nine million of t of solid and liquid waste was produced from the 450 131 ha present in 2014, in Colombia; the produc...

  11. Processing Practices of small-scale palm oil producers in the Kwaebibirem District, Ghana: A Diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osei-Amponsah, C.; Visser, L.E.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Struik, P.C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Stomph, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Ghana produces about 2,000,000 metric tons of oil palm fruits annually, and small-scale processors contribute about 60% of crude palm oil production. The country is not self-sufficient in the fats and oils needed for industrial use and home consumption. A large percentage of the palm oil produced by

  12. Factors impacting the formation of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) fatty acid diesters during palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Brian D; Nagy, Kornél; Sandoz, Laurence; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Recently, organic and inorganic chlorinated compounds were detected in crude and commercially refined palm oils. Further, the predominant formation mechanism of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) diesters at high temperatures (>170-180°C) was revealed. The present study involved the development and comparison of solutions to mitigate MCPD diester levels in oils from various stages of palm oil production. Partially refined palm oil samples and oil extracted from fresh palm fruits were submitted to bench-top deodorisation experiments. Application of glycerol and ethanol as refining aids during the deodorisation of refined-bleached palm oil proved to be moderately effective; about 25%-35% reduction of MCPD diester levels was achieved. Washing crude palm oil with ethanol-water (1:1) prior to deodorisation was also an effective strategy yielding an ∼30% reduction of MCPD diester contents. Washing palm fruit pulp before oil extraction, however, was most impactful, resulting in a 95% reduction of MCPD diesters when compared to the deodorised control oil. This suggests that intervention upstream in the process chain is most efficient in reducing levels of these contaminants in refined oils. Following the study, a root-cause analysis was performed in order to map the parameters potentially responsible for the occurrence of MCPD diesters in refined palm oil and related fractions.

  13. Utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumathi, S.; Chai, S.P.; Mohamed, A.R. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2008-12-15

    Malaysia is currently the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia produces about 47% of the world's supply of palm oil. Malaysia also accounts the highest percentage of global vegetable oils and fats trade in year 2005. Besides producing oils and fats, at present there is a continuous increasing interest concerning oil palm renewable energy. One of the major attentions is bio-diesel from palm oil. Bio-diesel implementation in Malaysia is important because of environmental protection and energy supply security reasons. This palm oil bio-diesel is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has significantly fewer emissions than petroleum-based diesel (petro-diesel) when burned. In addition to this oil, palm is also a well-known plant for its other sources of renewable energy, for example huge quantities of biomass by-products are developed to produce value added products such as methane gas, bio-plastic, organic acids, bio-compost, ply-wood, activated carbon, and animal feedstock. Even waste effluent; palm oil mill effluent (POME) has been converted to produce energy. Oil palm has created many opportunities and social benefits for the locals. In the above perspective, the objective of the present work is to give a concise and up-to-date picture of the present status of oil palm industry enhancing sustainable and renewable energy. This work also aims to identify the prospects of Malaysian oil palm industry towards utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy. (author)

  14. Experimental study on temperature profile of fixed - bed gasification of oil-palm fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson M.; Sulaiman, Shaharin A.; Moni, M. Nazmi Z.

    2012-06-01

    Currently the world's second largest palm oil producer Malaysia produces large amount of oil palm biomass each year. The abundance of the biomass introduces a challenge to utilize them as main feedstock for heat and energy generation. Although some oil palm parts and derivatives like empty fruit bunch and fibre have been commercialized as fuel, less attention has been given to oil palm fronds (OPF). Initial feasibility and characterization studies of OPF showed that it is highly feasible as fuel for gasification to produce high value gaseous fuel or syngas. This paper discusses the experimental gasification attempt carried out on OPF using a 50 kW lab scale downdraft gasifier and its results. The conducted study focused on the temperature distributions within the reactor and the characteristics of the dynamic temperature profile for each temperature zones during operation. OPF feedstock of one cubic inch in individual size with 15% average moisture content was utilized. An average pyrolysis zone temperature of 324°Cand an average oxidation zone temperature of 796°Cwere obtained over a total gasification period of 74 minutes. A maximum oxidation zone temperature of 952°Cwas obtained at 486 lpm inlet air flow rate and 10 kg/hr feedstock consumption rate. Stable bluish flare was produced for more than 70% of the total gasification time. The recorded temperature profiles produced closely similar patterns with the temperature profiles recorded from the gasification of woody materials. Similar temperature profile was obtained comparing the results from OPF gasification with that of woody biomass. Furthermore, the successful ignition of the syngas produced from OPF gasification ascertained that OPF indeed has a higher potential as gasification feedstock. Hence, more detailed studies need to be done for better understanding in exploiting the biomass as a high prospect alternative energy solution. In addition, a study of the effect of initial moisture content of OPF

  15. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryohei Tanaka; Leh Cheu Peng; Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world′s largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country′s economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10~15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia.

