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  1. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  2. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  3. A model of basement structure from magnetic anomalies of the Bombay High oil-field west of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.

    -122 111 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam A model of basement structure from magnetic anomalies of the Bombay High Oil-Field west of India D. Gopala Rao National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India (Revision accepted....5 kin LOWER MIOCENE LIMESTONE REFLECTOR (FROM SEISMIC DATA) ~',r V,,- v • - ~'¥¥YYYVV . ..... \\[~~'vvwvwyvvvvWvvvv " ":" ":'wv ..... I"'T .... L CLAY/CLAYSTONE ~ OBSERVED MAGNETIC ANOMALIES SHALE ~ THEORETICAL MAOHETIC ANOMALIES LIMESTONE...

  4. Preliminary hydrocarbon analysis of crude oils from Umutu/Bomu fields, south west Niger Delta Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Onojake

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven different crude oil samples were collected from two oil fields in the Niger Delta Nigeria. The bulk properties of these crude oils which include API gravity, reid vapour pressure; kinematic viscosity, dynamic viscosity, moisture, gum content and cloud point were analysed. Aliphatic biomarkers were used as supporting tool to deduce the geochemical characteristics such as thermal maturity, depositional environments, source of organic matter and extent of biodegradation. Results show that API° gravity ranged from 29.00° to 85.00°, specific gravity 0.65 to 0.88, 3.00 to 9.00, reid vapour pressure 3.00 to 9.00 kPa, kinematic viscosity 0.90 to 10.10 cSt, dynamic viscosity 0.70 to 8.90 cP, moisture content 0.13% to 26.00%, gum content 6.27 to 45.84 mg/L, cloud point 3.00 to 12.00 °C, pour point −7.00 to 4.00 °C and flash point <30.00 °C. Distribution of n-alkanes (Pr/Ph, and isoprenoide/n-alkanes ratios reflects that the oil samples originated mainly from terrestrial organic sources deposited in an oxic paleoenvironment.

  5. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

    2001-07-01

    The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was

  6. Briefing : West Africa and its oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    2003-01-01

    The US war on terrorism and preparations for war against Iraq have enormously increased the strategic value of West African oil reserves. This comes at a time when there have been massive new discoveries in offshore waters. This article focuses on the increased US interests in West African oil. It e

  7. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altunina, L K; Kuvshinov, V A [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

  8. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2007-10-01

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

  9. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  10. Chemical and biological monitoring of MIOR on the pilot area of Vyngapour oil field, West Sibera, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinbasarov, M.U.; Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    The pilot area of the Vyngapour oil field allotted for MIOR tests contains three injection and three producing wells. These wells were treated in summer 1993 and 1994. Before, during, and after MIOR treatments on the pilot area the chemical compounds of injected and formation waters were studied, as well as the amount and species of microorganisms entering the stratum with the injected water and indigenous bacteria presented in bottomhole zones of the wells. The results of monitoring showed that the bottomhole zone of the injection well already had biocenosis of heterotrophic, hydrocarbon-oxidizing, methanogenic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were besides permanently introduced into the reservoir during the usual waterflooding. The nutritious composition activated vital functions of all bacterial species presented in the bottomhole zone of the injection well. The formation waters from producing wells showed the increase of the content of nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions by the end of MIOR. The amount of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in formation waters of producing wells increased by one order. The chemical and biological monitoring revealed the activation of the formation microorganisms, but no transport of food industry waste bacteria through the formation from injection to producing wells was found.

  11. Impact of oil and gas field in sugar cane condition using landsat 8 in Indramayu area and its surrounding, West Java province, Republic of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saskia Puspitasari, Alia; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-01-01

    This study tried to monitor sugar cane condition surrounding of oil and gas field area. The spectral approaches were conducted for mapping sugar cane stress. As an initial stage Landsat-8 was corrected radiometrically and geometrically. Radiometric correction is an important stages for spectral approaching. Then all pixel values were transformed to the surface reflectance. Several vegetation indices were calculated to monitor vegetation stress surrounding of oil and gas field. NDVI, EVI, DVI, GVI, GRVI, GDVI and GNDVI were applied for generating tentative sugar cane stress images. The results indicated that sugar cane surrounding of oil and gas field has been influenced by oil and gas field.

  12. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  13. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  14. Simulation of pipelining pours point depressant beneficiated waxy crude oil through China West Crude Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿英; 张劲军; 凌霄; 黄启玉; 林小飞; 贾邦龙; 李宇光

    2008-01-01

    Flow properties of waxy crude oils,particularly the beneficiated waxy crude oils,are sensitive to shear history that the crude oil experienced,called the shear history effect.To simulate this shear history effect accurately is vital to pipeline design and operation.It has been demonstrated by our previous that the energy dissipation or entropy generation due to viscous flow in the shear process is a suitable parameter for simulating the shear history effect.In order to further verify the reliability of this approach,experimental simulations were conducted for three PPD-beneficiated waxy crude oils transported through the China West Crude Oil Pipeline,a most complicated long-distance-crude-oil-pipeline technically and operationally so far in China.The simulations were made by using a stirred vessel and with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter.Comparison between the flow properties of crude oils obtained from field test and experimental simulations,it is found that the gel points and viscosities from experimental simulations are in good agreement with the field data.

  15. The Jurassic petroleum system north and west of Britain: a geochemical oil-source correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotchman, I.C. [Statoil Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Griffith, C.E.; Holmes, A.J. [Mobil North Sea Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Jones, D.M. [University of Newcastle (United Kingdom). Newcastle Research Group in Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry

    1998-12-31

    Recent significant oil discoveries have focused exploration attention on the Atlantic Margin areas north and west of Britain, in particular the West of Shetlands area. These discoveries, the Foinaven and Schiehallion fields, each have reserves of 250 to 500 million barrels (39.8 to 79.5 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}) of 24-27 {sup o} API oil while an earlier heavy oil discovery, the Clair Field, is the largest undeveloped oil discovery on the U.K. Continental Shelf with resources estimated in the range 3-5 billion barrels (477 to 795 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}). Other discoveries include Suilven, the very heavy oil in well 204/28-1 and the Quadrant 205 Strathmore and Solan fields. Potential source rocks in areas adjacent to the West of Shetlands include the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge CLay Formation equivalent, the Middle and Lower Jurassic and the Middle Devonian. The results of geochemical studies of the oils, reservoir core extracts and source rocks from released wells from these West of Shetlands discoveries show them to be genetically related to North Sea oils sourced from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation equivalent. Detailed geochemical analysis (biomarkers, source rock reaction kinetics, compound specific isotope analysis and fluid inclusion ``crush-leach`` analysis) of the Clair Field and ``Foinaven Complex`` oils showed that at least two episodes of charging from different source facies within the Kimmeridge Clay Formation took place, with an intervening biodegradation event. Oil charging from Middle Jurassic lacustrine source rocks is also indicated in the ``Foinaven Complex`` oils. The source rocks are shown to exhibit variations in organic facies, from very oil-prone to mixed oil and gas, with a corresponding range of kinetic parameters. This complex generation, migration and trapping scenario is directly linked with the tectonic evolution of the West of Shetlands with major oil generation from very oil-prone Kimmeridge Clay and Middle Jurassic lacustrine facies into

  16. Tarim Oil Field Company Oil Output Exceeds 5 Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Tarim Oil Field Company (Tarim Oil Field), located in the hinterland of Takelamagan Desert in Northwest Xinjiang Autonomous Region,produced 5.006 million tons of crude oil in 2002,ranking it as the sixth largest onshore oil field in China. This is the first time Tarim Oil Field has topped 5 million tons for its crude production.

  17. Compound-specific isotope analysis as a tool for characterizing mixed oils: an example from the West of Shetlands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, M.A.; Vuletich, A.K. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States); Griffith, C.E. [Mobil North Sea Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The origin of an oil accumulation can be difficult to establish when the oil is a mixture from multiple sources, or when multiple episodes of charging are involved. In this study, oils from the Clair field, West of Shetland Islands, which are mixtures of nonbiodegraded oil added to biodegraded oil, are characterized by comparing the carbon isotope ratios of the gasoline-range hydrocarbons (GRH) of the oil to the GRH released from the pyrolysis of the asphaltenes in the oil. The comparison allows characterization of the source of the first versus the second pulse of oil into the reservoir, information useful in assessing the source potential of the basin. (author)

  18. The Lennox oil and gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haig, D.B.; Pickering, S.C.; Probert, R. [BHP Petroleum Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The Lennox oil and gas field is located in Block 110/15 of the East Irish Sea, approximately 10 km west of Southport, Lancashire. The field was discovered in 1992 with well 110/15-6 drilled by the P791 BHP group. The Lennox structure is a rollover anticline in Permo-Triassic sediments formed in the hanging wall of the Formby Point Fault. The reservoir comprises the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Group, and is characterized by excellent permeability aeolian and fluvial sandstones. The structure is sealed by the overlying shales and evaporites of the Mercia Mudstone Group. To date four wells have been drilled on the Lennox Field and have delineated a free gas cap in communication with a constant thickness oil rim. The hydrocarbons have been sourced from Namurian Holywell shales and reflect complex migration into the Lennox structure. Reservoir studies indicate likely hydrocarbons-in-place of 463 BCF of gas and 218 MMBO of oil. Development approval for the Lennox Field was granted in 1993 with production due to commence in late 1995 from a series of horizontal oil producers. (author)

  19. Multiple oil families in the west Siberian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, K.E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Lee, C.Y. [Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States); Kontorovich, A.Eh. [Siberian Scientific Research Institute for Geology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Moldowan, J.M. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, Richmond, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Two major oil families are identified in the West Siberian basin. Twenty-six of 32 analyzed oils occur in Jurassic and cretaceous reservoirs and are derived from anoxic marine Upper Jurassic Bazhenov source rock. These oils are widely distributed both north and immediately south of the Ob River, and their biomarker ratios indicate a wide range of source rock thermal maturity from early to middle oil window (Van-Egan, Russkoye, Samotlor, Sovninsko-Sovyet, Olyenye, Ozynornoye, and Kogolym), to peak oil window (Srednekhulym, Yem-Yegov, Vostochno-Surgut, Khokhryakov, Fedorov, and Urengoi), to late oil window (Salym). Some of these oils have been mildly (e.g., Fedorov 75) to heavily (e.g., Russkoye) biodegraded in the reservoir. The Bazhenov-sourced oils show different compositions that support regional variations of organic facies in the source rock. Six nonbiodegraded, highly mature oils show geochemical characteristics that suggest they were derived from clastic-rich lacustrine or nearshore marine source rocks dominated by terrigenous higher plant input like those in the Lower to Middle Jurassic Tyumen Formation, although no correlation was observed between the oils and single rock sample (Yem-Yegov 15) from the formation. The six oils occur in the Tyumen (Taitym, Geologiche, and Cheremshan) and fractured basement/Paleozoic (Gerasimov, Yagyl Yakh, and Verchnekombar) reservoirs in positions readily accessible to any oil migrating from the Tyumen source rock. For example, at the Gerasimov locations, the Tyumen Formation lies unconformably on weathered basement-Paleozoic reservoir rocks. Most of the probable Tyumen-sourced oils are from south of the Ob River, but the occurrence of Geologiche oil to the north suggests that related oils may be widespread in the basin.

  20. Geochemistry of selected oils and rocks from the central portion of the West Siberian basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, K.E.; Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)); Kontorovich, A.Eh.; Andrusevich, V.E. (Inst. of Geology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Moldowan, J.M. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Demaison, G.J. (Petroscience Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)); Stasova, O.F. (NPO SIBGEO, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation))

    1993-05-01

    Six analyzed oils, produced from Middle jurassic to Upper Cretaceous strata in the Middle Ob region of the West Siberian basin, show biomarker and stable carbon isotope compositions indicating an origin from the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation. The chemical compositions of these oils are representative of more than 85% of the reserves in West Siberia (Kontorovich et al., 1975). Bazhenov-sourced oil in Cenomanian strata in the Van-Egan field underwent biodegradation in the reservoir, resulting in a low API gravity, an altered homohopane distribution, and the appearance of 25-norhopanes without alteration of the steranes. High API gravity oil from the Salym field has surpassed the peak of the oil window, consistent with abnormally high temperatures and pressures in the Bazhenov source rock from which it is produced. The remaining oils are very similar, including samples from Valanginian and Bathonian-Callovian intervals in a sequence of stacked reservoirs in the Fedorov field. Bazhenov rock samples from the study area contain abundant oil-prone, marine organic matter preserved under anoxic conditions. While the Upper Jurassic Vasyugan Formation shows lower oil-regenerative potential than the Bazhenov Formation, it cannot be excluded as a source rock because insufficient sample was available for biomarker analysis. Core from the Lower to Middle Jurassic Tyumen Formation in the YemYegov 15 well was compared with the oils because it is thermally mature and shows TOC and HI values, indicating slightly more favorable oil-generative characteristics than the average for the formation (2.75 wt. % for 270 samples; 95 mg HC/g TOC for 25 samples). The core contains terrigenous, gas-prone organic matter that shows no relationship with the analyzed oils. 59 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

  3. Production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassett, J.M.; Glassett, J.A.

    1976-03-01

    Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than one billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of twenty-eight billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface-mining oil recovery operations are as follows: Sunnyside, Tar Sand Triangle, Asphalt Ridge, P.R. Spring, Circle Cliffs, and Hill Creek. An overview of each deposit is presented including geology, surface-mining variables, chemical processing variables, environmental aspects, and economics. A comparison of Utah tar sands and Athabasca, Alberta, Canada tar sands is also presented.

  4. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  5. High spatial resolution image object classification for terrestrial oil spill contamination mapping in West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hese, S.; Schmullius, C.

    2009-04-01

    This work is a part of the OSCaR pilot study (Oil Spill Contamination mapping in Russia). A synergetic concept for an object based and multi temporal mapping and classification system for terrestrial oil spill pollution using a test area in West Siberia is presented. An object oriented image classification system is created to map contaminated soils, vegetation and changes in the oil exploration well infrastructure in high resolution data. Due to the limited spectral resolution of Quickbird data context information and image object structure are used as additional features building a structural object knowledge base for the area. The distance of potentially polluted areas to industrial land use and infrastructure objects is utilized to classify crude oil contaminated surfaces. Additionally the potential of Landsat data for dating of oil spill events using change indicators is tested with multi temporal Landsat data from 1987, 1995 and 2001. OSCaR defined three sub-projects: (1) high resolution mapping of crude oil contaminated surfaces, (2) mapping of industrial infrastructure change, (3) dating of oil spill events using multi temporal Landsat data. Validation of the contamination mapping results has been done with field data from Russian experts provided by the Yugra State University in Khanty-Mansiyskiy. The developed image object structure classification system has shown good results for the severely polluted areas with good overall classification accuracy. However it has also revealed the need for direct mapping of hydrocarbon substances. Oil spill event dating with Landsat data was very much limited by the low spatial resolution of Landsat TM 5 data, small scale character of oil spilled surfaces and limited information about oil spill dates.

  6. Optimization of Field Development Scheduling, East Unity Oil Field, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagwa A. Musa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the reservoir performance in East Unity oil field Sudan, the studies focused on characterization, modeling and simulation of the actual performance and future development. A model was constructed using a three-phase, three dimensional, black oil simulator (ECLIPSE. In this study a data from East Unity oil field Sudan started production at July 1999 was used to perform the optimal oil rate and designing the best location of the new operating wells. Cumulative oil production, oil production rate, Water cut and recovery factor were used as key criteria to see if adding new wells in the area under study are economic risk.

  7. Tar mats and residual oil distribution in a giant oil field offshore Abu Dhabi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, Bernard [Institut Francais du Petrole and 4 Av. de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Arab, Hani [ZADCO P.O. Box 46808, Abu Dhabi(United Arab Emirates); Pluchery, Eric; Chautru, Jean-Marc [Beicip-Franlab 232, Av. Napoleon Bonaparte, BP 213, 92502 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France)

    2007-09-15

    This paper describes how geochemical data (Rock Eval analysis, SARA composition) combined with wireline log interpretation allows for the recognition of the distribution and continuity of bitumens in a main reservoir of an offshore giant field in Abu Dhabi. The integration of new geochemical data with data and field information provided by the oil company ZADCO allows for the recognition of two types of bitumen rich levels in the main reservoir of the field: (a) one corresponding to bitumen rich main reservoir intervals associated with high resistivity and high oil saturation, these intervals can be called 'tar mats', (b) the other corresponding to low oil saturated intervals, and can be classified as 'heavy residual oil'. In terms of lateral and vertical distribution, the tar mats are found at the crestal area of the Present-day structure and are located at the base of the reservoir unit above a tight limestone which plays a role of being a vertical permeability barrier. The tar mats seem to be independent of the Present-day OWC and are not related to biodegradation processes. The heavy residual oil is mainly located in the Northeast and the Southeast parts of the field and close to the OWC but it is also present all around the field except (1) in the west, in the area of the spill point and (2) in the Northwest area where direct contact between mobile oil and water is detected. Study of the structural evolution demonstrates that a tilting of the field began at Dammam age time (Eocene). The tilting of the structure led to a reduction of the structural closure in the West followed by the leakage of part of the originally trapped oil. Numerical modeling of such a geological scenario leads to a distribution of fluids (water, movable oil and residual oil) very close to the one observed at Present-day time in the field. This modeling allows a prediction of the extension and distribution of the residual heavy oil within the studied reservoir and can

  8. Oil and Gas Field Locations, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (2007) [oil_gas_fields_LDNR_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS layer consists of oil and gas field approximate center point locations (approximately 1,800). Oil and gas fields not assigned a center point by the DNR...

  9. Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, T.D.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

  10. West African Oil: Will It Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Crude Oil Production --------------------- 21 2. Cameroon’s Oil Production ------------------------ 30 3. Congolese Crude Oil Production ------------------- 39...4. Gabon: Crude Oil Production , 1980 and 1981 ------ 47 5. Nigerian Crude Oil Production -------------------- 67 6. Nigeria’s 1981 Crude ... Oil Production -------------- 69 7. Zairian Crude Oil Production

  11. Oil seepage onshore West Greenland: evidence of multiple source rocks and oil mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojesen-Koefoed, J.; Christiansen, F.G.; Nytoft, H.P.; Pedersen, A.K.

    1998-08-01

    Widespread oil seepage and staining are observed in lavas and hyaloclastites in the lower part of the volcanic succession on northwestern Disko and western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland. Chemical analyses suggest the existence of several petroleum systems in the underlying Cretaceous and Paleocene fluviodeltaic to marine sediments. Seepage and staining commonly occur within vesicular lava flow tops, and are often associated with mineral veins (mostly carbonates) in major fracture systems. Organic geochemical analyses suggest the existence of at least five distinct oil types: (1) a waxy oil, which on the basis of the presence of abundant angiosperm biological markers, is interpreted as generated from Paleocene mud-stones (the `Marraat type`); (2) a waxy oil, probably generated from coals and shales of the Cretaceous Atane formation (the `Kuugannguaq type`); (3) a low to moderately waxy oil containing 28,30-bisnorhopane, and abundant C{sub 27}-diasteranes and regular steranes (the `Itilli type`), possibly generated from presently unknown Cenomanian-Turonian marine modstones; (4) a low wax oil of marine, possibly lagoonal/saline lacustrine origin, containing ring-A methylated steranes and a previously unknown series of extended 28-norhopanes (the `Eqalulik type`); (5) a waxy oil with biological marker characteristics different from both the Kuugannguaq and Marraat oil types (the `Niaqornaarsuk type`), probably generated from Campanian mud-stones. The presence of widespread seepage and staining originating from several source rocks is encouraging for exploration in basins both on- and offshore western Greenland, where the existence of prolific source rocks has previously been the main exploration risk. (au) EFP-96. 34 refs.

  12. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuels, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States); Jetter, S.M. [Mobil Oil R & D Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

    1996-07-01

    As part of our ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel, Inc., conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. Fuel related, unscheduled service calls were monitored in this test area, as well as in a similar baseline area that did not receive the premium heating oil. Overall, the premium fuel provided a 45% reduction in the occurrence of fuel related, unscheduled service calls as compared to the baseline area. Within this population, there was a reduction of 38% in systems with 275 gallon tanks, and 55% in systems that had >275 gallon tanks showing that the additive is effective in the various configurations of residential oil heat systems. In addition, photographic documentation collected at two accounts supported this improvement by clearly showing that the equipment remained cleaner with the premium heating oil than with regular heating oil. Based on these results, a full marketing trial of this new product has been initiated by Mobil and Santa Fuel, Inc., during the 1995-1996 heating season.

  13. Panorama of PetroChina Jidong Oil Field Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoLu

    2003-01-01

    As the old oil fields in East China are currently facing more and more pressure to keep their crude oil production stable in the past few years owing to the high water cut, PetroChina Jidong Oil Field has become a rising star in the country's oil and gas exploration and production sector. Jidong Oil Field

  14. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Permian Basin Province of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Harry E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas and southeast New Mexico. The assessment was geology based and used the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system are petroleum source rocks (quality, source rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). This study assessed potential for technically recoverable resources in new field discoveries only; field growth (or reserve growth) of conventional oil and gas fields was not included. Using this methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 41 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 1.3 billion barrels of undiscovered oil in the Permian Basin Province.

  15. Methanogenic Oil Degradation in the Dagang Oil Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation is one of the main in situ oil transformation processes in subsurface oil reservoirs. Recent studies have provided evidence of biodegradation of residual oil constituents under methanogenic conditions. Methane, like other biogenic gases, may contribute to reduce the viscosity of oil and enhance its flow characteristics (making it more available) but it can also be used as a energy source. So the aim of the present study was to provide reliable information on in situ biotransformation of oil under methanogenic conditions, and to assess the feasibility of implementing a MEOR strategy at this site. For this reason, chemical and isotopic analyses of injection and production fluids of the Dagang oil field (Hebei province, China) were performed. Microbial abundances were assessed by qPCR, and clone libraries were performed to study the diversity. In addition, microcosms with either oil or 13C-labelled hydrocarbons were inoculated with injection or production waters to characterize microbial processes in vitro. Geochemical and isotopic data were consistent with in situ biogenic methane production linked to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: GC-MS profiles of petroleum samples were nearly devoid of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, and alkyltoluenes, and light PAH, confirming that Dagang oil is mostly highly weathered. In addition, carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane (δ13CCH4 and δDCH4, respectively), and the bulk isotopic discrimination (Δδ13C) between methane and CO2 (between 32 and 65 ) were in accordance with previously reported values for methane formation during hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, methane-producing Archaea and hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were abundant in produced oil-water samples. On the other hand, our laboratory degradation experiments revealed that autochthonous microbiota are capable of significantly degrade oil within several months, with biodegradation patterns resembling those

  16. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  17. Structural style and reservoir development in the west Netherlands oil province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racero-Baena, A. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)); Drake, S. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Schiedam (Netherlands))

    1993-09-01

    The area of the Rijswijk concession largely coincides with the onshore extent of the west Netherlands basin. To date, oil has been produced from a total of 15 fields within the Rijswijk concession, which have a total STOIIP of about 210 x 10[sup 6]m[sup 3] (1.3 x 10[sup 9] bbl). Reservoirs generally comprise continental and shallow marine clastics of the Upper Jurassic of Lower Cretaceous deposited in synrift and postrift settings. The west netherlands basin was created during a phase of Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous rifting, characterized by divergent oblique-slip faulting. This resulted in a northwest-southeast-trending block-faulted depression between the London-Brabant Massif to the south, and the Zandvoort Ridge to the north. In the subsequent postrift stage, shallow marine clastics and marls were deposited in a wide basin, with only mild synsedimentary faulting. At the end of the Cretaceous, regional uplift and convergent oblique-slip faulting resulted in basin inversion and the reverse reactivation of preexisting normal faults. Due to the transpressional nature of the basin inversion, narrow asymmetric anticlines were formed, often bounded by upward diverging reverse faults, in the hanging-wall blocks of the former normal faults. These type of structures constitute the general trap geometry of the Cretaceous oil fields in this basin. The acquisition of three-dimensional seismic data has resulted in significantly enhanced structural definition and has lead to the development of new structural and depositional models, which improve the prediction of reservoir distribution and risk assessment.

  18. Apparatus for performing oil field laser operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2017-01-03

    A system, apparatus and methods for delivering high power laser energy to perform laser operations in oil fields and to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. A laser downhole assembly for the delivery of high power laser energy to surfaces and areas in a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics and a fluid path.

  19. Big Gas Field Found in West Sichuan Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Located in the territory of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, the central part of West Si Depression,Xinchang Gas Field is the biggest gas field ever discovered in the depression. Up to the end of 1995, the proved and controlled reserves of the gas field have surpassed the state standard of a large-scaled gas field. For this reason, it has been listed by the State Planning Commission as one of the great discoveries in gas prospecting since the Sixth Five-Year Plan of the country.

  20. Crude Production Tops 2 Million Tons at Qinghai Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The crude oil output of Qinghai Oil Field in Qaidam basin of the northwestern China's Qinghai Province topped two million tons at the end of 2000.This is the first time that the annual crude oil output of the oilfield has exceeded two millions, according to Huang Ligong, general manager of Qinghai Oil Field under PetroChina.

  1. Reserve growth of the world's giant oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of estimated total recoverable oil volume (field size) of 186 well-known giant oil fields of the world (>0.5 billion bbl of oil, discovered prior to 1981), exclusive of the United States and Canada, demonstrates general increases in field sizes through time. Field sizes were analyzed as a group and within subgroups of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and non-OPEC countries. From 1981 through 1996, the estimated volume of oil in the 186 fields for which adequate data were available increased from 617 billion to 777 billion bbl of oil (26%). Processes other than new field discoveries added an estimated 160 billion bbl of oil to known reserves in this subset of the world's oil fields. Although methods for estimating field sizes vary among countries, estimated sizes of the giant oil fields of the world increased, probably for many of the same reasons that estimated sizes of oil fields in the United States increased over the same time period. Estimated volumes in OPEC fields increased from a total of 550 billion to 668 billion bbl of oil and volumes in non-OPEC fields increased from 67 billion to 109 billion bbl of oil. In terms of percent change, non-OPEC field sizes increased more than OPEC field sizes (63% versus 22%). The changes in estimated total recoverable oil volumes that occurred within three 5-year increments between 1981 and 1996 were all positive. Between 1981 and 1986, the increase in estimated total recoverable oil volume within the 186 giant oil fields was 11 billion bbl of oil; between 1986 and 1991, the increase was 120 billion bbl of oil; and between 1991 and 1996, the increase was 29 billion bbl of oil. Fields in both OPEC and non-OPEC countries followed trends of substantial reserve growth.

  2. Venezuelan oil field revival bids won

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-29

    This paper reports that four private sector companies or combines will operate inactive oil fields in Venezuela under state owned Petroleos de Venezuela's marginal field reactivation program. The award of operating contract to winning bidders marks the first time private companies will be allowed to produce crude oil in Venezuela since nationalization of the industry in 1976. Winning bidders have committed a total of $720 million in investments to the program during the 1990s. Current plans call for drilling 670 appraisals and development wells, conducting 250 workovers and well repairs, and conducting about 2,9000 line km of seismic surveys. Venezuela's energy ministry is targeting a production level of 90,000 b/d by the end of the decade from the reactivated fields.

  3. Arrangement of tapering traps in the main oil and gas complexes of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vysotskiy, V.M.; Malykh, A.G.; Pikulevich, V.D.; Sidorenkov, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Based on evaluation of the densities of distribution of traps formed by lithological and stratigraphic screens, in the main oil and gas masses of West Siberia an isolation is made of the intervals of the section which are the most promising for detecting screened formations. These include the Berrias-Valanzhinskiy, Valanzhin-Gotherivian and upper Jurassic oil and gas complexes which are included among the primary objects for setting up prospecting and exploration aimed at finding screened hydrocarbon formations.

  4. The forming factors and distribution rules of giant oil and gas fields in the coastal basins of West Africa%西非海岸盆地带大油气田形成条件与分布规律探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑应钊; 何等发; 马彩琴; 万德辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 探究西非海岸盆地带大油气田形成条件和分布的规律,为发现更多的大油气田提供理论依据.方法 从西非海岸盆地带沉积盆地分布和已发现的大油气田分布情况入手,分析其形成的有利条件,总结出西非最主要的两大含油气盆地——尼日尔三角洲盆地和下刚果盆地的含油气系统的相似性和差异性,归纳出西非大油气田形成及分布的规律.结果 在西非海岸盆地带,盐岩层的发育对各盆地油气的成藏和分布有重大影响.盐岩发育的大西洋带中段,盆地油气富集程度明显高于盐岩不发育的南段、北段盆地.西非海岸盆地带的含油气系统可分为盐下、盐上两套大的含油气系统,盐下含油气系统的烃源岩是湖相页岩,储层为河流相、三角洲相、滨海相砂岩,阿普第期蒸发岩层为盖层;盐上含油气系统的烃源岩是海相页岩,储层主要为浊积岩,盖层为泥页岩.结论 在西非海岸盆地带,大油气田多分布于近海或沿岸,受构造位置和沉积相带控制,形成多个油气富集带,具有垂直三角洲的沉积走向,呈带状富集的规律.由油气产出的岩性来看,其主要产出于碎屑岩储层,碳酸岩储层次之.产油层系以第三系为主,其次为白垩系.在南段盆地,形成了大气田;在中段的下刚果盆地和加蓬海岸盆地,只形成了大油田;在尼日尔三角洲盆地,形成了大油田、大气田共存的局面;西非北段盆地尚未发现大油气田.未来在西非海岸带中段盆地的深水浊积岩区有望发现更多的大油气田.%Aim To study the forming factors of giant oil and gas fields in the coastal basins of West Africa, and summarize the fields' distribution rules in order to help the hydrocarbon exploration in the future. Methods Based on the distribution of sedimentary basins and giant oil and gas fields in West Africa Coast, the factors of its forming is analyzed, the similarity

  5. Physical chemical characteristics of oil emulsions of North-West Konys and Zhanaozen oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbota Adilbekova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical chemical properties of oil emulsions of two different oilfields of Kazakhstan - NorthWest Konys and Zhanaozen by their densities related to light and heavy oils, respectively, were studied. Qualitative and quantitative compositions of main stabilizing components of oil emulsions (resins, asphaltenes and high molecular paraffins were determined. The dispersion degree of oil emulsions was determined using optical microscopy. It was found that samples relate to fine dispersed oil emulsions by dispersion, and to poorly stable (Konys and highly stable (Zhanaozen oil emulsions by ability to form emulsions. Light oil of Konys oilfield (ρ = 833 kg/m3 at 20°C contains 11.5% of paraffins, 0.69% resins, 0.19% asphaltenes. The same measurements were carried out for heavy oil of Zhanaozen (943 kg/m3 at 20°C where paraffin content exceeded 30%, amount of resins was 1.5% and asphaltenes – 0.6%. The sample of Zhanaozen oilfield contains 33% of water, 154.8 mg/L chlorides, 5.22 % mechanical impurities, and for oilfield samples of North-West Konys the water content was 7.5%, the content of chloride salts – 18 mg/L, and 0.002% of mechanical impurities.

  6. Geology of the Tambaredjo oil field, Suriname

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dronkert, H. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)); Wong, T.E. (Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Haarlem (Netherlands))

    1993-02-01

    After the initial discovery in the sixties of oil below the coastal plain of Suriname (S. America), the State Oil Company of Suriname started production of the unique Tambaredjo field in 1982. The heavy, biodegraded oil (14-16[degrees] API) is produced under compaction drive, from the Paleocene T-sand (average thickness 5 m) at a depth of about 300 m. More than 300 wells have been drilled in an area of about 200 km[sup 2]. High resolution seismics makes it possible to correlate units down to 2 m thick. This dense network of bore holes is very suitable for geological correlations and 3D modeling. The T-sand reservoir consists of angular, medium to coarse grained unconsolidated sands with interfingering clays and lignites. The sands are deposited on a well cemented erosional Cretaceous basement. The reservoir is sealed by locally continuous clays. The oil is trapped in structural highs created by syn-sedimentary rejuvenated basement faults. The depositional environment of the T-sand ranges from fluviatile to deltaic. Frequent avulsion and synsedimentary faulting created a highly compartmented reservoir. Although interconnectedness of the sand bodies is high, clay smears and silting out of the edges confine reservoir compartments. The best genetic sand units such as channel fills or mouth bar deposits hardly correlate over more than a few hundred meters. The Tambaredjo oil field offers an unique opportunity to study the detailed sedimentology and petroleum geology of a fluvio-deltaic transitional realm on the passive margin along the Guiana coast.

  7. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland (68º-72º N) Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Olsen, B. Ø.

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenlandbetween 68º N and 72º N. The coastal zone is divided into nearly 200 areas and the offshorezone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each area, and each area issubsequently ranked...

  8. Enhancement of the TORIS data base of Appalachian basin oil fields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-31

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System, or TORIS, was developed by the Department of Energy in the early 1980s with a goal of accounting for 70% of the nation`s original oil in place (OOIP). More than 3,700 oil reservoirs were included in TORIS, but coverage in the Appalachian basin was poor. This TORIS enhancement project has two main objectives: to increase the coverage of oil fields in the Appalachian basin; and to evaluate data for reservoirs currently in TORIS, and to add, change or delete data as necessary. Both of these objectives have been accomplished. The geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia have identified 113 fields in the Appalachian basin to be included in TORIS that collectively contained 80% of the original oil in place in the basin. Furthermore, data in TORIS at the outset of the project was checked and additional data were added to the original 20 TORIS oil fields. This final report is organized into four main sections: reservoir selection; evaluation of data already in TORIS; industry assistance; and data base creation and validation. Throughout the report the terms pool and reservoir may be used in reference to a single zone of oil accumulation and production within a field. Thus, a field is composed of one or more pools at various stratigraphic levels. These pools or reservoirs also are referred to as pay sands that may be individually named sandstones within a formation or group.

  9. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  10. 78 FR 23673 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced... Class 3 (Native) Spearmint Oil for the 2012-2013 Marketing Year AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service..., producers during the 2012-2013 marketing year under the Far West spearmint oil marketing order. The...

  11. Ways to improve oil and gas prospecting in West Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubaikhodzhaev, T.I.

    1981-07-01

    Some innovations in conducting prospecting for oil and gas in the western part of Uzbekistan are described: drilling of single (evaluation, parametric) wells in places where seismic tests have shown some anomalies; reducing drilling time and costs, correct combination of parametric drilling with seismic prospecting. 12 refs.

  12. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, Daniel [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Bromwich, David H [Ohio State University; Vogelmann, Andrew M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Verlinde, Johannes [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Russell, Lynn M [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography

    2017-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) is the most technologically advanced atmospheric and climate science campaign yet fielded in Antarctica. AWARE was motivated be recent concern about the impact of cryospheric mass loss on global sea level rise. Specifically, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is now the second largest contributor to rising sea level, after the Greenland Ice Sheet. As steadily warming ocean water erodes the grounding lines of WAIS components where they meet the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas, the retreating grounding lines moving inland and downslope on the underlying terrain imply mechanical instability of the entire WAIS. There is evidence that this point of instability may have already been reached, perhaps signifying more rapid loss of WAIS ice mass. At the same time, the mechanical support provided by adjacent ice shelves, and also the fundamental stability of exposed ice cliffs at the ice sheet grounding lines, will be adversely impacted by a warming atmosphere that causes more frequent episodes of surface melting. The surface meltwater damages the ice shelves and ice cliffs through hydrofracturing. With the increasing concern regarding these rapid cryospheric changes, AWARE was motivated by the need to (a) diagnose the surface energy balance in West Antarctica as related to both summer season climatology and potential surface melting, and (b) improve global climate model (GCM) performance over Antarctica, such that future cryospheric projections can be more reliable.

  13. Accounting for the waterless period of oil production in calculations on oil field production design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminov, M.F.; Butorin, O.I.

    1981-01-01

    Formulae on the dynamics of oil and liquid from a methodology developed by the Tatar Scientific-Research and Design Institute for the Oil Industry are adjusted, accounting for the waterless period in oil production. It is demonstrated that the process of accounting for the waterless period in oil production leads to a more accurate prediction of the engineering parameters for mining and oil field.

  14. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland (68º-72º N) Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Olsen, B. Ø.

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenlandbetween 68º N and 72º N. The coastal zone is divided into nearly 200 areas and the offshorezone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each area, and each area issubsequently ranked...... according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking anumber of smaller areas are especially selected because they are of particular significance, theyare particularly vulnerable to oil spill and, an effective oil spill response can be performed. Theshoreline sensitivity ranking is shown....... Based on all the information,appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area. Web site environmental-atlas.dmu.dk/...

  15. Litsea cubeba Essential Oil Yield Harvested from Different Habitat Types on Mt. Papandayan, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichsan Suwandhi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the yield and chemical composition of Litsea cubeba essential oil harvested from different habitat types on Mount Papandayan, West Java, Indonesia. The methods used were determination of sample plots at each habitat, followed by laboratory testing. Leaf samples were taken from each plot, the oil was extracted in the laboratory using steam distillation, which was subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that the yield of essential oil was high (2.76-9.33%. The three dominant chemical compounds found were eucalyptol (16.97-55.78%, α-terpinenyl acetate (7.27-20.44%, and sabinene (14.45-68.05%. The results confirmed the expectation that Litsea cubeba essential oils extracted from Litsea cubeba trees growing in various habitats on Mount Papandayan would show a variety in yield and chemical composition.

  16. Models of optimal technology for removing oil by secondary methods of developing highly viscous oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewulski, J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents research on developing several methods of optimal technology for removing oil in highly viscous oil fields from the following wells: Lubno-3, Kharklova-Gvaretstvo 154 and Vetzhno (heavy oil). The problem connected with preparing the displacement fluids, with special emphasis on the authors patented technology for producing micellar solutions are discussed. The studies of dislocation fluids (including modified ones) were conducted at 3 temperatures: 293, 308, and 323/sup 0/K and with and without micellar solutions. The tests were used to idetify static regressive models of oil removal from oil fields. The model is satisfactorily accurate in predicting the amount of oil yield by using various secondary methods. Practical conclusions are reached based on an analysis of the studies. These conclusions provide the basis for industrial tests to increase the effectiveness of waterflooding highly viscous oil fields. They can also be used to develop old (gased) oil fields, an advantage considering the current fuel-energy situation.

  17. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H. [Research and Development Centre for Oil and Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  18. De-convoluting mixed crude oil in Prudhoe Bay Field, North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Scott, Ramos L.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Bird, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy-four crude oil samples from the Barrow arch on the North Slope of Alaska were studied to assess the relative volumetric contributions from different source rocks to the giant Prudhoe Bay Field. We applied alternating least squares to concentration data (ALS-C) for 46 biomarkers in the range C19-C35 to de-convolute mixtures of oil generated from carbonate rich Triassic Shublik Formation and clay rich Jurassic Kingak Shale and Cretaceous Hue Shale-gamma ray zone (Hue-GRZ) source rocks. ALS-C results for 23 oil samples from the prolific Ivishak Formation reservoir of the Prudhoe Bay Field indicate approximately equal contributions from Shublik Formation and Hue-GRZ source rocks (37% each), less from the Kingak Shale (26%), and little or no contribution from other source rocks. These results differ from published interpretations that most oil in the Prudhoe Bay Field originated from the Shublik Formation source rock. With few exceptions, the relative contribution of oil from the Shublik Formation decreases, while that from the Hue-GRZ increases in reservoirs along the Barrow arch from Point Barrow in the northwest to Point Thomson in the southeast (???250 miles or 400 km). The Shublik contribution also decreases to a lesser degree between fault blocks within the Ivishak pool from west to east across the Prudhoe Bay Field. ALS-C provides a robust means to calculate the relative amounts of two or more oil types in a mixture. Furthermore, ALS-C does not require that pure end member oils be identified prior to analysis or that laboratory mixtures of these oils be prepared to evaluate mixing. ALS-C of biomarkers reliably de-convolutes mixtures because the concentrations of compounds in mixtures vary as linear functions of the amount of each oil type. ALS of biomarker ratios (ALS-R) cannot be used to de-convolute mixtures because compound ratios vary as nonlinear functions of the amount of each oil type.

  19. Political economic origins of Sekondi-Takoradi, West Africa’s new oil city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins, growth and trajectory of Sekondi-Takoradi, West Africa’s newest oil city, are considered by using an “institutional-analytical” method of economic history. Particular attention is given to the role of ports, harbours and railways, and how they evolved and interacted with political economic institutions in the last 100 years. This omnibus historical analysis suggests that West Africa’s newest oil city has come full circle. Its contemporary stature in national and international circles has a historical parallel in the 1920s when, as now, it captured national, regional and international attention. The evidence suggests that contemporary narratives that strike a determinist relationship between resource boom and social doom need to be reconsidered.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  1. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probir Kumar Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane. Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60–80°C. Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08±0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73±0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04±0.01 mg/mL, total phenol (0.96±0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra, reducing power (40.49±1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra, and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77±0.06 mg/mL were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp..

  2. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.).

  3. Application of Lean Tools in the Oil Field Safety Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Current safety management in oil fields is in low efficiency and data from DOE indicated that the injury rate in the oil and gas field was greater than those for all the other U.S. industries. The paperintroduced lean concepts and tools to the safety management in oil fields. In theresearch, a new safety management methodology has been set up. The study also compared the current safety management and the new safety management which was built up by lean concepts. In addition, several lean tools have been modified to make them fit and work better in oil fields.

  4. IMPACT OF OIL FIELD EXPLOITATION ON ECO-ENVIRONMENT OF THE DAQING LAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shao-peng; LU Jin-fu; SUN Guang-you

    2003-01-01

    The Daqing lakes are located in the region with sub-humid continental monsoon climate. Through histori-cal comparison of the environment before and after oil field exploitation in the area, the paper analyses the impact of oilfield exploitation on the eco-environment of the lakes, including the impact of diversion works, drainage works, exploita-tion and utilization of groundwater, dropped crude oil and petrochemical wastewater on the lakes water body. The analy-sis shows that oil field exploitation caused serious pollution to soil in the lakes area and deterioration of the e-co-environment. The impact became more evident with passage of time, and the intensity varied with areas, gettingmore serious from west to east, which meant that the eastern part of the lakes were influenced much more seriously by thehuman activities. To improve the eco-environment of the Daqing lakes and make them sustainable utilization, the effec-tive protection measures should be taken.

  5. Airborne mercury pollution from a large oil spill accident on the west coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yim, Un-Hyuk; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2009-05-15

    Atmospheric mercury pollution was recognized after a large oil spill on the west coast of Korea on 7 December 2007. In this study, the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM: Hg(0)) in air were measured both shortly after the oil spill ( approximately 100h) and 1month after the accident near the accident site. When the Hg concentration levels were compared between two seashore sites and two parallel sites offshore, the values tend to decrease further offshore. The unusual rise in Hg concentration levels observed on the seashore area shortly after the accident (mean of 16.4+/-9.85ngm(-3)) dropped dramatically after 1month with active cleanup activities (2.99+/-1.40ngm(-3)). Because of the connection between crude oil and Hg (one of the major impurities), the unusual rise in the atmospheric Hg after the oil spill can be explained by the active evasion of Hg from the spilled crude oil. Although Hg levels determined a few days after the accident did not exceed the reference exposure limits (REL) proposed by several agencies, the early build-up of elemental mercury level due to the oil spill might have exerted certain impacts on the surrounding environments.

  6. Rheological properties of crude oils in Yaregskoye and Yaraktinskoye oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzhai, V. N.; Le Grand Monkam Monkam, Clovis; Terre, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Rotary viscometer tests of crude oil with a high content of resins and asphaltenes (Yaregskoye oil field) and crude oil with high paraffin content (Yaraktinskoye oil field) have been conducted. The typical flow curves for these oil types have been plotted. It has been detected that these oils are non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity of which is dependent on shear rate. Based on Arrhenius-Eyring equation, calculations of viscous flow activation energy and complex structural unit (CSU) sizes have been performed. It has been stated that there is a tenfold reduction in CSU size in asphaltic crude oil with the increase in shear rate in a rotary viscometer, while particle size in paraffinic crude oil does not essentially change under the same hydrodynamic conditions.

  7. Programed oil generation of the Zubair Formation, Southern Iraq oil fields: Results from Petromod software modeling and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ameri, T. K.; Pitman, J.; Naser, M.E.; Zumberge, J.; Al-Haydari, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    1D petroleum system modeling was performed on wells in each of four oil fields in South Iraq, Zubair (well Zb-47), Nahr Umr (well NR-9), West Qurna (well WQ-15 and 23), and Majnoon (well Mj-8). In each of these fields, deposition of the Zubair Formation was followed by continuous burial, reaching maximum temperatures of 100??C (equivalent to 0. 70%Ro) at depths of 3,344-3,750 m of well Zb-47 and 3,081. 5-3,420 m of well WQ-15, 120??C (equivalent to 0. 78%Ro) at depths of 3,353-3,645 m of well NR-9, and 3,391-3,691. 5 m of well Mj-8. Generation of petroleum in the Zubair Formation began in the late Tertiary, 10 million years ago. At present day, modeled transformation ratios (TR) indicate that 65% TR of its generation potential has been reached in well Zb-47, 75% TR in well NR-9 and 55-85% TR in West Qurna oil field (wells WQ-15 and WQ-23) and up to 95% TR in well Mj-8, In contrast, younger source rocks are immature to early mature (environment and consists of interbedded shales and porous and permeable sandstones. In Basrah region, the shales have total organic carbon of 0. 5-7. 0 wt%, Tmax 430-470??C and hydrogen indices of up to 466 with S2 = 0. 4-9. 4 of kerogen type II & III and petroleum potential of 0. 4-9. 98 of good hydrocarbon generation, which is consistent with 55-95% hydrocarbon efficiency. These generated hydrocarbons had charged (in part) the Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs, especially the Zubair Formation itself, in the traps formed by Alpine collision that closed the Tethys Ocean between Arabian and Euracian Plates and developed folds in Mesopotamian Basin 15-10 million years ago. These traps are mainly stratigraphic facies of sandstones with the shale that formed during the deposition of the Zubair Formation in transgression and regression phases within the main structural folds of the Zubair, Nahr Umr, West Qurna and Majnoon Oil fields. Oil biomarkers of the Zubair Formation Reservoirs are showing source affinity with mixed oil from the Upper

  8. Multi-Functional Lands Facing Oil Palm Monocultures: A Case Study of a Land Conflict in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de R.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnographic case study of a palm oil land conflict in a Malay community in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The conflict occurred in the preparatory phase of a large-scale plantation, before any oil palms were planted. After protest from local communities, the project was canceled

  9. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-04

    This is the ninth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1990 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. There are 54,963 field records in this year's Oil and Gas Field Code Master List (FCML). This amounts to 467 more than in last year's report. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes: Field records for each state and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides;field records for each alias field name; fields crossing state boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective state naming authorities.

  10. Integrated field modelling[Oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, Bamshad

    2002-07-01

    This research project studies the feasibility of developing and applying an integrated field simulator to simulate the production performance of an entire oil or gas field. It integrates the performance of the reservoir, the wells, the chokes, the gathering system, the surface processing facilities and whenever applicable, gas and water injection systems. The approach adopted for developing the integrated simulator is to couple existing commercial reservoir and process simulators using available linking technologies. The simulators are dynamically linked and customised into a single hybrid application that benefits from the concept of open software architecture. The integrated field simulator is linked to an optimisation routine developed based on the genetic algorithm search strategies. This enables optimisation of the system at field level, from the reservoir to the process. Modelling the wells and the gathering network is achieved by customising the process simulator. This study demonstrated that the integrated simulation improves current capabilities to simulate the performance of the entire field and optimise its design. This is achieved by evaluating design options including spread and layout of the wells and gathering system, processing alternatives, reservoir development schemes and production strategies. Effectiveness of the integrated simulator is demonstrated and tested through several field-level case studies that discuss and investigate technical problems relevant to offshore field development. The case studies cover topics such as process optimisation, optimum tie-in of satellite wells into existing process facilities, optimal well location and field layout assessment of a high pressure high temperature deepwater oil field. Case study results confirm the viability of the total field simulator by demonstrating that the field performance simulation and optimal design were obtained in an automated process with treasonable computation time. No significant

  11. Integrated field modelling[Oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, Bamshad

    2002-07-01

    This research project studies the feasibility of developing and applying an integrated field simulator to simulate the production performance of an entire oil or gas field. It integrates the performance of the reservoir, the wells, the chokes, the gathering system, the surface processing facilities and whenever applicable, gas and water injection systems. The approach adopted for developing the integrated simulator is to couple existing commercial reservoir and process simulators using available linking technologies. The simulators are dynamically linked and customised into a single hybrid application that benefits from the concept of open software architecture. The integrated field simulator is linked to an optimisation routine developed based on the genetic algorithm search strategies. This enables optimisation of the system at field level, from the reservoir to the process. Modelling the wells and the gathering network is achieved by customising the process simulator. This study demonstrated that the integrated simulation improves current capabilities to simulate the performance of the entire field and optimise its design. This is achieved by evaluating design options including spread and layout of the wells and gathering system, processing alternatives, reservoir development schemes and production strategies. Effectiveness of the integrated simulator is demonstrated and tested through several field-level case studies that discuss and investigate technical problems relevant to offshore field development. The case studies cover topics such as process optimisation, optimum tie-in of satellite wells into existing process facilities, optimal well location and field layout assessment of a high pressure high temperature deepwater oil field. Case study results confirm the viability of the total field simulator by demonstrating that the field performance simulation and optimal design were obtained in an automated process with treasonable computation time. No significant

  12. Investigations of Flare Gas Emissions in Taq Taq Oil Field on the Surrounding Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar A. Ali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by oil takes many different forms; one of the most damaging sources is simply the combustion of oil products, such as a well flare burn-off. This paper presents the results of a survey of the agriculture lands around the Taq Taq Oil Production Company. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential contamination caused by the gas emissions from the well flares. Taq Taq field is located in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, 60 km north of the giant Kirkuk oil field, 85 km south-east of Erbil and 120 km north-west of Suleimani. Samples of soil were collected from several locations around the site and analyzed to determine the content of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAH present. A gas chromatography linked to a mass spectrometry (GCMS machine was used for these measurements. The PAH contamination at each location of soil was determined and the 16-PAHs, as listed in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA documentation were investigated. The average content of total PAH in all samples of the agricultural soil was 0.654 mg·kg-1 with the concentrations ranging from 0.310 to 0.869 mg·kg-1. It was found that the PAH concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the TTOPCO oil field, indicating that pollution was evident, the area close to the field being more affected by the gas pollution.