  16. Organoleptic Study of Deacidified and Deodourised Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of vitamin A has long been identified as a serious and preventable nutritional disorder, associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity amongst children. The present study was conducted with the objectives (i to perform organoleptic testing of food products cooked in Deacidified and Deodourised Palm oil (DDPO, by sensory evaluation method and (ii to compare the characteristics of these food products with the same products cooled in routinely used oil. Eleven commonly used weaning food items were prepared with routinely used oil (Group a. The same recipes were also prepared with DDPO (Group B. A food testing panel conducted with sensory evaluation for assessing the acceptability of the various food items. It was observed that with respect to all characteristics there was no significant difference in the recipes made with the two types of oil. Results indicated that DDPO can be used in India for preparation of weaning foods which are routinely given to young children.

  17. Impact of savanna conversion to oil palm plantations on C stocks dynamics and soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Guillaume, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Ruegg, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale expansion of oil palm cultivation on forested land in South-East Asia during the last decades lead to high negative environmental impacts. Because rainforests store high amount of C, their conversion to oil palm plantations results in large net CO2 emissions. Oil palm cultivation in tropical ecosystems such as savanna that store less C than forests is seen as an alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of future oil palm development. While this option is more and more frequently mentioned, few data are available on the effective gain in C storage. Furthermore negative impact on soil organic carbon and soil fertility could offset gains of C storage in oil palm biomass. Here, we present results on aboveground and belowground C stocks and soil nutrient dynamics over a full rotation cycle of oil palm plantations established on tropical savanna grasslands. Three natural savanna grasslands as reference sites and 9 oil palm plantations ranging from two to twenty-seven years old were selected in the Llanos in Colombia. Oxisols were sampled down to 70 cm in each management zones of oil palm plantations (weeded circle, interrow, frond piles and harvesting path). Taking advantages of a shift from C4 to C3 vegetation, we quantified savanna-derived soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates and how they were affected by management practices (mineral fertilization, organic amendments, etc.). Results show that, in opposite to forest conversion, C storage increases when savannas are converted to oil palm plantations. Because soil C storage was very low in natural conditions, SOC changes had little effects on overall C storage. Substitution of savanna-derived SOC by oil palm-derived SOC was very fast in the topsoil and highest under frond pile and weeded circle where C and nutrients inputs are highest. However, stabilization of oil palm-derived SOC compensated loss of savanna-derived SOC rather than increased SOC stocks

  18. Effects of linseed oil and palm oil on growth performance, tibia fatty acid and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X; Gao, S; Wang, J J; Dong, L; Huang, J; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary fat sources on growth performance, tibia fatty acids and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers. 2. One-d-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were fed with a maize-soya bean basal diet for 42 d, supplemented with oils according to the following 5 treatments: lard (lard group); linseed oil (linseed oil group); palm oil (palm oil group); linseed oil + palm oil (60:40 or 40:60 w/w, LP-1 group and LP-2 group, respectively). 3. No significant differences in weight gain, feed intake and gain/feed ratio were observed between the lard and linseed oil groups. Birds fed on palm oil had significantly greater weight gain and feed intake than those fed on lard or linseed oil. Growth performance in LP-1 and LP-2 was significantly greater than that of single-oil groups. 4. Tibia growth and bone characteristics were not influenced by supplementation with lard, linseed oil, or palm oil alone, but broilers fed on a mixture of fats had significantly greater tibia weight and length compared to broilers fed on linseed oil. Bone mineral density in tibia was significantly increased in LP-1 and LP-2 groups. 5. Supplementation of linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil enhanced apparent digestibility of calcium, reduced serum calcium and increased tibia calcium concentrations. Moreover, supplementation with linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil had a positive effect on biomarkers of bone growth. 6. The combination of linseed and palm oils was beneficial for growth performance, tibia growth and biomarkers of bone metabolism.

  19. Combustion performance evaluation of air staging of palm oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri; Eldrainy, Yehia A; Mat Ali, Muhammad Faiser; Wan Omar, W Z; Mohd Hizam, Mohd Faizi Arif

    2012-02-21

    The problems of global warming and the unstable price of petroleum oils have led to a race to develop environmentally friendly biofuels, such as palm oil or ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane. Biofuels are a potential replacement for fossil fuel, since they are renewable and environmentally friendly. This paper evaluates the combustion performance and emission characteristics of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO)/diesel blends B5, B10, B15, B20, and B25 by volume, using an industrial oil burner with and without secondary air. Wall temperature profiles along the combustion chamber axis were measured using a series of thermocouples fitted axially on the combustion chamber wall, and emissions released were measured using a gas analyzer. The results show that RBDPO blend B25 produced the maximum emission reduction of 56.9% of CO, 74.7% of NOx, 68.5% of SO(2), and 77.5% of UHC compared to petroleum diesel, while air staging (secondary air) in most cases reduces the emissions further. However, increasing concentrations of RBDPO in the blends also reduced the energy released from the combustion. The maximum wall temperature reduction was 62.7% for B25 at the exit of the combustion chamber.

  20. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-06-21

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O₂/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O₂/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O₂/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%-18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available.

  1. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Pignitter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O2/kg and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O2/kg oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O2/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%–18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available.

  2. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O2/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O2/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O2/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%–18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available. PMID:27338464

  3. Biochar potential evaluation of palm oil wastes through slow pyrolysis: Thermochemical characterization and pyrolytic kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xin Jiat; Lee, Lai Yee; Gan, Suyin; Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2017-03-22

    This research investigated the potential of palm kernel shell (PKS), empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil sludge (POS), abundantly available agricultural wastes, as feedstock for biochar production by slow pyrolysis (50mLmin(-1) N2 at 500°C). Various characterization tests were performed to establish the thermochemical properties of the feedstocks and obtained biochars. PKS and EFB had higher lignin, volatiles, carbon and HHV, and lower ash than POS. The thermochemical conversion had enhanced the biofuel quality of PKS-char and EFB-char exhibiting increased HHV (26.18-27.50MJkg(-1)) and fixed carbon (53.78-59.92%), and decreased moisture (1.03-2.26%). The kinetics of pyrolysis were evaluated by thermogravimetry at different heating rates (10-40°C). The activation energies determined by Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa models were similar, and comparable with literature data. The findings implied that PKS and EFB are very promising sources for biochars synthesis, and the obtained chars possessed significant biofuel potential.

  4. Regioisomerism of triacylglycerols in lard, tallow, yolk, chicken skin, palm oil, palm olein, palm stearin, and a transesterified blend of palm stearin and coconut oil analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, H; Yli-Jokipii, K; Kurvinen, J P; Sjövall, O; Tahvonen, R

    2001-07-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAG) of lard, tallow, egg yolk, chicken skin, palm oil, palm olein, palm stearin, and a transesterified blend of palm stearin and coconut oil (82:18) were investigated by chemical ionization and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. Accurate molecular level information of the regioisomeric structures of individual TAGs was achieved. When existing in a TAG molecule of lard, palmitic acid occupied 90-100% of the sn-2 position. Within the major fatty acid combinations in tallow TAGs, the secondary position sn-2 was preferentially occupied in the decreasing order by oleoyl > palmitoyl > stearoyl residues, the order in saturated TAGs being myristoyl > stearoyl = palmitoyl. TAGs in egg yolk were more asymmetric than in chicken skin, with linoleic acid highly specifically attached in the yolk sn-2 carbon. Nearly 50% of yolk TAGs contained 52 carbon atoms with two or three double bonds. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids were in the sn-2 location in decreasing quantities in palm oil and its fractions. Triacylglycerols of equal molecular weight behaved similarly in the fractionation process. Randomization of the parent oil TAGs was seen in the transesterified oil. The tandem mass spectrometric analysis applied provided detailed information of the distribution of fatty acids in individual combinations in TAGs.

  5. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Leslie C.-L.; Low, Eng-Ti L.; Abdullah, Meilina O.; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C.; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A. A.; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A.; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J.; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M.; Favello, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura p...

  6. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    OpenAIRE

    C. N. Hewitt; MacKenzie, A. R.; Di Carlo, P.; C. F. Di Marco; J. R. Dorsey; Evans, M,; Fowler, D; M. W. Gallagher; J. R. Hopkins; Jones, C. E.; Langford, B.; Lee, J. D.; A. C. Lewis; S. F. Lim; McQuaid, J.

    2009-01-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is p...