  13. Cross-correlations between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Wei, Yu; Huang, Dengshi; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the cross-correlation properties between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC. We use not only the qualitative analysis of the cross-correlation test, but also take the quantitative analysis of the MF-DXA, confirming the cross-correlation relationship between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) respectively, which have strongly multifractal features, and the cross-correlations are more strongly multifractal in the short term than in the long term. Furthermore, based on the multifractal spectrum, we also find the multifractality strength between the crude oil WTI and Chinese stock market is stronger than the multifractality strength of other pairs. Based on the Iraq war (Mar 20, 2003) and the Financial crisis in 2008, we divide sample period into four segments to research the degree of the multifractal (ΔH) and the market efficiency (and the risk). Finally, we employ the technique of the rolling window to calculate the time-varying EI (efficiency index) and dependent on the EI, we can easily observe the change of stock markets. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between bivariate cross-correlation exponents (Hxy(q)) and the generalized Hurst exponents.

  14. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of operation and possible oil recovery from the sixth formation of Arlansk oil field. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viktorov, P.F.; Teterev, I.G.

    1970-01-01

    This field is characterized by complex geological variations, high viscosity oil (16 to 39 cp), and extreme heterogeneity. The field has been under a peripheral waterflood for 10 yr, however even at high water-cut (50 to 75%), only 40% of the reserve has been recovered. The high water-cut results from premature water breakthrough in high-permeability zones and from water coning. As cumulative oil recovery increases, water production increases exponentially. Oil recovery can be increased only 3 to 4%, by increasing the removal of fluids from wells. Consideration is being given to use of hot water and high-pressure gas to increase oil recovery.

  16. Mapping oil and gas development potential in the US Intermountain West and estimating impacts to species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly E Copeland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have quantified the indirect effect of hydrocarbon-based economies on climate change and biodiversity, concluding that a significant proportion of species will be threatened with extinction. However, few studies have measured the direct effect of new energy production infrastructure on species persistence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We propose a systematic way to forecast patterns of future energy development and calculate impacts to species using spatially-explicit predictive modeling techniques to estimate oil and gas potential and create development build-out scenarios by seeding the landscape with oil and gas wells based on underlying potential. We illustrate our approach for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus in the western US and translate the build-out scenarios into estimated impacts on sage-grouse. We project that future oil and gas development will cause a 7-19 percent decline from 2007 sage-grouse lek population counts and impact 3.7 million ha of sagebrush shrublands and 1.1 million ha of grasslands in the study area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Maps of where oil and gas development is anticipated in the US Intermountain West can be used by decision-makers intent on minimizing impacts to sage-grouse. This analysis also provides a general framework for using predictive models and build-out scenarios to anticipate impacts to species. These predictive models and build-out scenarios allow tradeoffs to be considered between species conservation and energy development prior to implementation.

  17. Oil and Gas field code master list 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Oil dehydration using hydrodynamic effects and electrical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipin, V.S.; Cherepnin, V.V.; Didenko, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    This article examines the influence of hydrodynamic effects and electrical fields upon the water content of commercial oil. It is demonstrated that increasing the period of contact of the emulsion with a reagent and a unit for emulsive perturbation and reagent transfer, leads to a dosage reduction with a resulting high-quality of oil.

  19. Assessment of Alaska's North Slope Oil Field Capacity to Sequester CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umekwe, Pascal, E-mail: wpascals@gmail.com [Baker Hughes (United States); Mongrain, Joanna, E-mail: Joanna.Mongrain@shell.com [Shell International Exploration and Production Co (United States); Ahmadi, Mohabbat, E-mail: mahmadi@alaska.edu [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Petroleum Engineering Department (United States); Hanks, Catherine, E-mail: chanks@gi.alaska.edu [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The capacity of 21 major fields containing more than 95% of the North Slope of Alaska's oil were investigated for CO{sub 2} storage by injecting CO{sub 2} as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agent. These fields meet the criteria for the application of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}-EOR methods and contain about 40 billion barrels of oil after primary and secondary recovery. Volumetric calculations from this study indicate that these fields have a static storage capacity of 3 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2}, assuming 100% oil recovery, re-pressurizing the fields to pre-fracturing pressure and applying a 50% capacity reduction to compensate for heterogeneity and for water invasion from the underlying aquifer. A ranking produced from this study, mainly controlled by field size and fracture gradient, identifies Prudhoe, Kuparuk, and West Sak as possessing the largest storage capacities under a 20% safety factor on pressures applied during storage to avoid over-pressurization, fracturing, and gas leakage. Simulation studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} Prophet to determine the amount of oil technically recoverable and CO{sub 2} gas storage possible during this process. Fields were categorized as miscible, partially miscible, and immiscible based on the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with their oil. Seven sample fields were selected across these categories for simulation studies comparing pure CO{sub 2} and water-alternating-gas injection. Results showed that the top two fields in each category for recovery and CO{sub 2} storage were Alpine and Point McIntyre (miscible), Prudhoe and Kuparuk (partially miscible), and West Sak and Lisburne (immiscible). The study concludes that 5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} can be stored while recovering 14.2 billion barrels of the remaining oil.

  20. Oil field produced water discharges into wetlands in Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 600 oil field produced water discharges are permitted in Wyoming by the State’s Department of Environmental Quality's (WDEQ) National Pollutant...

  1. Rangely Oil Field Perch Survey, 2001-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data are the results of raptor perch surveys conducted monthly from August 2001 - July 2004 along a standardized survey route in the Rangely Oil Field (ROF),...

  2. Early impact of oil palm planting density on vegetative and oil yield variables in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonneau Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A range of various different planting distances (from 7.5 to 9.5 m between oil palms were tested using an equilateral triangle design in a plantation density experiment which was settled in an oil palm commercial plantation in Nigeria. Climatic conditions were quite stable, with two seasons and around 2000 mm of annual rainfall. The soil was of desaturated ferralitic type, sandy on the surface, deep and without coarse elements. The early impact of plantation density was analysed at eight years after planting. Some early signs of depressive effect on yields were found for high planting densities (180 and 205 p/ha. Such a negative impact was not severe enough to counteract the effects of a higher number of palms per hectare. As a consequence, a gradient could be observed as yields (in tons of bunches per hectare increased with density. We can anticipate that the competition effect between palms will increase over time with high densities, so that the counteracting point ought to be reached in a few years. A thinning treatment has been included in the protocol. Thinning was carried out at the end of the eight-year period.

  3. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  4. Clastic reservoir porosity mapping using seismic data and geostatistics: Callovian unit, West Lulu field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejbaek, O.V.

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this report was to demonstrate possible uses of seismic impedances as soft data for reservoir characterization. To illustrate the impact of the results and attempt to calculate oil in place was also carried out. It must, however, be emphasized that these results only apply to the Callovian portion of the Middle Jurassic West Lulu reservoir, and thus do not provide estimates of the entire Middle Jurassic West Lulu accumulation. It is important to realise that stochastic simulations does not provide exact predictions in areas outside the control of hard data. It is, however, offering possibilities to exploit every known or surmised property about the desired (target) data population. These properties include f.ex., mean, spread, spatial continuity (measured by variograms), horixontal and vertical trends, correlation to supporting soft data (e.g. seismic impedances) etc. Neither are predictions exact even through the term `narrowed solution space` is applied. This term merely implies that the error in prediction at any point may be less than the full range of the parameter. The quality of the predictions mainly depend on meticulous handling of data, avoiding errors like bad stratigraphic alignment of the data, obtaining good variograms, avoiding errors in the construction of the target populations and including every pertinent attribute about the data. The result is thus also depending on a full geological understanding of the problem (and moral of the modeller). The most important quality is the ability to provide a great number of equi-probable realisation that equally well satisfies any known or surmised property about the target data population. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of inversion derived seismic impedances for geostatistical reservoir characterisation in a complex clastic reservoir exemplified with the West Lulu reservoir of the Harald Field. The well database is rather modest, so substantial support has been gained from the

  5. Shengli Oil Fields: Today and Tomorrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Renjie

    1996-01-01

    @@ Shengli oil area lies in the Yellow River Delta, in the north of Shandong Province bordering the Bohai Bay. The area is scattered over 28 counties, covering 37 000 square kilom eters. The main part of exploration and exploitation is located on both sides of the Yellow River estuary within the territory of Dongying City.

  6. Restructuring Raises Revenue of Liaohe Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Qiuju

    2002-01-01

    @@ Liaohe Petroleum Exploration Bureau, as a Stateowned oil giant company in Northeast China's Liaoning Province, has made significant progress in the nationwide drive o restructure State-owned enterprises. Once plagued by excessive laborers and backward production equipment, the bureau has adopted a series of effective measures on human resource management, market expansion and technology renovation.

  7. Oil and gas field code master list 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1994 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. The master field name spellings and codes are to be used by respondents when filing the following Department of Energy (DOE) forms: Form EIA-23, {open_quotes}Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves,{close_quotes} filed by oil and gas well operators (field codes are required from larger operators only); Forms FERC 8 and EIA-191, {open_quotes}Underground Gas Storage Report,{close_quotes} filed by natural gas producers and distributors who operate underground natural gas storage facilities. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, (703) 487-4650. In order for the Master List to be useful, it must be accurate and remain current. To accomplish this, EIA constantly reviews and revises this list. The EIA welcomes all comments, corrections, and additions to the Master List. All such information should be given to the EIA Field Code Coordinator at (214) 953-1858. EIA gratefully acknowledges the assistance provides by numerous State organizations and trade associations in verifying the existence of fields and their official nomenclature.

  8. Oil and gas field code master list 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997 is the sixteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the US. It is updated with field information collected through October 1997. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry. As a result of their widespread adoption they have in effect become a national standard. The use of field names and codes listed in this publication is required on survey forms and other reports regarding field-specific data collected by EIA. There are 58,366 field records in this year`s FCML, 437 more than last year. The FCML includes: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (definition of alias is listed); fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. This report also contains an Invalid Field Record List of 4 records that have been removed from the FCML since last year`s report. These records were found to be either technically incorrect or to represent field names which were never recognized by State naming authorities.

  9. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the Northern West Greenland (72°-75° N) Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael; Boertmann, David; Mosbech, Anders

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 72º N and 75º N. The coastal zone is divided into 118 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 3 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment....../area is subsequently ranked according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller areas are especially selected as they are of particular significance, they are especially vulnerable to oil spills and they have a size making oil spill response possible. The shoreline sensitivity...

  10. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland (68°-72° N) Coastal Zone, 2nd revised edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Daniel Spelling; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Mosbech, Anders

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 68º N and 72º N. The coastal zone is divided into 199 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment....../area is subsequently ranked according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller areas are especially selected as they are of particular significance, they are especially vulnerable to oil spills and they have a size making oil spill response possible. The shoreline sensitivity...

  11. Maintenance Support of a Field Station in Sierra Leone, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-04

    AD-A279 136 ARMY PROJECT ORDER NO: 91PP1801 TITLE: MAINTENANCE SUPPORT OF A FIELD STATION IN SIERRA LEONE , WEST AFRICA PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brian...SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Maintenance Support of a Field Station in Army Project Order Sierra Leone , West Africa 91PP1801 6. AUTHOR(S) Brian W.J. Mahy...Detrick Frederick, Maryland 21702-5012 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Subtitle: Maintenance Support of a FiLd Station in Sierra Leone , West Africa for Lassa

  12. Field study of heavy oil viscosity reduction for production transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, J.; Annichiariccom, G.; Montanez, M. [Ecopetrol S.A. (Venezuela); Faust, M.; Weathers, T. [Nalco Energy Services (Colombia); Parra, R. [Nalco de Colombia Ltda. (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, production and transportation are expensive processes requiring complex equipment and procedures. The main issue with heavy crude oil is its high viscosity. A method using naphtha injection was developed to dilute the fluids and aid in water separation, but this method is expensive and raises safety issues. To reduce naphtha consumption, Ecopetrol and Nalco Energy Services developed a new dispersion technology. This paper presents this technology and the results of its field trial in the Chichimene oil field. Key production indicators were monitored to determine how effective the emulsion method was in enhancing production. Results showed no negative effect on the separation facility or oil and water quality while reducing by 75% the injection of diluent. This paper presents a dispersion technology which successfully reduced the need for naphtha and thus reduced production costs.

  13. Experimental Research on the Reusing & Recycling Technology of Oil Extraction Wastewater Treatment in Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    How to use water resource effectively is an important problem in developing industry. Three combined processes which are composed of oil separator+de-emulsification flocculation+sand filtration (SDF), oil separator +hydrolytic acidification+SBR (SAS) and oil separator+de-emulsification flocculation +SBR (SDS) are conducted in laboratory-scale experiment to treat oil extraction wastewater for an oil-field. The experimental results show that the removal rate of COD(chemistry oxygen demand) and oil treated by SDF process are 85% and 95% respectively, the residual oil in effluent can meet the discharge standard, but the residual COD can not. The removal rate of COD and BOD (biological oxygen demand) of the SAS effluent are 85% and 90% respectively, the BOD can meet but the COD can not meet discharge standard. So the further treatment is required in the process. The SDS effluent with removal rate of 95% and 90% are obtained for COD and BOD respectively, which can completely meet the national standards of oil wastewater discharge and refilling (China). The experimental result shows that oil extraction wastewater has turned into water resource after being treated by SDS.

  14. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  15. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Field Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Hugh [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Dentz, Jordan [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Doty, Chris [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  16. CNPC Beefs up Cooperative Development for Onshore Oil and Gas Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yaonan; Wang Kefu

    1996-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has made remarkable progress in cooperation with foreign firms for joint develoment of China's onshore oil and gas fields. A total of more than 30blocks from China's nine oil areas such as Daqing, Shengli,Liaohe, Xinjiang, Dagang, Zhongyuan, Tairm, Sichuan and Qinghai are now put up for cooperative development with foreign firms in various forms. By the end of August 1996, CNPC has signed eight development contracts with foreign firms, of which four contracts are for development of proven non-producing reserves (namely: Contract for Block Min-114 and Contract for Block Qian-130 in Jilin,Contract for Block Zhao-13 in Daqing, and Contract for West Chengdao Development in Shengli); one contract is for EOR ( contract for heavy crude in Xinjiang ) and three contracts are for well workover service and productionsharing ( in Shengli, Liaohe and Dagang ).

  17. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Early and Late Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study-the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU-encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources.

  18. Occurrence of oil and gas in Devonian shales and equivalents in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwietering, J. F.

    1981-03-01

    During the Devonian, an epicontinental sea was present in the Appalachian basin. The Catskill Clastic Wedge was formed in the eastern part of the basin by sediments derived from land along the margin of the continent. Three facies are recognized in the Catskill Clastic Wedge: (1) a red-bed facies deposited in terrestrial and nearshore marine environments; (2) a gray shale and sandstone facies deposited in a shallow- to moderately-deep marine environment; and (3) a dark-gray shale and siltstone facies deposited in the deepest part of the epicontinental sea. Oil and natural gas are being produced from Devonian shales in the western part of West Virginia and from upper Devonian sandstones and siltstones in the north-central part of the state. It is suggested that in addition to extending known areas of gas production, that drilling for natural gas be conducted in areas underlain by organic-rich shales and thick zones of interbedded siltstone and shale in the Devonian section in central, southern, and western West Virginia. The most promising areas for exploration are those areas where fractures are associated with folds, faults, and lineaments. 60 references.

  19. Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR.

  20. Third oil field just on stream in Dutch sector of North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Three oil-producing fields are now onstream in the Dutch sector of the North Sea, an area which until about three years ago produced only natural gas. Union Oil Company of The Netherlands and Nedlloyd Energy B.V. are partners in the three fields, located in Block Q/1. Union is operator. Oil was first discovered in 1979 in an exploratory well about 40 km west of Den Helder. Confirmation drilling established the Helm field. About a year later, Helder field was discovered 6 km northwest of Helm. Production licenses for the two fields were granted in mid-1981 and production began from both fields in late September 1982. A third field in the Q/1 block, Hoorn, was discovered in 1980 and went onstream at the end of July 1983. In late summer 1983, Helm and Helder were producing a total of about 15,000 b/d, and Hoorn output was up to about 20,000 b/d one month after coming onstream. Development of the finds moved fast; for example, Hoorn field was put onstream 37 days ahead of schedule, according to a Union spokesman. Several factors were responsible for meeting--or beating--construction and development schedules, including: Cooperation of the Dutch government made permitting and other procedures move quickly. An integrated deck concept was used for platform design, reducing fabrication time and offshore construction time. Platforms for all three fields were identical, with only minor modifications made to handle different throughputs. Full approval to proceed with the development of Helm and Helder was obtained in July 1981, jackets and deck were delivered 1 year later and installed in August 1982. The Hoorn platform deck was delivered in June 1983, and started up at the end of July.

  1. Correlation of source rocks and oils in the Sespe oil field, Ventura County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillis, P.G. (Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (United States)); Clark, M.S. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden (United States))

    1991-02-01

    The Sespe oil field in the central Ventura basin produces low sulfur (< 1%), intermediate gravity (23-32{degree} API) oil from Middle Eocene to Lower Miocene reservoirs in the upper plate of the San Cayetano thrust. Previous studies proposed the Eocene Cozy Dell, Matilija, and Juncal formations in the San Cayetano overthrust as the source rocks. Alternatively, the oils could be derived from the Miocene Monterey Formation in the subthrust. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data are used to characterize and correlate the Sespe oils from comparison with bitumen extracts of the possible source rocks. The oils have pristane/phytane ratios of 1.3-1.6, bisnorhopane/hopane ratios of about 0.2, and relatively low amounts of diasteranes, oleanane, and C{sub 29} steranes. These data indicate that all of the oils belong to the same family and that variations in the API gravity are due to the degree of biodegradation. In addition, the sterane and triterpane distributions imply that the source organic matter is derived from marine phytoplankton and bacteria with a minor contribution from land plants. The Sespe oils do not correlate with the upper plate Eocene source rocks but correlate fairly well with the upper plate Eocene source rocks. Thus, a subthrust source is proposed. However, the Sespe oils have higher gravity and lower sulfur content than typical Monterey oils. The low sulfur content may result from the higher iron content, due to terrigenous input, of the Sespe field source rocks relative to other Monterey source rocks. Alternatively, the Sespe oils were expelled from the Monterey Formation at relatively high levels of thermal maturity.

  2. Deepwater oil and gas field development in South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dagang; Wybro Pieter; Kang Yongtian

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on potential development models of future oil and gas exploration in South China Sea.A detailed study of current development models worldwide is performed through some examples of industry installed/ongoing projects and major technical issues encountered during these practice.Key technologies are discussed for the success of field development.Some of the technologies and field development experience can be used for South China Sea project.Several models are studied in field development for different scenarios,including marginal field,large oil field and gas field.With the massive investment activities,continued improved technologies,and rapidly growing pool of professionals,the offshore industry in China will soon encounter a golden period.

  3. Alkanes in shrimp from the Buccaneer Oil Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.; Chang, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    A total of 36 samples of shrimp were examined from the region of the Buccaneer oil field, eighteen of which were representatives of the commercial species Penaeus aztecus and the rest were various other species: Penaeus duorarum (pink shrimp), Trachypenaeus duorarum (sugar shrimp), Squilla empusa (mantis shrimp), and Sicyonia dorsalis (chevron shrimp). The alkanes and deuteriated alkanes were completely separated by GC, so a mass spectrometer was not required for their detection and quantitation. To confirm the identities of individual compounds, however, some samples were examined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results show that only thirteen of the forty shrimp collected from the region of the Buccaneer oil field contained petroleum alkanes, and the majority of these were obtained from trawls immediately adjacent to the production platforms. It appears that shrimp caught in the region of the Buccaneer oil field are not appreciably tainted with hydrocarbons discharged from the production platforms. (JMT)

  4. Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern alaskan landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D A; Webber, P J; Binnian, E F; Everett, K R; Lederer, N D; Nordstrand, E A; Walker, M D

    1987-11-06

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For example, in the wettest parts of the oil field (flat thaw-lake plains), flooding and thermokarst covered more than twice the area directly affected by roads and other construction activities. Protecting critical wildlife habitat is the central issue for cumulative impact analysis in northern Alaska. Comprehensive landscape planning with the use of geographic information system technology and detailed geobotanical maps can help identify and protect areas of high wildlife use.

  5. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  6. Composition and placement process for oil field chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu, L.A.; Yost, M.E.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a process for the continuous release of an oil field chemical within a subterranean hydrocarbon bearing formation or wellbore penetrating such formation. It comprises placing the oil field chemical in a polymeric microcapsule; dispersing such polymeric microcapsules; introducing the wellbore fluid containing the microcapsules into a well bore or subterranean formation through a wellbore; then allowing water and temperature at formation conditions to degrade; continuously releasing the chemical from the degraded microcapsules. This patent describes a composition comprising an oil field chemical incorporated in a polymeric microcapsule comprising the condensation product of hydroxyacetic acid monomer or hydroxyacetic acid co-condensed with up to 15 percent by weight of other hydroxy-, carboxylic acid-, or hydroxycarboxylic acid- containing moieties. The product has a number average molecular weight of from about 200 to about 4000.

  7. Microbial response to nitrate treatment in offshore oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedtker, Gunhild

    2009-07-01

    North Sea oil reservoirs are often injected with deaerated sea water in order to enhance oil recovery. The high sulphate content of sea water combined with the anoxic conditions stimulates growth of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system and the reservoir. SRB produce the highly toxic and corrosive gas hydrogen sulphide (HZS) during anaerobic respiration with sulphate. Accumulation of HZS leads to corrosion and reservoir souring, which may result in reduced gas quality, separation problems and increased maintenance costs. Biocides have traditionally been used to prevent SRB activity in North Sea oil fields. During the last decade, however, the environmentally sound method of nitrate treatment has replaced biocides on several fields. The method is based on shifting the microbial activity from sulphate reduction to nitrate reduction by introducing nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. Results presented in the current thesis show that nitrate treatment has resulted in long-term inhibition of SRB activity and a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% in sea water injection systems at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil fields. Molecular analysis (PCR-DGGE) of pipeline biofilm from Veslefrikk showed that sulphide-oxidizing nitrate-reducing bacteria (NR-SOB) constituted the major metabolic group during nitrate treatment, and that the bacterial community composition remained stable during years. Reduction in sulphide produced from the Gullfaks field showed that nitrate treatment was effective also at reservoir level. Analysis of back flowed injection water from a nitrate-treated Statfjord reservoir showed that heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) constituted the major metabolic group, and that the in situ HZS level was 10 fold lower than experienced during biocides treatment and 100 fold lower than experienced during produced water reinjection (PWRI). At the Norne oil field oxic sea water is injected along with

  8. Measuring marine oil spill extent by Markov Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma, Miguel; Parmiggiani, Flavio; Lopez Lopez, Ludwin

    2014-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of the Gulf of Mexico in the spring of 2010 was the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. An immediate request, after the accident, was to detect the oil slick and to measure its extent: SAR images were the obvious tool to be employed for the task. This paper presents a processing scheme based on Markov Random Fields (MRF) theory. MRF theory describes the global information by probability terms involving local neighborhood representations of the SAR backscatter data. The random degradation introduced by speckle noise is dealt with a pre-processing stage which applies a nonlinear diffusion filter. Spatial context attributes are structured by the Bayes equation derived from a Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) estimation. The probability terms define an objective function of a MRF model whose goal is to detect contours and fine structures. The markovian segmentation problem is solved with a numerical optimization method. The scheme was applied to an Envisat/ASAR image over the Gulf of Mexico of May 9, 2010, when the oil spill was already fully developed. The final result was obtained with 51 recursion cycles, where, at each step, the segmentation consists of a 3-class label field (open sea and two oil slick thicknesses). Both the MRF model and the parameters of the stochastic optimization procedure will be provided, together with the area measurement of the two kinds of oil slick.

  9. PRESERVATION OF AVOCADO OIL WITH ELECTRIC FIELD TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Ariza-Ortega; E. Ramírez-Moreno; M.E. Ramos-Cassellis; J. Díaz-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of different conditions of electric field (voltage 3 kV cm-1, 60 Hz, 10 and 180 s; 720 Hz, 10 and 180 s) as method on preservation up to 365 days on oil extracted of the avocado pulp. Unsaturated fatty acid oxidation in crude avocado oil was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique in the mid infrared region and by quality parameters (acidity, peroxide and iodine). The electric field caused minimal changes on unsaturated fat...

  10. The Terra Nova oil field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, G.C. [Petro-Canada, Inc., St. John' s, NF (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Before expanding on the development of the Terra Nova oilfield, the author discussed the overall business strategy of Petro-Canada and identified where the Terra Nova and offshore Newfoundland oil have their place within this strategy. The principal basins and oilfields offshore Newfoundland were reviewed, then the emphasis shifted to rest on the Terra Nova development project. A whole range of topics were brought up, including the Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) facility, the modules layout, the FPSO located at Bull Arm, and the floating production systems. The physical environment of the Grand Banks was highlighted, and the next few sections were devoted to the Terra Nova FPSO, FPSO and drill centres, the Turret General Arrangement, and Spider buoy including the disconnect/reconnect. The last four sections dealt with the animation of riser movement, the wellhead protection animation, Henry Goodrich, and operations readiness.

  11. Intisar ''D'' Oil Field, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, T.J.; Campbell, N.D.J.; Maher, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Intisar D Reef Oil Field was discovered by Occidental in Oct. 1967; the discovery well tested 75,000 bpod. The prospect was based on reflection seismic data, which indicated the presence of an isolated reef. The Intisar D Reef is roughly circular in plan and approximately 5 km in diameter. Its maximum thickness is 1262 ft (385 m). The reef is coral and algal with grain- and mud-supported biomicrites. The reef was full to spill point with a maximum oil column of 955 ft (291 m). The 40 API gravity oil has a paraffinic base and is low in sulfur. Cumulative oil production as of Sept. 30, 1978, totaled 777 million bbl ultimate recovery efficiency is expected to appraoch 75%. No pressure support was expected. Supplemental recovery operations that were begun early include pressure maintenance by both water and gas injection. The reservoir pressure is now maintained at the 4000-psi level, high enough for miscible gas displacement.

  12. Effective strategies for development of thermal heavy oil field facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ken; Lehnert-Thiel, Gunter [IMV Projects (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In thermal heavy oil, a significant part of the capital has to be invested in field facilities and therefore strategies have to be implemented to optimize these costs. Field facilities consist of pipelines, earthworks and production pads whose purpose is to connect an oilsands reservoir to a central processing facility. This paper, presented by IMV Projects, a leading company in the thermal heavy oil field, highlights strategies to manage field facility lifecycle cost. Upfront planning should be done and the development of field facilities should be thought of as a long term infrastructure program rather than a stand-alone project. In addition, templates should be developed to save money and repeatability should be implemented to obtain a better prediction of the program's costs. The strategies presented herein allow major savings over the program's life by implementing an improved schedule and allowing refinements all along the program's course.

  13. Oil Spill Field Trial at Sea: Measurements of Benzene Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesteland, Ingrid; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Daling, Per; Bråtveit, Magne

    2017-07-01

    Characterize personal exposure to airborne hydrocarbons, particularly carcinogenic benzene, during spill of two different fresh crude oils at sea. The study included 22 participants taking part in an «oil on water» field trial in the North Sea. Two types of fresh crude oils (light and heavy) were released six times over two consecutive days followed by different oil spill response methods. The participants were distributed on five boats; three open sampling boats (A, B, and C), one release ship (RS), and one oil recovery (OR) vessel. Assumed personal exposure was assessed a priori, assuming high exposure downwind and close to the oil slick (sampling boats), low exposure further downwind (100-200 m) and upwind from the oil slick (main deck of RS and OR vessel), and background exposure indoors (bridge of RS/OR vessel). Continuous measurements of total volatile organic compounds in isobutylene equivalents were performed with photoionization detectors placed in all five boats. Full-shift personal exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, naphthalene, and n-hexane was measured with passive thermal desorption tubes. Personal measurements of benzene, averaged over the respective sample duration, on Day 1 showed that participants in the sampling boats (A, B, and C) located downwind and close to the oil slick were highest exposed (0.14-0.59 ppm), followed by participants on the RS main deck (0.02-0.10 ppm) and on the bridge (0.004-0.03 ppm). On Day 2, participants in sampling boat A had high benzene exposure (0.87-1.52 ppm) compared to participants in sampling boat B (0.01-0.02 ppm), on the ships (0.06-0.10 ppm), and on the bridge (0.004-0.01 ppm). Overall, the participants in the sampling boats had the highest exposure to all of the compounds measured. The light crude oil yielded a five times higher concentration of total volatile organic compounds in air in the sampling boats (max 510 ppm) than the heavy crude oil (max 100 ppm) but rapidly declined to

  14. The influence of magnetic fields on crude oils viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose L.; Bombard, Antonio J. F. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Reologia

    2009-07-01

    The crystallization of paraffin causes serious problems in the process of transportation of petroleum. This phenomenon increases the crude oil viscosity and implies an organic resin accumulation on pipeline wall, resulting in a reduced flux area or totally blocked pipes. One of the most challenging tasks for pipeline maintenance is solving this problem at low cost. Therefore, a method that inhibits the crystallization of paraffin and reduces the viscosity of crude oil could have many useful applications within the petroleum industry. Recent studies showed that magnetic fields reduce the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and the viscosity of paraffin-based crude oil. For better understanding of this discovery, a series of tests was performed. This paper will show the influence of a DC magnetic field on rheological proprieties of three crude oils with different paraffin concentrations: a crude oil sample with 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 1); a crude oil sample with 6 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 2); a mixture of paraffin plus light crude oil with a total of 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration. These samples were placed in an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 1.3 Tesla. The samples' temperatures were conditioned around their Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT), and they were exposed to the field. As the viscosity of crude oil is very sensitive to the changes in temperature, it was ensured that the temperature has remained constant throughout the process. The sample 1 revealed a considerable reduction of viscosity: its original viscosity was 66 cP before magnetic field exposure, after that its viscosity was reduced to 39 cP. The other samples showed the same viscosity, before and after the magnetic field exposure. Since the samples 1 and 3 have the same paraffin concentrations, the viscosity reduction is not due only to the presence of paraffin; there must be other factors responsible for the interaction of sample 1 with the

  15. Microbial ecology of oil fields : introduction to the symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voordouw, G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2000-07-01

    A brief synopsis was presented of how and why microbiology has become a topic of large interest in the petroleum industry to increase the volume and reduce the costs of production. Organic acids are formed when organic material is buried and oil is being formed. Subsurface waters having high concentration of these acids contain sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) which cause problems such as anaerobic, microbially influenced corrosion and souring. New nucleic acid hybridization technologies are being used to identify the SRB and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) active in these processes. Oil fields can be injected with nitrate to overcome microbial souring. Some oil field bacteria use hydrocarbons as electron donors for their metabolism, but when oxygen is absent, either Fe{sup 3}, sulfate or nitrate is needed as an electron acceptor. Degradation of alkylbenzenes under iron-reducing, denitrifying and sulfate-reducing conditions has been established and the anaerobic respiration of alkanes has also been demonstrated. Sulfate-reducing, alkylbenzene or alkane oxidizers are the dominant organisms in storage tanks. Another important reason why microbiology has played a key role in fields where oil is produced by water injection, is the fact that resident or introduced bacteria can be successfully used for microbial enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by blocking the path of lease resistance.

  16. Time Lapse Gravity and Seismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the West Hastings Field, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J. F.; Richards, T.; Klopping, F.; MacQueen, J.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Time lapse or 4D gravity and seismic reflection surveys are being conducted at the West Hastings Field near Houston, Texas to monitor the progress of CO2 injection. This Department of Energy supported CO2 sequestration experiment is conducted in conjunction with a Denbury Onshore, LLC tertiary recovery project. The reservoir is at a depth of 1.8 km in the Oligocene Frio sands and has been produced since the 1930s. Goals are an accounting and mapping of the injected CO2 and to determine if migration occurs along intra-reservoir faults. An integrated interpretation of the geophysical surveys will be made together with well logs and engineering data. Gravity monitoring of water versus gas replacement has been very successful, but liquid phase CO2 monitoring is problematic due to the smaller density contrast with respect to oil and water. This reservoir has a small volume to depth ratio and hence only a small gravity difference signal is expected on the surface. New borehole gravity technology introduced by Micro-g-Lacoste can make gravity measurements at near reservoir depths with a much higher signal to noise ratio. This method has been successfully evaluated on a simulation of the Hastings project. Field operations have been conducted for repeated surface and borehole gravity surveys beginning in 2013. The surface survey of 95 stations covers an area of 3 by 5 km and 22 borehole gravity logs are run in the interval above the Frio formation. 4D seismic reflection surveys are being made at 6 month intervals on the surface and in 3 VSP wells. CO2 injection into the targeted portion of the reservoir only began in early 2015 and monitoring will continue into 2017. To date only the baseline reservoir conditions have been assessed. The overall success of the gravity monitoring will not be determined until 2017.

  17. Antibacterial activity of essential oil of north west Algerian Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachir Raho Ghalem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the crude oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (E. camaldulensis leaves. Methods: The essential oils of E. camaldulensis harvested from the garden of the Health Center in Sidi Bel Abbes city (North West of Algeria, were screened for their antibacterial activities against two clinical bacteria [Escherichia coli (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus] by the agar disc diffusion method and broth dilution susceptibility assay. Results: The diameter of zones of inhibition by the leaf extracts of E. camaldulensis was 10- 31 mm and 10-26 mm respectively for E. coli and S. aureus. Gram positive S. aureus was more resistant to tested essential oil than Gram negative E. coli. Conclusions: The results suggested a potential antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E. camaldulensis, which may find its application in future research for the food and pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the Northern West Greenland (72°-75° N) Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael; Boertmann, David; Mosbech, Anders

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 72º N and 75º N. The coastal zone is divided into 118 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 3 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment....../area is subsequently ranked according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller areas are especially selected as they are of particular significance, they are especially vulnerable to oil spills and they have a size making oil spill response possible. The shoreline sensitivity....... Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area...

  19. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland (68°-72° N) Coastal Zone, 2nd revised edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Daniel Spelling; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Mosbech, Anders

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 68º N and 72º N. The coastal zone is divided into 199 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment....../area is subsequently ranked according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller areas are especially selected as they are of particular significance, they are especially vulnerable to oil spills and they have a size making oil spill response possible. The shoreline sensitivity....... Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area....

  20. Antibacterial activity of essential oil of north west Algerian Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bachir Raho Ghalem; Benali Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the crude oil of Eucalyptuscamaldulensis Methods: The essential oils of E. camaldulensis harvested from the garden of the Health Center in Sidi Bel Abbes city (North West of Algeria), were screened for their antibacterial activities against two clinical bacteria [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)] by the agar disc diffusion method and broth dilution susceptibility assay.Results:(E. camaldulensis) leaves. 31 mm and 10-26 mm respectively for E. coli and S. aureus. Gram positive S. aureus was more resistant to tested essential oil than Gram negative E. coli. The diameter of zones of inhibition by the leaf extracts of E. camaldulensis was 10-Conclusions: The results suggested a potential antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E.camaldulensis, which may find its application in future research for the food and pharmaceutical industry.

  1. Microbial diversity of a high salinity oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neria, I.; Gales, G.; Alazard, D.; Ollivier, B.; Borgomano, J.; Joulian, C.

    2009-07-01

    This work is a preliminary study to investigate the microbial diversity of an onshore oil field. It aim to compare results obtained from molecular methods, physicochemical analyses and cultivation. A core of 1150 m depth sediments ( in situ T=45 degree centigrade) was collected and immediately frozen with liquid nitrogen prior to further investigation. Macroscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses were performed. (Author)

  2. Seismic techniques of enhanced oil recovery: experimental and field results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, O.L.; Simkin, E.M.; Chilingar, G.V.; Gorfunkel, M.V.; Robertson, J.O. Jr.

    2002-09-15

    Application of secondary and tertiary oil recovery techniques during late field development stages usually yields poor results. The reasons are principally due to the low efficiency of these technologies, probably because the gravity and capillary forces are not properly considered. Improved efficiency for hydrocarbon recovery produced by seismic vibration is discussed. (author)

  3. Environmental Protection of Oil and Gas Fields 1997 Subscriptions Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ ENTIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF OIL AND GAS FIELDS is a scientific and technical periodical in Chinese with abstracts in English. jointly operated by China Petroleum Planning and Engineering Institute and Technical Supervision, Safety and Environmental Protection Bureau, CNPC and publicly distributed at home and abroad.

  4. Geothermal Reservoir Characterization for Steam Field Management in Kamojang Geothermal Field-West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Abidin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Kamojang is the first geothermal field in Indonesia with a vapor dominated system reservoir. Kamojang has been exploited for over 20 years producing about 1100 tons/hour of steam which is equivalent to 140 Mwe electricity energy. This research is aimed to study the reservoir character after 20 years of exploitation and to investigate the effect of reinjection as a artificial recharge for steam input in the future and also the nature of secondary processes in the reservoir using isotope geochemistry tools. The research is conducted by natural isotopes (18O, 2H and 3H analysis of many sources of water (meteoric, cold spring, fumaroles and shallow groundwater in the surrounding of Kamojang field and also fluid reservoir to establish fluid reservoir origins and isotopic composition. Gas analysis and isotopes monitoring on the 25 production wells have been conducted every 2-3 years intervals for more than 10 years to investigate the effect of exploitation to the reservoir performance. Tritium radiotracer test with 370 GBq (10 Ci activity was conducted at the KMJ 15 reinjection well to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the flow of reinjection water to its surrounding producing well (KMJ 11, 14, 17, 18, 26, 17 and 30. Data interpretation and evaluation to determine reinjection water mass recovery and cooling prediction modeling were conducted using ICEBOX program package (TRINV and TRCOOL. Interpretation and evaluation of data concluded that reservoir fluid of Kamojang geothermal field was originated from meteoric water which infiltrated through fault structures at elevation of 1350 m –1650 m above sea level. There is no evidence that the fluid was originated from magmatic water. Reservoir fluid moved both laterally and vertically (deep fluid with lateral fluid movement from west to the east. The isotope data analysis indicated there is water entry in west-northwest reservoir boundary. Water entry gradually moved from northwest to the

  5. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: Field observations and simulations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; Babu, M.T.; Jayakumar, S.; ManiMurali, R.; Saran, A.K.; Sharma, L.H.; Rajan, B.; Srivastava, M.

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of 2 vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly...

  6. Microbial enhanced heavy crude oil recovery through biodegradation using bacterial isolates from an Omani oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayegh, Abdullah; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Joshi, Sanket

    2015-09-16

    Biodegradation is a cheap and environmentally friendly process that could breakdown and utilizes heavy crude oil (HCO) resources. Numerous bacteria are able to grow using hydrocarbons as a carbon source; however, bacteria that are able to grow using HCO hydrocarbons are limited. In this study, HCO degrading bacteria were isolated from an Omani heavy crude oil field. They were then identified and assessed for their biodegradation and biotransformation abilities under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria were grown in five different minimum salts media. The isolates were identified by MALDI biotyper and 16S rRNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were submitted to GenBank (NCBI) database. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis. To assess microbial growth and biodegradation of HCO by well-assay on agar plates, samples were collected at different intervals. The HCO biodegradation and biotransformation were determined using GC-FID, which showed direct correlation of microbial growth with an increased biotransformation of light hydrocarbons (C12 and C14). Among the isolates, B. licheniformis AS5 was the most efficient isolate in biodegradation and biotransformation of the HCO. Therefore, isolate AS5 was used for heavy crude oil recovery experiments, in core flooding experiments using Berea core plugs, where an additional 16 % of oil initially in place was recovered. This is the first report from Oman for bacteria isolated from an oil field that were able to degrade and transform HCO to lighter components, illustrating the potential use in HCO recovery. The data suggested that biodegradation and biotransformation processes may lead to additional oil recovery from heavy oil fields, if bacteria are grown in suitable medium under optimum growth conditions.

  7. Evolution of the Moxizhuang Oil Field, Central Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Huayao; Zhang Yuanchun; Liu Jianzhang; Shi Jiannan

    2008-01-01

    Current oil saturation in the Moxizhuang (莫西庄) Oil Field in central Janggar (准噶尔) basin was evaluated by logging interpretation and measured on core samples, and the paleo-oil saturation in both the pay zones and water zones was investigated by graln-containing-oil inclusion (GOI) analysis.The pay zones in this field have low oil saturation and display low resistivity and small contrast between pay zones and water zones, and are classified as low-porosity, low oil saturation, and low resistivity reservoirs. Both the current low oil-saturation pay zones and the water zones above 4 365 m have high GOI values (up to 38%), suggesting high paleo-oil saturation. The significant difference between current oil saturation from both logging interpretation and core sample measurement and paleo-oil saturation indicated by GOI analysis suggests that this low oil-saturation field evolved from a high oil-saturation pool. Lateral re-migration and spill of formally trapped oil owing to changes in structural configuration since Neogene was the most plausible mechanism for oil loss in the Moxizhuang Oil Field.The combined effects of differential accumulation in the charge phase and the differential re-migration and spill of accumulated oil in Neogene are responsible for the complicated correlation between residual oil saturation and porosity/permeability of the reservoir sandstones and the distribution of low oil-saturation pay zones and paleo-oil zones (current water zones).

  8. Bird Mortality in Oil Field Wastewater Disposal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pedro

    2010-11-01

    Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed properly, can cause wildlife mortality. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 154 field inspections of 28 COWDFs in Wyoming from March 1998 through September 2008 and documented mortality of birds and other wildlife in 9 COWDFs. Of 269 bird carcasses recovered from COWDFs, grebes (Family Podicipedidae) and waterfowl (Anatidae) were the most frequent casualties. Most mortalities were attributed to oil on evaporation ponds, but sodium toxicity and surfactants were the suspected causes of mortality at three COWDFs. Although the oil industry and state and federal regulators have made much progress in reducing bird mortality in oil and gas production facilities, significant mortality incidents continue in COWDFs, particularly older facilities permitted in the early 1980’s. Inadequate operation and management of these COWDFs generally results in the discharge of oil into the large evaporation ponds which poses a risk for birds and other wildlife.

  9. Agroecological practices in oil palm plantations: examples from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessou Cécile

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is nowadays the first vegetable oil consumed worldwide. Given the world population growth and the increasing demand in fat for food and fuel, the increase in oil palm production is expected to continue. It is thus important to find ways of reducing the ecological impact of oil palm plantations at both the agroecosystem and the mill supply area levels, by improving agricultural practices and land uses. This is where agroecology can play a very critical role. The present article gathers short stories on agroecological practices currently taking place in oil palm plantations in South-East Asia. Such stories notably highlight the importance of the various palm co-products and how appropriate recycling strategies can allow for reducing external inputs to both the field and the mill. Besides limiting environmental impacts thanks to such savings, several co-products used as organic amendments can even help to maintain or enhance soil quality. Other stories explored agroecological practices developed for biological controls. Although integrated pest management has been applied in palm plantations for a long time, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully deciphered and practices still need to be improved. More knowledge is needed in order to better account for the holistic role of biodiversity and arbitrate trade-offs between practices and ecosystem services, at both plantation and landscape levels.

  10. Development and Prospects for Energy Saving Technology in Oil & Gas Fields, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Youwang; Yu Jiqing; Lin Ran; Zhu Yingru; Liu Feijun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Current state of energy saving technology in China's oil and gas fields System optimization To optimize the oil-gas field surface engineering system is critical to improve the efficiency of oil and gas field system.To adapt to the changes in development of old oil and gas fields, all oilfields are adjusted and reconstructed;a set of optimized and simplified modes and technical measures are developed.

  11. Clay-oil droplet suspensions in electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozynek, Zbigniew; Fossum, Jon Otto; Kjerstad, Knut; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Castberg, Rene

    2012-02-01

    Silicone oil droplets containing synthetic smectite clay submerged in immiscible organic oil have been studied by observing clay particle movement and oil circulation when an electric field is applied. Results show how electric field strength, dielectric and electrorheological properties as well as electrohydrodynamics determine the fluid flow and clay particle formation. In a presence of the DC electric fields the clay particles formed a ribbon-like structure onto the inner surface of the droplet. The structure consists of short chain-like clay elements orienting parallel to the electric field direction. It is suggested that a combination of two phenomena, namely the induced viscous flow (electrohydrodynamic effect) and the polarization of the clay particles (dielectric effect), contribute to the ribbon-like structure formation. -/abstract- References [1] G. Taylor, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences 291 (1966) 159--166. [2] J. R. Melcher and G. I. Taylor, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 1 (1969) 111--146. [3] H. Sato, N. Kaji, T. Mochizuki, and Y. H. Mori, Physics of Fluids 18 (2006) 127101. [4] D. A. Saville, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 29 (1997) 27--64. [5] J. O. Fossum, Y. M'eheust, K. P. S. Parmar, K. D. Knudsen, K. J. Måløy, and D. M. Fonseca Europhysics Letters 74

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A

    1980-02-29

    This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

  13. Third One-million-ton Oil Field in Junggar Basin Will Come into Being

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Jun; Li Songguo

    2002-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Xinjiang Oil FieldCompany is accelerating its efforts for construction of the third 1-million-ton oil field in Junggar basin - Luliang oil field located in the hinterland of the basin, which was found in 2000.

  14. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  15. SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE "KONGORA" - TOMISLAVGRAD COAL FIELD (WEST HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Živković

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available According to it's energy potential »Kongora« coal field is very important source of energy. Coal strech, spreading and laying and proportion between coal and barren give good presumption for a rentabile surface exploitation. The coal analyses, specially analysis of sulphur content showed, that content of harm component on the update technology level is in permissible limits, and exploitation in thermal power plants will not destroy environment (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. Childhood Trauma Training in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: A Field Visit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobayed, Mamoun

    2004-01-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder is the psychological reaction to various traumas. It is common among children living in war zones or conflict regions. This paper describes a field visit to train mental health professionals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip on how to help traumatised children.

  17. Teaching Soil Science and Ecology in West Siberia: 17 Years of Field Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Christian; Barsukov, Pavel; Demyan, Scott; Babenko, Andrey; Lashchinsky, Nikolay; Smolentseva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995, soil-ecological field courses across climatic zones in West Siberia have been organized by scientists from Russia and Germany to meet growing demands for better land use practices. They are focused on virgin landscapes and soils undisturbed by anthropogenic influences to facilitate the learning processes by excluding concealing changes…

  18. An objective estimation of impurities in oil field stagnant waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashev, R.G.; Runets, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Studies and an analysis of published materials are used to establish the predominant role of the mechanical impurities of various origins covered by layers of the heavy components of petroleum products in reducing the injectivity of injection wells for injecting stagnant waters containing concretions. A method is proposed for determining the impurities in the oil field stagnant waters used for flooding; this method makes it possible to obtain more reliable results on the concentration of the concretions responsible in such conditions for the drop in the injectivity of the formation reservoirs. A comparative evaluation of the results from an analysis of the impurities determined by the existing method and the proposed method is given. This method is useful in oil field laboratories in the systematic quality control over injected waters.

  19. The Application of BP Neural Network In Oil-Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ying ZHANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the situation that many techniques of production performance analysis acquire lots of data and are expensive considering the computational and human resources, and their applications are limited, this paper puts forward a new method to analyze the production performance of oil-field based on the BP neural network. It builds a dataset with some available measured data such as well logs and production history, then, builds a field-wide production model by neural network technique, a model will be used to predict. The technique is verified, which shows that the predicted results are consistent with the maximum error of rate of oil production lower than 7% and maximum error of rate of water production lower than 5%, having certain application and research value.  

  20. Protection of Paddy Field and Recommendation of Regional Planning in Cianjur Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munibah, Khursatul; Yudarwati, Rani; Dwi Wahyunie, Enni; Wijaya, Hermanu

    2016-11-01

    Cianjur Regency is one of “lumbung” paddies in West Java Province that can contribute to rice sufficiency for West Java 13.5%. However conversion of paddy field into other land use still happen in Indonesia because of land rent of paddy field less than other land use and also the low commitment of Government to protect the paddy field to get food self-sufficiency. Objectives are analysis of paddy field protection and recommendation of regional planning. Paddy field protection was determined based on existing paddy field, land suitability, economic value and Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW). Recommendation of regional planning was determined based on priority level of paddy field protection, Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW) and rice sufficiency status. The results showed that land suitability, economic value and also allocating land for paddy field in the RTRW can support realization of paddy field protection. The paddy field that included into the first and third priority is 30.14% and 38.45%, respectively. The other priorities of paddy field protection are around 15%. This research is recommended that 87.5% of the paddy field existing can be protected to get rice sufficiency with surplus around 48.782 ton.

  1. Marine communities on oil platforms in Gabon, West Africa: high biodiversity oases in a low biodiversity environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Friedlander

    Full Text Available The marine biodiversity of Gabon, West Africa has not been well studied and is largely unknown. Our examination of marine communities associated with oil platforms in Gabon is the first scientific investigation of these structures and highlights the unique ecosystems associated with them. A number of species previously unknown to Gabonese waters were recorded during our surveys on these platforms. Clear distinctions in benthic communities were observed between older, larger platforms in the north and newer platforms to the south or closer to shore. The former were dominated by a solitary cup coral, Tubastraea sp., whereas the latter were dominated by the barnacle Megabalanus tintinnabulum, but with more diverse benthic assemblages compared to the northerly platforms. Previous work documented the presence of limited zooxanthellated scleractinian corals on natural rocky substrate in Gabon but none were recorded on platforms. Total estimated fish biomass on these platforms exceeded one ton at some locations and was dominated by barracuda (Sphyraena spp., jacks (Carangids, and rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata. Thirty-four percent of fish species observed on these platforms are new records for Gabon and 6% are new to tropical West Africa. Fish assemblages closely associated with platforms had distinct amphi-Atlantic affinities and platforms likely extend the distribution of these species into coastal West Africa. At least one potential invasive species, the snowflake coral (Carijoa riisei, was observed on the platforms. Oil platforms may act as stepping stones, increasing regional biodiversity and production but they may also be vectors for invasive species. Gabon is a world leader in terrestrial conservation with a network of protected areas covering >10% of the country. Oil exploration and biodiversity conservation currently co-exist in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in Gabon. Efforts to increase marine protection in Gabon may benefit by

  2. Marine communities on oil platforms in Gabon, West Africa: high biodiversity oases in a low biodiversity environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Fay, Michael; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The marine biodiversity of Gabon, West Africa has not been well studied and is largely unknown. Our examination of marine communities associated with oil platforms in Gabon is the first scientific investigation of these structures and highlights the unique ecosystems associated with them. A number of species previously unknown to Gabonese waters were recorded during our surveys on these platforms. Clear distinctions in benthic communities were observed between older, larger platforms in the north and newer platforms to the south or closer to shore. The former were dominated by a solitary cup coral, Tubastraea sp., whereas the latter were dominated by the barnacle Megabalanus tintinnabulum, but with more diverse benthic assemblages compared to the northerly platforms. Previous work documented the presence of limited zooxanthellated scleractinian corals on natural rocky substrate in Gabon but none were recorded on platforms. Total estimated fish biomass on these platforms exceeded one ton at some locations and was dominated by barracuda (Sphyraena spp.), jacks (Carangids), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata). Thirty-four percent of fish species observed on these platforms are new records for Gabon and 6% are new to tropical West Africa. Fish assemblages closely associated with platforms had distinct amphi-Atlantic affinities and platforms likely extend the distribution of these species into coastal West Africa. At least one potential invasive species, the snowflake coral (Carijoa riisei), was observed on the platforms. Oil platforms may act as stepping stones, increasing regional biodiversity and production but they may also be vectors for invasive species. Gabon is a world leader in terrestrial conservation with a network of protected areas covering >10% of the country. Oil exploration and biodiversity conservation currently co-exist in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in Gabon. Efforts to increase marine protection in Gabon may benefit by including oil

  3. Marine Communities on Oil Platforms in Gabon, West Africa: High Biodiversity Oases in a Low Biodiversity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Fay, Michael; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The marine biodiversity of Gabon, West Africa has not been well studied and is largely unknown. Our examination of marine communities associated with oil platforms in Gabon is the first scientific investigation of these structures and highlights the unique ecosystems associated with them. A number of species previously unknown to Gabonese waters were recorded during our surveys on these platforms. Clear distinctions in benthic communities were observed between older, larger platforms in the north and newer platforms to the south or closer to shore. The former were dominated by a solitary cup coral, Tubastraea sp., whereas the latter were dominated by the barnacle Megabalanus tintinnabulum, but with more diverse benthic assemblages compared to the northerly platforms. Previous work documented the presence of limited zooxanthellated scleractinian corals on natural rocky substrate in Gabon but none were recorded on platforms. Total estimated fish biomass on these platforms exceeded one ton at some locations and was dominated by barracuda (Sphyraena spp.), jacks (Carangids), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata). Thirty-four percent of fish species observed on these platforms are new records for Gabon and 6% are new to tropical West Africa. Fish assemblages closely associated with platforms had distinct amphi-Atlantic affinities and platforms likely extend the distribution of these species into coastal West Africa. At least one potential invasive species, the snowflake coral (Carijoa riisei), was observed on the platforms. Oil platforms may act as stepping stones, increasing regional biodiversity and production but they may also be vectors for invasive species. Gabon is a world leader in terrestrial conservation with a network of protected areas covering >10% of the country. Oil exploration and biodiversity conservation currently co-exist in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in Gabon. Efforts to increase marine protection in Gabon may benefit by including oil

  4. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  5. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  6. Evolution of hydrocarbon migration style in a fractured reservoir deduced from fluid inclusion data, Clair Field, west of Shetland, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Martin; Parnell, John; Mark, Darren [Department of Geology and Petroleum Geology, Meston Building, University of Aberdeen, King' s College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Carr, Andrew [Advanced Geochemical Systems Ltd., Towles Fields, Burton on the Wolds, Leicestershire LE12 5TD (United Kingdom); British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Przyjalgowski, Milosz [Department of Physics, National University of Ireland-Galway, Galway (Ireland); Feely, Martin [Department of Geology, National University of Ireland-Galway, Galway (Ireland)

    2008-02-15

    A petrographic and fluid inclusion microthermometric study was performed on sandstones from the Devonian-Carboniferous reservoir rocks of the Clair Field, west of Shetland. Fluid inclusion petrographic and microthermometric observations were collected from quartz, K-feldspar and calcite cements and veins. Vein and cement minerals host both aqueous and hydrocarbon two-phase (liquid and vapor-filled) fluid inclusions indicating that cementation occurred during oil charging. The location of hydrocarbon fluid inclusions in the paragenetic sequence of the reservoir rocks indicates that hydrocarbon migration during early-stage diagenesis occurred via intergranular pores as well as fractures, whereas towards the later stages of diagenesis, as porosities were occluded, hydrocarbon migration was predominantly fracture controlled. The microthermometric characteristics of primary and secondary aqueous fluid inclusions in association with hydrocarbon fluid inclusions indicates that cementation and veining during oil charging occurred at temperatures up to 180 C. Salinity values are variable (0-10.9 wt% NaCl eq.) indicating that fluid mixing occurred during veining and cementation. Basin modeling and vitrinite reflectance data indicate that temperatures of up to 180 C could not have been attained through burial alone. The high temperatures attained during late-stage diagenesis are interpreted to be caused by high temperature, short-lived fluids circulating within the Devonian-Carboniferous reservoir rocks in association with late Cretaceous and Paleocene magmatism. These high temperature fluid flow events were not recorded in the vitrinite reflectance data because of their short duration. (author)

  7. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Curran, Lisa M; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Asner, Gregory P; Trigg, Simon N; Gaveau, David A; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O

    2012-05-08

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989-2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007-2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994-2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008-2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet oil palm, generating 26% of net carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings.

  8. Developing High Water-cut Oil Fields Deeply to Enhance Their Oil Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Dakuang

    1994-01-01

    @@ There are 283 developed oil fields in China onshore area by the end of 1993. Most of them are in the later development stage with high water cut. The overall average water cut in these oilfields reaches 80.4%.Some old ones, such as Shengtuo, Gudao and Zhengdong,which have been put on production since 60's or 70's, have a water cut of higher than 90%and are in the extra high water-cut development stage. The recovery factors of these oilfields in terms of the recoverable reserves, which is 63.1%on average and even higher than 80% in some old fields, are also high. A lot of field data show that the distribution of oil and water in the reservoir exhibits new features differing from that in the earlier development stage. Because of the serious interlayer and intralayer heterogeneity of non--marine sandbodies both horizontally and vertically, and the complicated structural features due to the cross cutting of numerous faults, the distribution of the remaining oil in the case of such high recovery and high water cut is in a very dispersed state forming a very complex picture just like the stars in the sky. However some regularities and some relatively abundant regions still exist.

  9. The value of flexibility in offshore oil field development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Morten Wattengaard

    1997-12-31

    Offshore oil field development projects often face substantial uncertainties and the operator`s ability to take corrective actions is very important. The main objective of this thesis was to identify the value of flexibility in such projects. Estimates obtained from exploratory wells can be dependent through common information. The effect of stochastic dependence was illustrated by an analytical model, where the dependence was expressed in terms of correlation between estimate errors. It was found that a high degree of correlation might distort the benefit of additional exploration. A prototype that covered the major phases of the project was developed to study the value of flexibility. The prototype was a Markov decision process, solved by stochastic dynamic programming. Based on discussions with Norwegian oil companies, three uncertain variables were addressed: the reservoir volume, the well rate, and the oil price. Simple descriptions were used to mimic the uncertainty. The reservoir was thus depicted as a tank model, and the well rate and oil prices were assumed to follow Markov processes. Flexibility was restricted to managerial as opposed to financial flexibility. Application of the prototype to a case study, based on an ongoing field development, showed that flexibility might be of considerable value to the project. In particular, capacity flexibility and initiation flexibility were identified as important aspects of the development. The results also emphasized the importance of a joint assessment, as the values of different flexibility types are not additive. In conclusion, the proposed model motivates further development of the decision support system presently available. Future decision making should therefore be made within a framework that gives consideration to flexibility. 129 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. Saudi Aramco: Oil to a Thirsty Market - International Cooperation Brings New Oil Field on Quickly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajmi, Ali

    2007-07-01

    In response to high oil demand in 2004, Saudi Aramco committed to build facilities for the 500,000 BOPD Khursaniyah Oil Field in only 34 months from the start of preliminary engineering to startup. The project schedule was six months faster than any previous project, in the most resource competitive market the oil business has ever seen. The execution of this project required a new contract strategy, novel engineering and construction methods, and international cooperation from EPC firms and manufacturers. The project is also building a new one billion SCF per day gas plant receiving gas from five different sources with varying pressure and H2S content, along with huge water supply and injection facilities, oil gathering lines, and product distribution lines. To execute the project in this short time frame, a temporary construction city for 30,000 men has been constructed in the desert. This city has workers from all over 30 countries, speaking more than 15 languages, all focused on achieving one goal - on time completion of the most complex project ever done in Saudi Arabia. The paper will focus on the unique challenges of managing a city of this size that lasts for only 24 months. (auth)

  11. Saudi Aramco: Oil to a Thirsty Market - International Cooperation Brings New Oil Field on Quickly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajmi, Ali

    2007-07-01

    In response to high oil demand in 2004, Saudi Aramco committed to build facilities for the 500,000 BOPD Khursaniyah Oil Field in only 34 months from the start of preliminary engineering to startup. The project schedule was six months faster than any previous project, in the most resource competitive market the oil business has ever seen. The execution of this project required a new contract strategy, novel engineering and construction methods, and international cooperation from EPC firms and manufacturers. The project is also building a new one billion SCF per day gas plant receiving gas from five different sources with varying pressure and H2S content, along with huge water supply and injection facilities, oil gathering lines, and product distribution lines. To execute the project in this short time frame, a temporary construction city for 30,000 men has been constructed in the desert. This city has workers from all over 30 countries, speaking more than 15 languages, all focused on achieving one goal - on time completion of the most complex project ever done in Saudi Arabia. The paper will focus on the unique challenges of managing a city of this size that lasts for only 24 months. (auth)

  12. Geology and habitat of oil in Ras Budran field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhary, L.R.; Taha, S.

    1987-05-01

    Deminex discovered the Ras Budran oil field in 1978. Discovery well EE 85-1 was drilled in about 140 ft of water, 4 km off the Sinai coast of the Gulf of Suez. Appraisal drilling (EE 85-2, 3, and 4 wells) confirmed the presence of a major field with an estimated 700 million bbl oil in place. The field, developed from three wellhead platforms, went on production in April 1983. To date, 20 development wells have been drilled. The Ras Budran structure at the deepest mappable seismic reflector, top Kareem (middle Miocene), is a broad northeast-southwest-trending anticlinal feature striking nearly at right angles to the main Gulf of Suez trend. At pre-Miocene producing horizons, the structure is complex and consists of a northeast-dipping flank (14-15) broken into several blocks by faults and limited to the south and west by major bounding faults. Oil is produced from three units of Nubian sandstone at a depth of 11,000 to 12,000 ft. The lower unit of Paleozoic age averages 10% porosity and up to 200 md in -situ permeability. The wells completed in this unit produce up to 2000 BOPD. In contrast, the sands of the upper two units of Lower Cretaceous age have a 15-20% porosity and up to 700 md permeability. The wells completed in these units produce 6000-8000 BOPD. The Ras Budran structure was primarily formed during the intra-Rudeis tectonic phase (lower Miocene). Migration of oil for accumulation in Ras Budran started late in the upper Miocene or Pliocene when the Santonian Brown Limestone and the Eocene Thebes Formation, the main source beds in the Gulf, reached the threshold of oil generation at a burial depth of about 10,000 ft (3000 m). At these depths, the organic matter in the source beds have a transformation ratio (0.10 to 0.15), increased yields of C15 + soluble organic matter and C15 + saturated hydrocarbons, a vitrinite reflectance of 0.62%, and a TTI value of 15.

  13. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of Europe including Turkey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of Europe. The oil and gas map is part of a worldwide series released on...

  14. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of South America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of South America. The oil and gas map is part of a worldwide series released...

  15. Delineating Concealed Faults within Cogdell Oil Field via Earthquake Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, C.; Walter, J. I.; Brudzinski, M.; Skoumal, R.; Savvaidis, A.; Frohlich, C.; Borgfeldt, T.; Dotray, P.

    2016-12-01

    Cogdell oil field, located within the Permian Basin of western Texas, has experienced several earthquakes ranging from magnitude 1.7 to 4.6, most of which were recorded since 2006. Using the Earthscope USArray, Gan and Frohlich [2013] relocated some of these events and found a positive correlation in the timing of increased earthquake activity and increased CO2 injection volume. However, focal depths of these earthquakes are unknown due to 70 km station spacing of the USArray. Accurate focal depths as well as new detections can delineate subsurface faults and establish whether earthquakes are occurring in the shallow sediments or in the deeper basement. To delineate subsurface fault(s) in this region, we first detect earthquakes not currently listed in the USGS catalog by applying continuous waveform-template matching algorithms to multiple seismic data sets. We utilize seismic data spanning the time frame of 2006 to 2016 - which includes data from the U.S. Geological Survey Global Seismographic Network, the USArray, and the Sweetwater, TX broadband and nodal array located 20-40 km away. The catalog of earthquakes enhanced by template matching reveals events that were well recorded by the large-N Sweetwater array, so we are experimenting with strategies for optimizing template matching using different configurations of many stations. Since earthquake activity in the Cogdell oil field is on-going (a magnitude 2.6 occurred on May 29, 2016), a temporary deployment of TexNet seismometers has been planned for the immediate vicinity of Cogdell oil field in August 2016. Results on focal depths and detection of small magnitude events are pending this small local network deployment.

  16. Modeling petroleum generation and geochemistry of crude oils in Ras Budran field, northern gulf of Suez, Egypt: implications for prospectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A. [Geology Dept., Alexandria Univ. (Egypt)

    2005-12-01

    Petroleum generation modeling of the pre-rift succession in Ras Budran Field, which is located in the northern Gulf of Suez province in Egypt, showed that the best oil prone source rocks identified are the carbonate dominated one in the Upper Cretaceous and the Middle Eocene. These source rocks contain type-II kerogen (liptinitic materials) and progressively increase in their peak of oil generation from 0.63 and 0.83 vitrinite reflectance at a depth of about 3000 meters during the early of middle Miocene age and could have charged traps during the intra Rudeis tectonic phase. Crude oil and source rock extract interrelationships display a great similarity in their geologic occurrences and biological marker distributions. The biomarker characteristics indicate a low relative abundance of oleanane index around 5% pristane/phytane ratio<1, higher C{sub 35}/C{sub 34} homohopanes>1 and higher gammacerane indices >30%, suggesting a typical marine organic matter with source rock deposition under reducing conditions, Marginally mature stage of oil generation is indicated by the relatively low sterane isomerization of C{sub 29} {alpha}{alpha}{alpha} 20S/(S+R) and C{sub 29}{alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}) of about 06 and relatively low aromatic sulfur compound rations. Crude oil geochemistry and related source rock potential define genetically related oils which ware generated from marginally mature and organic-rich carbonate source rocks, most probably from the pre-rift Duwi and Thebes formations. The best oil prone for future prospectivity would be oriented west of Ras Budran Field toward the deep marine of the Gulf, where the undiscovered reserves are expected to be accumulated within the pre-rift reservoirs in the footwalls of the normal faulted blocks. (orig.)

  17. Premium performance heating oil - Part 2, Field trial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetter, S.M.; Hoskin, D.; McClintock, W.R. [Mobil Oil Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Limited field trial results of a heating oil additive package developed to minimize unscheduled maintenance indicate that it achieves its goal of keeping heating oil systems cleaner. The multifunctional additive package was developed to provide improved fuel oxidation stability, improved corrosion protection, and dispersency. This combination of performance benefits was chosen because we believed it would retard the formation of sludge, as well as allow sludge already present to be carried through the system without fouling the fuel system components (dispersency should keep sludge particles small so they pass through the filtering system). Since many unscheduled maintenance calls are linked to fouling of the fuel filtering system, the overall goal of this technology is to reduce these maintenance calls. Photographic evidence shows that the additive package not only reduces the amount of sludge formed, but even removes existing sludge from filters and pump strainers. This {open_quotes}clean-up{close_quotes} performance is provided trouble free: we found no indication that nozzle/burner performance was impaired by dispersing sludge from filters and pump strainers. Qualitative assessments from specific accounts that used the premium heating oil also show marked reductions in unscheduled maintenance.

  18. Environmental oil spill sensitivity atlas for the West Greenland (68 deg.-72 deg. N) coastal zone, 2nd revised edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, D.; Johansen, Kasper L.; Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Wegeberg, S.

    2012-12-15

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 68 deg. N and 72 deg. N. The coastal zone is divided into 199 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment/area is subsequently ranked according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller areas are especially selected as they are of particular significance, they are especially vulnerable to oil spills and they have a size making oil spill response possible. The shoreline sensitivity ranking are shown on 37 maps (in scale 1:250,000), which also show the different elements included and the selected areas. Coast types, logistics and proposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 37 maps. The sensitivities of the offshore zones are depicted on 4 maps, one for each season. Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area. (Author)

  19. The value of offshore field experiments in oil spill technology development for Norwegian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan; Daling, Per S; Singsaas, Ivar; Sørstrøm, Stein Erik

    2016-10-15

    The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open and ice covered waters in Norway. The importance of these experimental oil spills for understanding oil spill behavior, development of oil spill and response models, and response technologies are discussed here. The large progress within oil spill R&D in Norway since the Ekofisk blowout has been possible through a combination of laboratory testing, basin studies, and experimental oil spills. However, it is the authors' recommendation that experimental oil spills still play an important role as a final validation for the extensive R&D presently going on in Norway, e.g. deep-water releases of oil and gas.

  20. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  1. Energy diplomacy: West Germany, the Soviet Union and the oil crises of the 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Bösch, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes West German energy policy and negotiations with the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Archival sources from the West German government show that long-term energy diplomacy became a carefully built link which guaranteed cooperation even during political crises,such as the one in 1980/81. This article argues that energy diplomacy catalyzed Brandt’s Ostpolitik. In particular, natural gas pipelines implied mutual trust within a stable relationship, which led to further colla...

  2. Planning the sampling of a condensed-gas field with an oil fringe at the Benoi field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuniaev, Y.K.; Trubaev, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    In order to obtain data for determining gas, condensate and oil reserves, planning field development, and monitoring the operation of condensed gas wells in fields, a system of gas-hydrodynamic and specialized studies is developed.

  3. Low-field NMR determinations of the properties of heavy oils and water-in-oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaTorraca, G A; Dunn, K J; Webber, P R; Carlson, R M

    1998-01-01

    Low-field (magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements are beginning to be used to obtain estimates of oil viscosity in situ. To build an interpretive capability, we made laboratory T1 and T2 relaxation measurements on a suite of high-density, high-viscosity crude oils. These measurements were also used to estimate oil viscosity and water fraction from T1 and T2 measurements on stable, water-in-oil emulsions. High-density, high-viscosity oils have components that relax faster than can be measured by nuclear magnetic resonance logging tools. This requires corrections to T2 logging measurements for accurate estimates of oil saturation and porosity.

  4. Estimation of Reserves of Tula Horizon Oil Deposits of Severo-Yurmanskoye Field, Perm Kray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Nabiullin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an estimation of reserves of the Tula horizon oil-bearing layers Tl2-a and Tl2-b at the Severo-Yurmanskoye oil field. Research was carried out in order to prospect the unestimated oil reserves at the previously drilled but not commercially producing areas of Perm kray. The opportunity of reserve calculation for this oil field was provided by the sufficient oil encroachment rate achieved during testing of Tula horizon layers in the borehole 174, reliable mapping of oil-bearing horizons using seismic and borehole data, existence of updated stratigraphic information, results of study of uniformity of oil-bearing layers throughout the area of the Severo-Yurmanskoye oil field, reliable estimate of the position of water-oil contact, defining the effective oil-bearing thickness of oil-bearing layers using results of borehole geophysical survey, study of lithological composition and reservoir  properties, study of physical and chemical properties of oil in borehole and in laboratory, and reliability of statistical evaluation of oil recovery factor.

  5. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  6. Used-Oil Generation and Its Disposal along East-West Road, Port Harcourt Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitte, LF, E-mail: lefzy@yahoo.com; Awi-Waadu, GDB; Okorodike, CG [Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    2015-12-07

    Environmental Pollution from anthropogenic activities has contributed greatly towards the loss of biodiversity, and some organisms are at the verge of extinction and total extermination. Used oil as one of the wastes from automobile engines have contribute immensely towards the degradation of the environment and the problem of this has been traced to the poor handling of used oil and the ignorance of the major disposers of this used-oil. Out of 20 automobile mechanics interviewed in this study, 60% admitted that they dispose of used-oil on the land, 30% said that they sell it and only 10% acknowledge that they reuse it. On the issue of awareness about recycling, 50% admitted that they are aware, 30% claimed ignorance while 20% do not see the need for recycling. While considering storage method, 55% said that they do not store used oil, 25% store it in a metal drum, and 20% store in plastic drum. The mechanics estimated that about 418 cars are serviced weekly and a total of 1628.50 litres of used-oil are produced. For this result it is worth knowing that indiscriminate disposal of used oil as is commonly observed in our society can be of great environmental concern.

  7. Multi-Functional Lands Facing Oil Palm Monocultures: A Case Study of a Land Conflict in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanne E. de Vos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ethnographic case study of a palm oil land conflict in a Malay community in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The conflict occurred in the preparatory phase of a large-scale plantation, before any oil palms were planted. After protest from local communities, the project was abolished. This case enables an empirical enquiry of land tenure as well as the meaning of land and associated resources for people’s livelihoods in a pre-plantation situation. The article aims to understand how people’s responses to the oil palm plantation project are rooted in the way they give meaning to the land that is targeted for conversion. Using a functional analysis of property relations, the article shows that people value multiple functions of land, including food security, income security over generations, flexibility to respond to crises and opportunity, and the ability to retain autonomy and identity as farmers. One of the factors that contributed to the conflict was the expectation that a conversion of diversified agricultural land and forest into a monoculture plantation, run by a company, would change the functionality of land and associated resources in a way that would negatively impact livelihood opportunities, lifestyles, and identity.

  8. Spatial variability of some soil properties varies in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations of west coastal area of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sanjib Kumar; Suresh, Kancherla; Narsimha Rao, Bezawada; Mathur, Ravi Kumar; Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Manorama, Kamireddy; Ramachandrudu, Kummari; Harinarayana, Parasa; Prakash, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Mapping spatial variability of soil properties is the key to efficient soil resource management for sustainable crop yield. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the spatial variability of soil properties such as acidity (pH), salinity (electrical conductivity (EC)), organic carbon, available K, available P, exchangeable Ca2+, exchangeable Mg2+, available S and hot water soluble B in surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil layers of oil palm plantations in south Goa district of Goa located in west coastal area of India. A total of 128 soil samples were collected from 64 oil palm plantations of Goa located at an approximate interval of 1-2 km and analyzed. Soil was acidic to neutral in reaction. Other soil properties varied widely in both the soil layers. Correlations between soil pH and exchangeable Ca2+, between soil EC and available K, between available P and available S and between exchangeable Ca2+ and exchangeable Mg2+ in both the soil layers were found to be positive and significant (P < 0.01). Geostatistical analysis revealed a varied spatial distribution pattern for the measured soil properties. Best-fit models for measured soil properties were exponential, Gaussian, stable, K-Bessel and spherical with moderate to strong spatial dependency. The results revealed that site-specific fertilizer management options needed to be adopted in the oil palm plantations of the study area owing to variability in soil properties.

  9. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  10. Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils.

  11. Geochemical Specific Characters of the Oil and the Origin of the Oil and Gas Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottikh, Rimma; Pisotskiy, Bogdan; Plotnikova, Irina

    2010-05-01

    and porous rocks. The high metal content of carbonaceous substances and their compositional variations governed by homogenisation temperatures of the inclusions suggest that they are not the products of the decomposition of oil fields. The constant presence of uranium in the fluid and its differentiation products allows the tracing of the systems' migration ways from the crystalline basement to oil-saturated reservoir zones of the sedimentary cover The known geochemical properties of bitumen and oil - high platinum content, specific distributions of rare earth elements, that are not characteristic of the upper crust formations, as well as 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compounds, which are out of balance with the organic matter of sedimentary rocks - suggest that hydrocarbons are accumulated in the presence of cooling high-alkalinity mafite-ultramafite intrusions. This logically corresponds to the distribution of seismic anomalies and magnetic and gravity fields in the consolidated crust below the various petroleum fields (for example, South Tatarstan and Nepsky arches of the Romashkino and Verkhne-Chonskoye oil fields). The acquired geochemical and thermodynamic characteristics of the reduced fluids and their differentiation products from the crystalline basement and the sedimentary cover of the southern Siberian and eastern East European platforms indicate that these were formed outside of the sedimentary cover and that the migration was directed upwards. The analysis of the magmatic evolution on platforms reveals its alkaline trend due to the impeded degassing of magmatic sources at depth and the inflow of new doses of alkaline fluids or melts into them. Further evolution of the zones of partial melting of the substratum led, in the authors' view, to the generation of oil-forming fluids and their transportation into the Earth's upper crust. Their interaction with the surrounding rocks in turn led to the formation of oil accumulations. Thus, oil is the product

  12. Chemical composition and larvicidal evaluation of Mentha, Salvia, and Melissa essential oils against the West Nile virus mosquito Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopoulos, George; Pitarokili, Danae; Kioulos, Elias; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2010-07-01

    The volatile metabolites of wild-growing Mentha spicata, M. longifolia, M. suaveolens, Melissa officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, S. pomifera subsp. calycina, and S. pomifera subsp. pomifera from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal properties of the analyzed essential oils were screened on Culex pipiens larvae. Additionally two of the main components of the essential oils, piperitenone oxide and 1,8-cineole were assayed against C. pipiens in order to define the affiliation between them and the larvicidal properties of the oils. The most effective oils were M. suaveolens (major constituent piperitenone oxide, 62.4%), M. spicata (piperitenone oxide, 35.7% and 1,8-cineole, 14.5%) and M. longifolia--Central Greece (piperitenone oxide, 33.4%; 1,8-cineole, 24.5% and trans-piperitone epoxide, 17.4%), which exhibited LC(50) values ranging from 47.88 to 59.33 mg l(-1). Medium activity revealed the oils of M. officinalis (terpin-4-ol, 15.8%; caryophyllene oxide, 13.2%; sabinene, 12.9%; beta-pinene, 12.1%; and trans-caryophyllene, 10.2%), M. longifolia--Southern Greece (carvone, 54.7% and limonene 20.0%), S. pomifera subsp. pomifera (trans-caryophyllene, 22.5% and trans-thujone, 21.0%), S. pomifera subsp. calycina--West Southern Greece (trans-thujone, 56.1% and 1,8-cineole, 10.4%), and S. fruticosa--population 2 (camphor, 23.1%; alpha-pinene, 12.7%; and borneol, 12.6%), with LC(50) values ranging from 78.28 to 91.45 mg l(-1). S. pomifera subsp. calycina (Central Greece) essential oil (trans-thujone, 26.5% and cis-thujone, 12.0%) presented rather low activity (LC(50) values 140.42 mg l(-1)), while S. fruticosa--population 1 (1,8-cineole, 31.4% and camphor, 22.6%) was the only inactive oil. Additionally, the constituent piperitenone oxide was found to be highly active (LC(50) values 9.95 mg l(-1)), whereas 1,8-cineole revealed no toxicity.

  13. Dynamic Variation of Land-use Types of the Constructed Wetland before and after Oil-field Water Irrigation Based on 3S Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Ming-hui; ZHANG; Chen; HU; Yan; SU; Wei; DONG; De-ming

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at analyzing the dynamic variation of land-use types of the constructed wetland before and after oil-field water irrigation based on 3S technology. [Method] At semi-arid and arid areas in the west of Jilin Province, water resource balance between the amount of oil-field water supply and ecological water requirement in the constructed wetland irrigated by oil-field water during 2001-2010 was investigated firstly. Afterwards, based on 3S technology, the partition and dynamic variation of land-use types of the constructed wetland before and after oil-field water irrigation in 2001, 2006, 2008 and 2010 were analyzed. [Result] The annual ecological water requirement of the constructed wetland from 2003 to 2010 varied from 1.62×106 to 2.24×106 m3, and the annual amount of oil-field water supply in the region changed from 2.12×106 to 2.84×106 m3, which showed that the supply amount of oil-field water could meet the basic ecological water requirement of the constructed wetland. Meanwhile, compared with 2001, the areas of water region and paddy field in 2010 increased by 2.3 and 10.0 times, and the areas of forest and marsh rose by 40.15% and 29.5.0% respectively. [Conclusion] Water shortage and ecological environment problem of arid and semi-arid areas had been improved by oil-field water irrigation.

  14. Geometric Seismic Attributes of Boca de Jaruco Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamicela Tamayo López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses in determining the Geometric Seismic Attributes in the central block of Mouth ofJaruco oil field to decrease the uncertainty in the structural design. The three dimensions seismic datacollected and depth migration processing results were used and was defined that the surface isassociated to the main reserve. A Geometric Attributes maps elaboration (Azimuth, Dip, Curvature andRoughness work flow was developed; and was able to determine structural elements, where traditionalseismic data were not always able to demonstrate a confinable image of the geological structure. Thisstructure includes three structures between 1122 and 1200 m in depth. The Azimuth Attribute differentiatesthe southern flank from the northern flank; and defined accurately the top of the structure. The DipAttribute indicates values of layers inclination between 5 and 30º, the structure top with lowers valuesand the flanks with higher values, mainly to the south. Curvature and Roughness attributes reveal theareas of faults or channels.

  15. Calculation of oil production performance of the large giant oil fields in the world: based upon oil fields depletion model; Yuden gentai model ni yoru sekai no ogata kyodai yuden no seisan kyodo ni kansuru ichishisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomoto, S. [Japan Oil Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Data for large giant oil fields with minable reserves of one billion barrels or more were accumulated to structure a new oil field depletion model and estimate production in each oil field. As a result of analyzing events recognized in large giant oil fields, necessity was made clear to correct the conventional oil depletion model. The newly proposed model changes definitions on the depletion period of time, depletion rate, build-up production (during a time period in which production rate increases) and production in a plateau (a time period in which production becomes constant). Two hundred and twenty-five large giant oil fields were classified into those in a depletion period, an initial development phase, and a plateau period. The following findings were obtained as a result of trial calculations using the new model: under an assumption of demand growth rate of 1.5%, oil field groups in the initial development phase will reach the plateau production in the year 2002, and oil fields in the depletion period will continue production decline, hence the production amount after that year will slow down. Because the oil field groups in the plateau period will shift into decline in 2014, the overall production will decrease. The year 2014 is about ten years later than the estimation given recently by Campbell. Undiscovered resources are outside these discussions. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Eo-Oligocene Oil Shales of the Talawi, Lubuktaruk, and Kiliranjao Areas, West Sumatra: Are they potential source rocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.198To anticipate the increasing energy demand, additional data and information covering unconventional fossil fuels such as oil shale must be acquired to promote the usage of alternative energy sources to crude oil. The Talawi and Lubuktaruk regions situated within intra-montane Ombilin Basin, and the Kiliranjao assumed to be a small intra montane basin are occupied by Eo-Oligocene sediments of Sangkarewang and Kiliran Formations, respectively. Field activity, geochemical screening techniques, and organic petrographic analysis, supported by SEM mode, are methods used. Most of the oil shale sequence is typically of an organically rich-succession comprising predominantly well-bedded, laminated and fissile, brownish to dark grey organic-rich shale and mudstone rocks. The exinite macerals within oil shale comprise mainly Pediastrum-lamalginite with minor cutinite, resinite, liptodetrinite, sporinite, bituminite, and rare Botryococcus-telalginite. Therefore; the oil shale deposits can be described as “lamosites”. Minor vitrinite maceral is also recognized. TOC analysis on selected shale samples corresponds to a fair up to excellent category of source rock characterization. The hydrogen index (HI for all samples shows a range of values from 207 - 864, and pyrolysis yield (PY ranges from 2.67 to 79.72 mg HC/g rock. The kerogen is suggested to be of mixed Type II and Type I autochthonous materials such as alginite, with minor allochthonous substances. Oil samples collected appear to be positioned within more oil prone rather than gas prone. Thermal maturity of the oil shales gained from Tmax value and production index (PI tends to show immature to marginally/early mature stage. A consistency in the thermal maturity level results by using both Tmax and vitrinite reflectance value is recognized. On the basis of  SEM analysis, the oil shale has undergone a late eodiagenetic process. Thereby, overall, vitrinite reflectance

  17. Eo-Oligocene Oil Shales of the Talawi, Lubuktaruk, and Kiliranjao Areas, West Sumatra: Are they potential source rocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.198To anticipate the increasing energy demand, additional data and information covering unconventional fossil fuels such as oil shale must be acquired to promote the usage of alternative energy sources to crude oil. The Talawi and Lubuktaruk regions situated within intra-montane Ombilin Basin, and the Kiliranjao assumed to be a small intra montane basin are occupied by Eo-Oligocene sediments of Sangkarewang and Kiliran Formations, respectively. Field activity, geochemical screening techniques, and organic petrographic analysis, supported by SEM mode, are methods used. Most of the oil shale sequence is typically of an organically rich-succession comprising predominantly well-bedded, laminated and fissile, brownish to dark grey organic-rich shale and mudstone rocks. The exinite macerals within oil shale comprise mainly Pediastrum-lamalginite with minor cutinite, resinite, liptodetrinite, sporinite, bituminite, and rare Botryococcus-telalginite. Therefore; the oil shale deposits can be described as “lamosites”. Minor vitrinite maceral is also recognized. TOC analysis on selected shale samples corresponds to a fair up to excellent category of source rock characterization. The hydrogen index (HI for all samples shows a range of values from 207 - 864, and pyrolysis yield (PY ranges from 2.67 to 79.72 mg HC/g rock. The kerogen is suggested to be of mixed Type II and Type I autochthonous materials such as alginite, with minor allochthonous substances. Oil samples collected appear to be positioned within more oil prone rather than gas prone. Thermal maturity of the oil shales gained from Tmax value and production index (PI tends to show immature to marginally/early mature stage. A consistency in the thermal maturity level results by using both Tmax and vitrinite reflectance value is recognized. On the basis of  SEM analysis, the oil shale has undergone a late eodiagenetic process. Thereby, overall, vitrinite reflectance

  18. Monitoring of landscape change in paddy fields: Case study of Karawang District - West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franjaya, E. E.; Syartinilia; Setiawan, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Paddy field is an important agricultural land in Indonesia, as one of the largest rice producing-country in the world. At least 26 from 33 provinces in Indonesia are characterized by the existence of paddy field landscape. However, due to the increasing of population and development of infrastructure building, a conversion of paddy field rapidly occurs in many sites. This study aimed to examine the dynamics change in paddy field in Karawang District-West Java during the period of 1994-2015. The method used in this study mainly by the remote sensing technique using satellite images data. The result indicated that conversion of paddy fields to built area/infrastructure in Karawang is approximately 10.326,6 ha. It took up 56% from the paddy that were changed. Based on the result, the changes are likely to occur in the middle of karawang district, near the central city. This result showed the change of paddy field in 1994 converted into some built-up areas such as settlement or roads in 2015. However, about 85.597,56 ha paddy field is not changed during these period. The study showed that paddy fields landscape is facing a changes over the last two decades.

  19. Rock property estimates using multiple seismic attributes and neural networks; Pegasus Field, West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuelke, J.S.; Quirein, J.A.; Sarg, J.F.

    1998-12-31

    This case study shows the benefit of using multiple seismic trace attributes and the pattern recognition capabilities of neural networks to predict reservoir architecture and porosity distribution in the Pegasus Field, West Texas. The study used the power of neural networks to integrate geologic, borehole and seismic data. Illustrated are the improvements between the new neural network approach and the more traditional method of seismic trace inversion for porosity estimation. Comprehensive statistical methods and interpretational/subjective measures are used in the prediction of porosity from seismic attributes. A 3-D volume of seismic derived porosity estimates for the Devonian reservoir provide a very detailed estimate of porosity, both spatially and vertically, for the field. The additional reservoir porosity detail provided, between the well control, allows for optimal placement of horizontal wells and improved field development. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Changqing Becomes China's Second Largest Oil and Gas Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Xufeng

    2010-01-01

    @@ Realizing great-leap-forward growth of oil and gas reserves,production Changqing Oilfield has created miracles from rapid growth to great-leap-forward development when China's oil and gas output increased slowly.

  1. Efficiency Test of IRRI Fertilizing Recommendations on Rainfed Low Land Rice Field in West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hatta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizing recommendation for lowland rice field in West Kalimantan is still in national scale and tends to be excessive. It is less relevant due to various factors such as the test method competence, the carrying capacity of the land, and the diverse condition of rice field agro-ecosystem. Site-specific nutrient management (SSNM is an approach for rice fertilizing on paddy plot based on science, history of land fertilization, and nutrient sources surrounding the area which can affect soil fertility level and soil conservation.This study was aimed to examine fertilizing efficiency of N, P, and K and the increased productivity of rice by utilizing software (website of the IRRI. The study was conducted in farmers fields in two villages, i.e. Anjongan and Pak Bulu, Pontianak Regency, West Kalimantan. The results showed that the SSNM fertilization on rice increased yields by the average of 0.62 t ha-1 (13.47% per growing season. The efficiency of SSNM fertilization was on the average of 22.05% N, 48.25% P2O5, and 31.50% K2O. The additional profits obtained from the SSNM recommendation was on the average of IDR 1,886,317 per ha pergrowing season compared to the profits from the FFP (farmer fertilizer practice.

  2. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassotis, Christopher D., E-mail: christopher.kassotis@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Iwanowicz, Luke R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, Fish Health Branch, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam C. [U.S. Geological Survey, National Research Program, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 430, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Energy Resources Science Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 956, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Nagel, Susan C., E-mail: nagels@health.missouri.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women' s Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Currently, > 95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. - Highlights: • Oil and gas wastewater disposal may increase endocrine disrupting activity in water. • Tested EDC activity in surface water near oil and gas wastewater injection site. • Water downstream had significantly

  3. Progress in Spiral Saw Steel Pipe Manufacturing Technology Promotes Construction of Oil/Gas Long-Distance Pipelines in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction Since the tremendous development of oil and gas exploration achieved in West China at the beginning of 1990's, it is demanded to build several long-distance oil/gas pipelines to transmit the crude oil and natural gas from Tarimu Basin, Tuha Basin, Junggar Basin as well as Shaan-Gan-Ning Basin to the cities of Urumuqi,Klamayi, Xi'an and Beijing (details see Table 1). The total length of pipelines is more than 3 200 km, and the natural conditions along the pipelines are very harsh. This raises a challenge to the Chinese pipe manufacturing industry.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and shale-gas resources in the Bazhenov Formation of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-10

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 12 billion barrels of oil and 75 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bazhenov Formation of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  6. Air injection into light and medium heavy oil reservoirs: combustion tube studies on West of Shetlands Clair oil and light Australian oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, M.; Young, T.J.; El-Usta, S.; Rathbone, R.R.; Xia, T.X.

    2000-07-01

    Four combustion tube tests were performed at a high initial water saturation using Bath University's High Pressure Combustion Tube Facility. Two tests were conducted on Clair medium heavy oil (19.8 {sup o} API) at 75 and 100 bar pressure, with initial oil saturations of 48% and 60%, at 80{sup o} C initial bed temperature. Maximum combustion temperatures exceeded 600{sup o}C during the early period, settling down to around 400{sup o}C. The combusted zone extended over about 30% of the sandpack length. Oil recovery was mainly affected by the large steam flood generated ahead of the combustion front, due to in situ vapourization of the original water in place, reducing the oil residual down to 21%. The thermal cracking reactions taking place ahead of combustion front converted part of the residual oil to lighter components, which were displaced with the gas flow, at the same time producing about 10% coke (fuel) for the combustion process. Two tests were carried out on a light Australian oil (38.8 {sup o}API), starting at low initial oil residuals of S{sub o} 41 and 45%, at an operating pressure of 70 bar and initial bed temperature of 63{sup o}C. The combustion temperature was about 250{sup o}C in both tests. The axial temperature profile in the sandpack was similar to that normally associated with a moving combustion front, but at a relatively low temperature. Also, there was no steam plateau condition, which was very observable in the Clair oil tests. High combustion front velocities were achieved in all four tests, varying from 0.15 to 0.31 m h{sup -1}. Fuel consumption, air requirement and oxygen utilization were generally favourable as regards improved oil recovery. (author)

  7. Argentina Hopes for A Big Payoff in Its Shale Oil Field Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Just east of Argentina's Andean foothills, an oil field called the Vaca Muerta, "dead cow" in English, has finally come to life.In May, the Argentine oil company YPF announced that it had found 150 million barrels of oil in the Patagonian field, and President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner rushed onto national television to praise the discovery as something that could give new impetus to the country's long-stagnant economy.

  8. Cleaning method of the oil field wastewater treatment by UF process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This article introduces experiments and researches of polysulphone ultrafiltration membrane' s effect on oil field polluted water and approaches renewing oil field polluted water and approaches renewing of membrane' s flux by different detergents and cleaning method. Good result has been achieved by doing experiments and the renewal rate of membrane is over 90%.

  9. The Linguado, Carapeba, Vermelho, and Marimba giant oil fields, Campos basin, offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stank, C.V.; Esteves, F.R.; Martins, C.C.; Cruz, W.M.; Da Silva Barroso, A.; Horschutz, P.M.C. (Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1990-09-01

    About 40 hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered in the Campos basin in the period 1978-1984, including four giant fields in shallow to moderate water depths. The Linguado oil field is located on the extreme south of the producing area of the Campos basin. The pool was discovered in May 1978. The reservoir rocks occur between 1,700 and 3,000 m, and are constituted by fractured Neocomian basalts, Barremian pelecypod coquinas, Albian oolitic calcarenites, and, secondarily, by some Cretaceous turbidite sandstones. The main reservoir is formed by coquinas, which contain 76% of the total recoverable oil volume estimated at 104.6 million bbl. The field is located on a regional high and the accumulation is strongly controlled by stratigraphic and diagenetic factors. High-quality oil is produced through a floating producing system (FPS), and the cumulative oil production amounts to 63.8 million bbl. The Carapeba and Vermelho oil fields are situated in the northern limit of the Campos basin producing area and, together with the smaller Pargo field, make up the so-called Northeast Pole of Campos basin. Carapeba field was discovered in February 1982, and has an estimated recoverable oil volume of 127.8 million bbl. Production comes mainly from two Upper Cretaceous turbidite sandstone reservoirs. The Vermelho field in December 1982, and its main reservoir is formed by a massive Eocene turbidite sandstone. The estimated recoverable oil volume amounts to 119.7 million bbl. Both Carapeba and Vermelho fields are structural traps associated with the development of subtle anticlines caused by salt movements. The fields are gradually being put on stream through five fixed platforms installed in water depths ranging from 70 to 90 m. The Marimba field, discovered in March 1984, drilled in a water depth of 383 m, is considered the first deep-water oil strike in the Campos basin. The field has an estimated recoverable oil volume of 115 million bbl of good-quality oil.

  10. Application of oil-field well log interpretation techniques to the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Phillips, L.B.; Dougherty, E.L.; Handy, L.L.

    1979-10-01

    An example is presented of the application of oil-field techniques to the Cerro Prieto Field, Mexico. The lithology in this field (sand-shale lithology) is relatively similar to oil-field systems. The study was undertaken as a part of the first series of case studies supported by the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program (GLIP) of the US Department of Energy. The suites of logs for individual wells were far from complete. This was partly because of adverse borehole conditions but mostly because of unavailability of high-temperature tools. The most complete set of logs was a combination of Dual Induction Laterolog, Compensated Formation Density Gamma Ray, Compensated Neutron Log, and Saraband. Temperature data about the wells were sketchy, and the logs had been run under pre-cooled mud condition. A system of interpretation consisting of a combination of graphic and numerical studies was used to study the logs. From graphical studies, evidence of hydrothermal alteration may be established from the trend analysis of SP (self potential) and ILD (deep induction log). Furthermore, the cross plot techniques using data from density and neutron logs may help in establishing compaction as well as rock density profile with depth. In the numerical method, R/sub wa/ values from three different resistivity logs were computed and brought into agreement. From this approach, values of formation temperature and mud filtrate resistivity effective at the time of logging were established.

  11. Slope stability analysis of landslide in Wayang Windu Geothermal Field, Pangalengan, West Java Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhendar, A. H.; Wusqa, U.; Kartiko, R. D.; Raya, N. R.; Misbahudin

    2016-05-01

    Large-scale landslide occurred in Margamukti village, Pangalengan, Bandung Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia. The landslide damaged geothermal gas pipeline along 300 m in Wayang Windu Geothermal Field. Based on field observation, landslide occured in rotational sliding movement. Laboratory analysis were conducted to obtain the characteristics of the soil. Based on the condition of the landslide in this area, the Factor of Safety can be simulated by the soil mechanics approach. Factor of safety analysis based on soil cohesion and internal friction angle was conducted using manual sensitivity analysis for back analysis. The analysis resulted soil cohesion in critical condition (FS<1) is 6.01 kPa. This value is smaller than cohesion of undisturbed slope soil sample. Water from rainfall is the most important instability factors in research area. Because it decreases cohesion in soils and increases weight and pore water pressure in granular media.

  12. Oilitics: What Can Stop the Flow of Oil to the West?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith; Miller, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Examines the current causes of future petroleum-related energy crises and their impact on the United States. The internal political problems of the Middle Eastern oil-producing countries and the influence of Russia on world energy conflicts are discussed. Two alternatives for avoiding energy catastrophes in the United States are considered. (AM)

  13. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  14. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  15. Exploring the Diversity of Field Strains of Brucella abortus Biovar 3 Isolated in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Sanogo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most widespread bacterial zoonotic diseases in the world, affecting both humans and domestic and wild animals. Identification and biotyping of field strains of Brucella are of key importance for a better knowledge of the epidemiology of brucellosis, for identifying appropriate antigens, for managing disease outbreaks and for setting up efficient preventive and control programmes. Such data are required both at national and regional level to assess potential threats for public health. Highly discriminative genotyping methods such as the multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA allow the comparison and assessment of genetic relatedness between field strains of Brucella within the same geographical area. In this study, MLVA biotyping data retrieved from the literature using a systematic review were compared using a clustering analysis and the Hunter-Gaston diversity index (HGDI. Thus, the analysis of the 42 MLVA genotyping results found in the literature on West Africa [i.e., from Ivory Coast (1, Niger (1, Nigeria (34, The Gambia (3, and Togo (3] did not allow a complete assessment of the actual diversity among field strains of Brucella. However, it provided some preliminary indications on the co-existence of 25 distinct genotypes of Brucella abortus biovar 3 in this region with 19 genotypes from Nigeria, three from Togo and one from Ivory Coast, The Gambia, and Niger. The strong and urgent need for more sustainable molecular data on prevailing strains of Brucella in this sub-region of Africa and also on all susceptible species including humans is therefore highlighted. This remains a necessary stage to allow a comprehensive understanding of the relatedness between field strains of Brucella and the epidemiology of brucellosis within West Africa countries.

  16. Quantitative calculation of GOR of complex oil-gas-water systems with logging data: A case study of the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field in the Qaidam Basin

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field of the Qaidam Basin, multiple suites of oil-gas-water systems overlie each other vertically, making it difficult to accurately identify oil layers from gas layers and calculate gas-oil ratio (GOR). Therefore, formation testing and production data, together with conventional logging, NMR and mud logging data were integrated to quantitatively calculate GOR. To tell oil layers from gas layers, conventional logging makes use of the excavation effect of compensated ne...

  17. Single versus multiple enemies and the impact on biological control of spider mites in cassava fields in West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzo, A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Hanna, R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether to use single or multiple predator species for biological pest control requires manipulative field experiments. We performed such tests in Benin (West Africa) in cassava fields infested by the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, and the cotton red mite Oligonychus

  18. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaganova, N. A., E-mail: vna@imm.uran.ru [Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Filimonov, M. Yu., E-mail: fmy@imm.uran.ru [Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia and Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  19. Intelligent systems in oil field development under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Marco A.C.; Vellasco, Marley M.B.R. (eds.) [PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Intelligent Systems use a range of methodologies for analysis, pre-processing, storage, organization, enhancing and mining of operational data, turning it into useful information and knowledge for decision makers in business enterprises. These intelligent technologies for decision support have been used with success by companies and organizations that are looking for competitive advantages whenever the issues on forecast, optimization, risks analysis, fraud detection, and decision under uncertainties are presented. Intelligent Systems (IS) offer to managers and decision makers the best solutions for complex applications, normally considered difficult, very restrictive or even impossible. The use of such techniques leads to a revolutionary process which has a significant impact in the business management strategy, by providing on time, correct information, ready to use. Computational intelligence techniques, especially genetic algorithms, genetic programming, neural networks, fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy as well as modern finance theories, such as real options theory, are here presented and exemplified in oil and gas exploitation and production. This book is addressed to executives and students, directly involved or interested in intelligent management in different fields. (orig.)

  20. Biodesulphurization Within Natural Gas in Oil and Gas Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur compounds in natural gas can interfere to the quality of natural gas. The decline of combustion gas capacity, metal instrument corrosion in gas piping, and the environmental pollution from gas emission can affect by their presence. Bio-filter is one of the methods  that selected to reduce sulphur content in natural gas. A lab scale study of hydrogen sulphide reduction in natural gas had conducted in oil and gas field using bio-filter method. The bio-filter system (±1 L volume contains an active carbon and thiosulphide medium as a substrate, Thiobacillus thioparus as a single culture of sulphur bacteria, and Thiobacillus thioparus with sludge as a mixed culture of sulphur bacteria. The study of hydrogen sulphide reduction was conducted with continuous flow line process. The gas flow rate approximately 1.5 L/min with a fluctuate presence of Hydrogen sulphide (approximately 40 - 70 mg/L. The bio-filter system contains active carbon, thiosulphide medium, and single culture of T. thioparus appear as a good filter for hydrogen sulphide reduction. During 24 hours, the hydrogen sulphide reduction obtains 93% to 16%. When  culture media added, the hydrogen sulphide reduction will increase almost 60% and then the reduction decrease to 4% after 20 hours. It is concluded that the bio-filter have potential to develop for sulphur reduction in natural gas.

  1. Numerical Modeling of Oil Spill Movement along North-West Coast of India Using GNOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Remyalekshmi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available India is located at a very strategic point with respect to the international commercial sea routes with a large amount of crude oil traffic. Hence, the risk of oil spill occurring in the Indian waters is considerably high. In the present paper, forecasting the movement of a possible crude oil spill of 10,000 barrels at a location of latitude 21° 41′ 48.53′ N and longitude 66° 46′ 41.45″ E, intersection point of two ship routes from Kandla port and Bombay port (Kandla port of India to Yanbu port of Saudi Arabia and Bombay port of India to Ras Tanura port of Saudi Arabia has been carried out using GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment model developed by Hazardous Materials Response Division (HAZMAT of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Response and Restoration (NOAA OR&R of United States government. The governing equations for horizontal diffusion, evaporation, dissolution, dispersion etc, adopted by GNOME have been presented in the paper. The simulation is carried out for month of September 2011. It is found that the spill possibly takes 10 hours to reach Gujarat coast and 15 hours to reach Maharashtra coast. With this available knowledge, appropriate mitigation measures may be adopted before spill reaches the shores.

  2. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  3. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  4. Wettability testing of unconsolidated oil sands using low field NMR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, X.; Kantzas, A.; Bryan, J. [University of Calgary/TIPM Laboratory (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In an oil field it is important to understand wettability within the reservoir as it has an important impact on several parameters. However it is difficult to measure wettability in oil sands since conventional Amott/USBM testing cannot be applied. The aim of this paper is to develop protocols to assess wettability from NMR spectra in heavy oil reservoirs. Research was conducted on water wet and oil wet conditions; 3 sets of experiments were carried out with oil phases of different viscosity. Results showed that the signal from oil is insensitive to the location of the oil when viscosity increases but that water relaxation times are linked to the presence of water so water peak shifts can be used to determine different wettability states. This study determined that using water phase NMR relaxation presents several advantages to extract wettability information in unconsolidated sand systems and a technique was developed to interpret wettability.

  5. Overview of the DACCIWA ground-based field campaign in southern West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohou, Fabienne; Kalthoff, Norbert; Brooks, Barbara; Jegede, Gbenga; Adler, Bianca; Ajao, Adewale; Ayoola, Muritala; Babić, Karmen; Bessardon, Geoffrey; Delon, Claire; Dione, Cheikh; Handwerker, Jan; Jambert, Corinne; Kohler, Martin; Lothon, Marie; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier; Smith, Victoria; Sunmonu, Lukman; Wieser, Andreas; Derrien, Solène

    2017-04-01

    During June and July 2016, a ground-based field campaign took place in southern West Africa within the framework of the Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project. In the investigated region, extended low-level stratus clouds form very frequently during night-time and persist long into the following day influencing the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer and, hence, the regional climate. The motivation for the measurements was to identify the meteorological controls on the whole process chain from the formation of nocturnal stratus clouds, via the daytime transition to convective clouds and the formation of deep precipitating clouds. During the measurement period, extensive remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed at three supersites in Kumasi (Ghana), Savè (Benin) and Ile-Ife (Nigeria). The gathered observations included the energy-balance components at the Earth's surface, the mean and turbulent conditions in the nocturnal and daytime ABL as well as the de- and entrainment processes between the ABL and the free troposphere. The meteorological measurements were supplemented by aerosol and air-chemistry observations. We will give an overview of the conducted measurements including instrument availability and strategy during intensive observation periods.

  6. PetroChina Licensed for Nation's Offshore Oil Fields Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the approval by the State Council - the Chinese Government, the Ministry of State and Resources formally authorized PetroChina, China's largest oil and gas producer, with the rights for oil and gas exploration and development in South China Sea on July 6.

  7. Basic results of oil field experiments which justify the development of oil and gas formations using CO2 in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, E.

    1984-01-01

    An oil field experiment begun in 1969 and conducted in the 1970s in the K-2 collector of the Budafa deposit is the basis for developing the deposits of oil and gas of Budafa and Lovasi by secondary and tertiary methods using CO2. The condition of the formation at the onset of pumping in the carbon dioxide is briefly described. The results of the experiment are confirmed by the substantial increase and improvement in the daily flow rates of wells and the oil extraction factor. The mechanism of displacement is analyzed, along with the factors which effect the results, and their value. The question about the role of clay minerals in the CO2, oil, water and rock system is examined along with methods for regulating the rate of pumping gas and the withdrawal rate.

  8. GWDC Solves World-class Drilling Bottleneck in Kenkijak Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The news that Greatwall Drilling Company Limited (GWDC) has drilled a well with the daily oil production of more than one thousand tons spread quickly when the Well H8010 of CNPC Aktobin Oil and Gas Shareholding Company (CNPC Aktobin) in Kenkijak Oil Field in Kazakhstan produced 1,170 tons on July 1, 2004; both the employees of GWDC and CNPC Aktobin could not hold their excited feeling and cheered at such encouraging news.

  9. INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

    2003-05-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in

  10. Foamy oil flow : a laboratory curiosity or a real drive mechanism in field operations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maini, B.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The exceptional performance of primary depletion in many Canadian and Venezuelan heavy oil reservoirs can be attributed to the mechanism of foamy oil flow. It is has been speculated that the solution gas released during depletion remains dispersed in the oil and flows towards the production well in the form of gas-in-oil dispersion. However, most laboratory studies of foamy-oil-flow reveal that the depletion rates required for generating dispersed flow are completely unrealistic in field operations. This study examined whether foamy oil flow is merely a laboratory aberration. The paper defines foamy oil flow and explains how it evolved. A brief review of Canadian field practices was presented along with observations from cold production of heavy oil. The pore-scale mechanisms involved and the interplay between capillary and viscous forces were also discussed along with the conditions under which dispersed flow is generated in field operations. The strengths and weaknesses of several mathematical models proposed for numerical simulation of foamy oil flow were described.

  11. Chemical composition of asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Klyavina, O.A.; Kolyabina, N.A. [L.N. Tolstoi Tula State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation)

    1994-09-10

    Asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba have been studied by physical and physicochemical methods. Dynamics of distribution of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen and also various functional groups in asphaltenes has been described. These data can be used for the proper deasphalting of crude oil and further treatment of asphaltenes.

  12. Market potential of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery-a techno-economic model for Issaran oil field in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunay; Guédez, Rafael; Laumert, Björn

    2017-06-01

    Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (S-EOR) is an advanced technique of using concentrated solar power (CSP) technology to generate steam and recover oil from maturing oil reservoirs. The generated steam is injected at high pressure and temperature into the reservoir wells to facilitate oil production. There are three common methods of steam injection in enhanced oil recovery - continuous steam injection, cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). Conventionally, this steam is generated through natural gas (NG) fired boilers with associated greenhouse gas emissions. However, pilot projects in the USA (Coalinga, California) and Oman (Miraah, Amal) demonstrated the use of S-EOR to meet their steam requirements despite the intermittent nature of solar irradiation. Hence, conventional steam based EOR projects under the Sunbelt region can benefit from S-EOR with reduced operational expenditure (OPEX) and increased profitability in the long term, even with the initial investment required for solar equipment. S-EOR can be realized as an opportunity for countries not owning any natural gas resources to make them less energy dependent and less sensible to gas price fluctuations, and for countries owning natural gas resources to reduce their gas consumption and export it for a higher margin. In this study, firstly, the market potential of S-EOR was investigated worldwide by covering some of the major ongoing steam based EOR projects as well as future projects in pipeline. A multi-criteria analysis was performed to compare local conditions and requirements of all the oil fields based on a defined set of parameters. Secondly, a modelling approach for S-EOR was designed to identify cost reduction opportunities and optimum solar integration techniques, and the Issaran oil field in Egypt was selected for a case study to substantiate the approach. This modelling approach can be consulted to develop S-EOR projects for any steam flooding based oil

  13. Redistribution of mobile surface charges of an oil droplet in water in applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing

    2016-10-01

    Most researches on oil droplets immersed in aqueous solutions assume that the surface charges of oil droplets are, similar to that of solid particles, immobile and distributed uniformly under external electric field. However, the surface charges at the liquid-liquid interface are mobile and will redistribute under external electric field. This paper studies the redistribution of surface charges on an oil droplet under the influence of the external electrical field. Analytical expressions of the local zeta potential on the surface of an oil droplet after the charge redistribution in a uniform electrical field were derived. The effects of the initial zeta potential, droplet radius and strength of applied electric field on the surface charge redistribution were studied. In analogy to the mobile surface charges, the redistribution of Al2O3-passivated aluminum nanoparticles on the oil droplet surface was observed under applied electrical field. Experimental results showed that these nanoparticles moved and accumulated towards one side of the oil droplet under electric field. The redistribution of the nanoparticles is in qualitative agreement with the redistribution model of the mobile surface charges developed in this work.

  14. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  15. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geological Provinces of the Former Soviet Union

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, center points of oil and gas fields, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in the Former Soviet Union. This compilation is...

  16. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of the Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  17. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of Africa with some of these components extended into geographically...

  18. Radio-geochemical methods at surface expiotation of oil and gas fields

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolev, I. S.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the situation with radio-geochemical methods of searching oil and gas fields is presented. Potential reasons of radio-geochemical anomalies formation are considered, some approaches to interpretation of radio-geochemical datum are listed

  19. An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kristyn Ann

    The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the

  20. Effect of electric field treatment on unsaturated fatty acid in crude avocado oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Díaz-Reyes, Joel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of the fatty acids in avocado oil when the product is subjected to different conditions of electric field treatment (voltage: 5 kV cm(-1); frequency: 720 Hz; treatment time: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min). Fatty acids were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. Electric field is a suitable method to preserve the oil quality and composition with minimal modifications in unsaturated fatty acids.

  1. The analysis of repeated failures of pipelines in Kal'chinskoe oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavlov, E. N.; Brusnik, O. V.; Lukjanov, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the chemical analysis of oilfield water and hydraulic analysis of the liquid flow in Kal'chinskoe oil field pipeline that allow detecting the causes of the internal corrosion processes. The inhibitor protection is suggested to reduce the corrosion rate in the pipelines of Kal'chinskoe oil field. Based on the analysis of the pipeline failures, it is suggested to replace steel pipes by fiberglass pipes.

  2. Technical and economic feasibility study of flue gas injection in an Iranian oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi

    2015-09-01

    The main aim of this research is to investigate various gas injection methods (N2, CO2, produced reservoir gas, and flue gas in one of the northern Persian gulf oil fields by a numerical simulation method. Moreover, for each scenario of gas injection technical and economical considerations are took into account. Finally, an economic analysis is implemented to compare the net present value (NPV of the different gas injection scenarios in the aforementioned oil field.

  3. Wastewater disposal from unconventional oil and gas development degrades stream quality at a West Virginia injection facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Engle, Mark A.; Klinges, Julia (Grace); Kent, Douglas B.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources has rapidly increased in recent years; however, the environmental impacts and risks are poorly understood. A single well can generate millions of liters of wastewater, representing a mixture of formation brine and injected hydraulic fracturing fluids. One of the most common methods for wastewater disposal is underground injection; we are assessing potential risks of this method through an intensive, interdisciplinary study at an injection disposal facility in West Virginia. In June 2014, waters collected downstream from the site had elevated specific conductance (416 μS/cm) and Na, Cl, Ba, Br, Sr, and Li concentrations, compared to upstream, background waters (conductivity, 74 μS/cm). Elevated TDS, a marker of UOG wastewater, provided an early indication of impacts in the stream. Wastewater inputs are also evident by changes in 87Sr/86Sr in streamwater adjacent to the disposal facility. Sediments downstream from the facility were enriched in Ra and had high bioavailable Fe(III) concentrations relative to upstream sediments. Microbial communities in downstream sediments had lower diversity and shifts in composition. Although the hydrologic pathways were not able to be assessed, these data provide evidence demonstrating that activities at the disposal facility are impacting a nearby stream and altering the biogeochemistry of nearby ecosystems.

  4. Wastewater Disposal from Unconventional Oil and Gas Development Degrades Stream Quality at a West Virginia Injection Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William; Engle, Mark A; Klinges, J Grace; Kent, Douglas B; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M

    2016-06-07

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources has rapidly increased in recent years; however, the environmental impacts and risks are poorly understood. A single well can generate millions of liters of wastewater, representing a mixture of formation brine and injected hydraulic fracturing fluids. One of the most common methods for wastewater disposal is underground injection; we are assessing potential risks of this method through an intensive, interdisciplinary study at an injection disposal facility in West Virginia. In June 2014, waters collected downstream from the site had elevated specific conductance (416 μS/cm) and Na, Cl, Ba, Br, Sr, and Li concentrations, compared to upstream, background waters (conductivity, 74 μS/cm). Elevated TDS, a marker of UOG wastewater, provided an early indication of impacts in the stream. Wastewater inputs are also evident by changes in (87)Sr/(86)Sr in streamwater adjacent to the disposal facility. Sediments downstream from the facility were enriched in Ra and had high bioavailable Fe(III) concentrations relative to upstream sediments. Microbial communities in downstream sediments had lower diversity and shifts in composition. Although the hydrologic pathways were not able to be assessed, these data provide evidence demonstrating that activities at the disposal facility are impacting a nearby stream and altering the biogeochemistry of nearby ecosystems.

  5. THE EFFECT OF OIL CAVITY DEPTH ON TEMPERATURE FIELD IN HEAVY HYDROSTATIC THRUST BEARING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jun-peng; DAI Chun-xi; ZHANG Yan-qin; YU Xiao-dong; XU Xiao-qiu; WANG Yun-fei

    2011-01-01

    For a heavy hydrostatic bearing with a high linear velocity,the results of numerical calculations often differ from practical conditions if the viscosity is considered as constant.In this article,the influence of the oil cavity depth on the temperature field in the heavy hydrostatic bearing is discussed in the context of variable viscosity.The viscosity-temperature relations for the gap oil film are first established by fitting B-Spline curves,then,numerical calculations for the temperature field in the heavy hydrostatic bearing of different oil cavity depths are carried out based on Finite Volume Method (FVM) under the same rotating speed,and the influence of the oil cavity depth on the temperature distribution in the gap oil film of the hydrostatic bearing is discussed.The results of numerical calculations provide the temperature distribution state inside the hydrostatic bearing,which would help the selection and the design of hydrostatic bearings in engineering practice.

  6. Drilling horizontal wells from the coast to reach offshore heavy oil pool, Puerto Escondido field, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puentes, G.E.; Alvarez, R.R. [Cubapetroleo, Havana, (Cuba); Marrero, F.M. [Ministry of Basic Industry, Havana, (Cuba)

    1999-11-01

    A series of vertical oil wells were drilled in the Puerto Escondido field in Cuba as part of an oil exploration program in the 1970s. The drilling of well PE-3 in 1992 revealed that the field contained one of the most significant oil finds in the western region of Cuba. Due to the fractured nature of the reservoir, it was determined that future wells should be drilled using horizontal drilling technology to increase hydrocarbon recoveries, and to maintain high production rates. The first horizontal well was successfully drilled in April, 1997. Four other wells were drilled by September 1998. This paper briefly described the drilling techniques used.

  7. The discovery and development of the El Dorado (Kansas) oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    Pioneers named El Dorado, Kansas, in 1857 for the beauty of the site and the promise of future riches but not until 58 years later was black rather than mythical yellow gold discovered when the Stapleton No. 1 oil well came in on October 5, 1915. El Dorado's leaders were envious when nearby towns found huge gas fields and thrived. John Donley, an El Dorado barber, had tried to find either gas or oil in 1878 at a nearby site selected by a spiritualist. He staked out a townsite, spudded a well and drilled 200 feet before running out of money. Wells in 1879 and 1882 produced only brine. In June, 1914, chafed over discovery of oil in nearby Augusta, El Dorado city fathers contracted with Erasmus Haworth, soon to retire from his position as State Geologist, to perform a geological study of the area. His field work outlined the El Dorado Anticline, which unsuccessfully was drilled first in August, 1915. On abandonment, the Wichita Natural Gas Company purchased the lease and drilled the Stapleton No. 1 oil well. More success followed and by 1918, the El Dorado produced 29 million barrels, almost 9% of the nation's oil. Entrepreneurs came and prospered: the Cities Service Oil Company, A.L. Derby, Jack Vickers, and Bill Skelly all became familiar names in Midcontinent oil marketing. Earlier giant fields had hurt the price of crude oil but the El Dorado came in as both World War I and the rapid popularization of motor transport made a market for both light and heavy ends of the refinery stream. The giant gas field never materialized as hoped but in late 1995, the El Dorado Field produced its 300 millionth barrel of oil.

  8. DACCIWA Cloud-Aerosol Observations in West Africa Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, J Christine [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Blanchard, Yann [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Hill, Peter [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Gregory, Laurie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wagener, Richard [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Interactions between aerosols and clouds, and their effects on radiation, precipitation, and regional circulations, are one of the largest uncertainties in understanding climate. With reducing uncertainties in predictions of weather, climate, and climate impacts in mind, the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, funded by the European Commission, set out to improve our understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions in southern West Africa. This region is ideal for studying cloud-aerosol interactions because of its rich mix of natural and anthropogenic aerosols and diverse clouds, and because of the strong dependence on the regional and global climate of the sensitive West African monsoon. The overview of DACCIWA is described in Knippertz et al. 2015. The interdisciplinary DACCIWA team includes not only several European and African universities, but also Met Centres in the UK, France, Germany, Switzerland, Benin, Ghana, and Nigeria. One of the crucial research activities in DACCIWA is the major field campaign in southern West Africa from June to July 2016, comprising a benchmark data set for assessing detailed processes on natural and anthropogenic emissions; atmospheric composition; air pollution and its impacts on human and ecosystem health; boundary layer processes; couplings between aerosols, clouds, and rainfall; weather systems; radiation; and the monsoon circulation. Details and highlights of the campaign can be found in Flamant et al. 2017. To provide aerosol/cloud microphysical and optical properties that are essential for model evaluations and for the linkage between ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne observations, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility loaned two sun photometers to the DACCWIA team for the campaign from June 8 to July 29, 2016. The first sun photometer was deployed at Kumasi, Ghana (6.67962°N, 1.56019°W) by the University of Leeds

  9. Sulfate-reducing bacteria release barium and radium from naturally occurring radioactive material in oil-field barite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E.J.P.; Landa, E.R.; Kraemer, T.; Zielinski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Scale and sludge deposits formed during oil production can contain elevated levels of Ra, often coprecipitated with barium sulfate (barite). The potential for sulfate-reducing bacteria to release 226 Ra and Ba (a Ra analog) from oil-field barite was evaluated. The concentration of dissolved Ba increased when samples containing pipe scale, tank sludge, or oil-field brine pond sediment were incubated with sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio sp., Str LZKI, isolated from an oil-field brine pond. However, Ba release was not stoichiometric with sulfide production in oil-field samples, and material.

  10. Index to names of oil and gas fields in Oklahoma, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacina, J.L.

    1979-05-01

    This index contains the current and discontinued names of the oil and gas fields in Oklahoma. They are listed according to assignments made by the Oklahoma Nomenclature Committee of the Kansas-Oklahoma Division, Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association. Also listed are some names which have been used locally or unofficially for certain areas. Included also are: (1) the date when the field was named; (2) the description of location by county, township, and section; and (3) a statement as to the disposition of a field when it was combined with other fields.

  11. Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Knox, Annette M.; Owens, Christine E.; Shock, Everett L.

    1993-07-01

    The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested. Calculations were carried out to determine the distribution of species with the minimum Gibbs free energy in overpressured oil field waters in the Texas Gulf Coast assuming metastable equilibrium among calcite, albite, and a representative spectrum of organic and inorganic aqueous species at reservoir temperatures and pressures. The hypothesis that homogeneous equilibrium obtains among carboxylate and carbonate species in oil field waters is confirmed.

  12. High Quality Bergamot Oil from Greece: Chemical Analysis Using Chiral Gas Chromatography and Larvicidal Activity against the West Nile Virus Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magiatis Prokopios

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Τhe essential oils contained in the rind of the fruit and the leaves of bergamot from Greece (Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia were studied. The bergamot trees in question were cultivated on Kefalonia Island. The plant material (leaves and fruits in different stages of maturity was collected between December and March for a two year period. The rind of the fruit was separated manually and the essential oil was obtained either by cold pressing or by hydrodistillation. The maximum yield calculated on a wet weight of fresh rinds basis was 1.8%. The essential oils were first analyzed by GC-MS with a DB-5 column and then with a β-Dex™ enantiomeric column. The main constituent of the cold pressed essential oil of the rind was (–-linalyl acetate with optical purity >99.9%. Other important constituents were (–-linalool, (+-limonene and γ-terpinene. The best value of linalool/linalyl acetate ratio was 0.38 and the maximum sum of linalool+linalyl acetate was found to be 55.8%. The larvacidal activities of the obtained essential oils and the compounds (±-linalyl acetate, (±-linalool and (–-linalool were evaluated against larvae of the mosquito species Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae, the West Nile virus vector, under laboratory conditions. The cold pressed essential oil showed an LC50 value of 58 mg/L, while the LC50 value of the corresponding essential oil obtained by hydrostillation was 106 mg/L. The essential oil of the leaves presented similar larvicidal toxicity with the cold pressed oil of the rind (LC50=68 mg/L.

  13. High quality bergamot oil from Greece: Chemical analysis using chiral gas chromatography and larvicidal activity against the West Nile virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melliou, Eleni; Eleni, Melliou; Michaelakis, Antonios; Antonios, Michaelakis; Koliopoulos, George; George, Koliopoulos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Alexios-Leandros, Skaltsounis; Magiatis, Prokopios; Prokopios, Magiatis

    2009-02-18

    Tauhe essential oils contained in the rind of the fruit and the leaves of bergamot from Greece (Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia) were studied. The bergamot trees in question were cultivated on Kefalonia Island. The plant material (leaves and fruits in different stages of maturity) was collected between December and March for a two year period. The rind of the fruit was separated manually and the essential oil was obtained either by cold pressing or by hydrodistillation. The maximum yield calculated on a wet weight of fresh rinds basis was 1.8%. The essential oils were first analyzed by GC-MS with a DB-5 column and then with a beta-Dex enantiomeric column. The main constituent of the cold pressed essential oil of the rind was (-)-linalyl acetate with optical purity >99.9%. Other important constituents were (-)-linalool, (+)-limonene and gamma-terpinene. The best value of linalool/linalyl acetate ratio was 0.38 and the maximum sum of linalool+linalyl acetate was found to be 55.8%. The larvacidal activities of the obtained essential oils and the compounds (+/-)-linalyl acetate, (+/-)-linalool and (-)-linalool were evaluated against larvae of the mosquito species Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), the West Nile virus vector, under laboratory conditions. The cold pressed essential oil showed an LC(50) value of 58 mg/L, while the LC(50) value of the corresponding essential oil obtained by hydrostillation was 106 mg/L. The essential oil of the leaves presented similar larvicidal toxicity with the cold pressed oil of the rind (LC(50)=68 mg/L).

  14. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A. [INTEVEP S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  15. Laboratory and field testing of bednet traps for mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Andris, Heri; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Barbara, Kathryn A; Munif, Amrul

    2010-06-01

    Surveillance of medically important mosquitoes is critical to determine the risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission. The purpose of this research was to test self-supporting, exposure-free bednet traps to survey mosquitoes. In the laboratory we tested human-baited and unbaited CDC light trap/cot bednet (CDCBN) combinations against three types of traps: the Mbita Trap (MIBITA), a Tent Trap (TENT), and a modified Townes style Malaise trap (TSM). In the laboratory, 16 runs comparing MBITA, TSM, and TENT to the CDCBN were conducted for a total of 48 runs of the experiment using 13,600 mosquitoes. The TENT trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The CDCBN collected significantly more than the MBITA and there was no difference between the TSM and the CDCBN. Two field trials were conducted in Cibuntu, Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. The first test compared human-baited and unbaited CDCBN, TENT, and TSM traps during six nights over two consecutive weeks per month from January, 2007 to September, 2007 for a total of 54 trapnights. A total of 8,474 mosquitoes representing 33 species were collected using the six trapping methods. The TENT-baited trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than both the CDCBN and the TSM. The second field trial was a comparison of the baited and unbaited TENT and CDCBN traps and Human Landing Collections (HLCs). The trial was carried out from January, 2008 to May, 2008 for a total of 30 trap nights. A total of 11,923 mosquitoes were collected representing 24 species. Human Landing Collections captured significantly more mosquitoes than either the TENT or the CDCBN. The baited and unbaited TENT collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The TENT trap was found to be an effective, light-weight substitute for the CDC light-trap, bednet combination in the field and should be considered for use in surveys of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, arboviruses, and filariasis.

  16. Repellency of aerosol and cream products containing fennel oil to mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Yang, Young-Cheol; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-11-01

    The repellency of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller)-containing products (5% aerosol and 8% cream) against mosquitoes was compared with those of citronella oil, geranium oil and deet, as well as three commercial repellents, Baby Keeper cream containing IR3535, MeiMei cream containing citronella and geranium oils, and Repellan S aerosol containing 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory study with female Aedes aegypti (L), fennel oil exhibited good repellency in a release-in-cage test and repellency in skin and patch tests of the oil was comparable with those of citronella and geranium oils. In paddy field tests with five human volunteers, 5% and 8% fennel oil-containing aerosol and cream produced 84% and 70% repellency, respectively, at 90 min after exposure, whereas Baby Keeper cream and MeiMei cream gave 71% and 57% repellency at 90 min after exposure, respectively, and Repellan S aerosol gave 89% repellency at 210 min. The species and ratio of mosquitoes collected were the genera Culex (44.1%), Anopheles (42.2%), Aedes (7.8%) and Armigeres (5.9%). Fennel oil-containing products could be useful for protection from humans and domestic animals from vector-borne diseases and nuisance caused by mosquitoes.

  17. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  18. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  19. Substantial changes in hemocyte parameters of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun-Ki; Donaghy, Ludovic; Kang, Chang-Keun; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Lee, Hee-Jung; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2016-07-15

    Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred off the west coast of Korea, we determined sub-lethal effects of the spilled oil on hemocyte parameters of Ruditapes philippinarum in the damaged areas. Clams in the spilled sites displayed unusually high proportion of granulocytes, which may result in higher phagocytosis capacity and reactive oxygen species production. Hemocytes in clams from the polluted sites also displayed less DNA damage and mortality than in the control site, possibly due to a faster phagocytosis of the impaired cells. Glycogen, the major energetic reserve, was depleted in clams from the spilled sites, potentially due to energetic consumption for maintenance of a large pool of granulocytes, detoxification processes and oxidative stress. Modified hemocyte parameters in clams in the spilled area, may reflect sub-lethal physiological stresses caused by the residual oils in the sediment, in conjunction with environmental modifications such as food availability and pathogens pattern.

  20. Antibacterial activity and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Origanum vulgare ssp. viride growing wild in north-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the flower oil, comprising 96.3% of the total, the major components were 1,8-cineole (11.6%), alpha-pinene (6.9%), and gamma-cadinene (4.8%). 1-Octen-3-ol (23.8%), and 1,8-cineole (8.5%) predominated in the leafoil. In the stem oil, other main constituents were bicyclogermacrene (9.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), borneol (5.1%), and pinocarvone (4.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future use of certain essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their safety and positive effect on shelf life.

  1. Polymer composite coatings to protect parts of oil field equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kislyy, P.S.; Alekseyenko, A.A.; Dzyadykevich, Yu.V.; Kalba, Ye.N.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the possibility of using polymer composite coating for protection from corrosion and wear of working wheels of oil pumping pumps. A study was made of the physicomechanical properties of the polymer matrix. Technology was developed for applying the coating based on a polymer matrix and refractory filler which was introduced at the UMN ''Druzhba.''

  2. A genome probe survey of the microbial community in oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voordouw, G.; Telang, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2000-07-01

    Reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) was conducted in water injected oil fields in Western Canada in order to analyze the microbial community in the fields to identify different bacteria responsible for microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) or souring. Oil fields of moderate temperature and salinity have an anaerobic microbial community consisting of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and heterotrophic bacteria. The RSGP revealed that selected SRB are enhanced at metal surfaces and can therefore contribute to corrosion. Some of the SRB were found to be insensitive to biocides that are used in the field. RSGP also showed that injection of nitrate, instead of sulfate, leads to a marked increase of Campylobacter sp., which gets its energy from the oxidation of sulfide by nitrate. It was concluded that RSGP is a useful tool to monitor the effects of chemical stresses on the oil field microbial community. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  3. MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2004-12-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC

  4. Microbial methane production associated with carbon steel corrosion in a Nigerian oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet eMand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC.

  5. Microbial Methane Production Associated with Carbon Steel Corrosion in a Nigerian Oil Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung S; Okoro, Chuma; Lomans, Bart P; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC.

  6. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  7. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  8. Estimation of deepwater temperature and hydrogeochemistry of springs in the Takab geothermal field, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Mohammadi, Zargham; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 19 hot and cold springs are used to characterize Takab geothermal field, west of Iran. The springs are divided into two main groups based on temperature, host rock, total dissolved solids (TDS), and major and minor elements. TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) concentrations of hot springs are all higher than in cold springs. Higher TDS in hot springs probably reflect longer circulation and residence time. The high Si, B, and Sr contents in thermal waters are probably the result of extended water-rock interaction and reflect flow paths and residence time. Binary, ternary, and Giggenbach diagrams were used to understand the deeper mixing conditions and locations of springs in the model system. It is believed that the springs are heated either by mixing of deep geothermal fluid with cold groundwater or low conductive heat flow. Mixing ratios are evaluated using Cl, Na, and B concentrations and a mass balance approach. Calculated quartz and chalcedony geothermometer give lower reservoir temperatures than cation geothermometers. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 62 and 90 °C. The δ(18)O and δD (δ(2)H) are used to trace and determine the origin and movement of water. Both hot and cold waters plot close to the local meteoric line, indicating local meteoric origin.

  9. Evolution of Hydrodynamic Field, Oil-Gas Migration and Accumulation in Songliao Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼章华; 朱蓉; 金爱民; 孙毛明; 蔡希源; 迟元林

    2004-01-01

    The oil-gas migration and accumulation in the Songliao Basin were analyzed in the view of fluid dynamics by the authors. The key point of fluid dynamics is hydrodynamics. Oil-gas migration and accumulation are related closely with formation and evolution of hydrodynamic field. Based on abundant data, initial formation pressure and other parameters, such as water head were studied. They can be used to understand the present distribution of hydrodynamic field and its hydrochemical features. Generally, the hydrodynamic field in the basin is obviously asymmetrical. In its north and east part, there are the areas of centripetal flow caused by topographic relief when meteoric water permeate downwards. Its south part is an evaporation-concentration area. The central depression is an area of centrifugal flow driven by sediment compaction and its cross-formational flow area. Only at the basin margin and in the local uplifted and denudated area are the meteoric water permeating downwards areas. The centrifugal flow driven by sediment compaction is the main dynamic factor that induces oil-gas migration and accumulation and its formation period corresponding to the main stage of oil-gas migration and accumulation. Moreover, the evolution of hydrodynamic field has the cyclic property, which results in phased oil-gas migration by stages, and further dominates the terraced annular oil and gas distribution, concentric with their corresponding sags.

  10. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

    2001-03-28

    Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

  11. Assessment of potential increased oil production by polymer-waterflood in northern and southern mid-continent oil fields. Progress report for the quarter ending December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Six tasks are reported on: geological and engineering study of the DOE-Kewanee polymer-augmented waterflood, review of polymer injection program in this field, evaluation of results of polymer-augmented waterflood in this field, review of geological and engineering characteristics of oil fields now in waterflood as candidates for polymer augmentation, review of fields currently under primary production, and determination of ranges of future increased oil production from the polymer-water process in the project area.

  12. Beluga coal field development: social effects and management alternatives. [West side of Cook Inlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, M.; Cluett, C.; Trimble, J.; Brody, S.; Howell, C.; Leman, L.; Svendsen, G.

    1979-05-01

    Plans are under way to mine the Beluga coal fields on the west side of Cook Inlet. The coal will be strip-mined for export, or to supply local electric generating plants, or both. Over the next 20 years, this coal development activity is likely to generate social and economic impacts at the local, regional, and state levels. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential social and economic effects of coal development, including employment and population growth, regional impacts, and the facility and service needs of a new settlement in the Beluga area. Of special concern is identifying the role of various governmental agencies in the development process. Potential effects on the natural environment are not examined in detail since they are expected to be controlled to acceptable levels through existing Federal and state laws. This report examines three possible levels of coal-field development and the settlement requirements associated with each. The most probable regional impacts associated with this development will include effects on the regional labor force, the market for coal, and the generation and distribution of revenues. The main regional labor force impacts will be positive in nature. The rate of regional unemployment is likely to decline slightly for the duration of the project, with an increase in wage income available for reinvestment in the region and a reduction in the number of individuals receiving unemployment insurance payments. Coal development is not expected to induce any significant inmigration of workers from outside the region.The development of the Beluga coal resources and the production of electricity from coal would add to the Kenai Peninsula Borough's tax base. The assessed value of coal lands around Beluga would likely increase and, in addition, Cook Inlet Region, Inc. would be the recipient of royalties from coal leases. A number of recommendations for research and governmental activities are presented.

  13. Reservoir Characterization around Geothermal Field, West Java, Indonesia Derived from 4-D Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdhora Ry, Rexha; Nugraha, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Observation of micro-seismic events induced by intensive geothermal exploitation in a particular geothermal field, located in West Java region, Indonesia was used to detect the fracture and permeability zone. Using local monitoring seismometer network, tomographic inversions were conducted for the three-dimensional Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs structure of the reservoir for January - December 2007, January - December 2008, and January - December 2009. First, hypocenters location was relocated using joint hypocenter determination (JHD) method in purpose to estimate best location. Then, seismic tomographic inversions were conducted using delay time tomography for dataset of every year respectively. The travel times passing through the three-dimensional velocity model were calculated using ray tracing pseudo-bending method. Norm and gradient damping were added to constrain blocks without ray and to produce smooth solution model. The inversion algorithm was developed in Matlab environment. Our tomographic inversion results from 3-years of observations indicate the presence of low Vp, low Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio at depths of about 1 - 3 km below sea level. These features were interpreted may be related to steam-saturated rock in the reservoir area of this geothermal field. The locations of the reservoir area were supported by the data of well- trajectory, where the zones of high Vp/Vs were observed around the injection wells and the zones of low Vp/Vs were observed around the production wells. The extensive low Vp/Vs anomaly that occupies the reservoir is getting stronger during the 3-years study period. This is probably attributed to depletion of pore liquid water in the reservoir and replacement with steam. Continuous monitoring of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs is an effective tool for geothermal reservoir characterization and depletion monitoring and can potentially provide information in parts of the reservoir which have not been drilled.

  14. Laboratory and field observations of stress-wave induced changes in oil flow behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P. M. (Peter M.); Majer, Ernest Luther; Wooden, W. (William); Daley, T. M. (Thomas M.)

    2001-01-01

    We present recent results of laboratory and field experiments designed to validate and quantify the phenomenon of seismically enhanced oil production in marginal reservoirs. Controlled laboratory experiments were performed where mechanical stress oscillations at 100 Hz or less were applied to sandstone cores while flowing oil and/or brine at constant flow rates. Steady-state flow and simulated flooding experiments indicated that stress stimulation causes significant changes in the ability of one fluid to displace the other and on the preference that the rock has for trapping one fluid over the other. For Berea sandstone, which is highly water wet, stress stimulation caused oil production to be impeded during water floods and caused the bulk fluid pressure drop across the core to increase during steady-state simultaneous flow of oil and brine. A possible explanation of these observations is that stimulation caused the core to become more oil wet. Field stimulation tests on producing reservoirs at Lost Hills, California were performed using a downhole fluid pressure pulsation device. Stimulation was applied in one well for 50 days total during July - November 2000. Two groups of producing wells were monitored for changes in oil cut and oil production during the test. A control group of 26 wells displayed an oil-cut increase of 29% and an oil production increase of 26% which are clearly correlated with the stimulation treatment. A larger group of 60 wells showed 11% oil-cut and 17v0 production increases. Similar increases were observed during the October 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, magnitude 7.1, in the Mojave Desert about 230 miles from Lost Hills. Downhole seismic monitoring of the stimulation wavefield is being used to help quantify the frequency range and energy threshold required for effective production enhancement.

  15. Rock mechanics related to Jurassic underburden at Valdemar oil field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The presented study is a part of the Danish Energy Research project PRIORITY - Imroved Oil Recovery and Productivity from Lower Cretaceous Carbonates.It considers a multi-disciplinary study of the Jurassic shale underlying the Valdemar structure and gives a status of the on-going research work.......It has been initiated as a feasibility study of the North Jens-1 core 12 taken in the top Jurassic clay shale as a test specimens for integrated petrological, mineralogical and rock mechanical studies. Following topics are studied:(1) Pore pressure generation due to conversion of organic matter...... and deformation properties of the clay shale using the actual core material or outcrop equivalents.(3) Flushing mechanisms for oil and gas from source rocks due to possibly very high pore water pressure creating unstable conditions in deeply burried sedimentsThere seems to be a need for integrating the knowledge...

  16. Intelligent fiber sensing system for the oil field area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenju; Ma, Linping

    2010-08-01

    Optical Fiber strain sensor using fiber Bragg grating are poised to play a major role in structural health from military to civil engineering. Fiber Bragg Grating sensor is a practical type of fiber optic sensors. Its measurement is encoded with the wavelength of the optical signal reflected from fiber Bragg grating. The method of measuring the absolute optical wavelength is a critical component of the fiber optic sensing system. To reliably detect very small changes in the environment at the sensor, the interrogation system must provide accurate and repeatable wavelength measurements. Energy sources are increasingly scarce in the world. Getting oil from the oil-wells has become more and more difficult. Therefore, new technology to monitor the oil-well condition has become extremely important. The traditional electrical sensor system is no longer useful because of the down-hole's high temperature and high pressure environment. The optical fiber sensing system is the first choice to monitor this condition. This system will reduce the cost and increase the productivity. In the high pressure and high temperature environment, the traditional packed fiber grating pressure-temperature sensor will be no longer reliability. We have to find a new fiber grating temperature-pressure sensor element and the interrogation system. In this work we use the very narrow bandwidth birefringent fiber grating as the sensing element. We obtain the interrogation system has 0.1 pm resolution.

  17. Clear well physical water treatment technology for the oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troncoso y Troncoso, Joao Ricardo [Weatherford Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rzeznik, Lawrence; Parker, Wiley L. [Weatherford International, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Deposits of various types are common problems associated with oil and gas production. Deposits of scale, paraffin can block tubing, cause pumps to stick and clog valves and chokes. The expense and widespread occurrence of deposition problems have resulted in the development of a variety of treatment options which have been marginally successful at best. This paper discusses a new and novel approach for controlling scale, paraffin using an electronic physical water treating device and results that have been achieved. This physical water treatment technology has been applied to oil and gas production wells which incorporate all forms of product lift. Units are now also being installed in several South American locations. This paper will discuss the results obtained from the use of these physical water treatment devices and discuss the criteria which are used to ascertain whether a particular well site's problems can be eased by use of these devices. These criteria will be discussed for both land based and offshore oil wells. (author)

  18. Mixed Finite Element Formulation for Magnetic Fluid Oil Flow in Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Phey Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure depletion and high viscosity of crude oil in oil reservoir are the main challenges in oil recovery process. A potential solution is to employ electromagnetic heating coupled with magnetic fluid injection. The present work delivers a fundamental study on the interaction between magnetic fluid flow with electromagnetic field. The two-dimensional, incompressible flow is solved numerically using mixed finite element method. The velocity fields, temperature and pressure are the variables of interest, to be obtained by solving mass, momentum and energy equations coupled with Maxwell’ equations. The fluid stress arises simultaneously with the external magnetic force which mobilises and increases the temperature of the oil flow. Verification is made against available data obtained from different numerical method reported in literature. The results justify feasibility of the mixed finite element formulation as an alternative for the modelling of the magnetic fluid flow.

  19. Oil palm and the emission of greenhouse gasses- from field measurements in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Niharika; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Giller, Ken E.; Magid, Jakob; van de Ven, Gerrie; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Palm oil from the oil palm (Elaeis guianensis) has in recent years become the world's most important vegetable oil. The increasing demand for palm oil has led to expansion of oil palm plantations, which has caused environmental controversies associated with carbon losses and the use of large amounts of mineral fertilizers. Efforts to increase sustainability of oil palm cultivation, include recycling of oil-mill residues and pruning's, but with this comes increased potential for methane emission from the plantations. Until now no field-based data on greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm plantations have been reported. Here for the first time we present data from a long term (360 days) field trial in Bah Lias Research Station, North Sumatra, Indonesia on greenhouse gas emissions from an oil palm plantation with various treatments of recycled oil palm waste products, fertilizers and simulated rainfall. The first experiment was conducted over a full year (dry + wet season) with mineral fertilizer treatments including urea and ammonium sulphate, and organic fertilizer treatments constituting: empty fruit bunches (EFB), enriched mulch (EFB + palm oil mill effluent (POME) ) and pruned oil palm fronds (OPF). Treatment doses represent the current management in Indonesian plantations and the higher doses that are expected in the imminent future. For the organic treatments several methods of application (applied in inter-rows, piles, patches or bands) were evaluated. The second experiment investigated effects of soil water saturation on GHG emissions through adding 25 mm simulated rainfall per day for 21 days. Each palm tree received 1 kg of N fertilizer as urea or ammonium sulphate and enriched mulch. The gas fluxes in the fields was measured by a large static-chamber (1.8 m x 1.2 m) method and CH4 and N2O concentrations were determined using gas chromatographs. We found that emissions were significantly affected by the type and dose of mineral fertilizers. Application of

  20. The intellectual information system for management of geological and technical arrangements during oil field exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, N. G.; Vasilyeva, E. E.; Evsyutkin, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    The intellectual information system for management of geological and technical arrangements during oil fields exploitation is developed. Service-oriented architecture of its software is a distinctive feature of the system. The results of the cluster analysis of real field data received by means of this system are shown.

  1. Simulation of phase separation with large component ratio for oil-in-water emulsion in ultrasound field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heping; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Yanggui; Geng, Xingguo

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an exploration for separation of oil-in-water and coalescence of oil droplets in ultrasound field via lattice Boltzmann method. Simulations were conducted by the ultrasound traveling and standing waves to enhance oil separation and trap oil droplets. The focus was to the effect of ultrasound irradiation on oil-in-water emulsion properties in the standing wave field, such as oil drop radius, morphology and growth kinetics of phase separation. Ultrasound fields were applied to irradiate the oil-in-water emulsion for getting flocculation of the oil droplets in 420kHz case, and larger dispersed oil droplets and continuous phases in 2MHz and 10MHz cases, respectively. The separated phases started to rise along the direction of sound propagation after several periods. The rising rate of the flocks was significantly greater in ultrasound case than that of oil droplets in the original emulsion, indicating that ultrasound irradiation caused a rapid increase of oil droplet quantity in the progress of the separation. The separation degree was also significantly improved with increasing frequency or irradiation time. The dataset was rearranged for growth kinetics of ultrasonic phase separation in a plot by spherically averaged structure factor and the ratio of oil and emulsion phases. The analyses recovered the two different temporal regimes: the spinodal decomposition and domain growth stages, which further quantified the morphology results. These numerical results provide guidance for setting the optimum condition for the separation of oil-in-water emulsion in the ultrasound field.

  2. Spatial variations of hydrocarbon contamination and soil properties in oil exploring fields across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuting; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Jian; Li, Guanghe

    2012-11-30

    Successful site remediation is critically based on a comprehensive understanding of distribution of contaminants, soil physico-chemical and microbial properties in oil contaminated sites. One hundred and ten topsoils were sampled from seven typical oil fields in different geoclimate regions across north to south China to investigate the spatial variances of oil contaminations and soil parameters. Oil concentrations and compositions, soil geochemical properties and microbial populations were analyzed and statistic analysis methods were used to analyze the spatial pattern of soil variables. The results indicated that oil contaminations were serious in most oil exploring areas in China, especially with high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petrogenic origin. Ordination analyses indicated a relatively distinct spatial pattern that all soil samples grouped mainly by geographic locations, instead of distributing along contamination or other geochemical variable gradient. Microbial populations were found to be statistically positively correlated with soil nitrogen, phosphorus and water content, and negatively correlated with salt pH and soluble salts (Phydrocarbon-contaminated fields across large spatial scales, which is important for the environmental protection and further remediation in oil contaminated sites according to local conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of thermotropic oil-displacing compound thickened Ninka on reservoir microflora and the composition of oil in Usinskoe oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, V. S.; Shcherbakova, A. G.; Guseva, Y. Z.; Altunina, L. K.; Chuykina, D. I.

    2016-11-01

    The work presents results of the study of the impact of thermotropic sol-forming compound thickened NINKA on enhanced oil recovery, stimulation of oil production, on the composition of crude oil, and on oil reservoir microflora sampled from reservoir fluids in the testing and reference areas of Usinskoe field. In vitro, the compound in the concentrations of 0.1-0.5% has a stimulating effect on the microflora, which is more pronounced in a low-mineralized environment. In reservoir conditions, after the injection of the compound, along with the appearance of nitrogen-containing components of the compound and products of its hydrolysis in the wellstream, some wells showed a significant increase in the number of heterotrophic and denitrifying microflora, which is indicative of a stimulating effect of the compound. The change in the composition of oil from these producing wells is due to the desorption of polar and high-molecular components and, to a lesser extent, to the redistribution of filtration flows.

  4. Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

    1997-01-21

    A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

  5. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends.

  6. Economic assessment of environmental impact in the course of oil field development and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Kupriyanova, O. S.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The article considers the variety of impacts that oil exploration and production operations have on the environment at different stages of the process. To provide accurate economic assessment, an oil field development project was designed, with various development options. These options being analyzed, the strategy with the minimal environmental impact was identified. This has allowed preparation of a guideline on how to prevent deterioration of the environment and to reduce the negative environmental impact

  7. In-situ combustion test on outcrops in Kramai oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, S.

    1982-01-01

    An in-situ combustion test was performed in Kramai oil field, located in the northwestern border of the Zhungerer Basin, China. The main objectives of the test were to investigate directly the reservoir geology, the petrophysical properties of the reservoir rock, and the flow properties of oil, gas and water within the reservoir. The paper describes the test procedure, including the well pattern, the test pit, operation and inspection techniques, etc., and presents a general discussion of the results obtained.

  8. Isolation and characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca strain degrading crude oil from a Tunisian off-shore oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamkha, Mohamed; Trabelsi, Yosra; Mnif, Sami; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-12-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative, mesophilic, moderately halotolerant, non-motile, and non-sporulated bacterium, designated strain BSC5 was isolated from an off-shore "Sercina" oil field, located near the Kerkennah island, Tunisia. Yeast extract was not required for growth. Phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain BSC5 revealed that it was related to members of the genus Klebsiella, being most closely related to the type strain of K. oxytoca (99% sequence similarity). Strain BSC5 was capable of using aerobically the crude oil as substrate growth. The growth of strain BSC5 on crude oil was followed by measuring the OD(600 nm) and by enumeration of viable cells at different culture's time. GC-MS analysis showed that strain BSC5 was capable of degrading a wide range of aliphatic hydrocarbons from C(13) to C(30) . The biodegradation rate for n -alkanes reached 44% and 75%, after 20 and 45 days of incubation, respectively. Addition of the synthetic surfactant, Tween 80, accelerated the crude oil degradation. The biodegradation rate for n -alkanes reached 61% and 98%, after 20 and 45 days of incubation, respectively. Moreover, three aromatic compounds, p -hydroxybenzoate, protocatechuate and gentisate, were metabolized completely by strain BSC5 after 24 h, under aerobic conditions.

  9. Hemocyte parameters of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas a year after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Lee, Hee-Jung; Jun, Je-Cheon; Park, Young-Je; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-12-01

    In marine bivalves, hemocytes support various physiological functions, including immune defense, nutrient transport, shell repair, and homeostatic maintenance. Although the effects of marine contaminants on the immunological functions of bivalves have been extensively investigated, the impacts of oil spills are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas 13 months after the Hebei Spirit oil spill (December 2007) off the west coast of Korea. The parameters studied included hemocyte concentration and mortality, relative proportion of hemocyte populations, and immunological functions such as phagocytosis and oxidative activity using flow cytometry. These immune-related parameters in oysters damaged by the oil spill were also compared to control oysters that were collected from an area unaffected by the spill. The flow cytometry study indicated that granulocyte population, phagocytic capacity, and reactive oxygen species production in oysters exposed to crude oil 13 months prior were depressed compared to the unexposed control oysters. Our data suggest that immunocompetence in oysters affected by the oil spill had not fully recovered 1 year after the accident, although more detailed studies on the physiology and disease resistance should be performed.

  10. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  11. Genomic and genotoxic responses to controlled weathered-oil exposures confirm and extend field studies on impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on native killifish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Pilcher

    Full Text Available To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼ 10-fold lower than the high concentration was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA.

  12. Oil and reservoir core extracts compositional variations in the Kerkennah Ouest fields, Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghenma, R. [ETAP, Belvedere (Tunisia); LaFargue, E. [IFP, Malmaison (France)

    1995-08-01

    A suite of oils and reservoir core extracts from the Kerkennah oil fields in Tunisia has been analyzed by various geochemical techniques to elucidate the geological processes which cause variations in oil and extracts composition and their resulting fingerprinting in the different reservoirs of the field. The results obtained greatly helped in the understanding of filling directions which is valuable for future exploration of satellite fields. The oil pools studied are parts of a large geologic province ({open_quotes}the pelagienne plateforme{close_quotes}) where the main oil fields are limited by NW-SE major faults. The two main reservoirs we encountered in the carbonate series of Turonian and Eocene ages and the best reservoir qualities are found in the packstone and grainstone Nummulites facies. Numerous fractures we observed through the fields and we could demonstrate their influence on the filling history of the different fields as well as on the present oil production. Detailed analysis of the light hydrocarbons (C{sub 20-}) as well as the complete study of the C{sub 15+} hydrocarbons indicate compositional variations between the hydrocarbons stored in the Eocene and Turonian reservoirs. The core extracts from the two reservoirs also shows some variations with in particular maturity differences. Apparently the only possible source rock in the area is represented by the Bahloul formation of Turonian age. Within this scenario, we proposed the hypothesis of different behaviours of the main faults over geological time: a first period where the faults acted as conduits for hydrocarbon migration towards both Turonian and Eocene reservoirs and a second period where the faults became impervious to the hydrocarbons moving towards the Eocene reservoirs thus resulting in the storage of more mature hydrocarbons in the Turonian reservoirs only. Also of interest is the observation of different levels of homogenization in the Turonian reservoirs from one field to another.

  13. The economics of field abandonment in the UKCS. [Oil and gas fields in the United Kingdom continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1989-08-01

    The abandonment of oil and natural gas fields in the North Sea raises a number of economic issues. These are principally (a) the costs incurred in the abandonment operations, (b) the criteria to be employed in determining the timing of field abandonment, (c) the fiscal reliefs available for the abandonment expenditures, and (d) the (financial) security aspects of the operation. These topics are briefly discussed in this paper. (author).

  14. Report on the explosion, fire, and oil spill resulting in one fatality and injury on September 21, 1978, at Well 6 of Cavern 6 at the West Hackberry, Louisiana, oil storage site of the strategic petroleum reserve. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The following report is the independent product of the Accident Investigation Committee which was commissioned by the Department of Energy following the accident on September 21, 1978, at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. This Committee is charged with the task of determining the nature, extent, and causes of that accident, which resulted in loss of life, injury and property damage, and the need for corrective action. A nonburning oil spill went into nearby Black Lake, but was contained by the deployment of a series of oil spill containment booms and a prevailing wind from the northeast that kept the oil spill in a restricted area near shore. Because of the rapid and effective containment and cleanup of the oil spill by the Rapid Response Team, it appears very likely at this time that Black Lake will not sustain any permanent environmental damage. Cavern 6 initially contained approximately 7,000,000 barrels of oil at a pressure of 650 psig measured at the well head. As of September 29, 1978, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office - New Orleans (SPRO) estimated that oil expulsion from Cavern 6 was 67,510 barrels. Of this, 34,620 barrels of oil are accounted for, including 31,200 barrels of oil released into Black Lake and subsequently recovered. The remainder (32,890 barrels) was assumed by SPRO to have been burned. The total loss is presently estimated by the Accident Investigation Committee 's consultant to be $12 million. An assessment of the technical problems present at the time of the accident is given. Recommendations for improved safety procedures are included.

  15. 76 FR 61933 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... the current marketing year or by releasing oil from the reserve pool. As of May 31, 2011, the Committee estimated the Scotch reserve pool to contain 454,715 pounds of spearmint oil and the Native reserve pool to contain 606,942 pounds of spearmint oil. When the allotment percentage...

  16. LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM Cymbopogon nardus AS OVIPOSITION DETERRENT AND OVICIDAL ACTIVITIES AGAINST Helicoverpa armigera Hubner ON CHILI PEPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Setiawati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner is one of the key pests of chili pepper in Indonesia. Yield loss due to this insect pest may reach up to 60%. Chemical treatment for con-trolling this insect pest is ineffective and eventually leads to environmental pollution. More environmentally safe insecticides are developed based on natural plant ingredients as their active compound such as essential oils. This study aimed to assess the potential of citronella oil for managing H. armigera on chili pepper. The experiments were conducted at the Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute from April 2009 to March 2010 and in Cirebon, West Java from November 2009 to March 2010. A field experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and replicated five times. Citronella oil was extracted by steam distillation from Cymbo-pogon  nardus. The oil was then chemically characterized by using GC-MS and its efficacy (ovicidal and feeding deterrent against H. armigera was tested both in laboratory and field conditions. The GC-MS result showed that major chemical compounds of the citronella oil used were citronella (35.97%, nerol (17.28%, citronellol (10.03%, geranyle acetate (4.44%, elemol (4.38%, limonene (3.98%, and citronnellyle acetate (3.51%. The laboratory experiment revealed that the highest concentration (4,000 ppm of citronella oil reduced egg laying by 53-66%. Ovicidal activity was concentration dependent, and egg hatchability decreased by 15-95% compared to control. The field experiment showed that treatment of citronella oil at 2.0 mL L-1 significantly reduced fruit damage by H. armigera similar to the plots treated with spinosad at the recommended dose (60 g ai ha-1. Application of citronella oil significantly reduced fruit damage by 72% and increased quality of the chili pepper. Because oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are key factors in controlling the pest, therefore this study revealed that

  17. The Goldsmith/Lakeshore Field : a case history of an Ontario Trenton oil pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, S.; Waugh, G. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The development of the Goldsmith/Lakeshore oil and gas field located in Mersea and Romney Townships in southwestern Ontario was described with reference to the geological, geophysical and engineering aspects of the field. It was discovered in 1985 and has since produced 5 MMSTB oil and 3 Bcf gas from the Middle Ordovician carbonates of the Trenton Group. A total of 40 wells currently produce about 700 bopd and 1 MMcfg/d. The field is expected to continue to make a significant contribution to Ontario's total oil production for many years. The remaining reserves are estimated at 2 MMSTB oil and 1 Bcf gas. The development history over the 17 year period can be sub-divided into 4 distinct phases: (1) the early years from 1985-1989, (2), the development phase from 1990-1993, (3) the mature phase from 1994-1997, and (4) the horizontal drilling phase from 1998-2002. This paper describes the heterogeneous nature of the reservoir and the changes in drilling and completion practices over the years. In particular, it describes in detail how Talisman Energy Ltd. used horizontal drilling to develop an extension of the field beneath Lake Erie. Talisman is currently evaluating options for future field development including field extensions along the trend, in-fill drilling, and stimulation work on existing wells to increase production and reserves. 6 refs., 34 figs.

  18. Identification, characterization and application of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenneman, G.E. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States). Research and Development Dept; Gevertz, D. [Agouron Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The efforts being made to identify and characterize sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in oil fields were described. The role of SOB in the cycling of sulfur in shallow oil reservoirs in Western Canada and Western Texas was also explained. Field tests from reservoirs where anaerobic sulfide oxidation can be potentially applied were also included in this presentation. Sulfides are not desirable in oil fields because they are toxic, corrosive and form insoluble metal sulfides. Nitrate has been found to stimulate the activity of indigenous, anaerobic SOB when amended to sulfide-laden sewage sludges and pond sediments. In this study sulfide-laden, produced brine was collected from a field and dispensed into sterile, anaerobic bottles and amended with potassium nitrate and sodium phosphate. Oxidation of the sulfide was monitored using colour as a means by which to detect oxidation. Results showed that sulfide-oxidizing activity in brines from the Coleville field in Western Canada is a result of autotrophic SOB. Sulfide-oxidizing activity in produced brines collected from Western Texas oil fields needed the addition of organic acids and yeast extract, suggesting oxidation by heterotrophic SOB.19 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  19. Computational Flow Dynamic Simulation of Micro Flow Field Characteristics Drainage Device Used in the Process of Oil-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangya Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous crude oil often contains large amounts of produced water and heavy sediment, which seriously threats the safety of crude oil storage and transportation. Therefore, the proper design of crude oil tank drainage device is prerequisite for efficient purification of aqueous crude oil. In this work, the composition and physicochemical properties of crude oil samples were tested under the actual conditions encountered. Based on these data, an appropriate crude oil tank drainage device was developed using the principle of floating ball and multiphase flow. In addition, the flow field characteristics in the device were simulated and the contours and streamtraces of velocity magnitude at different nine moments were obtained. Meanwhile, the improvement of flow field characteristics after the addition of grids in crude oil tank drainage device was validated. These findings provide insights into the development of effective selection methods and serve as important references for oil-water separation process.

  20. Performance of Surfactant Methyl Ester Sulphonate solution for Oil Well Stimulation in reservoir sandstone TJ Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eris, F. R.; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Permadi, P.

    2017-05-01

    Asphaltene, paraffin, wax and sludge deposition, emulsion and water blocking are kinds ofprocess that results in a reduction of the fluid flow from the reservoir into formation which causes a decrease of oil wells productivity. Oil well Stimulation can be used as an alternative to solve oil well problems. Oil well stimulation technique requires applying of surfactant. Sodium Methyl Ester Sulphonate (SMES) of palm oil is an anionic surfactant derived from renewable natural resource that environmental friendly is one of potential surfactant types that can be used in oil well stimulation. This study was aimed at formulation SMES as well stimulation agent that can identify phase transitions to phase behavior in a brine-surfactant-oil system and altered the wettability of rock sandstone and limestone. Performance of SMES solution tested by thermal stability test, phase behavioral examination and rocks wettability test. The results showed that SMES solution (SMES 5% + xylene 5% in the diesel with addition of 1% NaCl at TJformation water and SMES 5% + xylene 5% in methyl ester with the addition of NaCl 1% in the TJ formation water) are surfactant that can maintain thermal stability, can mostly altered the wettability toward water-wet in sandstone reservoir, TJ Field.

  1. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellency field tests of essential oils from plants traditionally used in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsombath, Chanda; Pålsson, Katinka; Björk, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2012-11-01

    Essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Croton roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae), and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were tested in the field near Vientiane city, Lao PDR, on humans for repellent activity against mosquitoes. Landing mosquitoes were collected and later identified. The most abundant mosquitoes captured belonged to the genera Armigeres, Culex, and Aedes. All the plant oils tested at concentrations of 1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2) were significantly more mosquito repellent than the negative control. Croton oil was significantly repellent against mosquitoes of the three genera at the highest (6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentration tested. Litsea oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at all (1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentrations tested. Hyptis oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at 3.3 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2) and against Culex at 1.7 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2). The oils were analyzed for chemical content of volatiles, mainly terpenes. Main constituents were beta-pinene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from oils of the green parts of H. suaveolens; alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and alpha-phellandrene from fresh bark of C. roxburghii; and alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from fresh fruits of L. cubeba.

  2. Recovery of wild Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in terms of reproduction and gametogenesis two-years after the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Accident off the West Coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Mostafizur Rahman; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Lee, Hee-Jung; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Heung-Sik; Park, Sang-Rul; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007 at Taean off the west coast of Korea was the largest oil tanker accident in Korea. However, the impact of the spill on physiology of benthic animals remains largely unknown. Two-years after the accident, we compared reproductive effort and annual gametogenesis of the wild Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, residing at oil spill site with a control oyster population in Incheon Bay, North-West coast of Korea. Results showed that the oyster sampled from the oil spill site showed a significantly higher (279.0 mg standard animal-1, Panimal-1, Panimal-1, Panimal-1, Panimal-1, Panimal-1, Pphysiological status to normal level after two years of the oil spill accident.

  3. Multivariate statisticalmethods applied to interpretation of saturated biomarkers (Velebit oil field, SE Pannonian Basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA SOLEVIC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five crude oils originating from the Velebit oil field (SE Pannonian Basin, the most important oil field in Serbia, were investigated. Saturated biomarkers (n-alkanes, isoprenoids, steranes and triterpanes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Based on the distribution and abundance of these compounds, a large number of source and maturation parameters were calculated, particularly those most often used in correlation studies of oils. The examined samples were classified according to their origin and level of thermal maturity using factor, cluster and discriminant analyses. According to the source and maturation parameters, combined factor and cluster analyses using the Ward method enabled the categorization of the investigated oils into three groups. The cluster Ward analysis was shown to be of greater susceptibility and reliability. However, in addition to the two aforementioned methods, K-Means cluster analysis and discriminant analysis were shown to be necessary for a more precise and detailed categorization in the case of a large number of samples in one group. Consequently, it was concluded that factor and cluster K-Means andWard analyses can generally be used for the interpretation of saturated biomarkers in correlation studies of oils, but the observed results have to be checked, i.e., confirmed by discriminant analysis.

  4. Field development planning for an offshore extra heavy oil in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G.; Anguiano-Rojas, J. [PEMEX Exploration and Production, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a phased development strategy for an offshore extra-heavy oil development located in the Gulf of Mexico. The Ayatsil-1 oil field is located in an upper Cretaceous brecciated formation. One of the primary concerns of the project is the infrastructure that is needed to handle low reservoir temperatures and high viscosity, low gravity API oil. A delineation well was drilled in order to confirm the areal extension of the reservoir. The field contains an estimated 3.1 billion barrels of oil-in-place. The project will involve the installation of fixed platforms and production platforms. Electric submersible pumps (ESPs) and multiphase pumps will be used to transport the oil from between 17 to 25 wells. Analyses were conducted to determine transport mechanisms as well as gathering networks in both stationary and transitory regimes. The viscosity of live and dead oil in the reservoirs must be accurately measured in relation to temperature in order to define the artificial systems that will be used to reduce viscosity. Results from several studies will be used to determine the feasibility of various chemical, thermal, and diluent applications. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  5. NAFTA opportunities: Oil and gas field drilling machinery and services sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) significantly improves market access in Mexico and Canada for U.S. exports of oil and gas field equipment. Foreign markets account for more than 80 percent of U.S. shipments of oil and gas field machinery. Foreign markets are expected to continue their importance to this industry, in the long term. Mexico and Canada are moderate-sized markets for U.S. exports of oilfield products. In 1992, U.S. exports of this equipment amounted to about $113 million to Mexico and $11 million to Canada.

  6. Cryogels for oil and gas field construction under the conditions of arctic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Manzhay, V. N.; Fufaeva, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    The results of investigation of elastic and thermal properties of cryogels filled with used mineral oil are presented. A new chemical-biological method for oil and gas field construction in the northern regions is proposed and tested. The field experiments carried out in the territory of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District are described. The formation of cryotropic polymer systems occurring at shallow freezing from 0 to -3°C and the impact of crystructured soil on the viability, enzymatic activity of native soil microflora and growth of perennial herbs have been investigated. Cryogels are harmless to humans and safe for the environment.

  7. Optimizing the power of transformer substations in electric supply to the oil fields of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, I.A.; Kudryashov, R.A.; Novoselov, Yu.B.; Sud, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    The problems which come up in designing substations for electricity supply grids for the oil fields in Western Siberia in determining their capacity are examined. A technique is proposed for technical and economic selection of the capacity of substations with consideration of the specifications for design documentation. The issues of rating loads on transformer substations and their prediction are examined. A technique for considering the overloading capability of transformers and their wear at the design load is presented. An example of power drop of an oil field, 35/6 kilovolt voltage substation is cited.

  8. Rock mechanics related to Jurassic underburden at Valdemar oil field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels

    1999-01-01

    .It has been initiated as a feasibility study of the North Jens-1 core 12 taken in the top Jurassic clay shale as a test specimens for integrated petrological, mineralogical and rock mechanical studies. Following topics are studied:(1) Pore pressure generation due to conversion of organic matter...... and deformation properties of the clay shale using the actual core material or outcrop equivalents.(3) Flushing mechanisms for oil and gas from source rocks due to possibly very high pore water pressure creating unstable conditions in deeply burried sedimentsThere seems to be a need for integrating the knowledge...... in a number of geosciences to the benefit of common understanding of important reservoir mechanisms. Rock mechanics and geotechnical modelling might be key points for this understanding of reservoir geology and these may constitute a platform for future research in the maturing and migration from the Jurassic...

  9. Role of interfacial rheological properties in oil field chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos-Szabo, J.; Lakatos, I.; Kosztin, B.

    1996-12-31

    Interfacial rheological properties of different Hungarian crude oil/water systems were determined in wide temperature and shear rate range and in presence of inorganic electrolytes, tensides, alkaline materials and polymers. The detailed laboratory study definitely proved that the interfacial rheological properties are extremely sensitive parameters towards the chemical composition of inmiscible formation liquids. Comparison and interpretation of the interfacial rheological properties may contribute significantly to extension of the weaponry of the reservoir characterization, better understanding of the displacement mechanism, development of the more profitable EOR/IOR methods, intensification of the surface technologies, optimization of the pipeline transportation and improvement of the refinery operations. It was evidenced that the interfacial rheology is an efficient and powerful detection technique, which may enhance the knowledge on formation, structure, properties and behaviour of interfacial layers. 17 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Elastomers in mud motors for oil field applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrik, J. [Baker Hughes INTEQ GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Mud motors, the most frequently used downhole drilling motors in modern drilling systems, are described in their application and function. The elastomeric liner in a mud motor acts as a huge continuous seal. Important properties of elastomers such as chemical resistance, fatigue resistance, mechanical strength, abrasion resistance, bonding to steel and processability are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of NBR, HNBR, FKM, TFEP, and EPDM elastomers for mud motor applications are briefly described. The importance of drilling fluids and their physical and chemical impact on motor elastomers are described. Drilling fluids are categorized in: oil based-, synthetic-, and water based. Results of compatibility tests in the different drilling muds of the presented categories demonstrate the complexity of elastomer development. Elastomers with an equally good performance in all drilling muds are not available. Future developments and improvements are directed towards higher chemical resistance at higher service temperatures. This will be possible only with improved elastomer-to-metal bonding, increased mechanical and better dynamic properties.

  11. Application of bio-huff-`n`-puff technology at Jilin oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Yan-Fed Xue; Gang Dai; Ling Zhao [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An enriched culture 48, capable of adapting to the reservoir conditions and fermenting molasses to produce gas and acid, was used as an inoculum for bio- huff-`n`-puff tests at Fuyu oil area of Jilin oil field. The production well was injected with water containing 4-6% (v/v) molasses and inoculum, and then shut in. After 15-21 days, the well was placed back in operation. A total of 44 wells were treated, of which only two wells showed no effects. The daily oil production of treated wells increased by 33.3-733.3%. Up to the end of 1994, the oil production was increased by 204 tons per well on average. Results obtained from various types of production wells were discussed.

  12. Hydrocarbon charging histories of the Ordovician reservoir in the Tahe oil field, Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纯泉; 陈红汉; 李思田; 张希明; 陈汉林

    2004-01-01

    The Ordovician reservoir of the Tahe oil field went through many tectonic reconstructions, and was characterized by multiple hydrocarbon chargings. The aim of this study was to unravel the complex charging histories. Systematic analysis of fluid inclusions was employed to complete the investigation. Fluorescence observation of oil inclusions under UV light, and microthermometry of both oil and aqueous inclusions in 105 core samples taken from the Ordovician reservoir indicated that the Ordovician reservoir underwent four oil chargings and a gas charging. The hydrocarbon chargings occurred at the late Hercynian, the Indo-Sinian and Yanshan, the early Himalaya, the middle Himalaya, and the late Himalaya,respectively. The critical hydrocarbon charging time was at the late Hercynian.

  13. Hydrocarbon charging histories of the Ordovician reservoir in the Tahe oil field, Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纯泉; 陈红汉; 李思田; 张希明; 陈汉林

    2004-01-01

    The Ordovician reservoir of the Tahe oil field went through many tectonic reconstructions, and was charac-terized by multiple hydrocarbon chargings. The aim of this study was to unravel the complex charging histories. Systematicanalysis of fluid inclusions was employed to complete the investigation. Fluorescence observation of oil inclusions underUV light, and microthermometry of both oil and aqueous inclusions in 105 core samples taken from the Ordovician reservoirindicated that the Ordovician reservoir underwent four oil chargings and a gas charging. The hydrocarbon chargings oc-curred at the late Hercynian, the Indo-Sinian and Yanshan, the early Himalaya, the middle Himalaya, and the late Himalaya,respectively. The critical hydrocarbon charging time was at the late Hercynian.

  14. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  15. Outbreaks of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) under field conditions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenção, André L; Alves, André C; Fugi, Cristina G Q; Matos, Evandro S

    2008-01-01

    Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West.) is a pest of greenhouse vegetables and ornamentals and infests crops in Europe and in the American continent. In Brazil, just a few cases are known on economic crops, being all restricted to greenhouse crops. In 2003, in Itatiba and neighboring localities of State of São Paulo, Brazil, field infestations of T. vaporariorum were observed, mainly on tomato and green bean. So far, whitefly infestation in this area expanded to squash and kale also. Field studies are needed for determining interactions of T. vaporariorum with plants and natural enemies, injury levels, and methods of control.

  16. Methodology for oil field development; Metodologia para o desenvolvimento de campos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeano, Yadira Diaz

    1998-07-01

    The main scope of this work is to study and develop a methodology which allows the elaboration of project for oil field development. There fore it is necessary to consider to consider the integration of the human, technological and economical issues that are important parameters in the engineering project. The spiral concept was applied for the project in order to coordinate, in a reasonable and logical way, the activities involved in the field development, as well as the hierarchical analysis method for the decision making process. The development of an oil field is divided in viability study, preliminary project, final project, project implementation, production and field abandonment cycles. The main components for each cycle are external aspects, environmental criteria, reservoir management, and drilling, completion and well workover, production systems, exportation systems, and risk and economical analysis. The proposed methodology establishes a general scheme for planning and it presents applicable procedures for any field. (author)

  17. Recent developments in reservoir engineering and their impact on oil and gas field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.H.; Niko, H. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij BV, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    With much of the reservoir engineering development activities prior to 1986 being directed to new processes such as EOR, reservoir engineering of today has, like the other petroleum engineering disciplines, become part of an integrated effort to extract the maximum amount of oil from a reservoir. We will discuss some of the new developments in reservoir engineering which had a real impact on oil field operations in Shell and on the working practices of the individual reservoir engineers. Examples of recent advances in reservoir engineering are: (1) progress in the field of measuring residual oil saturations to water under representative conditions which will enable a more realistic assessment of trapped/bypassed oil in water floods such as those in large North Sea fields; (2) improved understanding of the production behaviour of horizontal wells based on analytical and numerical modelling which led to successful applications in Gabon and Oman; (3) advances in our understanding of production in naturally fractured reservoirs which provided the basis for a unique field experiment in the Natih Field in Oman; (4) understanding of the mechanism of fracturing in water injection wells, a process which has large cost-saving potential. The one factor largely responsible for the change in working practices of individual reservoir engineers is the availability of modern integrated IT technology. (author)

  18. Reservoir Characterization of Upper Devonian Gordon Sandstone, Jacksonburg, Stringtown Oil Field, Northwestern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameri, S.; Aminian, K.; Avary, K.L.; Bilgesu, H.I.; Hohn, M.E.; McDowell, R.R.; Patchen, D.L.

    2002-05-21

    The purpose of this work was to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production.

  19. Thriving public-private partnership to fortify cooking oil in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) to control vitamin A deficiency: Faire Tache d'Huile en Afrique de l'Ouest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablah, Mawuli; Klopp, Jennifer; Steinberg, Douglas; Touaoro, Zaoro; Laillou, Arnaud; Baker, Shawn

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, more than 42% of children are at risk for vitamin A deficiency, and control of vitamin A deficiency will prevent more than 600,000 child deaths annually. In the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA), an estimated 54.3% of preschool-age children are vitamin A deficient and 13% of pregnant women have night blindness. To project the achievements of this West African coalition. This article documents the achievements, challenges, and lessons learned associated with the development of a public-private partnership to fortify vegetable oil in West Africa through project reports and industry assessments. National-level food consumption surveys identified cooking oil as a key vehicle for vitamin A. Stakeholders therefore advocated for the production of fortified vegetable oil at large scale, supported industrial assessments, and reinforced the capacity of cooking oil industries to implement vitamin A fortification through effective coordination of public and private partnerships tied with standards, regulations, and social marketing. Strong alliances for food fortification were established at the regional and national levels. Stakeholders also developed policies, adopted directives, built capacity, implemented social marketing, and monitored quality enforcement systems to sustain fortification for maximum public health impact. The synergy created resulted from the unique and complementary core competencies of all the partners under effective coordination. The initiative began with the 8 UEMOA member countries and now includes all 15 countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), plus Cameroon, Tanzania, and Mozambique, forming a sub-Saharan Africa-wide initiative on food fortification. All members of the Professional Association of Cooking Oil Industries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (AIFO-UEMOA) now fortify edible oil with vitamin A. Through multisector cooperation, an estimated 70% of the population

  20. Applications of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) technology in field projects--1990 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, J.F.; Thomas, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in the type and number of US enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects are analyzed for the period from 1980 through 1989. The analysis is based on current literature and news media and the Department of Energy (DOE) EOR Project Data Base, which contains information on over 1,348 projects. The characteristics of the EOR projects are grouped by starting date and process type to identify trends in reservoir statistics and applications of process technologies. Twenty-two EOR projects starts were identified for 1989 and ten project starts for 1988. An obvious trend over recent years has been the decline in the number of project starts since 1981 until 1988 which corresponds to the oil price decline during that period. There was a modest recovery in 1989 of project starts, which lags the modest recovery of oil prices in 1987 that was reconfirmed in 1989. During the time frame of 1980 to 1989, there has been a gradual improvement in costs of operation for EOR technology. The perceived average cost of EOR has gone down from a $30/bbl range to low $20/bbl. These costs of operation seems to stay just at the price of oil or slightly above to result in marginal profitability. The use of polymer flooding has drastically decreased both in actual and relative numbers of project starts since the oil price drop in 1986. Production from polymer flooding is down more than 50%. Long-term plans for large, high-cost projects such as CO{sub 2} flooding in West Texas, steamflooding in California, and hydrocarbon flooding on the North Slope have continued to be implemented. EOR process technologies have been refined to be more cost effective as shown by the continued application and rising production attributable to EOR. 8 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enpeng

    topic. Dr. Tao with his group at Temple University, using his electro or magnetic rheological viscosity theory has developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. After we successfully reduced the viscosity of crude oil with field and investigated the microstructure changing in various crude oil samples with SANS, we have continued to reduce the viscosity of heavy crude oil, bunker diesel, ultra low sulfur diesel, bio-diesel and crude oil and ultra low temperature with electric field treatment. Our research group developed the viscosity electrorheology theory and investigated flow rate with laboratory and field pipeline. But we never visualize this aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering experiment has confirmed the theoretical prediction that a strong electric field induces the suspended nano-particles inside crude oil to aggregate into short chains along the field direction. This aggregation breaks the symmetry, making the viscosity anisotropic: along the field direction, the viscosity is significantly reduced. The experiment enables us to determine the induced chain size and shape, verifies that the electric field works for all kinds of crude oils, paraffin-based, asphalt-based, and mix-based. The basic physics of such field induced viscosity reduction is applicable to all kinds of suspensions.

  2. Biogeographic patterns of microbial communities from different oil-contaminated fields in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yuting; Li, Guanghe [School of Environment, Tsinghua University (China); Zhou, Ji zhong [Institute for Environmental Genomics, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma (United States)], email: jzhou@ou.edu

    2011-07-01

    Some striking biological challenges of the 21st century include linking biodiversity to ecosystem functions, information scaling, and linking genomics to ecology. This paper discusses the biogeographic patterns of microbial communities from various oil-contaminated fields in China. Two kinds of high throughput approaches are used, open format and closed format. Key differences between them are outlined. The GeoChip, or functional gene array (FGA) approach is presented. This is a high throughput tool for linking community structure to functions. Its main advantages are its high resolution and detecting functions. This approach was applied to soils, bioreactors and ground waters, among others. Issues related to specificity, sensitivity and quantification are listed. An overview of the microarray analysis is given. This is applied to the BP oil spill. 100 samples were chosen from representative oil fields to study the biogeographic patterns of microbial communities in China. The complete study is presented with the results.

  3. Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

  4. Water management in Siri oil field in Iran: A comprehensive case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoudi, Zahedzadeh M.; Abbasian, Ataei A.; Shokrollahzadeh, S.; Raadmehr, M.

    2006-03-15

    Successful water management and dealing with produced water is a crucial part of any oil and gas production scenarios. This paper investigates the role of comprehensive study in water management and produced water re-injection in an Iranian offshore oil field. Appropriate method can be chosen by taking into account various effective parameters such as reservoir properties, laboratory experiment, and learning from already done projects and etc. In this work, produced water reinjection in Siri oil field in Iran has been investigated by examining the effective parameters including reservoir characterization such as permeability, porosity, petrophysical properties as well as performing relevant laboratory experiments and reservoir parameters like aquifer support and carbonated rock reservoir issues. Finally, it was concluded that comprehensive study together with proper laboratory investigation has a significant effect in success of produced water re-injection process. (author) (tk)

  5. EOR-technology gives Dutch oil field in Schoonebeek a second life; EOR-technologie geeft olieveld Schoonebeek tweede leven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, P.

    2010-05-15

    One appealing example of new oil recovery techniques can be found in Schoonebeek, the Netherlands. At first only half of the oil in this field could be extracted until the field was closed in 1996. Thanks to the modern EOR(Enhanced Oil Recovery) steam injection the field is now given a second life. [Dutch] Een aansprekend voorbeeld van de nieuwe oliewinningstechnieken is te vinden in Schoonebeek. Aanvankelijk kon slechts de helft van de aanwezige olie uit het veld worden geproduceerd tot het veld in 1996 gesloten werd. Met moderne EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) stoominjectie krijgt het veld nu een tweede leven.

  6. The controlling factors of oil and gas charging and accumulation of Puguang gas field in the Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Combined with oil and gas transport and accumulation, structure-Iithology evolution history, and with geochemistry and synthesizing geology methods, this paper studies the oil and gas discharge history of Puguang large scale gas field and the main controlling factors of oil accumulation. The natural gas in Puguang gas field is mainly coal-derived gas and oil-racked gas. The main hydrocarbon is Upper Permian coal mudstone and Lower Silurian mud shale with organic material. Puguang gas field has gone through discharge and adjustment 3 times, and it has favorable palaeostructure location, high quality dredge and effectively conserving conditions.

  7. Casing and tubing design for sour oil and gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y. [CCDC Drilling and Production Technology Research Inst., Guanghan (China). Drilling and Completion Research and Design Center; State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu (China); Lin, Y.; Shi, T.; Zhu, D. [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu (China); Wang, Z.; You, X.; Zhang, G.; Liu, H. [CCDC Drilling and Production Technology Research Inst., Guanghan (China). Drilling and Completion Research and Design Center

    2009-07-01

    Environmental fractures are the main cause of casing and tubing yield failures in sour gas and oil wells. This paper discussed casing and tubing designs for high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments containing hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water wells. A fracture mechanics methods was used to establish yield design criterion for a conventional sulfur resistance casing T95 and a quasi-resistance casing C110. Sulfide stress corrosion (SSC) tests, A-uniaxial tensile tests, and double cantilever beam tests were conducted to determine the potential for failures caused by the unstable propagation of a pre-existing crack and failures caused by the initiation and stable growth of cracks. Elasto-plastic equations were developed to calculate the pressure at which a pipe will fail due to the propagation of a pre-existing sharp crack. Results of the tests indicated that the predictive fracture pressures for the C110 casing and tubing samples were lower than those observed for the T95 sample. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  8. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  9. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  10. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A., E-mail: mmhushari@moe.gov.qa [Radiation and Chemical Protection Department, Ministry of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  11. Analytical Thermal Field Theory Applicable to Oil Hydraulic Fluid Film Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    An analytical thermal field theory is derived by a perturbation series expansion solution to the energy conservation equation. The theory is valid for small values of the Brinkman number and the modified Peclet number. This condition is sufficiently satisfied for hydraulic oils, whereby the analy...

  12. Special ESP configurations designed to test and produce Yemen oil field. [Electric-Submersible Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkie, D.I. (Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1993-09-27

    Innovative electric-submersible-pump (ESP) configurations were used in the exploration phase of a Yemen oil field discovered by Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. Because of subnormal reservoir pressure, CanOxy developed the field with ESPs and had to install surface components that could operate at the high, 130 F., ambient temperatures common in Yemen. The field is in a remote area that has seen very little development. The reservoirs produce a medium-to-heavy crude with a low gas/oil ratio, typically less than 20 scf/bbl. Problems faced in evaluating the field included drilling through unconsolidated sands with high flow capacity and subnormal reservoir pressure. CanOxy had to develop the technology to test the wells during the exploration phase, and intends to use new, or at least uncommon technology, for producing the wells. The paper describes testing the wells, the electric generators and variable speed drives, and the use of these pumps on production wells.

  13. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  14. Molecular dynamics and composition of crude oil by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zijian; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Zhizhan; Liao, Guangzhi; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Can

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used to identify pure substances and probe protein dynamics. Oil is a complex mixture composed of hydrocarbons, which have a wide range of molecular size distribution. Previous work show that empirical correlations of relaxation times and diffusion coefficients were found for simple alkane mixtures, and also the shape of the relaxation and diffusion distribution functions are related to the composition of the fluids. The 2D NMR is a promising qualitative evaluation method for oil composition. But uncertainty in the interpretation of crude oil indicated further study was required. In this research, the effect of each composition on relaxation distribution functions is analyzed in detail. We also suggest a new method for prediction of the rotational correlation time distribution of crude oil molecules using low field NMR (LF-NMR) relaxation time distributions. A set of down-hole NMR fluid analysis system is independently designed and developed for fluid measurement. We illustrate this with relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments and rotational correlation time distributions on a series of hydrocarbon mixtures that employ our laboratory-designed downhole NMR fluid analyzer. The LF-NMR is a useful tool for detecting oil composition and monitoring oil property changes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of miscible and immiscible CO2 injection in one of the Iranian oil fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Hashemi Fath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 flooding is one of the most important methods for enhanced oil recovery (EOR because it not only increases oil recovery efficiency but also causes a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It is a very complex system, involving phase behavior that could increase the recovery of oil by means of swelling, evaporation and decreasing viscosity of the oil. In this study, a reservoir modeling approach was used to evaluate immiscible and miscible CO2 flooding in a fractured oil field. To reduce simulation time, we grouped fluid components into 10 pseudo-components. The 3-parameter, Peng–Robinson Equation of State (EOS was used to match PVT experimental data by using the PVTi software. A one-dimensional slim-tube model was defined using ECLIPSE 300 software to determine the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP for injection of CO2. We used FloGrid software for making a reservoir static model and the reservoir model was calibrated using manual and assisted history matching methods. Then various scenarios of natural depletion, immiscible and miscible CO2 injection have been simulated by ECLIPSE 300 software and then the simulation results of scenarios have been compared. Investigation of simulation results shows that the oil recovery factor in miscible CO2 injection scenario is more than other methods.

  16. Real-time oil-saturation monitoring in rock cores with low-field NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J; Howe, A M; Clarke, A

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful suite of tools for studying oil in reservoir core plugs at the laboratory scale. Low-field magnets are preferred for well-log calibration and to minimize magnetic-susceptibility-induced internal gradients in the porous medium. We demonstrate that careful data processing, combined with prior knowledge of the sample properties, enables real-time acquisition and interpretation of saturation state (relative amount of oil and water in the pores of a rock). Robust discrimination of oil and brine is achieved with diffusion weighting. We use this real-time analysis to monitor the forced displacement of oil from porous materials (sintered glass beads and sandstones) and to generate capillary desaturation curves. The real-time output enables in situ modification of the flood protocol and accurate control of the saturation state prior to the acquisition of standard NMR core analysis data, such as diffusion-relaxation correlations. Although applications to oil recovery and core analysis are demonstrated, the implementation highlights the general practicality of low-field NMR as an inline sensor for real-time industrial process control.

  17. Horizontal well performance in Hassi-Messaoud oil field, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzouguen, A.; Mazouzi, A.; Delhomme, A.; Deghmoum, A. [Sonatrach Inc., Hydra, (Algeria)

    2000-11-01

    The performance of non-conventional wells drilled in Hassi-Messaoud field in Algeria was analyzed using a pressure transient analysis technique called Tiab's direct synthesis (TDS). This technique makes it possible to determine the permeability tensor and the effective length of horizontal wells. Transient tests were analyzed using the TDS method for 33 non-conventional wells. For the first time it was possible to obtain the permeability tensor and the vertical permeability anisotropy. Future horizontal well drilling can now be optimized through sensitivity studies. The performance of slanted horizontal and multilateral wells was also compared. It was determined that because of their low risk, slanted wells are more appropriate for the Hassi-Messaoud field. Besides improving productivity, horizontal wells have the added advantage of providing substantial information regarding the geology of the field. It was determined that the two parameters that control production are the length and the vertical permeability. Several recommendations were presented regarding the well spacing. The recommendations were based on different geological models. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  18. 75 FR 13445 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... range of 700,000 pounds to 750,000 pounds of Scotch spearmint oil trade demand. Although consumer demand... market their entire annual allotment and do not have the luxury of having other crops to cushion seasons... spearmint oil is expected to grow slowly for the foreseeable future because the demand for consumer...

  19. 75 FR 27631 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... range of 700,000 pounds to 750,000 pounds of Scotch spearmint oil trade demand. Although consumer demand... market their entire annual allotment and do not have the luxury of having other crops to cushion seasons... because the demand for consumer products that use spearmint oil will likely expand slowly, in line...

  20. Evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer in southern West Africa - an overview from the DACCIWA field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalthoff, Norbert; Lohou, Fabienne; Brooks, Barbara; Jegede, Gbenga; Adler, Bianca; Ajao, Adewale; Ayoola, Muritala; Babić, Karmen; Bessardon, Geoffrey; Delon, Claire; Dione, Cheikh; Handwerker, Jan; Jambert, Corinne; Kohler, Martin; Lothon, Marie; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier; Smith, Victoria; Sunmonu, Lukman; Wieser, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    In southern West Africa, extended low-level stratus clouds form very frequently during night-time and persist long into the following day influencing the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). During the course of the day, a transition from nocturnal low-level stratus to stratocumulus, cumulus, and sometimes congestus and possibly cumulonimbus clouds is observed. In June and July 2016, a ground-based field campaign took place in southern West Africa within the framework of the Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project with the aim to identify the meteorological controls on the stratus and the evolution of the ABL. During the measurement period, extensive remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed at three supersites in Kumasi (Ghana), Savè (Benin) and Ile-Ife (Nigeria). We give an overview of the atmospheric conditions during the whole measurement period focusing on the vertical and temporal distribution of the stratus and relevant related atmospheric features.

  1. Selection of chemical products for oil field applications in arctic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.E.; VanderWende, E. [ARCO, Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Kuparuk Oil Field is located on the North Slope of Alaska, well above the Arctic Circle. Kuparuk uses chemicals for a variety of different oil production needs, including corrosion inhibition, emulsion breaking, defoaming, biofouling control, and scale inhibition. The North Slope`s isolated location demands unique logistical support, but it is otherwise accessible by unpaved road and has extensive air service. The Arctic climate provides difficult challenges and requirements for any chemical selection. This paper describes some criteria and practical experiences related to selecting the proper chemical products to be used in the Arctic environment.

  2. Tectonic Framework and Deep Structure of South China and Their Constraint to Oil-Gas Field Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingchen; LIU Jinsong; DU Zhili; CAI Liguo

    2009-01-01

    South China could be divided into one stable craton,the Yangtze Craton(YzC),and several orogenic belts in the surrounding region,that is the Triassic Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt(QDOB)in river Orogenic Belt(TOB)in the west,the Youjiang Orogenic Belt(YOB)in the southwest,the Middle Paleozoic Huanan Orogenic Belt (HOB) in the southeast, and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Maritime Orogenic Belt(MOB)along the coast.Seismic tomographic images reveal that the Moho depth is deeper than 40 km and the lithosphere iS about 210 km thick beneath the YzC.The SGOB is characterized by thick crust (>40 km)and thin lithosphere(<150 km).The Hob.Yob and Mob have a thin crnst (<40 km)and thin lithosphere(<150 km).Terrestrial heat flow survey revealed a distribution pattern with a low heat flow region in the eastern YzC and western HOB and two high heat flow regions in the TOB and MOB respectively.Such a"high-low-high"heat flow distribution pattern could have resulted from Cenozoic asthenosphere upwelling.All oil-gas fields are concentrated in the central part of the YzC.Remnant oil pools have been discovered along the southern margin of the YzC and its adjacent orogenic belts.From a viewpoint of geological and geophysical structure, regions in South China with thick lithosphere and low heat flOW value.as well as weak deformation.might be the ideal region for further petroleum exploration.

  3. Sedimentation architecture of the volcanically-dammed Alf valley in the West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Luise; Lange, Thomas; Engelhardt, Jörn; Polom, Ulrich; Pirrung, Michael; Büchel, Georg

    2015-04-01

    In the southeastern part of the Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field, the Alf valley with its morphologically wide (~ 500 m) and flat valley bottom is visibly outstanding. This flat valley bottom was formed during the Marine Isotope Stage 2 due to fluviolacustrine sediments which deposited upstream of a natural volcanic dam. The dam consisted of lava and scoria breccia from the Wartgesberg Volcano complex (Cipa 1958, Hemfler et al. 1991) that erupted ~ 31 BP (40Ar/ 39Ar dating on glass shards, Mertz, pers. communication 2014). Due to this impoundment, the Alf creek turned into a dendritic lake, trapping the catchment sediments. The overall aim is to create the sedimentation architecture of the Alf valley. In comparison to maar archives like Holzmaar or Meerfelder Maar in the vicinity, the fluviolacustrine sediments of the Alf valley show clay-silt lamination despite the water percolation. This archive covers the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum to Early Holocene (Pirrung et al. 2007). Focus of this study is the creation of a 3D model by applying the program ESRI ArcGIS 10.2 to reconstruct the pre-volcanic Alf valley. Moreover, the sedimentation architecture is reconstructed and the sediment fill quantified. Therefore, the digital elevation model with 5 m resolution from the State Survey and Geobasis Information of Rhineland-Palatinate, polreduced magnetic data measured on top of the Strohn lava stream, shear seismic data and core stratigraphies were utilized. Summarizing previous results, Lake Alf had a catchment area of ~ 55 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 1.27 km²) and a surface area of 8.2 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 0.24 km²) considering a maximum lake water level of 410 m a.s.l.. In the deepest parts (~ 50 m) of Lake Alf, lake sediments are laminated, up to 21 m thick and show a very high sedimentation rate ~ 3 mm a-1 (Dehner Maar ~ 1.5 mm a-1, (Sirocko et al. 2013)). The sediments become coarser upstream und stratigraphically above the fine-grained lake sediments

  4. A Survey of Compact Star Clusters in the South-West Field of the M31 Disk. Structural Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sableviciute, I; Kodaira, K; Narbutis, D; Stonkute, R; Bridzius, A

    2006-01-01

    We present structural parameters for 51 compact star clusters from the survey of star clusters conducted in the South-West field of the M31 disk by Kodaira et al. (2004). Structural parameters of the clusters were derived by fitting the 2-D King and EFF (Elson, Fall and Freeman 1987) models to the V-band cluster images. Structural parameters derived for two M31 clusters, which are in common with the study based on the HST data (Barmby et al. 2002), are consistent with earlier determination. The M31 star cluster structural parameters in general are compatible with the corresponding Milky Way galaxy and Magellanic Clouds cluster parameters.

  5. A Survey of Star Clusters in the M31 South-West Field. UBVRI Photometry and Multi-Band Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Narbutis, D; Kodaira, K; Bridzius, A; Stonkute, R

    2008-01-01

    A new survey of star clusters in the South-West field of the M31 disk based on the high resolution Subaru Suprime-Cam observations is presented. The UBVRI aperture CCD photometry catalog of 285 objects (V < 20.5; 169 of them identified for the first time) is provided. Each object is supplemented with multi-band color maps presented in the electronic edition of the Astrophysical Journal Supplement. Seventy seven star cluster candidates from the catalog are located in the Hubble Space Telescope archive frames.

  6. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  7. Electric field dependent dielectric response of alumina/silicone oil colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallon, Louis; Tsui, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the dielectric response of a mixture of alumina nanopowder and silicone oil. Frequency and electric field dependent measurements of another insulating colloid, i.e., urea-coated Ba0.8Rb0.4TiO(C2O4)2 nanoparticles immersed in silicone oil, revealed universal dielectric response (UDR) characteristics and, with the application of high voltage, a negative capacitance. Alumina in silicone oil represents a simpler system in which to perform similar dielectric investigation. This colloid is sandwiched in a parallel plate capacitor cell, and the complex impedance is measured via lock-in amplifier at various frequencies and applied dc biases. Furthermore, we will compare and discuss the dielectric behaviors of different sized suspended alumina particles.

  8. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Mukhametshina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, which means that the targeted area can be heated up more effectively and with lower heat losses than with other thermal methods. Electromagnetic heating is still relatively new and is not widely used as an alternate or addition to traditional thermal recovery methods. However, studies are being conducted and new technologies proposed that could help increase its use. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the recovery of heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs by electromagnetic heating through the review of existing laboratory studies and field trials.

  9. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, September 3, 1993--December 3, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassihi, M.R.; Gillham, T.H.

    1993-11-30

    The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoirs for the project are the Camerina C- 1,2,3 Sands located on the west flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project win demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  10. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, March 3, 1993--June 3, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, T.H.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 Sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. This reservoir has been unitized and is designated as the WH Cam C RI SU. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic.

  11. Quantitative calculation of GOR of complex oil-gas-water systems with logging data: A case study of the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field in the Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Liqiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field of the Qaidam Basin, multiple suites of oil-gas-water systems overlie each other vertically, making it difficult to accurately identify oil layers from gas layers and calculate gas-oil ratio (GOR. Therefore, formation testing and production data, together with conventional logging, NMR and mud logging data were integrated to quantitatively calculate GOR. To tell oil layers from gas layers, conventional logging makes use of the excavation effect of compensated neutron log, NMR makes use of the different relaxation mechanisms of light oil and natural gas in large pores, while mud logging makes use of star chart of gas components established based on available charts and mathematical statistics. In terms of the quantitative calculation of GOR, the area ratio of the star chart of gas components was first used in GOR calculation. The study shows that: (1 conventional logging data has a modest performance in distinguishing oil layers from gas layers due to the impacts of formation pressure, hydrogen index (HI, shale content, borehole conditions and invasion of drilling mud; (2 NMR is quite effective in telling oil layers from gas layers, but cannot be widely used due to its high cost; (3 by contrast, the star chart of gas components is the most effective in differentiating oil layers from gas layers; and (4 the GOR calculated by using the area ratio of star chart has been verified by various data such as formation testing data, production data and liquid production profile.

  12. Protection of avian influenza (AI vaccines for poultry against infection of field isolates A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 under laboratory condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study level of protection of avian influenza (AI commercial vaccines available in Indonesia (subtipe H5N1, H5N2 and H5N9 against infection of HPAI field isolates of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. There were 7 commercial vaccines used in this study, the each vaccines were injected in to 3 weeks old of layer chichickenen intramuscularly. At 3 weeks after vaccination, ten chichickenens from each group were challenged separately with the A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 isolates intranasaly with dose 106 ELD50 per 0,1 ml per chicken. Ten unvaccinated chicken were included in the challenge test as control. The study demonstrate that the AI vaccines with subtipe H5N1 protected chicken (100% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and 90-100% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding were not seen by 2 days post challenge. The AI vaccines with subtipe H5N2 protected chicken at 20-30% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and protected chicken at 70-100% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding still detected at 8 days post challenge. The AI vaccines AI with subtipe H5N9 did not protect chicken (0% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and protected chicken at 50% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding still detected by 8 days post challenge. This study concluded that AI vaccines with subtipe H5N1 are better than other AI subtipe vaccines in preventing HPAI virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 dan A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 infections under laboratory condition.

  13. Mapping three-dimensional oil distribution with π-EPI MRI measurements at low magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Marica, Florea; MacMillan, Bryce; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to image oil saturation distribution in rock cores during oil displacement processes. However, a lengthy measurement time for 3D measurements at low magnetic field can hinder monitoring the displacement. 1D and 2D MRI measurements are instead often undertaken to monitor the oil displacement since they are faster. However, 1D and 2D images may not completely reflect the oil distribution in heterogeneous rock cores. In this work, a high-speed 3D MRI technique, π Echo Planar Imaging (π-EPI), was employed at 0.2 T to monitor oil displacement. Centric scan interleaved sampling with view sharing in k-t space was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the π-EPI measurements. A D2O brine was employed to distinguish the hydrocarbon and water phases. A relatively homogenous glass bead pack and a heterogeneous Spynie core plug were employed to show different oil displacement behaviors. High quality 3D images were acquired with π-EPI MRI measurements. Fluid quantification with π-EPI compared favorably with FID, CPMG, 1D-DHK-SPRITE, 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and 3D Conical SPRITE measurements. π-EPI greatly reduced the gradient duty cycle and improved sensitivity, compared to FSE and Conical SPRITE measurements, enabling dynamic monitoring of oil displacement processes. For core plug samples with sufficiently long lived T2, T2∗, π-EPI is an ideal method for rapid 3D saturation imaging.

  14. Effect of flaring of natural gas in oil fields of Assam on rice cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K K; Hazarika, S; Kalita, B; Sharma, B

    2011-07-01

    Assam (India) is endowed with natural resources like oil, coal and natural gas. The crude oil, one of the most precious natural resources, is found in the districts of upper Assam. During the process of extraction of crude oil, low-pressure natural gas is burnt in the air. Most of the oil wells in upper Assam are located near rice fields and therefore, rice crop grown near the oil wells is exposed to light uninterruptedly causing grain sterility resulting significant loss in grain yield. To identify promising varieties for these areas, we studied the effect of flare on rice varieties with different photoperiod sensitivity. The high light intensity and increased light hours were the factors responsible for substantial loss in grain yield near the flare resulting from delay in flower initiation, reduction of panicle length, having less number of grains per panicle and more grain sterility. To prevent significant loss in yield, photoperiod-sensitive traditional and improved rice varieties should not be grown up to the distance of 80 and 100 m, respectively from the boundary wall of the flare pit. Modern weakly-photoperiod sensitive varieties like Ranjti and Mahsuri can be grown 40 m away from the wall while modern photoperiod insensitive variety like Jaya, can be cultivated 20 m away from the wall without significant loss in yield.

  15. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).

  16. Effect of Magnetic Field on Tribological Properties of Lubri-cating Oils with and without Tricresyl Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zeqi; Fang Jianhua; Chen Boshui; Zheng Zhe; Li Hao; Xu Lai

    2016-01-01

    Tribological properties of neat 150 SN mineral base oil and the oils doped with different contents of tricresyl phosphate (TCP) under magnetic field or non-magnetic field were evaluated on a four-ball tribotester, on which an external magnetic field was applied. Furthermore, the morphology and the tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an X-ray photoelectron spectrograph (XPS). The tribological test results showed that the magnetic field improved anti-wear properties but impaired the friction-reducing properties of neat base oil and the TCP-doped oils. The worn surfaces tested in magnetic field were characterized by a slighter wear than those tested in normal condition, especially for the surfaces lubricated with the TCP-doped oils. Furthermore, the results of XPS analysis indicated that tribochemical films on the surfaces tested with TCP-doped oils were mainly composed of ferric-containing compounds such as Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and FePO4. Under the influence of a magnetic field, the atomic concentrations of oxygen and phosphorous in the frictional sub-surfaces were higher than those without magnetic impact. Thus it can be in-ferred that the improved anti-wear properties and impaired friction-reducing capabilities of lubricating oils with TCP under a magnetic field were related to the diffusion of phosphorus and oxygen into the substrate induced by magnetism.

  17. Single versus multiple enemies and the impact on biological control of spider mites in cassava fields in West-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onzo, Alexis; Sabelis, Maurice W; Hanna, Rachid

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether to use single or multiple predator species for biological pest control requires manipulative field experiments. We performed such tests in Benin (West Africa) in cassava fields infested by the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, and the cotton red mite Oligonychus gossypii. These fields also harboured the cassava apex-inhabiting predator Typhlodromalus aripo and either the leaf-inhabiting predator Amblydromalus manihoti or Euseius fustis. We manipulated predator species composition on individual plants to determine their effect on prey and predator densities. In fields with T. aripo plus A. manihoti, M. tanajoa densities were reduced by T. aripo alone or together with A. manihoti, but neither of these predators, alone or together, reduced O. gossypii densities. In fields with T. aripo plus E. fustis, T. aripo alone or together with E. fustis exerted significant control over O. gossypii, but weak control over M. tanajoa. Densities of any of the predator species were not affected by co-occurring predator species, suggesting a minor role for intraguild predation in the field, contrary to earlier experiments on small plants in the laboratory. We conclude that (1) T. aripo is the most effective predator species in suppressing M. tanajoa, (2) two predator species, T. aripo and E. fustis, are needed to suppress O. gossypii, and (3) predator species together on the same plant do not negatively affect each other nor the extent to which they control their prey. We argue that intraguild predation is reduced due to partial niche separation among predator species.

  18. Determination of levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials in lagoon samples containing produced water from the Minagish oil field in the state of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, H. M.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.

    2017-08-01

    An evaluation of the activity concentration (Ac) associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials has been undertaken as part of a systematic study to provide a radiological map of the ground materials from a produced wastewater lagoon located in the Minagish oil field in the south west of the State of Kuwait. This lagoon contains material from the discharge of produced water which is a by-product of oil production in the region. Samples of surface materials have been collected, prepared and placed into sealed, Marinelli beakers for a full gamma-ray spectrometric analysis using a high-resolution, low-background, high-purity germanium detection system. This short conference paper presents a summary of results for an initial selection of sixteen surface samples from the edges of the Minagish oil lagoon which have been analysed to obtain Ac values for members of the 226Ra (214Bi and 214Pb) and 232Th (228Ac, 212Pb and 208Tl) decay chains and for 40K. These are compared with other studies for the same geographical region.

  19. Developing Pipeline Transportation in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chenghan; Wang Wei

    1997-01-01

    @@ Since the late 1980s, focus of exploration and development for oil & gas has been diverted to thewest of China, resulting in the discovery and development of Shaanbei gas field followed by large-scale exploration and development of Tarim,Turpan and Hami basins. Responding to this situation, pipeline construction focus has also been transferred to west China where large-scale development of pipeline transportation, an opportunity as well as a challenge, is expected.

  20. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M. [American Oil Recovery, Inc., Decatur, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

  1. Field guide on reduction and disposal of waste from oil refineries and marketing installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dando, D.A.J.; Bossand, B.; Lilie, R.H.; Ooms, A.C.; Sutherland, H.

    1990-07-01

    The field guide has been written primarily for those in the oil refining and marketing industry who have responsibility for the management of waste and its disposal. It should also provide useful information to the authorities who exercise legal control over these activities. It lists the types of wastes commonly encountered in the industry and highlights techniques for minimizing the quantities generated. Guidance is given on the methods of pre-treatment and disposal, together with information on how to select and monitor waste facilities and contractors, to ensure a high quality and safe disposal operation. Information is also provided on documentation and labelling of waste cargoes, and reference is made to legislation and sources of additional information. While use of the field guide cannot guarantee a problem-free operation, it will minimize the risks involved in disposal of waste materials from oil industry installations.

  2. Use of the truncated shifted Pareto distribution in assessing size distribution of oil and gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The truncated shifted Pareto (TSP) distribution, a variant of the two-parameter Pareto distribution, in which one parameter is added to shift the distribution right and left and the right-hand side is truncated, is used to model size distributions of oil and gas fields for resource assessment. Assumptions about limits to the left-hand and right-hand side reduce the number of parameters to two. The TSP distribution has advantages over the more customary lognormal distribution because it has a simple analytic expression, allowing exact computation of several statistics of interest, has a "J-shape," and has more flexibility in the thickness of the right-hand tail. Oil field sizes from the Minnelusa play in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, are used as a case study. Probability plotting procedures allow easy visualization of the fit and help the assessment. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  3. The drilling of a horizontal well in a mature oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the drilling of a medium radius horizontal well in the Bartlesville Sand of the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma by Rougeot Oil and Gas Corporation (Rougeot) of Sperry, Oklahoma. The report includes the rationale for selecting the particular site, the details of drilling the well, the production response, conclusions reached, and recommendations made for the future drilling of horizontal wells. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  5. Short chain aliphatic acid anions in oil field waters and their contribution to the measured alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, L.M.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Presser, T.S.; Rapp, J.B.; Barnes, I.

    1975-01-01

    High alkalinity values found in some formation waters from Kettleman North Dome oil field are due chiefly to acetate and propionate ions, with some contribution from higher molecular weight organic acid ions. Some of these waters contain no detectable bicarbonate alkalinity. For waters such as these, high supersaturation with respect to calcite will be incorrectly indicated by thermodynamic calculations based upon carbonate concentrations inferred from traditional alkalinity measurements. ?? 1975.

  6. Effect of Kuwait oil field fires on human comfort and environment in Jubail, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

    1992-03-01

    The plumes from the Kuwait oil field fires reduced hemispheric (total) solar radiation by 26 36% during January June 1991 in Jubail (300 km SE of Kuwait City), Saudi Arabia. Residents feel noticeably cooler even though air temperatures have not been lowered significantly (up to June 1991). These observations support human comfort theories and demonstrate the importance of shade to comfort. The desirability of complete solar radiation measurements, including those of diffuse radiation, is indicated.

  7. Static Electric Field Mapping Using a Mosquito Racket and Baby Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rediansyah, Herfien; Khairurrijal; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to design a simple experimental device to see electric field force lines using common components which are readily available in everyday life. A solution of baby oil was placed in a plastic container, 4.5 × 4.5 × 1 inches, with both ends of the electrodes (metal wire) immersed in the solution at a depth of 0.2 inches.…

  8. Static Electric Field Mapping Using a Mosquito Racket and Baby Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rediansyah, Herfien; Khairurrijal; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to design a simple experimental device to see electric field force lines using common components which are readily available in everyday life. A solution of baby oil was placed in a plastic container, 4.5 × 4.5 × 1 inches, with both ends of the electrodes (metal wire) immersed in the solution at a depth of 0.2 inches.…

  9. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil

  10. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Krapac, Ivan G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Damico, James R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Okwen, Roland T. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); McKaskle, Ray W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  11. Re-evaluation of Oil/Gas Exploration in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhaocai

    1997-01-01

    @@ Industrial oil flow was discovered in Well Shacan No.2ten years ago. This breakthrough has attracted a great attention from various industrial sectors, thus promoting the formulation of the policy of "prospecting and developingnew oil/gas fields in West China". The breakthrough and the subsequent oil production in areas of Lunnan, Tazhong and Shaxi, and especially, the geographical location of Tarim Basin, have aroused much interest from petroleum geologists as well as oil corporations, big or small, in the world.

  12. Souring in low-temperature surface facilities of two high-temperature Argentinian oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Akhil; An, Dongshan; Cavallaro, Adriana; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-09-01

    Produced waters from the Barrancas and Chihuido de la Salina (CHLS) fields in Argentina had higher concentrations of sulfate than were found in the injection waters, suggesting that the formation waters in these reservoirs had a high sulfate concentration and that sulfate-reducing bacteria were inactive downhole. Incubation of produced waters with produced oil gave rapid reduction of sulfate to sulfide (souring) at 37 °C, some at 60 °C, but none at 80 °C. Alkylbenzenes and alkanes served as electron donor, especially in incubations with CHLS oil. Dilution with water to decrease the ionic strength or addition of inorganic phosphate did not increase souring at 37 or 60 °C. These results indicate that souring in these reservoirs is limited by the reservoir temperature (80 °C for the Barrancas and 65-70 °C for the CHLS field) and that souring may accelerate in surface facilities where the oil-water mixture cools. As a result, significant sulfide concentrations are present in these surface facilities. The activity and presence of chemolithotrophic Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Thiomicrospira, which represented 85% of the microbial community in a water plant in the Barrancas field, indicated reoxidation of sulfide and sulfur to sulfate. The presence of these bacteria offers potential for souring control by microbial oxidation in aboveground facilities, provided that formation of corrosive sulfur can be avoided.

  13. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  14. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the leaves of Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) from north west Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K; Badakar, Vijayalaxmi M; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Khatib, Nayeem

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves of Feronia elephantum Corr. was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The main constituents were beta-pinene (28.4%), Z-anethole (22.1%), methyl chavicol (12.0%) and E-anethole (8.1%), among thirty-three identified compounds, which represented 92.6% of the total oil. The antimicrobial activity was tested against five Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria, and four fungi. The oil was active against Micrococcus luteus (Gram-positive bacterium), Proteus mirabilis (Gram-negative bacterium), Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger (fungi) with MIC values of 0.31 +/- 0.06, 0.52 +/- 0.10, 0.20 +/- 0.50 and 0.26 +/- 0.52 mg/mL, respectively.

  16. Ellsworth Subglacial Lake, West Antarctica: A review of its history and recent field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, N.; Siegert, M. J.; Rivera, A.; Bentley, M. J.; Blake, D.; Capper, L.; Clarke, R.; Cockell, C. S.; Corr, H. F. J.; Harris, W.; Hill, C.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.; Hodgson, D. A.; King, E. C.; Lamb, H.; Maher, B.; Makinson, K.; Mowlem, M.; Parnell, J.; Pearce, D. A.; Priscu, J.; Smith, A. M.; Tait, A.; Tranter, M.; Wadham, J. L.; Whalley, W. B.; Woodward, J.

    Ellsworth Subglacial Lake, first observed in airborne radio echo sounding data acquired in 1978, is located within a long, deep subglacial trough within the Ellsworth Subglacial Highlands of West Antarctica. Geophysical surveys have characterized the lake, its subglacial catchment, and the thickness, structure, and flow of the overlying ice sheet. Covering 28.9 km2, Ellsworth Subglacial Lake is located below 2.9 to 3.3 km of ice at depths of -1361 to -1030 m. Seismic reflection data have shown the lake to be up to 156 m deep and underlain by unconsolidated sediments. Ice sheet flow over the lake is characterized by low velocities (2 m of sediment below the lake floor, (4) water circulation modeling suggesting a melting ice-water interface, and (5) coring that can target the deepest point of the lake floor away from marginal, localized sediment sources.

  17. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  18. Marine transportation of oil from Timan Pechora and from inland Russian fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Dag; Backlund, Anders

    1996-05-01

    As part of The International Northern Sea Route Programme (INSROP), Subprogram III, Trade and Commercial Shipping, a study has been made concerning seaborne export of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) from the Northern Russia, especially the West Siberian fields in Tyumen. The main purpose of the total project III.0703, part 2 and this study is to evaluate the economic viability of seaborne export from this area to the European region, mainly with the use of a special ice-strengthened LPG vessel, constructed and designed for such seaborne operations. This study concentrates on both seaborne LPG transportation, the demand and supply for seaborne LPG in the world and marine transportation of LPG from the West Siberian fields. Another purpose is to see which regions are potential exporters, importers and buyers of seaborne export of LPG from Tyumen. Currently large quantities of liquefied gas are flared off at the West Siberian fields due to insufficient infrastructure, lack of modern processing capacity and capital. A number of gas processing plants, nine in total, are in operation by the Sibneftegaspererabotka Corporation (SNGP), the main products being polyethylene variants. The regional surplus of LPG is estimated to increase to 700.000 metric tonnes by 1995 for which limited transportation capacity exists. As the development in Russia evolves to the East in the Timan-Pechora and Yamal areas, a part of the Northern Sea Route will be affected. The analysis will give a starting point for more detailed comparisons of the potential for seaborne LPG export to the world market. The project is split into several parts and deals with LPG markets and consumers, analyses different issues related to the political and economic environment in the LPG and gas industry, evaluates the world-wide seaborne demand for LPG and focuses on the estimated traded LPG until the turn of the century, analyses the supply side of the LPG market emphasising on the seaborne export of LPG, carries

  19. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  20. Structure of pre-Caspian depression and major oil and gas fields of the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, N.A. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Avrov, V.P. (Igirgi, Moscow (USSR)); Lisovsky, N.N.

    1991-03-01

    As a single unified depression, the pre-Caspian basin has been formed from Paleozoic to Cenozoic time. The basin is superimposed on two large pre-Permian depressions. On the Astrakhan-Aktyubinsk zone of uplifts between them is found sharply reduced Carboniferous and Devonian sections. Modern structural plan clearly displays two major structural stages: Subsalt (Paleozoic) and post (post-Kungurian). The post-salt stage is characterized by wide development of salt dome tectonics. It corresponds with its own petroliferous stage containing numerous, mostly small oil accumulations in terrigenous Mesozoic reservoirs. Large recent discoveries-Astrakhan condensate, Karachaganak and Kanazhol-Sinelnikov oil/condensate, Tengiz oil, and other fields-are associated with the Subsalt Paleozoic complex ranging from Lower Permian to the top of Upper Devonian. The Subsalt stage has its own regularities in hydrocarbon phase differentiation; large reserves concentration; dominantly productive carbonates with various reservoirs; and presence of structural, depositional, and erosional factors controlling formation of oil and gas traps. The paper describes major distributional features of the various arc-and-type Permian and Carboniferous formations, which in conjunction with Subsalt paleotemperature data and geochemistry of organic matter represents a basis for the forecast of new discoveries.

  1. Structure and viscosity of a transformer oil-based ferrofluid under an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnak, M.; Timko, M.; Kopcansky, P.; Paulovicova, K.; Tothova, J.; Kurimsky, J.; Dolnik, B.; Cimbala, R.; Avdeev, M. V.; Petrenko, V. I.; Feoktystov, A.

    2017-06-01

    Various structural changes of ferrofluids have been intensively studied under external magnetic fields. In this work we present an experimental evidence of similar changes induced by an electric field. In the context of the electric field effect on ferrofluids structure, we studied a simple ferrofluid consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and dispersed in transformer oil. The structural changes have been observed both on macroscopic and microscopic scale. We also demonstrate a remarkable impact of the electric field on the ferrofluid viscosity in relation to the reported structural changes. It was found that the electric field induced viscosity changes are analogous to the magnetoviscous effect. These changes and the electroviscous effect are believed to stem from the dielectric permittivity contrast between the iron oxide nanoparticles and transformer oil, giving rise to the effective electric polarization of the nanoparticles. It is highlighted that this electrorheological effect should be considered in studies of ferrofluids for high voltage engineering applications, as it can have impact on the thermomagnetic convection or the dielectric breakdown performance.

  2. Large-scale overview of the summer monsoon over West Africa during the AMMA field experiment in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Janicot

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis program is dedicated to providing a better understanding of the West African monsoon and its influence on the physical, chemical and biological environment regionally and globally, as well as relating variability of this monsoon system to issues of health, water resources, food security and demography for West African nations. Within this framework, an intensive field campaign took place during the summer of 2006 to better document specific processes and weather systems at various key stages of this monsoon season. This campaign was embedded within a longer observation period that documented the annual cycle of surface and atmospheric conditions between 2005 and 2007. The present paper provides a large and regional scale overview of the 2006 summer monsoon season, that includes consideration of of the convective activity, mean atmospheric circulation and synoptic/intraseasonal weather systems, oceanic and land surface conditions, continental hydrology, dust concentration and ozone distribution. The 2006 African summer monsoon was a near-normal rainy season except for a large-scale rainfall excess north of 15° N. This monsoon season was also characterized by a 10-day delayed onset compared to climatology, with convection becoming developed only after 10 July. This onset delay impacted the continental hydrology, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics as well as dust emission. More details of some less-well-known atmospheric features in the African monsoon at intraseasonal and synoptic scales are provided in order to promote future research in these areas.

  3. Large-scale overview of the summer monsoon over West Africa during the AMMA field experiment in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicot, S.; Thorncroft, C. D.; Ali, A.; Asencio, N.; Berry, G.; Bock, O.; Bourles, B.; Caniaux, G.; Chauvin, F.; Deme, A.; Kergoat, L.; Lafore, J.-P.; Lavaysse, C.; Lebel, T.; Marticorena, B.; Mounier, F.; Nedelec, P.; Redelsperger, J.-L.; Ravegnani, F.; Reeves, C. E.; Roca, R.; de Rosnay, P.; Schlager, H.; Sultan, B.; Tomasini, M.; Ulanovsky, A.; Acmad Forecasters Team

    2008-09-01

    The AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) program is dedicated to providing a better understanding of the West African monsoon and its influence on the physical, chemical and biological environment regionally and globally, as well as relating variability of this monsoon system to issues of health, water resources, food security and demography for West African nations. Within this framework, an intensive field campaign took place during the summer of 2006 to better document specific processes and weather systems at various key stages of this monsoon season. This campaign was embedded within a longer observation period that documented the annual cycle of surface and atmospheric conditions between 2005 and 2007. The present paper provides a large and regional scale overview of the 2006 summer monsoon season, that includes consideration of of the convective activity, mean atmospheric circulation and synoptic/intraseasonal weather systems, oceanic and land surface conditions, continental hydrology, dust concentration and ozone distribution. The 2006 African summer monsoon was a near-normal rainy season except for a large-scale rainfall excess north of 15° N. This monsoon season was also characterized by a 10-day delayed onset compared to climatology, with convection becoming developed only after 10 July. This onset delay impacted the continental hydrology, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics as well as dust emission. More details of some less-well-known atmospheric features in the African monsoon at intraseasonal and synoptic scales are provided in order to promote future research in these areas.

  4. 76 FR 4204 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... fluctuations. Such small producers generally need to market their entire annual crop and do not have the luxury... little or no effect on consumer prices of products containing spearmint oil and likely does not result in... provide benefits for producers, handlers, manufacturers, and consumers. Based on projections available...

  5. 77 FR 21391 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... fluctuations. Such small producers generally need to market their entire annual crop and do not have the luxury... little or no effect on consumer prices of products containing spearmint oil and likely does not result in... provide benefits for producers, handlers, manufacturers, and consumers. Based on projections available...

  6. 76 FR 33969 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... need to market their entire annual crop and do not have the luxury of having other crops to cushion... consumer prices of products containing spearmint oil and likely does not result in fewer retail sales of..., handlers, manufacturers, and consumers. This rule will not impose any additional reporting or...

  7. 78 FR 32070 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule establishes the quantity of....'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7...

  8. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  9. Characteristics of Abnormal Pressure Systems and Their Responses of Fluid in Huatugou Oil Field, Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaozhi; XU Hao; TANG Dazhen; ZHANG Junfeng; HU Xiaolan; TAO Shu; CAI Yidong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive study of core samples, well testing data, and reservoir fluid properties, the construction and the distribution of the abnormal pressure systems of the Huatugou oil field in Qaidam Basin are discussed. The correlation between the pressure systems and hydrocarbon accumulation is addressed by analyzing the corresponding fluid characteristics. The results show that the Huatugou oil field as a whole has low formation pressure and low fluid energy; therefore, the hydrocarbons are hard to migrate, which facilitates the forming of primary reservoirs. The study reservoirs, located at the Xiayoushashan Formation (N_2~1) and the Shangganchaigou Formation (N_1) are relatively shallow and have medium porosity and low permeability. They are abnormal low-pressure reservoirs with an average formation pressure coefficient of 0.61 and 0.72 respectively. According to the pressure coefficient and geothermal anomaly, the N_1 and N_2~1 Formations belong to two independent temperature-pressure systems, and the former has slightly higher energy. The low-pressure compartments consist of a distal bar as the main body, prodeita mud as the top boundary, and shore and shallow lake mud or algal mound as the bottom boundary. They are vertically overlapped and horizontally paralleled. The formation water is abundant in the Cl~- ion and can be categorized as CaCl_2 type with high salinity, which indicates that the abnormal low-pressure compartments are in good sealing condition and beneficial for oil and gas accumulation and preservation.

  10. Modified version of the Millikan oil drop experiment to test the probable existence of a new electrodynamic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cure, J.C. (Universidad Francisco de Miranda, Coro (Venezuela). Area de Tecnologia)

    1982-10-07

    The probable existence of a new electrodynamic field is obtained by analogy with the general theory of relativity. The new field is derived from a scalar electrodynamic potential which is similar to the Edwards potential discovered experimentally in recent years. A modification of the Millikan oil drop experiment is also suggested to empirically verify the new field avoiding misinterpretations of Edwards' results.

  11. A modified version of the Millikan oil drop experiment to test the probable existence of a new electrodynamic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curé, Jorge C.

    1982-10-01

    The probable existence of a new electrodynamic field is obtained by analogy with the general theory of relativity. The new field is derived from a scalar electrodynamic potential which is similar to the Edwards potential discovered experimentally in recent years. A modification of the Millikan oil drop experiment is also suggested to empirically verify the new field avoiding misinterpretations of Edwards' results.

  12. Weathering of field-collected floating and stranded Macondo oils during and shortly after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Scott A; Payne, James R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Baker, Gregory

    2016-04-15

    Chemical analysis of large populations of floating (n=62) and stranded (n=1174) Macondo oils collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico sea surface and shorelines during or within seven weeks of the end of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill demonstrates the range, rates, and processes affecting surface oil weathering. Oil collected immediately upon reaching the sea surface had already lost most mass below n-C8 from dissolution of soluble aliphatics, monoaromatics, and naphthalenes during the oil's ascent with further reductions extending up to n-C13 due to the onset of evaporation. With additional time, weathering of the floating and stranded oils advanced with total PAH (TPAH50) depletions averaging 69±23% for floating oils and 94±3% for stranded oils caused by the combined effects of evaporation, dissolution, and photo-oxidation, the latter of which also reduced triaromatic steroid biomarkers. Biodegradation was not evident among the coalesced floating oils studied, but had commenced in some stranded oils.

  13. Sedimentological evolution of the Givetian-Eifelian (F3) sand bar of the West Alrar field, Illizi Basin, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouchi, R. [National Institute for Hydrocarbons and Chemistry, Boumerdes (Algeria); Malla, M.S.; Kechou, F. [Sonatrach, Algiers (Algeria). Exploration Div.

    1998-12-31

    Commercial accumulations of hydrocarbons depend on several factors, among which sedimentological conditions are of prime importance. Such sedimentatological factors are of particular importance in controlling both entrapment and reservoir quality in the western part of the Alrar field, within the F3 sandstone reservoir of Givetian-Eifelian age. Recent well results have shown facies and reservoir quality distribution to be more complex and generally more favourable than previously predicted. A series of tidally influenced litoral bars are now believed to have existed in the Alrar area at the time of deposition of the reservoir, these being elongated in a NW-SE direction in the West Alrar area, with an interbar area in the vicinity of well DZ-1. The highest reservoir quality is largely confined to this bar facies and understanding its distribution is therefore vital to locating development wells. (author)

  14. Geologic remote sensing over the Cottageville, West Virginia, gas field. Final report, August 15, 1977-February 15, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P. L.; Wagner, H. L.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1979-02-01

    Remote sensing of geologic features was investigated for the purpose of exploration for gas reserves in the eastern Mississippian-Devonian Shales. The Cottageville gas field in Jackson and Mason Counties, West Virginia, was used as a test site for this purpose. Available photographic and multispectral (MSS) images from Landsat were obtained; also 4-channel synthetic aperture radar and 12-channel MSS in the range between ultraviolet and far infrared were gathered by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan over the test site. The images were first interpreted visually for lineaments. Then the images were enhanced by many different digital computation techniques in addition to analysis and enhancement by optical techniques. Subtle, interpretative lineaments were found which could not be enhanced to an obvious level by the procedures used. Two new spatial enhancement procedures were developed.

  15. Preliminary study on the application of an electric field as a method of preservation for virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Ariza-Ortega

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of an electric field treatment (voltage: 3 kV cm-1, frequency: 60 Hz and time: of 5 and 25 min on the stability of unsaturated fatty acids in virgin olive oil. Unsaturated fatty acid oxidation in the virgin olive oil was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid infrared region, and by quality parameters (acidity, peroxide and iodine. The electric field is a suitable method to preserve this oil composition with minimal modifications without the synthetic antioxidant addition.

  16. Case History of 3D Seismic Survey in Aershan Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yousheng

    1996-01-01

    @@ Aershan Oil Field is located at the eastern end of the Manite depression .in the northeastern part of Erlian basin of North China (Fig. 1). Three oilfields -Anan, Abei and Hanan - were discovered in the Erlian basin in the early 1980s using 2D seismic survey with a very dense 0.5 km ×0.5 km grid. However. difficulties were encountered in structural delineation and lateral reservoir prediction.partly due to low signal to noise ratio and resolution of 2D section, partly due to extensive lateral variations. In order to solve these problems, large- area 3D seismic survey was conducted in the late 1980s. 3D survey area is 80 km2.This survey accurately identified the details of reservoir structures, as well as located low-relief structures. Good results were also obtained in predicting lateral reservoir variations and ascertaining oil/water contacts and oilbearing areas.

  17. Modeling porous structure of oil-pressboard interface and its effect on electric field distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马文霞; 姜赤龙; 毛文奇; 唐信

    2015-01-01

    The oil−pressboard insulation is a typical composite insulation system widely used in the design and manufactory of large power apparatus. The implement of oil−pressboard insulation may lead to surface electrification and discharge at the interface under certain condition. It is of significant importance to take an insight into the phenomenon occurring at the interface. Through experiment, the pressboard is found as a porous material. The interface changes abruptly from bulk pressboard to the bulk oil as a result of the porous structure. A new model is proposed which divides the interface into bulk oil region, transition region, and bulk pressboard region. The width of the transition region is decided according to the microtome figure. The effective permittivity of the transition region is calculated using a new model based on fractal theory. The model is validated and compared with previous calculation model. The effect of the existence of transition region on the electric field distribution is discussed.

  18. Integral anomalous effect of an oil and gas deposit in a seismic wave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostyshevskiy, M.B.; Nabokov, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    The basic precepts of an elaborated version of a procedure for forecasting (direct exploration) of oil and gas deposits according to seismic prospecting data MOV are examined. This procedure was previously called the procedure of analysis of the integral affect of an oil and gas deposit in a seismic wave field (MIIEZ-VP). The procedure is implemented in the form of an automated system ASOM-VP for the BESM-4 computer in a standard configuration equipped with standard input-output devices for seismic information (''Potok'', MVU, ''Atlas''). The entire procedure of processing from input of data into the computer to output of resulting maps and graphs on graph plotter ''Atlas'' is automated. Results of testing of procedure MIIEZ-VP and system ASOM-VP on drilled areas of Kazakhstan, Azerbaydzhan and Uzbekistan are cited.

  19. Horizontal drilling pilot in a shallow heavy oil reservoir in the Suplac Field in Northwestern Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavelle, J.; Yaghoobi, A. [OMV Petrom S.A. (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    The Suplac field situated in north-western Romania is a shallow and heavy oil deposit lying at depths of between 40 and 200 meters. The deposit has been exploited since 1964 using different techniques but some areas of the reservoir located beneath villages and steep hills were never reached. The aim of this paper is to describe a project using horizontal alternating steam drive (HASD) to harvest oil from these areas by turning from vertical to horizontal. A pilot test was conducted over 4 months in 2010 with 3 parallel horizontal wells. The rig equipment, the well path designs and the directional difficulties are discussed herein. Results showed that horizontals could be drilled using a vertical mast rig and all the expectations were met. The success of this pilot project was highlighted herein and the company is now planning on continuing with a horizontal development program; however wellbore clean out is a remaining challenge.

  20. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Synthetically Produced Oil Field Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The life of offshore steel structure in the oil production units is decided by the huge corrosive degradation due to SO42-, S2−, and Cl−, which normally present in the oil field seawater. Variation in pH and temperature further adds to the rate of degradation on steel. Corrosion behavior of mild steel is investigated through polarization, EIS, XRD, and optical and SEM microscopy. The effect of all 3 species is huge material degradation with FeSx and FeCl3 and their complex as corrosion products. EIS data match the model of Randle circuit with Warburg resistance. Addition of more corrosion species decreases impedance and increases capacitance values of the Randle circuit at the interface. The attack is found to be at the grain boundary as well as grain body with very prominent sulphide corrosion crack.

  1. First report on entomological field activities for the surveillance of West Nile disease in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goffredo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is neuropathogenic for birds, horses and humans and is maintained in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes, particularly the Culex genus; horses and humans are considered to be incidental hosts. A surveillance plan was implemented in Italy in 1998, following a limited outbreak of WNV equine encephalomyelitis and a WNV outbreak in France very close to the Italian border. This plan to assess the risks of the virus being introduced again included entomological surveillance performed in 15 study areas considered ‘at risk’ of WNV introduction in the country. Entomological surveys conducted in Italy from 2003 to 2007 resulted in the capture of a total of 28 798 mosquitoes, of which there were 14 765 adults and 14 033 larvae belonging to 22 species. According to the literature, eight of the species identified have been found to be naturally infected with WNV or were successfully infected in the laboratory in some parts of Europe and in the United States, namely: Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1897 (= Stegomiya albopicta, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830, Anopheles maculipennis Meigen, 1818, Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi, 1889, Culex modestus Ficalbi, 1889, Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758, Culex theileri Theobald, 1903 and Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771 (= Aedes caspius.

  2. Reservoir engineering optimized techniques and applications research in initial development stage of a super shallow sea marginal oil field : Development case of Chengdao Oil Field in Bohai Bay, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, D.; Ren, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, D. [Shengli Oil field Inc. (China). SINOPEC Corp.

    2002-06-01

    One of the greatest Chinese neritic marginal oil fields is the Chengdao oil field, located north of Dongying City, Shandong Province, China in the southern part of Bohai Bay. The depth of the seawater is less than 15 metres, even though the field lies 5 kilometres from shore. It falls in the category of super shallow sea marginal oil field, due to a number of reasons: peculiar geographical location, abominable environment and climate, complex reservoir characteristics and high economic risk of exploration and development. The major oil-bearing series of the Chengdao oil field is upper Guantao sandstones. The establishment of a three-dimensional conceptual model and static model in initial development stage were completed using Log-Constrained Seismic Inversion technique combined with three-dimensional visual geological model establishment technique. The optimization and determination of reservoir engineering technical limits, namely development scheme, well pattern and spacing, timing of water injection, water injection scheme and injection-to-production ratio was accomplished with the application of geostatistics, numerical simulation and economic evaluation techniques. For the period 1996-2001, the cumulative oil productivity of upper Guantao reservoir in pure natural energy development increased substantially. The results were presented in this paper. 3 refs., 6 tabs., 13 figs.

  3. Mercury concentrations in urine of amerindian populations near oil fields in the peruvian and ecuadorian amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Ross, Nancy; Mergler, Donna

    2016-11-01

    Mercury is a global contaminant with toxic, persistent effects on human health. Petroleum extraction is an important source of elemental mercury; little is known about human exposure levels near oil fields in the Amazon basin. To characterize mercury levels in people living near oil production sites in the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon, controlling for fish consumption, occupation, source of water and socio-demographic characteristics. Analyze mercury levels in urine samples using cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry from 76 indigenous men and women in eight riverine communities situated near oil wells or pipelines. Subjects answered a questionnaire soliciting socio-demographic, occupational and dietary information. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression modeling. The mean value of U-Hg was 2.61μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 2.14-3.08), with 7% of the sample recording values above the global background standard suggested by The World Health Organization (5μg/g creatinine). Women who used water from a surface source had two and a half times the amount of mercury in their urine (mean=3.70μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 2.26-5.15) compared with women who used other water sources (mean =1.39μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 0.51-2.25). Men who were involved in an oil clean-up operation had twice as much mercury in their urine (mean =3.07μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.97-4.16) as did those who worked on other tasks (mean =1.56μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.48-2.65). Mercury levels were not associated with the number of fish meals per week. Indigenous peoples of the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon living near oil production sites generally had urine mercury levels within the global background standard suggested by the World Health Organization. Increased levels of mercury in urine were detected for men involved in oil spill remediation and for women who relied on surface water for household needs. These findings signal the need for strict safety measures to limit the amount

  4. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata

    2014-01-01

    Brick field industry is one of the most important and oldest industries in India, where millions of workers suffered from work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The main aim of the present investigation was to assess the prevalence of WMSDs among brick field workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 216 brick field workers. A modified Nordic questionnaire was applied among them. In brick making industry, the workers adopt different unfavorable actions, such as frequent bending; bending and twisting of the body; and working above shoulder height, which may lead to severe pain in different parts of the body, especially lower back (brick carriers: 90%; moulders: 92%; fireman: 75%; stackers: 88%) and neck (brick carriers: 89%; moulders: 88%; fireman: 54%; stackers: 72%), It was concluded from the study that health of the brick field workers was highly affected due to working in different awkward postures for long periods.

  5. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  6. West German Etzel cavern project: international crude oil markets especially influence political economics of Federal strategic reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, G.

    1982-06-01

    Eleven years ago final decision was reached to install a stateowned stockpile for crude oil in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the meantime the reserve for the petroleum industry - ordered by law - has been collected by the 'Public Corporation' named the Petroleum Stockpiling Association (Erdoelbevorratungsverband) in Hamburg. After the decision to establish a national stockpile several initiatives of other governments - for example the USA - followed. Due to the development of prices for crude and products from 1970 with an average price of 61.75 DM/t to an average price of 610 DM/t in 1981 stockpiling became an important factor in economic policy. Apart from world wide political, energy and financial factors crude oil cavity storage in Etzel not only lead to new experiences in solving thermodynamical and rock mechanical behaviours as well as storage operations but it became part of international safety-strategy in energy.

  7. Mediterranean essential oils as effective weapons against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens and the Echinostoma intermediate host Physella acuta: what happens around? An acute toxicity survey on non-target mayflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Amira, Smain; Benchikh, Fatima; Laouer, Hocine; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Conti, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Second to malaria as the world's most widespread parasitic disease, infection by trematodes is a devastating public health problem. In this study, we proposed two essential oils from plants cultivated in Mediterranean regions as effective chemicals against mosquitoes and freshwater snails vectors of Echinostoma trematodes. Chemical composition of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Rutaceae) was investigated. Acute toxicity was evaluated against larvae of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Mollusca: Physidae), an important intermediate host of many parasites, including Echinostoma revolutum (Echinostomidae). Acute toxicity of essential oils was assessed also on a non-target aquatic organism, the mayfly Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum essentials oils were mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes (59.3 and 71.0 % of the whole oil, respectively). Chrysanthenone and borneol were the two major constituents of Achillea millefolium essential oil (24.1 and 14.2 %, respectively). Major compounds of H. tuberculatum essential oil were cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol and trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (22.9 and 16.1 %, respectively). In acute toxicity assays, C. pipiens LC50 was 154.190 and 175.268 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively. P. acuta LC50 was 112.911 and 73.695 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively, while the same values were 198.116 and 280.265 ppm for C. dipterum. Relative median potency analysis showed that both tested essential oils were more toxic to P. acuta over C. dipterum. This research adds knowledge on plant-borne chemicals toxic against invertebrates of medical

  8. Chemical comparison and acute toxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of source and field collected Macondo oils from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond; Daling, Per S; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2015-02-15

    Two Source oils and five field collected oil residues from the Deepwater Horizon incident were chemically characterized. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the Source oils and two of the field-weathered oils were prepared to evaluate the impact of natural weathering on the chemical composition and the acute toxicity of the WAFs. Toxicity test species representing different tropic levels were used (the primary producer Skeletonema costatum (algae) and the herbivorous copepod Acartia tonsa). The results suggest that the potential for acute toxicity is higher in WAFs from non-weathered oils than WAFs from the field weathered oils. The Source oils contained a large fraction of soluble and bioavailable components (such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes) and naphthalene), whereas in the surface collected oils these components were depleted by dissolution into the water column as the oil rose to the surface and by evaporative loss after reaching the sea surface.

  9. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in West Africa as a model for sustainable partnerships in animal and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karen M; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Ndjakani, Yassa; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter; Mukanga, David; Wurapa, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    The concept of animal and human health experts working together toward a healthier world has been endorsed, but challenges remain in identifying concrete actions to move this one health concept from vision to action. In 2008, as a result of avian influenza outbreaks in West Africa, international donor support led to a unique opportunity to invest in Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in the region that engaged the animal and human health sectors to strengthen the capacity for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. The FELTPs mixed 25% to 35% classroom and 65% to 75% field-based training and service for cohorts of physicians, veterinarians, and laboratory scientists. They typically consisted of a 2-year course leading to a master's degree in field epidemiology and public health laboratory management for midlevel public health leaders and competency-based short courses for frontline public health surveillance workers. Trainees and graduates work in multidisciplinary teams to conduct surveillance, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological studies for disease control locally and across borders. Critical outcomes of these programs include development of a cadre of public health leaders with core skills in integrated disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, vaccination campaigns, laboratory diagnostic testing, and epidemiological studies that address priority public health problems. A key challenge exists in identifying ways to successfully scale up and transform this innovative donor-driven program into a sustainable multisectoral one health workforce capacity development model.

  10. EVALUATION OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FIELDS CULTURE, CAPABILITY, INFORMATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES OF YOUTH AND SPORT OFFICES OF WEST AZERBAIJAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roba Yadollahzadeh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Management has a significant importance in sport organizations, specially, if it is accompanied with a strategic and program-oriented approach. Now in this progressing and developing world sport is not an exception, and many sport organizations are in rapid progress and in most cases the strategic approach of these organizations is the top priority. This study aims at evaluating the fields of strategic management in West Azarbaijan province offices of sport and youth. The subjects of the study are 47 managers and their assistants of W.Azarbaijan youth and sport offices. The tool of gathering data is a standard questionnaire which is made by Vic Gilgeous (improving strategic concerns.The method of descriptive research is a kind of analysis that, it is performed in a field study. For data analyzing, some parameters of descriptive and inferential statistics such as standard deviation, mean, frequency and some other like one sample t-test were used. The results show that the amount of realization of the culture, information and the strategic management resources in offices of youth and sports of W. Azerbaijan, are not in an appropriate condition (p < 0.05.So according to the results of the study we can deduce that the culture, information and strategic management resources in W. Azerbaijan offices of youth and sports, are significantly different with the society average and these fields need to be improved and strengthened.

  11. Detailed Study of Seismic Wave Attenuation in Carbonate Rocks: Application on Abu Dhabi Oil Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaala, F.; Ali, M. Y.; Matsushima, J.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wave attenuation is a promising attribute for the petroleum exploration, thanks to its high sensitivity to physical properties of subsurface. It can be used to enhance the seismic imaging and improve the geophysical interpretation which is crucial for reservoir characterization. However getting an accurate attenuation profile is not an easy task, this is due to complex mechanism of this parameter, although that many studies were carried out to understand it. The degree of difficulty increases for the media composed of carbonate rocks, known to be highly heterogeneous and with complex lithology. That is why few attenuation studies were done successfully in carbonate rocks. The main objectives of this study are, Getting an accurate and high resolution attenuation profiles from several oil fields. The resolution is very important target for us, because many reservoirs in Abu Dhabi oil fields are tight.Separation between different modes of wave attenuation (scattering and intrinsic attenuations).Correlation between the attenuation profiles and other logs (Porosity, resistivity, oil saturation…), in order to establish a relationship which can be used to detect the reservoir properties from the attenuation profiles.Comparison of attenuation estimated from VSP and sonic waveforms. Provide spatial distribution of attenuation in Abu Dhabi oil fields.To reach these objectives we implemented a robust processing flow and new methodology to estimate the attenuation from the downgoing waves of the compressional VSP data and waveforms acquired from several wells drilled in Abu Dhabi. The subsurface geology of this area is primarily composed of carbonate rocks and it is known to be highly fractured which complicates more the situation, then we separated successfully the intrinsic attenuation from the scattering. The results show that the scattering is significant and cannot be ignored. We found also a very interesting correlation between the attenuation profiles and the

  12. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  13. Field-based estimates of avian mortality from West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael P; Beveroth, Tara A; Lampman, Richard; Raim, Arlo; Enstrom, David; Novak, Robert

    2010-11-01

    One of the unique characteristics of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America is the large number of bird species for which the virus can be fatal. WNV mortality has been documented through experimental infections of captive birds and necropsies of free-ranging birds. Investigations of WNV-related mortality in wild birds often focus on species with dramatic population declines (e.g., American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos); however, few studies have addressed WNV-related mortality in species not exhibiting marked population declines since the arrival of WNV. We conducted a mark-recapture study of 204 Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) in an area with endemic WNV activity to estimate WNV-related mortality. Previous research has shown that once a bird is infected and recovers from WNV it develops antibodies making it resistant to future infection. Assuming that mortality risks from non-WNV causes were the same for individuals with (had been exposed to WNV) and without antibodies (had not been exposed to WNV), we compared the survival rates of birds with and without WNV antibodies to estimate the impact of WNV on wild birds. An information theoretic approach was used, and the apparent survival was found to be 34.6% lower for individuals without antibodies during the period when WNV was most active (July-September). However, the apparent survival rate was 9.0% higher for individuals without antibodies over the rest of the year. These differences in apparent survival suggest that WNV increases mortality during the WNV season and that chronic effects of WNV infection may also be contributing to mortality. Although WNV appears to have increased mortality rates within the population, population trend data do not indicate declines, suggesting that some cardinal populations can compensate for WNV-related mortality.

  14. ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF TALC POWDER/SILICONE OIL SUSPENSIONS UNDER DC FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasim Yilmaza; Ummihan Yilmazb

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the electrorheological (ER) behavior of suspensions prepared from d50 = 2.4 μm talc powder,dispersed in insulating silicone oil (SO) medium was investigated. Sedimentation stabilities of suspensions (c = 5 wt%)prepared using these talc powder powders were determined to be 78 days. The ER activity of all the suspensions was observed to increase with increasing electric field strength, concentration and decreasing shear rate. The shear stress of talc powder suspensions increased linearly with increasing concentrations of the particles and with the applied electric field strength. Electric field viscosity of all the suspensions decreased sharply with increasing shear rate and showed a typical shear thinning non-Newtonian visco-elastic behavior. Effects of frequency on the ER activity of talc powder/SO system were also investigated.

  15. ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF DIATOMITE/SILICONE OIL SUSPENSIONS UNDER DC FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasim Yilmaz

    2006-01-01

    In this study, electrorheological (ER) behavior of suspensions prepared from 3.0 and 9.0 μm diatomite particulate,dispersed in insulating silicone oil (SO) medium was investigated. Sedimentation stabilities of suspensions (c = 5 wt%)prepared using these diatomite powders were determined to be 32 days (d = 3 μm) and 24 days (d = 9 μm), respectively. ER activity of all the suspensions was observed to increase with increasing electric field strength, concentration and decreasing shear rate. Shear stress of diatomite suspensions increased linearly with increasing concentrations of the particles and with the applied electric field strength. Electric field viscosity of all the suspensions decreased sharply with increasing shear rate and particle size, showing a typical shear thinning non-Newtonian visco-elastic behavior. Effects of high temperature and polar promoter onto ER activity of diatomite/SO system were also investigated.

  16. Local and Global Impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage Combined with Enhanced Oil Recovery in Four Depleted Oil Fields, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, J.; Jordan, P. D.; Goodell, J. A.; Harrington, K.; Jameson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil reservoirs are attractive targets for geologic carbon storage (GCS) because they possess proven trapping mechanisms and large amounts of data pertaining to production and reservoir geometry. In addition, CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can improve recovery of the remaining oil at recovery factors of 6 to 20% of original oil in place in appropriate reservoirs. CO2 EOR increases the attractiveness of depleted oil and gas reservoirs as a starting point for CCS because the CO2 becomes a commodity that can be purchased by field operators for EOR purposes thereby offsetting the costs of CO2 capture at the power plant. In California, Kern County contains the largest oil reservoirs and produces 76% of California's oil. Most of the production at depths suitable for CCS combined with CO2 EOR comes from three reservoirs: the Vedder and Temblor formations and the Stevens Sandstone of the Monterey Formation. These formations were evaluated for GCS and CO2 EOR potential at the North and South Coles Levee (Stevens Sandstone), Greeley (Vedder) and McKittrick (Temblor) fields. CO2 EOR could be expected to produce an additional 150 million bbls of oil. The total storage space created by pre- and post-EOR fluid production for all three reservoirs is approximately 104 million metric tons (MMT). Large fixed sources in California produce 156 MMT/yr of CO2, and sources in Kern County produce 26 MMT/yr (WESTCARB, 2012). Therefore, the fields could store about four years of local large fixed source emissions and about two thirds of statewide emissions. However, from a global perspective, burning the additional oil produced by CO2 EOR would generate an additional 65 MMT of CO2 if not captured. This would result in a net reduction of greenhouse gas of only 39 MMT rather than the full 104 MMT. If the water produced along with the oil recovered during CO2 EOR operations is not reinjected into the reservoir, the storage space could be much higher.

  17. Metal PCP field trial pushes up pumping window for heavy oil hot production : Joslyn field case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauquin, J.L.; Ndinemenu, F. [Total SA, Paris (France); Chalier, G. [Total E and P Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemay, L.; Seince, L. [PCM, Verves (France); Jahn, S. [Kudu Industries Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented details of field trials conducted for a novel all-metal progressive cavity pump (PCP) system at a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facility in Canada's Joslyn field. The fully metallic helical profile was produced by hydro-forming processes. The pump's stator was comprised of 3 elements welded together and coated for high temperature and wear resistance. During the field trials, the well pads were equipped with metal PCPs as well as topside and down hole instrumentation in order to obtain real time well data and pump performance data. Results of the study showed that initial volumetric efficiencies were 55 per cent. When pressure communication between injector and producer wells increased, pump intake pressure and speed also increased. Performance data from the field trial were then compared with results from high temperature electric submersible pumps (ESPs). It was concluded that the metal PCP is a promising artificial lift technology for SAGD processes. The pump design is now being modified to minimize vibrations and improve run life. 1 ref., 11 figs.

  18. Development Strategies for Achieving High Production with Fewer Wells in Conventional Offshore Heavy Oil Fields in Bohai Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiang; Li Xiangfang; Kang Xiaodong

    2006-01-01

    Development strategy for heavy-oil reservoirs is one of the important research interests in China National Offshore Oil Corp. (CNOOC) that plans a highly effective development for heavy oil fields in multilayered fluvial reservoirs because of their significant influence on marine oil and even on China's petroleum production. The characteristics analysis of multilayered fluvial reservoirs in the heavy oil fields in Bohai Bay indicates that large amounts of oil were trapped in the channel, point bar and channel bar sands. The reserves distribution of 8 oilfields illustrates that the reserves trapped in the main sands, which is 20%-40% of all of the sand bodies, account for 70%-90% of total reserves of the heavy oil fields. The cumulative production from high productivity wells (50% of the total wells) was 75%-90% of the production of the overall oilfield, while only 3%-10% of the total production was from the low productivity wells (30% of the total wells). And the high productivity wells were drilled in the sands with high reserves abundance. Based on the above information the development strategy was proposed, which includes reserves production planning, selection of well configuration, productivity design, and development modification at different stages.

  19. Playa Del Rey oil field, Los Angeles County, California-- natural gas storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnds, R.M.

    1968-01-01

    The Playa del Rey oil field is on Santa Monica Bay, about 15 miles SW. of Los Angeles. The sedimentary rocks of the field were deposited on the flanks and over the ridge of an erosional surface of Franciscan schist. A NW.-trending anticline resulted from deposition and compaction over the ridge. An apron of schistose clastic material was deposited in the littoral zone at the base of the ridge and in embayments formed by the lateral channels. Conformably overlying the basal conglomerate (productive lower zone) and unconformably overlying the schist is a dark brown, compact shale with abundant small lenticular streaks and nodules of calcium phosphate. The rest of the Miocene rock column is composed of about 500 ft of hard, compact black shale and sandy shale, which is conformably overlain by the typical Los Angeles-basin Pliocene and Pleistocene rocks. The upper oil zone is in the lower Pliocene. The Playa del Rey Field is productive from both the lower zone and from sedimentary rocks of the anticline. There are widely varied porosity and permeability values throughout the Del Rey Hills area. That part chosen for the gas-storage project is where the basal conglomerate overlying the Franciscan schist is overlain by the nodular shale.

  20. Application of new geological modeling technology in secondary development in Daqing oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. L.; Zhang, J. H.; Li, H. K.; Liu, C.

    2016-08-01

    The reconfiguration on underground geology system is one of the key techniques for secondary development in Daqing oil field. The geological modeling is the unique method to characterize new knowledge system of reservoir. The development history of maturing field is long. The structure of maturing field is complex and the distribution of oil remaining is highly scattered. The difficulty of adjustment and potential tapping is great. In viewing of demand for secondary development, the strategies and methods of geological modeling are proposed. According to the characteristics that many faults crosscut each other, the clue of fractional simulation—key horizon controlling—overall structural modeling is carried out to accurately and effectively build fine structural models. In order to approximate the real microfacies simulation effect, microfacies modeling technology of multiple iterations and geology tendency under vertical and lateral geology tendency constraint is used. And the attribute models could approximate the real parametric distribution. Moreover, in viewing of the key and potential reservoir sand, the countermeasure on configuration modeling by different stochastic simulation methods and step simulation is proposed to rapidly build geologic models. The geologic models are scientific and feasible. The above-mentioned countermeasures and methods have been used in secondary development of Daqing oilfield and the effect was well. This new technology presents directive sense.

  1. Enhanced biodegradation of transformer oil in soils with cyclodextrin--from the laboratory to the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Mónika; Leitgib, Laura; Gruiz, Katalin; Fenyvesi, Eva; Szaniszló, Nikoletta; Szejtli, József; Fava, Fabio

    2005-03-01

    The use cyclodextrins for the intensification of bioremediation by improving the mobility and bioavailability of contaminants has recently been studied. In this work, the role of randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with transformer oil was studied both in bench scale bioreactors and through field experiments. The aims of this research were to (a) establish the scientific background of a cyclodextrin-based soil bioremediation technology, (b) demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness in the field, and (c) develop an integrated methodology, consisting of a combination of physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological analytical methods, for efficiently monitoring the technology performances. The stepwise increasing scale of the experiments and the application of the integrated analytical methodology supported the development of a scientifically established new technology and the identification of the advantages and the limitations of its application in the field. At each phase of the study, randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin was found to significantly enhance the bioremediation and detoxification of the transformer oil-contaminated soils employed by increasing the bioavailability of the pollutants and the activity of indigenous microorganisms.

  2. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-11-19

    Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast-southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006-2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957-1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change.

  3. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution SST Climatology Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  4. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution CHLA Anomaly Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  5. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution CHLA Climatology Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  6. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution SST Anomaly Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  7. Identification of paddy field using Landsat image in Karawang Regency, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riadi, Bambang; Budiman Suriadi, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The Government of the Republic of Indonesia has a mission to achieve food self-sufficiency in 2017, therefore it is necessary efforts to the stability of food needs. Karawang Regency as a granary states have a vital role in maintaining the national rice self-sufficiency, so indispensable information paddy field area. Paddy field accurate mapping can be done with a fast and efficient method of using remote sensing technology. This study aims to identify the paddy field using remote sensing technology. The data used is Landsat TM 2002 and Landsat-8 2015. The classification method using an approach Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT). This method can be implemented to identify the fields that are still green or in the growing season. TCT produces three images of the six combinations, namely Brightness (BRT), greenness (GRN), and wetness (WET). BRT provides graytone gradation of non vegetation to water. GRN is indicated the gradation of vegetation cover, begin from densely vegetated until the most rare or non-vegetated areas. While wetness (WET) indicates the area associated with the presence of water. The main results of the classification is not a wetland and paddy. Based on existing data paddy land area of research area is ± 57% of the area of Karawang Regency.

  8. Potential of production of biodiesel starting from the chicken oil in the cooperatives of the West of Parana, Brazil; Potencial de producao de biodiesel a partir do oleo de frango nas cooperativas do oeste do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], Email: ssouza@unioeste.br; Neitzke, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (PIBIC/CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica], Email: guilherme_neitzke@yahoo.com.br; Gomes, Luis Fernando Souza [Colegio Estadual Presidente Castelo Branco, Toledo, PR (Brazil)], Email: luisfsg@ibest.com.br; Bariccatti, Reinaldo Aparecido [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CECE/UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Exatas], Email: bariccatti@unioeste.br

    2006-07-01

    Brazil occupies a prominence place in the development and use of sources renovate of energy, due to its great territorial extension, climate and several alternatives. One of these it is the bio diesel,o production which can substitute the oil diesel, decreasing the impacts to the environment. In the productive chain of chicken meat a residue, chicken oil, is generated with potential for biodiesel production. In this work they were certain characteristics physical chemistries, that can influence in the reactions of transesterification of the chicken oil. It was lifted up the potential of production of chicken oil in the cooperatives of the area west of the state of Parana and yield in biodiesel. The bio diesel production by cooperatives could be of 19.525.209,0 kg/year of bio diesel and the yield of 95%. (author)

  9. The boomerang area: An example of oil and gas fields related to a transfer zone development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, M.; Colletta, B.; Letouzey, J. (Institut Francais de petrole, Ruiel-Malmaison (France)); Baby, P. (ORSTOM, Santa Cruz (Bolivia)); Oller, J.; Montemuro, G. (YPFB, Santa Cruz (Bolivia)); Guillier, B. (IFEA, Santa Cruz (Bolivia))

    1993-02-01

    We present results of a study realized from petroleum data of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos of the most important transfer zone of the Bolivian Andean belt: the Santa Cruz transfer zone. Frontal part of the Bolivian Andean belt consists of a thick series (6 to 8 km) of paleozoic to cenozoic sedimentary rocks thrusted eastwards on a sole thrust located in paleozoic series. The frontal part of the belt, globally N-S oriented, undergoes an important deviation East of Santa Cruz with a left lateral offset of 100 Km. Taking into account the E-W shortening direction, this transfer zone can be interpreted as a lateral ramp. The Santa Cruz transfer zone coincide with a set of small oil and gas fields whereas frontal structures lack hydrocarbon occurrences. We are then faced with a two-fold problem: (1) what is the origin of the transfer zone (2) why are the oil and gas concentrated in the transfer zone Our synthesis shows that the transfer zone is superimposed on the limit of a detached Paleozoic basin whose border direction is oblique to the regional shortening direction. We then interpret the oil and gas formation in two steps: (1) source rock maturation and hydrocarbon migration towards the top of the Paleozoic sedimentary wedge before Andean deformation. (2) hydrocarbon dismigration towards anticlinal structures developed during the lateral ramp propagation. In order to test our interpretation we performed a set of analog model experiments whose 3D visualization was analyzed by computerized X-ray tomography.

  10. Integration of geological, geochemical, and geophysical spatial data of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termain, Patricia A.; Donovan, Terrence J.; Chavez, Pat S.; Barringer, Anthony R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement pertaining to geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site were collected employing both airborne sensors and ground-based data collection. The measurements include: (1) airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (supplying bismuth 214, thalium 208, and potassium 40 gamma-ray intensities); (2) aeromagnetic survey data; (3) multi-frequency airborne resistivity survey data (supplying apparent electrical resistivity of near surface materials); (4) gravity data; (5) geological and topographic maps; and (6) image data from Landsat MSS and U-2 photography.

  11. Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jingrui; Zhou, Rui; Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Jie

    2013-05-07

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated.

  12. Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using rotating cage

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cage (RC) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    San, S.; Armstrong, B; Cordoba, J.; Stephens, C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine environmental exposure and incidence and mortality of cancer in the village of San Carlos surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.
METHODS—Water samples of the local streams were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A preliminary list of potential cancer cases from 1989 to 1998 was prepared. Cases were compared with expected numbers of cancer morbidity and mortality registrations from a Quito reference population.
RESULTS—Water analysis showe...

  14. Numerical simulation and experimental verification of silicone oil flow over magnetic fluid under applied magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruoyu Hong; Zhiqiang Ren; Shizhong Zhang; Jianmin Ding; Hongzhong Li

    2007-01-01

    Two-layer flow of magnetic fluid and non-magnetic silicone oil was simulated numerically. The continuity equation, momentum equations,kinematic equation, and magnetic potential equation were solved in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate. PLIC (piecewise linear integration calculation) VOF (volume of fluid) scheme was employed to track the free interface. Surface tension was treated via a continuous surface force(CSF) model that ensures robustness and accuracy. The influences of applied magnetic field, inlet velocity profile, initial surface disturbance of interface and surface tension were analyzed. The computed interface shapes at different conditions were compared with experimental observation.

  15. Aplication of AVO Technique to Gas Exploration in Liaohe Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Changqing; Zhou Faping

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction AVO (Amplitude Versus Offset) technique uses prestack seismic data to predict reservoirs and detect hydrocarbon. We used AVO to find gas for the first time in Liaohe Oil Fields. Both real and synthetic data show that the typical AVO characteristics of gas reservoirs in Liaohe Basin appears dominantly as dim spots and occasionally bright spots. But the bright spot reservoirs are only restricted at depths less than 1 000 m These features can function as detection criteria for the application of AVO to gas exploration in Damintun Depression. which have been proved by real data to be right and reliable.

  16. Feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery for fields in decline. Export trade information (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    The report, generated by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. for Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos, documents the results of a feasibility study which addressed the viability of developing petroleum areas in Bolivia. The primary objective of the project was to describe the reservoirs that have been discovered and their reserves, describe which would be the best alternatives for development of these reservoirs, and to determine the best alternatives for development of all the reserves together. The report, volume 4 of 4, concerns the feasibility of enhancing the oil or condensate recovery from a chosen group of fields (Yapacani, Humberto Suarez Roca, Vibora, La Pena, San Roque, and Camiri).

  17. Opting for oil: the political economy of technological change in the West German chemical industry, 1945-1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, R.G. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The general theme of the book is in support of the claim that it was, in part, the transition from a traditional coal-based industry to a modern petroleum-based industry that allowed West Germany to compete in world markets. The transition helped the country to achieve the economic miracle of the 1950s that brought success during the 1960s and later. After several background chapters covering the years 1860 to 1945, the author introduces his analysis of technological change and transfer and provides case studies of representative companies to show the alternative paths taken towards prosperity. Amongst the new technologies developed during the 1920 and 1930, the author mentions the Fischer-Tropsch process implemented by the Nazis to manufacture liquid fuels from coal. By the 1960s coal had mainly been replaced by petroleum as a feedstock, although one small company, Bergkamen, continued to use the Fischer Tropsch process for some time.

  18. Holocene coastal dune fields used as indicators of net littoral transport: West Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C.D.; Stock, E.; Hart, R.; Percy, D.; Hostetler, S.W.; Knott, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Between Point Grenville, Washington, and Point Conception, California (1500 km distance) 21 dune fields record longshore transport in 20 littoral cells during the late Holocene. The direction of predominant littoral transport is established by relative positions of dune fields (north, central, or south) in 17 representative littoral cells. Dune field position is north of cell midpoints in northernmost Oregon and Washington, but is south of cell midpoints in southern Oregon and California. Downdrift sand trapping occurs at significant changes in shoreline angle and/or at bounding headlands that project at least 2.5 km seaward from the general coastal trend. Sand bypassing occurs around small headlands of less than 0.5 km in projection distance. A northward shift of the winter low-pressure center in the northeast Pacific Ocean is modeled from 11 ka to 0 ka. Nearshore current forcing in southern Oregon and northern California switched from northward in earliest Holocene time to southward in late Holocene time. The late Holocene (5-0 ka) is generally characterized by net northward littoral drift in northernmost Oregon and Washington and by net southward littoral drift in southernmost Oregon and California. A regional divergence of net transport direction in central Oregon, i.e. no net drift, is consistent with modeled wind and wave forcing at the present time (0 ka). ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Organic geochemistry of heavy/extra heavy oils from sidewall cores, Lower Lagunillas Member, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Basin, Venenzuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocco, R.; Alberdi, M. [PDVSA-Inteveo S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    2002-10-01

    The study of 22 oils from sidewall cores taken at different depths in the Lower Lagunillas Member, well LSJ-AB, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Lake is presented, with the purpose of predicting the intervals that present the best crude oil quality. Differences were detected in the biodegradation levels of the studied samples, which are correlated with the depth at which the sidewall core was taken. The API gravity was considered for the oils from each sidewall core and it was found that toward the top of the sequence, the oils have an API gravity of 10.6-11.2{sup o}C, while toward the base part of the sequence, the well produces extra heavy oils with an API gravity that varies between 8.2 and 8.7{sup o}. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. On the international cooperation of North-West Russia in the field of innovations in the Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranova Yulia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the cooperation between the constituent entities of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation and the Baltic countries (Finland, Estonia, and Norway in the field of innovations at national and regional levels, as well as at the level of corporate cooperation. The author reviews successful implementation of innovation projects within cross-border and transnational cooperation programmes. The most significant projects focus on the development of information and communications technologies in healthcare, the development of networks uniting innovation centres in the Baltic Sea region, and the transnational network of business incubators in the Baltic Sea region. The author identifies promising areas of cooperation between North-West Russia, Finland, Norway, and Estonia in the field of innovations, including telecommunications, information and, space; biological, environmental and nanotechnologies; software, medicine, education, culture, energy efficiency and ecological construction, as well as the development of creative industries. The article pays attention to large-scale national projects, such as “St. Petersburg Corridor — Two Model Open Innovation Platform” and “Partnership in commercialization of Russian innovations”.

  1. Influence of fire events on permafrost, Yubileynoe Gas Field, West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenets, V.; Kurchatova, A. N.; Shmelev, D.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The study area is located in the Subarctic region of Western Siberia at Nadym and Pur Rivers interfluve. The mean monthly air temperature of the coldest month is -25…-27oC and of the warmest month is 8…10oC. The mean annual air temperature is increasing at 0.03…0.06oC per year. The mean annual precipitation is 550…600 mm. The continuous permafrost up to 50-70 m thick have temperature of -1..-3oC. The study site is located 40 km west of Noviy Urengoy City. The study site is dominated by typical forest-tundra, where the cup-mossy larch-birch light forests neighbors with typical tundra, and the boreal fir-larch forest spread across minor river valleys. Ecosystems of the study area experience strong technogenic stress from the large gas-producing enterprise "Yubileinoe" which is situated nearby. A polygonal peatland with 2-2.5 m peat at the southern bank of Nashe-to Lake was disturbed by fire in July, 2005. The fire event lasted for 2 days have burned vegetation dominated by semifrutex, sedges, mosses, and underlaying peat. Following years the succession rates were rather slow. The peatland surface is elevated relative to the surrounding drained lake basin (hasyrey) and free of snow in winter. After the disturbance of the thermo-insulating layers (peat, moss and vegetation cover) the activation of frost-cracking was observed, especially strong at completely burnt areas on sandy loam. The second site of the hasyrey has experienced the fire in the middle of July, 2007. It is located within the plain watershed with drainage hollows. The Arctic birch, semifrutex and cup-mosses were dominating in the vegetation cover of hillocky tundra. The vegetation cover has experienced slow succession after the fire. In August, 2008, we found the semifrutex, sedges and cotton-grass growing sparsely between the burnt bare hillocks. The wetness of the territory increased. As a result of vegetation cover and mosses disturbance, the thermoinsulation have decreased and the frost

  2. Organic geochemical study of the ''W'' oil-gas field in the Yugoslav part of the Pannonian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, M.M. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Chemistry Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Jovancicevic, B.S.; Glumicic, T. (Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Saracevic, S. (Nafta-gas, Novi Sad (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    The naphthenic crude oil from the ''W'' oil-gas field differs from almost all other, paraffinic base oils discovered until now in the Yugoslav part of the Pannonian basin. In order to explain this difference, some geological and organic geochemical investigations were carried out. On the basis of the bulk and biomarker parameters, determined in oil samples taken from 13 producing wells located at different parts of the field, it is concluded that the crude oil throughout the field has an almost uniform composition. (author)

  3. The field development of the extra heavy oil Orinoco Belt in Morichal : a joint Chinese-Venezuelan effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivodo, E. [Grupo KC, Caracas (Venezuela); Li, G.; Lu, F. [Orifuels Sinoven S.A., Barcelona, Anzoategui (Venezuela)

    2006-07-01

    Proper planning and a systemic approach along with a continual evaluation are important foundations to the development of an extra heavy oil field. This paper discussed a joint effort between China and Venezuela in the field development of extra heavy oil in the Orinoco Belt in Morichal. Background information on the Morichal Oilfield was first presented. The paper discussed the field development approach for pre-operations, including project execution plan; procedures/documents development and review; procurement and services contracts; commissioning and startup; and operations stabilization. The paper also addressed cultural recognition as a judicious approach as well as considerations and recommendations. It was concluded that extra heavy oil field development during the pre-operation stage is a continuous process from planning to startup and stable operations. In addition, a cultural recognition is recommended as a judicious approach to efficient personnel and community affairs management. 9 refs, 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus) Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata) in a West Sumatra Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jabang; Wilson Novarino; Aadrean

    2011-01-01

    A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell) in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characterist...

  5. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Hua-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes.

  6. Application of seismic attributes in structural study and fracture analysis of DQ oil field, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahoo Maleki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the most unstable areas in oil fields is critical for addressing engineering problems of wellbore and sand production as well as geologic problems such as understanding dynamic constraints on hydrocarbon migration and fracture permeability. In this research work, coherency seismic attribute has been used for the determination of the most critical areas in terms of drilling stabilities in the DQ oil field, Iran. The results obtained have shown that the (1 predominant features are the SSE–NNW and N–S trends (2 the central part of the DQ structure shows the highest concentration of segment bundles, (3 the segment bundles seem to be aligned along some lineaments oriented SE–NW and SSE–NNW, and (4 on the eastern and western margins of the map there is an anomalous concentration of segments oriented E–W. It can be concluded that coherency attribute is a valuable tool for structural analysis highlighting those areas containing unstable features.

  7. A Case Control Study of Lung Cancer Among Workers in Dagang Oil Field, Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaguang FAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective To investigate the risk factors of lung cancer among the employees who had worked in Dagang oil field, Tianjin, China. Methods A matched case control study was conducted to analyse the association between some exposures and lung cancer risk by univariate and multiple Logistic regression method. ResultsAccording to the results from univariate and multiple analysis, smoking and previous lung disease increase lung cancer risk with adjusted OR of 1.52 (95%CI: 1.18-1.94 and 3.37 (95%CI: 1.88-7.16 respectively, while the adjusted OR for occupational chemical toxic substance and dust exposure is 0.73 (95%CI: 0.69-1.30 and 0.84 (95%CI: 0.62-1.15 respectively, and there is no significant association between family history of cancer and lung cancer risk in this study.Conclusion Smoking and previous lung disease are the independent risk factors for lung cancer among workers in Dagang oil field, yet due to some potential epidemiological bias, the association between occupational exposure and lung cancer needs further investigation.

  8. SWD experiment at Southwest Andrews oil field; Nansei Andrews yuden ni okeru SWD jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozawa, T.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    Seismic while drilling (SWD) is an accurate drilling method by which time-to-depth (T-D) information for determining the accurate bit location and information of bedding boundaries below the bit can be obtained. However, the signal level is rather low compared with the noise generated from the rig during drilling. It is required for improving the S/N ratio to calculate a correlation using reference signals simultaneously acquired using a pilot sensor which is a geophone attached to the rig. Some experiments were conducted in the Southwest Andrews Oil Field. Deterioration of data quality due to the noise particular to the SWD in this oil field could be reduced by proper data acquisition geometry including the minimum offset distance using a geophone array. In order to correct the time, a velocity of P-wave propagating the drill pipe was estimated using auto-correlation of the pilot traces. The S/N ratio was improved by the VSP deconvolution and the stacking effect during VSP-CDP conversion. Thus, could be obtained the accurate T-D information and reflection wave information below the bit. 12 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Water-in-oil emulsification in a non-uniform alternating electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suhwan; Saveliev, Alexei

    2015-11-01

    The emulsification of a water microdroplet placed in castor oil was performed using a non-uniform alternating electric field formed in the pin-to-plate geometry. A non-uniform electric field of ~40 kV/mm alternating with a frequency of 6.7 kHz was generated near the pin electrode. The applied frequency exceeded charge relaxation frequency of castor oil (0.3 Hz) and was below charge relaxation frequency of deionized water (7.8 kHz) used in the experiments. The emulsification process was captured with a CCD camera. The emulsification process started with entrainment of the water droplet in the high electric filed region near the pin electrode under the dielectrophoretic force. Upon touching the pin, the microdroplet was disintegrated in numerous channels and secondary droplets. The process continued by entrainment of secondary droplets and continuous size reduction. Three droplet breakup mechanisms were identified: drop elongation and capillary breakup, ac electrospraying of individual droplets, chain and bridge formation and decay. The quasi-steady narrow size distribution of emulsified water droplets with diameters close to 1 μm was formed after a few minutes. The generated emulsion was confined near the needle electrode due to the dielectrophoretic force. The emulsion had a well-defined boundary with a shape resembling a pendant drop suspended on the pin electrode.

  10. Degradation and remediation of soils polluted with oil-field wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbasova, I. M.; Suleymanov, R. R.; Garipov, T. T.

    2013-02-01

    The changes in the properties of gray forest soils and leached chernozems under the impact of contamination with highly saline oil-field wastewater were studied in a model experiment. It was shown that the soil contamination results in the development of technogenic salinization and alkalization leading to worsening of the major soil properties. The salinization of the soils with oil-field wastewater transformed the soil exchange complex: the cation exchange capacity decreased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage increased to up to 25% of the CEC upon the wastewater infiltration and up to 60% of the CEC upon the continuous soil saturation with the wastewater independently of the soil type. The content of exchangeable magnesium also increased due to the phenomenon of super-equivalent exchange. Despite the saturation of the soil adsorption complex with sodium, no development of the soil alkalization took place in the presence of the high concentration of soluble salts. However, the soil alkalization was observed upon the soil washing from soluble salts. The gypsum application to the washed soils lowered the exchangeable sodium concentration to acceptable values and normalized the soil reaction. The gypsum application without the preliminary washing of the soils from soluble salts was of low efficiency; even after six months, the content of exchangeable sodium remained very high. The subsequent soil washing resulted in the removal of the soluble salts but did not affect the degree of the soil alkalization.

  11. Stereoselective biodegradation of tricyclic terpanes in heavy oils from the Bolivar Coastal Fields, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, M. [Stanford University (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences; PDVSA-Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela); Moldowan, J.M.; Dahl, J.E. [Stanford University (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences; Peters, K.E. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS-MS analyses of heavy oils from Bolivar Coastal Fields (Lagunillas Field) show a complete set of demethylated tricyclic terpanes. As is the case for the 25-norhopanes, the demethylated tricyclics are probably formed in reservoirs by microbially-mediated removal of the methyl group from the C-10 position, generating putative 17-nor-tricyclic terpanes. Diastereomeric pairs of tricyclic terpanes are resolved above C{sub 24} due to resolution of 22S and 22R epimers, but the elution order of the 22S and 22R epimers is unknown. Early-eluting diastereomers (EE) predominate over late-eluting diastereomers (LE) (C{sub 25}-C{sub 29}) in the heavily degraded oils, indicating a stereoselective preference for the LE stereoisomers during biodegradation. Conversely, the LE diastereomers predominate over the EE diastereomers in the 17-nor tricyclic series (C{sub 24}-C{sub 28}), indicating that tricyclic terpanes and 17-nor-tricyclic terpanes are directly linked as precursors and products, respectively. A good correlation exists between the destruction of steranes and the demethylation of hopanes and tricyclic terpanes. This suggests that terpane demethylation occurs during sterane destruction and hopane demethylation, although the rate is slower, indicating that tricyclic terpanes are more resistant to biodegradation. (Author)

  12. CONVENTIONAL OIL LOGGING FOR INTERPRETATION OF OIL FIELD IN YAN' AN REGION%浅谈石油测井常规方法在延安地区井场解释中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦长春; 韩要记; 宋晓蛟

    2012-01-01

    延安地区蕴藏着丰富的油藏,用石油测井常规方法对储集层含油性的判断,可以对油井进行有效的井场解释。%Yan' an region is abundant in oll reservoir. Conventional oil logging can be used for oil bearing evaluation of oil reservoirs and effective interpretation of oil well fields in this area.

  13. Water scaling in the North Sea oil and gas fields and scale prediction: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, M.

    1996-12-31

    Water-scaling is a common and major production chemistry problem in the North Sea oil and gas fields and scale prediction has been an important means to assess the potential and extent of scale deposition. This paper presents an overview of sulphate and carbonate scaling problems in the North Sea and a review of several widely used and commercially available scale prediction software. In the paper, the water chemistries and scale types and severities are discussed relative of the geographical distribution of the fields in the North Sea. The theories behind scale prediction are then briefly described. Five scale or geochemical models are presented and various definitions of saturation index are compared and correlated. Views are the expressed on how to predict scale precipitation under some extreme conditions such as that encountered in HPHT reservoirs. 15 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Modeling winter ozone episodes near oil and natural gas fields in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuling; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Field, Robert A.; Soltis, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Wintertime ozone episodes have been reported in the oil and natural gas (O&NG) producing fields in Uintah Basin, Utah and the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in Wyoming in recent years. High concentrations of ozone precursors facilitated by favorable meteorological conditions, including low wind and shallow boundary layer (BL), were found in these episodes, although the exact roles of these precursor species in different O&NG fields are to be determined. Meanwhile, snow cover is also found to play an important role in these winter ozone episodes as the cold snow covered surface enhances the inversion, further limits the BL and the high snow albedo greatly boosts photolysis reactions that are closely related to ozone chemistry. In this study, we utilize model simulation to explore the role of chemical compositions, in terms of different VOC groups and NOx, and that of the enhanced photolysis due to snow cover in the UGRB ozone episodes in the late winter of 2011.

  15. The economics of incremental investments in mature oil fields in the U. K. continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, A.G.; Reading, D.

    1991-09-01

    North Sea oil production commenced in the mid 1970s. Many fields have now passed their plateau years of production and are now in their mature phase. From a national viewpoint it is important to ensure that maximum economic benefit is obtained from these fields. This requires sound housekeeping, refurbishment and investment in incremental projects. The economic aspects of such projects are examined in this paper. The purpose is two-fold. Firstly, the study investigates, from an economic viewpoint, the characteristics of such projects in the conditions typically currently to be found in the North Sea. Secondly, the study elucidates the impact of the complex fiscal system in the projects. The issue of possible modification to the tax system is also discussed. (author).

  16. Effect of injecting cold water on oil-output of the beds of the Uzen' field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Yu.P.; Kil' dibekova, L.I.; Rozenberg, M.D.; Safronov, S.V.; Teslyuk, Ye.V.

    1979-01-01

    At the Uzen' field, 254 million m/sup 3/ of cold water were injected into the oil area with average temperature 15-16/sup 0/C. This resulted in cooling of the rock-collectors on the order of 538.4 million m/sup 3/ and decrease in oil output by 9.4% as compared to injection of only hot water.

  17. West Hackberry tertiary project. Annual report, September 3, 1994--September 2, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

    1996-05-01

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form and additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  18. Oil-material fractionation in Gulf deep water horizontal intrusion layer: Field data analysis with chemodynamic fate model for Macondo 252 oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A T; Thibodeaux, L J; Parsons, A R; Overton, E; Valsaraj, K T; Nandakumar, K

    2016-04-15

    Among the discoveries of the Deepwater Horizon blowout was the so-called "sub-surface plume"; herein termed the "oil-trapping layer". Hydrocarbons were found positioned at ~1100-1300m with thickness ~100-150m and moving horizontally to the SW in a vertically stratified layer at the junction of the cold abyssal water and the permanent thermocline. This study focuses on its formation process and fate of the hydrocarbons within. The originality of this work to the field is two-fold, first it provides a conceptual framework which places layer origin in the context of a horizontal "intrusion" from the near-field, vertical, blow-out plume and second, it offers a theoretical model for the hydrocarbon chemicals within the horizontal layer as it moves far-afield. The model quantifies the oil-material fractionation process for the soluble and fine particle. The classical Box model, retrofitted with an internal gradient, the "G-Box", allows an approach that includes turbulent eddy diffusion coupled with droplet rise velocity and reactive decay to produce a simple, explicit, transparent, algebraic model with few parameters for the fate of the individual fractions. Computations show the soluble and smallest liquid droplets moving very slowly vertically through the layer appearing within the trapping layer at low concentration with high persistence. The larger droplets move-through this trapping zone quickly, attain high concentrations, and eventually form the sea surface slick. It impacts the field of oil spill engineering science by providing the conceptual idea and the algorithms for projecting the quantities and fractions of oil-material in a deep water, horizontal marine current being dispersed and moving far afield. In the field of oil spill modeling this work extends the current generation near-field plume source models to the far-field. The theory portrays the layer as an efficient oil-material trap. The model-forecasted concentration profiles for alkanes and aromatics

  19. Field and Model Study to Define Baseline Conditions of Beached Oil Tar Balls along Florida’s First Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bacopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal data are currently the best data available to describe baseline conditions of beached oil tar balls on Florida’s First Coast beaches. This study combines field methods and numerical modeling to define a data-driven knowledge base of oil tar ball baseline conditions. Outcomes from the field study include an established methodology for field data collection and laboratory testing of beached oil tar balls, spatial maps of collected samples and analysis of the data as to transport/wash-up trends. Archives of the electronic data, including GPS locations and other informational tags, and collected samples are presented, as are the physical and chemical analyses of the collected samples. The thrust of the physical and chemical analyses is to differentiate the collected samples into highly suspect oil tar balls versus false/non-oil tar ball samples. The numerical modeling involves two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of astronomic tides. Results from the numerical modeling include velocity residuals that show ebb-dominated residual currents exiting the inlet via an offshore, counter-rotating dual-eddy system. The tidally derived residual currents are used as one explanation for the observed transport trends. The study concludes that the port activity in the St. Johns River is not majorly contributing to the baseline conditions of oil tar ball wash-up on Florida’s First Coast beaches.

  20. Organic richness and gas generation potential of Permian Barren Measures from Raniganj field, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annapurna Boruah; S Ganapathi

    2015-07-01

    The organic geochemistry of shales in terms of its organic richness, hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, depositional environment, etc., are essential stipulations for shale gas resources assessment. In this study, a total of 32 core samples of Permian Barren Measures from four boreholes in Raniganj field of Damodar Basin were analysed to evaluate their gas generation potential using Rock–Eval pyrolysis techniques. Petrographic analysis brings out the lithofacies of Barren Measures as carbonaceous silty shale, iron rich claystone and sand-shale intercalation. The total organic content (TOC) of the shale units of Barren Measures ranges from 3.75 to 20.9 wt%, whereas hydrogen index (HI) ranges from 58.45 to 125.34 mg HC/g TOC. Present study suggests early to late maturated (0.6–1%) organic matters in Barren Measures with gas prone type III kerogen. The study analysed the effect of burial history on the preservation and maturation of organic matters. The organic richness, kerogen type, thermal maturity and petrographic properties of Barren Measures signify fair to excellent gas generation potential.

  1. Reconstructing the Geomagnetic Field in West Africa: First Absolute Intensity Results from Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapper, Lisa; Donadini, Fabio; Serneels, Vincent; Tema, Evdokia; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Julio Morales, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We present absolute geomagnetic intensities from iron smelting furnaces discovered at the metallurgical site of Korsimoro, Burkina Faso. Up to now, archaeologists recognized four different types of furnaces based on different construction methods, which were related to four subsequent time periods. Additionally, radiocarbon ages obtained from charcoal confine the studied furnaces to ages ranging from 700–1700 AD, in good agreement with the archaeologically determined time periods for each type of furnace. Archaeointensity results reveal three main groups of Arai diagrams. The first two groups contain specimens with either linear Arai diagrams, or slightly curved diagrams or two phases of magnetization. The third group encompasses specimens with strong zigzag or curvature in their Arai diagrams. Specimens of the first two groups were accepted after applying selection criteria to guarantee the high quality of the results. Our data compared to palaeosecular variation curves show a similar decreasing trend between 900–1500 AD. However, they reveal larger amplitudes at around 800 AD and 1650 AD than the reference curves and geomagnetic field models. Furthermore, they agree well with archaeomagnetic data from Mali and Senegal around 800 AD and with volcanic data around 1700 AD. PMID:28350006

  2. Relative paleointensity of the geomagnetic field during the past 200 ka from the West Philippine Sea and its chronological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Our rock magnetic analysis of core Ph05 from the West Philippine Sea demonstrates that the core preserves a strong, stable remanent magnetization and meets the magnetic mineral criteria for relative paleointensity (RPI) analyses. The magnetic minerals in the sequence are dominated by pseudosingle-domain magnetite, and the concentration of magnetic minerals is at the same scale. Both the conventional normalizing method and the pseudo-Thellier method were used in conjunction with the examination of the rock magnetic properties and natural remanent magnetization. Susceptibility (χ), anhysteretic remnant magnetization (ARM) and saturation isothermal remnant magnetization (SIRM) were used as the natural remanent magnetization normalizer. However, coherence analysis indicated that only ARM is more suitable for paleointensity reconstruction. The age model of core is established based on oxygen isotope data and AMS14C data, which is consistent with the age model estimated from RPI records. The relative paleointensity data provide a continuous record of the intensity variation during the last 200 ka, which correlates well with the global references RPI stacks. Several prominent low paleointensity values are identified and are correlated to the main RPI minima in the SINT-200 record, suggesting that the sediments have recorded the real changes of geomagnetic field.

  3. Relative paleointensity of the geomagnetic field during the past 200 ka from the West Philippine Sea and its chronological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG QingYong; LI AnChun; LI TieGang; JIANG FuOing; ZHOU XiaoJing

    2009-01-01

    Our rock magnetic analysis of core Ph05 from the West Philippine Sea demonstrates that the core preserves a strong, stable remanent magnetization and meets the magnetic mineral criteria for relative paleointensity (RPI) analyses. The magnetic minerals in the sequence are dominated by pseudosingle-domain magnetite, and the concentration of magnetic minerals is at the same scale. Both the conventional normalizing method and the pseudo.Thellier method were used in conjunction with the examination of the rock magnetic properties and natural remanent magnetization. Susceptibility (X), anhysteretic remnant magnetization (ARM) and saturation isothermal remnant magnetization (SIRM) were used as the natural remanent magnetization normalizer. However, coherence analysis indicated that only ARM is more suitable for paleointensity reconstruction. The age model of core is established based on oxygen isotope data and AMS14C data, which is consistent with the age model estimated from RPI records. The relative paleointensity data provide a continuous record of the intensity variation during the last 200 ka, which correlates well with the global references RPI stacks. Several prominent low paleointensity values are identified and are correlated to the main RPI minima in the SINT-200 record, suggesting that the sediments have recorded the real changes of geomagnetic field.

  4. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. (ed.)

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  5. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1997--September 2, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, T.H.

    1997-09-10

    The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  6. Enhanced oil recovery - nitrogen. Large fractures, water drive make Andector field a prime target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wash, R.

    1982-03-01

    An immiscible nitrogen displacement project is expected to recover 973,928 bbl of tertiary oil from the Andector (Ellenburger) field in NW Ector County, Texas. Operated by Phillips Petroleum Co., the project began November 30, 1981, on the 1293-acre Embar lease in the south fault block of the Andector field, the highest of all Ellenburger fields in W. Texas in terms of cumulative production. (Total production as of January 1, 1981 was 151.2 million bbl). The nitrogen technique was chosen by Phillips due to the type of rock and the active water drive in this area. The aquifer is shared by several other Ellenburger fields in a 3-county area. The formation of interest is a highly fractured, vulgar, medium-to-fine-grained crystalline dolomite, fairly typical for the Ellenburger in W. Texas. It occurs between 7782 ft and 8835 ft. Overall porosity is 3.8%. Permeability is in the 2000-md range. At least 40% of the porosity is in solution cavities or vugs. The way in which nitrogen is used in the Ellenburger is discussed, along with the advantages and disadvantages of its use.

  7. Research and field trials with a blend of ethanol in diesel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Autoemission K-E E Consultant, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this report is to summarize the experiences acquired and data generated during the project named `The mixed fuel project` which was carried out during the years 1993 to 1997. The project was initiated after that some information had been collected in Australia, where a similar project was underway. The Australian project showed some interesting data and within that project an emulsifier had been developed - an emulsifier which has also been used in the Swedish project. In order to avoid a costly development of a method for blending ethanol in diesel oil, a form of co-operation was established between the people involved in Australia and those involved in Sweden. The content of ethanol in diesel oil used in Australia was 15 % and the investigations in Sweden reported further down in this report the ratio 15 % ethanol in MK 1 (an environmentally classified diesel fuel in Sweden) was the best alternative to be used also in Sweden. Twelve reports have been studied and used as references in order to summarize the results and experiences from the project. In order to fulfil the obligations of the project many institutions, private and community companies, consultants and universities in Sweden were involved. In the report presents the main results from the different investigations and field trials with ethanol-diesel fueled vehicles. It can be said that there are no technical problems connected to the use of ethanol-diesel fuel but the most serious drawback is the cost of the fuel. There is also a need for further development of the technology of making a homogenous emulsion of ethanol in diesel oil at a reasonable cost. The main advantage of using the mixed fuel is that the emission of particles is considerably reduced. The emission of CO{sub 2} is also reduced when the ethanol is produced from biomass using an environmentally friendly method 17 refs, 22 figs, 22 tabs

  8. Targeting Mineral Resources with Remote Sensing and Field Data in the Xiemisitai Area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamin R. Mansaray

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Xiemisitai area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential copper mineralization zone in association with small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization characteristics of the intrusions, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ and Quickbird data of the study area were evaluated in mapping lithological units, small intrusions, and alteration zones. False color composites of the first principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, and PCA4 in red (R, green (G, and blue (B of the ETM+ image, and relevant hue-saturation-intensity (HSI color model transformations, were performed. This led to the identification of lithologic units and discrimination of granitic intrusions from wall-rocks. A new geological map was generated by integrating the remote sensing results with two internally published local geologic maps and field inspection data. For the selected region, false color composites from PCA and relevant HSI-transformed images of the Quickbird data delineated the details of small intrusions and identified other unknown similar intrusions nearby. Fifteen separate potash-feldspar granites and three separate hornblende biotite granites were identified using ETM+ and Quickbird data. The principal component analysis-based Crosta technique was employed to discriminate alteration minerals. Some of the mapped alteration zones using the Crosta technique agreed very well with the known copper deposits. Field verification led to the discovery of three copper mineralizations and two gold mineralizations for the first time. The results show that the PCA and HSI transformation techniques proved to be robust in processing remote sensing data with moderate to high spatial resolutions. It is concluded that the utilized methods are useful for mapping lithology and the targeting of small intrusion-type mineral resources within the sparsely vegetated regions of Northwest China.

  9. Predicting the natural state of fractured carbonate reservoirs: An Andector Field, West Texas test of a 3-D RTM simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncay, K.; Romer, S.; Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Hoak, T. [Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The power of the reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) modeling approach is that it directly uses the laws of geochemistry and geophysics to extrapolate fracture and other characteristics from the borehole or surface to the reservoir interior. The objectives of this facet of the project were to refine and test the viability of the basin/reservoir forward modeling approach to address fractured reservoir in E and P problems. The study attempts to resolve the following issues: role of fracturing and timing on present day location and characteristics; clarifying the roles and interplay of flexure dynamics, changing rock rheological properties, fluid pressuring and tectonic/thermal histories on present day reservoir location and characteristics; and test the integrated RTM modeling/geological data approach on a carbonate reservoir. Sedimentary, thermal and tectonic data from Andector Field, West Texas, were used as input to the RTM basin/reservoir simulator to predict its preproduction state. The results were compared with data from producing reservoirs to test the RTM modeling approach. The effects of production on the state of the field are discussed in a companion report. The authors draw the following conclusions: RTM modeling is an important new tool in fractured reservoir E and P analysis; the strong coupling of RTM processes and the geometric and tensorial complexity of fluid flow and stresses require the type of fully coupled, 3-D RTM model for fracture analysis as pioneered in this project; flexure analysis cannot predict key aspects of fractured reservoir location and characteristics; fracture history over the lifetime of a basin is required to understand the timing of petroleum expulsion and migration and the retention properties of putative reservoirs.

  10. Comparison between micro-emulsion and surfactant solution flooding efficiency for enhanced oil recovery in TinFouye Oil Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouabboune, M.; Benhadid, S. [Applied and Theoretical Fluid Mechanical Laboratory, Algiers (Algeria). Faculty of Physics; Hammouch, N. [Sonatrach, Hydra, Algiers (Algeria). Forage Division

    2006-07-01

    The TinFouye (TFY) reservoir is among the largest oil reservoirs discovered in Algeria. The reservoir has been extensively gas lifted for many years, but gas lift is now reaching its economic limits. Therefore, a tertiary enhancement method is needed. This report investigated the technical feasibility of applying a microemulsion flood to TFY reservoir. The purpose of the study was to optimize the concentration of surfactant, in order to obtain a lower interfacial tension between oil and microemulsion phases, and a high viscosity of the microemulsion compared to that of the oil phase. Another objective was to test the effectiveness of the obtained optimum chemical system for the displacement of residual oil saturation after waterflooding (secondary recovery). TinFouye reservoir conditions and samples were used in this study. Geomechanical equipment was used for the displacement experiments in porous media. Two optimum microemulsion compositions were determined through phase behavior studies: 4 wt per cent anionic surfactant, 2.5 wt per cent pentanol, total salinity of 0.5 g/l. Two surfactant solutions were prepared with the same anionic and alcohol concentration as those of the optimized microemulsions. This made it possible to compare the efficiency of displacing residual oil saturation. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. New device for corrosion monitoring and flow effect evaluation in oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigual, Yobiris; Hernandez, Samuel; Biomorgi, Jose [PDVSA-INTEVEP. Departamento de Tecnologia de Infraestructura, Apartado 76343, Caracas 1070A (Venezuela)

    2004-07-01

    The monitoring and control of corrosion represent high interest in oil industry to keep the physical installations and prevent future corrosion-related failures. Efficiency and efficacy of the action assigned to reduce these problems are supported by an exhaustive evaluation of corrosion processes. In the Venezuelan oil industry, different techniques of corrosion monitoring have been used as for example weight loss coupons, electrochemical techniques, etc, with the purpose of estimate the useful lifetime of numerous components used in the industry. At the same time, laboratory techniques have been used at static or dynamic conditions, to evaluate the corrosiveness of the different fluids. Because of these techniques have shown certain limitations for field studies, where the flow patterns play an important role; it is necessary to develop new methodologies that allow to take into the account of the fluid dynamics. influence The objective of this work is to show a device, which permit to evaluate the internal corrosion under field operational conditions. This monitoring device consists in a spool placed between pipelines. The inner diameter of the spool is larger compare with the inner diameter of the line. Several teflon rings can be used to allowed the use of different kinds of corrosion specimens and keep the inner diameter of the pipe connected before and after the spool. The specimens (weight loss coupons that permit to carry out further pitting studies) are placed inside the teflon rings in order to evaluate the corrosion process and flow dynamics effect on the material of interest. The utilization of the Online Corrosion Evaluation System (SECLI by the spanish initials) allowed a deep evaluation of the fluid corrosiveness and the corrosion mechanism characterization. In fact, a comparison between two different inner diameter device (4 inches and 6 inches) permits to establish a flow effect on some Venezuelan crude oil corrosiveness, which form a pitting

  12. Experimental and computational studies of water drops falling through model oil with surfactant and subjected to an electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Ervik, Åsmund; Munkejord, Svend Tollak; Müller, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour of a single sub-millimetre-size water drop falling through a viscous oil while subjected to an electric field is of fundamental importance to industrial applications such as crude oil electrocoalescers. Detailed studies, both experimental and computational, have been performed previously, but an often challenging issue has been the characterization of the fluids. As numerous authors have noted, it is very difficult to have a perfectly clean water-oil system even for very pure model oils, and the presence of trace chemicals may significantly alter the interface behaviour. In this work, we consider a well- characterized water-oil system where controlled amounts of a surface active agent (Span 80) have been added to the oil. This addition dominates any trace contaminants in the oil, such that the interface behaviour can also be well-characterized. We present the results of experiments and corresponding two-phase- flow simulations of a falling water drop covered in surfactant and subjected to a mono...

  13. Effect of nitrogen form for the amendment of crude oil bioremediation field experiment in the Sea of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, H.; Hiwatari, T.; Kohata, K.; Watanabe, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Miyazaki, H.; Yamasaki, F.; Tanimoto, T. [Hyogo Perfectural Inst. of Environmental Science, Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Some small-scale field experiments have been conducted regarding the bioremediation of oil at a rocky beach in the Sea of Japan. During the 4 month experiment, artificial mixtures of weathered Arabian light crude oil and sand were wrapped in teflon net envelopes which were placed in perforated vessels to facilitate exchange with seawater in the intertidal area. Two inorganic and two organic slow release nitrogen fertilizers were added to the oil and sand mixtures which were then periodically sampled and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Individual petroleum compounds degraded at a quicker rate when fertilizer was added. In addition, fertilizer helped to remove the oil from the sand. After 4 months, the oil content in the sands fertilized with ammonium sulfate, urea and isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) was one third that of the control sand. Ammonium nitrate fertilizers did not work as well at removing the oil from the sand. It was concluded that organic nitrogen fertilizers such as urea and IBDU have significant potential to stimulate microbial degradation and physical removal of oil rather than organic nitrogen fertilizers. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Iran: review of petroleum developments and assessments of the oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shammas, P. [APS Energy Group, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2001-07-01

    In this review the author comments on the likelihood of a significant improvement in the relationship between Iran and the US, with vital implications for the Middle East, during US President George Bush's term of office. From an American perspective, normalising relations with Iran will provide critical geopolitical advantages related to its energy security from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea as well as increased strategic options in dealing with Iraq and with an unstable Afghanistan. From the Iranian perspective, a breakthrough in relations with Washington will mean increased strategic leverage as a major transit route for oil and gas exports from Central Asia and an enhanced status in the region. Tehran will also be in a better position to balance its relations with the US, Russia and China to its own benefit. There are obstacles in the way, including deep mistrust among conservation factions in Tehran and Washington, but the road to normalisation has been paved gradually since President Mohammed Khatami took office in August 1997. The author also comments on the Iranian energy base; their geology and petroleum, oil and gas fields; refining sector; and their gas processing and export projects. (author)

  15. Environmental safety of underground injection of oil field brines in Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, R.M.

    1986-09-01

    Louisiana contains almost 4000 brine injection wells that dispose an estimated 1 billion bbl of brine each year, making underground injection that state's most widely practiced method of oil field brine disposal. Louisiana has had no known contamination of a public water supply from underground brine injection; however, the magnitude of this activity presents a potential for contamination if proper disposal practices are not followed. Following the earliest discovery of oil, the petroleum industry has been improving methods to protect ground-water aquifers from underground injection. Although economic incentives spurred the earliest use of underground injection, the technology has progressed to become a method providing environmental safety to ground-water aquifers. Complex reservoir modeling, developed for use in secondary and enhanced recovery techniques, has been applied to simulate pressure effects and vertical migration potential for underground injection reservoirs. Conventional well designs that allow monitoring of well conditions have replaced older, unreliable designs. Improvements in wireline logging make it possible to test the isolation of injected brines from vertical movement along the well bore.

  16. Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Sebastián, M; Armstrong, B; Córdoba, J A; Stephens, C

    2001-08-01

    To examine environmental exposure and incidence and mortality of cancer in the village of San Carlos surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Water samples of the local streams were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A preliminary list of potential cancer cases from 1989 to 1998 was prepared. Cases were compared with expected numbers of cancer morbidity and mortality registrations from a Quito reference population. Water analysis showed severe exposure to TPHs by the residents. Ten patients with cancer were diagnosed while resident in the village of San Carlos. An overall excess for all types of cancer was found in the male population (8 observed v 3.5 expected) with a risk 2.26 times higher than expected (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.97 to 4.46). There was an overall excess of deaths for all types of cancer (6 v 1.6 expected) among the male population 3.6 times higher than the reference population (95% CI 1.31 to 7.81). The observed excess of cancer might be associated with the pollution of the environment by toxic contaminants coming from the oil production.

  17. Human health cost of hydrogen sulfide air pollution from an oil and gas Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenessary, Dinara; Kenessary, Almas; Kenessariyev, Ussen Ismailovich; Juszkiewicz, Konrad; Amrin, Meiram Kazievich; Erzhanova, Aya Eralovna

    2017-06-08

    Introduction and objective. The Karachaganak oil and gas condensate field (KOGCF), one of the largest in the world, located in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RoK) in Central Asia, is surrounded by 10 settlements with a total population of 9,000 people. Approximately73% of this population constantly mention a specific odour of rotten eggs in the air, typical for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions, and the occurrence of low-level concentrations of hydrogen sulfide around certain industrial installations (esp. oil refineries) is a well known fact. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the impact on human health and the economic damage to the country due to H2S emissions. Materials and method. Dose-response dependency between H2S concentrations in the air and cardiovascular morbidity using multiple regression analysis was applied. Economic damage from morbidity was derived with a newly-developed method, with Kazakhstani peculiarities taken into account. Results.Hydrogen sulfide air pollution due to the KOGCF activity costs the state almost $60,000 per year. Moreover, this is the reason for a more than 40% rise incardiovascular morbidity in the region. Conclusion. The reduction of hydrogen sulfide emissions into the air is recommended, as well as successive constant ambient air monitoring in future. Economic damage evaluation should be made mandatory, on a legal basis, whenever an industrial facility operation results in associated air pollution.

  18. Laboratory development and field application of novel cement system for cementing high-temperature oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, X.; Zhang, H.; Li, Y.; Yang, Y. [SINOPEC, Beijing (China); Shan, H.; Xiao, Z. [OPT, Beijing (China)

    2010-07-01

    The challenges that oil and gas well engineers face when cementing mid-to-high temperature exploration oil and gas wells were discussed. A newly developed cement system with an effective laminar-flow spacer was presented along with case histories that document the system's effectiveness for cementing high temperature exploration wells. The problems associated with cementing high temperature exploration wells include high bottom hole static temperature; very low pump rates; and very long job times. These challenges contribute to the operational risks during cement slurry placement in the wellbore as well as during cement sheath setting during the life of the well. The new cement formulation presented in this paper addresses these challenges. Eight jobs have been completed in the field with much success. The combination of a new retarder and fluid loss control additive improves the system performance considerably in terms of low fluid loss rate, minimal free water, proper rheology, predictable thickening time, high resistance to salt contaminations and no adverse effect on set cement strength. The drilling muds are effectively displaced by the laminar flow spacer, thus improving the cementing bond. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  19. The experience of arranging a back-up oil well group using the seventh bed at the Zhetybai field as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysenko, V.D.; Ermekov, A.K.; Leibin, E.L.; Savvin, K.F.; Vaslavskii, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    A method is proposed for arranging a back-up series of oil wells using the oil pool of the eighth bed located at the Zhetybai field, which has an underlying layer of water, as an example. Using a record of tapped and remaining oil reserves together with maps of existing isopachs, which were drafted accounting for the rising velocities of the water-oil contact at various sections in the bed, the placement of oil wells at one section or another of the bed is calculated. The number of oil wells is substantiated using a record of the remaining oil reserves together with a proposed oil yield standard for a single oil well.

  20. The problem in transportation of high waxy crude oils through submarine pipelines at JV Vietsovpetro oil fields, offshore Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuc, P. D.; Bich, H. V.; Son, T. C.; Hoe, L. D.; Vygovskoy, V. P. [J. V. Vietsovpetro (Viet Nam)

    2003-06-01

    Problems encountered in transporting crude oil with high wax content in a submarine pipeline, built without thermal insulation, are reviewed. The focus is on crystallization and deposition of the wax on the walls, the resulting reduction in pipeline diameter leading to higher pressure drop, and the formation of gelled interlocking structures of wax crystals in the pipeline which can lead to shutdown. Methods to reduce wax deposition and gelling, and modelling to predict restart pressures and flow characteristics to improve the pumpability of Vietsovpetro's high paraffin crude oil are described. 6 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  2. Secondary ferroan dolomite rhombs in oil reservoirs, Chadra Sands, Gialo field, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shaieb, Z.; Shelton, J.W.

    1978-03-01

    Oil-productive, Oligocene Chadra sands in Gialo field, Libya, at depths of 600 to 750 m contain small dolomite rhombs. The rhombs are present as single crystals on detrital grains and as nonmosaic aggregates in pore space. The dolomite is calcium-rich and contains up to 10% iron but not measurable sodium or strontium. Total dissolved solids of produced interstitial water from the Chadra sand range from about 4,500 to 10,000 ppM. Introduction of fresh (meteoric) water into the Chadra sands, which were deposited in shallow-marine (shelf) environment, was responsible for formation of the dolomite rhombs. Iron in the dolomite rhombs was derived from alteration of galuconite.

  3. Biodegradation of marine surface floating crude oil in a large-scale field simulated experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Mutai; Sun, Peiyan; Yang, Xiaofei; Wang, Xinping; Wang, Lina; Cao, Lixin; Li, Fujuan

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradation of marine surface floating crude oil with hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, rhamnolipid biosurfactants, and nutrients was carried out by a large-scale field simulated experiment in this paper. After a 103 day experiment, for n-alkanes, the maximum biodegradation rate reached 71% and the results showed hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, rhamnolipid biosurfactants, and nutrients have a comprehensive effect. It also showed that rhamnolipid biosurfactants could shorten the biodegradation time through an emulsifying function; the nutrients could greatly increase the biodegradation rate by promoting HDB production. For PAHs, the chrysene series had higher weathering resistance. For the same series, the weathering resistance ability is C1- biodegradation was found for different n-alkanes in two pools which only had added rhamnolipid biosurfactants or nutrients, respectively. Except for C14, C15 and C16 sesquiterpanes, most of the steranes and terpanes had high antibiodegradability.

  4. Inactivation of Bacteria in Oil Field Injected Water by a Pulsed Plasma Discharge Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qing; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng; Yang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed plasma discharge was employed to inactivate bacteria in the injection water for an oil field. The effects of water conductivity and initial concentration of bacteria on elimination efficiency were investigated in the batch and continuous flow modes. It was demonstrated that Fe2+ contained in injection water could enhance the elimination efficiency greatly. The addition of reducing agent glutathione (GSH) indicated that active radicals generated by pulsed plasma discharges played an important role in the inactivation of bacteria. Moreover, it was found that the microbial inactivation process for both batch and continuous flow mode well fitted the model based on the Weibull's survival function. supported by Zhejiang Province Welfare Technology Applied Research Project of China (No. 2014C31137), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21436007 and U1462201), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2015QNA4032)

  5. Crude oil production prospects for continental Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleby, P. [British Petroleum Co. Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    A medium term view of the prospects for oil production in continental Europe, focusing on the offshore production in UK and Norwegian waters, is presented. The paper begins with a recent history and an overview of current oil production and recent trends. The growth of North Sea production has been important, contributing more than two-thirds of the growth in non OPEC oil production. The development of the Andrew field in the UK North Sea is presented as an example of new management methods succeeding in enhancing the economic viability of oil fields that would otherwise be marginal or non economic The Foinaven field in the new West of Shetlands province illustrates the way in which the combination of technological advances and changes in industry practices is extending the frontiers of commercial viability. Supply projections show North Sea production continuing to grow, but not as rapidly as over the past five years. (author). 7 figs., 8 refs.

  6. Seismic Wave Attenuation in Fractured Reservoir: Application on Abu Dhabi Oil Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaala, F.; Ali, M.; Matsushima, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a close link between fractures network and fluids circulation so information about nature and geometry of fractures in the reservoir zone is benificial for the petroleum industry. However the immaturity of the methodology and the complication of fractures network in some reservoirs like those of Abu Dhabi oil fields, make getting such information challenging. Since several studies showed the close link between physical properties of the subsurface and seismic wave attenuation (eg. Müller et al. 2010), we use this parameter in this study to assess its potentiality on fractures detection and characterization, even though its use is not common for reservoir characterization and even less for fractures characterization. To get an accurate attenuation profiles, we use a robust methods recently developed to estimate accurately attenuation from Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) (Matsushima et al. 2016) and sonic waveforms (Suziki and Matsushima 2013) in the reservoir zones. The data were acquired from many wells located in offshore and onshore oil fields of Abu Dhabi region. The subsurface of this region is mainly composed of carbonate rocks, such media are known to be highly heterogeneous. Scattering and intrinsic attenuation profiles were compared to interpreted fractures by using Formation Micro-imager (FMI). The comparison shows a correlation between these two parameters and fractures characteristic, such as their density and dipping. We also performed Alford rotation on dipole data to estimate the attenuation from fast and slow shear waveforms. The anisotropy is proportional to the dispersion of the points plotted from the ratio between the intrinsic attenuation of fast and slow shear over the depth, from the line (Qslow /Qfast=1), which corresponds to the isotropic case. We noticed that the zones with low fractures density display less dispersion than those of high density. Even though our results show potentiality of the attenuation for fractured

  7. Lithological and petrophysical evaluation of the caprock keybeds, Asmari Reservoir of Pazanan Oil Field, Zagros, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Soleimani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pazanan oil field is located 150 km SE of ahvaz city in SW of Iran and measures 60 km long, 4-6 km wide. The caprock of this oil field were evaluated using well logs (gamma-ray and sonic logs SEM and petrographical microscopy data. The cap rock consist of mudstone, interlayers of anhydrite and bitumens shale. Therefore, it can be classified as mudstone type. On the basis of our investigations, the Caprock can be divided in to 6 keybeds: A(Anhydrite, B(Bitumenshale & some times bitumen marls, C (mudstone with interlayers of shale & anhydrite, D (mudstone & anhydrite, E (mudstone& F(mudstone & packstone, almost all of these units coverd by salt. Anhydrite beds show the following textures: microlitic, spherolite, porphyroblast, and granular. Anhydrite crystals indicate the occurrence of processes such as emplacement and calcitization. Sonic and gamma-ray well logs were used to determine lithological changes. The highest peak is correlated with mudstone units. Caprock depth varies from 2580m(min-2717m(max [northern part], 1704(min. - 2444(max. [central part],And 2050 (min.- 2490 (max. [southern part] using well drilling data. It seems that that the thickness in the southern part is less than is other part. Comparing the thicknesses of different keybeds. The maximum occurs in the c-keybeds. The sedimentar : sequence of Caprock started by mudstone, packstone and interlayers of anhydrite, followed by mudstone, anhydrite, shale-marl, as well as bitumen shale, mudstone and anhydrite and finally was overlaid by salt. Lithological variation indicate a sabkha-lacustrine environment. Therefore, the hot-wet and hot-dry climate was dominated. In some cases, Caprock thickness decreases to 6m without any gap. This thinning is related to structural deformation. Unfavorable lithologyconditions resulted is well collaps.

  8. Investigating electrokinetics application for in-situ inorganic oil field scale control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashaykeh, Manal A. I. Albadawi

    Oil well scale formation and deposition is an expensive problem and could be a nightmare for any production engineer if the rate of deposition is rapid as in the case of North Sea oil fields. Inorganic scales accumulate in surface and subsurface equipment causing a reduction in oil production and severe damage for production equipment. The major components of most oil field scale deposits are BaSO4, CaSO4 and SrSO4, which are formed due to incompatible mixing of reservoir formation water and sea water flooded in secondary enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. This work focuses on BaSO4 scale as it is one of the toughest scale components to be removed either by chemical means or mechanical means. Scale control methods usually involve complicated treatment using chemical dissolution methods as primary attempt and mechanical scrapping or jetting methods in case of failure of the chemical means. In this work, we devised a novel in-situ scale control method benefiting from the application of direct current (DC) which involves some of the electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. The applications of EK has been proved in our laboratories yielding high efficiency in capturing barium and separating it from sulfate before reaching the production well, thus preventing deposition in the production wellbore or wellbore formation. This objective was evaluated in our lab designed EK apparatus in three parts. In part-1, an 18.5 cm unconsolidated sand core was used which produced inconsistent results. This problem was overcome in part-2, where the porous media involved 46 cm consolidated sandcore. This also partly fulfilled the purpose of upscaling. In part-3, the porous media was extended to a 100 cm spatial distance between the injection and production wells. For all the experiments the reservoir models were made of 125 µm uniform sand particles and followed a final consolidation pressure of 30 psi. The EK-reservoir model contains 2 basic junctions; one of them injecting a 500 ppm SO4 2

  9. Laboratory testing and simulation of the paraffin deposition in Turija field oil well in Vojvodina region, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Dušan Š.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia approx. 70% of the crude oil produced accounts for the heavy oil type, these results in the deposition of paraffin in wells, oil production decrease while increasing the operating costs. Different methods, such as mechanical, chemical and thermal, are applied in effort to solve the paraffin deposition problem. Most methods require an accurate determination of that the deposition zone in well. In this paper, experimental and simulation results of the parameter analysis affecting intensity and zone of paraffin deposition in oil wells are presented. The analysis has been done for heavy oil produced from the oil field Turija, Vojvodina region, Serbia. The paraffin deposition curves and paraffin deposition intensity during time are experimentally defined. The influence of temperature gradient, fluid flow rate and gas content in oil changes on the paraffin deposition zone change was analyzed by the computer simulation. It was found that temperature gradient changes can cause paraffin deposition zone to change approx. 22 m, i.e. maximum 43 m. It was also determined that the length of paraffin deposition zone can change up to 140 m due to the changes in the fluid flow rate or in the gas content in oil. The increase of the flow rate causes paraffin deposition zone to reduce, while increased gas content in oil leads to its increase. On the basis of the obtained results, the optimal working parameters of mechanical method, such as frequency and depth of paraffin scraping as well as temperature and heating cable power of thermal methods can be determined.

  10. Magnetic Susceptibility Analysis of Soil Affected by Hydrocarbon in Wonocolo Traditional Oil Field, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, Melianna; Wijatmoko, Bambang; Fitriani, Dini

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of soil affected by hydrocarbon was studied through cored soil samples in two zones (Zone One and Zone Two) of an oil field in Wonocolo Village, East Java. We also collected soil samples as the background from a residential area near the oil field (Zone Three). The Zone One, consisted two cores near producing well; the Zone Two consisted two cores obtained from near a dry hole well and a discontinued well; and the Zone Three consisted two cores to validate the initial soil magnetic susceptibility value in this area. The hydrocarbon content measurement was also done for the upper part of each cores using distillation method to identify the correlation between magnetic susceptibility and hydrocarbon content. From magnetic susceptibility measurement in dual frequency, samples from the Zone One and Zone Two have magnetic susceptibility range from 6,1 × 10-8 m3kg-1 - 160 × 10-8 m3kg-1 and 15,7 × 10-8 m3kg-1 - 417,9 × 10-8 m3kg-1, respectively. Whereas background samples from Zone Three have magnetic susceptibility range from 4,8 × 10-8 m3kg-1 to 81,1 × 10-8 m3kg-1. We found low χfd (%) in samples with high magnetic susceptibility values, shown that there was no indication of superparamagnetic minerals in the samples. The hydrocarbon content measurement shows the value range of 8% - 14% only exists in the upper part of all cores in Zone One and one core in Zone Two. From this analysis, we assume that other than the volume of the hydrocarbon content in soil, the period of petroleum hydrocarbon deposition in soil and the fossil fuel combustion generated in the study site could differently increase the soil magnetic susceptibility value in this area. Positive correlation between the two parameters hopefully could contribute to develop environmental magnetic methods for detecting oil spills in soil, especially to remediate former hydrocarbon exploration and production area.

  11. Probable movement and mixing of contaminants in tidal estuaries - A field study in Kundalika Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sarma, R.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    The probable movement and mixing of contaminants within and through the Kundalika river estuary along the west coast of India are studied Neutrally buoyant biplane drogues, floats and dye were tracked at different stages of the tide to assess...

  12. Potential evaluation and systemic analysis for sustainable development of heavy oil fields in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambaretto, A.; Zanardi, E.; Zangari, L. [Inst. Tecnologico Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented an overview of Argentina's heavy oil potential. Dynamic modelling techniques were used to simulate various oil recovery scenarios as well as to evaluate factors that may influence the long-term evolution of the country's heavy oil industry. Reserves were assessed. Differential oil prices were considered, as well as various tax and royalty scenarios. A temporal horizon of 30 years was used to consider various industry scenarios in relation to general trends in heavy oil production. The simulation also considered the total operational margin and returns per productive well. The study showed that an increase in the price of oil will not necessarily create a favourable environment for the sustainable development of heavy oil. Gradual increases in oil prices in relation to costs are needed to ensure long-term production stability. Results of the study will be used in decision-making and policy development. 10 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  13. Water quality of groundwater and stream base flow in the Marcellus Shale Gas Field of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; Messinger, Terence; Mulder, Michon L.; Pelak, Adam J.; White, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    The Marcellus Shale gas field underlies portions of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee, and West Virginia. Development of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technology led to extensive development of gas from the Marcellus Shale beginning about 2007. The need to identify and monitor changes in water-quality conditions related to development of the Marcellus Shale gas field prompted the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water and Waste Management, to document water quality for comparison with water quality in samples collected at a future date. The identification of change in water-quality conditions over time is more difficult if baseline water-quality conditions have not been documented.

  14. Innovative well-completion strategy for challenging heavy-oil wells within mature fields requiring sand control in Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huimin, YE; Patarroyo, Mauricio [Mansarovar Energy (Colombia); Lopez, Nicolas; Perez, Carlos [Schlumberger (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of conventional oil resources and the development of new techniques, exploitation of heavy oil wells has become common in Northern South America. Nevertheless those projects face the great challenge of implementing environment and sand management systems while optimizing the production and reservoir's life. The aim of this paper is to present a completion methodology, its results and impacts on the productivity of the reservoir. Different simulations to select the sand control strategy and sensitivity studies to confirm their decision were carried out in the Moriche field, a heavy-oil mature field located in Colombia. Following the simulation results, stainless steel wool based screens were finally chosen and their implementation led to savings in time and costs and the elimination of downhole issues. The use of the completion methodology presented herein on the Moriche wells led to an overall improvement in productivity.

  15. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  16. Time lapse seismic observations and effects of reservoir compressibility at Teal South oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nayyer

    One of the original ocean-bottom time-lapse seismic studies was performed at the Teal South oil field in the Gulf of Mexico during the late 1990's. This work reexamines some aspects of previous work using modern analysis techniques to provide improved quantitative interpretations. Using three-dimensional volume visualization of legacy data and the two phases of post-production time-lapse data, I provide additional insight into the fluid migration pathways and the pressure communication between different reservoirs, separated by faults. This work supports a conclusion from previous studies that production from one reservoir caused regional pressure decline that in turn resulted in liberation of gas from multiple surrounding unproduced reservoirs. I also provide an explanation for unusual time-lapse changes in amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) data related to the compaction of the producing reservoir which, in turn, changed an isotropic medium to an anisotropic medium. In the first part of this work, I examine regional changes in seismic response due to the production of oil and gas from one reservoir. The previous studies primarily used two post-production ocean-bottom surveys (Phase I and Phase II), and not the legacy streamer data, due to the unavailability of legacy prestack data and very different acquisition parameters. In order to incorporate the legacy data in the present study, all three post-stack data sets were cross-equalized and examined using instantaneous amplitude and energy volumes. This approach appears quite effective and helps to suppress changes unrelated to production while emphasizing those large-amplitude changes that are related to production in this noisy (by current standards) suite of data. I examine the multiple data sets first by using the instantaneous amplitude and energy attributes, and then also examine specific apparent time-lapse changes through direct comparisons of seismic traces. In so doing, I identify time-delays that, when

  17. Field induced anomalous spreading, oscillation, ejection, spinning, and breaking of oil droplets on a strongly slipping water surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunny; Sarma, Bhaskarjyoti; Dasmahapatra, Ahsok Kumar; Dalal, Amaresh; Basu, Dipankar Narayan; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2017-07-01

    Application of an electric field on an oil droplet floating on the surface of a deionized water bath showed interesting motions such as spreading, oscillation, and ejection. The electric field was generated by connecting a pointed platinum cathode at the top of the oil droplet and a copper anode coated with polymer at the bottom of the water layer. The experimental setup mimicked a conventional electrowetting setup with the exception that the oil was spread on a soft and deformable water isolator. While at relatively lower field intensities we observed spreading of the droplet, at intermediate field intensities the droplet oscillated around the platinum cathode, before ejecting out at a speed as high as ∼5 body lengths per second at even stronger field intensities. The experiments suggested that when the electric field was ramped up abruptly to a particular voltage, any of the spreading, oscillation, or ejection motions of the droplet could be engendered at lower, intermediate and higher field intensities, respectively. However, when the field was ramped up progressively by increasing by a definite amount of voltage per unit time, all three aforementioned motions could be generated simultaneously with the increase in the field intensity. Interestingly, when the aforementioned setup was placed on a magnet, the droplet showed a rotational motion under the influence of the Lorentz force, which was generated because of the coupling of the weak leakage current with the externally applied magnetic field. The spreading, oscillation, ejection, and rotation of the droplet were found to be functions of the oil-water interfacial tension, viscosity, and size of the oil droplet. We developed simple theoretical models to explain the experimental results obtained. Importantly, rotating at a higher speed broke the droplet into a number of smaller ones, owing to the combined influence of the spreading due to the centripetal force and the shear at the oil-water interface. While

  18. Hydraulic Fracturing of 403 Shallow Diatomite Wells in South Belridge Oil Field, Kern County, California, in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, D. B.; Agusiegbe, V.

    2015-12-01

    We examine all 403 Hydraulic Fracture (HF) jobs performed by Aera Energy, LLC, in the South Belridge oil field, Kern County, CA in 2014. HFs in the South Belridge oil field are atypical amongst North American plays because the reservoir is shallow and produced via vertical wells. Our data set constitutes 88% of all HF jobs performed in CA oil fields in calendar-2014. The South Belridge field produces 11% of California's oil and the shallow HFs performed here differ from most HFs performed elsewhere. We discuss fracture modeling and methods and summary statistics, and modelled dimensions of fractures and their relationships to depth and reservoir properties. The 403 HFs were made in the diatomite-dominated Reef Ridge member of the Monterey Formation. The HFs began at an average depth of 1047 feet below ground (ft TVD) and extended an average of 626 ft vertically downward. The deepest initiation of HF was at 2380 ft and the shallowest cessation was at 639 ft TVD. The average HF was performed using 1488 BBL (62,496 gallons) of water. The HFs were performed in no more than 6 stages and nearly all were completed within one day. We (1) compare metrics of the South Belridge sample group with recent, larger "all-CA" and nationwide samples; and (2) conclude that if relationships of reservoir properties, well completion and HF are well understood, shallow diatomite HF may be optimized to enhance production while minimizing environmental impact.

  19. Tilting oil-water contact in the chalk of Tyra Field as interpreted from capillary pressure data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Rana, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    -trends from logs were compared with normalized water saturation depth-trends predicted from capillary pressure core data. The ten wells lie close to a SW–NE cross section of the field. For the gas–oil contact, a free contact measured in one well corresponds to a practically horizontal contact interpreted from......The Tyra Field in the central North Sea is located in Palaeogene and Upper Cretaceous chalk. It contains a natural gas zone underlain by an oil leg. Based on analysis of logs and core data from ten wells drilled prior to the field being put into production, normalized water saturation depth...... logging data in the remaining wells. A westerly dipping oil–water contact was found from logging data. Comparison of the depth-wise trends in normalized water saturation among the different wells indicates a regional pattern: in the western side of the field, the trends correspond to a situation...

  20. Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2015-01-15

    The impact of the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on Arroniz olive oil production in terms of extraction yield and chemical and sensory quality has been studied at pilot scale in an industrial oil mill. The application of a PEF treatment (2 kV/cm; 11.25 kJ/kg) to the olive paste significantly increased the extraction yield by 13.3%, with respect to a control. Furthermore, olive oil obtained by PEF showed total phenolic content, total phytosterols and total tocopherols significantly higher than control (11.5%, 9.9% and 15.0%, respectively). The use of PEF had no negative effects on general chemical and sensory characteristics of the olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to EU legal standards (EVOO; extra virgin olive oil). Therefore, PEF could be an appropriate technology to improve olive oil yield and produce EVOO enriched in human-health-related compounds, such as polyphenols, phytosterols and tocopherols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methodology and some results of the multifaceted evaluation of ecological risk of maintenance of oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vozuesensky, E.A. [Department of Engineering and Environmental Geology, Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Samarin, E.N. [Ditto (Russian Federation); Voznessenskaya, V.V. [A.N. Severtzov Institute of Ecology and Evolution RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    An inter-disciplinary methodology to investigate pollution from maintenance of oil and gas fields and to explore potential impact of new ones has been developed and tested at three oil and gas fields in Western Siberia and Mid-Volga region with different duration of exploitation. The investigations focused on the impact of oil, its derivatives and other chemicals on human health and biocenoses. The research included combination of methods of environmental geology, geophysics, bioindication, cytogenetics and analytical chemistry and is based on the idea that reliable control of concentration, regularities of sorption and the complete tracing of oil pollution in the environment from the source of contamination through the soils, ground and surface water, soil biota and via the food chains to small mammals and birds are needed to assess ecological risk. It is anticipated that direct determination of oil and its derivatives concentration in soil and ground water can provide a basis to understand the results of bioindication. The obtained data revealed the main regularities of the pollutants migration in soils and ground waters, the most dangerous sources of their contamination and demonstrated the impact of gas torches on soils, vegetation and soil- dwelling animals using new reliable and independent indices. (orig.)

  2. Microbial diversity and hydrocarbon degrading gene capacity of a crude oil field soil as determined by metagenomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi; Lockington, Robin; Ramadass, Kavitha

    2016-05-01

    Soils contaminated with crude oil are rich sources of enzymes suitable for both degradation of hydrocarbons through bioremediation processes and improvement of crude oil during its refining steps. Due to the long term selection, crude oil fields are unique environments for the identification of microorganisms with the ability to produce these enzymes. In this metagenomic study, based on Hiseq Illumina sequencing of samples obtained from a crude oil field and analysis of data on MG-RAST, Actinomycetales (9.8%) were found to be the dominant microorganisms, followed by Rhizobiales (3.3%). Furthermore, several functional genes were found in this study, mostly belong to Actinobacteria (12.35%), which have a role in the metabolism of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (2.51%), desulfurization (0.03%), element shortage (5.6%), and resistance to heavy metals (1.1%). This information will be useful for assisting in the application of microorganisms in the removal of hydrocarbon contamination and/or for improving the quality of crude oil. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:638-648, 2016.

  3. Design and Operation of Laboratory Combustion Cell for Air Injection into Light Oil Reservoirs: Potential Application in Sindh Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Haque Tunio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical experimental work on the combustion oil recovery processes consists of both laboratory and field studies. Although field experiments are the ultimate test of any oil recovery process, they are costly, time consuming and difficult to analyze quantitatively. Laboratory CC (Combustion Cell experiments are cost effective and less time consuming, but are subject to scaling and interpretation challenges. Experimental set up has been developed to understand air injection process for improving oil recovery from light oil reservoirs taking into account the sand pack petro physical and fluid properties. Some important design problems; operational criteria and considerations important to interpretation of results are pointed out. To replicate subsurface reservoir conditions or pressure and temperature, experiments up to 6895 KPa, at non-isothermal conditions with 5oC/min ramp-up are performed on unconsolidated cores with reservoir oil samples. Correlations were obtained for low temperature oxidation rate of oil, the fuel deposition rate and the rate of burning fuel as a fuel concentration. Various parameters such as (sand pack, pressure, oil saturation and flow rate/air flux were changed to investigate their impact on reaction and chemical nature of the fuel burned. To determine the importance of distribution and pyrolysis on these reactions, the hydrogen-carbon ratio and m-ratio was calculated. For further confirmation Arrhenius graphs were drawn by assuming 1.0 order of reaction with carbon concentration which is also confirmed.This research will contribute to the overall understanding of air injection process;help to determine the most appropriate

  4. Preliminary Prioritization of California Oil and Gas Fields for Regional Groundwater Monitoring Based on Intensity of Petroleum Resource Development and Proximity to Groundwater Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. A.; Landon, M. K.; Bennett, G.

    2016-12-01

    The California State Water Resources Control Board is collaborating with the U.S. Geological Survey to implement a Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) to assess where and to what degree groundwater resources may be at risk of contamination from oil and gas development activities including stimulation, well integrity issues, produced water ponds, and underground injection. A key issue in the implementation of the RMP is that the state has 487 onshore oil fields covering 8,785 square kilometers but detailed characterization work can only be done in a few oil fields annually. The first step in the RMP is to prioritize fields using available data that indicate potential risk to groundwater from oil and gas development, including vertical proximity of groundwater and oil/gas resources, density of petroleum and water wells, and volume of water injected in oil fields. This study compiled data for these factors, computed summary metrics for each oil field, analyzed statewide distributions of summary metrics, used those distributions to define relative categories of potential risk for each factor, and combined these into an overall priority ranking. Aggregated results categorized 22% (107 fields) of the total number of onshore oil and gas fields in California as high priority, 23% as moderate priority, and 55% as low priority. On an area-weighted basis, 41% of the fields ranked high, 30% moderate, and 29% low, highlighting that larger fields tend to have higher potential risk because of greater intensity of development, sometimes coupled with closer proximity to groundwater. More than half of the fields ranked as high priority were located in the southern Central Valley or the Los Angeles Basin. The prioritization does not represent an assessment of groundwater risk from oil and gas development; rather, such assessments are planned to follow based on detailed analysis of data from the RMP near the oil fields selected for study in the future.

  5. The Prestige oil spill: bacterial community dynamics during a field biostimulation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Bayona, Josep M; Albaiges, Joan; Solanas, Anna M

    2007-12-01

    A field bioremediation assay using the oleophilic fertilizer S200 was carried out 12 months after the Prestige heavy fuel-oil spill on a beach on the Cantabrian coast (north Spain). This assay showed that S200-enhanced oil degradation, particularly of high-molecular-weight n-alkanes and alkylated PAHs, suggesting an increase in the microbial bioavailability of these compounds. The bacterial community structure was determined by cultivation-independent analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterial community was mainly composed of alpha-Proteobacteria (Rhodobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae). Representatives of gamma-Proteobacteria (Chromatiales, Moraxellaceae, and Halomonadaceae), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriaceae), and Actinobacteria group (Nocardiaceae and Corynebacteriaceae) were also found. The addition of the fertilizer led to the appearance of the bacterium Mesonia algae in the early stages, with a narrow range of growth substrates, which has been associated with the common alga Achrosiphonia sonderi. The presence of Mesonia algae may be attributable to the response of the microbial community to the addition of N and P rather than indicating a role in the biodegradation process. The Rhodococcus group appeared in both assay plots, especially at the end of the experiment. It was also found at another site on the Galician coast that had been affected by the same spill. This genus has been associated with the degradation of n-alkanes up to C(36). Taking into account the high content of heavy alkanes in the Prestige fuel, these microorganisms could play a significant role in the degradation of such fuel. A similar bacterial community structure was observed at another site that showed a similar degree of fuel weathering.

  6. Spatial analysis in a Markov random field framework: The case of burning oil wells in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezzani, Raymond J.; Al-Dousari, Ahmad

    This paper discusses a modeling approach for spatial-temporal prediction of environmental phenomena using classified satellite images. This research was prompted by the analysis of change and landscape redistribution of petroleum residues formed from the residue of the burning oil wells in Kuwait (1991). These surface residues have been termed ``tarcrete'' (El-Baz etal. 1994). The tarcrete forms a thick layer over sand and desert pavement covering a significant portion of south-central Kuwait. The purpose of this study is to develop a method that utilizes satellite images from different time steps to examine the rate-of-change of the oil residue deposits and determine where redistribution is are likely to occur. This problem exhibits general characteristics of environmental diffusion and dispersion phenomena so a theoretical framework for a general solution is sought. The use of a lagged-clique, Markov random field framework and entropy measures is deduced to be an effective solution to satisfy the criteria of determination of time-rate-of-change of the surface deposits and to forecast likely locations of redistribution of dispersed, aggraded residues. The method minimally requires image classification, the determination of time stationarity of classes and the measurement of the level of organization of the state-space information derived from the images. Analysis occurs at levels of both the individual pixels and the system to determine specific states and suites of states in space and time. Convergence of the observed landscape disorder with respect to an analytical maximum provide information on the total dispersion of the residual system.

  7. A meteorological and chemical overview of the DACCIWA field campaign in West Africa in June–July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Knippertz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In June and July 2016 the Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA project organised a major international field campaign in southern West Africa (SWA including measurements from three inland ground supersites, urban sites in Cotonou and Abidjan, radiosondes, and three research aircraft. A significant range of different weather situations were encountered during this period, including the monsoon onset. The purpose of this paper is to characterise the large-scale setting for the campaign as well as synoptic and mesoscale weather systems affecting the study region in the light of existing conceptual ideas, mainly using objective and subjective identification algorithms based on (re-analysis and satellite products. In addition, it is shown how the described synoptic variations influence the atmospheric composition over SWA through advection of mineral dust, biomass burning and urban pollution plumes.The boreal summer of 2016 was characterised by Pacific La Niña, Atlantic El Niño and warm eastern Mediterranean conditions, whose competing influences on precipitation led to an overall average rainy season. During the relatively dusty pre-onset Phase 1 (1–21 June 2016, three westward-propagating coherent cyclonic vortices between 4 and 13° N modulated winds and rainfall in the Guinea coastal area. The monsoon onset occurred in connection with a marked extratropical trough and cold surge over northern Africa, leading to a breakdown of the Saharan heat low and African easterly jet and a suppression of rainfall. During this period, quasi-stationary low-level vortices associated with the trough transformed into more tropical, propagating disturbances resembling an African easterly wave (AEW. To the east of this system, moist southerlies penetrated deep into the continent. The post-onset Phase 2 (22 June–20 July 2016 was characterised by a significant increase in low-level cloudiness, unusually dry conditions

  8. A meteorological and chemical overview of the DACCIWA field campaign in West Africa in June-July 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippertz, Peter; Fink, Andreas H.; Deroubaix, Adrien; Morris, Eleanor; Tocquer, Flore; Evans, Mat J.; Flamant, Cyrille; Gaetani, Marco; Lavaysse, Christophe; Mari, Celine; Marsham, John H.; Meynadier, Rémi; Affo-Dogo, Abalo; Bahaga, Titike; Brosse, Fabien; Deetz, Konrad; Guebsi, Ridha; Latifou, Issaou; Maranan, Marlon; Rosenberg, Philip D.; Schlueter, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    In June and July 2016 the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project organised a major international field campaign in southern West Africa (SWA) including measurements from three inland ground supersites, urban sites in Cotonou and Abidjan, radiosondes, and three research aircraft. A significant range of different weather situations were encountered during this period, including the monsoon onset. The purpose of this paper is to characterise the large-scale setting for the campaign as well as synoptic and mesoscale weather systems affecting the study region in the light of existing conceptual ideas, mainly using objective and subjective identification algorithms based on (re-)analysis and satellite products. In addition, it is shown how the described synoptic variations influence the atmospheric composition over SWA through advection of mineral dust, biomass burning and urban pollution plumes.The boreal summer of 2016 was characterised by Pacific La Niña, Atlantic El Niño and warm eastern Mediterranean conditions, whose competing influences on precipitation led to an overall average rainy season. During the relatively dusty pre-onset Phase 1 (1-21 June 2016), three westward-propagating coherent cyclonic vortices between 4 and 13° N modulated winds and rainfall in the Guinea coastal area. The monsoon onset occurred in connection with a marked extratropical trough and cold surge over northern Africa, leading to a breakdown of the Saharan heat low and African easterly jet and a suppression of rainfall. During this period, quasi-stationary low-level vortices associated with the trough transformed into more tropical, propagating disturbances resembling an African easterly wave (AEW). To the east of this system, moist southerlies penetrated deep into the continent. The post-onset Phase 2 (22 June-20 July 2016) was characterised by a significant increase in low-level cloudiness, unusually dry conditions and strong northeastward

  9. The economics of disposal methods for North Sea oil and gas fields: A study in comparative advantage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishman, D.

    1986-05-01

    One of the major development problems of new North Sea fields is the transportation of oil or gas to a landfall (the disposal method). Oil can be disposed of by offshore loading or by pipeline. While offshore loading may be cheaper, it leads to reduced operational efficiency and may not be permitted by regulatory bodies because of perceived safety or environmental hazards. A dedicated pipeline to shore may be too costly for small- to medium-sized fields, but sharing a pipeline system or tying in to an existing pipeline for a tariff are viable alternatives. The development of gas fields and the production of associated gas from oil fields has been hampered by the lack of pipeline systems for disposal. With no fallback position of offshore loading, gas fields cannot be developed unless there is an economic disposal method by pipeline. When a tariff is negotiated that results in the development of a field, all parties stand to benefit economically. The tariff negotiation would thus be expected to result in a mutually beneficial solution. This paper develops economic models of the disposal alternatives to derive the relative benefit of each with respect to the cost-of-disposal, tariff-structure, and reserve-throughput parameters.

  10. Pembina Cardium Field. Enhanced oil recovery economics. Proposed revisions to existing EOR incentives for low productivity reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, J.J.; Howes, B.J.

    1985-07-01

    Technical analysis of miscibly flooding selected parts of the Pembina Cardium reservoir in Alberta indicates that substantial amounts of additional oil can be recovered, using a hydrocarbon solvent, from areas where little or no conglomerate zone is present. This represents approximately one-half of the total pool. Previous evaluations of the proposed miscible flood projects in the Pembina Cardium Field showed that a substantial enhanced oil recovery potential exists but that such projects were only marinally economic under the conditions that existed at the time. Subsequent to these evaluations, a number of significant changes have occurred. The Western Accord phased-out the Petroleum and Gas Revenue Tax and decontrolled the price of oil, world market forces have reduced oil prices, costs have declined, and a new royalty schedule has been introduced. This report analyzes the Pembina miscible flood economics in light of these changes. The combined effect of the changes is a slight improvement in project economics, which, however, remain marginal. Modifications to the existing Section 4.2 Royalty Deduction and to the earned depletion deduction are proposed with the goal of creating an economic environment that will allow the development of the Pembina Cardium enhanced oil recovery potential. The two projects evaluated in this report represent only a very small portion of the field, 8.3 km/sup 2/ out of field total of 1900 km/sup 2/. If economic considerations permitted the expansion of miscible flooding into the 50% of the Pembina Cardium reservoir considered to be amenable to the current miscible flood design, a very important contribution to oil supplies and economic activity in Canada would result. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  11. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  12. Hydrocarbon degassing of the earth and origin of oil-gas fields (isotope-geochemical and geodynamic aspects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyaev, Boris; Dremin, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    More than half a century ago, Academician PN Kropotkin substantiated the relationship of the formation and distribution of oil and gas fields with the processes of emanation hydrocarbon degassing of the Earth. Over the years, the concept of PN Kropotkin received further development and recognition of studies based on new factual material. Of particular importance are the following factors: a) the results of studies on global and regional uneven processes of traditional oil and gas and the role of deep faults in controlling the spread of oil and gas fields; b) the results of the research on gigantic volumes and localization of the discharges of hydrocarbon fluids (mud volcanoes, seeps) on land and into the atmosphere and through the bottom of the World ocean; c) the results of the studies on grand volumes of the spread of unconventional hydrocarbon resources in their non-traditional fields, especially on near-surface interval of unconventional oil and gas accumulation with gas hydrates, heavy oil and bitumen, as well as extraordinary resources of oil and gas in the shale and tight rocks. Deep mantle-crust nature of oil and gas in traditional and nontraditional deposits thus received further substantiation of geological and geophysical data and research results. However, isotopic and geochemical data are still interpreted in favor of the concept of the genesis of oil and gas in the processes of thermal catalytic conversion of organic matter of sedimentary rocks, at temperatures up to 200°C. In this report an alternative interpretation of the isotope carbon-hydrogen system (δ13C-δD) for gas and of oil deposits, isotope carbon system for methane and carbon dioxide (δ13C1-δ13C0) will be presented. An alternative interpretation will also be presented for the data on carbon-helium isotope geochemical system for oil and gas fields, volcanoes and mud volcanoes. These constructions agree with the geological data on the nature of deep hydrocarbon fluids involved in the

  13. Carbon dioxide gas in hydrocarbon pools as a geochemical indicator of tapering traps (as in West Siberian fields)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenkov, A.T.

    1983-01-01

    Principal sources of carbon dioxide gas in oil pools of Western Siberia are carbonates, present in the makeup of the layer-collector horizons. All the hydrocarbon pools complicated by lithologic screens are characterized by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the gases dissolved in the oils. With a carbon dioxide content of more than 1 vol%, the probability of identifying the screen in the pools of Western Siberia is close to 100%.

  14. Carbon dioxide gas in hydrocarbon pools as a geochemical indicator of tapering traps (as in West Siberian fields)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenkov, A.T.

    1980-07-01

    Principal sources of carbon dioxide gas in oil pools of Western Siberia are carbonates, present in the makeup of the layer-collector horizons. All the hydrocarbon pools complicated by lithologic screens are characterized by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the gases dissolved in the oils. With a carbon dioxide content of more than 1 vol %, the probability of identifying the screen in the pools of Western Sibeia is close to 100%.

  15. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-12-31

    , multiwell productivity analysis, and reservoir simulation studies indicate that water injection continues to provide stable support to maintain production from wells in the western unitized area of the field and that the strong water drive present in the eastern area of the field is adequate to sustain production from this part of the field. Although the results from the microbial characterization and microbial core experiments are very promising, it is recommended that an immobilized enzyme technology project not be implemented in the Womack Hill Field Unit until live (freshly taken and properly preserved) cores from the Smackover reservoir in the field are acquired to confirm the microbial core experiments to date. From 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir performance analysis, and reservoir simulation, four areas in the Womack Hill Field were identified as prospective infill drilling sites to recover undrained oil from the field. It was determined that the two areas in the unit area probably can be effectively drained by perforating higher zones in the Smackover reservoir in currently producing wells. The two areas in the eastern (non-unitized) part of the field require the drilling of new wells. The successful drilling and testing of a well in 2003 by J. R. Pounds, Inc. has proven the oil potential of the easternmost site in the non-unitized part of the field. Pruet Production Co. acquired new 2-D seismic data to evaluate the oil potential of the westernmost site. Because of the effects of a fault shadow from the major fault bounding the southern border of the Womack Hill Field, it is difficult to evaluate conclusively this potential drill site. Pruet Production Co. has decided not to drill this new well at this time and to further evaluate the new 2-D seismic profiles after these data have been processed using a pre-stack migration technique. Pruet Production Co. has elected not to continue into Phase II of this project because they are not prepared to make a proposal to

  16. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Costal Plain

    Energy Technology Data