  7. A novel biobased polyester plasticizer prepared from palm oil and its plasticizing effect on poly (vinyl chloride)

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Puyou; Zhang Meng; Hu Lihong; Zhou Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, palm oil was the first time to convert into a novel polyester plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In the first stage, palm oil was converted into palm oil monoglyceride (POM) by alcoholysis with glycerol. Next, a novel palm oil monoglycerides based polyester plasticizer (POMP) was synthesized from POM and maleic anhydride through esterification and condensation reaction. The structure of POMP was characterized with FTIR, 1H NMR and GPC. Then PVC blends were prepared using...

  8. Stability of Silica- and Enzyme-Treated Palm Oil Under Deep Frying Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Nur Azwani Ab; Noor, Ahmadilfitri Md; Lee, Yee-Ying; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The oxidative and thermal stability of low diglycerides palm oil produced via silica treatment (sPO) and enzymatic treatment (ePO) compared with standard quality palm oil (SQ) and premium quality palm oil (PQ) was investigated. Both of the oils displayed better oxidative stability compared with SQ as well as significantly higher (P oils showed slower drops in their IP values. The darkening effect after frying was significantly (P 0.05 in the rate of FFA formation between sPO and PQ. The anisidine value and peroxide values were lowest in sPO, followed by ePO, PQ, and SQ.

  9. Fermentation assisted byproduct recovery in the palm oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, W.R.

    1983-05-01

    The production of palm oil from Elaeis guineensis is a leading natural product industry in Malaysia, giving rise to a number of residues, including a rich, fruity liquor from the pulp. The liquor, of which 7-10 million tonnes a year are currently produced, has some 6% organic solids, including 0.7-1.0% or more of oil which physical processing has failed to extract. Present anaerobic digestion processes exploit only the energy and fertiliser value. Methods are described in this paper for thermophilic, microbially assisted digestion for component separation and recovery, exploiting the widely used techniques for fruit juice extraction involving enzymic breakdown of starch, pectin and other cell components. Anaerobiosis and acidogenesis help protect and release residual oil, concomitantly preserving the solids against rancidity and spoilage by ensilage. The separated wet solids are nutritive (17% protein on dry matter), biologically safe and attractive to livestock. Downstream use of the liquor is aided by the thermophilic digestion. (Refs. 33).

  10. Pembuatan Mayones dengan Menggunakan Minyak Sawit Merah (Red palm oil) dan Minyak Zaitun (Olea europaea) Serta Uji Daya Terimanya

    OpenAIRE

    Afika, Henny

    2017-01-01

    Mayonnaise is a vegetable oil-based-food product. The vegetable oil that can be used as the ingredients of mayonnaise such as red palm oil and olive oil. Red palm oil contains high level of carotenoids as a source of vitamin A. This study aimed to determine the acceptance of mayonnaise combined with red palm oil and olive oil and its nutrition contents. This study used experimental design to make mayonnaise combined with three different ratio of red palm oil and olive oil (r...

  11. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    OpenAIRE

    Teerawat Apichato; Gumpon Prateepchaikul1

    2003-01-01

    Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term perfor...

  12. A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Chia Chun; Boo, Huey Chern; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ariffin, Abdul Azis

    2011-09-01

    A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural.

  13. Development narratives, notions of forest crisis, and boom of oil palm plantations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Ari; Maryudi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia experienced massive deforestation in the last decades where rapid oil palm expansion has been considered as one of the main drivers. This article shows that the process of deforestation and the rapid oil palm expansion cannot be viewed in isolation from broader development contexts. Variou

  14. Benefits and costs of oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, under different policy scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan province are among the highest in Indonesia. This study examines the physical and monetary impacts of oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan up to 2025 under three policy scenarios. Our modelling approach combines a spatial logistic reg

  15. Benefits and costs of oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, under different policy scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan province are among the highest in Indonesia. This study examines the physical and monetary impacts of oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan up to 2025 under three policy scenarios. Our modelling approach combines a spatial logistic

  16. Telecoupled governance of land use change: Sustainable palm oil conservation benefits limited by preferential certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmayr, R.; Carlson, K. M.; Gibbs, H.; Noojipady, P.; Burns, D.; Morton, D. C.; Walker, N.; Paoli, G.; Kremen, C.

    2016-12-01

    Dozens of trans-national corporations have made public commitments to purchase only zero-deforestation palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Eco-certification is a basic requirement of most such forest-related procurement policies, and >20% of palm oil was certified in 2015.While the impact of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantatio