WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil exploration

  1. Exploring Oil Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  2. China's Fruitful Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yan; Wang Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has discovered and proven 10 oil and gas fields with industrial flow in its offshore oil and gas exploration over the part few years. The newly proven oil in place is more than 104million tons and the gas in place is 147.8 billion cubic meters. In addition, other 100 million tons of oil in place are to be confirmed. This shows a bright prospect for sustainable offshore oil and gas development in the Ninth Five-Year Plan period (1996-2000) and the next century.

  3. The Yemen oil rush: exploration heats up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, J.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of a sizeable oilfield in North Yemen in July 1984 by the Yemen Hunt Oil Company in the first well it drilled marked the beginning of the Yemeni 'oil rush'. Within three years North Yemen was exporting oil to world markets. Meanwhile, in South Yemen the Soviet firm Technoexport announced the discovery of oil in 1987. By early 1990, Yemen was described as one of the hottest exploration plays on the Arabian Peninsula. (author).

  4. Learning through Oil and Gas Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.

    I investigate the importance of learning in oil and gas exploration. I developed a tractable dynamic structural model of oil and gas exploration in which firms gradually learn about the productive qualities of different regions through exploratory drilling. Exploratory drilling is modelled...... the observed geography of exploratory drilling. The broader implications of my model indicate that the structure of information has important effects on drilling behaviour, and that these effects vary, depending on the specific characteristics of the regions being explored....

  5. OIL EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Sečen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Organized exploration of "earth oil" shows started in the 16th century, and the oil production in the middle of the 20th century. The exploration area of the Republic of Croatia is divided into three basins: Pannonian, Dinarides and Adriatic. The most explored is the Panonian Basin, where most oil and gas reserves have been discovered that are continuously being produced. In the Adriatic basin gas reserves have heen discovered but because of the commercial reasons they haven't been used yet. Along with the exploration at home, the perspective areas in foreign contries are being explored more and more with the considerable oil and gas reserves discoveries. Two main products, oil and gas, generate the production of other fuels and raw materials necessary in petrochemical industry: propane, butane, industrial spirit, ethylene, propylene etc. The major part of those products is directly included into the power-supply programme of the Republic of Croatia and they supply 45% of total power needs. Good results in exploration and a high participation of domestic oil and gas in total primary energy supply, direct to the further intense investments in explorations of domestic and perspective foreign areas (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Review of Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration in 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)maintained a sustainable and stable growth in oil and gas exploration in 2000, making good preparations for comprehensive offshore natural gas exploration and development in 2001. In the principles of economic performance and self-reliance and cooperation, CNOOC has achieved fruitful results in oil and gas exploration last year.

  7. Oil Resources Potential and Exploration of Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hua; Luo Anxiang; Fu Jinhua; Xi Shengli

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ordos Basin has experienced nearly a century of oil-gas exploration since China's first oil exploratory well (Yan-1 well) was drilled in 1907 in Yanchang County, Shaanxi Province. A good prospect for sustained and steady development of oil and gas was thereby opened based on the efforts made by generations of petroleum geologists and oil workers.

  8. Visual Workflows for Oil and Gas Exploration

    KAUST Repository

    Hollt, Thomas

    2013-04-14

    The most important resources to fulfill today’s energy demands are fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas. When exploiting hydrocarbon reservoirs, a detailed and credible model of the subsurface structures to plan the path of the borehole, is crucial in order to minimize economic and ecological risks. Before that, the placement, as well as the operations of oil rigs need to be planned carefully, as off-shore oil exploration is vulnerable to hazards caused by strong currents. The oil and gas industry therefore relies on accurate ocean forecasting systems for planning their operations. This thesis presents visual workflows for creating subsurface models as well as planning the placement and operations of off-shore structures. Creating a credible subsurface model poses two major challenges: First, the structures in highly ambiguous seismic data are interpreted in the time domain. Second, a velocity model has to be built from this interpretation to match the model to depth measurements from wells. If it is not possible to obtain a match at all positions, the interpretation has to be updated, going back to the first step. This results in a lengthy back and forth between the different steps, or in an unphysical velocity model in many cases. We present a novel, integrated approach to interactively creating subsurface models from reflection seismics, by integrating the interpretation of the seismic data using an interactive horizon extraction technique based on piecewise global optimization with velocity modeling. Computing and visualizing the effects of changes to the interpretation and velocity model on the depth-converted model, on the fly enables an integrated feedback loop that enables a completely new connection of the seismic data in time domain, and well data in depth domain. For planning the operations of off-shore structures we present a novel integrated visualization system that enables interactive visual analysis of ensemble simulations used in ocean

  9. Sinopec Encouraged for Oil and Gas Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiuju

    2003-01-01

    @@ Shengli hopeful to find oilfield with 100-millionton reserves A total of 27 wells have been so far drilled in Zhuanghai area of Sinopec Shengli Oil Field with the proven oil in place accumulated to 45.46 million tons. It is hopeful to prove another 50 million tons of oil in place in this region next year so that another oil field with the reserves of 100 million tons is taking shape.

  10. Offshore oil exploration and impact assessment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2016-01-01

    Greenland needs development. Oil and mineral extraction is pursued as a means to achieve economical growth. Fisheries, hunting and tourism are the main pillars in the Greenland economy in 2015. These businesses are however sensitive to potential negative impacts from oil and gas development. Local...... regulation system in relation to oil and gas projects to promote sustainable development. Additional Impact Benefit Agreements (IBA) have to be negotiated between the communities potentially affected, the Government and the oil companies to assure that social investments are made to secure long-term benefits...... for the local communities. In the following sections I present a short description of the current situation in Greenland in relation to oil and gas development, then the Impact Assessment tool is introduced and how the tool is included in the oil and gas project management practice for offshore oil exploration...

  11. Xinjiang Keeps Strong Momentum for Oil Exploration and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Peng

    2001-01-01

    @@ Xinjiang Oilfield Company, as the main exploration area for PetroChina,has been remarkable for its oil and gas exploration results in the recent years.This year, the Oilfield Company focused on the hinterland area of Junggar basin for exploration while striving to make breakthroughs in the southern periphery and step up exploration of the northwestern periphery and eastern area of the basin so that exploration efforts were in full play in the whole basin.

  12. RISK ANALYSIS APPLIED IN OIL EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    This research investigated the application of risk analysis to Oil exploration and production. Essentially ... uncertainty in Oil field projects; it reduces the impact of the losses should an unfavourable .... own merit but since the company has limited funds it can be ..... ference, New Orleans, LA, September 27-30. (1998). 8. Seba ...

  13. PetroChina Domestic Oil Exploration and Development Fruitful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ PetroChina, of which CNPC is the parent company,has continued to focus itself on the main businesses of oil and gas exploration and development at home and achieved remarkable results this year in its various oil and gas fields nationwide. With the efforts concentrated on the basin areas, PetroChina has made important progress in exploration of Sichuan Basin, Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin and Tarim Basin, maintaining a good impetus in the company's oil and gas reserves growth.

  14. Arctic oil exploration Former mayor says yes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleak, J. Sr.

    Alaska's coastal plain can sustain both wilderness values and oil production, says Jeslie Kaleak, Sr., former mayor of North Slope Borough in Borrow, Alaska. Kaleak is director is Barrow Operations for North Slope Regional Corporation. Nevertheless, Kaleak contends, [open quotes]the people in the Lower 48 want to keep us from developing this land because of some preconceived notion of the land as a wilderness paradise.[close quotes] Kaleak insists that the Inupiaq people, American Indians inhabiting the Northern Slope region, have provided for their families for thousands of years by turning to the natural environment. Their decision to support oil development is no different. Kaleak contends that the mineral and oil wealth of the North Slope has allowed the Inupiaq people to improve their standard of living drastically. Oil development on the coastal plain, Kaleak contends, could provide similar economic benefits. [open quotes]We cannot define our lives by the vision of distant people who view the North Slope as one great outdoor Disneyland where...all resources remain off limits to us,[close quotes] Kaleak concludes.

  15. Oil exploration. Oil reservoir engineering; Sekiyu no kaihatsu. Choryuso kogaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, H. [Teikoku Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    This study is to estimate the amount of oil/gas economically producible and to discuss the increase of the amount. The reservoir rock is stuffed with rock particles, and there are impermeable and dense rocks called cap rock on the side wall and top board. Since the size of void of the reservoir is very small, the volume which oil can actually occupy largely decreases because of the existence of surface tension and water film (20-40% of the volume is occupied by water). The rate of the fluid occupying in reservoir space is called the fluid saturation rate. The primitive reserve is a static volume, but the minable reserve, which is related to economical efficiency, is a dynamic volume which changes according to conditions such as the technical progress. To predict a minable reserve is to predict a production amount under a developmental plan, estimate an income, and find out the time of disposal of the oil/gas field (economical limit). To ask for a certain level of accuracy, it is indispensable to simulate the reservoir. To add an element of time to the material balance, the equation of flow including the permeability rate is solved. The paper also described measures to increase minable reserves

  16. Reef Oil and Gas Exploration Status in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Xiaodi; Zhao Bangliu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Reef and beach reservoir has greal exploration significance Oil and gas resources are rich in reef reservoir.Statistics of the International Chemistry Industry Association(CIA)in 1977 show that recoverable reselwes of the reefbeach oil and gas fields that have been discovered in the world were 100 and 120 billion barrels of oil equivalent(BOE),which accounted for about 19% of proved and probable reserves in all types of reservoirs in the world,about 47% of proved recoverable reserves of all limestone reservoirs.

  17. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes. [results of ERTS program for oil exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results from the ERTS program pertinent to exploration for oil, gas, and uranium are discussed. A review of achievements in relevant geological studies from ERTS, and a survey of accomplishments oriented towards exploration for energy sources are presented along with an evaluation of the prospects and limitations of the space platform approach to fuel exploration, and an examination of continuing programs designed to prove out the use of ERTS and other space system in exploring for fuel resources.

  18. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  19. Rooted structuring as key for Southern Apennine oil exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, Anna del; Finetti, Icilio [Trieste Univ. (Italy). EGG

    1999-07-01

    It is Authors' opinion that a key point for the evaluation of the prospect in Southern Apennine, having as target the top of the Apulian Platform, is constituted by the type of the structure involved. That is, if the explored feature is formed by a block rooted with its own basement and practically not or not much displaced, in that case the preservation of the integrity of the reservoir and its oil trapping is possible. But when the explored structure consists of thrust-blocks, disrooted from their basement and prominently displaced, than the resulting reservoir/cover conditions do not allow oil trapping or preservation of oil accumulation. Examples of both types of features are examined. (author)

  20. Oil and gas exploration near Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grow, J.A.; Barker, C.E. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Harris, A.G. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Three oil exploration wells were drilled within 20 km of Yucca Mountain in 1991. Conodont samples from two of these new wells and 190 locations near Yucca Mountain and have been analyzed for color alteration indices (CAI), which can be correlated to thermal maturity and petroleum generation. Cambrian through Triassic rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain have experienced temperatures too high to be capable of generating oil, except for a narrow zone (20 x 100 km) northeast of Yucca Mountain, where Mississippian through Triassic rocks are just within the upper limit of the oil generating window. Organic geochemical samples from the Mississippian Eleana Formation in this zone have low total organic carbon and low hydrogen indices, which, combined with overall pattern of CAI values, indicates that the entire Cambrian through Triassic sedimentary column is unfavorable as oil source rocks. While much of the Cambrian through Triassic rocks have thermal potential for gas, extensive Late Tertiary faulting at Yucca Mountain suggest that seals might be inadequate for retaining gas. No commercial gas fields have been found to date in Nevada or adjacent parts of California. Organic geochemistry on samples from a few Tertiary lacustrine deposits do show high carbon and hydrogen indices. However, the lacustrine deposits in these basin and range type valleys lack long range continuity and none of the present Nevada oil fields produce from such Tertiary valley-fill.

  1. Dynamic Decision Making for Graphical Models Applied to Oil Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Martinelli, Gabriele; Hauge, Ragnar

    2012-01-01

    We present a framework for sequential decision making in problems described by graphical models. The setting is given by dependent discrete random variables with associated costs or revenues. In our examples, the dependent variables are the potential outcomes (oil, gas or dry) when drilling a petroleum well. The goal is to develop an optimal selection strategy that incorporates a chosen utility function within an approximated dynamic programming scheme. We propose and compare different approximations, from simple heuristics to more complex iterative schemes, and we discuss their computational properties. We apply our strategies to oil exploration over multiple prospects modeled by a directed acyclic graph, and to a reservoir drilling decision problem modeled by a Markov random field. The results show that the suggested strategies clearly improve the simpler intuitive constructions, and this is useful when selecting exploration policies.

  2. ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

  3. Oil Policy Key to Onshore Exploration and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Staff Commentator

    1997-01-01

    @@ The development of energy industry holds the key to the national economic growth and social stability both in developed and developing countries. Chinese Premier Li Peng has recently stressed once more the importance of energy industry in national economy. As for the oil and gas sector, Premier Li pointed out that China's petroleum industry should adhere to the policy of keeping production stable in East China while accelerating exploration and development in West China.

  4. Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil, camelina oil and algal oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-07-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid (FFA) is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids. To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system. In addition, CFD simulation with ANSYS-CFX was used to model the performance and reactant/product separation in the continuous, counter-flow reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, water-to-oil ratio (ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate), and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Optimization of these parameters has resulted in an improved, continuous process with high mass yields (89-93%, for reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1) and energy efficiency (76%, for reactor temperature of 250°C and water-to-oil ratio of 2:1). Based on the product quality and energy efficiency considerations, the reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1 have provided the optimal condition for the lab scale continuous hydrolysis reaction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  5. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  6. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil

  7. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. PETROCHINA'S OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION PROGRESS IN 1ST HALF OF 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ling

    2001-01-01

    @@ Oil and gas exploration situation PetroChina has launched 138 oil and gas exploration projects in total in 2001 with the plans to have additional oil recoverable reserves of more than 80 million tons and additional natural gas recoverable reserves of 60 billion cubic meters.

  9. Oil exploration oriented multi-sensor image fusion algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaobing, Zhang; Wei, Zhou; Mengfei, Song

    2017-04-01

    In order to accurately forecast the fracture and fracture dominance direction in oil exploration, in this paper, we propose a novel multi-sensor image fusion algorithm. The main innovations of this paper lie in that we introduce Dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) in data fusion and divide an image to several regions before image fusion. DTCWT refers to a new type of wavelet transform, and it is designed to solve the problem of signal decomposition and reconstruction based on two parallel transforms of real wavelet. We utilize DTCWT to segment the features of the input images and generate a region map, and then exploit normalized Shannon entropy of a region to design the priority function. To test the effectiveness of our proposed multi-sensor image fusion algorithm, four standard pairs of images are used to construct the dataset. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve high accuracy in multi-sensor image fusion, especially for images of oil exploration.

  10. Oil and Gas Exploration Planning using VOI Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskova, D. N.; Sizykh, A. V.; Rukavishnikov, V. S.

    2016-03-01

    Paper deals with actual problem about making decisions during field development. The main aim was to apply method “Value of information” in order to estimate the necessity of field exploration works and show the effectiveness of this method. The object of analysis - field X, which is located in the Eastern Siberia. The reservoir is B13 formation of Vend age. The Field has complex structure, and divided into blocks by faults. During evaluation of the project, main uncertainties and oil in place were obtained for three blocks of the field. According to uncertainty analysis, it was suggested to drill a new exploration well, and value of information method was applied to estimate results from this exploration works. Economic evaluation of the value of information method was made by choosing optimal development strategy. According to the obtained results, drilling of the exploration wells for blocks 1 and 3 of the field X is a good decision, while drilling a well in the second block is risky and not recommended. Also using the value of information, optimal well locations were advised - well l_le for the first block, and well 33 for the third block.

  11. Current State and Development Trends of Deep Sea Oil and Gas Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenli

    2011-01-01

    As people probe deeply into submarine exploration and development of oil, gas hydrates and other mineral reserves, deepwater oil and gas development has become a hotspot for world petroleum industry and the frontier of technological innovation. In the past few years, petroleum companies engaged in deep sea exploration put more effort on exploration and development of marine resources.

  12. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  13. VolumeExplorer: Roaming Large Volumes to Couple Visualization and Data Processing for Oil and Gas Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/; In this paper, we present a volume roaming system dedicated to oil and gas exploration. Our system combines probe-based volume rendering with data processing and computing. The daily oil production and the estimation of the world proven-reserves directly affect the barrel price and have a strong impact on the economy. Among others, production and correct estimation are linked to the accuracy of the subsurface model used for predicting oil reservoirs shape and size...

  14. Status and Prospect of Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jiping; Wang Yue; Feng Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    @@ A huge development of offshore oil and gas exploration has been obtained after hard working of more than 30 years.A lot of the large and middle-sized oil/gas fields are successively found to build up several large-scaled offshore oil/gas production areas,which dedicates great contributions for the development of China's economy and society.At the same time,faced difficulties are contiditioned the offshore oil/gas development and utilization.On the whole,the potential in developing offshore oil and gas is excellent with abundant resources of China,although the exploration and development degree is relatively low.

  15. The Progress of Oil and Gas Exploration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Guiming

    1994-01-01

    @@ The discovery and utilization of oil and gas has a histroy of more than 2000 years in China. From the first oil well drilled by morden equipment in Miali, Taiwan Province in 1878 to the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, 29 million tons of crude oil reserve had been proved, and the preliminary theory of continental oil generation had been put forvward.

  16. Designing tools for oil exploration using nuclear modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauborgne Marie-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing nuclear tools for oil exploration, one of the first steps is typically nuclear modeling for concept evaluation and initial characterization. Having an accurate model, including the availability of accurate cross sections, is essential to reduce or avoid time consuming and costly design iterations. During tool response characterization, modeling is benchmarked with experimental data and then used to complement and to expand the database to make it more detailed and inclusive of more measurement environments which are difficult or impossible to reproduce in the laboratory. We present comparisons of our modeling results obtained using the ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/B-VII cross section data bases, focusing on the response to a few elements found in the tool, borehole and subsurface formation. For neutron-induced inelastic and capture gamma ray spectroscopy, major obstacles may be caused by missing or inaccurate cross sections for essential materials. We show examples of the benchmarking of modeling results against experimental data obtained during tool characterization and discuss observed discrepancies.

  17. Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle; Preece, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The global thirst for vegetable oil can be regarded as one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st Century and interest has intensified with the prospect of biofuels. Palm oil has risen to become the dominant player on the vegetable oil market – and the main recipient of environmental...... scrutiny. Focusing specifically on the Malaysian context, this paper analyses the major environmental, social and economic impacts associated with palm oil production. Drawing on recently published research, publicly available data and a comparison made with a recent sustainability initiative undertaken...... by the hydropower industry – an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector – it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative and one...

  18. Offshore oil exploration and impact assessment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2016-01-01

    Greenland needs development. Oil and mineral extraction is pursued as a means to achieve economical growth. Fisheries, hunting and tourism are the main pillars in the Greenland economy in 2015. These businesses are however sensitive to potential negative impacts from oil and gas development. Local...... benefits are expected to derive from oil and gas projects, but these benefits cannot be achieved without careful planning and project management. To secure that negative impacts are mitigated and that positive outcomes are achieved, Impact Assessments (IA) have been implemented as in the Greenlandic...... regulation system in relation to oil and gas projects to promote sustainable development. Additional Impact Benefit Agreements (IBA) have to be negotiated between the communities potentially affected, the Government and the oil companies to assure that social investments are made to secure long-term benefits...

  19. Exploration Theory and Method in Jiyang Composite Oil and Gas Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xingcai; Yang Shenbiao

    1995-01-01

    @@ In 1941, Professor pan Zhongxiang wrote an article for AAPG pointing out that oil could be generated and oil fields could be formed in continental sediments. For half a century after that, particularly since the founding of the People's Republic of China,the theory of continental petroleum geology in Chian, has further been enriched and expanded in exploration practice resulting in the school of petroleum geology with the Chinese characteristics and promoting the rapid development of China's oil and gas industry.

  20. Exploring Butane Hash Oil Use: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bryan Lee; Stogner, John M; Miller, J Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The practice of "dabbing" has seen an apparent upswing in popularity in recent months within American drug subcultures. "Dabbing" refers to the use of butane-extracted marijuana products that offer users much higher tetrahydrocannabinol content than flower cannabis through a single dosage process. Though considerably more potent than most marijuana strains in their traditional form, these butane hash oil products and the practice of dabbing are underexplored in the empirical literature, especially in prohibition states. A mixed-methods evaluation of a federally funded treatment program for drug-involved offenders identified a small sample (n = 6) of butane hash oil users and generated focus group interview data on the nature of butane hash oil, the practice of dabbing, and its effects. Findings inform discussion of additional research needed on butane hash oil and its implications for the ongoing marijuana legalization debate, including the diversity of users, routes of administration, and differences between retail/medical and prohibition states.

  1. International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

  2. Research and Application of New Methods to Oil-Gas Geochemical Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the results of researches and applications for many years, it has been discovered that new methods and techniques for geochemical exploration of oil and gas such as D C, altered carbonate, Hg in absorption phase, Ks, Fe2+, d 13C, fluorescence in two and three dimensions, and N2 and O2 in heat release can give full play in the following five fields: (1) optimization of the favourable target or hollow zones and structural zones in a region; (2) evaluation of oil traps and delineation of prospective oil and gas areas; (3) prediction of deep-seated oil-bearing horizons; (4) evaluation of the genesis of oil and gas geochemical anomalies and determination of the types of oil and gas accumulations; (5) forecast of the burial depths of oil and gas pools.

  3. Inversion of Airborne Electromagnetic Data: Application to Oil Sands Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristall, J.; Farquharson, C. G.; Oldenburg, D. W.

    2004-05-01

    . We provide an example that involves the interpretation of an airborne time-domain electromagnetic data-set from an oil sands exploration project in Alberta. The target is the layer that potentially contains oil sands. This layer is relatively resistive, with its resistivity increasing with increasing hydrocarbon content, and is sandwiched between two more conductive layers. This is quite different from the classical electromagnetic geophysics scenario of looking for a conductive mineral deposit in resistive shield rocks. However, inverting the data enabled the depth, thickness and resistivity of the target layer to be well determined. As a consequence, it is concluded that airborne electromagnetic surveys, when combined with inversion procedures, can be a very cost-effective way of mapping even fairly subtle conductivity variations over large areas.

  4. '95 Achievements in Oil and Gas Exploration and Prospects for 1996

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Guiming; Wang Yuxin

    1996-01-01

    @@ The year of 1995, the last year of the Eighth Five -Year Plan witnessed an overall bumper harvest of the Exploration Bureau. owing to its serious implementation of the working policies of" Speeding up the exploration in the west while consolidating the success in the east" and "Developing oil and gas concurrently" and to the active promotion of modernized exploration and management.

  5. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Sikkema, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110609913; Dornburg, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189955007; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2011-01-01

    This study compiles and analyses national-level data on land use change (LUC) and its causes in Indonesia and Malaysia over the past 30 years. The study also explores the role that palm oil has played in past LUC and that projected growth in palm oil production may play in LUC until 2020 and

  6. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; Sikkema, R.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study compiles and analyses national-level data on land use change (LUC) and its causes in Indonesia and Malaysia over the past 30 years. The study also explores the role that palm oil has played in past LUC and that projected growth in palm oil production may play in LUC until 2020 and suggest

  7. Environmental Assessment of proposed oil and gas exploration, Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Saguache County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has prepared this environmental assessment (EA) of Proposed Oil and Gas Exploration, Baca National Wildlife Refuge...

  8. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  9. Present Situation and Prospect of Oil Exploration and Development for Sinopec

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yuru; Fan Zheyuan; Zhou Qingfan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Present situation of oil exploration and development Conventional oil exploration and development (1) Resource bases. By the end of 2007,Sinopec has owned 351 exploration blocks in 64 onshore basins and 4 offshore basins,with a total area of 1,027,300 square kilometers (km2).It has also owned 189 production blocks with a total area of 17,009 km2.Among the 351 exploration blocks of Sinopec,there are 117 exploration blocks with a total area of 394,000 km2,accounting for 38.4% of the total of Sinopec's exploration blocks in the 5 onshore basins (including the Bohai Bay,Songliao,Ordos,Tarim and Junggar basins),which are rich in oil and gas resources.

  10. Basic trends for geological exploration in the Volga-Ural oil and gas province in 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaynbaum, F.Ya.; Kaz' min, L.L.; Khachatryan, R.O.; Konovalenko, F.F.; Polyakov, V.A.; Surovikov, Ye.Ya.; Tkachenko, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    Features are examined of the condition of geological exploration for oil and gas and potential hydrocarbon resources for oil extracting regions of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province. Basic trends are isolated for geological-geophysical and prospecting-exploration work which guarantee an increase in hydrocarbon reserves in the planned period and which create reserves for the subsequent period. The outlook for further increase in effectiveness of geological exploration in the Volga-Ural oil and gas province were indicated.

  11. Major Fields and Areas to Draw PetroChina's Oil and Gas Exploration Efforts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Xinlong

    2001-01-01

    @@ Based on the study released by China's Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development at PetroChina's exploration work conference held recently in Chengdu,Sichuan Province, PetroChina has proven 405 million tons of oil in place between January and September 2001,fulfilling 99 percent of the annual plan.The proven oil in place is estimated to reach 422 million tons by the end of the year. Meanwhile, the controlled oil in place reached 293 million tons,accounting for 84 percent of the annual plan.

  12. 75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... (OCS) oil and gas exploration and development. This review of MMS NEPA policies, practices and procedures is being conducted as a result of the oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon well and drilling rig... QUALITY Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration...

  13. Oil spill modeling in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea in support of accelerated offshore oil and gas exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Since the discovery of major reserves in the Israeli exclusive economic zone (EEZ) 6 years ago, exploration and drilling for natural gas and oil have proceeded at an accelerated pace. As part of the licensing procedure for drilling, an environmental impact assessment and an emergency response plan must be presented to the authorities, which include several prespecified oil spill simulations. In this study, the MEDSLIK oil spill model has been applied for this purpose. The model accounts for time-dependent advection, dispersion, and physiochemical weathering of the surface slick. It is driven by currents produced by high-resolution dynamic downscaling of ocean reanalysis data and winds extracted from global atmospheric analyses. Worst case scenarios based on 30-day well blowouts under four sets of environmental conditions were simulated for wells located at 140, 70, and 20 km off the coast of central Israel. For the well furthest from the coast, the amount of oil remaining in the surface slick always exceeds the amount deposited on the coast. For the mid-distance well, the cases were evenly split. For the well closest to the coast, coastal deposition always exceeds the oil remaining in the slick. Additional simulations with the wind switched off helped highlight the importance of the wind in evaporation of the oil and in transporting the slick toward the southeastern coast.

  14. Successful International Symposium on Oil & Gas Exploration in Lacustrine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry Katz

    1996-01-01

    @@ A Joint American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)-Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau research symposium entitled "Lacustrine Basin Exploration in China and Southeast Asia" was held in Dongying City,People's Republic of China, October 16-20, 1995.

  15. Exploring the Feasibility of Robotic Pipeline Surveillance for Detecting Crude Oil Spills in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’tega A. Ejofodomi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have significant negative effects on the environment in which they occur, including damage to aquatic, aerial and terrestrial life. In the oil-producing Niger Delta, oil spillage is largely due to pipeline corrosion and crude oil theft and sabotage. This paper explores the feasibility of utilizing small mobile robots for early detection of ground oil leakage, a methodology defined as Ground Robotic Oil Spill Surveillance (GROSS. GROSS robot was constructed using iRobot Create, element serial Bluetooth Adapter Module (BAM and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG sensor, and programmed using MATLAB to patrol a pipeline route 5 m in length. To simulate oil spills, varying volumes of gasoline - 30, 59, 118, 236, 354, 472, 590, and 708 ml – were placed along the pipeline route prior to the robot‟s patrol. GROSS robot demonstrated capability of detecting spills as little as 0.2, 0.5, and 0.7 liters when running at 100, 200, and 300 mm/s respectively. Detection distance between LPG sensor and spill ranged from 76 – 157 cm. GROSS robots could assist in early detection of oil spills. Future work includes improvement in GROSS robot design and determining the effect of soil absorption and API density on the robot‟s ability to detect spills.

  16. Exploration Potential of Marine Source Rocks Oil-Gas Reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    So far, more than 150 marine oil-gas fields have been found onshore and offshore about 350.The marine source rocks are mainly Paleozoic and Mesozoic onshore whereas Tertiary offshore. Three genetic categories of oil-gas reservoirs have been defined for the marine reservoirs in China: primary reservoirs, secondary reservoirs and hydrocarbon-regeneration reservoirs. And three exploration prospects have also been suggested: (1) Primary reservoirs prospects, which are chiefly distributed in many Tertiary basins of the South China Sea (SCS), the Tertiary shelf basins of the East China Sea (ECS) and the Paleozoic of Tarim basin, Sichuan basin and Ordos basin. To explore large-middle-scale even giant oil-gas fields should chiefly be considered in this category reservoirs. These basins are the most hopeful areas to explore marine oil-gas fields in China, among which especially many Tertiary basins of the SCS should be strengthened to explore. (2) Secondary reservoirs prospects, which are mainly distributed in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic of the Tarim basin, Sichuan basin, Qiangtang basin and Chuxiong basin in western China, of which exploration potential is less than that of the primary reservoirs. (3) Hydrocarbon-regeneration reservoirs prospects, which are chiefly distributed in the Bohai Bay basin, North Jiangsu-South Yellow Sea basin, southern North China basin, Jianghan basin,South Poyang basin in eastern China and the Tarim basin in western China, of which source rocks are generally the Paleozoic. And the reservoirs formed by late-stage (always Cenozoic) secondary hydrocarbon generation of the Paleozoic source rocks should mainly be considered to explore, among which middle-small and small oil-gas fields are the chief exploration targets. As a result of higher thermal evolution of Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks, the marine reservoirs onshore are mainly gas fields, and so far marine oil fields have only been found in the Tarim basin. No other than establishing

  17. Spatial variations of hydrocarbon contamination and soil properties in oil exploring fields across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuting; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Jian; Li, Guanghe

    2012-11-30

    Successful site remediation is critically based on a comprehensive understanding of distribution of contaminants, soil physico-chemical and microbial properties in oil contaminated sites. One hundred and ten topsoils were sampled from seven typical oil fields in different geoclimate regions across north to south China to investigate the spatial variances of oil contaminations and soil parameters. Oil concentrations and compositions, soil geochemical properties and microbial populations were analyzed and statistic analysis methods were used to analyze the spatial pattern of soil variables. The results indicated that oil contaminations were serious in most oil exploring areas in China, especially with high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petrogenic origin. Ordination analyses indicated a relatively distinct spatial pattern that all soil samples grouped mainly by geographic locations, instead of distributing along contamination or other geochemical variable gradient. Microbial populations were found to be statistically positively correlated with soil nitrogen, phosphorus and water content, and negatively correlated with salt pH and soluble salts (Phydrocarbon-contaminated fields across large spatial scales, which is important for the environmental protection and further remediation in oil contaminated sites according to local conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Robust MEMS gyroscope for oil and gas exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, David; Miller, Todd

    2014-06-01

    To satisfy the performance and reliability requirement of a MEMS based harsh environment sensor, the sensor development needs to depart from the classic method of single-discipline technology improvement. In this paper, the authors will describe a Microsystem-based design methodology which considers simultaneous multiple technology domain interaction and achieves performance optimization at the system level to address the harsh environment sensing challenge. This is demonstrated through specific examples of investigating a robust MEMS gyroscope suitable for high temperature and high vibration environments such as down-hole drilling for Oil and Gas applications. In particular, the different mechanisms of temperature-induced errors in MEMS gyroscope are discussed. The error sources include both the direct impact of the gyroscope dynamics by temperature and the indirect perturbation by temperature-induced package stress. For vibration and shock induced failure, the error contributions from the low frequency and high frequency contents are discussed. Different transducer designs with equivalent rate sensitivity can vary with several orders of magnitude in terms of the susceptibility to mechanical vibration. Also shown are the complex interactions among the gyroscopic transducer, packaging and the control electronics, resulting from these temperature and vibration error sources. The microsystem-based design methodology is able to capture such complex interactions and improve the gyroscope temperature and vibration performance. In contrast to other efforts in harsh environment sensing which focus on specific technology domains, the authors strive to demonstrate the need and advantage of addressing MEMS performance and reliability in harsh environment from a microsystem perspective.

  19. Features of the marketing strategy of oil and gas companies in exploration drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, I.; Malanina, V.; Kamynina, L.

    2014-08-01

    The implementation of national and regional programs for the development of new oil and gas provinces of Eastern Siberia poses the challenge of increasing geological exploration. The current drilling service companies' market structure, as well as the strategic task of search and exploration effectiveness requires qualitatively new approaches for choosing a contractor. The proposed strategy to select a contractor based on comprehensive analysis of certain groups of industrial, financial, infrastructural criteria allows not only to optimize the costs of exploration activities, but also to minimize preventively the risks of a poor geological exploration. The authors' SWOT- analysis of the marketing strategy of "Gazprom neft" for choosing a contractor outlined the problem of imperfection of the Russian legislation in the sphere of activities of service companies in the oil and gas sector.

  20. The Application of Data & Graphic Managing Technology in Oil & Gas Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhiyong; Chen Weijun; Ma Xuehui

    2002-01-01

    The managing of information and data between researching groups is critical to the success of any exploration or development project. Poor communication and data sharing between technological departments can result in incomplete interpretations or inaccurate drilling decisions making. According to the statistic results, the time cost in retrieving and collecting data will occupy more than 70 % percent of the total working time of technicians during the petroleum geological researching. This paper is a summary of the characteristics and the development of the Data & Graphic management system for oil & gas exploration.After that the system's application in oil & gas exploration and researching, which has improved the quality and accurateness of mapping has been summarized in detail. The application of the system mentioned above has proved to be very successful in Daqing oilfield.

  1. Screening and characterization of oleaginous Chlorella strains and exploration of photoautotrophic Chlorella protothecoides for oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Zhou, Zhi-gang; Gerken, Henri; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jin

    2015-05-01

    The growth and oil production of nine Chlorella strains were comparatively assessed and Chlorellaprotothecoides CS-41 demonstrated the greatest lipid production potential. The effects of different nitrogen forms and concentrations, phosphorus concentrations and light intensities on growth and oil production were studied in laboratory columns. C. protothecoides CS-41 accumulated lipids up to 55% of dry weight, with triacylglycerol and oleic acid being 71% of total lipids and 59% of total fatty acids, respectively. High biomass and lipid productivities were achieved in outdoor panel PBRs, up to 1.25 and 0.59 g L(-1) day(-1), or 44. 1 and 16.1 g m(-2) day(-1), respectively. A two-stage cultivation strategy was proposed to enhance the algal biomass and lipid production. This is the first comprehensive investigation of both indoor and outdoor photoautotrophic C. protothecoides cultures for oil production, and C. protothecoides CS-41 represents a promising biofuel feedstock worthy of further exploration.

  2. Exploring challenges: Brazil towards oil self-sufficiency?; Desafios exploratorios: pode o Brasil atingir sua auto-suficiencia em petroleo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Carlos A.M. de; Santos, Edmilson M. dos; Ferreira, Denilson [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia

    2004-07-01

    Since the 1970's energy crisis, the Brazilian oil industry has sought with obstinacy to achieve the country's self-sufficiency in petroleum. From a national desire, the oil self-sufficiency became PETROBRAS' major corporate target. Based on its excellent performance on offshore exploration, PETROBRAS increased oil production exponentially in the last years, reducing Brazil's oil dependence to only 10%. This paper discusses whether, although feasible in the short term, Brazil's oil self-sufficiency is sustainable in the long term. From different estimated ultimate oil reserves for the country and adopting the Hubbert Curve's methodology, the paper proposes that Brazil's oil self-sufficiency may last only a very short time, which would quickly lead the country to growing oil imports again. (author)

  3. Walnut Staminate Flowers Can Be Explored as a Supplementary Plant Oil Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fossil fuel is currently the major energy source driving global socio-economy, but its stock is being heavily depleted due to increasing anthropogenic activities worldwide. There are also concerns regarding the burning of fossil fuels, which contributes to global climate warming and air pollution. As such, the development of biodiesel as a non-toxic, biodegradable, and renewable alternative energy source using oil crops such as soybean and rapeseed has quickly emerged in the West countries. However, the production of oil crops in China is far from sufficient to meet the demands of the country's population of 1.3 billion, and increasing oil crop production is inhibited by a severe shortage of agricultural land, which currently averages 0.2 acre per person and, as such, is less than half the world average. The current national policy in China regarding land use is more towards revering cultivated lands in ravins and hills to forestry, which presents an ideal opportunity to further develop plantations of walnut (Juglans regia L.) trees, a plant that is tolerant to drought and infertile soils and has a high oil content. Study in this paper shows that one ament of walnut staminate flowers produces about 0.168 g dry pollen, and the dry pollen contained 49.67% oil. Based on this discovery, oil yield obtained from staminate flowers is estimated to reach 6.95% of that from walnut nuts. Thus walnut staminate flower is suggested to explore as supplementary plant oil source, and has a great opportunity to utilize as a biodiesel feedstock.

  4. Globalization and the uneven application of international regulatory standard : the case of oil exploration in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalikwu, J.

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to increase the awareness of the current economic situation that exists in the Niger Delta, a region that has been devastated by the activities of oil multinational corporations (MNCs). In particular, the study linked the Obelle and Obagi communities to the political economy of global capital which creates inequalities that divide societies into hierarchies of the rich and poor. The strategies adopted by the people to improve the negative consequences of oil exploration in the communities were also examined. The researcher postulated that there is a relationship between the uneven application of international and national regulations in oil production by MNCs and environmental degradation. A critical ethnographic paradigm was used to explore and explain the processes of globalization that affect the people's lives and means of livelihood. Data were collected and analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Data was then analyzed using several methods, such as statistics based on cross-tabulation, analysis of themes that emerged from interviews, and Atlas.ti 5.0 qualitative analysis computer programme to show the relationship between variables that emerged from the study. The study revealed that resource exploitation by oil MNCs in Obagi/Obelle communities of the Nigeria Delta, together with the Nigerian government, has resulted in economic expropriation, political disenfranchisement, social instability and environmental damage.

  5. Environmental legal implications of oil and gas exploration in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orubebe, Bibobra Bello

    Nigeria is an African country endowed with a wealth of oil and gas resources, and they are mainly found in the core Niger Delta (home to the Ijaw and Ogoni indigenous, ethnic minorities). Since Great Britain granted Nigeria political independence on October 1, 1960, successive Nigerian governments (military and civilian) have been dominated by the majority ethnic groups (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo). Significantly, the government adopted a socialist-based model of absolute state ownership over oil and gas resources. The socialist model formed the basis of Nigeria's business collaboration with multinational oil and gas corporations from Europe and the United States (notably Shell, Chevron Texaco, Agip, Exxon Mobil, Total, and Elf). This model is fraught with contradictions and has led to unacceptable consequences, including policies that allow exploitation of natural resources without reference to environmental sustainability. When oil was first struck in 1956 at Oloibori (Ijaw area), people thought it would bring prosperity and an improved quality of life. Sadly, the opposite has occurred. Forty-nine years of hardship, agonizing pain, debilitating anger, extreme poverty, poisoned rivers, destroyed occupations, devastated environment, and stunted growth of the youth are the negative impacts of oil and gas exploitation in the Niger Delta. In other words, oil and gas exploration and production have visited a full range of evils---socio-political, economic, and cultural---upon the indigenous Niger Delta people. Furthermore, the wealth extracted from the area is used by the state and multinational corporations to enhance their own wealth and quality of life. Revenue has been conspicuously looted and misappropriated by political leaders at the expense of the Niger Delta environment and its people. This confluence of exploitation and injury has led to social upheavals and armed rebellions, all capable of precipitating the disintegration of the country. In this

  6. Psychosocial risks and hydrocarbon leaks : an exploration of their relationship in the Norwegian oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, L.I.V.; Ringstad, A.J.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon leaks have a major accident potential in the oil and gas industry. Over the years the oil and gas industry in Norway has worked hard to find means to prevent hydrocarbon leaks and is today able to report significant progress. In this context, the exploration of accidents in light of huma

  7. A model of crude oil production: The roles of physics, exploration, and site development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmanis, Maris

    I propose an integrated model of the behavior of a profit-maximizing crude oil producer. I show that the producer's optimization program can be decomposed into an extraction program, which is subject to physical constraints, an investment level program, a development timing program, and an exploration program for new prospects. In the extraction program, I find that it is optimal to extract oil at the maximal feasible rate, unless prices are expected to rise steeply. I also show that such a price process can arise in equilibrium and that prices in such an equilibrium grow at a rate determined by the decrease rate of the maximal feasible extraction rate. In the investment level program, I find that optimal investment is always increasing in the size of the field and, if the current price of oil net of extraction costs is positively related to future net prices, the investment level is also increasing in the net price. In addition, investment increases in the current technology level, unless technological improvements carry very bad news about future prices. Optimal development timing generally has an ambiguous relation to current shock values, and fields are not necessarily developed in a monotonic order by size. However, I establish conditions on the shock process under which development is more likely to occur in higher-price, lower-cost, and higher-technology states and show that the same conditions also ensure that larger fields are developed first. Under the same conditions that ensure monotonic development time dynamics, I show that it is optimal to explore fields in stochastically decreasing order of size and that the total number of prospects explored in a play in a given period responds positively to prices and technology, but is generally declining over the lifetime of the play. The model replicates a number of industry facts. First, crude oil producers respond to price and cost shocks primarily at the extensive margin, by adjusting exploration and

  8. Global Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Expenditure in 2003 Rises 4.8 Percent as Compared to Previous Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A recent survey by Friedman Billings Ramsey (FBR) shows that the oil and gas companies worldwide plan to increase the fund for exploration and development to US$136 billion in 2003, 4.8 percent up from the previous year. The second half of 2003 will see even a higher increase in the fund. In 2002, the exploration and development expenditure of the surveyed oil and gas companies rose 3.6 percent as compared to 2001.

  9. Technical costs and economics of some typical oil and gas exploration and development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassler, P.

    1984-04-01

    Information from a number of actual projects, mainly located outside the Middle East region, analyzes the technical costs and economics of past, present, and future oil and gas exploration and development projects. The article identifies various cost components, and notes that these costs reflect the behavior of international and local markets for the resources concerned. Technical costs show a strong tendency to increase with time, the growth rate depending on the complexity of recovery of development and the need for enhanced recovery methods. Besides technical costs and taxes, potential investors should also consider energy values in evaluating a project. 1 figure, 1 table.

  10. Aplication of AVO Technique to Gas Exploration in Liaohe Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Changqing; Zhou Faping

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction AVO (Amplitude Versus Offset) technique uses prestack seismic data to predict reservoirs and detect hydrocarbon. We used AVO to find gas for the first time in Liaohe Oil Fields. Both real and synthetic data show that the typical AVO characteristics of gas reservoirs in Liaohe Basin appears dominantly as dim spots and occasionally bright spots. But the bright spot reservoirs are only restricted at depths less than 1 000 m These features can function as detection criteria for the application of AVO to gas exploration in Damintun Depression. which have been proved by real data to be right and reliable.

  11. Exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in Germany in 2011; Exploration und Produktion von Erdoel und Erdgas in Deutschland 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, Michael [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie, Hannover (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    This article presents an overview of oil and gas exploration and production in Germany in 2011. The report is based on data gathered on a regular basis by the State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) from the oil and gas companies and the other state mining offices. An increase in exploration activities due to the granting of new licences was not observed so far. In contrast, the amount of geophysical prospecting for oil and gas was below average and the number of new exploration wells decreased. Three 3D seismic surveys were conducted; all of them were located in Southern Germany. Neither 2D seismic data nor gravimetric or geomagnetic data were acquired. In 2011 ten new exploration wells were drilled compared to thirteen wells in 2010. Another fifteen exploration wells were drilled to total depth already before 2011, but not completed by final well results. In 2011 eight new field wildcats were completed. Two of these wells discovered gas and five of these wells were completed successfully. One well was not successful. Another five exploration wells (new pool tests) were completed. Four of these wells confirmed the presence of gas and one well the presence of oil. The number of new field development wells doubled to 46 compared to 2010. In addition to that number, another seven wells were drilled to total depth already before 2011, but not completed by final well results. 33 wells were completed successfully and encountered oil or gas pay zones. The total drilling meterage increased significantly to 73,272 m compared to 51,411 mof the previous year. This was the highest level since 1998. The natural gas production continued its downward trend in 2011. Due to the depletion of gas fields, the annual natural gas production dropped by 5%compared to the previous year and amounted to 12.9 billion m{sup 3} (field quality). The annual crude oil production increased by 6.6% to 2.7 million t, primarily due to the increase in production from the Mittelplate

  12. Oil and gas reservoir exploration based on hyperspectral remote sensing and super-low-frequency electromagnetic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiming; Zhang, Zili; Chen, Li; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Chengye

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a method that combined hyperspectral remote sensing with super-low-frequency (SLF) electromagnetic detection to extract oil and gas reservoir characteristics from surface to underground, for the purpose of determining oil and gas exploration target regions. The study area in Xinjiang Karamay oil-gas field, China, was investigated. First, a Hyperion dataset was used to extract altered minerals (montmorillonite, chlorite, and siderite), which were comparatively verified by field survey and spectral measurement. Second, the SLF electromagnetic datasets were then acquired where the altered minerals were distributed. An inverse distance weighting method was utilized to acquire two-dimensional profiles of the electrical feature distribution of different formations on the subsurface. Finally, existing geological data, field work, and the results derived from Hyperion images and SLF electromagnetic datasets were comprehensively analyzed to confirm the oil and gas exploration target region. The results of both hyperspectral remote sensing and SLF electromagnetic detection had a good consistency with the geological materials in this study. This paper demonstrates that the combination of hyperspectral remote sensing and SLF electromagnetic detection is suitable for the early exploration of oil and gas reservoirs, which is characterized by low exploration costs, large exploration areas, and a high working efficiency.

  13. Seepage system of oil-gas and its exploration in Yinggehai Basin located at northwest of South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiong He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Seepage systems of oil-gas in Yinggehai Basin are divided into two types, namely: “micro-seepage”, which is presented by gas chimneys and pockmarks; and “macro-seepage”, which is also called oil-gas outflow; and, in addition, the combination of the two basic types. Among the oil seepage systems, the combined seepage system at Yingdong Slope of Yinggehai Basin is the most eye-catching, and gas chimneys and pockmarks micro-leakage systems in mud diapir zones in the central part of the basin are very common. Both the indications of large-scale oil-gas outflow at Yingdong Slope, which have been booming for a hundred years; and the occurrence of pockmarks at the central mud diapir belt, along with the chaotic seismic reflection of widely-distributed shallow gas chimneys—have shown that hydrocarbon in this area is sufficient and oil-gas is now in dynamic equilibrium of the processes of accumulation, migration, gathering and dispersing. It builds up good conditions for the accumulation, migration, gathering and reserving of oil and gas. However, it must be noted that the results of oil-gas exploration at Yingdong Slope didn't turn out to be satisfactory, despite the presence of oil-gas outflow and gas chimney combined seepage systems. So, strengthen synthesized analysis and study on oil-gas seepage systems and on the conditions for accumulation, migration, gathering and dispersing; the forecasting and evaluation to the advantageous conditions for enriched oil and gas zones; and trap preservation in accordance with the dynamic balance theories; are of significant importance for purposes of exploration.

  14. Brief Analysis of Investment and Effect for Oil/Gas Exploration During Eighth Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Liufang

    1996-01-01

    @@ The characteristics of high risk and declining productive capability in oil/gas exploration and development necessitate continuous huge amount of investment for both the simple reproduction and the expanded reproduction .The size of input, the increment of production, and the economic benefit are related to each other. Without sufficient and subsequently effective funds input, it is impossible to develop the oil and gas industry steadily. Similarly. without the growth of oil and gas reserves and production, it is also impossible to yield better economic benefit.

  15. Exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in Germany in 2012; Exploration und Produktion von Erdoel und Erdgas in Deutschland 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, Michael [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    This article presents an overview of oil and gas exploration and production in Germany in 2012. The report is based on data gathered on a regular basis by the State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) from the oil and gas companies and the other state mining offices. Due to the granting of new licences in the last years, a significant increase of geophysical prospecting of the subsurface for oil and gas deposits was observed. Six 3D seismic surveys were conducted. Five surveys were located in the Upper Rhine Valley and one in the lowlands of Northwest Germany. 2D seismic data were acquired in Lusatia (Brandenburg) and at the coast of the Baltic Sea. The number of exploration wells decreased once again. In 2012 nine exploration wells were drilled, compared to ten in the previous year. In addition to that number, another seven exploration wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. None of the ten new field wildcats were completed by result. Three exploration wells (appraisal wells) were completed successfully. Two of these wells confirmed the presence of gas and one the presence of oil. The number of development wells decreased significantly. In 2012 31 wells were drilled, compared to 46 in the prominent year 2011. Another 13 wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. 31 wells were completed successfully. 30 of these wells encountered oil or gas pay zones. In 2011 drilling meterage has reached its highest value since 1998. In contrast the total drilling meterage decreased slightly by less than 2000 m to 71,424 min 2012. The natural gas production continued its downward trend. Due to the depletion of gas fields, the annual natural gas production dropped by 9.1% compared to the previous year and amounted to 11.7 billion m{sup 3} (field quality). After the increase in 2011, the annual crude oil production decreased by 2.1% to 2.6 million

  16. Shape memory alloy actuated accumulator for ultra-deepwater oil and gas exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Devendra; Song, Gangbing

    2016-04-01

    As offshore oil and gas exploration moves further offshore and into deeper waters to reach hydrocarbon reserves, it is becoming essential for the industry to develop more reliable and efficient hydraulic accumulators to supply pressured hydraulic fluid for various control and actuation operations, such as closing rams of blowout preventers and controlling subsea valves on the seafloor. By utilizing the shape memory effect property of nitinol, which is a type of shape memory alloy (SMA), an innovative SMA actuated hydraulic accumulator prototype has been developed and successfully tested at Smart Materials and Structure Laboratory at the University of Houston. Absence of gas in the developed SMA accumulator prototype makes it immune to hydrostatic head loss caused by water depth and thus reduces the number of accumulators required in deep water operations. Experiments with a feedback control have demonstrated that the proposed SMA actuated accumulator can provide precisely regulated pressurized fluids. Furthermore the potential use of ultracapacitors along with an embedded system to control the electric power supplied to SMA allows this accumulator to be an autonomous device for deployment. The developed SMA accumulator will make deepwater oil extraction systems more compact and cost effective.

  17. Exploration of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on soils contaminated by crude oil from South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Napoleon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to explore hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on crude oil contaminated soil with potential to degrade hydrocarbon in oil pollutant. The research started by early August 2013 till January 2014. Soil sampling for this research was taken on several places with contaminated soil location such as Benakat, Rimau, and Pengabuan all of it located in South Sumatera. Conclusion from this research Isolates obtained from three (3 sites of contaminated soil and treated using SBS medium were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pnumoniae, Streptococcus beta hemolisa, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acinotobacter calcoaceticus. Isolates that survived on 300 ppm of hydrocarbon concentration were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter cakciaceticus Selected isolates posses the ability to degrade hydrocarbon by breaking hydrocarbon substance as the energy source to support isolates existence up to 1,67 TPH level. Based on results accomplish by this research, we urge for further research involving the capacity of isolates to degrade wide variety of hydrocarbon substance and more to develop the potential of these bacteria for bioremediation.

  18. Non-seismic applications of magnetotellurics for oil and gas exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearst, R. [Quantec Geoscience Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Magnetotellurics (MT) is an electromagnetic geophysical technique that uses natural electric fields from solar flares, ionospheric resonances, and lightning sources to induce current flow in the ground in order to image the earth's electrical resistivity structure from depths up to 100 km. Data is then correlated with geology, structure, and potential hydrocarbon traps. This presentation discussed non-seismic exploration activities conducted using MT in oil and gas applications. The MT units consist of a recording unit, a geographical positioning system (GPS) synchronization clock; field measurement electrodes; and low frequency magnetometers. Data from MT studies are correlated with data from seismic surveys. MT surveys provide high quality, accurate data, and can be used in areas where seismic surveys are difficult to acquire. Geophysical models are constructed using geologic models, which are then used to generate forward models to estimate the response expected in the field from an MT survey. A sample study of a salt dome was presented to demonstrate the technology, as well as 4 case studies of oil and gas MT surveys. The case studies demonstrated that MT can be used to acquire meaningful results in areas with complex geologies. tabs., figs.

  19. Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O' Connor

    2007-08-10

    The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

  20. Structural Control of Sand Bodies and Deep Exploration for Oil and Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Rihui; Lin Changsong; Zheng Herong

    2002-01-01

    The structural styles can be used to analyses and predict developments and distributions of sand bodies in a rift basin. The dynamic process of faulting and sedimentation can be expressed as follow: the basin topography controlled by fault activity can control water dynamics; which in turn affect the transport and sedimentation of sediments. The corresponding analysis between structural styles and sand depositional types includes the following aspects: (1) in section, the corresponding between development of fault terraces and sand depositional types; (2) in plane, the relationship between faults' association and distributions of sand bodies. There are four types of terrace styles to be identified. They are Steep Slope Single Fault Terrace (SSSFT), Steep Slope Multiple Fault Terrace (SSMFT), Gentle Slope (GS) and Gentle Slope Multiple Fault Terrace (GSMFT), which also can be divided into six subtypes by the timing of the faults activities and the directions of their activity migrations (basinward and landward or marginward). They correspond to the following sand depositions such as alluvial fan, fan delta and turbidite fan etc.. The analysis of structure-sedimentation is a discussion on the rank Ⅲ sequence evolution under the condition of pulsing or episodic fault activities. It has been recognized four plane fault associations such as the comb, the broom, the fork and the fault-fold association as well as the corresponding sand distributions. Structural-sedimentary models above mentioned are significant for the deep oil and gas exploration when lacking of the drill data. It may reduce multiple resolutions in the interpretation of seismic-sedimentary facies and promote sand predictions through the constraints of the structural styles of the basin units. The structural-sedimentary pattern can be used as a geological model in oil and gas exploration in the rift basins.

  1. Exploration Potential of Atectonic Oil-gas Pools in the Northern Shelf Basin of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuWeilin; WangZhenfeng; LvMing

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale oil exploration has been done and large quantities of oil-gas fields have been found in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea for more than 20 years. The tectonic oil-gas pools are the main type. With the exploration to be deepened, looking for atectonic oil-gas pools is listed in China's exploration strategy. There are advantages for the forming of atectonic oil-gas pools in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea. Because the level of water has been frequently changing within all historical periods, lithozones are changed alternately in both vertical and lateral directions and formed lithologic deposition especially at low water level stages, such as the low-lying fans of basin-floor fans and slope fans. Due to frequent tectonic movement within all historical periods, many structural surfaces and structural unconformities were formed. At the same time, they also formed many kinds of structural unconformity oil-gas pools. According to our exploration and research, the promising areas of atectonic reservoirs within marine basins include: (1) the basin-floor fan of the deep water district, such as the central depression of the Southeast Qiong basin and Baiyun sag in the Zhujiangkou basin; (2) the frontal area of the large ancient delta, such as the Lingao structural belt in the Yingge Sea basin and Huizhou sag in the Zhujiangkou basin; (3) the unconformity pinchout belt or denudation belt in the slope area and the uplift area, for instance, the Yingdong slope belt in the Yingge Sea basin and Yacheng 13-1 structural belt in the southeast Qiong basin. All this proves that the prospects for atectonic oil-gas pools in the northern shelf basin of the South China Sea are very broad.

  2. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the

  3. Present status and trend of oil/gas field exploration technology in polar region. Part 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, Koji

    1988-10-01

    The supporting system necessary for the oil/gas field exploration in the polar region includes the transportation of material/equipment between the support base and production site, maintenance/repair of exploration/production equipment, salvage and other systems. For the transportation, ice breakers, supply boats, trucks, helicopters and aircrafts are used. To heighten the ice breaker in ice breaking capacity, there is progress in bow shape, paint coating and power source, of which the main feature is the adoption of spoon shaped bow and diesel or turbine engine. For the transportation of personnel and material/equipment, the aircraft, and long flight range and high transport capacity helicopter being used, the hovercraft and vertical take-off and landing aircraft will be further introduced in no distant future. Besides, Archimedian screw type amphibian vehicle is in expectation for the various work use, and manned or unmanned submarine boat for the submarine work/maintenance use, diving unit for the submarine maintenance/inspection use and submarine burying unit for the pipeline burying use are developed. 23 figures, 18 tables.

  4. Re-evaluation of Oil/Gas Exploration in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhaocai

    1997-01-01

    @@ Industrial oil flow was discovered in Well Shacan No.2ten years ago. This breakthrough has attracted a great attention from various industrial sectors, thus promoting the formulation of the policy of "prospecting and developingnew oil/gas fields in West China". The breakthrough and the subsequent oil production in areas of Lunnan, Tazhong and Shaxi, and especially, the geographical location of Tarim Basin, have aroused much interest from petroleum geologists as well as oil corporations, big or small, in the world.

  5. Effects of disturbance associated with seismic exploration for oil and gas reserves in coastal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Wells, Christopher J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Johnson, Darren J.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion.

  6. Fifty years of oil exploration in Nigeria: the paradox of plenty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet over many years, it has been observed that nations rich in oil, gas, or mineral ... with rich endowments of natural resources [oil as in the case of Nigeria] often ... like this had given rise to other contemporary oil nations overtaking Nigeria.

  7. Shallow-ocean methane leakage and degassing to the atmosphere: triggered by offshore oil-gas and methane hydrate explorations

    OpenAIRE

    Yong eZHANG; Weidong eZhai

    2015-01-01

    Both offshore oil-gas exploration and marine methane hydrate recovery can trigger massive CH4 release from seafloor. During upward transportation of CH4 plume through water column, CH4 is subjected to dissolution and microbial consumption despite the protection of hydrate and oil coating on bubbles surface. The ultimate CH4 degassing to the atmosphere appears to be water-depth dependent. In shallow oceans with water depth less than 100 m, the natural or human-induced leakages or both lead to ...

  8. Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Thoma; John Veil; Fred Limp; Jackson Cothren; Bruce Gorham; Malcolm Williamson; Peter Smith; Bob Sullivan

    2009-05-31

    This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project 'Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.' The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.

  9. Exploring the WTI crude oil price bubble process using the Markov regime switching model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wang, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The sharp volatility of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price in the past decade triggers us to investigate the price bubbles and their evolving process. Empirical results indicate that the fundamental price of WTI crude oil appears relatively more stable than that of the market-trading price, which verifies the existence of oil price bubbles during the sample period. Besides, by allowing the WTI crude oil price bubble process to switch between two states (regimes) according to a first-order Markov chain, we are able to statistically discriminate upheaval from stable states in the crude oil price bubble process; and in most of time, the stable state dominates the WTI crude oil price bubbles while the upheaval state usually proves short-lived and accompanies unexpected market events.

  10. Panorama of Oil and Gas Exploration in Turpan-Hami Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wuhe

    1997-01-01

    @@ Turpan-Hami Basin (abbreviated to Tuha Basin) is one of the three largest petroliferous basins in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China with a total area of 53500km2. Its reserves and production of oil and gas have rapidly increased since 1990. By the end of 1995, the reserves of about 200 million tons of oil and 70 billion cubic meters of gas have been proved, with the annual oil productivity reaching three million tons. A new area of oil/gas fields has risen in East Xinjiang.

  11. Preliminary Exploration of a Novel Type High-effi-ciency Mosquito-repellent Compound Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei; Jing; Zhou; Yin; Sun; Yizhe; Wang; Tao; Yang; Jingya

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils were extracted from flowers and branches of Cestrum genus plant Telosma cordata(Burm. F.) Merr.,and used for purifying the mosquito-repellent refined oils. The yielded extracts were mixed with single nerve-smoothing or nerve-exciting components from lavender and peppermint or mixed with basal oils(like evening primrose),in order to prepare the novel type compound essential oils conferring mosquito-repellent and air-refreshing actions. The resulted compound was prepared into solid air freshener.

  12. An empirical exploration of the world oil price under the target zone model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linghui Tang; Shawkat Hammoudeh [Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Lebow College of Business

    2002-11-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of the world oil price based on the first-generation target zone model. Using anecdotal data during the period of 1988-1999, we found that OPEC has tried to maintain a weak target zone regime for the oil price. Our econometric tests suggest that the movement of the oil price is not only manipulated by actual and substantial interventions by OPEC but also tempered by market participants' expectations of interventions. As a consequence, the non-linear model based on the target zone theory has very good forecasting ability when the oil price approaches the upper or lower limit of the band. (author)

  13. An empirical exploration of the world oil price under the target zone model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Linghui; Hammoudeh, Shawkat [Department of Economics and International Business, Lebow College of Business, Drexel University, 19104 Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2002-11-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of the world oil price based on the first-generation target zone model. Using anecdotal data during the period of 1988-1999, we found that OPEC has tried to maintain a weak target zone regime for the oil price. Our econometric tests suggest that the movement of the oil price is not only manipulated by actual and substantial interventions by OPEC but also tempered by market participants' expectations of interventions. As a consequence, the non-linear model based on the target zone theory has very good forecasting ability when the oil price approaches the upper or lower limit of the band.

  14. Deep Drilling Into the Chicxulub Impact Crater: Pemex Oil Exploration Boreholes Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Chicxulub structure was recognized in the 1940´s from gravity anomalies in oil exploration surveys by Pemex. Geophysical anomalies occur over the carbonate platform in NW Yucatan, where density and magnetic susceptibility contrasts with the carbonates suggested a buried igneous complex or basement uplift. The exploration program developed afterwards included several boreholes, starting with the Chicxulub-1 in 1952 and eventually comprising eight deep boreholes completed through the 1970s. The investigations showing Chicxulub as a large impact crater formed at the K/T boundary have relayed on the Pemex decades-long exploration program. Despite frequent reference to Pemex information, original data have not been openly available for detailed evaluation and incorporation with results from recent efforts. Logging data and core samples remain to be analyzed, reevaluated and integrated in the context of recent marine, aerial and terrestrial geophysical surveys and the drilling/coring projects of UNAM and ICDP. In this presentation we discuss the paleontological data, stratigraphic columns and geophysical logs for the Chicxulub-1 (1582m), Sacapuc-1 (1530m), Yucatan-6 (1631m) and Ticul-1 (3575m) boreholes. These boreholes remain the deepest ones drilled in Chicxulub and the only ones providing samples of the melt-rich breccias and melt sheet. Other boreholes include the Y1 (3221m), Y2 (3474m), Y4 (2398m) and Y5A (3003m), which give information on pre-impact stratigraphy and crystalline basement. We concentrate on log and microfossil data, stratigraphic columns, lateral correlation, integration with UNAM and ICDP borehole data, and analyses of sections of melt, impact breccias and basal Paleocene carbonates. Current plans for deep drilling in Chicxulub crater focus in the peak ring zone and central sector, with proposed marine and on-land boreholes to the IODP and ICDP programs. Future ICDP borehole will be located close to Chicxulub-1 and Sacapuc-1, which intersected

  15. From olive drupes to olive oil. An HPLC-orbitrap-based qualitative and quantitative exploration of olive key metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, Periklis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Michel, Thomas; Gikas, Evagelos; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was the qualitative exploration and quantitative monitoring of key olive secondary metabolites in different production steps (drupes, paste, first and final oil) throughout a virgin olive oil production line. The Greek variety Koroneiki was selected as one of the most representative olives, which is rich in biological active compounds. For the first time, an HPLC-Orbitrap platform was employed for both qualitative and quantitative purposes. Fifty-two components belonging to phenyl alcohols, secoiridoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and lactones were identified based on HRMS and HRMS/MS data. Nine biologically and chemically significant metabolites were quantitatively determined throughout the four production steps. Drupes and paste were found to be rich in several components, which are not present in the final oil. The current study discloses the chemical nature of different olive materials in a successive and integrated way and reveals new sources of high added value constituents of olives.

  16. Exploration: A misunderstood business. [The economics and expenditures of planning and executing an oil and gas exploration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrenz, J. (Louisiana Tech. Univ., Ruston (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The business of exploration is persistently misunderstand. Why Misunderstandings persist and even pervade educated, sophisticated, and obviously capable business practitioners and savants of an array of disciplines - finance, economics, and the management sciences. Routine and appropriate assumptions that apply for most businesses invoke nonsense applied to exploration, a unique business. The uniqueness of exploration, unrecognized, sustains the misunderstandings. The authors will not here obliterate these obdurate misunderstandings with some revelation. They show, however, how the misunderstandings naturally arise among those who certainly are not used to being naive.

  17. Isolation and characterization of hyper phenol tolerant Bacillus sp. from oil refinery and exploration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Ghoshal, Aloke K

    2010-04-15

    Bacillus cereus MTCC 9817 strain AKG1 and B. cereus MTCC 9818 strain AKG2 were isolated from petroleum refinery and oil exploration site, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequence of strain AKG1 showed the closest relation to B. cereus 99.63% and Bacillus coagulans 99.63% followed by 99.34% homology with Bacillus thuringiensis strain 2PR56-10. AKG2 is mostly related to B. thuringiensis strain CMG 861 with 99.37% homology. The similarity search between AKG1 and AKG2 gave the lowest similarity 99.19% among same genus similar sequences. At phenol concentration of 1000 mg/L, the optimum growth conditions for AKG1 were found to be 37 degrees C and pH 7.0 and the same were found to be 37 degrees C and pH 7.5 for AKG2. The growth kinetics of the strains AKG1 and AKG2 are best fitted by Yano model (maximum growth rate, mu(max)=1.024 h(-1) and inhibition constant, K(I)=171,800 mg/L) and Edward model (mu(max)=0.5969 h(-1) and K(I)=1483 mg/L) respectively. Growth kinetics of both the strains are also well fitted by the Haldane model with mu(max)=0.4396 h(-1) and K(I)=637.8 mg/L for AKG1 and mu(max)=0.9332 h(-1) and K(I)=494.4 mg/L for AKG2.

  18. Orbital remote sensing for geological mapping in southern Tunisia: Implication for oil and gas exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Sherrie A.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2006-02-01

    mapping and seismic exploration. Identifying lithological and structural features using remote sensing studies incorporated with surface and sub-surface geological investigations in southern Tunisia can aid exploration for new oil and gas fields. Such an approach of integrating remote sensing and in situ geological studies can be successfully adopted in other parts of North Africa and arid regions in general.

  19. Hydrobiogeochemical controls on a low-carbon emitting energy extraction mechanism: exploring methanogenic crude oil biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna; McIntosh, Jennifer; Akob, Denise; Spear, John; Warwick, Peter; McCray, John

    2016-04-01

    Exploiting naturally-occurring microbial communities in the deep subsurface could help mitigate the effects of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. These microbial communities, a combination of methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, can perform methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, namely the conversion of crude oil to natural gas, and have also been detected in biodegraded, methanogenic reservoirs. These microbes could target residual crude oil, a high-carbon, hard-to-obtain fossil fuel source, and convert it to natural gas, effectively "producing" a lower CO2 per BTU fuel source. Yet, little is known about what geochemical parameters are driving microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs, and how the presence of specific microbial communities may impact methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. To investigate methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, 22 wells along a subsurface hydrogeochemical gradient in the southeastern USA were sampled for DNA analysis of the microbial community, and geochemical analysis of produced water and crude oil. A statistical comparison of microbial community structure to formation fluid geochemical parameters, amount of crude oil biodegradation, and relative extent of methanogenesis revealed that relative degree of biodegradation (high, medium, or low), chloride concentration (550 mM to 2100 mM), well depth (393 m to 1588 m), and spatial location within the reservoir (i.e., oil field location) are the major drivers of microbial diversity. There was no statistical evidence for correlation between extent of methanogenesis and the subsurface community composition. Despite the dominance of methanogens in these sampled wells, methanogenic activity was not predicted solely based on the microbial community composition. Crude oil biodegradation, however, correlates with both community composition and produced water geochemistry, suggesting a co-linear system and implying that microbial communities associated with degree

  20. Reducing Onshore Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Impacts Using a Broad-Based Stakeholder Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Childers

    2011-03-30

    Never before has the reduction of oil and gas exploration and production impacts been as important as it is today for operators, regulators, non-governmental organizations and individual landowners. Collectively, these stakeholders are keenly interested in the potential benefits from implementing effective environmental impact reducing technologies and practices. This research project strived to gain input and insight from such a broad array of stakeholders in order to identify approaches with the potential to satisfy their diverse objectives. The research team examined three of the most vital issue categories facing onshore domestic production today: (1) surface damages including development in urbanized areas, (2) impacts to wildlife (specifically greater sage grouse), and (3) air pollution, including its potential contribution to global climate change. The result of the research project is a LINGO (Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil) handbook outlining approaches aimed at avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating environmental impacts. The handbook identifies technical solutions and approaches which can be implemented in a practical and feasible manner to simultaneously achieve a legitimate balance between environmental protection and fluid mineral development. It is anticipated that the results of this research will facilitate informed planning and decision making by management agencies as well as producers of oil and natural gas. In 2008, a supplemental task was added for the researchers to undertake a 'Basin Initiative Study' that examines undeveloped and/or underdeveloped oil and natural gas resources on a regional or geologic basin scope to stimulate more widespread awareness and development of domestic resources. Researchers assessed multi-state basins (or plays), exploring state initiatives, state-industry partnerships and developing strategies to increase U.S. oil and gas supplies while accomplishing regional economic and environmental goals.

  1. Map service: Historical oil and gas exploration for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), southwestern Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service was created to assemble oil and gas well information for a comprehensive inventory of energy data pertinent to the Wyoming Landscape Conservation...

  2. Corruption and oil exploration: expert agreement about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A; Stammen, Ronald M; Mantell, Joanne E

    2008-08-01

    The Niger Delta, according to the Nigerian Ministry of Health, has a disproportionately high HIV infection rate, which is double the national average. The United Nations Development Program attributes the spiraling HIV infection rate in the region to poverty, migration and gender inequality. This paper examines two complementary suppositions: Is the high prevalence of HIV in the Niger Delta related to incompetent leadership and corruption? Is it related to the negative effects of oil exploration in the region? Currently, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of government programs or the role of the oil industry on the impact of AIDS in Nigeria. To address this gap, we conducted a survey with 27 internationally renowned experts from diverse disciplines using a three-round modified Delphi to formulate consensus about the impact of weak governance and oil corruption on AIDS in the Niger Delta. Results from the Delphi suggest that these factors and others have exacerbated the transmission of HIV in the region. To mitigate the impact of AIDS in the region, efforts to engage oil companies in implementing HIV prevention programs as part of their corporate environmental responsibility to the community are urgently needed.

  3. Oil Exploration and the Challenges of Food Security: A Reflection on the Indigenous Minorities of the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogege Sam Omadjohwoefe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines oil exploration and the challenges of food security in the Niger Delta. Oil exploratory activities inevitably upturn the balance of the earth crust and degrade the larger environment through the dumping of harmful wastes, gas flaring and intermittent oil spillage. The paper maintains that the indigenous minorities have been particularly badly hit since most of their economic activities tied to the environment are either disrupted or destroyed. The hitherto fertile farmlands have regressively lost fertility. The rivers are without fishes and the forests without animals. This no doubt, has adverse implication for food security. Environmental degradation and its attendant problem of food insecurity are exacerbated by lopsided and impotent environmental policies that are formulated by the Nigerian state. Based on the above, the paper recommends among others, that the Nigerian state should as a matter of necessity, develop environmental regulatory framework that can guarantee steady oil production with minimal adverse environmental impact on the prevailing food chain of the indigenous minorities in the Niger Delta.

  4. Corruption and oil exploration: expert agreement about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A.; Stammen, Ronald M.; Mantell, Joanne E.

    2008-01-01

    The Niger Delta, according to the Nigerian Ministry of Health, has a disproportionately high HIV infection rate, which is double the national average. The United Nations Development Program attributes the spiraling HIV infection rate in the region to poverty, migration and gender inequality. This paper examines two complementary suppositions: Is the high prevalence of HIV in the Niger Delta related to incompetent leadership and corruption? Is it related to the negative effects of oil exploration in the region? Currently, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of government programs or the role of the oil industry on the impact of AIDS in Nigeria. To address this gap, we conducted a survey with 27 internationally renowned experts from diverse disciplines using a three-round modified Delphi to formulate consensus about the impact of weak governance and oil corruption on AIDS in the Niger Delta. Results from the Delphi suggest that these factors and others have exacerbated the transmission of HIV in the region. To mitigate the impact of AIDS in the region, efforts to engage oil companies in implementing HIV prevention programs as part of their corporate environmental responsibility to the community are urgently needed. PMID:17906312

  5. Barite: a case study of import reliance on an essential material for oil and gas exploration and development drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Miller, M. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Global dependence on a limited number of countries for specific mineral commodities could lead to sudden supply disruptions for the United States, and barite is one such commodity. Analyses of barite supply amounts and sources for the United States are demonstrative of mineral commodities on which the country is import reliant. Mineral commodity trade flows can be analyzed more easily than import reliances for commodities in which U.S. domestic demand is primarily met by materials contained within manufactured products, as with the rare-earth elements in cellular phones and computers. Barite plays an essential role as a weighting material in drilling muds used in oil and gas drilling, primarily to prevent the explosive release of gas and oil during drilling. The Nation’s efforts to become more energy independent are based largely on the domestic oil and gas industry’s ability to explore and develop onshore and offshore fuel deposits. These activities include increased efforts by the United States to locate and recover oil and gas within unconventional deposits, such as those in the Bakken, Eagle Ford, and Marcellus Formations, using advanced drilling technologies.

  6. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation.

  7. Oil Exploration and the Dilemma of Unemployment in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwosu Jonathan E

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Niger delta region situated in the southern part of Nigeria covers a territory of about 112,110 km2, which represents about 12 % of the total area of the country. The Niger delta is an oil-rich region, which has led Nigeria to the 12th place among the oil producing countries of the world. The share of crude oil production accounts for 90 % of export revenues and 75% of the total state revenue. However, despite the numerous social and economic achievements of the oil industry, it is considered to be the cause of the unemployment rate growth in the region. Taking into account the abovementioned, the aim of this article is to evaluate the relationship of the crude oil production and high unemployment rate in the Niger Delta. In the article there applied the method of non-experimental research to enable the proportional reflection, method of cluster random choice for distribution of questionnaires and interviewing method for obtaining direct data and information. The results showed that the ecological damage caused by the oil production has had a negative impact on the fishing and agriculture — the main activities of the region rural population. In other words, the threat of oil spills, gas flaring, pollution and other activities associated with oil production are destroying the environment, which is the main home and source of income for a large number of working-age population. Thus, as a result of the depletion of fertile soils, the crop yield drops or completely disappears, forests vanish together with their resources. Rivers and reservoirs are being polluted resulting in the extinction of fish and river fauna, which, in turn, leads to the fact that fishermen and farmers, whose work is directly dependent on environmental conditions, are affected by unemployment. This causes a widespread poverty, unrest and hostile attitude of among young people, as well as the emergence of other social problems prevailing in the region. Unfortunately, the

  8. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Bartone, Paul T; Eid, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents.

  9. Shallow-ocean methane leakage and degassing to the atmosphere: Triggered by offshore oil-gas and methane hydrate explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong eZHANG

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both offshore oil-gas exploration and marine methane hydrate recovery can trigger massive CH4 release from seafloor. During upward transportation of CH4 plume through water column, CH4 is subjected to dissolution and microbial consumption despite the protection of hydrate and oil coating on bubbles surface. The ultimate CH4 degassing to the atmosphere appears to be water-depth dependent. In shallow oceans with water depth less than 100 m, the natural or human-induced leakages or both lead to significant sea-to-air CH4 degassing from 3.00 to 1.36 × 105 μmol m-2 d-1. To quantify the human-perturbation induced CH4 degassing, the combination of top-down modeling and bottom-up calculations is essential due to spatial and temporal variability of diffusion and ebullition at water-air interface.

  10. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    CERN Document Server

    Xhixha, Gerti; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 24 +/- 3 Bq/kg and 549 +/- 12 Bq/kg, respectively, come from oil-sand produced by hydrocarbon extraction from molasses formations. The mineralogical characterization together with the 228Ra/40K and 226Ra/40K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirm the geological and geodynamic model that predicts a dismantling of Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (+/- standard deviations) of the radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and of the 228Th and 40K radionuclides in soil samples are determined...

  11. Oil Exploration in Nigeria and its Socio-Economic Impact in Ogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of product demand and international network of operations, the industry affects ... As a result, a day hardly passes without oil being mentioned in the news. ... the dominant role of petroleum in the Nigerian Economy and are therefore eager to ...

  12. Metals in water, sediments, and biota of an offshore oil exploration area in the Potiguar Basin, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, L D; Campos, R C; Santelli, R E

    2013-05-01

    Metal concentrations were evaluated in water, bottom sediments, and biota in four field campaigns from 2002 to 2004 in the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil, where offshore oil exploration occurs. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Total metal concentrations in water (dissolved + particulate) and sediments were in the range expected for coastal and oceanic areas. Abnormally high concentrations in waters were only found for Ba (80 μg l(-1)) and Mn (12 μg l(-1)) at the releasing point of one of the outfalls, and for the other metals, concentrations in water were found in stations closer to shore, suggesting continental inputs. In bottom sediments, only Fe and Mn showed abnormal concentrations closer to the effluent releasing point. Metal spatial distribution in shelf sediments showed the influence of the silt-clay fraction distribution, with deeper stations at the edge of the continental shelf, which are much richer in silt-clay fraction showing higher concentrations than shallower sediments typically dominated by carbonates. Metal concentrations in estuarine (mollusks and crustaceans) and marine (fish) organisms showed highest concentrations in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae). Fish tissues metal concentrations were similar between the continental shelf influenced by the oil exploration area and a control site. The results were within the range of concentrations reported for pristine environments without metals contamination. The global results suggest small, if any, alteration in metal concentrations due to the oil exploration activity in the Potiguar Basin. For monitoring purposes, the continental inputs and the distribution of the clay-silt fraction need to be taken into consideration for interpreting environmental monitoring results.

  13. Identifying Oil Exploration Leads using Intergrated Remote Sensing and Seismic Data Analysis, Lake Sakakawea, Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, Willistion Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott R. Reeves; Randal L. Billingsley

    2004-02-26

    The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, inhabited by the Arikara, Mandan and Hidatsa Tribes (now united to form the Three Affiliated Tribes) covers a total area of 1530 mi{sup 2} (980,000 acres). The Reservation is located approximately 15 miles east of the depocenter of the Williston basin, and to the southeast of a major structural feature and petroleum producing province, the Nesson anticline. Several published studies document the widespread existence of mature source rocks, favorable reservoir/caprock combinations, and production throughout the Reservation and surrounding areas indicating high potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. This technical assessment was performed to better define the oil exploration opportunity, and stimulate exploration and development activities for the benefit of the Tribes. The need for this assessment is underscored by the fact that, despite its considerable potential, there is currently no meaningful production on the Reservation, and only 2% of it is currently leased. Of particular interest (and the focus of this study) is the area under the Lake Sakakawea (formed as result of the Garrison Dam). This 'reservoir taking' area, which has never been drilled, encompasses an area of 150,000 acres, and represents the largest contiguous acreage block under control of the Tribes. Furthermore, these lands are Tribal (non-allotted), hence leasing requirements are relatively simple. The opportunity for exploration success insofar as identifying potential leads under the lake is high. According to the Bureau of Land Management, there have been 591 tests for oil and gas on or immediately adjacent to the Reservation, resulting in a total of 392 producing wells and 179 plugged and abandoned wells, for a success ratio of 69%. Based on statistical probability alone, the opportunity for success is high.

  14. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to explore the geochemistry of the Santa Barbara oil seeps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Christopher; Nelson, Robert

    2013-03-27

    The development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) has expanded the analytical window for studying complex mixtures like oil. Compared to traditional gas chromatography, this technology separates and resolves at least an order of magnitude more compounds, has a much larger signal to noise ratio, and sorts compounds based on their chemical class; hence, providing highly refined inventories of petroleum hydrocarbons in geochemical samples that was previously unattainable. In addition to the increased resolution afforded by GC x GC, the resulting chromatograms have been used to estimate the liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, octanol-water partition coefficients, and vaporization enthalpies of petroleum hydrocarbons. With these relationships, powerful and incisive analyses of phase-transfer processes affecting petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in the environment are available. For example, GC x GC retention data has been used to quantitatively deconvolve the effects of phase transfer processes such as water washing and evaporation. In short, the positive attributes of GC x GC-analysis have led to a methodology that has revolutionized the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons. Overall, this research has opened numerous fields of study on the biogeochemical "genetics" (referred to as petroleomics) of petroleum samples in both subsurface and surface environments. Furthermore, these new findings have already been applied to the behavior of oil at other seeps as well, for petroleum exploration and oil spill studies.

  15. Environmental Management System of Petroleum Industries: A case study of Oil and Gas Exploration in the Zamrud Field Conservation Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onny Setiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background:The Zamrud Field is one of the oil fields managed by Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI a production sharing contractor of Pertamina. It is located in the Coastal Plain and  Pekanbaru (CPP Block. The government of Indonesia has designated Zamrud as a conservation area. The petroleum industry in Zamrud fields has received 14001 ISO Certificate on Environmental Management System. The production sharing contract between CPI and the Government of Indonesia expired in August 2002 Methods: .This case study describes how CPI managed the development  of oil and gas production and compared to  the environmental management system for  petroleum industries  that should be taken  in the Zamrud conservation areas. Results: A number of specific measures were employed by CPI  to protect this sensitive area including a green seismic project, zero-discharge drilling, water management, preservation of nature and regular monitoring and impact assessment. There are two  important points that should be in consideration  for the environmental management system by CPI in the Zamrud areas, including top soil utilization to maintain biological and nutrients quality and re-vegetation in all areas of significant disturbances. Conclusion: oil and gas  exploration and production in conservation areas has to be managed through high commitment to good environmental  and social practices. Key words     : Environmental Management System (EMS, Petroleum Industries, Zamrud Field

  16. Exploring the Anti-Burkholderia cepacia Complex Activity of Essential Oils: A Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have checked the ability of the essential oils extracted from six different medicinal plants (Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, and Thymus vulgaris to inhibit the growth of 18 bacterial type strains belonging to the 18 known species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc. These bacteria are opportunistic human pathogens that can cause severe infection in immunocompromised patients, especially those affected by cystic fibrosis (CF, and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. The analysis of the aromatograms produced by the six oils revealed that, in spite of their different chemical composition, all of them were able to contrast the growth of Bcc members. However, three of them (i.e., Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus vulgaris were particularly active versus the Bcc strains, including those exhibiting a high degree or resistance to ciprofloxacin, one of the most used antibiotics to treat Bcc infections. These three oils are also active toward both environmental and clinical strains (isolated from CF patients, suggesting that they might be used in the future to fight B. cepacia complex infections.

  17. Who lives near coke plants and oil refineries An exploration of the environmental inequity hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J.D.; Beaulieu, N.D.; Sussman, D.; Sadowitz, M.; Li, Y.C. (Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Boston, MA (United States))

    1999-04-01

    Facility-specific information on pollution was obtained for 36 coke plants and 46 oil refineries in the US and matched with information on populations surrounding these 82 facilities. These data were analyzed to determine whether environmental inequities were present, whether they were more economic or racial in nature, and whether the racial composition of nearby communities has changed significantly since plants began operations. The Census tracts near coke plants have a disproportionate share of poor and nonwhite residents. Multivariate analyses suggest that existing inequities are primarily economic in nature. The findings for oil refineries are not strongly supportive of the environmental inequity hypothesis. Rank ordering of facilities by race, poverty, and pollution produces limited (although not consistent) evidence that the more risky facilities tend to be operating in communities with above-median proportions of nonwhite residents (near coke plants) and Hispanic residents (near oil refineries). Over time, the radical makeup of many communities near facilities has changed significantly, particularly in the case of coke plants sited in the early 1900s. Further risk-oriented studies of multiple manufacturing facilities in various industrial sectors of the economy are recommended.

  18. The economic growth and development in Angola since the oil exploration; O crescimento economico e o desenvolvimento em Angola apos a exploracao do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandini, Adriano Lirio; Machado, Tayonara Damasceno [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present article highlights a few relevant points in connection to the high index of economic growth in Angola and the exploration of oil in the region. Presenting accordingly a quick overview of the historic evolution of oil research in Angola to identify the beginning of oil exploration and its present production capacity. Therefore, it appoints also the economic growth characteristics limited to the oil sector and its implications to the economic, structural and human development in Angola. Thus, it will be taken under consideration the positive and negative impacts of the exploration of oil to Angola's economy. As a result, it will be considered the social situation in the region related to the economic growth presenting arguments to improve the structural and social development capacity of the country by taking advantage of the highest of oil production and exportation and its revenue. Also, it will be observed the human development evolution progress of Angola utilizing the indicator Human Development Index (HDI) from the United Nations. Therefore it intents to outline the necessity of investing in non extractive sectors of the economy with the purpose of creating this way a more diversification of production and to stimulate its exports participation minimizing the Commercial Balance dependency of the oil sector to keep up the superavit. And as a conclusion, its has been taken into account political government reform to fight corruption known to be in fact a obstacle to the development of a country. (author)

  19. The local content approach in activities of exploration and production of oil and gas; Conteudo local nas atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederice, Jose Carlos [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Conteudo Local; Macedo, Marcelo Mafra Borges de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regulacao de Petroleo e Derivados

    2008-07-01

    Breaking the monopoly of PETROBRAS for the activities of exploration and production of oil and natural gas has occurred in Brazil in 1995 by the Constitutional Amendment No 9 followed by the promulgation of the Law 9.478 of 1997, the 'Law of Oil' and the creation of the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo - ANP, with powers to regulate, recruit and monitor the oil and natural gas industry. The new regulatory framework has established the award granted by the State, through bids organized by the ANP, of the oil and gas exploration and production activities. This new model has established that the offers to purchase blocks must be composed by the Signature Bonus, Minimum Exploration Program and percentages of Local Content for the stages of exploration and development of production. As a result of market opening and the completion of bids over these 10 years, there has been a significant expansion of investment in the industry, revealing that the demands of Local Content rightly acted as a strong mechanism inducing the participation of local industry supplier of goods and services. In practical terms, in 1997 the participation of the sector of oil and gas in the Brazilian GDP was approximately 2.5% and now comes to 10.5%, or each R$ 100.00 generated in the country, R$ 10.50 come from the sector of oil and gas. (author)

  20. A Historical Perspective of Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Activities on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The discovery of oil within the Swanson River Field by the Richfield Oil Corp. on July 19, 1957 fused the words "oil" and "Kenai" into almost synonymous terms....

  1. Accelerating Oil and Gas Exploration in Western China by Studies of Formations of Hydrocarbon Accumulations in Superimposed Basins——A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiongqi

    2010-01-01

    @@ The superimposed basins in the western region of China are a hot research topic for earth scientists home and abroad for their vast area and rich oil and gas resources.Their complex geological conditions and resultant great exploration difficulties have received much attention of the scientists.This issue presents the advances of several scholars in their long-term research on the mechanisms of oil and gas accumulation and the patterns of oil and gas distribution.These studies are part of the National 973Project entitled"Mechanism of Oil and Gas Accumulation and Patterns of Oil and Gas Distribution in Typical Superimposed Basins in the Western Region of China(no.2006CB202300)",which is funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology.

  2. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  3. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (MX)] (and others)

    2003-08-01

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measured at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO{sub 2}, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and

  4. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper

  5. Oil exploration and development in Marib/Al Jawf basin, Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maycock, I.D.

    1988-02-01

    In 1981, Yemen Hunt Oil Company (YHOC) negotiated a production-sharing agreement covering 12,600 km/sup 2/ in the northeast part of the Yemen Arab Republic. A reconnaissance seismic program of 1864 km acquired in 1982 revealed the presence of a major half graben, designated the Marib/Al Jawf basin by YHOC. A sedimentary section up to 18,000 ft thick has been recognized. Geologic field mapping identified Jurassic carbonates covered by Cretaceous sands overlying Permian glaciolacustrine sediments, Paleozoic sandstones, or Precambrian basement. The first well, Alif-1, drilled in 1984, aimed at a possible Jurassic carbonate objective, encountered hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition between 5000 and 6000 ft. Appraisal and development drilling followed. The Alif field is believed to contain in excess of 400 million bbl of recoverable oil. Subsequent wildcat drilling has located additional accumulations while further amplifying basin stratigraphy. Rapid basin development took place in the Late Jurassic culminating with the deposition of Tithonian salt. The evaporites provide an excellent seal for hydrocarbons apparently sourced from restricted basin shales and trapped in rapidly deposited clastics.

  6. Exploring the antioxidant potential of lignin isolated from black liquor of oil palm waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Khalil, H P S A; Karim, A A

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential antioxidant activity of lignin obtained from black liquor, a hazardous waste product generated during the extraction of palm oil. Antioxidant potential of the extracted lignin was evaluated by dissolving the extracted samples in 2 different solvent systems, namely, 2-methoxy ethanol and DMSO. Results revealed high percent inhibition of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in the lignin sample dissolved in 2-methoxy ethanol over DMSO (concentration range of 1-100 microg/ml). Lignin extracted in 2-methoxy ethanol exhibited higher inhibition percentage (at 50 microg/ml, 84.2%), whereas a concentration of 100 microg/ml was found to be effective in the case of the DMSO solvent (69.8%). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry revealed that the functional groups from the extracted lignin and commercial lignin were highly similar, indicating the purity of the lignin extracted from black liquor. These results provide a strong basis for further applications of lignin in the food industry and also illustrate an eco-friendly approach to utilize oil palm black liquor.

  7. Effect of biological markers and kerogens in geochemical exploration for oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Song Nian; Li Wei Min; Gu Hui Min; Gao Pin Wen

    1985-02-01

    The aliphatic hydrocarbons of 29 Tertiary argillaceous rock samples from eastern China have been examined by computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The steroid and triterpenoid components provide new information for the characterization of depositional environments, organic matter, and maturation of the source rocks. These samples contain gamaceranes, 8,14-open-hopanes, diterpenoid hydrocarbons, and diasteranes. The abundant gamaceranes correspond to the preference of even carbon atoms. The highest gamacerane occurs in the strongly reducing environment. The abundant diterpenoid hydrocarbons relate with the type III kerogen. These diterpenoid hydrocarbons are derived from higher plant forms. The threshold of oil formation can be correlated with the ratio of 20S (22S) and 20R (22R).

  8. Study of Plasma Treatment of Produced Water from Oil and Gas Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kamau

    mg/L of bicarbonate ions. Water with bicarbonate ion concentration approaching zero resulted in prevention of scale. To enhance this new plasma induced fouling mitigation method, a plasma arc-in-water reactor was re-engineered, using a ground electrode, and two high-voltage electrodes, to stretch the arc discharge in water and increase contact between plasma and water. Results of simultaneous effects were also collected, showing within 5 min, a 4-log reduction in both Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) and Acid Producing Bacteria (APB), bacteria that are characteristic of oil-field produced waters; as well as oxidation of organics, with degradation of visually observable organics within 3 minutes, and decrease of oil and grease from 40 mg/L to under 10 mg/L within one min. With an arc-in-water system utilizing a stretched arc, simultaneous effects were exhibited on fouling ability of produced water, inactivation of bacteria, and degradation of organics. Plasma discharges in water represent a unique option in the treatment of produced waters from oil and gas production. While the water softening capabilities of arc-in-water systems present a new method for fouling mitigation and remediation of scale in heat exchangers, the simultaneous effects, including oxidation of organics and inactivation of bacteria, may allow application of plasma to water, to satisfy treatment targets that allow for the reuse of such waters in oil and gas operations.

  9. Overpressure development and oil charging in the central Junggar Basin,Northwest China:Implication for petroleum exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Junggar Basin is one of the largest and most petroliferous superimposed petroleum basins in China. The central depression area has become the frontier field for petroleum exploration. The characteristics of potential source rocks and reservoir sandstones, and the pressure regime in the central Junggar Basin were studied. Permian shales are dominated by hydrogen-rich, oil-prone algal organic matter, and Jurassic mudstones are dominated by hydrogen-poor, higher-plant derived organic matter. These source rocks are widespread and have been mature for hydrocarbon generation, suggesting good to excellent exploration potential, both for crude oils and for natural gases. The deeply buried Jurassic sandstones usually have low porosity and permeability. However, sandstones beneath the Jurassic/Cretaceous unconformity display relatively high porosity and permeability, suggesting that meteoric water leaching had improved the quality of the sandstones. Overpressure developed over much of the central Junggar Basin. The overpressured rocks are characterized by slightly increased interval transit time, low sandstone permeability, increased organic matter maturity, and high relative hydrocarbon-gas contents. Mudstones in the overpressured system have quite the same clay mineral compositions as mudstones in the lower part of the normally pressured system. Overpressure generation in the central Junggar Basin is best to be explained as the result of hydrocarbon generation and fluid retention in low-permeability rocks. Petroleum generated from Permian and Jurassic source rocks could migrate laterally through preferential petroleum migration pathways and accumulated in structural traps or lithological traps in the overpressured system, or migrate vertically through faults/ hydraulic fractures into the overlying, normally pressured system and accumulate in structural or lithological traps. Therefore, commercial petroleum reservoirs could be potentially found in both the overpressured

  10. Overpressure development and oil charging in the central Junggar Basin,Northwest China:Implication for petroleum exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI XiYuan

    2009-01-01

    The Junggar Basin is one of the largest and most petroliferous superimposed petroleum basins in China.The central depression area has become the frontier field for petroleum exploration.The characteristics of potential source rocks end reservoir sandstones,and the pressure regime in the central Junggar Basin were studied.Permian shales are dominated by hydrogen-rich,oil-prone algal organic matter,and Jurassic mudstones are dominated by hydrogen-poor,higher-plant derived organic matter.These source rocks are widespread and have been mature for hydrocarbon generation,suggesting good to excellent exploration potential,both for crude oils and for natural gases.The deeply buried Jurassic sandstones usually have low porosity and permeability.However,sandstones beneath the Jurassic/Cretaceous unconformity display relatively high porosity and permeability,suggesting that meteoric water leaching had improved the quality of the sandstones.Overpressure developed over much of the central Junggar Basin.The overpressured rocks are characterized by slightly increased interval transit time,low sandstone permeability,increased organic matter maturity,and high relative hydrocarbon-gas contents.Mudstones in the overpressured system have quite the same clay mineral compositions as mudstones in the lower part of the normally pressured system.Overpressure generation in the central Junggar Basin is best-to be explained as the result of hydrocarbon generation and fluid retention in low-permeability rocks.Petroleum generated from Permian and Jurassic source rocks could migrate laterally through preferential petroleum migration pathways and accumulated in structural traps or lithological traps in the overpressured system,or migrate vertically through faults/hydraulic fractures into the overlying,normally pressured system and accumulate in structural or lithological traps.Therefore,commercial petroleum reservoirs could be potentially found in both the overpressured system,and in the normally

  11. Oil exploration and development in Marib/Al Jawf basin, Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maycock, I.D.

    1986-07-01

    In 1981, Yemen Hunt Oil Company (YHOC) negotiated a production-sharing agreement covering 12,600 km/sup 2/ in the northeast part of the Yemen Arab Republic. A reconnaissance seismic program of 1864 km acquired in 1982 revealed the presence of a major half graben, designated the Marib/Al Jawf basin by YHOC. A sedimentary section up to 18,000 ft thick has been recognized. Geologic field mapping identified Jurassic carbonates covered by Cretaceous sands overlying Permian glaciolacustrine sediments, Paleozoic sandstones, or Precambrian basement. The first well drilled in 1984, aimed at a possible Jurassic carbonate objective, encountered hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition between 5000 and 6000 ft. A successful appraisal drilling program has demonstrated satisfactory lateral reservoir continuity. Further wildcat drilling demonstrates macro-unit correlation within the eastern part of the basin. Rapid basin development apparently commenced in the late Kimmeridgian, culminating with the deposition of Tithonian evaporites. Available geochemical analysis indicates sourcing from restricted-basin sediments. Excellent traps, reservoirs, and source beds underlying the Tithonian evaporites indicate that a significant new petroliferous province is present.

  12. Exploring the effect of cellulose nanowhiskers isolated from oil palm biomass on polylactic acid properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haafiz, M K Mohamad; Hassan, Azman; Khalil, H P S Abdul; Fazita, M R Nurul; Islam, Md Saiful; Inuwa, I M; Marliana, M M; Hussin, M Hazwan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) were prepared through solution casting technique. The CNW was first isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC) by using 64% H2SO4 and was designated as CNW-S. The optical microscopy revealed that the large particle of OPEFB-MCC has been broken down by the hydrolysis treatment. The atomic force microscopy confirmed that the CNW-S obtained is in nanoscale dimension and appeared in individual rod-like character. The produced CNW-S was then incorporated with PLA at 1, 3, and 5 parts per hundred (phr) resins for the PLA-CNW-S nanocomposite production. The synthesized nanocomposites were then characterized by a mean of tensile properties and thermal stability. Interestingly to note that incorporating of 3 phr/CNW-S in PLA improved the tensile strength by 61%. Also, CNW-S loading showed a positive impact on the Young's modulus of PLA. The elongation at break (Eb) of nanocomposites, however, decreased with the addition of CNW-S. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the CNW-S dispersed well in PLA at lower filler loading before it started to agglomerate at higher CNW-S loading (5phr). The DSC analysis of the nanocomposites obtained showed that Tg,Tcc and Tm values of PLA were improved with CNW-S loading. The TGA analysis however, revealed that incopreated CNW-S in PLA effect the thermal stability (T10,T50 and Tmax) of nanocomposite, where it decrease linearly with CNW-S loading.

  13. Ethical aspects of the oil exploration: the royalties and the intergenerational issue; Aspectos eticos da exploracao do petroleo: os royalties e a questao intergeracional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Flavia Cahete Lopes

    2008-03-15

    This work has as purpose to discuss the ethical aspects of the petroleum exploration mainly that ones which are referred to the intergenerational question. In this context, it is intended to discourse on the payment of royalties in reason of the exploration of oil, as a tool that guarantees the intergenerational fairness. Conceptually, the goal of the payment of royalties for the exploration of an exhaustible is exactly to guarantee that the future generations are compensated by the absence of the explored natural resources. Moreover, the work intends to verify whether the current Brazilian model of distribution and application of the referring resources that derives of the oil production corroborates for the sustainability of the future generations, which will not be able to count on the cited finite natural resources. (author)

  14. Beyond SHARP-- Primary Formaldehyde from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde has been named by the EPA as a hazardous air pollutant that may be carcinogenic and also cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat and lung. Moreover, it is a powerful radical and ozone precursor. The 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) was conceived by the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) on behalf of the Texas Environmental Research Consortium (TERC) to examine the relative importance of primary and secondary formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrous acid (HONO) in ozone formation. SHARP confirmed that primary combustion sources of HCHO, such as flares end engines, may be underestimated (by an order of magnitude or more) in official emission inventories used for the purpose of air quality modeling in highly industrialized areas such as Houston. This presentation provides recently generated modeling and observational evidence that the same may be true in both rural and urban areas with oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) activities, such as the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming and the Barnett Shale of Texas. Oil and gas E&P is increasing in the Gulf of Mexico region, particularly in the Barnett, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, Cana-Woodford, and Fayetteville shale basins. In the Barnett Shale, E&P activities are moving into urban neighborhoods, and may affect the ability to bring the Dallas-Ft. Worth region into attainment of the federal ozone standard. Data concerning formaldehyde emissions from drill rig and pipeline compressor engines, flares, and glycol or amine reboilers, should be obtained in order to more accurately model air quality in the Gulf of Mexico region.

  15. Identification of genes/loci and functional markers for seed oil quality improvement by exploring soybean genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The difference in seed oil composition and content among soybean genotypes can be attributed mostly to variations in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil-related genes expressed in seeds. We applied the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system to sequence RNA populations in soybean seeds fro...

  16. Exploration of waste cooking oil methyl esters (WCOME as fuel in compression ignition engines: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kathirvel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing human population and the corresponding economic development of mankind have caused a relentless surge in the energy demand of the world. The fast diminishing fossil fuel reserves and the overdependence of petroleum based fuels have already prompted the world to look for alternate sources of energy to offset the fuel crisis in the future. Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (WCOME has proven itself as a viable alternate fuel that can be used in Compression Ignition (CI engines due to its low cost, non-toxicity, biodegradability and renewable nature. It also contributes a minimum amount of net greenhouse gases, such as CO2, SO2 and NO emissions to the atmosphere. The main objective of this paper is to focus on the study of the performance, combustion and emission parameters of CI engines using WCOME and to explore the possibility of utilizing WCOME blends with diesel extensively in place of diesel. The production methods used for transesterification play a vital role in the physiochemical properties of the methyl esters produced. Various production intensification technologies such as hydrodynamic cavitation and ultrasonic cavitation were employed to improve the yield of the methyl esters during transesterification. This review includes the study of WCOME from different origins in various types of diesel engines. Most of the studies comply with the decrease in carbon monoxide (CO emissions and the increase in brake thermal efficiency while using WCOME in CI engines. Many researchers reported slight increase in the emissions of oxides of nitrogen. ANN modeling has been widely used to predict the process variables of the diesel engine while using WCOME. The versatility of ANN modeling was proven by the minimum error percentages of the actual and predicted values of the performance and emission characteristics.

  17. Crude costs: a framework for a full-cost accounting analysis of oil and gas exploration off Cape Breton, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, L.; Pannozzo, L.

    2001-12-01

    Defined as the total quantity of all goods and services produced and the total money earned and spent, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure used to determine how well an economy is doing. For its part, the Genuine Progress Index (GPI) measures 26 variables and was first developed in 1995. In Nova Scotia, a set of 20 social, economic and environmental indicators are examined to obtain a better picture of the well-being of the region and determine if the development is sustainable over time. The authors explained their approach based on the use of GPI analysis to assist decision makers in identifying the real costs and benefits of different options applied to the oil and gas exploration situation off Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The document is divided into five parts as follows: (1) Part 1: introduction, (2) Part 2: natural capital and the impacts of oil and gas development, (3) Part 3: social capital and the economic value of fishing and tourism, (4) Part 4: the real cost of oil and gas, and (5) Part 5: recommendations. Some of the recommendations call for the further study of cumulative and sub-lethal effects from petroleum development, the establishment of Marine Protected Areas preceded by a moratorium on oil and gas exploration in the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence and Sydney Bight areas until the establishment of the Areas is made, and that future environmental assessments concerning oil and gas development to address the impacts on species and ecosystems as a whole. 209 refs., 11 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. A brief history of oil and gas exploration in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California: Chapter 3 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenneth I.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    The Golden State got its nickname from the Sierra Nevada gold that lured so many miners and settlers to the West, but California has earned much more wealth from so-called “black gold” than from metallic gold. The San Joaquin Valley has been the principal source for most of the petroleum produced in the State during the past 145 years. In attempting to assess future additions to petroleum reserves in a mature province such as the San Joaquin Basin, it helps to be mindful of the history of resource development. In this chapter we present a brief overview of the long and colorful history of petroleum exploration and development in the San Joaquin Valley. This chapter relies heavily upon the work of William Rintoul, who wrote extensively on the history of oil and gas exploration in California and especially in the San Joaquin Valley. No report on the history of oil and gas exploration in the San Joaquin Valley would be possible without heavily referencing his publications. We also made use of publications by Susan Hodgson and a U.S. Geological Survey Web site, Natural Oil and Gas Seeps in California (http://seeps.wr.usgs.gov/seeps/index.html), for much of the material describing the use of petroleum by Native Americans in the San Joaquin Valley. Finally, we wish to acknowledge the contribution of Don Arnot, who manages the photograph collection at the West Kern Oil Museum in Taft, California. The collection consists of more than 10,000 photographs that have been scanned and preserved in digital form on CD-ROM. Many of the historical photographs used in this paper are from that collection. Finally, to clarify our terminology, we use the term “San Joaquin Valley” when we refer to the geographical or topographical feature and the term “San Joaquin Basin” when we refer to geological province and the rocks therein.

  19. The surface geochemical exploration of oil and gas in the Gangbatong-Ya’anxiang and the Dongqiao-Nam Co of the Qinghai-Tibet region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Due to the complexity of geological background and the adverseness of natural geographical environment in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,it is very difficult to carry out petroleum geological study in this region. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the only blank space of petroleum exploration on a large scale. The authors carried out the surface geochemical exploration of oil and gas in the Gangbatong-Ya’anxiang and Dongqiao-Nam Co of the Qinghai-Tibet region. Based on the data of actual detection and experiments in the studied area,the characteristics of concentration and profile distribution of the main geochemical exploration indicators(total adsorbed hydrocarbon,altered carbonate,thermal released mercury,etc.) were discussed. The origin of hydrocarbon was also discussed. Moreover,the oil and gas potential of different sections in the Qiangtang Basin and the Biru Basin were evaluated,which could provide references for the exploration and prediction of oil and gas in this region. The concentrations of total adsorbed hydrocarbons in the Ya’anxiang of Suoxian County-Zadong of Baqing County and the Jiecha-Dangxiong of Anduo County in the Qinghai-Tibet region are high,averaging 312.64 μL·kg-1 and 164.36 μL·kg-1. Their altered carbonate concentrations are relatively low,averaging 0.11% and 0.56%. Their concentrations of thermal released mercury are relatively high,averaging 13.09×10-9 and 1.94×10-9. Geochemical exploration results in fact reflect hydrocarbon information in the underground,which are mainly petroleum associated gas and over-matured cracking gas. The Jiecha-Charenluma and the Xiamaya’ertong-Suoba sections in the Qiangtang Basin are the most favorable ones for oil and gas and the Ekou-Zadong section is relatively favorable one,while the Nam Co and the Zigetangcuo-Dongqiao sections in the Biru Basin are the favorable ones for oil and gas,and the Jiang Co-Nading Co and the Ya’anxiang-Ya’ertong sections are relatively favorable ones.

  20. Long-Life, Oil-Free, Light-Weight, Multi-Roller Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicle Surface Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A multi-roller "oil free" traction drive is under development for use on vehicles used in hostile environments like those that will be encountered on planetary...

  1. EXPLORATION GEOCHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070497 Wang Shuangqing (National Research Center of Geoanalysis, Beijing 100037, China); Sun Weilin Review on Methodology in Oil and Gas Geochemical Exploration (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11-2131/TD, 24(4), 2005, p.271-276, 40 refs.) Key words: geochemical prospecting of oil and gas

  2. HEAVY OIL DEVELOPMENT KEY TO CHINA'S OIL PRODUCTION GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ How to raise the heavy oil production rate has long been a difficult research project focused by international oil giants while the super-heavy oil development is particularly a world-class bottleneck for many oil producers. However, China's main oil companies will give priority to heavy oil exploration and production in the next decade to meet China's increasing energy needs.

  3. Reservoir structures detection and hydrocarbons exploration using wavelet transform method in 2 oil fields in southwestern of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, H.; Saadatinejad, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    Spectral decomposition provides better methods for quantifying and visualizing subtle seismic features and by decomposing the seismic signal into discrete frequency components, allows the geoscientist to analyze and map features. Through these methods, continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is an effective and widely-applied. It provides a different approach to time-frequency analysis and produces a time-scale map. The application of CWT is extensive and in this paper, we applied two major capacities of CWT in seismic investigations. It operated to detect reservoir structural characteristics and low-frequency shadows below gas reservoirs to develop a producing reservoir and discover a new petroleum reservoir in 2 oilfields in southwestern of Iran successfully. At the first and significant application in reservoir structure study, CWT enabled to providing clear images from kind of structural systems especially to identify hidden structural features such as extensional ruptures and faults for better drilling, injection and recovery operations and be able to increase production of oilfield. According to properties of tectonic events as fault and their effect (velocity diffraction) on seismic signals, it had been observed that CWT results show some discontinuities in location of ruptures and be able to display them more obvious than other spectral results, especially on horizon slices. Then, by picking and interpretation those, we obtain map, kind, strike and deep direction of faults easily. In petroleum exploration case, low-frequency shadows in CWT results appear due to energy attenuation of seismic signal in high frequencies by the presence of gas; this means there are no high frequencies under the gas reservoir. This phenomenon accounts as an indicator and attribute to explore reservoirs containing gas. As the frequency increases, these shadows decrease and finally disappear. The ranges of these shadows are usually between 8 to 20 Hz in gaz and 28 to 35 Hz in oil

  4. Towards Sustainable Green Production: Exploring Automated Grading for Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB Using Machine Vision and Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Makky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, Indonesian palm oil industry has become a leading producer of the world, and been able to generatenotable foreign export reserves. In spite of this, problems still persist in this industry, including low productivity due to mishandling of raw material in post-harvest operations. One of the prime causes of this is manual grading/sorting of fresh fruit bunches, which is prone to error and misjudgement, as well as subjectivity. High demand of oil palm establishes its high price in world market, which drives the industry to expand its plantation area to increase production. Ultimately, it compromise forests and agricultural land, resulting stagnation or decline in several food products. Alternatively, before expanding plantation extent, oil extraction productivity of existing plantation can be improved by carefully selecting appropriate FFBs for post-harvest processing through introduction of automation. The use of machine vision and spectral analysis has shown to assist productivity of agricultural processing industry. This study employs automation technology for FFB grading in oil palm mills, resulting in improved raw material quality, thereby increasing the oil extraction productivity, and simultaneously contributing to partly release the pressure of deforestation by maintaining green agricultural areas.

  5. Offer restrictions on bidding of oil and natural gas exploration areas; Limitacoes de ofertas nas licitacoes de blocos exploratorios de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Marcelo Lauar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (PRH-36-ANP)

    2008-07-01

    Created by Law 9.478/97 (Law of Oil), the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP) has, among others, the purpose of laborating edicts and promoting public tenders to give concession to exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas, celebrating the future contracts and monitoring its execution. This procedure, however, has strong differences in comparison to the classical law 8.666/93 - the general law of public tenders of Brazil -, given the specificities of petroleum and gas natural industry. Based on the mitigation of the concept of free competition, ANP made, recently, use of clauses that restrict the offers to the winning bidders that participate in ANP's public tenders. The restrictive measure taken by the Regulatory Agency is constitutional, in order that it, indeed, develops the market and prevents the concentration of a single agent in a particular economic exploratory block, accomplishing the real free competition. (author)

  6. Optimization of Oil Body Extraction and Exploration of Oil Bodies’ Stability in Brassica napus%油菜油体的提取方法优化及其稳定性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 梁丛敏; 臧新; 徐静; 杨冬之; 田保明; 张绵绵

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the extraction method of oil bodiesand obtain higher purity oil bodies,the seeds of Brassica napus L.(Dingyouza 4) was used as the experiment materials,on the basis of the origi-nal method of extracting oil bodies,such as flotation centrifugation,detergent washing and ion eluting,two-steps elution through 9 mol/ L urea and extraction through n-hexane were increased to optimize the method. The effects of physical and chemical factors on the oil bodies’ stability were explored. The results showed that:the stable and high purity of oil bodies were obtained by the optimization method. The stabili-ty of oil bodies decreased with the increase of NaCl concentration;the oil bodies stably distributed in pH≤3 and pH≥7 and the oil bodies’ stability decreased obviously when pH value was between 4 and 6. The temperature almost had no effects on the oil bodies’ stability,and the oil bodies were quite stable un-der different temperatures. On this basis,polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to separate the oil body protein,and obtained a clearer protein band.%为了优化油体提取方法,获得较高纯度的油体,以甘蓝型油菜鼎油杂4号种子为试验材料,在漂浮离心、去污剂洗涤、离子洗脱液洗脱等程序的基础上,增加9 mol/ L 尿素洗脱、正己烷萃取等步骤进行优化,并探讨了理化因素对油体稳定性的影响。结果表明:优化后的方法提高了离体油体的完整性,获得的油体纯度较高。随着 NaCl 浓度的增加,油体的稳定性下降;pH 值≤3及 pH 值≥7时油体稳定分布,pH 值为4~6时油体稳定性明显下降;温度对油体的影响较小,不同温度下油体分布相对稳定。在此基础上,利用 SDS - PAGE 对油体蛋白进行分离,获得了较清晰的蛋白质条带。

  7. The current trend of oil and natural gas exploration in Quebec; L'engouement actuel pour l'exploration du petrole et du gaz naturel au Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcil, J.S. [Junex, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Canadian Inst. of Mining and Metallurgy, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Although Quebecers spend more than $10 million per year in hydrocarbon fuels, the production of hydrocarbons in the province is very small. Recently however, companies such as Junex of Quebec and Corridor Resources of Halifax have launched important hydrocarbon exploration programs in the province of Quebec. Quebec has a refining capacity of 500,000 barrels of oil per day and has 3 important refineries and an important petrochemical industry. In addition, the newly launched exploration programs are now beginning to yield results. Other companies have embarked in the exploration trend. These include Gastem, Aquatex, Petrolia, Talisman Energy, Amque and Petrolympia. In September 2006 the Quebec Ministry of Natural Resources issued 383 exploration permits. Since 2006, Junex has produced 1000 barrels of light crude that has been sold to the Ultramar refinery in Saint-Romuald. Junex has also been producing from wells in the Gaspe Peninsula. It was noted however, that successful development of hydrocarbon reservoirs in Quebec will require access to the offshore reserves in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where a current exploration moratorium is in place. Also, legal boundary definitions will need to be addressed to allow for exploration in the gulf. 3 figs.

  8. In Western Liaoning province area oil shale need for geological exploration and mining development%辽西地区油页岩矿急待勘查开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫占全

    2011-01-01

    当前国际能源的短缺,油页岩炼制页岩油可替代石油能源.辽西地区油页岩矿分布广泛,资源储量规模巨大,综合开发利用经济价值高.为早日改变辽西的贫穷与落后,勘查开发油页岩矿迫在眉睫.%The current international energy shortage, Shale oil shale oil refining alternative energy sources. In liaoning province oil shale contains western region ore widely distributed, Contain oil shale mineral resources is very big, Contain oil shale ore comprehensive exploitation and utilization of economic value is very big. In western liaoning province area accelerate transformation of poverty and backwardness, Geology exploration and mining development including oil shale ore is imminent.

  9. Exploring the Potential of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation and the Age Groups of Oil Palm Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiran, N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    The land use/land cover transformation in Malaysia is enormous due to palm oil plantation which has provided huge economical benefits but also created a huge concern for carbon emission and biodiversity. Accurate information about oil palm plantation and the age of plantation is important for a sustainable production, estimation of carbon storage capacity, biodiversity and the climate model. However, the problem is that this information cannot be extracted easily due to the spectral signature for forest and age group of palm oil plantations is similar. Therefore, a noble approach "multi-scale and multi-texture algorithms" was used for mapping vegetation and different age groups of palm oil plantation using a high resolution panchromatic image (WorldView-1) considering the fact that pan imagery has a potential for more detailed and accurate mapping with an effective image processing technique. Seven texture algorithms of second-order Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) with different scales (from 3×3 to 39×39) were used for texture generation. All texture parameters were classified step by step using a robust classifier "Artificial Neural Network (ANN)". Results indicate that single spectral band was unable to provide good result (overall accuracy = 34.92%), while higher overall classification accuracies (73.48%, 84.76% and 93.18%) were obtained when textural information from multi-scale and multi-texture approach were used in the classification algorithm.

  10. Key issues in relation to local human and technical resources in developing exploration and production in oil and gas, offshore British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayne, J.M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Jacques Whitford has been involved in nearly all of the geotechnical work associated with offshore development on the eastern coast of Canada from its early beginnings in 1972. It has built a national presence from an Atlantic corporate office. The company employs 900 people and operates from coast to coast in Canada, the northeast US and in several other countries around the world. The success of Jacques Whitford and Associates Limited in offshore Atlantic Canada can be attributed to strategic partnerships, international positioning, and multi-sectoral opportunities. The author describes how the same business philosophy can be applied to the offshore exploration and development in British Columbia. The operator's requirements before commencing offshore exploration in British Columbia are also examined with emphasis on the following 3 key issues: (1) a clear integrated federal-provincial framework governing the activity, (2) all related First Nations land claims must be resolved, and (3) all ecologically sensitive areas must be identified in advance and set aside. The following marine protected areas have been identified for British Columbia: 4 marine ecological reserves, 14 Class A parks, 2 Class R parks, 5 wildlife reserves, and the Kitlope Heritage Conservatory. The author concludes that there are already companies located in British Columbia with expertise in offshore oil and gas, but a supportive regulatory framework is required to ensure that the local expertise can benefit from the lifting of the moratorium on offshore oil and gas development. He emphasized that there is a need to set up the BC equivalent of the Atlantic Petroleum Boards (the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board) to administer the approval process for offshore BC oil and gas exploration and production.

  11. Prospecting, exploration and recovery of oil and gas in the Socialist Federated Republic of Yugoslavia for 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahimpasic, I.; Nedeljkovic, V.; Rajkovic, D.

    1982-01-01

    The economy of of the Socialist Federated Republic of Yugoslovia in 1981 experienced definite difficulties, nevertheless the development of the oil and gas industry continued at good rates. Oil recovery increased by 3.4%, and was 4.39 million T, gas recovery increased by 19% and was 2.2 billion m/sup 3/, the increase in the volumes of drilling was 1% (a total of 330,346 running meters of wells were drilled). Decrease in the volumes of imports had a negative effect on the activity of the sector, primarily technical support for drilling operations. A shortage of currency cast doubt on the implementation of plans for the five-year plan (up to 1985) and the subsequent period. Among the positive aspects of drilling one can include increase in the volumes of prospecting and exploratory drilling by 5%, as well as increase in the percentage of productive by 7%.

  12. 柴达木盆地近期勘探工作思考%Consideration about Recent Oil and Gas Exploration of Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付锁堂; 关平; 张道伟

    2012-01-01

    Qaidam basin, which is the seventh-largest petroliferous basins in China,is rich in oil and gas resources. Therefore, the basin possesses the conditions to be a large-scale oil and gas field. However, the strong Cenozoic Himalayan orogeny resulted in the complex structure of Qaidam basin. The source-reservoir-cap assemblage of the oil and gas field has been reformed intensively. And later reformations make the exploration become more difficult. For the petroleum enterprise,once faced a harsher circumstance to increase reserve and production. However,in recent years with the great support of the joint-stock company leadership, Qinghai Oilfield Company continues to emanci pate the mind. In terms of carefully and systematic analysis of the structure, deposition and petroleum geological conditions of Qaidam basin, explorationists changing the old exploration thoughts positively, and the exploration work obtains continuous breakthroughs. Two oil fields with 100 million ton reserves (Kunbei,Yingdong) and three oil fields with 50 million ton reserves (Hongliuquan,Wunan and Mabei) were sequentially discovered by Qinghai Oilfield Company. Natural gas risk exploration in deep zone of Eboliang III and Tainan reserves fields has also gains a major breakthrough progress. According to summarize the successful experience, we can sum up five guiding ide- ologies and four working principles. These ideas and principles play very important roles in making exploration work get breakthrough progress and successfully increasing reserves and production of Qaidam basin.%柴达木盆地是我国七大含油气盆地之一,油气资源丰富,具备建立大型油气田的资源基础。受新生代强烈的喜马拉雅造山运动的影响,盆地内构造十分复杂,油气田生、储、盖组合的后期改造非常严重,使得勘探难度很大,"增储上产"曾一度面临严峻的形势。但近年来青海油田公司通过解放思想,在认真系统地分析柴达木盆地构

  13. Oil spill contingency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kip, S.H. (Sarawak Shell Bhd/Saban Shell Petroleum Co. Ltd. (MY))

    1988-01-01

    Oil spill contingency planning is an essential feature required in present day activities involving oil and gas exploration, production and transportation. A well through out continency plan will not only eliminate or minimize the sense of panic, normally associated with oil spill emergency, but also can minimize damage and cost involved. Oil spill contingency planning is a process of predetermining a response to an oil spill emergency. The process of preparing a contingency plan is discussed in this paper.

  14. 加蓬油气勘探开发项目风险评估%Risk assessment of oil and gas exploration and development projects in Gabon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马卫征

    2014-01-01

    以国际油气勘探开发项目的风险管理为研究对象,借鉴前人的研究成果,综合运用系统分析、定性分析与定量分析相结合以及多学科理论相结合的方法,以风险分析与管理、工程项目管理、油气田勘探开发等有关基本理论为基础,运用层次分析法、多因素综合分析等方法对加蓬石油工程项目的风险进行了有效评估。分析结果:加蓬目前比较适合勘探开发项目的实施,风险等级为较小。%Taking risk management of international oil and gas exploration and development projects as research object, referring to previous research, comprehensive applying methods, such as system analysis, qualitative analysis combined with quantitative analy-sis and the combination of multidisciplinary theories, based on basic theories, such as risk analysis and management, project man-agement, oil and gas field exploration and development, using analytical hierarchy process and multifactor analysis, the risks of pe-troleum engineering project were effective evaluated in Gabon work area. The results show, at present, exploration and development projects have the lowest risk level and are relatively suitable for Gabon.

  15. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Pennsylvania Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  16. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Ohio Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  17. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Illinois Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  18. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Kentucky Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  19. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the State of Indiana Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  20. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as One-Mile Cells (Decadal Time Slices)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  1. The history of oil and gas exploration between the Baltic Sea and the Thuringian Forest; Zur Entwicklung der Erdoel- und Erdgasexploration zwischen Ostsee und Thueringer Wald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, E.P. [Erdoel-Erdgas Gommern GmbH, Gommern (Germany); Dubslaff, H. [Erdoel-Erdgas Gommern GmbH, Gommern (Germany); Eiserbeck, W. [Erdoel-Erdgas Gommern GmbH, Gommern (Germany); Sallum, R. [Erdoel-Erdgas Gommern GmbH, Gommern (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Hydrocarbon exploration started in the area between the Baltic Sea and the Thuringian Forest in 1951. At the beginning of the 1960s, wells were drilled at an average rate of over 150000 m per annum. The main targets were the Mesozoic in the North German Basin and the Zechstein; hydrocarbon accumulations were discovered at Kirchheilingen-Allmenhausen, Krahnberg, Behringen, etc. in the Thuringian basin. The Reinkenhagen oil field in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania was discovered in 1961 and the Salzwedel/Peckensen gas field in the Rotliegendes of the Altmark in 1968. Successful exploration resulted in the discovery of 297.5 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} of recoverable gas reserves in Permian strata until the end of 1989; the equivalent figure for oil is 4.3 million t. Up to the end of 1989, about 180 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} gas had been produced from Permian formations and 2.4 million t oil from the Zechstein. The hydrocarbons in the Stassfurt carbonate are autochthonous; i.e. the Stassfurt carbonate includes both the source rock and the reservoir rock. The nitrogen-rich gases in the Rotliegendes were generated epigenetically as a result of coalification of carboniferous source rocks and supply of nitrogen from the basement. Comprehensive data are presented from 27 deep boreholes (> 5000 m) drilled into Permian and pre-Permian strata. The future exploration targets are proposed on the basis of geoscientific studies. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Nach 1950 setzte im Gebiet zwischen Ostsee und Thueringer Wald die gezielte Kohlenwasserstoffexploration ein. Anfang der 60er Jahre wurden bereits ueber 150000 Bohrmeter jaehrlich abgeteuft. Zielhorizonte waren das Mesozoikum in der Norddeutschen Senke und der Zechstein mit dem Nachweis der Lagerstaetten Kirchheilingen-Allmenhausen, Krahnberg, Behringen u.a. in der Thueringer Senke. 1961 wurde die Erdoellagerstaette Reinkenhagen in Mecklenburg/Vorpommern aufgeschlossen. Die Entdeckung der Erdgaslagerstaette Salzwedel/Peckensen im Rotliegenden der

  2. Characterization of EPA's 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tank bottom solids and associated contaminated soils at oil exploration and production sites in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojes, Heidi K; Pope, Peter G

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration and types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of environmentally toxic and persistent chemicals, at contaminated oil exploration and production (E&P) sites located in environmentally sensitive and geographically distinct areas throughout Texas. Samples of tank bottom solids, the oily sediment that collects at the bottom of the tanks, were collected from inactive crude oil storage tanks at E&P sites and hydrocarbon contaminated soil samples were collected from the area surrounding each tank that was sampled. All samples were analyzed for the 16 PAH priority pollutant listed by US EPA and for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The results demonstrate that overall average PAH concentrations were significantly higher in tank bottom solids than in contaminated soils. Total PAH concentrations decreased predictably with diminishing hydrocarbon concentrations; but the percent fraction of carcinogenic PAHs per total measured PAH content increased from approximately 12% in tank bottom solids to about 46% in the contaminated soils. These results suggest that the PAH content found in tank bottom solids cannot reliably be used to predict the PAH content in associated contaminated soil. Comparison of PAHs to conservative risk-based screening levels for direct exposure to soil and leaching from soil to groundwater indicate that PAHs are not likely to exceed default risk-based thresholds in soils containing TPH of 1% (10,000mg/kg) or less. These results show that the magnitude of TPH concentration may be a useful indicator of potential risk from PAHs in crude oil-contaminated soils. The results also provide credibility to the 1% (10,000mg/kg) TPH cleanup level, used in Texas as a default management level at E&P sites located in non-sensitive areas, with respect to PAH toxicity.

  3. SEDIMENTARY PATTERN OF PROTOTYPE BASIN IN THE DEPOSITION PERIOD OF LAIYANG FORMATION AND THE ADVANTAGEOUS AREAS FOR OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION OF JIAOLAI BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhiping; LI Ling; LI Wei; ZHOU Yaoqi

    2004-01-01

    Laiyang formation of Jiaolai Basin is the target stratum for oil and gas exploration. By measuring several field sections, the authors find that Laiyang formation reveals the whole processes from development to death of the lake basin and its sedimentary facies differ in different structural locations.Analyses about sedimentary facies and paleocurrent orientations in association with researches about the positive tectonic units such as Dayetou horseback and Chaigou horst indicate that Laiyang sag is a relatively independent sedimentary unit that shows great water depth typical of deep lake or semideep lake and was controlled by Wulongcun fault during the deposition period of Laiyang formation. Its sediments mainly originated from Jiaobei uplift area and Dayetou horseback. Gaomi-Zhucheng sag was a fast-filled basin controlled by Wurong fault and Yishu fault zone, being high in the northeast and low in the northwest and characterized by the development of pluvial facies and fluvial facies in most areas, and with the development of lake facies being limited to local low-lying regions. Selection of advantageous hydrocarbon reservoir areas for exploration purpose mainly relies on the sedimentation pattern of prototype basin and conservation conditions. The central-west area of Laiyang sag covered by overlying Laiyang formation is the most advantageous exploration area.

  4. Exploring Ideational Metafunction in Helon Habila’s Oil on Water: A re-evaluation and redefinition of African Women’s Personality and Identity through Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léonard A. Koussouhon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at applying some of the principles guiding Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG to Helon Habila’s Oil On Water (2011. One of the major principles of Systemic Linguistics is that the exploration of the Transitivity properties (processes, participants, and circumstances in/of a text can give a full insight into how the writer encodes experiential meaning therein (Koussouhon & Allagbe, 2013 and Koussouhon & Dossoumou, 2014. This implies that the analysis in/of a text can reveal how its language is organized to express the speaker’s or narrator’s personal experience, views, etc., thereby contributing to the meaning of personal and interpersonal interaction. Given the importance of social role played by language in any societal situation, the experiential meaning of a structural choice is not determined only by Lexico-grammar, but also by contextual factors (Gledhill, 2011. By applying the theory of the grammar of experiential meaning to Helon Habila’s Oil On Water (2011, this article attempts to auscultate African society’s emerging perception of gender identity as it affects and re-presents women. By borrowing the way the writer encodes his experience (or fictional reality via the medium of language to affirm male writers’ support to the trend, this article is proving the propriety and relevance of womanist theory by re-evaluating and re-defining African women’s identity and personality through the novel under study.

  5. Exploration of the Management Mode of HSE Supervision in Oil Production Plant%探索采油厂HSE监督管理模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于传滨

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduced HSE monitoring network and HSE supervision and management model which is improved by Deming model, and explored methods and content to run. Through continuous improvement, it ensures the quality of HSE supervision rising, to help the achievement of production and management goals of oil production plant.%介绍了HSE监督网络和应用戴明模型改进的HSE监督管理模式,探索了运行方法和内容,经过持续改进,确保HSE监督质量不断提高,为采油厂原油生产经营目标的实现保驾护航.

  6. Exploring Innovation Processes from a Complexity Perspective. Part II. Experiences from the Subsea Increased Oil Recovery Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, Tone Merethe Berg; Johannessen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    In this second part of the papers, exploring innovation processes from a complexity perspective, we present an empirical example to strengthen further the relevance of the approach. The example draws on a longitudinal research initiative conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil ASA. We conducted our research into the…

  7. Use of thermal infrared remote sensing data for fisheries, environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, and ship routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffer, M. A.; Gawlikowski, G.; Muller-Karger, F.; Schaudt, K.; Upton, M.; Wall, C.; Westhaver, D.

    2006-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) and ocean color remote sensing data (1.1 - 4.0 km) are being used as the primary data source in decision making systems for fisheries management, commercial and recreational fishing advisory services, fisheries research, environmental monitoring, oil and gas operations, and ship routing. Experience over the last 30 years suggests that while ocean color and other remote sensing data (e.g. altimetry) are important data sources, TIR presently yields the most useful data for studying ocean surface circulation synoptically on a daily basis. This is due primarily to the greater temporal resolution, but also due to one's better understanding of the dynamics of sea surface temperature compared with variations in ocean color and the spatial limitations of altimeter data. Information derived from commercial operations and research is being used to improve the operational efficiency of fishing vessels (e.g. reduce search time and increase catch rate) and to improve our understanding of the variations in catch distribution and rate needed to properly manage fisheries. This information is also being used by the oil and gas industry to minimize transit time and thus, save costs (e.g., tug charter, insurance), to increase production and revenue up to 500K dollars a day. The data are also be used to reduce the risk of equipment loss, loss of time and revenue to sudden and unexpected currents such as eddies. Sequential image analysis integrating TIR and ocean color provided near-real time, synoptic visualization of the rapid and wide dispersal of coastal waters from the northern Gulf of Mexico following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in September 2005. The satellite data and analysis techniques have also been used to monitor the effects and movement of other potential environmentally damaging substances, such as dispersing nutrient enriched waste water offshore. A review of our experience in several commercial applications and research efforts will reinforce the

  8. Target post-evaluation of China's “12th Five-Year” oil and gas exploration and development planning and its “13th Five-Year” target prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiping Pan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the turn of 12th and 13th “Five-Year Plan” of China, the global oil and gas market changes greatly. In this regard, the target post-evaluation of the “12th Five-Year” oil and gas exploration and development planning was conducted, which is of significant importance to scientifically and reasonably making the specific “13th Five-Year” oil and gas exploration and development target planning. The post-evaluation results indicate that, in the period of “12th Five-Year Plan”, the oil and gas exploration and development targets of China were satisfactorily completed, but some deficiencies still existed. For example, the target of oil production (2 × 108 t was overfulfilled, while the target of oil reserves (65 × 108 t remained 6.4% outstanding. The target of gas reserves (3.5 × 1012 m3 was overfulfilled, while the target of gas production (1385 × 108 m3 remained 6.2% outstanding. Moreover, the targets of unconventional gases were not satisfactorily completed-shale gas being better than coalbed methane (CBM. Failures to fulfill some targets in “12th Five-Year Plan” were primarily attributed to the slowdown of oil and gas consumption growth, sharp drop of oil price, downgrading of resources, and changes of statistic basis under the new normal. The forecast results suggest that, in the period of “13th Five-Year Plan”, given USD50–70/bbl of world oil price, China's annual average incremental conventional oil and gas in place will be 10.0 × 108–12.0 × 108 t and 6000 × 108–8000 × 108 m3 respectively, annual average incremental shale gas and CBM in place will be 1000 × 108–2000 × 108 m3 and 500 × 108–1000 × 108 m3 respectively, and annual oil production will be about 2.0 × 108 t. By 2020, China's annual gas production will approach 1800 × 108–2000 × 108 m3 (shale gas: 200 × 108 m3, and CBM: 150 × 108 m3.

  9. Framework of Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Supervision in the United States%墨西哥湾漏油事件后美国海上油气勘探开发监管新框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯连勇; 孙肖阳; 唐旭; 王宏伟; Michael H(o)(o)k

    2012-01-01

    目前我国海上油气勘探开发正蓬勃开展,与此同时,我国海上油气开发事故时有发生,海上监管越来越被重视,确保我国海上油气开发安全和环保具有重要意义.本文通过分析墨西哥湾漏油事件后的美国海上油气监管的调整,研究美国海上监管新框架,并剖析石油行业协会在美国海上油气开发监管中发挥的作用,总结出美国海上油气监管的特点:第一,要重视对海上油气资源的专业化管理;第二,大力培育和发展安全文化;第三,环保是各级监管的核心;第四,大力发挥石油行业协会的作用.并针对我国海上油气开发监管现状提出了一些启示,希望对完善我国海上油气开发监管起到一定的借鉴意义.%Nowadays, China offshore oil and gas exploration and development have prosperously developed. At the same time, China's offshore oil and gas exploration accidents occur frequently. Offshore supervision has been paid more and more attention. It is great significance for China to ensure its offshore oil and gas safety and environmental development. This paper analyzes the adjustment of offshore oil and gas supervision in the United States after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. After studying the US offshore oil development regulation and the role of oil industry associations in the framework, the paper summarizes the characteristics of marine oil and gas regulation in the United States, that is, First, it should attach importance to offshore oil and gas resources professional management; secondly, it should cultivate and develop safety culture vigorously; thirdly, the environmental protection is the core of the supervision at all levels; fourthly, the oil industry associations should play a great role . Then aiming at the offshore oil and gas supervising actuality in China, the paper puts forward some enlightenment, and hoping to provide some references to perfect our offshore oil and gas development regulation

  10. Simulation study using 3-D wavefield modeling for oil and gas exploration; Sanjigen hadoba modeling wo mochiita sekiyu tanko no simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Saeki, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    As the surroundings of objects of oil exploration grow more complicated, seismic survey methods have turned 3-dimensional and, in this report, several models are examined using the 3-dimensional simulation technology. The result obtained by the conventional wave tracking method is different from actual wavefields, and is unrealistic. The difference method among the fullwave modelling methods demands an exorbitantly long computation time and high cost. A pseudospectral method has been developed which is superior to the difference method, and has been put to practical use thanks to the advent of parallel computers. It is found that a 3-dimensional survey is mandatory in describing faults. After examining the SEG/EAGE Salt model, it is learned that the salt is well-developed and that 3-dimensional depth migration is required for sub-salt exploration. It is also found through simulation of the EAGE/S Overthrust model, which is an elastic model, that no quality records are available on thrust zones in complicated terrains. The records are poor in quality since the actually measured wavefield is regarded as an acoustic wavefield when it is an elastic wavefield. 1 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Proposals for the application of the resources of geoprocessing in the determination and monitoring of the deep areas of exploration of the oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rodrigo Ferreira dos [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Since middle of the decade of 80, the resources of Geoprocessing come wide being applied in the most diverse branches of the study where the localization of a region is factor of the biggest significance for a good performance of some task. In the economic aspect, the processing of the data of the Earth one reveals sufficiently significant in the determination of the region of an industry of wide ambient impact where the characteristic of the ground layers, characteristics of draining of wind, characteristics of the water resources and vertical and horizontal profile of water sheets, can mean the impossibility of concession of exploration, or, if not perceived the economic and ambient time, damages many irreversible times. The apparent possibilities of a region, deserve a more careful analysis of specialists of the studies of the Earth, that through the images of low orbit satellites (for differentiated soundings of some regions of the planet or imaging of bigger space resolution), high orbit satellites (for soundings of wide fixed parcels of the Earth and imaging of bigger secular resolution), allies to the soundings of land instruments and adoption of the normal characteristics of the region, will be able to give its to seem on the yield of the exploration. Numerical modeling as the RAMSIN, MM5, ENSEMBLE, GLOBAL, ETA, MBAR, NCEP and CALMET associates the systems of interpretation of data as the SPRING, SAGA, SURFER, ARCHVIEW, GRADS, DIGITAL, FETERRA, SOLIDWORKS, and instruments of CAD, allow bonanza analyses, powerful and varied forms of understanding of one same phenomenon, and an ample quarrel on as, from now, the lines of direction of the research in Geoprocessing will contribute for the improvement of the operations in deepenings in the industry of the oil. The present workmanship has intention to bring new proposals, or new ways to understand, to create and to apply computational resources for data processing of great value for the exploration of the oil

  12. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090712 Ge Mingjun(General Institution of Mineral Exploration & Development in Qiqihaer of Heilongjiang Province,Qiqihaer 161006,China) Application of Emulsified Diesel Oil Drilling Fluid in Under-Balanced Drilling(Exploration Engineering(Rock & Soil Drilling and Tunneling),ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,34(11),2007,p.43-45,1 illus.,2 tables,4 refs.)

  13. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  14. Several important issues about current oil and gas exploration in China%关于中国当前油气勘探的几个重要问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾承造

    2012-01-01

    The gap between supply and demand for oil and gas is widening, yet exploration situation is severe in China. From the current situation of oil and gas exploration, this paper focuses on the analysis of global oil and gas exploration trend, current challenges of China's oil and gas exploration, basic problems of unconventional oil and gas exploration, as well as current oil and gas exploration theory and key issues. Global oil and gas exploration area is no longer limited by the degree of exploration, and gradually follows the trend of shifting to deep water, deep formation, unconventional, arctic area and other newly developed areas. China's key oil and gas bearing basins gradually enter the intensive oil and gas exploration, featuring that exploration depth increases, target reservoirs are more subtle, physical properties of reservoir are worse and technical difficulties of oil and gas exploration development engineering are gradually greater. Overseas oil and gas exploration development strategy of China's energy enterprises is faced with a number of challenges such as difficult block acquisition, political risk increase, higher requirements for exploration technology and so on. Geological theory and resource assessment of unconventional oil and gas and other core technologies require more researches. Borehole, fracturing and other key development technologies need to strengthen field test research. Under the guidance of new geological theory for oil and gas exploration, the paper highlights to explain 9 bottleneck problems, such as the whole process model of organic hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and accumulation in the actual geological conditions, the evaluation on petroleum resource potential in the basins undergoing the tectonic transformation, pore throat structure and hydrocarbon percolation mechanism for the low permeability-tight reservoirs, hydrocarbon formation conditions and exploration direction of the large-size lithostratigraphic

  15. 国外致密油勘探开发新进展及其对中国的启示%Advancements in global tight oil exploration and exploitation and the implications for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙张涛; 田黔宁; 吴西顺; 邵明娟

    2015-01-01

    致密油已成为全球非常规油气勘探开发的重要领域之一,正逐渐影响着世界能源供需格局,许多国家都加快了对其勘探开发的进程。本文通过调研世界主要国家致密油勘探开发的最新进展,对全球致密油资源量概况、主要国家致密油勘探开发利用现状、技术研发新进展以及国外致密油开发的相关政策进行了介绍,美国和加拿大是全球主要的致密油生产国,俄罗斯也开始了致密油的商业化生产。这些国家不仅在致密油开发关键技术方面遥遥领先,而且逐步形成了一系列有利于致密油等非常规能源开发的相关政策。鉴于致密油开发对我国的重要战略意义,本文提出了一些思考和建议,以期为中国的致密油勘探开发给予参考。%Tight oil has become one of the significant areas of global unconventional oil and gas exploration and exploitation.Many countries have speeded up the exploration and exploitation of tight oil, since it has gradually affected the energy supply and demand pattern worldwide.Based on investigation and research on the latest developments of tight oil in major countries in the world,this paper presents an overview of the world’s tight oil resources,current exploration and exploitation and progress in technology of major countries,as well as the related policies.The U.S.,Canada and Russia,which are not only in the leading position in technologies innovation but also set up a series of policies on unconventional energy development,have realized the commercial production of tight oil.In view of the strategic significance of tight oil for China,this paper comes up with some suggestions with the aim of giving some reference for tight oil exploration and exploitation in China.

  16. China's Oil Industry Seeking Overseas Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CD News

    1996-01-01

    @@ China is actively exploring international oil markets,while making the efforts to tap huge oil and gas resources domestically, with the participation of foreign firms,according to a senior Chinese oil official.

  17. EDTA-induced phytoextraction of lead and barium by brachiaria (B. decumbens cv. Basilisk in soil contaminated by oil exploration drilling waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fernão Martins de Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The phytoextraction of heavy metals using chelating agents has been widely studied for the remediation of contaminated soils. To evaluate the efficiency of EDTA-induced phytoextraction of Ba and Pb using Brachiaria decumbens for the remediation of soil contaminated by oil well drilling and exploration waste, an experiment was conducted by applying a single dose (6 mmol EDTA kg-1 soil and split doses of EDTA (three applications of 2 mmol EDTA kg-1 soil. The samples were subjected to sequential extractions using the method proposed by Ure et al. (1993 as modified by Rauret et al. (1999.The application of EDTA did not influence the distribution of Ba in various chemical fractions of the soil. The dry matter production did not differ significantly between the treatments and the control, thereby demonstrating the tolerance of plants to the experimental conditions. The absorption of Pb by plants was influenced by the application of EDTA. The application of a single dose of EDTA influenced the absorption of Pb and its translocation to the aerial plant parts. The application of split doses favoured higher accumulation of Pb in roots. Because of its tolerance to heavy metals and EDTA, B. decumbens has the potential to be used in phytostabilisation.

  18. Oil exploration and production activities after the flexibilizing of the strategical state monopoly in Brazil: environmental control tools applied by governmental bodies; Activites d'exploration et de production du petrole dans le nouveau scenario de flexibilite du monopole d'Etat au Bresil. Les controles gouvernementaux pour la protection de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malheiros, T.M.M. [IBAMA, Institut bresilien pour l' Environnement et les Ressources Naturelles Renouvelables, Rio de Janeiro, RI (Brazil); La Rovere, E.L. [Centro de Tecnologia, PPE/COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the environmental control tools applied by Brazilian governmental bodies to oil exploration and production activities after the flexibilizing of the strategical state monopoly in this sector. An analysis of the environmental control tools applied up to now by governmental bodies is needed due to the fast growth rate of these activities in the last few months and to the entrance of new players in this sector. This work presents the new scenario of the flexibilizing of the state oil monopoly in Brazil and the current situation of environmental control tools applied to oil exploration and production activities. Follow some proposals of changes in the environmental licensing procedures, and for the adoption of environmental audits aiming at an improved environmental control of these activities in the current Brazilian context. (authors)

  19. Three-dimensional forward simulation of seabed oil and gas exploration%海洋电磁法勘探油气的三维正演模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷林林; 刘四新; 傅磊; 孟旭

    2012-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of frequency domain submarine electromagnetic method in the exploration of oil and gas. In order to distinguish the spatial reservoir filled with hydrocarbon, we established three-dimensional seabed models with a horizontal electric-dipole source. With numeric forward simulation of models by vector finite element method, it shows that; the MCSEM can well identify hydrocarbon layers; while it is difficult to recognize reservoir in the shallow water which was concluded by the normalized amplitudes of deep water and shallow water; and with higher frequency, the identifiying ability will be better within experiment frequencies. The results prove that the identification of hydrocarbon layers by the MCSEM was established on the basis of the theoretical guided wave.%针对海底可控源电磁法(MCSEM)在油气资源勘探中的实用性,应用矢量有限元进行了多种频率的水平电偶源发射电磁场识别油气层的实例研究,并利用矢量有限元对海底的3D模型进行了正演数值模拟.利用MCSEM能较好地识别油气层;归一化后的电场曲线特征表明,浅海下不易测得油气层,在实验频率内,电场源频率越高对油气层识别能力越强.同时证实了MCSEM识别油气层是建立在波导理论基础上的.

  20. Oil and gas exploration in the Southeastern Gulf of St. Lawrence: a review of information on pinnipeds and cetaceans in the area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammill, M.O.; Lesage, V.; Dube, Y.; Measures, L.N. [Maurice Lamontagne Inst., Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A summary of information concerning pinnipeds (seals) and cetaceans (whales) was summarized for the proposed region of oil and gas exploration, located in the southeastern part of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Marine mammals moving in and out of the Gulf of St. Lawrence utilize Cabot Strait as an important migratory route. A platform for pinnipeds reproduction is available with the seasonal ice cover. This ice cover provides a limit to access, during winter months, to marine mammals, especially cetaceans, to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Important foraging areas for cetaceans are located in the Cape Breton Trough in the vicinity of Cheticamp, as well as the large canyons in the Gulf. The four pinnipeds species most commonly found in the area are: harp, hooded, grey and harbour seals. Data on population abundance, whelping areas, distribution, and diet is generally available. Scientists require specific at sea distribution, relative abundance and local diet data for the area. On the east coast of Prince Edward Island, the seal-watching industry relies mostly on harbour seals. Of the fifteen whale species that transit through the Cabot Strait, six are regular visitors, namely: Fin, Minke, Humpback, Pilot whales, White-sided dolphins, and Harbour porpoise are seen in abundant numbers on a regular basis. Right whales pass through the area in small numbers. The whale-watching activity taking place on the western coast of Cape Breton relies mainly on Pilot Whales, for which this area has great importance. Additional data on species present, abundance, seasonal occupation, seasonal movements, and diet of whales is missing. Damage to hearing could result from seismic activity, leading to distribution changes, and increased strandings due to noise. 108 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. The successes and errors related to growth of a local economy with oil exploration: the Macae case; Os exitos e erros decorrentes do crescimento de uma economia local com a exploracao petrolifera: o caso de Macae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lariane Dallapicola [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais], e-mail: lariane2003@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The following essay has the purpose of showing the benefits and problems relations generated in one city that has the oil exploration as the main important task in its economy. One region can have its physical and economic structure drastically changed with the insertion of oil extraction task. An example that must be sentenced is the case of the city of Macae, situated in the state of Rio de Janeiro. With the economy that has grown 600% in the period between 1999 and 2007, Macae is a city in constant growing and expansion process. Because of the industry and oil and gas extraction development, specially starting from the State's monopoly breaking in 1997, the city has turned very different from the little fisher's village that it was once, in the mid-1970's, having many alterations what its concerned about its population and increase of internal migrations, in terms of incomes and urbanization. These changing process's results are analyzed in this essay, aiming the positive and negative points of the situation of Macae, considering its new oil economy. (author)

  2. Salinity Levels, The G-WIS data are created to support environmental assessments associated with oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation activities in the Gulf of Mexico., Published in 2001, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Salinity Levels dataset current as of 2001. The G-WIS data are created to support environmental assessments associated with oil and gas exploration, production, and...

  3. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  4. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  5. Current Status of Oil Distribution and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingfan

    2009-01-01

    @@ China has rich oil resources, yet relatively low-quality crude oil and difficulty in exploration and development limit the pace the oil industry will be. At present, the prospects of oil development are in a moderate mature stage, the increasing trend of high basic value in oil reserves pose a huge potential of oil exploration and development in China. The most proved reserves are distributed in big-and-middle-sized basins, and will be the main fields of undiscovered oil resources. In addition,though the degree of exploration in unconventional oil is low, its development with abundance resources will be as a significant complementary resource to conventional oil.

  6. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  7. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  8. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  9. Exploration cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttrer, J.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Jerry Huttrer, President, Geothermal Management Company, discusses the general state of exploration in the geothermal industry today, and mentions some ways to economize and perhaps save costs of geothermal exploration in the future. He suggests an increased use of satellite imagery in the mapping of geothermal resources and the identification of hot spots. Also, coordinating with oil and gas exploration efforts, the efficiency of the exploration task could be optimized.

  10. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 6: Arctic operations case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites to oil exploration in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The hypothetical development and transportation of Arctic oil and other resources by ice breaking super tanker fleets to the continental East Coast are discussed. The utilization of SEASAT ice mapping data is shown to contribute to a more effective transportation operation through the Arctic ice by reducing transportation costs as a consequence of reduced transit time per voyage.

  11. PetroChina Opens 18 Fresh Oil and Gas Blocks to Foreign Investors--Interview with CCAD general manager Zeng Xingqiu on PetroChina's foreign risk exploration and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Keyu

    2001-01-01

    @@ PetroChina has recently opened 18 new oil and gas blocks to foreign companies for exploration and development and will soon hold a series of bilateral negotiations on the cooperation projects. Those blocks are located in the northern part of Ordos basin, the northeastern part of Songliao basin, the northwestern part of Caidamu basin and Junggar basin. No blocks in Tarim basin are included in the 18ones. This is the first time for China to offer so many blocks for foreign cooperation on the Chinese soil at one time.

  12. Oil: Economics and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, A. (Laval Univ., PQ (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs.

  13. Progress in China's Unconventional Oil & Gas Exploration and Development and Theoretical Technologies%中国非常规油气勘探开发与理论技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹才能; 王玉满; 王岚; 黄金亮; 王淑芳; 杨智; 朱如凯; 张国生; 侯连华; 吴松涛; 陶士振; 袁选俊; 董大忠

    2015-01-01

    The new century has witnessed a strategic breakthrough in unconventional oil & gas.Hydrocarbon accumulated in micro-/nano-scale pore throat shale systems has become an important domain that could replace current oil &gas resources.Unconventional oil & gas plays an increasingly important role in our energy mix.Tight gas,CBM,heavy oil and asphaltic sand have served as a key domain of exploration &development,with tight oil becoming a'bright spot'domain and shale gas becoming a'hotspot'domain. China has made great breakthroughs in unconventional oil & gas resources,such as tight gas,shale gas, tight oil and CBM,and great progress in oil shale,gas hydrate,heavy oil and oil sand.China has an estimated (223~263)×108 t of unconventional oil resources and (890~1260)×1012 m3 of gas resources. China has made a breakthrough for progress in unconventional oil &gas study.New progress achieved in fine-grained sedimentary studies related to continental open lacustrine basin large-scale shallow-water delta sand bodies,lacustrine basin central sandy clastic flow sediments and marine-continental fine-grained sediments provide a theoretical basis for the formation and distribution of basin central reservoir bodies. Great breakthroughs have been made in unconventional reservoir geology in respect of research methodology & technology,multi-scale data merging and physical simulation of formation conditions. Overall characterization of unconventional reservoirs via multi-method and multi-scale becomes increasingly popular and facilitates the rapid development of unconventional oil & gas geological theory,method and technology.The formation of innovative,continuous hydrocarbon accumulation theory,the establishment of the framework of the unconventional oil & gas geological theory system,and the determination of the implications, geological feature, formation mechanism, distribution rule and core technology of unconventional oil &gas geological study lays a theoretical foundation for

  14. 国外页岩层系石油勘探开发进展及启示%Progresses and Enlightenment of Overseas Shale Oil Exploration and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔景伟; 朱如凯; 杨智; 白斌; 吴松涛; 苏玲

    2015-01-01

    国外页岩层系石油勘探取得重大进展, 美国已进入大规模开发阶段, 加拿大、 阿根廷、 俄罗斯也获得突破, 并显示出良好的勘探前景. 详细调研了国外6个重点区带页岩层系石油勘探开发成果资料, 总结出国外页岩层系石油勘探选区、 勘探步骤和发展趋势; 重点解剖了美国Eagle Ford (鹰滩) 区带和Bakken (巴肯) 区带, 筛选出页岩油勘探 "甜点" 区优选的8个指标和致密油 "甜点" 区优选的4个指标; 分析国内外页岩层系在形成环境、 矿物组成、 储层物性、 地层压力等方面的差异性,借鉴国外成功的勘探经验, 对国内页岩层系石油勘探提出宏观建议. 指出富有机质页岩发育条件、 微观储集空间评价、 微观孔喉内流体赋存状态、 可动孔隙下限与可采资源量评价、 "甜点" 区地质工程一体化预测、 新型压裂工艺及压裂对环境的影响等是中国页岩层系石油勘探的研究方向.%Great progress has been made in shale oil exploration overseas. The United States has entered into large-scale development of shale oil. Canada, Argentina and Russia also made breakthroughs and showed great exploration potential. We collected and investigated six hot-spots play of these countries, summarized the exploration procedures and growth trend, mainly analyzed the Eagle Ford and the Bakken Play, and pointed out eight indicators for shale oil exploration and four indicators for tight oil sweet spot scanning. Comparing to foreign countries, China has different sedimentary environ-ment, mineral components, reservoir properties and geologic stressin shale plays. Drawing lessons from foreign successful exploration experience, we gave some strategic suggestions to the exploration of shale plays in China. We also pointed out that the development conditions of organic rich shale, micro reservoir apprisement, oil occurrence in micro-pore systems, effective flow pore diameters and

  15. Exploring Willingness to Pay for QR Code Labeled Extra-Virgin Olive Oil: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Lombardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick Response Code (QR code is the representative device of a particular branch of marketing called mobile marketing. The code is found throughout various productive sectors, including the agro-food sector. This work investigates whether consumers are willing to pay a premium price for extra information on a bottle of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO by means of the QR-code. Based on data collected from 1006 interviews conducted in Italy, we implemented the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB model to ascertain the factors that could influence consumer’s willingness to pay (WTP for extra QR code information. Empirical results show the influence of attitudes, subjective norms and consumer personal characteristics such as mavenism and motivation for shopping (utilitarian vs. hedonic motivation in explaining willingness to pay for a bottle of QR code labeled olive oil.

  16. Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

  17. Unhealthy effects of upstream oil and gas flaring : a report prepared for Save our Seas and Shores (SOSS) for presentation before the public review commission into effects of potential oil and gas exploration, drilling activities within licences 2364, 2365, 2368[For US Standard Industrial Classification 1311 and 1389

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argo, J. [IntrAmericas Centre for Environment and Health, Wolfe Island, ON (Canada)

    2002-01-18

    A study was conducted to understand the adverse health impact of chronic exposure to multiple flaring discharges on people who live and work in proximity to oil field exploration and developments in Alberta. The issues discussed in this report are associated with industrial activity defined by US SIC 311 and SIC 1389 which includes flaring in the oil and gas industry with all aspects of exploration, testing, proving and development in the petroleum industry. Flaring at refineries is not considered in this study. Hydrocarbons are produced when waste oil-gas and oil-gas-water solutions are flared. This is because flaring is an efficient combustion process and inefficient burning releases raw fuel. Tremendous volumes of gas are flared in Alberta each day. It is estimated that benzene is present in enough concentration to pose a measurable risk to residents living as far as 5 km away from the flare. In addition, all of the hydrocarbons released by the minimal flares were found to be present in amounts below their threshold for smell. Many reduced sulphur species are formed in a sour gas flare, including hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide - both potent toxic chemicals. Chronic exposure for humans may result in chemical sensitivity and autoimmune diseases such as MS, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, and type 2 diabetes. Save our Seas and Shores (SOSS) presents flaring as a broad, multi-faceted disturbance that comes with a high cost in human health, with the greatest cost to residents who live unprotected as far as 30 km away from flares. 55 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions...... emulsion formation at 0.05 mol/1. The amount of emulsion formation showed significant dependency on the type of acid doped in oil. Experiments demonstrate that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at the oil-water interface, and this ion specific interaction leads to oil emulsion formation......The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  19. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  20. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  1. Metabolite profiles of essential oils and molecular markers analysis to explore the biodiversity of Ferula communis: Towards conservation of the endemic giant fennel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Lamine, Myriam; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Hammami, Majdi; Sellami, Ibtissem Hamrouni

    2016-04-01

    Giant fennel (Ferula communis L.) is well known in folk medicine for the treatment of various organ disorders. The biological importance of members of genus Ferula prompted us to investigate the leaves of the endangered Tunisian medicinal plant F. communis L. not previously investigated. An estimate of genetic diversity and differentiation between genotypes of breeding germplasm is of key importance for its improvement. Thus, four F. communis populations were RAPD fingerprinted (63 RAPD markers generated by 7 primers) and the composition of their leaf essential oils (EO) (134 EO compounds) was characterized by GC-MS. Cluster analysis based on the leaf volatiles chemical composition of F. communis accessions defined three chemotypes according to main compounds have been distinguished: α-eudesmol/β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; α-eudesmol/α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide and chamazulene/α-humulene chemotypes. A high genetic diversity within population and high genetic differentiation among them, based on RAPDs, were revealed (H(pop)=0.320 and GST=0.288) caused both by the habitat fragmentation, the low size of most populations and the low level of gene flow among them. The RAPD dendrogram showed separation of three groups. Populations dominated by individuals from the β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; chemotype showed the lowest gene diversity (H=0.104), while populations with exclusively α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide chemotype showed the highest value (H=0.285). The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA analysis based on volatiles yielded higher separation among populations, indicated specific adaptation of populations to the local environments. Correlation analysis showed a non-significant association between the distance matrices based on the genetic markers (RAPD) and chemical compounds of essential oil (P>0.05) indicating no influence of genetic background on the observed chemical profiles. These results reinforce the use of both volatile compounds and RAPD markers as a starting point for

  2. Panorama of PetroChina Jidong Oil Field Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoLu

    2003-01-01

    As the old oil fields in East China are currently facing more and more pressure to keep their crude oil production stable in the past few years owing to the high water cut, PetroChina Jidong Oil Field has become a rising star in the country's oil and gas exploration and production sector. Jidong Oil Field

  3. Exploration and production. Know-how. Extra-heavy oils and bitumen. Reserves for the future; Exploration et production. Savoir-faire. Bruts extra-lourds et bitumes. Des reserves pour demain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    How can ever-expanding needs be met without jeopardizing reserve life? The answers can be summed up in a single word: the innovation. In this framework the Group Total developed their research and development activities, which are endowed with a annual budget of more than 100 million dollars. Tools from seismic imaging to thermodynamic modeling of fluids and flows in any type of reservoir can be used in combination in order to steadily reduce uncertainties and control risks. These tools will help make technologically and economically feasible to produce new resources such extra-heavy crudes, very acid gases, deeply-buried reservoirs or oil and gas reserves situated in ultra deep waters. (A.L.B.)

  4. Construction Model of Cloud Center for Oil-Gas Exploration in Big-Data Era%大数据时代勘探云建设模式探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林茂; 塔依尔∙伊布拉音; 许涛; 宋雪峰; 姜元刚

    2015-01-01

    According to big data definition, the data processing of exploration of oil and gas is obviously a big data application mode. Computing center is designed to meet data processing needs of the company as the main exploration platform of oil and gas exploration cloud. Under the primise of ensuring the sharing computing power and Collaborative work,exploration cloud focus on support of data storage, data management and data applications. Compared with the general public cloud, the Construction of private exploration cloud has its unique mode. The author company combined with own company characteristics and current big data application needs to construct large data private cloud, and it achieved certain results. The support for the main business is obviously effect.%按照大数据定义,油气勘探数据处理工作显然是一种大数据应用模式,而作为油气勘探核心工作平台的勘探云计算中心,其建设目的首先是为了满足企业内部业务数据处理工作需求,在确保计算力分享和协同工作的基础上,勘探云更注重数据存储、数据管理以及数据应用业务的支持,对照一般公用云建设模式,勘探私有云建设具备其独特的建设模式。笔者企业结合自身特点,对照当前大数据应用需求开展勘探私有云建设工作,取得了一定的效果,对企业主营业务的支持效果明显。

  5. Use of the sensitivity analysis for multi-attributes decision models for oil exploration and production systems; Uso da analise de sensibilidade em modelos de decisao multiatributos para sistemas de exploracao e producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Ricardo

    2000-07-01

    Today, oil companies must be able to survive in a hostile and competitive environment. Such environment involves volatility of oil prices, the narrow margins of profitability, and ever increasing environmental restrictions. In order to survive, firms must have the appropriate tools to consider the tradeoffs involving the financial, environmental, technological and of market parameters which are the key elements within the investment decision-making process. The aim of the present work is to analyze the behavior of the weights (relative importance) of the attributes int the multi-criteria decision model through a high dimension sensitivity analysis. Among the benefits of such method are: provide the analyst (decision-maker) with a better characterization and control of the weights of the attributes, providing the user with a clear view of the entire decision process. The methodology suggested in this dissertation was applied in two oil exploration and production case studies. The first case involved the selection of an exploratory target among three options. In this case, there is interaction of the objectives of the company, where financial, technological and of market parameters interact. In the second case, a hypothetical production project is suggested. For this second study, the decision-maker has the option of using one of the following production systems: a FPSO (Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading); a TLP (Tension Leg Platform); or a SS (Semi Submersible). The attributes for each one of the production systems are financial, technological and environmental. In this second case, the model makes it possible to simulate several options, providing the manager with the choice of the most appropriate production system to this objectives and preferences. (author)

  6. Exploration of a mechanism for the production of highly unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. at low temperature grown on oil crop residue based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinghan; Li, Kun; Li, Jingjing; Han, Pei; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang

    2017-11-01

    The ability of algae to produce lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids varies with strains and culture conditions. This study investigates the effect of temperature on the production of unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. grown on oil crop residue based medium. At low temperature (10°C), synthesis of lipids compromising of high contents of unsaturated fatty acids took place primarily in the early stage while protein accumulation mainly occurred in the late stage. This stepwise lipid-protein synthesis process was found to be associated with the contents of acetyl-CoA and α-KG in the algal cells. A mechanism was proposed and tested through simulation experiments which quantified the carbon flux allocation in algal cells at different cultivation stages. It is concluded that low culture temperature such as 10°C is suitable for the production of lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20092040 Chen Jing(College of Petroleum Engineering,Yangtze University,Jingzhou 434023,China);Xiong Qingshan Technology of Well Cementing with Expandable Tube and Its Application(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(8),2008,p.19-21,4 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)Key words:cementingExpandable tube is a new technology and has been developed oversea.It can be applied in well drilling and completion for deep water,deep well,extended reach well and multilateral well,as well as in oil extraction and workover.This paper briefly introduces the technology of well cementing with

  8. Legal aspects of data and information used in oil and gas exploration and production; O regime juridico dos dados e informacoes de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucheb, Jose Alberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The utilization of data and information related to the Brazilian sedimentary basins constitutes an essential element in any petroleum exploration and production venture, as well as in the technical and scientific works of this area of study and, for this reason, this technical asset, according to article 22 of the Petroleum Law, is considered part of the national petroleum resources, to be collected, maintained, and administered by the ANP. This issue is also regulated in other articles of the Petroleum Law, the ANP tender protocols, the concession contracts and the ANP ordinances no. 188/1998 and n. 114/2000. In this context, the evolution of the pertinent legal instruments is discussed, aiming at the analysis of the existing conflicts of rules, the rights and obligations of the regulatory agency, the petroleum companies, the service companies and the technical and scientific community. Some aspects of the international oil industry practices are also analyzed vis-a-vis the Brazilian Law. (author)

  9. ThermoGIS: An integrated web-based information system for geothermal exploration and governmental decision support for mature oil and gas basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.-D. van; Juez-Larre, J.; Mijnlieff, H.; Kronimus, A.; Gessel, S. van; Kramers, L.; Obdam, A.; Verweij, H.; Bonté, D.

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years the use of geothermal energy through implementation of low enthalpy geothermal production systems for both electricity and heating have been growing rapidly in north-western Europe. Geothermal exploration and production takes largely place in sedimentary basins at depths from 2 t

  10. ThermoGIS: An integrated web-based information system for geothermal exploration and governmental decision support for mature oil and gas basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.-D. van; Juez-Larre, J.; Mijnlieff, H.; Kronimus, A.; Gessel, S. van; Kramers, L.; Obdam, A.; Verweij, H.; Bonté, D.

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years the use of geothermal energy through implementation of low enthalpy geothermal production systems for both electricity and heating have been growing rapidly in north-western Europe. Geothermal exploration and production takes largely place in sedimentary basins at depths from 2 t

  11. The Future of Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Oil and gas are the major energy resources all over the world but are not renewable. According to their present reserves, the resource volumes yet to be found and the large amount of non-conventional oil and gas resources, there is still great potential in oil and gas production. The proportion ofoil and gas in energy structure will be influenced by four major factors: 1) Potential of the world oil and gas resources; 2) Technological progress of oil and gas exploration and development; 3) Speed of the development of substitute energy resources; and 4) Variation of oil price. It is estimated that, oil and gas will still retain an important proportion in energy structure by the first half of the 21st century.

  12. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  13. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  14. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  15. Application of Advanced Exploration Technologies for the Development of Mancos Formation Oil Reservoirs, Jicarilla Apache Indian Nation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Scott; Billingsley, Randy

    2002-09-09

    The objectives of this project are to: (1) develop an exploration rationale for the Mancos shale in the north-eastern San Juan basin; (2) assess the regional prospectivity of the Mancos in the northern Nation lands based on that rationale; (3) identify specific leads in the northern Nation as appropriate; (4) forecast pro-forma production, reserves and economics for any leads identified; and (5) package and disseminate the results to attract investment in Mancos development on the Nation lands.

  16. Exploration of a Chemo-Mechanical Technique for the Isolation of Nanofibrillated Cellulosic Fiber from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as a Reinforcing Agent in Composites Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireana Yusra A. Fatah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of sulphuric acid hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization as an effective chemo-mechanical process for the isolation of quality nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC. The cellulosic fiber was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB using acid hydrolysis methods and, subsequently, homogenized using a high-pressure homogenizer to produce NFC. The structural analysis and the crystallinity of the raw fiber and extracted cellulose were carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The morphology and thermal stability were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric (TGA analyses, respectively. The FTIR results showed that lignin and hemicellulose were removed effectively from the extracted cellulose nanofibrils. XRD analysis revealed that the percentage of crystallinity was increased from raw EFB to microfibrillated cellulose (MFC, but the decrease for NFC might due to a break down the hydrogen bond. The size of the NFC was determined within the 5 to 10 nm. The TGA analysis showed that the isolated NFC had high thermal stability. The finding of present study reveals that combination of sulphuric acid hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization could be an effective chemo-mechanical process to isolate cellulose nanofibers from cellulosic plant fiber for reinforced composite materials.

  17. Characterization and geographic location of sources of radioactivity lost downhole in the course of oil and gas exploration and production activities in Texas, 1956 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlovich, S; Emery, R J; Whitehead, L W

    2005-11-01

    Case reports describing sources of radioactivity lost downhole in Texas from 1956 to 2001 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control and entered into a computerized database. The events of the 45-y period of analysis were characterized, examining aspects such as source type, amount of activity, location of loss, depth, and date of occurrence. Results of the study found that 316 downhole source incidents were reported to the agency during this period of time, representing a total of 426 distinct sources of radioactivity lost downhole within the boundaries of the State of Texas. The sources lost were predominantly AmBe, accounting for 74 TBq of radioactivity at the time of loss, and Cs, accounting for 16.3 TBq of radioactivity. A longitudinal analysis of the data showed the average loss per active oil and gas rig in Texas (known as "rig count") at approximately 24 losses per 1,000 rigs. Specific geographic information was largely missing from many of the records, which prevented the geolocation of wells described to contain lost radioactive sources. As a result, most wells could only be located to the county level, and no comprehensive geographical information system (GIS) map could be accurately created from the data. However, when available, source location information was standardized to permit the characterization of the sources reported as lost. This effort produced the first dedicated compendium of lost downhole sources for the State of Texas and provides an important source of information for regulatory agencies. The ability to provide prompt information about the fate and location of sources of radioactivity is important to regulatory officials, given the recent concerns about radiation source inventory control in the post 9/11 world as it relates to the possible creation of radiological dispersal devices.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA'S OFFSHORE OIL RESOURCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xiaojian; You Xuegang; Liu Haishan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Compared with the traditional exploitation of landbased oil and gas, to explore offshore oil and gas might exert certain influences by high-risk, high-tech and highinvestment, which attributes to determine the basic characteristics of offshore oil and gas developmentsafe, efficiency and economy.

  19. Prospect of Sinopec's Exploration for Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Shengxiang; Zhu Hong; Zhu Tong; Chen Chunfang; Xiao Kaihua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Current state of Sinopec's exploration for natural gas Distnbution of exploration area and resource base Sinopec now owns the exploration right of 364 blocks,with the acreage about one million square kilometers. The company mainly carries out exploration for oil and gas resources in 221, with the acreage about 650,000 square kilometers and taking up 65% of its total exploration area.

  20. Wavelets in oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, A. H.

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter, the role of wavelet methods applied to identification and characterization of oil reservoir is elaborated. The market rate of petroleum product is very much related to exploration, drilling and production cost. The main goal of researchers working in oil industry is to develop tools and techniques for minimizing cost of exploration and production. Efforts of researchers working in applications of wavelet methods in different parts of the world to achieve this goal is reviewed. Wavelet based solution of Buckley-Leverett equation modelling reservoir is discussed. Variants of Buckley-Leverett equations including its higher dimension versions are introduced. Wavelet methods for inverse problems associated with Buckley-Leverett equation, which are quite useful for oil recovery, are also explained in this chapter.

  1. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  2. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  3. The thinking of South China Sea oil and gas exploration and production according to the status of the resource exploration of Gulf of Mexico%墨西哥湾油气开发海工装备对我国南海油气开发的启思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅馨

    2012-01-01

    Due to its abundant oil and gas resource potential, the South China Sea is known as the "Second Persian Gulf". The environment of the South China Sea and Gulf of Mexico is similar and we can get a lot experience from the exploration and production of Gulf of Mexico.%南海是中国油气资源最为丰富的海域,有“第二个波斯湾”之称.南海的海洋环境与墨西哥湾有极大相似性.文章研究了海上油气田开发的一般规律及墨西哥湾油气田的开发及海工装备现状,对我国南海油气开发具有一定的启发、借鉴意义.

  4. CNPC Confident about Target for Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Staff Commentator

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) held a two-month large-scale forum on oil and gas exploration early this year, at which senior experts have made a systematic analysis of China's onshore oil and gas resources, summed up the experience in the exploration work in the recent decades and set the strategic target for exploration- bringing the oil and gas reserves up to 5 billion tons in the Ninth Fiveyear Plan Period (1996-2000). This forum has a great significance for the sustainable development of China's onshore oil and gas industry.

  5. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  6. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzherbert, E.B.; Struebig, M.J.; Morel, A.; Danielsen, F.; Brühl, C.A.; Donald, P.F.; Phalan, B.

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This article explores the impacts of oil palm expansion on biodiversity and tropical deforestation. Oil palm plantations support substantially less biodiversity than natural forest or even other tree crops. Because regions with favorable conditions for oil palm plantations tend to be areas of critical importance for biodiversity, the rising international demand for vegetable oils and biofuels could prompt further wide-scale tropical deforestation and large losses of bi...

  7. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  8. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  9. 油气化探土壤样品解吸气技术实验研究%Desorption technical experimental research on soil samples from oil and gas geochemical exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽; 黄欣; 李武; 高俊阳; 李兴强

    2015-01-01

    With the self-developed devices for in-situ soil sample preservation and desorption in oil and gas geochemical exploration and through optimizing the detecting conditions by such means as using saturated salt water or pure water, changing the sample weight, de-sorbing time, and negative pressure conditions, the authors obtained the best condition of analyzing. According to the experimental re-sults, the method for in-situ soil sample preservation and desorption in oil and gas geochemical exploration was established. Precision waas used to evaluate the method. The result shows that this method has high precision, as shown by its good performance in a known area.%油气地球化学勘探中常用的顶空轻烃和物理吸附烃属于吸附态的烃类,两者在处理土壤样品时没有粉碎,使得吸附烃没有完全解吸. 油气化探土壤样品解吸气技术就是利用自行研制的油气化探原位土壤样品保存与解吸装置,通过实验选择加饱和盐水或纯净水,改变样品量、样品解吸时间、负压条件,从而确定解吸气提取的最佳实验条件,建立油气化探土壤样品解吸气提取的方法. 运用重复性对该方法进行评价,并选择富安油田试验区的一条已知地质剖面开展土壤中解吸烃指标的应用,研究结果表明,解吸气技术在油气藏上方具有较好的化探异常响应.

  10. Historic Breakthrough in CNPC's Overseas Oil and Gas Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Daily overseas oil production tops 80,000 tons China National Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Corporation (CNODC), one of the subsidiaries under CNPC specialized in overseas oil and gas exploration, is now experiencing a strong and rapid business development momentum this year.

  11. Cardiovascular effects of edible oils: a comparison between four popular edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, D; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J; van Rooyen, J

    2010-12-01

    Edible oils form an essential part of the modern diet. These oils play a role as an energy source, and provide the diet with many beneficial micronutrients. Although a popular conception may be that fat should be avoided, certain edible oils as a dietary supplement may play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular health. CVD has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Dietary supplementation with different oils may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. While olive oil and sunflower-seed oil are known to reduce serum cholesterol, fish oil has become well known for reducing potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, red palm oil research has shown beneficial effects on cardiac recovery from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. It is clear that dietary supplementation with edible oils may play a vital role in reducing the mortality rate due to heart disease. The specific benefits and disadvantages of these oils should, however, be explored in greater depth. The present review will attempt to identify the benefits and shortcomings of four popular edible oils, namely olive oil, sunflower-seed oil, fish oil and palm oil. Additionally the present review will aim to reveal potential areas of research which could further enhance our understanding of the effects of edible oils on cardiovascular health.

  12. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  13. New Headway in China's Offshore Oil Cooperation with Foreign Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Xiaoying; WANG Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ In its cooperation with foreign firms this year, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has made new headway in attracting foreign capital and accelerating offshore oil and gas exploration and development as well as joint studies.

  14. Studying Tertiary System in Oil and Gas Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Yaoxian

    1994-01-01

    @@ In order to obtain potential resources in the Tertiary System and provide scientific data for oil and gas exploration, the CNPC and CNOOC had drawn up a project to study the Tertiary System in oil and gas regions of China.

  15. Philosophy of Petroleum Exploration Promoting the Petroleum Geoscience and Exploration Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongJianguo

    2004-01-01

    From the mid-1800s to the present, the philosophy of oil and gas exploration has had three major breakthroughs. The first breakthrough--from oil seepage to the anticlinal theory; The second breakthrough--from the anticlinal theory to the trap theory; The third breakthrough--from the trap theory to the petroleum system. The philosophy of oil finding promotes the petroleum geosciences and exploration technology.

  16. Frontiers of Offshore Oil Equipment and Engineering Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ From a worldwide perspective, offshore gas and oil fields account for about 60% of the total. At present, more than 100 countries are going in for offshore oil and gas exploration, among which over 50 countries are exploring ocean floor. With the continuous innovation of engineering technology, the exploration of submarine oil and gas will develop toward deep water area. The reserves are expected to continue to increase in the future. The discovery rate of oil and gas in China's sea area merely amounts to 18.5% and 9.2% respectively. Compared with land exploration,offshore exploration has a great potential.

  17. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenario

  18. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored

  19. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160684Bi Xueliang(Key Laboratory of En-hanced Oil Recovery,MOE,Northeast Petroleum University,Daqing163318,China);Zhang Nan Optimization of Underbalanced Drilling Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Methods(Fault-Block Oil and Gas Fields,ISSN1005-8907,CN41-1219/TE,22(1),2015,p.116-119,1illus.,2tables,

  20. Offshore Oil Development versus Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Offshore petroleum development is an expensive and high-risk operation that applies advanced science and technology. The Bohai Bay oil spill has resulted in calls for changes in the relationship between China and the foreign oil companies that enable the search for resources. Amid the criticism heaped on ConocoPhillips Co. - the United States-based energy conglomerate whose operations spilled more than 700 barrels of oil into the waters of China's Bohai Bay in June, the nation's industrial experts are clamoring for a review of the policies for oil and gas exploration with foreign oil companies in China.

  1. Decision making process in oil exploration and production projects: a systemic approach by means of fuzzy logic theory application; Processo de tomada de decisao em projetos de exploracao e producao de petroleo: uma abordagem sistemica com aplicacao da teoria de logica fuzzy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brana, Juan Pablo

    2008-12-15

    Oil is a non-renewable resource and maximizing the efficiency of its use is of the utmost importance, not only to private companies and the generation of their profit, but also to governments and their energy, economic and territorial planning. The aims of this thesis are, on the one hand, to breakdown, by means of a systemic approach, the complexity of the decision-making process in oil exploration and production projects (E and P), explaining, whenever possible, the theories and relationships that underlie their modeling contexts, and, on the other, to create a model - in the case of a specific E and P problem - to support the decision-making process, using the fuzzy logic theory. The variables analyzed include the probability of the exploration process achieving success, the size of reserves, the level or burden of taxation and the price of oil. In the case of the latter, the price of oil, the elements necessary for the elaboration of different scenarios have been provided. Finally, this model has been applied to a case study, providing continuity to previous work and discussing the results obtained. (author)

  2. Practice and Exploration of the Oil Blocking and Collecting Technology in Ansai Oilfield%安塞油田拦油、收油技术实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚飞; 郭亮; 唐跃辉; 张少楠

    2013-01-01

    文章结合安塞油田在应对原油泄漏后针对不同河道、干沟及所处的地形、地貌特点开展应急抢险中拦油、收油处置的措施,总结了取得的经验及成效.同时介绍了自制、改良后的拦油和收油工具以及在抢险中的实用效果.%Ansai Oilfield took different oil blocking and oil collecting measures dealing with crude oil spill emergency according to different topographic and geomorphic characteristics of the rivers and dry ditches. This paper sums up its experiences and effectiveness. Meanwhile it introduces the homemade and improved oil blocking and oil collecting tools as well as their practical effect in the rescue.

  3. Eco-efficiency in oil and gas exploration and production in regions of humid tropical forests: the PETROBRAS case in the Amazon region; Eco-eficiencia na exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas em regioes de florestas tropicais umidas: o caso da PETROBRAS na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyen, Bianca de Castro

    2008-09-15

    This dissertation discourses about the application of eco-efficiency concepts to the case of PETROBRAS oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Amazon Forest, proposing the use of indicators as a systematization tool for this application. First there is a description about the concepts concerning corporate sustainability, corporate social responsibility and eco-efficiency, considering their application to the oil and gas industry. The main exploration and production projects in rainforest regions are described next, with distinction to PETROBRAS case in the Amazon Forest. Finally there is a description about the process of alignment of PETROBRAS Amazon activities management to the eco-efficiency and corporate sustainability, followed by a proposal of a body of indicators to the case study. (author)

  4. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  5. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immune system. Despite coconut oil's high calorie and saturated fat content, some people use it by mouth to ... Coconut oil is high in a saturated fat called medium chain triglycerides. These fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. However, research on the effects ...

  6. L'impact des développements scientifiques sur la résolution des problèmes techniques posés par la nouvelle conjoncture dans l'exploration et la production du pétrole Impact of Scientific Developments on the Solving of Technical Problems Raised by the New Economic Situation in Oil Exploration and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les circonstances difficiles que traverse l'exploration et la production du pétrole, le savoir-faire technologique, associé à la maîtrise des coûts, seront pour l'industrie pétrolière et parapétrolière des atouts essentiels. On envisage ici l'impact prévisible des développements scientifiques sur la résolution des problèmes techniques dans l'exploration et la production. Les principales disciplines scientifiques concernées (géologie, géophysique, géochimie, mécanique des roches et des sols, mécanique des fluides, physicochimie des interfaces ainsi que trois techniques de base (modélisation, systèmes experts, matériaux nouveaux sont examinées dans ce sens. En particulier,la modélisation numérique voit son importance croître de manière spectaculaire : elle couvre désormais des domaines nouveaux, comme les Sciences de la Terre, et continue à s'enrichir de développements importants, même dans les secteurs où on l'utilise depuis 20 ans comme la production. Ces évolutions s'accompagneront nécessairement d'ajustements dans la formation des hommes et le fonctionnement des organisations; en particulier un espace nouveau pourrait se dégager pour de petites entreprises de conseil et de service plus riches en matière grise qu'en investissements lourds. In the difficult circumstances now confronting oil exploration and production, technical know-how combined with cost control will be essential assets for the petroleum and petroleum equipment and service industries. This article considers the foreseeable impact of scientific developments on the solving of technical problems in exploration and production. The principal scientific disciplines involved (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, rock and soil mechanics, fluid mechanics, interface physicochemistry as well as three basic techniques (modeling, expert systems, new materials are examined within this context. In particular, numerical modeling is increasing in

  7. Factors determining the structure of fish assemblages in an Amazonian river near to oil and gas exploration areas in the Amazon basin (Brazil: establishing the baseline for environmental evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Determining the significance of biotic and abiotic factors in the structuring of fish assemblages in freshwater environments is an important question in ecology, particularly in view of environmental changes caused by man. In this paper we sought to identify the factors responsible for the composition and abundance of fish species collected with gill nets in six locations near ports in forest clearance areas opened up for oil and natural gas exploration (Petrobras Pedro Moura Base in the Urucu River, during drought and flood cycles. In all, 923 individuals from 23 families and 82 species were collected, totalling a biomass of 182,244 g. The most abundant species during the flood season were Bryconops alburnoides (Kner, 1858 and Dianema urostriatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912; in the drought season, the predominant species were Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829 and Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766. The species with the greatest biomass during the flood season were Pellona castelnaeana (Valenciennes, 1847, S. rhombeus and Pellona flavipinis (Valenciennes, 1847. During the drought season, the predominant species was O. bicirrhosum. When both periods were analysed together, electrical conductivity, water transparency and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors. The species Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840, O. bicirrhosum, Chaetobranchus flavenscens Heckel, 1840, Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855 were strongly related to high values of conductivity, pH and water current velocity during the drought season, as well as Serrasalmus altispinis Merckx, Jégu & Santos, 2000, Triportheus albus Cope, 1872, Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 and Brycon melanopterus (Cope, 1872 that were associated with less depth and width in the drought season whereas P. castelnaeana, D. urostriatum, Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner, 1858 and Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 were mainly associated with high transparency and

  8. 墨西哥湾盆地深水区油气分布特征及勘探潜力%Distribution features and exploration potential of oil and gas in a deepwater area of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩彧; 黄娟; 赵雯

    2015-01-01

    通过分析墨西哥湾盆地油气资源勘探现状、油气地质特征,及与油气成藏密切相关的盐岩形成、演化和分布特征,进一步认识到墨西哥湾盆地上侏罗统牛津阶—第四系更新统发育了4套优质烃源岩和多套性能优越的储集层,封堵性能良好的局部和区域盖层遍布整个新生界层系,断层提供了运移通道,构造和地层圈闭发育,具有优越的生储盖等油气成藏条件。盆内中侏罗统发育一套广泛分布的厚层盐岩,很多大型油气藏均与该盐岩相关。盐上和盐下储层中均有可观的油气发现,随着油气勘探理论和技术的进步,盐下油气藏的潜力逐渐显现出来,勘探潜力很大。%The hydrocarbon exploration conditions and geologic features of the Gulf of Mexico Basin were studied, and the formation, evolution and distribution of salt deposits which were closely related to the reservoirs were analyzed. From the Oxfordian Stage of the Upper Jurassic to the Pleistocene Series of the Quaternary, four sets of excellent hydrocarbon source rocks and various favorable reservoirs developed. Effective sealing formations were widespread in the Cenozoic. Faults provided pathways for hydrocarbon migration. Structural and stratigraphic traps were common. All these contributed to the generation and preservation of hydrocarbon. Thick salt deposits were widespread in the Middle Jurassic of the basin, which had a close relationship with giant oil and gas pools. Major discoveries have been made in both pre⁃salt and post⁃salt formations. As petroleum exploration theory and technique advanced, the pre⁃salt formations in the deepwater area of the basin attracted more attention and showed good potential.

  9. EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF ANXIOLYTIC EFFECT OF FLAXSEED OIL AND PERILLA OIL IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sandeep

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the putative anxiolytic-like activity of Flaxseed Oil and Perilla Oil using elevated plus maze (EPM and light-dark exploration test in mice. Flaxseed Oil is also known as linseed oil. Flaxseed Oil obtained from the dried ripe seeds of the Linum usitatissimum, (Linaceae. Perilla Oil is also known as Yegoma oil. It is obtained from seed of Perilla frutescens (Lamiaceae. Male mice were treated orally with the different doses of Flaxseed Oil (0.5-2.0 ml/kg, Perilla Oil (0.3-1.2ml/kg and diazepam respectively, 1 hour before behavioral evaluation. Oral administration of 1.5 and 2.0ml/kg of Flaxseed Oil and 0.9, 1.2 ml/kg of Perilla Oil significantly (p<0.05 increased the number of entries and time spend in light arena of light-dark exploration test as well as these significantly (p<0.05 increased number of entries and time spent in open arm of elevated plus maze test. The anxiolytic effects of herbal oils compared with that of control group without any treatment and further, the results are quite comparable to diazepam (2mg/kg, p.o.. These results indicate that both oils have anxiolytic profile. The comparison between maximum significant effect of Flaxseed Oil and Perilla Oil at doses 1.5ml/kg and 0.9ml/kg respectively showed that Perilla Oil as more anxiolytic effect with low dose as compared with Flaxseed Oil.

  10. OUTLOOK OF CHINA'S PETROLEUM EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xianzheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Oil and gas resource situation of China Overall discovered maturity of oil and gas resources not high According to all previous nationwide estimates of oilgas resources, the total resources is relatively abundant in China. The latest resource assessment results, performed by China's three national oil companies (CNPC, Sinopec and CNOOC), also indicate that petroleum exploration still has a solid resource base. According to the latest nationwide petroleum resource assessment results and the proved oil and gas geologic reserves at the end of 2004,the average discovery maturity of recoverable oil reserves is 20% in China, with 40% in east China, 14% in westcentral China and 14.5% in offshore China, reflecting that petroleum exploration is still in middle stage with considerable exploration potential.

  11. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deepwater Horizon well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. See a map showing the largest oil spills ... Hurricane Season Meet the New CAMEO Chemicals Mobile App Revised: Sep 25, 2017 10:35pm | Site Map | ...

  12. 四川盆地南部地区寒武系油气勘探前景%Oil and Gas Exploration Prospects of Cambrian in Southern Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳; 刘树根; 黄文明; 张长俊; 曾祥亮

    2011-01-01

    为明确四川盆地南部地区寒武系常规油气和页岩气的勘探前景,应用岩相学和地球化学分析手段相结合,对研究区中上寒武统娄山组和下寒武统清虚洞组的厚度、孔隙度、渗透率、孔隙类型和下寒武统筇竹寺组的厚度、总有机碳质量分数w(TOC)、镜质体反射率Ro、矿物组分等进行了深入剖析.结果表明:①川南地区烃源岩厚度大(80~100m),w(TOC)高(3%~5%),为一套中—好的过成熟后期阶段烃源岩(Ro为3.0%~4.8%),矿物组分与美国重要页岩气产层Barnett页岩相似,其中石英、长石和黄铁矿的体积分数为31%~50%,黏土矿物体积分数为29%~53%;②威远地区下寒武统九老洞组黑色页岩含气量达0.43~0.86 m3/t;微孔隙发育,主要为粒间孔,孔隙直径达5~10μm,裂缝密度一般为30~50条/m;③中上寒武统娄山组和下寒武统清虚洞组总体上是寒武系最重要的常规储层,储层内部沥青质量分数一般为3%~6%,储集空间主要为粒间溶孔—晶间孔等,平均孔隙度为1.85%,平均渗透率为2.25×10-3μm2;④在川东南地区靠近盆地边缘的斜坡带,寒武系具有较好的常规油气藏勘探前景,而川东南缘和川西南地区筇竹寺组下部具有较大的页岩气勘探潜力.%In order to identify the exploration prospect of Cambrian conventional oil and gas and shale gas in southern Sichuan Basin, this paper, combining the petrographic and geochemical methods, makes a tho-rugh analysis of the thickness, porosity, permeability, porosity type of Middle-Upper Cambrian Loushan-guan Formation and Lower Cambrian Qingxudong Formation, as well as the thickness, TOC, Ro, mineral composition of Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation. The results show that: (1) The hydrocarbon source rocks in southern Sichuan Basin are thick(80 -100 m)and of high organic matter content (3%-5%). It is a set of general-good late-mature stage of hydrocarbon source

  13. Cooperation in Offshore Oil Deal Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The China National Offshore Oil Corp.(CNOOC), a pioneer prospector of the country's maritime bonanza, has expanded foreign cooperation by signing another contract with the American firm Chevron Overseas Petroleum Ltd.and Malaysian State Oil Firm Petronas to explore a block in the Liaodong Bay of Bohai Sea.

  14. PREDICATION OF THE ORE RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF CHANG 8 AND CHANG 9 OIL GROUP OF YANCHANG FORMATION IN PINGBEI EXPLORATION AREA%坪北探区延长组长8、长9油层组资源潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金良; 郭爱华; 李浩; 张慧元

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,along with the exploration change of Yanchang formation in strategy, Pingbei exploration area achieved new discovery in Chang 8 and Chang 9 oil group of Yanchang formation. Based on the massive core data,with SEM observations microscopic-analysis, casting thin sections and conventional Hg injection techniques, the results showed Chang 9 oil group is shallow lake deposition and sediments are fine. Chang 8 oil group locates in Ansai delta front, underwater distributary channel and debouch bar sandbodies whose storage space are big developed. Reservoir space is made up of original residual pore between grains. There is one set of premium hydrocarbon source rock on the top of Chang 9 oil group,about 5~14 m thick,which generate hydrocarbons strongly. There are three types of reservoir assemblage in this area, self-generation and self-accumulation ones, lowe generation and high accumulation ones, high generation and low accumulation ones. According to oil-test results of Chang 8 and Chang 9 oil group, self-generation and self-accumulation ones, low generation and high accumulation ones in Pingbei exploration area present good oil exploration prospect. Oil-bearing area can be increased by progressive exploration,it's also the replacement resources of next exploitation.%以大量的岩心和测井资料为基础,利用铸体薄片、扫描电镜及压汞等测试分析方法,对坪北探区延长组长8和长9油层组的沉积环境、储层特征以及生储盖的组合关系进行了研究,结果表明长9期属浅湖相沉积,沉积物普遍较细,其顶部发育一套优质烃源岩,厚度5~14 m,具有良好的供烃能力;长8期位于安塞三角洲沉积前缘,主要发育三角洲前缘水下分流河道和河口坝砂体,具有良好的储集空间,以原生残余粒间孔隙为主;区域内发育自生自储式、下生上储式、上生下储式3种成藏组合类型.根据坪北探区延长组长8、长9层试油成果,综合评价认为

  15. The casuistry of Latin American oil exploration on indigenous lands: the challenge of achieving human rights for the benefit of impacted communities; A casuistica latino-americana de exploracao de petroleo em terras indigenas: o desafio da concretizacao dos direitos humanos em prol das comunidades impactadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Juliane Holder da Camara

    2010-01-15

    Recognizing the need to preserve a national ethnic minority, the Brazilian Constitution stipulated a series of rights and guarantees for the conservation of indigenous cultural singularity, endorsed in its article 231 the right of Indians to maintain their social organization, customs, languages, beliefs and traditions, as well as safeguarding the rights to the lands they traditionally occupy, maintaining a perfect symmetry with the precepts contained in Convention 169 of the International Trade Organization (ILO) - Convention on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries. This Convention was ratified and incorporated into the Brazilian legal system through Decree 5.051/2004. Assuming that the right of Indians to maintain their ethnic and cultural uniqueness corresponds to the so-called rights of third dimension, this paper draws attention to the indigenous reality today and the difficulty of achieving human rights enshrined in ILO Convention 169 on tapuios favor of, especially concerning the oil companies. This study analyzed the sample of Latin American countries that have embarked on exploration of oil and natural gas in the indigenous area, in order to structure a socio responsible oil exploration model in areas of social and environmental vulnerability.

  16. Experimental Investigation on Usage of Palm Oil as a Lubricant to Substitute Mineral Oil in CI Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. V. Krishna Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way into lubricants for industrial and transportation applications. The substitution of mineral oil with vegetable oil as a base stock for an environment friendly lubricant in a CI engine is explored in this study without adding any additives. The experiments have been conducted with a mixture of palm oil and mineral oil, at different compositions. Blends of palm oil and mineral oil in different compositions, 0, 25, and 50 (by vol % were added to base SAE20W40 mineral oil to obtain different lubricant blends. The parameters evaluated include brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, and mechanical efficiency and exhaust emissions. The engine performance and emission tests were carried out on a single cylinder, water cooled, 4-stroke CI engine. Compared to mineral oil, the palm oil-based lubricant revealed appreciable expedience on engine and emission performance.

  17. Handbook of offshore oil and gas operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speight, James G

    2015-01-01

    Handbook of Offshore Oil and Gas Operations is an authoritative source providing extensive up-to-date coverage of the technology used in the exploration, drilling, production, and operations in an offshore setting...

  18. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... INTRODUCTION. The environmental impact of petroleum exploration in. Nigeria and other oil producing countries has been on the increase. ... The test organisms were isolated from crude oil sludge environment of Qua Iboe ... was supplemented with 1% Bunny light crude oil (from Exxonmobil. Producing ...

  19. Modeling Peak Oil and the Geological Constraints on Oil Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show th

  20. Modeling Peak Oil and the Geological Constraints on Oil Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show th

  1. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  2. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show th

  3. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  4. All About Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats. Oils from plant sources (vegetable and nut oils) ... oil, and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to ...

  5. 汽车油位传感器用厚膜电路制造工艺的探究%Exploration of Manufacturing Process for Auto Oil Level Sensor Used Thick-film Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷云峰; 张晓武; 刘宏

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the course of development and trial for production technology of automobile oil level sensor with thick film circuit, determines the production craft for the above circuit, thus it fulfills the localization of automobile oil level sensor producing.%叙述了汽车油住传感器用厚膜电路生产工艺的开发与试制过程,确定了汽车油位传感器用厚膜电路的生产工艺,从而实现了汽车油位传感器的国产化。

  6. Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Production Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Production Corporation ("SIPC"), a wholly owned subsidiary of Sinopec Group, is committed to integration of overseas oil and gas investment and operation. So far SIPC has 43 oil and gas exploration and development projects in 22 countries worldwide, covering the world's most resourceful regions, Africa, the Middle East, South America, Asia Pacific, Russia and Central Asia. With overseas portfolio layout taking shape, the company came to a rapid growth with annual output of equity oil exceeding 18 million tons.

  7. Essential oils in broiler nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Kyung-woo

    2002-01-01

    Dietary antibiotics at low, subtherapeutic levels have been shown to improve growth performance in farm animals. However, there is a trend to look for alternatives to dietary antibiotics, due to occurrence of antibiotic-resistance bacteria. The present thesis explored the essential oils as the poss

  8. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  9. Exploration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  10. Exploration Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  11. CHARACTERISTICS AND FUTURE TREND OF WORLDWIDE RESERVES GROWTH IN PAST DECADE——Increase in Worldwide Reserves Comes from New Exploration Discoveries and Growth in Reserves of Known Oil and Gas Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Xiaoguang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Based on the 1995 data, the United States Geological Survey (USGS)released on January 1, 2000 the estimation on the reserves growth of the oil and gas fields, both discovered and to be discovered, worldwide except in the United States between 1996 and 2025.

  12. Enhance the Oil Companies to Explore the Idea of Administrative Efficiency%提升石油企业行政管理效率的思路探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾源

    2014-01-01

    Administration plays an important role in the coordination and daily management of the operation. From an overview of the administration of the oil companies in the study, the analysis of the oil companies to enhance the administrative efficiency of practical significance and oil companies on the administrative status of the proposed measures to improve the administrative efficiency of the oil companies from the three aspects in order to promote healthy development of enterprises.%行政管理承担着运转协调和日常管理的重要作用。从概述石油企业行政管理工作出发,在研究、分析了提升石油企业行政管理效率的现实意义和石油企业行政管理现状的基础上,从三大方面提出了提升石油企业行政管理效率的措施,以期带动企业良性发展。

  13. Pétrole, gaz, environnement : quelle approche de la R&D en exploration-production pour la fin du siècle ? Oil, Gas and the Environment: What Approach by R&D in Exploration-Production for the End of the Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    at the 15th World Energy Council (Madrid, September 1992: during the next 30 years, fossil energy sources will continue to be the basis for all energy supplies . By looking at the conditions of this assertion within a difficult geopolitical context, it shows that one of the privileged routes is to increase research efforts to make scientific and technological advances that will make it possible to fulfill the demand for oil and gas at the start of the 21st century. The R&D effort required to make oil and gas technologies available for the next decade calls for concerted research to be done, for only coordinated research will prevent the dispersal of French efforts (Fig. 6. Increasing economically exploitable reserves, mastering production costs and reducing the costs of gas chainsfrom producing fields to consumer regions, while ensuring environmental production, are the challenges that have to be faced. To cope with these expectations for the industry, great research efforts must be made in the corresponding scientific areas so as to gain a better understanding of phenomena and to develop the most suitable solutions (Fig. 7. The leading R&D axes to be promoted between now and 2000 are then explained. Reducing exploration risks requires, above all, a better petroleum assessment of basins. The progress expected will be based on the scaling up of 2D basin modeling to 3D modeling for assessing the ultimate reserves of a basin (Fig. 8 and Plate I. Improving the determining of the geometry of subsurface geologic structures will benefit from progress in structural imaging, whose aim is to obtain an assessment of the position and shape of seismic reflectors. These are geologic concepts (the understanding the geologist has of the architecture of deltaic or alluvial deposits, of different types of reefs, etc. which, based on geostatistics and expressed by numerical modeling, will make lithological interpolation among wells (Fig. 9 and Plate II, thus leading to the better

  14. 2004: Promising Year for Exploration and Production of CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ CNPC, the parent company of PetroChina, held its 2004 annual oil and gas exploration meeting in Beijing between November 9 and 13. The meeting was focused on analysis of the current issues and difficulties in the domestic oil and gas exploration field, summarization of the results achieved in 2004and clarification of the main tasks for 2005.

  15. Analyses on Prospects and Influence of U.S. Shale Oil Exploration and Production%美国页岩油勘探开发前景展望及其影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗佐县

    2014-01-01

    对国内外页岩油的概念进行了系统分析,梳理了美国页岩油勘探开发历程,将其划分为发现阶段、认识突破阶段和快速发展阶段三个阶段。之后从剩余资源量、证实储量以及产量三个层次分析了美国页岩油产业发展的资源基础,认为美国页岩油产业具有良好的发展潜力。对美国页岩油产业的发展环境进行了分析,认为美国政府的扶持以及页岩油气潜力对国内外大量资金的吸引是美国页岩油产业在新时期发展的根本保障。最后,对美国页岩油产业的发展路径以及全球影响进行了分析和展望。%The concept of shale oil is systematically defined in the paper. The history of shale oil E&P in USA is divided into three periods including finding period, surmounting knowing period and fast development period. Based on data of remaining res-ources, proved reserves and production, a conclusion that U.S. has a big potential on shale oil production is drawn. Afterwards, the development environment of shale oil industry is analyzed. By which, government support and shale oil potential are the funda-mental guarantees of shale oil industry in the new period of development to attract a great amount of amount at home and abroad in the U.S. Finally, the future development path and global influence of shale oil industry is forecasted.

  16. Oil heritage district : Lambton County Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, W. [Wendy Shearer Landscape Architect, Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a project conducted to assess the cultural heritage values of oil field equipment in Lambton County, Ontario. Oil was discovered in the region in 1858, after which a boom and bust cycle of exploration created a large rural-industrial landscape. The region now contains a unique collection of historic oil equipment. The region's industrial footprint is interwoven with village settlements, agricultural settlements, and a railway and road network linking the region to remote refineries. Oil wells in the region still operate using a jerker line system developed in the early twentieth century. The operational oil wells are subject to fluctuating oil prices and environmental protection requirements. The project presents a rare opportunity to place industrial heritage conservation directly in the hands of business operators and regulators, while also functioning as part of a living community. 2 figs.

  17. SINOPEC RAISES 2006 OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Sinopec Corp., the nation's second-biggest oil company,is expected to produce 1.9 percent more crude oil and 11percent more gas in 2006 as the nation's energy demand continually rises. The company may pump 40 million tons of crude oil and 7 billion cubic meters of natural gas from domestic fields this year, said Sinopec Corp in a statement released in late December. The company produced 39.27million tons of crude oil and 6.3 billion cubic meters of gas last year. Chinese oil companies are increasing investments in oil and gas exploration to meet demands by the world's fastest-growing major economy, which expanded 10.7 percent in the first three quarters of this year.

  18. GPU/CPU co-processing parallel computation for seismic data processing in oil and gas exploration%油气勘探地震资料处理GPU/CPU协同并行计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国峰; 刘钦; 李博; 佟小龙; 刘洪

    2009-01-01

    随着图形处理器(Graphic Processing Unit:GPU)在通用计算领域的日趋成熟,使GPU/CPU协同并行计算应用到油气勘探地震资料处理中,对诸多大规模计算的关键性环节有重大提升.本文阐明协同并行计算机的思路、架构及编程环境,着重分析其计算效率得以大幅度提升的关键所在.文中以地震资料处理中的叠前时间偏移和Gazdag深度偏移为切入点,展示样机测试结果的图像显示.显而易见,生产实践中,时常面临对诸多算法进行算法精度和计算速度之间的折中选择.本文阐明GPU/CPU样机协同计算具有高并行度,进而可在算法精度与计算速度的优化配置协调上获得广阔空间.笔者认为,本文的台式协同并行机研制思路及架构,或可作为地球物理配置高性能计算机全新选择的一项依据.%With the development of Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) in general colculations, it makes the GPU/CPU co-processing parallel computing used in seismic data processing of oil and gas exploration and get the great improvement in some important steps. In this paper, we introduce the idea ,architecture and coding environment for GPU and CPU co-processing with CUDA. At the same time,we pay more attention to point out why this method can greatly improve the efficiency. We use the pre-stack time migration and Gazdag depth migration in seismic data processing as the start point of this paper, and the figures can tell us the result of these tests. Obviously ,we often face the situation that we must abandon some good method because of some problems about computing speed, but with the GPU we will have more choices. The result sticks out a mile that the samples in this paper have more advantages than the common PC-Cluster,the new architecture of making parallel computer on the desk expressed in this paper may be one of another choice for high performance computing in the field of geophysics.

  19. Research and Industrialization of High Temperature Pizeo-Electric Ceramic Materials for Deep Oil and Gas Exploration Application%深部油气勘探用高温压电陶瓷材料研制及产业化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董显林; 范晓荣; 梁瑞虹

    2015-01-01

    深部油气资源的勘探与开发已成为当今解决石油资源短缺的一个重要途径。多极子阵列声波测井仪(MPAL)是新一代声波测井仪器。但目前国内多极子阵列声波测井仪一般只能用到150℃左右的环境温度,远远不能满足深部(大于5000米)油气勘探的需要。多年来,高温高稳定压电陶瓷材料难以取得实质性突破一直是制约我国高端声波测井仪器发展的主要技术瓶颈。中国科学院上海硅酸盐研究所针对锆钛酸铅〔Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3,PZT〕和偏铌酸铅(PbNb2O6)两类压电陶瓷在高温应用中急需突破的技术难题,开展了压电陶瓷组成设计新方法研究和制备技术创新研究,经过多年的持续攻关,成功研制出了具有完全自主知识产权的高温高稳定PZT和 PbNb2O6压电陶瓷,满足了声波测井仪器深部油气勘探的需求,并取得了一系列创新性成果,推动了我国声波测井的技术进步。%For many years the main technical bottleneck to restrict the development of China's high-end acoustic logging tool is that high temperature and stable piezoelectric materials have not made substantive breakthrough. The researchers of Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences aimed at the main technical problems existed in the high temperature applications of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lead niobate (PbNb2O6) and made researches on composition design method and preparation technology innovation. After hard work of many years, they successfully developed high temperature and very stable PZT and PbNb2O6 piezoelectric ceramics with completely independent intellectual property which meet the needs of acoustic logging instrument of deep oil and gas exploration, achieved a series of innovative achievements and promoted the technological progress of sonic logging in our country.

  20. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  1. Analysis of chemical composition of high viscous oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Germanovna Yashchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of viscous oils which are considered as an important reserve for oil-production in future were studied on base of information from global database on oil physical and chemical properties. Changes in chemical composition of viscous oils in different basins and continents were analyzed as well. It is shown, on average, viscous oils are sulfur-bearing, low paraffin, highly resinous oils with an average content of asphaltenes and low content of the fraction boiling at 200 C. Study results of viscous oils peculiarities of Canada, Russia and Venezuela are given. The analysis results can be used to determine the optimal layouts and conditions of oil transportation, to improve the search methods of geochemical exploration, and to solve other problems in the oil chemistry.

  2. Applications of Enzymes in Oil and Oilseed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    conventionally high temperature conditioning or cooking is necessary. The good story in industry is the fish oil and olive oil processing. Good quality and higher oil yield have been achieved through the use of enzymes in the processing stages. For the refining stage, the use of enzymes for degumming has......Enzymes, through the last 20-30 years research and development, have been widely explored for the uses in oil and oilseed processing. Following the conventional processing technology from oilseeds, the oil can be produced through pressing or solvent extraction. The crude oil is then refined to meet...... edible requirements. The oil can be also modified to meet functional or even nutritional needs. In each of those steps, enzymes have been used in industry successfully. For the oil processing stage, enzymes have been used to destroy the cell structure so that makes the oil release easier, where...

  3. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could also be ..... during the domestic deep-frying and pan- frying of potatoes. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 53, ... commercial edible vegetable oils. JAOCS. 84, 31-36.

  4. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly-(-a-hydroxy dibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    In exploring alternative vegetable oils for non-food industrial applications, especially in temperate climates, tree seed oils that are not commonly seen as competitors to soybean, peanut, and corn oils can become valuable sources of new oils. Many trees produce edible fruits and seeds while others ...

  5. Adaptive evolution of seed oil content in angiosperms: accounting for the global patterns of seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Anushree; Decocq, Guillaume

    2016-09-09

    Studies of the biogeographic distribution of seed oil content in plants are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in plants as seed oil is the primary energy source needed for germination and establishment of plants. However, seed oil content as an adaptive trait in plants is poorly understood. Here, we examine the adaptive nature of seed oil content in 168 angiosperm families occurring in different biomes across the world. We also explore the role of multiple seed traits like seed oil content and composition in plant adaptation in a phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic context. It was observed that the seed oil content in tropical plants (28.4 %) was significantly higher than the temperate plants (24.6 %). A significant relationship between oil content and latitude was observed in three families Papaveraceae, Sapindaceae and Sapotaceae indicating that selective forces correlated with latitude influence seed oil content. Evaluation of the response of seed oil content and composition to latitude and the correlation between seed oil content and composition showed that multiple seed traits, seed oil content and composition contribute towards plant adaptation. Investigation of the presence or absence of phylogenetic signals across 168 angiosperm families in 62 clades revealed that members of seven clades evolved to have high or low seed oil content independently as they did not share a common evolutionary path. The study provides us an insight into the biogeographical distribution and the adaptive role of seed oil content in plants. The study indicates that multiple seed traits like seed oil content and the fatty acid composition of the seed oils determine the fitness of the plants and validate the adaptive hypothesis that seed oil quantity and quality are crucial to plant adaptation.

  6. Oil spill related contaminant data for Arctic marine mammals - Obtaining baseline oil spill-related contaminant exposure data for Arctic marine mammals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — With increasing oil exploration and ship traffic in the U.S. Arctic, there is concern about the increased potential for an oil spill event in this region of the...

  7. The History of Gas Exploration in the Paleozoic Strata in Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yantai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Basin which covers an area of 250 000 km2 is one of the largest oil and gas basins, and also one of the basins having earlist history of oil and gas exploration in China.Up to now 87 years of exploration history have passed since the first oil productive well was drilled in Yanchang area in 1907.

  8. 中国西部叠合盆地油气多期成藏模式及勘探有效性%The Model of the Multi-Stage of Oil-Gas Formation and Exploration Effectiveness in Superimposed Basins in Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康德江; 姜丽娜; 张金友

    2012-01-01

    and frequent extremely tectonic movements.Although the reservoirs formed early,strong tectonic movements destroy or change them all,after several times,it basically,can not form a large reservoir. Among the model of the multi-stage of oil-gas formation listed above,the first type can form the typical reservoir under normal circumstance,moreover,the condensate gas reservoir is more.The second one is similar to the forth type,but because the time of destroy is different,the corresponding results are very different.Early strong reformation type can destroy the reservoir accumulated in the early stage seriously,and because of the later stable tectonic movements,it can preserve the hydrocarbon formed in the later period,such as the distribution of Silurian bituminous sandstone in Tazhong region and much of reservoir existed in Carboniferous and Thriassic.The third one can preserve the earlier reservoir to some extent,and meanwhile,it also can accumulate the late hydrocarbon because the strength of the tectonic movements become weaker.The characteristic of the forth type is the strength of tectonic is very strong,and it can be destructive.To the maximum extent,it can completely destroy the former reservoirs,the remaining is very little.The last type is a model without exploration effectiveness,and the result of structural damage is highly visible,So the resource accumulated under this condition is restricted extremely. In the context of late accumulation is favorable for exploration,it determine that the region with the model of continuous oil-gas filled and surrounding areas is most likely to accumulate large scale and many types of oil-gas reservoirs because there have little tectonic movements and the damage.However,the model of alternation of multi-stage filling and reworking have little exploration effectiveness because of many tectonic movements and damages.Consequently,the exploration for oil-gas should try to avoid these areas.%我国西部叠合盆地油气资源

  9. Creative Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Children are naturally curious and explore in order to make sense of the world; play and exploration are vital to their learning and development. Space and support for children to think, ask questions, make predictions, experiment, look for explanations and draw conclusions is essential in primary science. This ‘children’s science’ emerges naturally as they seek to learn about the world around them (Johnston 2008) and develop creative explanations of natural phenomena. Adopting such an explor...

  10. EXPLORATION GEOCHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072782 Dong Sheng(East China Academy of Metallurgical Geological Exploration,Hefei 230022,China)Regional Geochemical Characteristics of Guichi Area in Anhui Province and Their Ore-Prospecting Significance(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,30(3),2006,p.215-219,223,3 illus.,7 refs.)Key words:polymetallic deposits,regional geological exploration,Anhui Province Controlled by unique geological conditions,

  11. PROSPECTING EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082879 Chen Yaoyu(No.3 Geology and Mineral Exploration Team,Gansu Provincial Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development,Lanzhou 730050,China); Gong Quansheng Discussion on the Division of Deposit Scale and the Index of Ore Prospecting(Gansu Geology,ISSN 1004—4116,CN62—1191/P,16(3),2007,p.6—11,4 tables,6 refs.) Key words:prospecting and exploration of mineral

  12. GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122626 Li Dongfeng ( Liaoning Institute of Mineral Resources Exploration,Shenyang 110032,China ) Application of Comprehensive Geophysical-Geochemical Method in Toudao-yingzi Gold Field ( Journal of Liaoning Technical University ( Natural Sciences ), ISSN1008-0562,CN21-1379 / N,30 ( 6 ), 2011,p.849-852,1illus.,2tables,10refs. ) Key words:gold ores,geophysical exploration,geochemical exploration,Liaoning Province

  13. Technological acceleration and organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry; Acceleration technologique et transformations organisationnelles dans l'industrie d'exploration-production d'hydrocarbures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabelle, M

    2000-12-15

    The upstream oil and gas industry experienced a dramatic technological acceleration in the early 1970's. The relationships between the agents in this industry have themselves undergone deep changes since that date. This thesis shows that a tight link exists between the technological acceleration and the organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry. In a first part, it focuses on the economic theory's developments concerning industrial organization. In a second part, it applies these developments to three types of relations: those between the owner-states of hydrocarbon resources and the international petroleum companies; those between the international petroleum companies and their subcontractors; and finally those between the international petroleum companies themselves. (author)

  14. PetroChina Drills Risk Exploration Wells In Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chunhui

    2006-01-01

    @@ China National Oil Development Corporation (CNODC), one of the subsidiaries under PetroChina responsible for the overseas oil exploration and development business, started to drill its first exploration well - Saha-1 - on Tenere Block in Niger on October 30. This is another risk exploration well CNODC has drilled in this region following Bel E-1 drilled on Block 350 in Algeria on September 15 and Heron-1 drilled on Block 20 in Mauritania on October 13.The drilling of those wells indicates a substantial stage of PetroChina's overseas large-scale risk oil and gas exploration in the Central and Northern Africa.

  15. Turbine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eminov, E.A.; Bogdanov, Sh.K.; Dovgopolyi, E.E.; Gryaznov, B.V.; Ivanov, V.S.; Ivanova, Z.M.; Kozlova, E.K.; Nikolaeva, N.M.; Rozhdestvenskaya, A.A.

    1981-03-10

    In the known turbine oil (TO), for the purpose of improving the anticorrosion and demulsifying properties, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether, ethylenediamine or propylene glycol or an alkylphenol are additionally introduced, where the C/sub 8/-C/sub 12/ alkyl has a molecular weight of 2000-10,000. The proportions of the components are: 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol 0.2-1.0%, quinizarin 0.01-0.05%, an acid ester of an alkenylsuccinic acid 0.02-0.1%, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether 0.02-0.2%, polymethylsiloxane 0.003-0.005%, and petroleum oil the remainder. The TO is prepared by mixing the petroleum oil with the additives in any sequence at a temperature of 60-80/sup 0/ by mechanical stirring. On the five TO samples the antioxidative, demulsifying, and anticorrosion properties by comparison with the prototype were investigated. It was shown that the obtained TO possesses improved anticorrosion properties (time until the appearance of Kr (staining.), up to 60 h as against 35 on the prototype) and demulsifying properties (quantity of water separating on breaking the emulsion 10 mg/L as against 65 mg/L on the prototype) for an antioxidative stability equal to that of the analog. The TO is designated for use in various turbo-units, in the first place in marine steam turbine units, where there is the probability of contact of the TO with seawater. Use of the TO makes it possible to increase the service life of the mechanisms, to reduce the amount of oil mixable in the form of an emulsion (by a factor of 1.5 to 2), and to lower the operating expenses.

  16. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  17. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142564Chen Mingxing(Beijing Research Institute of Survey and Design,China Hydropower Engineering Consulting Group Co.,Beijing 100024,China);Chen Baoguo Application of Drilling Deviation Correcting and Deflecting Techniques in Geological Exploration at Songta Hydropower Station(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,

  18. Experimental study on spectral responses of offshore oil slick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU YingCheng; TIAN QingJiu; WANG JingJing; WANG XiangCheng; QI XiaoPing

    2008-01-01

    Using the seawater taken from Liaodong Bay and crude oil taken from Liaohe Oilfield, a laboratory experiment was designed to study the change of reflectance spectrum of artificial offshore oil slick with its thickness and to identify the spectrum ranges suitable for quantifying the thickness of the oil slick.During the experiment, crude oil was continuously dropped into the seawater to generate artificial oil slick with different thicknesses. After every drop of crude oil was added, reflectance spectrum of the oil slick was measured with a high resolution spectroradiometer (ASD FieldSpec Pro FR). The influence of oil slick thickness on its reflectance spectrum was explored through statistical analysis. The results show that the reflectance of oil slick changes marginally with oil slick thickness and higher than that of seawater in infrared band from 1150 to 2500 nm. This spectrum range can be practically used to distinguish oil slick from seawater. In the spectrum range from 400 to 1150 nm, the reflectance of oil slick decreases with its thickness. The negative power function is the best-fit function expressing the relationship between the reflectance and thickness. The spectral characteristics of oil slick are very distinct at 550 and 645 nm. They are the best wavelengths for monitoring the existence of offshore oil slick and estimating its thickness.

  19. Novel reusable porous polyimide fibers for hot-oil adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lidong; Zhang, Chongyin; He, Xiaowei; Guo, Yongqiang; Qiao, Mingtao; Gu, Junwei; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2017-10-15

    The development of oil sorbents with high thermal stability, adsorption capacity, reusability and recoverability is of great significance for hot oil leakage protection, especially for oil spillage of oil refinery, petrochemical industry and cars. In our work, highly efficient hot oil adsorption of polyimide (PI) fibers with excellent thermal stability was successfully prepared by a facile electrospinning method followed by post-treatment. The corresponding morphologies, structures and oil adsorption properties of as-prepared PI fibers at different temperatures were analyzed and characterized. Results showed that PI fibers presented a stable morphology and pore structure at 200°C. The oil adsorption capacity of porous PI fibers for hot motor oil (200°C) was about 57.4gg(-1), higher than that of PI fibers (32.7gg(-1)) with non-porous structure for the motor oil at room temperature. Even after ten adsorption cycles, porous PI fibers still maintained a comparable oil sorption capacity (oil retention of 4.2%). The obtained porous PI fibers exhibited excellent hot oil adsorption capacity, reusability and recoverability, which would broaden the application of electrospun fibers in oil spill cleanup and further provide a versatile platform for exploring the technologies of nanofibers in hot oil adsorption field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Chemistry of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.

    1974-01-01

    A review with several references covers the formation, distribution, and mining of oil shales of Fu-Shun colliery; retorting furnaces for oil shale; refining of crude shale oils; and components of oil from Fu-Shun oil shales including pyrolle, matrine, fatty acid anilides, 2,4,5-trimethylpyrrole, and middle-layer bases.

  1. Oil frontiers and indigenous resistance in the Peruvian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orta-Martinez, Marti [ICTA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, 4 Library Court. NW, Washington DC 20003 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The Peruvian Amazon is culturally and biologically one of the most diverse regions on Earth. Since the 1920s oil exploration and extraction in the region have threatened both biodiversity and indigenous peoples, particularly those living in voluntary isolation. We argue that the phenomenon of peak oil, combined with rising demand and consumption, is now pushing oil extraction into the most remote corners of the world. Modern patterns of production and consumption and high oil prices are forcing a new oil exploratory boom in the Peruvian Amazon. While conflicts spread on indigenous territories, new forms of resistance appear and indigenous political organizations are born and become more powerful. The impacts of oil exploration and exploitation and indigenous resistance throughout the oil history of the Peruvian Amazon are reviewed here, focusing on the Achuar people in Rio Corrientes. The driving forces, impacts, and responses to the current oil exploration boom are analyzed from an environmental justice perspective. We conclude that, in a context of peak oil and growing global demand for oil, such devastating effects for minor quantities of oil are likely to increase and impact other remote parts of the world. (author)

  2. Essays on oil and the macroeconomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melolinna, M.

    2012-07-01

    This dissertation studies the effects of crude oil on the macroeconomy using a vector autoregression (VAR) modelling framework. In particular, the importance of identifying different types of oil shocks is explored for both small and large open economies. A VAR model is also used to study the information content of oil futures contracts. The dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay of the dissertation introduces a methodology for identifying oil supply shocks in a small open economy. Financial market information is used to construct an identification scheme that forces the response to an oil shock of the VAR model to be the same as that implied by futures markets. Due to the identification scheme, the model is only partially identified, and confidence intervals for impulse responses are calculated by using a bootstrapping procedure. The methodology is applied in illustrative examples to two small open economies in a VAR model that includes key domestic and international macroeconomic variables. The results suggest that while oil supply shocks have had an effect on domestic inflation during recent past, the effect on domestic GDP is ambiguous. The second essay of the dissertation studies the existence of risk premiums in crude oil futures prices with simple ordinary least squares regression and Bayesian VAR models. It also studies the importance of three main theoretical risk premium models in explaining and forecasting the risk premiums in practice. Whilst the existence of the premiums and the validity of the models can be established at certain time points, it turns out that the choice of sample period has a considerable effect on the results. Hence, the risk premiums are highly time-varying. The study also establishes a model, based on speculative positions in the futures markets, which has some predictive power for future oil spot prices. The third essay of the dissertation explores oil market and other macroeconomic shocks in a structural VAR

  3. 1971 : left coast removed from oil hunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-06-15

    In 1971, oil and gas exploration efforts were focused on the Far North and on the east coast offshore. Concerns of ecological damage closed the west coast offshore to exploration efforts. A ban on offshore oil operations was imposed in the Straits of Juan de Fuca, between Vancouver and Victoria. The move prompted Gulf Oil and Canadian Pacific Oil and Gas to give back to Ottawa federal oil and gas permits covering 675,000 acres. The following year, the federal government imposed a moratorium on all exploration activity for the west coast offshore. The provincial government imposed its own 5-year moratorium in 1989. In 2007, the province recommitted itself to offshore exploration and requested that the federal moratorium be lifted. However, to date, the federal moratorium remains in place. 1971 also marked the drilling of the first Sable Island natural gas well by Mobil Oil Canada. The well tested at 14 million cubic feet per day and offered an optimistic future for east coast offshore activities. In 1971, the Energy Resources Conservation Board recommended approval of Syncrude Canada's 125,000 barrel per day oilsands project. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  4. Characterization of Palm Oil as Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorey, Neeraj; Ghosh, Shankha; Srivastava, Priyank; Kumar, Vivek

    2017-08-01

    The various sources of energy from which mechanical energy is obtained are non-renewable and are thus considered to be unsustainable. These sources include the various fossil fuels like the petroleum, coal and the natural gas. The burning of fossil fuels led to the production of the greenhouse gases increasing the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. The adverse effects are the global warming and the ozone layer depletion. In a nation like India, where consumable oils are still transported in, it is advantageous to investigate the likelihood of utilising such non-palatable oils as a part of CI motors which are not by and by used as cooking oil. Palm oil (otherwise called dendê oil, from Portuguese) is a consumable vegetable oil got from the monocarp (ruddy mash) of the product of the oil palms. The major objective is to provide a cheap and effective alternative to diesel. This paper is an exploration of the capability of the palm oil as a practical, modest and effective hotspot for the generation of biodiesel. the paper is based on the characterisation of palm oil compare to diesel.

  5. Application of Markov Model in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu Isah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile. The fluctuation of crude oil prices has affected many related sectors and stock market indices. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid the future prices of the non-renewable natural resources to rise. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2 January to 29 May 2015. We used Markov Model (MM approach in forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using EViews and Maple software where the potential of this software in forecasting daily crude oil prices time series data was explored. Based on the study, we concluded that MM model is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  6. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  7. Rheology of Structured Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbaliev, G. I.; Rasulov, S. R.; Rzaev, A. G.; Mustafaeva, G. R.

    2017-07-01

    Rheological models of structured oils are proposed and compared with available experimental data on oils from different deposits. It is shown that structured oils can possess properties of Bingham and power-law non-Newtonian fluids.

  8. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  9. Space exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris Moore

    2012-01-01

      Here, Moore presents a year in review on space exploration programs. This 2012 NASA's strategy of stimulating the development of commercial capabilities to launch crew and cargo to the ISS began to pay off...

  10. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141074Bao Xijie(Research Institute of Exploration and Development,Daqing Oilfield Company,PetroChina,Daqing 163712,China)Gather Optimal Processing and Application Effect of Prestack AVA Instantaneous Inversion

  11. Sudan: the human price of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-03

    This series of eight information bulletins by Amnesty International is intended to draw attention to the link between the massive human rights violations by the security forces of the Government of Sudan and various government-allied militia forces, and the oil operations by foreign companies (which include Canada's Talisman Energy, Denim Pipeline Construction Ltd., and Roll'n Oil Field Industries). The human rights violations cited by Amnesty International include atrocities and the forcible internal displacement of large populations of local people living in the oil fields and surrounding areas. It is alleged that the foreign oil companies involved in this lucrative operation expect the Sudanese government to provide a secure environment and protect oil company staff and assets, and turn a blind eye to human rights violations by the government security forces in the name of protecting the security of the oil-producing areas. In raising awareness of the problem, Amnesty International hopes to establish a dialogue with the foreign oil companies and sensitize them to their responsibilities to promote a better human rights environment in the areas where they are active in oil exploration and extraction. The information bulletins provide a background to the problem; detail the human rights violations committed in the name of oil; establish the link between oil, weapons purchases by the Sudanese government and human rights violations; describe the oil companies and their responsibilities and international standards on internal displacement of populations; and makes recommendations to the Government of Sudan, to the armed opposition groups, to the oil companies and to the international community at large to bring an end to the human rights violations that over the last three decades have cost tens of thousands of lives and displaced hundreds of thousands of people.

  12. EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072798 Chen Fengyun(China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Hang Yuan Algorithm and Application of the Coherency/Variance Cube Technique(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,30(3),2006,p.250-253,257,7 illus.,7 refs.)Key words:seismic exploration The coherency/variance cube technique has been developed in recent years as a new technique of seismic data interpretation.

  13. EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072109 An Yong(Key Lab of Geophysics Exploration under CNPC,China University of Petroleum,Beijing 102249,China);Wei Lichun Most Homogeneous Dip-Scanning Method Using Edge Preserving Smoothing for Seismic Noise Attenuation(Applied Geophysics,ISSN1672-7975,CN11-5212/O,3(4),2006,p.210-217,17 illus.,3 refs.)Key words:seismic exploration,denoising

  14. Research on Techniques for Rolling Exploration and Development and Application to Dongying Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Xiangyue; Sun Longde

    1995-01-01

    @@ The central anticlinal zone of Dongying Basin and Tong-Wang tectonic zone, subordinate to the Xianhe Oil Mine of Shengli Oilfield, are a composite tectonic belt, very complex in geology and diverse in oil pool types, with high oil and gas productivity, and also a very complex geologic body consisting of different strata and oil pools of different types and origins (Fig. 1). This situation made us to work out a complex and step-by-step continuous process of oil and gas exploration and exploitation,i.e. ,the rolling oil exploration and exploitation process.

  15. China's Offshore Oil Development Expected to Take Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's offshore oil industry will face a high-speed development with the crude oil production expected to top 50 million tons by 2010, according to a study recently released by China's State Oceanic Administration titled "China's Oceanic Development Report." Meanwhile, the offshore natural gas production will also enter a rapid growth stage. In addition, a series of new exploration technologies suitable for China's offshore areas will be developed, including 3D seismic imaging technology,data imaging logging technology, underwater multiphase flow oil and gas development technology, marginal oil field development technology and shallow sea oil and gas development technology.

  16. Oil Prices, Exhaustible Resources, and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    This talk explores details behind the phenomenal increase in global crude oil production over the last century and a half and the implications if that trend should be reversed. I document that a key feature of the growth in production has been exploitation of new geographic areas rather than application of better technology to existing sources, and suggest that the end of that era could come soon. The economic dislocations that historically followed temporary oil supply disruptions are reviewed, and the possible implications of that experience for what the transition era could look like are explored.nnual crude oil production (in thousands of barrels per year) from the states of Pennsylvania and New York combined, 1860-2010. ashed line: actual value for real GDP, 2007-2009. Red line: dynamic conditional forecast as of 2007:Q3 (1- to 5-quarters ahead) based on oil prices using equation (3.8) in Hamilton (2003)

  17. Particles at Oil-Air Surfaces: Powdered Oil, Liquid Oil Marbles, and Oil Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Johnston, Shaun K; Sekine, Tomoko; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2015-07-08

    The type of material stabilized by four kinds of fluorinated particles (sericite and bentonite platelet clays and spherical zinc oxide) in air-oil mixtures has been investigated. It depends on the particle wettability and the degree of shear. Upon vigorous agitation, oil dispersions are formed in all the oils containing relatively large bentonite particles and in oils of relatively low surface tension (γla cyclomethicone containing the other fluorinated particles. Particle-stabilized oil foams were obtained in oils having γla > 26 mN m(-1) where the advancing air-oil-solid contact angle θ lies between ca. 90° and 120°. Gentle shaking, however, gives oil-in-air liquid marbles with all the oil-particle systems except for cases where θ is 24 mN m(-1) with omniphobic zinc oxide and sericite particles for which advancing θ ≥ 90°, dry oil powders consisting of oil drops in air which do not leak oil could be made upon gentle agitation up to a critical oil:particle ratio (COPR). Above the COPR, catastrophic phase inversion of the dry oil powders to air-in-oil foams was observed. When sheared on a substrate, the dry oil powders containing at least 60 wt % of oil release the encapsulated oil, making these materials attractive formulations in the cosmetic and food industries.

  18. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Paraho oil shale project. [Coloardo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pforzheimer, H.

    1976-01-01

    The Paraho Oil Shale Project is a privately financed program to prove the Paraho retorting process and hardware on oil shale at Anvil Points, Colo., near Rifle. The project was launched in late 1973 under the sponsorship of 17 participants many of whom were active in earlier oil shale research. Two new Paraho retorts, a pilot and a semiworks size unit, were installed at Anvil Points. The oil-shale mine on the adjacent Naval Oil Shale Reserve was reactivated. The mine and new retorts were put into operation during 1974. The pilot plant is used to explore operating parameters in order to define conditions for testing in the larger semiworks size retort. The experimental operations in 1974 set the stage for the successful runs in 1975 and early 1976. The results of the Paraho operations to date have been encouraging. They demonstrate that the process works, that the equipment is durable, and that both are environmentally acceptable on a pilot and a semiworks plant scale.

  20. 我国成品油销售企业物流一体化管理探析%An Explorative Analysis on Integrated-Logistics of Oil Product Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕永昌

    2011-01-01

    With the globalization of economic,the competence of enterprise is not among businesses but among supply chains、as well as the competence of supply chain management level,including oil businesses.As one of the important parts of oil businesses supply chai%经济全球化的今天,包括石油企业在内的任何企业之间的竞争,其实质是企业所在的供应链与供应链之间、以及对于供应链管理水平高低之间的竞争。作为中国石油产业供应链的一个重要环节,成品油销售企业物流及供应链体系的高效管理显得尤其重要。通过对我国成品油销售企业物流管理现状的分析,从优化物流管理的角度提出了我国成品油物流一体化管理的思路。

  1. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  2. Corrosion in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brondel, D. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)); Edwards, R. (Schlumberger Well Services, Columbus, OH (United States)); Hayman, A. (Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Clamart (France)); Hill, D. (Schlumberger Dowell, Tulsa, OK (United States)); Mehta, S. (Schlumberger Dowell, St. Austell (United Kingdom)); Semerad, T. (Mobil Oil Indonesia, Inc., Sumatra (Indonesia))

    1994-04-01

    Corrosion costs the oil industry billions of dollars a year, a fact that makes the role of the corrosion engineer an increasingly important one. Attention is paid to how corrosion affects every aspect of exploration and production, from offshore rigs to casing. Also the role of corrosion agents such as drilling and production fluids is reviewed. Methods of control and techniques to monitor corrosion are discussed, along with an explanation of the chemical causes of corrosion. 21 figs., 32 refs.

  3. Ultrasonic oil-film thickness measurement: An angular spectrum approach to assess performance limits

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J.; Drinkwater, B.W.; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of ultrasonic oil-film thickness measurement in a ball bearing is quantified. A range of different viscosity oils (Shell T68, VG15, and VG5) are used to explore the lowest reflection coefficient and hence the thinnest oil-film thickness that the system can measure. The results show a minimum reflection coefficient of 0.07 for both oil VG15 and VG5 and 0.09 for oil T68 at 50 MHz. This corresponds to an oil-film thickness of 0.4 μm for T68 oil. An angular spectrum (or Fourier d...

  4. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091853 An Jinzhen(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China);Zhou Pinggen Experiments on Exploring and Monitoring Landslip-Mass Using Geoelectric Resistivity Observations(Acta Seismologica Sinica,ISSN0253-3782,CN11-2021/P,30(3),2008,p.254-261,6 illus.,1 table,19 refs.)Key words:resistivity methods,landslidesIn the experiments,a high-density resistivity method is used to explore the electric structure of landslip mass,and a resistivity-changing anisotropy method is used to monitor the orientation and speed of main fracture extending of landslip mass.The results are as follows:1)the exploring experiments have verified a part of creep deformation borderline,the depth and thickness of groundwater horizon,and the property of super strata in the landslip mass investigated formerly,which have proved that the landslip belts contain rich groundwater

  5. Farside explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mimoun, David; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Alkalai, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Farside Explorer is a proposed Cosmic Vision medium-size mission to the farside of the Moon consisting of two landers and an instrumented relay satellite. The farside of the Moon is a unique scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference, it recorded...... the primary differentiation and evolution of the Moon, it can be continuously monitored from the Earth-Moon L2 Lagrange point, and there is a complete lack of reflected solar illumination from the Earth. Farside Explorer will exploit these properties and make the first radio-astronomy measurements from...... the most radio-quiet region of near-Earth space, determine the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, from crust to core, and quantify impact hazards in near-Earth space by the measurement of flashes generated by impact events. The Farside Explorer flight system includes two identical solar...

  6. Recent petroleum exploration and development in Saudi Arabia; Saikin no Saudi Arabia no sekiyu tanko to kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, N. [Arabian Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents recent petroleum exploration and development in Saudi Arabia. At present Saudi Arabia yielding crude oil of 8 million BPD is the biggest oil yield and export country in the world. The estimated amount of oil deposits of nearly 2.6 hundred billion bbl accounts for nearly 25% of that over the world. Oil exploration was started by American enterprise in 1933, and a promising oil deposit was first confirmed in carbonate rocks in Jurassic Arabian stratum in 1938. The survey area of oil exploration gradually expanded up to all of eastern provinces and Arabian Bay. Ghawar oil field largest in the world and Safaniya oil field largest in the world as marine oil field were found in 1948 and 1951, respectively. Oil exploration in Central Arabia started in 1988 after nearly 50 years from oil exploration in eastern provinces, and low-sulfur/super-light oil was found in Paleozoic sand rock stratum. Up to this day light oil was confirmed at 15 sites in these areas, and further oil exploration is now in promotion. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122758 Chen Huiming ( No.8 Geology Team of Fujian Province,Longyan 364000,China ) Application Research on Drilling Technology Process Combination for Deep Explora-tion in an Iron Mine of Fujian Province ( Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063 / TD,38 ( 9 ), 2011,p.6-9,8ta-bles,6refs. ) Key words:drilling in complicated formation According to the drilling technical problems in deep complex formations of the ironmine surrounding Makeng of Fujian Province ,

  8. GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110462 Chen Furong(Anhui Institute of Geological Survey,Hefei 230001,China)Ore-Search Prospects of Gold and Tungsten Geochemical Anomalies in Ningdun Area,Anhui Province(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,34(2),2010,p.150-153,5 illus.,2 tables,6 refs.)Key words:gold ores,tungsten ores,geochemical exploration,AnhuiGeochemical anomalies of gold and tungsten in Ningdun area are dominated by the element association of Au-As-W-Bi.These anomalies are well coincident with

  9. PROSPECTING EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112102 Chen Yiying(Shijiazhuang University of Economics,Shijiazhuang 050031,China);Li Wenbin Automatic Generation of Complicated Fault in Geological Section(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(5),2010,p.7-12,8 illus.,13 refs.)Key words:faults,map compilation The researches of this paper are the basic theories and essential techniques of simulating complicated faults,and a series of approaches are proposed.Based on the practical geological exploration,data types are analyzed and database is normalized.The strata recovering technique is

  10. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  11. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2006-06-30

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  12. Experimental Exploration in the Technology of Ultrasonic Viscosity Reduction Technique for Heavy Oil in Liaohe Oilfield%辽河稠油超声波降黏技术的实验探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝明阳; 赵德智; 李莹

    2016-01-01

    用变幅杆式超声波反应器进行了辽河油田稠油超声裂解降黏实验研究。考察了超声波处理温度、处理时间及超声波功率对降黏率的影响,优化了超声波处理工艺参数,计算并比较了超声波处理过程与减黏裂化过程所消耗的能量。实验结果表明,在高压条件下(实验压力为8 MPa),1 kg 辽河稠油在超声波功率1.5 kW、超声波处理温度300℃及超声波处理时间20 min 的条件下降黏效果最好,降黏率为47.69%;超声波功率对降黏率影响最大,其次为超声波处理时间和超声波处理温度;与减黏裂化技术过程相比,处理相同质量油样时超声波处理过程的能耗更低。研究结果可为稠油的低能耗、高效率的降黏方法提供有效途径。%Ultrasonic amplitude-variation bar type reactor has been employed to probe the liaohe heavy oil ultrasonic cracking viscosity reduction.The effects on reaction temperature,processing time and ultrasonic power,to the viscosity reduction ratio, were investigated.In the experiment,ultrasonic processing parameter were optimized,the energy consuming of ultrasonic processing and viscosity reduction cracking was calculated and compared.the viscosity reduction effect (1 kg heavy oil in Liaohe)reached the optimum under the condition of high pressure(experimental pressure 8 MPa),ultrasonic power 1.5 kW, processing temperature 300 ℃ and processing time 20 min,where the viscosity reduction ratio of 1 kg heavy oil was 47.69%;the most important factor of viscosity reduction ratio was ultrasonic power;ultrasonic processing time and temperature took second place.Compared to viscosity reduction cracking technology,ultrasonic processing had the advantage of low power consuming,during processing the same samples,which provided effective method to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil with low energy consuming and high efficiency.

  13. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  14. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  15. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  16. Strathcona County energy exploration public consultation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, C. [Bearing Point Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-12-09

    A committee was established by the Strathcona County Council in response to resident concerns regarding oil and gas exploration in the region. Bearing Point Inc. was hired to report on the results of a workshop where residents voiced their opinion on how their land is used. Many people live in Strathcona for its beauty, solitude and recreational activities, and consider the oil and gas exploration as compromising their lifestyles. The workshop focused on the following six categories which reflected the citizen's views regarding oil and gas exploration: environment, health and safety; communication and planning; regulation and rights; economics; accountability; and, other. Residents expressed concerns regarding water supply, air pollution, light pollution, noise pollution, soil contamination, land damage, wildlife disruption, asthma and other health conditions, pipeline safety, land use and reclamation, use of technology and environmental damage. They also expressed concerns regarding landowners rights and resources. The residents felt that regulations governing oil and gas exploration were inadequate and favoured the oil and gas industry. Other concerns were based on property devaluation and increase in the volume and use of heavy equipment to the road system. Residents proposed various approaches to address each of these concerns.

  17. Study on the environmental problems during the oil and gas exploration in Myanmar%缅甸油气勘探开发中的环境问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀亚锋; 冯凯; 李瑞贤

    2014-01-01

    随着中石油海外业务的日益壮大,在环境管理方面的挑战越来越大。针对特定的东南亚国家缅甸,通过调研分析该国家的环境管理机构和相关法律,阐述了缅甸的环境管理现状,环境影响评价作为重要的一环,已进入国家层面并列入公司管理制度,通过公司环境管理实践,切合油气作业高风险的特点,极大限度减小环境事件带来的影响和名誉损失,提高海外风险应对能力。%With the developing business of overseas oil and gas field, the challenges in environmental management is growing.Myanmar, as a Southeast Asian country, the researches and analysis in environment management agen-cies and related environmental laws show the current environment management situation of Myanmar.The environ-mental impact assessment ( EIA) as the important part of project plan has been included in the company manage-ment system.Through the management of environmental practices and the high risk of oil and gas operations, the impact and reputation of environmental events can be greatly reduced, and the risk response capabilities can be im-proved.

  18. Exploring Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among…

  19. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131193 Bing Pingping (Key Lab.of Geophysical Exploration of CNPC , China University of Petroleum , Beijing 102249 , China); Cao Siyuan Non-Linear AVO Inversion Based on Support Vector Machine (Chinese Journal of Geophysics , ISSN0001-5733 , CN11-2074/P , 55 (3), 2012 , p.1025-1032 , 4illus. , 26 tables , 2refs.)

  20. Exploring Fractals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewdney, A. K.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the subject of fractal geometry focusing on the occurrence of fractal-like shapes in the natural world. Topics include iterated functions, chaos theory, the Lorenz attractor, logistic maps, the Mandelbrot set, and mini-Mandelbrot sets. Provides appropriate computer algorithms, as well as further sources of information. (JJK)

  1. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20051144 Gu Jun (Petroleum University, Beijing); Gao Deli Analysis of Mechanic Characterstics for Coal Bed and Drilling Countermeasure in Tuha Basin, Xinjiang, China (Exploration Engineering (Rock & Soil Drilling and Tunneling), ISSN 1672 - 7428, CN11-5063/TD, 31(5), 2004, p. 51-52, 55, 3 tables, 1 ref. , with English abstract) Key words: coal seams, drilling

  2. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131973 Luo Zhili(Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Sun Wei Reviews of the Exploration History of Stratigraphic Wells in the Sichuan Basin and Analysis of the Obtained Geological Effects(Natural Gas Industry,ISSN1000-0976,CN51-1179/TE,32(4),2012,p.9-12,1illus.,10)

  3. GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151884 An Guoying(China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Land and Resources,Beijing100083,China)Regional Geochemistry of Sanjiang Region in Yunnan Province and Its Copper-Polymetallic Prospecting Significance(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,

  4. GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131784 An Guoying(China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Land and Resources,Beijing 100083,China);Lei Yingping Geochemical Characteristics and Metallogenic Prospecting Areas in Yunkai Area,Guangxi(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,36

  5. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  6. Emissões naturais e antrópicas de nitrogênio, fósforo e metais para a bacia do Rio Macaé (Macaé, RJ, Brasil sob influência das atividades de exploração de petroleo e gás na Bacia de Campos Natural and anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen, phosphorous and metals into the Macaé river basin (Macaé, RJ, Brazil Influenced by oil and gas exploration in Campos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Mussi Molisani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors of natural processes and anthropogenic activities were used to estimate nutrients and metal loads for the lower Macaé river basin, which hosts the operational base for the offshore oil and gas exploration in the Campos Basin. The estimates indicated that emissions from anthropogenic activities are higher than natural emissions. Major contributing drivers include husbandry and urbanization, whose effluents receive no treatment. The increasing offshore oil exploration along the Brazilian littoral has resulted in rapid urbanization and, therefore might increase the inshore emission of anthropogenic chemicals in cases where effective residue control measures are not implemented in fluvial basins of the region.

  7. Improved oil recovery in nanopores: NanoIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, James Moraes; Miranda, Caetano Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Fluid flow through minerals pores occurs in underground aquifers, oil and shale gas reservoirs. In this work, we explore water and oil flow through silica nanopores. Our objective is to model the displacement of water and oil through a nanopore to mimic the fluid infiltration on geological nanoporous media and the displacement of oil with and without previous contact with water by water flooding to emulate an improved oil recovery process at nanoscale (NanoIOR). We have observed a barrier-less infiltration of water and oil on the empty (vacuum) simulated 4 nm diameter nanopores. For the water displacement with oil, we have obtained a critical pressure of 600 atm for the oil infiltration, and after the flow was steady, a water layer was still adsorbed to the surface, thus, hindering the direct contact of the oil with the surface. In addition, oil displacement with water was assessed, with and without an adsorbed water layer (AWL). Without the AWL, the pressure needed for oil infiltration was 5000 atm, whereas, with the AWL the infiltration was observed for pressures as low as 10 atm. Hence, the infiltration is greatly affected by the AWL, significantly lowering the critical pressure for oil displacement.

  8. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  9. Developments in Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    demonstration (RD&D). The ongoing program will confirm whether an economically significant shale oil volume can be extracted under current operating...Petroleum Trade, [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/pdf/pages/sec1_15.pdf]. 2 Oil sands yield a bitumen substantially heavier most crude oils and shale oil. 3...hydrocarbon products that can be extracted from the shale. The most promising oil shales occur in the Green River formation that underlies 16,000 square

  10. Detection of tropomyosin and determination of proteins in crustacean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Birthe; Mæhre, Hanne K; Jensen, Ida-J; Olsen, Ragnar L

    2013-11-01

    Tropomyosin is known to be the main allergen in crustaceans and the objective of this study was to investigate if this protein could be detected in commercial crustacean oils from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and the zooplankton Calanus finmarchicus. We also examined the possibility of determining the protein content in the oils by direct amino acid analysis. Western blotting showed that a commercial antibody against shrimp tropomyosin cross-reacted with a protein of similar size in Antarctic krill and C. finmarchicus. The protein tentatively identified as tropomyosin, was also detected in krill oil products, but not in oils from C. finmarchicus. The acetone-heptane method used for extracting proteins in the oils is however not optimal. Other extraction methods should therefore be considered when investigating the presence of allergenic proteins in oils. Direct amino acid analysis on oils should be further explored as a method for determining the total amount of proteins present.

  11. Exploring quadrangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2014-01-01

    Here we presented a framework to explore quad mesh topologies. The core of our work is a systematic enumeration algorithm that can generate all possible quadrangular meshes inside a defined boundary with an upper limit of v3-v5 pairs. The algorithm is orders of magnitude more efficient than previous work. The combination of topological enumeration and shape-space exploration demonstrates that mesh topology has a powerful influence on geometry. The Fig. 18. A gallery of different quadrilateral meshes for a Shuriken. The quadrilaterals of the model were colored in a postprocess. Topological variations have distinctive, interesting patterns of mesh lines. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/01-ART3 15.00.

  12. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132654Bi Xiaojia(Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Miao Fang Lithology Identification and Mapping by Hyperion Hyperspectral Remote Sensing(Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1001-1749,CN51-1242/P,34(5),2012,p.599-603,2illus.,14refs.)Key words:geologic mapping,hyperspectral remote sensing,Qinghai Province

  13. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072985 Bai Mingzhou(Beijing Jiaotong University,Beijing 100044,China);Du Yongqiang Study on Application Technology of Geology Horizontal Drilling in Qiyueshan Tunnel at Yiwan Railway(Exploration Engineering(Rock & Soil Drilling and Tunneling),ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,33(4),2006,p.59-61,1 table,3 refs.)Key words:tunnels,horizontal drilling

  14. Petroleum Discoveries and Exploration Prospect in China's Major Petroliferous Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingfan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Up to now, there are 29 oil-and gas-bearing basins with recoverable oil and gas reserves in China. However,most of the reserves were mainly discovered in parts of the 29 basins, which played an important role in China's petroleum exploration and development.

  15. Stimulus to local industries in oil and natural gas exploration and production concessions contracts : the Brazilian experience; Estimulos a industria nacional nos contratos de concessao das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso, Daniel Cleverson; Moreira, Jose Guilherme de Souza [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Oil Law, 1997, established the functions of the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo (ANP) to implement, in its area of competence, the Brazilian national energy politic. The principles of the Brazilian national energy politic include the preservation of national interest, promotion and expansion of the labor market, free competition and the expansion of Brazil's competitiveness in the international market. The ANP started then a series of actions designed to meet, within their sphere of action, the objectives defined by law. These actions include studies to diagnose the capacity and competitiveness of local supplier and inclusion, in the concession contracts, clauses aimed to stimulating the development of local suppliers and ensure equal treatment, by the new dealers, of local suppliers and foreign. From a historical overview, the development of these actions, and the improvements made possible by the management of concession contracts, have reached their goals. The results obtained so far indicate that the actions carried out are a valid and effective tool in stimulating development of local suppliers. (author)

  16. Oil and Gas in the Netherlands - Is there a future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, R.; de Jager, J.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of oil and, in particular, gas fields discovered in the Dutch subsurface has been very significant. However, 50 years after the discovery of the giant Groningen gas field the Netherlands has become very mature for exploration of oil and gas, and the gas volume left to be discovered in con

  17. PetroChina Licensed for Nation's Offshore Oil Fields Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the approval by the State Council - the Chinese Government, the Ministry of State and Resources formally authorized PetroChina, China's largest oil and gas producer, with the rights for oil and gas exploration and development in South China Sea on July 6.

  18. Moose movement and distribution in response to winter seismological exploration on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Although oil and gas development first occurred in Alaska on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR) in 1957, impacts on wildlife from oil exploration and...

  19. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  20. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    90, Sol

    2008-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary

  1. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110471 Cai Shaokun(Mechatronics and Automation College,National University of Defense Technology,Changsha 410073,China);Wu Meiping A Comparison of Digital Lowpass FIR-Filters in Airborne Gravimetry(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,34(1),2010,p.74-78,8 illus.,3 tables,14 refs.)Key words:aerogravity surveys,filtersThere is a lot of noise in the data observed by airborne gravimeter.Digital lowpass FIR-filter i

  2. UWC geothermal resource exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    A program was developed to explore the strength of the geothermal and hot dry rock (HDR) resource at the Montezuma Hot Springs at the United World College (UWC). The purpose of the UWC {number_sign}1 well is to obtain hydrologic, geologic, and temperature information for ongoing geothermal evaluation of the Montezuma Hot Springs area. If sufficient fluids are encountered, the hole will be cased with a 4 1/2 inch production casing and re-permitted as a geothermal low-temperature well. If no fluid is encountered, the well will be abandoned per Oil Conservation Division regulation. The objectives of the exploration are to evaluate the resource potential to provide space heating for the entire campus of the United World College, determine the effect of a well on the Hot Springs outflow, accurately measure the UWC heating loads versus time, evaluate the potential to support local thermal industry development, assess the feasibility of HDR development, and create an educational program from the collection of data derived from the research effort.

  3. Independent focuses Philippines exploration on Visayan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rillera, F.G. [Cophil Exploration Corp., Manila (Philippines)

    1995-08-21

    Cophil Exploration Corp., a Filipino public company, spearheaded 1995 Philippine oil and gas exploration activity with the start of its gas delineation drilling operations in Libertad, northern Cebu. Cophil and its Australian partners, Coplex Resources NL and PacRim Energy NL, have set out to complete a seven well onshore drilling program within this block this year. The companies are testing two modest shallow gas plays, Libertad and Dalingding, and a small oil play, Maya, all in northern Cebu about 500 km southeast of Manila. Following a short discussion on the geology and exploration history of the Visayan basin, this article briefly summarizes Cophil`s ongoing Cebu onshore drilling program. Afterwards, discussion focuses on identified exploration opportunities in the basin`s offshore sector.

  4. Water hammer likely cause of large oil spill in north sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nennie, E.D.; Korst, H.J.C.; Lunde, K.; Myklebust, R.

    2010-01-01

    On December 12, 2007, the second largest oil spill in the history of Norwegian oil exploration occurred on StatoilHydro's Statfjord Alpha platform. The spill was caused by a snapped 20″ oil off-loading hose. Thorough investigations by StatoilHydro [1] and by the Norwegian authorities [2] revealed th

  5. Utilizing Google Earth to Teach Students about Global Oil Spill Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Laura; Neville, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The United States is currently experiencing its worst man-made environmental disaster, the BP Deepwater Horizon oil leak. The Gulf of Mexico oil spill is severe in its impact, but it is only one of several global oil spill disasters in history. Students can utilize the technology of Google Earth to explore the spatial and temporal distribution of…

  6. Forecast of Exploration Potential and Reserves Growth in Jiyang Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wanqin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Jiyang Depression, located in northern Shandong Province, is part of the Bohai Bay Basin of Sino-Korean platform, with the exploration acreage being 35,696square kilometers.It consists of Dongying, Zhanhua,Chezhen, and Huimin sags and the beach area, 73 oil and gas fields have been discovered here.After drilling the first commercial oil flow in Hua-8 well in 1961,exploration in Jiyang Depression has been carried out for 49 years yet.

  7. Market Efficiency in the Crude Oil Futures Market - an Empirical Study after the Shale Oil Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lade, Ragne Myrhol

    2016-01-01

    This thesis has studied efficiency in the crude oil futures market for WTI and the Brent Blend for a period including the “shale oil revolution”. The main objective was to provide new information by investigating a period in time not much explored in already published articles. Furthermore, the thesis sought to close a gap of earlier empirical studies performed, by combining the two crude oil types and including up to 6 months maturities for futures contracts, while at the same time having a ...

  8. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  9. Therapeutic potential of argan oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfalouti, Hanae El; Guillaume, Dom; Denhez, Clément; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2010-12-01

    The therapeutic benefits of argan oil consumption have been claimed by natives of Morocco and explorers for more than eight centuries. However, argan oil has remained unresearched for a long time. Traditionally, argan oil has been well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. Argan oil is principally composed of mono-unsaturated (up to 80%) and saturated (up to 20%) fatty acids. As minor components, it contains polyphenols, tocopherols, sterols, squalene, and triterpene alcohols. Together with the mono-unsaturated fatty acids, these minor components are likely to be responsible for its beneficial effects. This review aims to present an overview of the known pharmacological properties of argan oil. Antiproliferative, antidiabetic, and cardiovascular-protective effects of argan oil have been particularly actively evaluated over the last 5 years in order to build on phytochemical studies that indicate the presence of large amounts of possibly pharmacologically active compounds. This review shows that a lack of clinical data constitutes a serious weakness in our knowledge about argan oil, therefore it is difficult to correlate the reported pharmacological activities to any potential clinical relevance. © 2010 The Authors. JPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

  10. Heavy oil transportation - Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerez, John [Enbridge International (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Enbridge is a leading company in the transportation of oil and gas through pipelines, the company is also active in green energy projects. In North America, Enbridge has built a pipeline which provides the Canadian oil sands with diluent for the production of heavy oil. The heavy oil sector is confronted with technical, social, environmental, regulatory, commercial and diluent supply challenges. With the declining demand in North America, Enbridge has launched a pipeline project to link the Canadian oil sands to Canada's west coast and thereby gain better access to growing markets such as China and India. This project is expected to provide billions of dollars of benefits in the form of provincial and federal revenues and to increase Canada's gross domestic product over the next 30 years. A similar project, Oleoducto al Pacifico, is underway in Colombia to stimulate heavy oil exploration and production by connecting the oil plays to high growth Pacific markets; it is expected to provide long-term economic benefits to the country.

  11. Managing Mexican Oil: Politics or Economics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Puyana Mutis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available During decades the policies towards oil and energy implemented in Mexico have resulted in the de pletion of reserves, the explosion of debt of Pemex (90 per cent of its capital, and the dramatic petrolization of the total fiscal revenue. High prices, the war on terror and political instability in oil rich regions have reinforced usA policy of "energy security" and the interest in the creation of the Common Market on Energy, as the way to strengthen the TLCAN. To respond to these two forces Mexico will have to reform its traditional oil policy. All possible options: to reduce the fiscal burden upon Pemex or to open to private investments the exploration of oil have excruciating political costs, which no government has shown the will to confront.

  12. Oil diffusivity through fat crystal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nicole L; Rousseau, Dérick

    2015-07-21

    Oil migration in chocolate and chocolate-based confections leads to undesirable visual and textural changes. Establishing ways to slow this unavoidable process would increase shelf life and reduce consumer rejection. Diffusion is most often credited as the main pathway by which oil migration occurs. Here, we use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to explore the diffusion coefficients of vegetable and mineral oil through fat crystal networks at different solid fat contents (SFC). Differences in compatibility between the fat and oil lead to unique primary crystal clusters, yet those variations do not affect diffusion at low SFCs. Trends deviate at higher SFCs, which we ascribe to the influence of the differing crystal cluster structures. We relate our results to the strong and weak-link rheological regimes of fat crystal networks. Finally, we connect the results to relationships developed for polymer gel systems.

  13. SUITABILITY OF SOYBEAN SEED OIL AS TRANSFORMER OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Egbuna, S.O.*, Ude, O.C., Ude, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    In search of solution to the harmful ecological problems due to toxicity and non-biodegradability posed by conventional transformer insulation oil (mineral oil), the production of transformer oil from soybean seed oil (vegetable oil) was carried out. The oil was extracted using n-hexane and was refined. The transformer oil was produced by transesterification and was characterized using American Society for Testing Material (ASTM) standard test. The solvent employed gave good yield of oil from...

  14. Applicability of spectral indices on thickness identification of oil slick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanfei; Shen, Yonglin; Chen, Qihao; Liu, Xiuguo

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing technology has played a vital role in the identification and monitoring of oil spill events, and amount of spectral indices have been developed. In this paper, the applicability of six frequently-used indices is analyzed, and a combination of spectral indices in aids of support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used to identify the oil slicks and corresponding thickness. The six spectral indices are spectral rotation (SR), spectral absorption depth (HI), band ratio of blue and green (BG), band ratio of BG and shortwave infrared index (BGN), 555nm and 645nm normalized by the blue band index (NB) and spectral slope (ND). The experimental study is conducted in the Gulf of Mexico oil spill zone, with Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral imagery captured in May 17, 2010. The results show that SR index is the best in all six indices, which can effectively distinguish the thickness of the oil slick and identify it from seawater; HI index and ND index can obviously distinguish oil slick thickness; BG, BGN and NB are more suitable to identify oil slick from seawater. With the comparison among different kernel functions of SVM, the classify accuracy show that the polynomial and RBF kernel functions have the best effect on the separation of oil slick thickness and the relatively pure seawater. The applicability of spectral indices of oil slick and the method of oil film thickness identification will in aids of oil/gas exploration and oil spill monitoring.

  15. Impact of sustained low oil prices on China's oil & gas industry system and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global sustained low oil prices have a significant impact on China's oil and gas industry system and the national energy security. This paper aims to find solutions in order to guarantee the smooth development of China's oil and gas industry system and its survival in such a severe environment. First, the origins of sustained low oil prices were analyzed. Then, based on those published data from IEA, government and some other authorities, this study focused on the development status, energy policies and the future developing trend of those main oil & gas producing countries. Investigations show that the low-price running is primarily contributed to the so-called oil and gas policies in the USA. It is predicted that national petroleum consumption will reach up to 6.0 × 108 t (oil & 3300 × 108 m3 (gas in 2020 and 6.8 × 108 t (oil & 5200 × 108 m3 (gas in 2030. For reducing the dependence on foreign oil and gas, the investment in the upstream of oil and gas industry should be maintained and scientific research should be intensified to ensure the smooth operation of the oil and gas production system. Considering China's national energy security strategy, the following suggestions were proposed herein. First, ensure that in China the yearly oil output reaches 2 × 108 t, while natural gas yield will be expected to be up to 2700 × 108 m3 in 2030, both of which should become the “bottom line” in the long term. Second, focus on the planning of upstream business with insistence on risk exploration investment, scientific and technological innovation and pilot area construction especially for low-permeability tight oil & gas, shale oil & gas reservoir development techniques. Third, encourage the in-depth reform and further growth especially in the three major state-owned oil & gas companies under adverse situations, and create more companies competent to offer overseas technical services by taking the opportunity of the

  16. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  17. Geoelectrical exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Said Barseem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sinai development is a goal of successive governments in Egypt. The present study is a geoelectrical exploration to find appropriate solutions of the problems affecting the land of a Research Station in Southeast Al Qantara. This research station is one of the Desert Research Center stations to facilitate the development of desert land for agriculture by introducing applied research. It suffers from some problems which can be summarized in the shortage of irrigation water and water logging. The appropriate solutions of these problems have been delineated by the results of 1D and 2D geoelectrical measurements. Electrical resistivity (ER revealed the subsurface sedimentary sequences and extension of subsurface layers in the horizontal and vertical directions, especially, the water bearing layer. Additionally it helped to choose the most suitable places to drill productive wells with a good condition.

  18. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111381 Geng Tao(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey of CGS,Xi’an 710054,China);Liu Kuanhou Application of Accurate Inspection of CQG2000 Quasi-Geoid Model to Regional Gravity Survey in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,43(2),2010,p.1-7,1 illus.,2 tables,4 refs.)Key words:gravity exploration,Global Positioning System,Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau During regional gravity survey,accuracy of orthometric height may affect the accuracy of gravity survey directly.The field test in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau show that the accuracy of CQG2000 quasi-geoid model can satisfy the accuracy of orthometric height during the 1∶200 000 regional gravity survey.Based on the test,the authors summarize the method how the accuracy of height measurement

  19. Exploring ESASky

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; ESASky Team

    2017-06-01

    ESASky is a science-driven discovery portal for all ESA space astronomy missions. It also includes missions from international partners such as Suzaku and Chandra. The first public release of ESASky features interfaces for sky exploration and for single and multiple target searches. Using the application requires no prior-knowledge of any of the missions involved and gives users world-wide simplified access to high-level science-ready data products from space-based Astronomy missions, plus a number of ESA-produced source catalogues, including the Gaia Data Release 1 catalogue. We highlight here the latest features to be developed, including one that allows the user to project onto the sky the footprints of the JWST instruments, at any chosen position and orientation. This tool has been developed to aid JWST astronomers when they are defining observing proposals. We aim to include other missions and instruments in the near future.

  20. 40-year analysis of US oil spillage rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etkin, D.S. [Environmental Research Consulting, Cortlandt Manor, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Environmentalists are concerned about the plans to open US offshore and Arctic regions for oil exploration and production. The US environmental movement gained ground after the Santa Barbara well blowout in 1969. Following the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989, the movement spurred regulatory changes and industry initiatives to prevent oil spills. The implementation of prevention-oriented regulations and voluntary industry initiatives have contributed to a considerable reduction in spillage over the past 40 years. This presentation provided average annual total petroleum industry and non-industry spillage statistics during that time frame. In this study, oil was referred to as a broadly-defined class of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures, including crude oil and liquid refined petroleum products and waste oils, but did not include BTEX compounds, petroleum chemicals or highly-volatile liquids. Spills were defined as an event in which oil is accidentally, or occasionally intentionally, released to the environment. The presentation addressed issues regarding natural seeps and spillage from oil industry activities. This included spills associated with offshore oil exploration and production activities; spills from inland production wells; spills from oil tank vessels and non-tank vessels; spills from coastal and inland pipes; spills from railroads, tanker trucks and oil refining; spills related to oil consumption; spills from coastal marine facilities; spills from gas stations and truck stops; spills from residential home heating oil tanks; and spills from motor vehicles. Legally permitted oil discharges were discussed with reference to produced water, refinery effluent discharges, and lubricants from vessels. The study showed that over the last decade, the largest source category of spillage was inland pipelines followed by EPA-regulated facilities. Changes in spillage rates between 1988 and 1997 has shown that there has been a general downward trend in US spills. 18 refs., 33

  1. Algeria Hopes to Strengthen Oil Cooperation with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Algerian Energy and Minerals Minister said that Algeria welcomed the Chinese companies to participate in the oil and gas cooperative projects in the country. He made those remarks in a meeting with the delegation from CNPC and Sinopec. Algeria hoped to cooperate with China in oil and gas exploration and development as well as petroleum trade, the minister added. The two sides can join hands in the oil and gas projects both inside and outside Algeria. He also said that Algeria was willing to further step up exchange between the Algerian and Chinese oil companies.

  2. Multinational Oil Giants Expand Business Rapidly in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The multinational oil giants started to implement the globalization strategy on the basis of their advantages in resources, capital, technology and management from the middle of the 1990s after a large-scale structural adjustment. They have seen a rapid business development in China in the past decade and involved extensively in the country's oil and gas exploration and development,LPG and LNG business, pipeline, petrochemicals, oil refining, distribution of oil products, electric power and new energy, posing a severe challenge to the Chinese domestic enterprises.

  3. Oil biodegradation: Interactions of artificial marine snow, clay particles, oil and Corexit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahsepar, Shokouh; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Smit, Martijn P J; van Eenennaam, Justine S; Murk, Albertinka J; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2017-08-16

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of these interactions on biodegradation of oil in the water. Laboratory experiments were performed, analyzing respiration and n-alkane and BTEX biodegradation in multiple conditions containing Corexit, alginate particles as marine snow, and kaolin clay. Two oil degrading bacterial pure cultures were added, Pseudomonas putida F1 and Rhodococcus qingshengii TUHH-12. Results show that the presence of alginate particles enhances oil biodegradation. The presence of Corexit alone or in combination with alginate particles and/or kaolin clay, hampers oil biodegradation. Kaolin clay and Corexit have a synergistic effect in increasing BTEX concentrations in the water and cause delay in oil biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. (Rowland (P.) Associates (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 ( OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  5. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    Although food grains are commonly protected by insecticidal application and fumigation, ... (1978) reported that groundnut oil applied to cowpeas has no effect on mortality or .... Effectiveness of vegetable oil fractions in controlling the Mexican.

  6. CNOOC, KMG Ink Offshore Oil Deal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Sanyong

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC), signed a contract with Kerr-McGee (KMG), an American petroleum corporation, in Beijing on July 23, 1997 for 26/06 Block at the Pearl River Mouth in South China Sea. Under this contract,KMG will have 100% interest for drilling exploration wells in the 4500-square-kilometer block.

  7. The Environmental Impacts of Offshore Oil Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique on Stephen L. Baird's article in the November 2008 issue of "The Technology Teacher", which describes a contemporary debate about opening more U.S. land and coastal regions to oil and gas exploration and production (E&P). While Baird's thesis epitomizes the goal of a technologically literate citizen, his…

  8. Shengli Oil Fields: Today and Tomorrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Renjie

    1996-01-01

    @@ Shengli oil area lies in the Yellow River Delta, in the north of Shandong Province bordering the Bohai Bay. The area is scattered over 28 counties, covering 37 000 square kilom eters. The main part of exploration and exploitation is located on both sides of the Yellow River estuary within the territory of Dongying City.

  9. Restructuring Raises Revenue of Liaohe Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Qiuju

    2002-01-01

    @@ Liaohe Petroleum Exploration Bureau, as a Stateowned oil giant company in Northeast China's Liaoning Province, has made significant progress in the nationwide drive o restructure State-owned enterprises. Once plagued by excessive laborers and backward production equipment, the bureau has adopted a series of effective measures on human resource management, market expansion and technology renovation.

  10. China Aviation Oil Acquires Overseas Oil Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Aviation Oil (Singapore) announced an acquisition of a 20.6 percent stake in Singapore Petroleum Company (SPC) from Satya Capital Inc Ltd, the largest investment the company has ever made in its history. China Aviation Oil (Singapore),which is the largest Chinese enterprise Singapore,will become the second largest shareholder of SPC after the acquisition.

  11. Oil Slick Characterization Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Breivik, O.; Brekke, C.; Skrunes, S.; Holt, B.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills are a hazard worldwide with potential of causing high impact disasters, and require an active oil spill response capability to protect personnel, the ecosystem, and the energy supply. As the amount of oil in traditionally accessible reserves decline, there will be increasing oil extraction from the Arctic and deep-water wells, both new sources with high risk and high cost for monitoring and response. Although radar has long been used for mapping the spatial extent of oil slicks, it is only since the Deepwater Horizon spill that synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been shown capable of characterizing oil properties within a slick, and therefore useful for directing response to the recoverable thicker slicks or emulsions. Here we discuss a 2015 Norwegian oil-on-water spill experiment in which emulsions of known quantity and water-to-oil ratio along with a look-alike slick of plant oil were released in the North Sea and imaged with polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) by NASA's UAVSAR instrument for several hours following release. During the experiment, extensive in situ measurements were made from ship or aircraft with meteorological instruments, released drift buoys, and optical/IR imagers. The experiment was designed to provide validation data for development of a physical model relating polarization-dependent electromagnetic scattering to the dielectric properties of oil mixed with ocean water, which is the basis for oil characterization with SAR. Data were acquired with X-, C-, and L-band satellite-based SARs to enable multi-frequency comparison of characterization capabilities. In addition, the data are used to develop methods to differentiate mineral slicks from biogenic look-alikes, and to better understand slick weathering and dispersion. The results will provide a basis for modeling oil-in-ice spills, currently a high priority for nations involved in Arctic oil exploration. Here we discuss the Norwegian experiment, the validation data, and the results of

  12. Oil Module Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    in any a^regate sense, or (b) to be "valid" for crude oil production in all countries. Neither, however, is it to provide detailed point... oil production by the oil companies through their regular channels. Such oil is said to be "sold back" by the countries to the coirpanies...a royalty to the producing country government. revenue received by the producing country government as a result of sales of its share of crude

  13. Indonesia's palm oil subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald F.

    1996-01-01

    Debate on Indonesia's palm oil policy was stimulated by a sharp increase in cooking oil prices in 1994-95 and a resulting increase in the export tax rate on crude palm oil. Palm oil has been one of the fastest growing subsectors in Indonesia. Using a quantitative model, the author analyzes the effect of government policies, including the export tax, buffer stock operations by the BULOG (the national logistics agency), and directed sales from public estates. The author acknowledges the export ...

  14. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  15. From Paris to the End of Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Harald Claes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We analyze these issues by first locating oil in the overall energy system, then identifying possibilities and obstacles at various stages of the oil value chain, and finally by contextualizing global oil by discussing whether and how it may be affected by geopolitics and regional conflict. In brief, our argument is that developments in consumption volumes and patterns will be most important. Market forces are vital, but they are influenced by politics and public policy outcomes. Transportation is the most important sector for oil consumption, with changes in transport behavior, modes and technology being vital drivers. The behavior of investors will be a decisive factor in shaping the production side of the oil system. If investments go down as a response to lasting low oil prices and/or because investors decide to turn to green economy options, the supply of oil will logically shrink. On the other hand, the growth and development aspirations of a rapidly growing population in developing countries are likely to stimulate demand and thus increase exploration, production and subsequently the price. Finally, we emphasize the importance of (geopolitics influencing all aspects of the value chain of oil.

  16. From Paris to the End of Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Harald Claes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We analyze these issues by first locating oil in the overall energy system, then identifying possibilities and obstacles at various stages of the oil value chain, and finally by contextualizing global oil by discussing whether and how it may be affected by geopolitics and regional conflict. In brief, our argument is that developments in consumption volumes and patterns will be most important. Market forces are vital, but they are influenced by politics and public policy outcomes. Transportation is the most important sector for oil consumption, with changes in transport behavior, modes and technology being vital drivers. The behavior of investors will be a decisive factor in shaping the production side of the oil system. If investments go down as a response to lasting low oil prices and/or because investors decide to turn to green economy options, the supply of oil will logically shrink. On the other hand, the growth and development aspirations of a rapidly growing population in developing countries are likely to stimulate demand and thus increase exploration, production and subsequently the price. Finally, we emphasize the importance of (geopolitics influencing all aspects of the value chain of oil.

  17. Palm Oil as a Transnational Crisis in South-East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pye, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    "This paper discusses the recent palm oil expansion as a multiple crisis of climate change, biodiversity loss, and (failed) development. It draws on recent research on the Malaysian 'Palm Oil Industrial Complex' and on transnational campaign coalitions around palm oil to explore the transnational dimensions of the palm oil crisis. It argues that a new campaign coalition around the issue of agrofuel policies in the European Union has emerged that links social and environmental s...

  18. Are we running out of oil? : ConCERNed for Humanity

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Jørgensen, C

    2005-01-01

    Are we running out of oil? Speaker: Jean Laherrere. Jean Laherrere is a geophysicist and a former deputy exploration manager of TOTAL. Together with Colin Campbell, he warned humanity in the now famous Scientific American article "The end of cheap oil" (1998). Only seven years later the exploding oil price seems to indicate that the moment of truth is close. The speaker will discuss the scientific basis of peak oil and its probable consequences for humanity. See also: www.hubbertpeak.com/laherrere

  19. Potential of eleven Eucalyptus species for the production of essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Most Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil aim the production of paper and charcoal, but the use of the species for lumbering, construction and extraction of essential oil has increased. Eleven species of Eucalyptus were assessed in regard to their essential oil production potential, nine never used before for commercial, essential oil extraction. Assessements were compared with Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus, already explored in oil production for perfume and medical purposes, aimi...

  20. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  1. Natural oils as lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  2. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  3. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  4. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  5. Lubricating oil; Junkatsuyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H.

    1999-07-20

    As a reflection of business recession, sales amount of lubricating oils in 1998 in Japan was 2.334 million kl that is 96.1% of that in the previous year. In addition, export amount was 394 thousand kl that also decreased sharply to 81.9% of that in the previous year. In this situation, researches and developments of environment-adaptable lubricating oils such as fuel consumption-saving engine oils, new mechanism-corresponding drive system oils (AFT, CVT), refrigerating machine oils for substitute coolants, biodegradable oils and greases, environment corresponding processing oils (non-chlorine type cutting oils), and so on have been executed actively. In respect to lubricating oils for vehicles, numerous researches and developments of engine oils are executed while putting stress on the improvement of fuel consumption saving for reducing CO{sub 2} exhaust; improvement of adaptability to exhaust treating apparatus for purging harmful components from exhaust gas; and environmental corresponding of long drain for reducing waste oils. In respect to lubricating oils for industry, basic characteristics and utility characteristics of fire-resistant working fluids and biodegradable working fluids; and utility characteristics of new functional fluids and electric viscous fluids are reported in view of their relationship with environmental protection. (NEDO)

  6. GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111167 Cao Zhonghuang(Wuhan Iron & Steel Group Minerals Company,Wuhan 430063,China);Luo Xianrong Comparative Study of Copper-Nickel Deposit Exploration by the Geoelectro-chemical Extraction Method in Different Overburden Areas(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,46(3),2010,p.476-482,4 illus.,5 tables,20 refs.)Key words:geo-electrochemical methods,copper ores,nickel ores,Gansu Province,Jilin Province The authors have made a comparative study of quantitative and qualitative analysis and application of the geoelectro-chemical extraction method in different overburden areas in southward extension of Jinchuan in Gansu Province and Hongqiling in Jilin Province.The authors found that this method extracted very few ions in arid areas covered with debris,but the prospecting effect was almost the same as that in moist areas covered with thick overburden.And this method could show objectively differences of geochemical characters

  7. PROSPECTING EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102820 Chen Zhongyun(CNOOC Ltd.Shanghai,Shanghai 200030,China);Chen Hua Using Surfer Automation to Plot Contour Maps(Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1001-1749,CN51-1242/P,31(4),2009,p.409-412,2 illus.,10 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:digital cartography,isopleth maps20102821 Hu Daogong(Institute of Geomechanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100081,China);Patrick J.Barosh Inspirations from the Sino-U.S.Cooperative Geological Mapping in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt:Ideas and Methods(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,28(10),2009,p.1411-1418,5 illus.,14 refs.)Key words:geologic mapping,China,United StatesOn the basis of the practice of the Sino-U.S.cooperative geological mapping in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt and through the comparative analysis of several geological mapping examples completed recently by USGS,the authors have a further knowledge of the method and idea of America geological mapping.The concept of "mapping all lithological unites" hasn’t changed within a difficult course of 130 years along with USGS’s evolution.The mapping method of "geological features guid

  8. Project Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, K. K.; Henderson, A.; Lee, J.; Smith, G.; Stluka, E.

    1984-01-01

    PROJECT EXPLORER is a program that will fly student-developed experiments onboard the Space Shuttle in NASA's Get-Away Special (GAS) containers. The program is co-sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, the Alabama-Mississippi Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Alabama A&M University and requires extensive support by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. A unique feature of this project will demonstrate transmissions to ground stations on amateur radio frequencies in English language. Experiments Nos. 1, 2, and 3 use the microgravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution, and the germination of radish seeds. Flight results will be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 features radio transmission and will also provide timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor will obtain real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements taken inside the canister. These data will be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they have been converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception.

  9. Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  10. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  11. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  12. Oil palm mapping for Malaysia using PALSAR-2 dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, P.; Qi, C. Y.; Yu, L.; Cracknell, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is one of the most productive vegetable oil crops in the world. The main oil palm producing areas are distributed in humid tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, western and central Africa, northern South America, and central America. Increasing market demands, high yields and low production costs of palm oil are the primary factors driving large-scale commercial cultivation of oil palm, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Global demand for palm oil has grown exponentially during the last 50 years, and the expansion of oil palm plantations is linked directly to the deforestation of natural forests. Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring expansion of oil palm. However, optical remote sensing images are difficult to acquire in the Tropics because of the frequent occurrence of thick cloud cover. This problem has led to the use of data obtained by synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is a sensor capable of all-day/all-weather observation for studies in the Tropics. In this study, the ALOS-2 (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR-2 (Phased Array type L-band SAR) datasets for year 2015 were used as an input to a support vector machine (SVM) based machine learning algorithm. Oil palm/non-oil palm samples were collected using a hexagonal equal-area sampling design. High-resolution images in Google Earth and PALSAR-2 imagery were used in human photo-interpretation to separate oil palm from others (i.e. cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, water, hard surface and bareland). The characteristics of oil palms from various aspects, including PALSAR-2 backscattering coefficients (HH, HV), terrain and climate by using this sample set were further explored to post-process the SVM output. The average accuracy of oil palm type is better than 80% in the final oil palm map for Malaysia.

  13. Palm oil and the heart:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osaretin; J; Odia; Sandra; Ofori; Omosivie; Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a Pub Med, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in

  14. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  15. Broadening Cooperation Realm to Promote Stable Development of Shengli Oil Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jifu; Yao Shiyu

    1997-01-01

    @@ As the second largest oil area in China, Shengli Petroleum Administration has constantly been strengthening the international cooperation over the recent years in the principal part of the Shengli oil area under the guidance of the national open policy. In venture exploration, data packages have been prepared for the three blocks of Kengdong, Chexi and Qingtuozi with an exploration area of 2370 square kilometers.

  16. The environmental, social and ethical aspects of multinational corporations exploiting oil resources in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newcombe, A.; Evangelio, A.; Revilla, P.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of oil promises economic growth in many developing countries but almost inevitably brings environmental and social degradation with it. In this paper we explore the environmental, social and ethical aspects of multinational companies' (MNCs) oil exploration and production in Ecuador an...

  17. Exploring Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  18. Cuba: World Oil Report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciej, H. (Canadian Petroleum Association, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that plagued by his worst fuel crisis in years, Cuban President Fidel Castro late last year began soliciting foreign help in the country's exploration efforts. What is particularly new about this initiative is that the invitation was directed toward capitalist Western nations, as opposed to previous help supplied by the Soviet Union. Castro's sudden change of attitude has been spurred by the continuing shortfall in oil deliveries from the USSR, symptomatic of the latter's own production problems.

  19. A review of polymer nanofibres by electrospinning and their application in oil-water separation for cleaning up marine oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbatly, Rosalam; Krishnaiah, Duduku; Kamin, Zykamilia

    2016-05-15

    The growths of oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased environmental problems, such as oil spillage and the resulting pollution. The study of the methods for cleaning up oil spills is a critical issue to protect the environment. Various techniques are available to contain oil spills, but they are typically time consuming, energy inefficient and create secondary pollution. The use of a sorbent, such as a nanofibre sorbent, is a technique for controlling oil spills because of its good physical and oil sorption properties. This review discusses about the application of nanofibre sorbent for oil removal from water and its current developments. With their unique physical and mechanical properties coupled with their very high surface area and small pore sizes, nanofibre sorbents are alternative materials for cleaning up oil spills.

  20. Identifying and Evaluating of Oil Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haixia

    2002-01-01

    The identification and evaluation of oil reservoir with logging data are one of most important ways in geologic logging services. For the last decades, with the further development of the oil & gas exploration, great advances have been achieved in techniques on the acquisition, processing and interpretative evaluation of logging data. How to identify fluid characteristics and evaluate the productivity in light oil reservoir (the crude density being between 0.74g/cm3 and 0.82g/cm3)has become one of the difficulties.With the establishment of the regional interpretation criterion of the study blocks, the optimized logging parameters that reflect the reservoir characteristics have been used to establish the chart for the interpretation of oil-water reservoir combining with well logging parameters. Then, to begin with geologic reserves of crude in single well, we establish evaluation criterion for productivity in oil reservoir with determining lower limit value of the reservoir and applying the relationship between chart parameters. The techniques are verified in production and get better effect.On the basis of the reservoir characteristics analysis of both basin A and B, We established the evaluation method of static productivity on light oil reservoir with getting quantitative evaluation parameters after quantitatively evaluating the date of core, pyrolysis chromatogram and gas chromatogram. It provides new technique 7 for new well interpretation and old well review, as well as evidence for project.design of well testing.

  1. The evolution of oil refining in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Back in 1963 when CONCAWE was founded, the world looked very different from what it is today, and so did the global and European refining industry. Oil product markets were expanding fast and new refineries were being built at a steady rate. The oil crisis of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to this, heralding a long era of consolidation and stepwise adaptation. At the same time the nature of the global oil business shifted from fully integrated companies producing, transporting and refining their own oil to a much more diversified situation where oil production ('upstream') and refining/distribution ('downstream') gradually became two essentially separate businesses. From being purely a 'cost centre' in an integrated chain, refining has become a separate activity in its own right, operating as a 'profit centre' between two global markets - crude oil and products - which, although not entirely independent, have their own dynamics and influences. In addition demand gradually shifted towards lighter products while the quality requirements on all products were considerably tightened. This article explores the new challenges that these changes have imposed on EU refiners, and describes CONCAWE's contributions to understanding their impact on refinery production and investments.

  2. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2005-10-15

    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs.

  3. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-10-01

    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs.

  4. Nutritional properties of poppyseed oil relative to some other oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L; Nera, E A; Levin, O L

    1979-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed a purified basal diet with 20% lard and corn oil (3:1), sunflower oil, poppyseed oil, low-erucic rapeseed oil from Brassica napus, cultivar Tower, or mixtures of these oils, for 1 or 26 weeks. None of the hearts exhibited lipidosis at 1 week. At 26 weeks, the level of serum triglycerides was higher in rats fed the mixture of lard and corn oil than in those fed only vegetable oil, and the incidence of cardiac necrosis and fibrosis was higher in rats fed the rapeseed oil than in the other animals. Cardiac phospholipids in rats fed the rapeseed oil contained an elevated level of omega 3 docosahexaenoic acid, particularly in phosphatidylethanolamine. Poppyseed oil exhibited properties similar to those of sunflower oil, was absorbed as well as olive oil, and appeared to be a promising oil for human consumption.

  5. Heavy oil supply economics and supply response to low oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, L. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-04-01

    The dynamics of the heavy oil industry are examined, including prices, market demand, supply and supply costs. Price assumptions are provided for the reference case oil price (west Texas intermediate at Cushing). Supply cost methodology is explained. Capital and operating costs for various heavy oil and synthetic sources are derived from modeling results. The range of supply costs for heavy oil and bitumen from various sources, supply costs in terms of reference case market values and in terms of 1995-1996 average market values for Bow River crude, are derived. The CERI long term supply forecast model is explained. Western Canada upstream oil and gas cash flow and capital expenditures, eastern Canada exploration and expenditures by hydrocarbon type, and Canadian heavy oil and bitumen production based on reference case prices are estimated. Based on these projections the outlook for heavy oil at reference case prices for better than average quality resources is judged to be economic. Lower quality resources will require technology gains for successful commercialization. SAGD is a likely candidate in this respect. Again based on reference prices, production is forecast to decline by 100 Kb/d over the next five years. Diluent supply is considered to be adequate throughout the forecast period. As far as thermal bitumen is concerned, the growth could, in fact, exceed the projection, but if so, more upgrading will be required. 11 figs.

  6. Oil Depletion and the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production: The Case of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Brandt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of oil depletion on the energetic efficiency of oil extraction and refining in California. These changes are measured using energy return ratios (such as the energy return on investment, or EROI. I construct a time-varying first-order process model of energy inputs and outputs of oil extraction. The model includes factors such as oil quality, reservoir depth, enhanced recovery techniques, and water cut. This model is populated with historical data for 306 California oil fields over a 50 year period. The model focuses on the effects of resource quality decline, while technical efficiencies are modeled simply. Results indicate that the energy intensity of oil extraction in California increased significantly from 1955 to 2005. This resulted in a decline in the life-cycle EROI from 6.5 to 3.5 (measured as megajoules (MJ delivered to final consumers per MJ primary energy invested in energy extraction, transport, and refining. Most of this decline in energy returns is due to increasing need for steam-based thermal enhanced oil recovery, with secondary effects due to conventional resource depletion (e.g., increased water cut.

  7. Tarim Oil Field Company Oil Output Exceeds 5 Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Tarim Oil Field Company (Tarim Oil Field), located in the hinterland of Takelamagan Desert in Northwest Xinjiang Autonomous Region,produced 5.006 million tons of crude oil in 2002,ranking it as the sixth largest onshore oil field in China. This is the first time Tarim Oil Field has topped 5 million tons for its crude production.

  8. Key Elements Controlling Oil Accumulation within the Tight Sandstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Hu; Zhiping Zeng; Jianzhang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Tight oil sandstone reservoirs with low porosity and permeability, which are an uncon-ventional petroleum resource, have been discovered in the Jurassic intervals of the central Junggar Ba-sin, the northwestern China. To reveal the accumulation mechanism, a relatively comprehensive re-search was conducted, including oil-source correlation, porosity evolution, and hydrocarbon charging history. The results show that crude oil of these tight sandstone reservoirs were mainly from Permian source rocks with some contribution from Jurassic source rocks. The reservoirs were buried at shallow depth (5%). In contrast, the sandstone reservoir had already become tight and did not provide available space to ac-cumulate oil due to severe compaction and cementation when hydrocarbon from Jurassic source rock filled, evidenced by low GOI values (<5%). Therefore, reservoir porosity controls the oil accumulation within tight sandstone. Whether tight sandstone reservoirs accumulate oil depends on the reservoir quality when hydrocarbons charge. Before the exploration of tight oil sandstone reservoirs, it should be required to investigate the relationship between oil charging history and porosity evolution to reduce the exploration risk and figure out the available targets.

  9. Oil seepage onshore West Greenland: evidence of multiple source rocks and oil mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojesen-Koefoed, J.; Christiansen, F.G.; Nytoft, H.P.; Pedersen, A.K.

    1998-08-01

    Widespread oil seepage and staining are observed in lavas and hyaloclastites in the lower part of the volcanic succession on northwestern Disko and western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland. Chemical analyses suggest the existence of several petroleum systems in the underlying Cretaceous and Paleocene fluviodeltaic to marine sediments. Seepage and staining commonly occur within vesicular lava flow tops, and are often associated with mineral veins (mostly carbonates) in major fracture systems. Organic geochemical analyses suggest the existence of at least five distinct oil types: (1) a waxy oil, which on the basis of the presence of abundant angiosperm biological markers, is interpreted as generated from Paleocene mud-stones (the `Marraat type`); (2) a waxy oil, probably generated from coals and shales of the Cretaceous Atane formation (the `Kuugannguaq type`); (3) a low to moderately waxy oil containing 28,30-bisnorhopane, and abundant C{sub 27}-diasteranes and regular steranes (the `Itilli type`), possibly generated from presently unknown Cenomanian-Turonian marine modstones; (4) a low wax oil of marine, possibly lagoonal/saline lacustrine origin, containing ring-A methylated steranes and a previously unknown series of extended 28-norhopanes (the `Eqalulik type`); (5) a waxy oil with biological marker characteristics different from both the Kuugannguaq and Marraat oil types (the `Niaqornaarsuk type`), probably generated from Campanian mud-stones. The presence of widespread seepage and staining originating from several source rocks is encouraging for exploration in basins both on- and offshore western Greenland, where the existence of prolific source rocks has previously been the main exploration risk. (au) EFP-96. 34 refs.

  10. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Spectroscopic study of Mentha oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Singh, A. K.

    The visible fluorescence and excitation spectra of Mentha oils (Japanese mint oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil) have been recorded. Different physical constants which are characteristic of the fluorescent molecules have been calculated for all three oils. Results reveal that the same group of organic compounds dominate in the oils of peppermint and spearmint, whereas some different compound is present in Japanese mint oil. It is also found that the fluorescence intensity of these oils is comparable to that of Rhodamine 6G dye in methanol solution. Our studies suggest that Mentha oils may be a useful lasing material in the 450-600 nm wavelength range.

  12. Sustainable water management in Alberta's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Bill; Usher, Robyn; Roach, Andrea [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States); Lambert, Gord; Kotecha, Prit [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers forecast published in 2011 predicts that oil production from oil sands will increase by 50% in the next 3 years and double by 2020. This rate of growth will result in significant pressure on water resources; water use per barrel of oil sands production is comparable to other energy resources - about 2.5 barrels of fresh water per barrel of oil produced are used by mining operations and 0.5 barrels by in-situ operations. Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) was the first company to develop the oil sands in northern Alberta and holds one of the largest oil sands positions in Canada. In 2010, Suncor announced plans to increase production to more than 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day by 2020, which it plans to achieve through oil sands production growth of approximately 10% per year. Because water supply and potential impacts to water quality are critical to its future growth, in 2010-2011 Suncor conducted a risk assessment to identify water-related business risks related to its northern Alberta operations. The assessment identified more than 20 high level business risks in strategic water risk areas including water supply, water reuse, storm water management, groundwater, waste management and river water return. The risk assessment results prompted development of a strategic roadmap to guide water stewardship across Suncor's regional operations. The roadmap describes goals, objectives, and specific activities for each of six key water risk areas, and informs prioritization and selection of prospective water management activities. Suncor is not only exploring water within its own boundaries, but is also collaborating with other oil sands producers to explore ways of integrating its water systems through industry consortia; Suncor is a member of the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative and of the recently formed Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, among others. (author)

  13. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  14. Tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.

  15. Essentials of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Chelsea R; Widder, Rebecca M

    2017-05-01

    Information to guide clinicians in educating and advising patients using or intending to use essential oils for self-administered aromatherapy or other medicinal purposes is presented. The term essential oils refers to highly concentrated, aromatic oils extracted from plants by steam distillation, hydrodiffusion, or pressure. Market reports indicate strong growth in the use of essential oils in the United States in recent decades. Therapeutic claims made in the marketing of essential oils have led the Food and Drug Administration to caution a number of suppliers. Along with rapid growth in sales of essential oils to consumers there has been an increase in the amount of published evidence regarding aromatherapy and essential oils; the annual number of relevant articles indexed using Medical Subject Headings terminology has doubled since 2004. In order to help ensure proper application and safe use of essential oils as a self-care modality, healthcare professionals can benefit from a general knowledge of the terminology and foundational concepts of medicinal use of essential oils, as well as resources to facilitate evaluations of appropriateness of use. Because of the increasing popularity of essential oils and the prevalence of essential oil-based self-care practices targeting a wide variety of ailments in the United States, healthcare professionals must be prepared to address concerns about the agents' safety and efficacy. Proper literature evaluation requires the ability to discern the quality of an oil, the safety of administration, and the validity of its use. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The fluid inclusion study in petroleum exploration; O estudo de inclusoes fluidas na exploracao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Carlos Eduardo Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia da Geoquimica]. E-mail: cescoelho@petrobras.com.br

    2005-05-01

    Several oil companies and research centers have been studying petroleum fluid inclusions in reservoirs since the 1980's. The first works have used the fluid inclusion microthermometry technique in order to interpret the thermal history and petroleum migration in relation to the burial history and diagenesis. Lately, the micro thermometric data is being used as a calibration parameter for thermal history modeling in sedimentary basins and reservoirs. Recently, new fluid inclusion study techniques are being used in petroleum exploration. Geochemical data of low molecular weight (up to C{sub 15}) oil-bearing fluid inclusions has been used with the purpose of pinpointing oil-bearing intervals in wells that have not revealed the presence of oil by conventional techniques. Molecular geochemical analyses of oils inside the inclusions technique enable oil-source correlations, oil-oil correlations, and maturity determination. (author)

  17. Treatment of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  18. Oil:SOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese economy will be hit hard if the recent oil shortage is not eased quickly This year’s oil shortage was reminis- cent of the previous one in 2005. Cargo drivers drove gingerly with half-full tanks,diesel generators sat silently waiting for oil that wasn’t there,and many taxis even stopped running because of the shortage. This time the oil shortage,which first started in southern cities like Guangzhou and Shenzhen in August,spread to northern cities like Zhengzhou and Taiyuan in November.

  19. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens Rikardt;

    2017-01-01

    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched...... systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta...... interval, CI, -0.42 to -0.07; heterogeneity, I2 = 63%. A significant effect was found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (22 trials; -0.21; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.004) and other or mixed diagnoses (3 trials; -0.63; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.06), but not in osteoarthritis patients (5 trials; -0.17; 95% CI, -0...

  20. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2017-01-01

    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched...... systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta...... interval, CI, -0.42 to -0.07; heterogeneity, I2 = 63%. A significant effect was found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (22 trials; -0.21; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.004) and other or mixed diagnoses (3 trials; -0.63; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.06), but not in osteoarthritis patients (5 trials; -0.17; 95% CI, -0...

  1. Focus on OPEC oil companies. Kuwait: KPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-05-01

    Two foreign oil companies began exploiting Kuwait's oil resources in 1934 with an exclusive, 75-year concession, which was modified in 1960 to allow 60% ownership by the government and 40% by private Kuwaiti investors as the Kuwait National Petroleum Company. The government took over full control of the original company in 1975, and established the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC) in 1980. The author reports on oil production (down to 900,000 from a peak of 3.28 million barrels per day) and current revenue of $8.7 billion. Government policies emphasize optimum exploitation and conservation, diversification of the industry and the economy, and development of associated natural gas. Kuwait also participates in foreign production and exploration, investment in domestic and foreign companies, and pollution control. 9 figures.

  2. Oil and gas tax handbook, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingstedt, J.P.; Brock, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book gives information about regulations affecting taxation of the oil and gas industry. It also covers in detail both income tax and the windfall profit tax. The most recent statutes, regulations, ruling, and court decisions are examined, and their effects on this year's tax accounting are explained. It includes following contents: Unproved oil and gas properties - acquisition, retention, and worthlessness; Mineral interest concepts; Geological and geophysical exploration; Drilling and equipping properties; Depreciation, depletion, and amortization (DD and A); Percentage depletion - problems in applying the independent producer exemption; Sales and subleases of properties; Production payments; Sharing arrangements other than carried interests; Carried interests; Joint ventures and partnership - basic rules; Partnerships - special problems; Corporations; Special operating problems; Oil and gas tax preferences and the windfall profit tax - compliance.

  3. 75 FR 67994 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... and Enforcement Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the... following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf of Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... exploration, development, production, and transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal...

  4. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; de Almeida, Arlete Silva; Vieira, Ima C G

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  5. Pumped : everyone's guide to the oil patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, D.

    2007-07-01

    This books remarked on several issues regarding oil and gas, such as who controls oil and gas in Canada and why it costs so much. It explained where oil comes from, how it got there, why it is trapped in the earth and how it was discovered. It also explained why oil and gas has taken over as the fuel of choice for many modern societies. The book clarified why the petroleum industry dominates world economics and political arenas. Seven examples of Canadian National Energy Programs were also presented. The author provided a historical context of all areas of the Canadian oil patch, including exploration crews at the Geological Survey, Hibernia east-coast offshore drilling technology, the controversial Mackenzie pipeline and Alberta's oil sands. The issue of remaining oil reserves was also discussed along with the current state of the tar sands. The book included illustrations, maps, photographs and a user friendly index-glossary to explain basic terms used in the oil patch, such as the differentiation between the upstream, midstream and downstream industry. The author emphasized the importance of being well informed as a consumer in order to form knowledgeable opinions about how the Canadian oil patch is developed. tabs., figs.

  6. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Balch; Ron Broadhead

    2005-03-01

    Incomplete or sparse data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduce a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results when working with sparse data. State-of-the-art expert exploration tools, relying on a database, and computer maps generated by neural networks and user inputs, have been developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk has been reduced with the use of these properly verified and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tools.'' Through the course of this project, FEE Tools and supporting software were developed for two producing formations in southeast New Mexico. Tools of this type can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In today's oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lack the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, volatile oil prices, and scarcity of domestic exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tools benefit a diverse group in the U.S., allowing a more efficient use of scarce funds, and potentially reducing dependence on foreign oil and providing lower product prices for consumers.

  7. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Balch

    2003-04-15

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The pool of experts is much reduced today. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fourth of five annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the April 2002 through March 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  8. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Balch

    2003-10-15

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This ninth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through September 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  9. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Balch

    2004-04-08

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth annual (and tenth of 12 semi-annual reports) contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through March 2004 period was directed toward completion of the Brushy Canyon FEE Tool and to Silurian-Devonian geology, and development of rules for the Devonian fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  10. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  11. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Enforcement, U.S. Department of the Interior Emergency Management: Oil Spills U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Oil Spill Preparation and Response U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Return to top Oil Spills and Wildlife ...

  12. Geological Characteristics and Exploration Potential of Dongying Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Herong

    1997-01-01

    @@ Dongying Sag is an area where the country's earlier large-scale exploration campaign was conducted in Bohai Bay Basin in 1961. An 8.1 t/d of commercial oil flow was discovered in Well Hua-8. Well blowout happened in Well Ying-2 on Sept. 23, 1962.After the drilling, the tested production was 555 t/d with a 15 mm choke, which was the highest single well daily production in China at that time. Since then, stepout exploration has been carried out in Dongying Sag. With 32years of unremitting efforts, 32 oil/gas fields with a 870-square-kilemeter of proved oil-bearing area and 1.75 billion tons of original oil in place, as well as 100-square-kilemeter of proved gas-bearing area and 13.48 billion m3 of gas in place have been discovered in Dongying Sag.

  13. The influence of early oil and gas charging on diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    HU, J.; Guo, Q.; Zheng, M.; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.

    2015-12-01

    With the increase of depth, the growing influence of compaction and diagenetic cementation should make reservoir physical properties worse and worse, but we found that the reservoir property deviated from the normal compaction curve through researching the development of high porosity and its control factors in deep sandstone reservoirs all over the world. Some data from different basins at home and abroad showed the bigger solubility of carbonate type (such as calcite) and aluminum silicate type (such as feldspar) and good development of secondary pore in oil-bearing sandstone than that in the no oil-bearing sandstone. And, calcite cementation, dolomite cementation, quartz cementation in the oil reservoir are more than that of the no oil-bearing reservoir. The effect of oil and gas charging on the diagenetic evolution is complicated. The degree of mineral cementation is also relevant to the saturation of oil and gas, influence of low oil saturation on diagenetic environment was not distinct. By studying different basin, different geology, we found that the oil and gas filling impacts on deep sandstone properties by influencing the diagenetic compaction, cementation and dissolution of deep reservoir: (1) the overpressure of oil and gas charging can buffer compaction of overlying strata; (2) the early oil and gas filling inhibit or slow down the cementation process, especially to illite and quartz, (3) the organic acid dissolution in oil and gas can improve the physical properties of deep reservoir. These three aspects are essentially improved reservoir for deep hydrocarbon accumulation, having very realistic significance for the deep oil and gas exploration.

  14. Alternative theories of oil-inventory management and government policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, J.

    1982-04-26

    Four alternative theories of oil inventory management and their implication for the level of private petroleum stockpiling are explored. The assumptions made were: that the product market for oil is competitive and that the capital market through which investments in oil stockpiles are financed is efficient. It is assumed that these conditions are expected to prevail even in the event of a supply interruption. These assumptions constitute the benchmark theory of oil inventory management. Variations on this theme provide the alternative theories of inventory behavior explored.

  15. PetroChina's Oil and Gas Outputs Higher than Expected in 1st Quarter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ PetroChina, one of China's big-three oil companies,announced in a statement released in mid-April that its production inched up in the first quarter, underscoring its need to find new sources of oil. Despite increase of investment for on oil exploration, PetroChina said its oil and gas output rose just 3.3 percent to 229.1 million barrels of oil equivalents in the January-March period of this year. That was mainly due to an 18 percent jump in gas production to 217.5 billion cubic feet.

  16. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-07-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenarios for palm oil production in Indonesia until 2050, focusing on Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. Our scenarios describe possible trends in crude palm oil production in Indonesia, while considering the demand for cooking oil and biodiesel, the available land for plantations, production capacity (for crude palm oil and fresh fruit bunches) and environmentally restricting conditions. We first assessed past developments in palm oil production. Next, we analysed scenarios for the future. In the past 20years, 95% of the Indonesian oil palm production area was in Sumatra and Kalimantan and was increasingly cultivated in peatlands. Our scenarios for the future indicate that Indonesia can meet a considerable part of the global and Asian demand for palm oil, while avoiding further cultivation of peatlands and forest. By 2050, 264-447Mt crude palm oil may be needed for cooking oil and biodiesel worldwide. In Indonesia, the area that is potentially suitable for oil palm is 17 to 26Mha with a potential production rate of 27-38t fresh fruit bunches/ha, yielding 130-176Mt crude palm oil. Thus Indonesia can meet 39-60% of the international demand. In our scenarios this would be produced in Sumatra (21-26%), Kalimantan (12-16%), and Papua (2%). The potential areas include the current oil palm plantation in mineral lands, but exclude the current oil palm plantations in peatlands.

  17. STATUS AND PROSPECT OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the exploration and development of natural gas and the increase of crude oil import, the industry of China's Oil and Gas Pipelines has witnessed rapid development. Especially the gas pipeline industry is entering a peak period of development. Thanks to the completion and operation of large-scale pipeline projects including West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline project,Shanxi-Beijing Gas Pipeline Ⅱ, Ji-Ning Pipeline,Huaiyang-Wuhan Pipeline, Guangdong LNG Pipeline,Western Pipeline and Pearl River Delta Oil Product Pipeline, many trans-regional gas and oil pipeline networks with initial scale have been gradually established and improved in China. Meanwhile, the metallurgy,manufacturing and construction level of pipelines has been greatly developed, achieving world top level. The next five years is still a peak period of development for China's gas and oil pipeline industry which will enjoy a broader prospect.

  18. Metabolic paths in world economy and crude oil price

    CERN Document Server

    Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In 1983 Hamilton demonstrated the correlation between the price of oil and gross national product for the U.S. economy. A prolific literature followed exploring the potential correlation of oil prices with other important indices like inflation, industrial production, and food prices, using increasingly refined tools. Our work sheds new light on the role of oil prices in shaping the world economy by investigating the metabolic paths of value across trade between 1960 and 2010, by means of Markov Chain analysis. We show that the interdependence of countries' economies are strictly (anti)correlated to the price of oil. We observed a remarkably high correlation of 0.85, unmatched by any former study addressing the correlation between oil price and major economic indicators.

  19. Oil Spill Detection: Past and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzelis, Konstantinos; Singha, Suman

    2016-08-01

    In the last 15 years, the detection of oil spills by satellite means has been moved from experimental to operational. Actually, what is really changed is the satellite image availability. From the late 1990's, in the age of "no data" we have moved forward 15 years to the age of "Sentinels" with an abundance of data. Either large accident related to offshore oil exploration and production activity or illegal discharges from tankers, oil on the sea surface is or can be now regularly monitored, over European Waters. National and transnational organizations (i.e. European Maritime Safety Agency's 'CleanSeaNet' Service) are routinely using SAR imagery to detect oil due to it's all weather, day and night imaging capability. However, all these years the scientific methodology on the detection remains relatively constant. From manual analysis to fully automatic detection methodologies, no significant contribution has been published in the last years and certainly none has dramatically changed the rules of the detection. On the contrary, although the overall accuracy of the methodology is questioned, the four main classification steps (dark area detection, features extraction, statistic database creation, and classification) are continuously improving. In recent years, researchers came up with the use of polarimetric SAR data for oil spill detection and characterizations, although utilization of Pol-SAR data for this purpose still remains questionable due to lack of verified dataset and low spatial coverage of Pol-SAR data. The present paper is trying to point out the drawbacks of the oil spill detection in the last years and focus on the bottlenecks of the oil spill detection methodologies. Also, solutions on the basis of data availability, management and analysis are proposed. Moreover, an ideal detection system is discussed regarding satellite image and in situ observations using different scales and sensors.

  20. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  1. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William W. Weiss

    2000-12-31

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries, including medical diagnostics, have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized data base and computer maps generated by neural networks, is proposed for development through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This tool will be beneficial in many regions of the US, enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting and decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the US as reserves are depleted. The proposed expert exploration tool will benefit a diverse group in the US, leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This third of ten semi-annual reports contains an account of the progress, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress.

  2. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  3. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  4. Another Oil Disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ More than 800 fishing boats in Dalian,a coastal city in northeast China's Liaoning Province,joined the effort on July 20 to clean up crude oil that gushed into the sea after two oil pipelines exploded at Dalian Xingang Harbor four days earlier.

  5. Krill oil: new nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Krill oil is a new available health product which is produced from deep marine species. Its property is to promote good health. The good lipid composition and antioxidant enrichment make krill oil a new nutraceutical for reducing health problems.

  6. Tree nut oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  7. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use fats and oils, choose those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Choose Less Often Choose More Often Percent of Saturated Fat Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil ...

  8. Harsh-Environment Packaging for Downhole Gas and Oil Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubhra Bansal; Junghyun Cho; Kevin Durocher; Chris Kapusta; Aaron Knobloch; David Shaddock; Harry Schoeller; Hua Xia

    2007-08-31

    This research into new packaging materials and methods for elevated temperatures and harsh environment electronics focused on gaining a basic understanding of current state-of-the-art in electronics packaging used in industry today, formulating the thermal-mechanical models of the material interactions and developing test structures to confirm these models. Discussions were initiated with the major General Electric (GE) businesses that currently sell into markets requiring high temperature electronics and packaging. They related the major modes of failure they encounter routinely and the hurdles needed to be overcome in order to improve the temperature specifications of these products. We consulted with our GE business partners about the reliability specifications and investigated specifications and guidelines that from IPC and the SAE body that is currently developing guidelines for electronics package reliability. Following this, a risk analysis was conducted for the program to identify the critical risks which need to be mitigated in order to demonstrate a flex-based packaging approach under these conditions. This process identified metal/polyimide adhesion, via reliability for flex substrates and high temperature interconnect as important technical areas for reliability improvement.

  9. OIL RESOURCES EXPLORATION AND POTENTIAL OF QAIDAM BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Chengming; Jiang Bo; Han Qinpeng; Wu Jianfeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Located in the northern Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Qaidam Basin is surrounded by the East Kunlun Mountains in the south, Qilian Mountains in the north, and Altun Mountains in the west. With an area of 121,000 square kilometers (km2), Qaidam Basin is about 850 kilometers (km) long from east to west and 150~300 km wide from south to north.

  10. Oil/Gas Exploration Prospects for Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhengzhang; Li Yongtie; Ye Hefei

    1997-01-01

    @@ As an important part of the Tethys, Tibet Plateau is prominent in the global geology tectonics. However, due to the limitation of local geographic conditions, the degree of geological study in this region is low, especially in the field of marine Mesozoic petroleum geological study.

  11. Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi

    OpenAIRE

    Lindeman, Zachary; Waggoner, Molly; Batdorff, Audra; Tricia L Humphreys

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. Methods We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil ...

  12. Immature Oils in China and Their Genetic Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Immature crude oils are a kind of unconventional petroleum resources. They are generated through early low-temperature biochemical/chemical reactions of some specific organic matter. Their geological reserves explored are as high as several hundred million tons in China. Based on a detailed organic geochemical study, five genetic mechanisms of immature oils have been proposed in this paper for early hydrocarbon generation from suberinite, resinite, bacteria-reworked terrestrial organic matter, biolipids and sulphur-rich macromolecules respectively.

  13. Oleaster oil positively modulates plasma lipids in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Belarbi, Meriem; BENDIMERAD, SORAYA; Sour, Souad; SOUALEM, Zoubida; BAGHDAD, Choukri; HMIMED, Sara; Chemat, Farid; Visioli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The olive tree had been domesticated during the early Neolithic in the Near East, and more than 1000 different cultivars have been identified to date. However, examples of wild olive trees (Olea europaea oleaster) can still be found in the Mediterranean basin. Evidence of oleaster use for oil production can be found in historical and sacred texts, such as the Odyssey, the Holey Koran, and the Holey Bible. While the nutritional and healthful properties of olive oil are actively being explored,...

  14. Current and Future Nanotech Applications in the Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cocuzza Matteo; Pirri Candido; Rocca Rocca Vera; Verga Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Nanotech applications in the oil industry are not completely new: nanoparticles have been successfully used in drilling muds for the past 50 years. Only recently all the other key areas of the oil industry, such as exploration, primary and assisted production, monitoring, refining and distribution, are approaching nanotechnologies as the potential Philosopher's stone for facing critical issues related to remote locations (such as ultra-deep water and artic environments), ha...

  15. Rheology of waxy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicke, Alexandra A.; Marchesini, Flavio H.; Mendes, Paulo R. de Souza [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: fhmo@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that below the crystallization temperature the rheology of waxy oils changes from Newtonian to an extremely complex non-Newtonian behavior, which is shear-rate and temperature-history dependent. Along the last decades a lot of effort has been put into obtaining reliable rheological measurements from different oils so as to understand the yielding of waxy oils as well as the effects of shear and temperature histories on rheological properties, such as viscosity, yield stress, storage and loss moduli. In this paper we examine in detail the related literature, discussing the main reasons for some disagreements concerning the history effects on the flow properties of waxy oils. In addition, we performed temperature ramps and stress-amplitude-sweep tests and compared the results obtained with the main trends observed, highlighting the effects of cooling and shear on the microstructure and consequently on the rheological properties of these oils. (author)

  16. Determination of ²²⁶Ra, ²²⁸Ra and ²¹⁰Pb in NORM products from oil and gas exploration: problems in activity underestimation due to the presence of metals and self-absorption of photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, S; Brabec, C; Canion, B; Hashem, J; Lu, C; Millsap, D; George, G

    2013-11-01

    Typical calibration of solid environmental samples for the determination of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb entails the use of standard reference materials which have a very similar matrix. However, TENORM samples from the oil and gas exploration contain unusually high amounts of calcium, strontium and barium which can severely attenuate the photons of (210)Pb and (226)Ra with their characteristic 46.1 keV and 186.2 keV gamma-rays, respectively and to some extent (228)Ra with the characteristic gamma-rays of 911.2 keV and 969.0 keV. We used neutron activation analysis to evaluate the content of TENORM for calcium, barium and strontium and then used a software program SELABS to determine the self-absorption. Our results confirm that even in Petrie containers with small dimensions the (210)Pb can be underestimated by almost by a factor of four while (226)Ra can be underestimated by 5%. The (228)Ra activities are virtually unaffected due to the higher energy gamma-rays. However, the implications for TENORM studies that employ large Marinelli containers having sample sizes between 0.25 and 1.0 L may be severely compromised by the presence of high Z elements in elevated concentrations. The usual spectral interferences on (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb coming from other radionuclides in the (234)U, (235)U and (238)U decay chains are virtually nonexistent due the very high activity levels of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb in the tens of thousands of Bq/kg.

  17. Exploration and production activities and market - Panorama 2008; Activites et marches en exploration-production - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Following two banner years for the oil service and supply sector, marked by strong activity and a substantial increase in prices, the Exploration and Production market continued at a frenetic pace in 2007, although certain local markets retreated. In 2008, activity should stay high and prices should start stabilizing. With services in short supply, companies in the sector have been able to shift the balance of power with oil firms in their favor.

  18. Determination of Some Physical Properties of Jatropha (Jatropha Curcas Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasheu, T.I

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy crisis and shortage of fuel emanating from total dependence on mineral oil with resultant socioeconomic problems demand the need to explore the use of renewable energy as alternative. This study evaluates the physical properties Jatropha (Jatropha curcas oil as alternative base oil for lubricant in auto engines. A quantity of 32 kg dried base decorticated seeds of Jatropha was locally obtained. Volume of 4 litres of Jatropha oil was extracted from the seeds using existing hydraulic press machine, while its physical properties was determined through laboratory analytical procedure of American Society for Testing and Materials analytical standard 960-52 (ASTM,D960-52. The properties determined were: viscosity, density, flash point, pour point, melting point, refractive index, specific heat and thermal conductivity. Comparisons of the properties were also made with the standard lubricant (SAE 40 engine oil. The principles of flow theories were employed to develop heat generated equation in terms of temperature, density and viscosity of the oil and a computer program in C++ language was thus written. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the effect of temperature change, (30 oC to 100 oC on value of density and viscosity. The physical properties of Jatropha oil are viscosity (162.8 cst, density (0.920 g/ml, flash point (113oC, pour point (7.7oC, melting point (4 to 5oC, refractive index (1.435, specific heat (0.082 KJ/Kg/K and thermal conductivity (4.250 W/moC. Comparative analysis showed that the values of viscosity, density, thermal conductivity and pour point for Jatropha oil were higher than the values of SAE 40 engine oil while specific heat, flash point and refractive index values of Jatropha oil were less than the values of SAE 40 engine oil. The result showed that the average values for density and viscosity of Jatropha oil were 890.75 Kgm-3 and 0.1385 N.S/m2 . Sensitivity analysis showed that Jatropha oil has highest density and

  19. Advance and Economic Benefit Made in Petroleum Integrated Exploration of CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Longwu; Guo Qianjie

    1996-01-01

    @@ The modern integrated petroleum exploration method,consisting of basin analysis and simulation, description and assessment of traps and description and assessment of oil/gas reservoirs, is a key component of the modern petroleum exploration system. With a deepening understanding of the modern petroleum exploration method, more and more attention has been paid to basin analysing and simulating, trap description and assessment and oil/gas reservoir description and assessment in the oil fields of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC),encouraging results and precious experience have been achieved.

  20. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  1. Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ané Orchard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman’s literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils.

  2. Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Ané

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman's literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils. PMID:28546822

  3. GOOD OLD OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays everybody is getting puzzled and confused about choosing right oil for daily use. Most of the ads in the market revolving around sunflower oil only with different brand names claiming it is heart friendly. In recent years, younger generation may not be familiar much with our age old traditional oils like sesame oil. Sesame oil is also called as gingelly oil or til oil is rich in vitamin E and B. It is a good source of minerals like calcium, manganese and phosphorous and promotes healing. It contains high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreases high blood pressure. Because of its antioxidant property, it decreases cholesterol and good for heart. It acts like a sedative, relieves mental fatigue and promotes sleep when it is used for head massage. It is having laxative nature, relieving constipation. When applied topically on to the skin it is acting as an excellent moisturizer and an emollient. Because of its natural antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties it keeps away the skin and tooth infections. Hence, it can be used by one and all without any hesitation for regular cooking. However, it is not preferred for deep frying. Let us once again say OLD IS GOLD

  4. Jojoba oil and derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniak, T.

    1977-01-01

    Jojoba oil differs from all known seed oils by its almost complete absence of glycerides, making it more a liquid wax than a fat. It has become important as a possible substitute for sperm-whale oil to produce lubricants, lubricant additives and other products. The plant occurs naturally in southern Arizona and N.W. Mexico and its oil has long been used by Indians for medicinal, culinary, ritual and other purposes. It tolerates extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and grows well under the difficult soil and moisture conditions of the region. In the first part of this review the plant and its uses are described, including its floral, fruit and seed anatomy and the use of liquid wax during germination. Stored coryledon wax is used up by the embryo as a linear function of time during the first 30 days of germination and growth. Before germination, seeds weight about 0.59 mg and contain about 54% wax. The second and greater part of the review deals with jojoba oil (its extraction, properties, molecular description, toxicity and composition), jojoba meal, which remains after the oil has been extracted, and the chemical modification of the oil.

  5. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William W. Weiss

    2001-09-30

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. As a result, today's pool of experts is much reduced. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the May 2001 through September 2001 was directed toward development of rules for the fuzzy system.

  6. The environmental public policy context in the prevention and control aspects of oil incidents for the exploration and production phases in Brazil; O contexto das politicas publicas ambientais nos aspectos de prevencao e controle dos incidentes com oleo durante as etapas de exploracao e producao de petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert Junior, Carlos Alberto; Walter, Tatiana; Nicolodi, Joao Luis [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    It is not possible to state that Brazil is unprepared to respond oil incidents emergencies, in Coastal Zone, Continental Shelf and EEZ oil E and P, without an analysis with clear premises. First, we need to understand the context that lays this question, which it is not limited in the National Contingency Plan, as lately evidenced in media. Thus, we note that Brazil has a complex political and legal arrangements targeted to oil incidents prevention and control. In this context, comes this paper, in order to reveal this curtain, listing actors, legislation and other aspects that underlie the public policy governance in reference. (author)

  7. Yield gaps in oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  8. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  9. Geochemical Characteristics and Origins of the Crude Oil of Triassic Yanchang Formation in Southwestern Yishan Slope, Ordos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker compounds that derived from early living organisms play an important role in oil and gas geochemistry and exploration since they can record the diagenetic evolution of the parent materials of crude oil and reflect the organic geochemical characteristics of crude oil and source rocks. To offer scientific basis for oil exploration and exploitation for study area, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method is applied to study the biomarker compounds of crude oil in Southwestern Yishan Slope of Ordos Basin, through qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing separated materials. The crude oil of Yanchang Formation and the source rocks of Yan’an and Yanchang Formation were collected in order to systematically analyze the characteristics of the biomarker compounds in saturated hydrocarbon fractions and clarify the organic geochemical characteristics of crude oil. The distribution and composition of various types of hydrocarbon biomarker compounds in crude oil suggest that the parent materials of crude oil are composed of hydrobiont and terrigenous plants, and the crude oil is mature oil which is formed in the weak reducing fresh water environment. Oil source correlation results show that the crude oil of Yanchang Formation in Yishan Slope is sourced from the source rocks of Chang 7 subformation.

  10. Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henna, Phillip H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is

  11. Precious Oil, New Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The oil price is flying sky high, not only with respect to the purchase price, but also in oil futures and stock. On November 7, the International oil future price reached a new high of US$ 98.62 per barrel in New York.Just two days before the peak day, on November 5, the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) was back in China's A-share market with a new offering. The opening quotation on the first day of this new issue reached RMB 48.60 yuan per share.

  12. The environmental licensing processes of the offshore oil and natural gas exploration and production in the world and in Brazil: a comparative analysis considering the utilization of studies of the strategic environmental assessment; O processo de licenciamento ambiental das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural offshore no mundo e no Brasil: uma analise comparativa considerando a utilizacao de estudos de avaliacao ambiental estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Jacqueline [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This study presents an analyses of the environmental licensing processes of the offshore oil and gas exploration and production of the following countries: USA, UK, Norway, Australia and Canada, and makes a comparison with the Brazilian case. This study also emphasizes the use of the Strategical Environmental Assessments (SEA) before the bid procedures. The SEA studies aim to predict and to evaluate the environmental implications of the adoption of sectorial policies and programs and are very useful to the decision making processes. They permit the exclusion of environmental sensitive areas and contribute to the improvement of the environmental management of the regions where the activities will take place. The selected countries use SEA as an environmental management tool and their experience is analysed so as to provide suggestions for the improvement of the current Brazilian environmental licensing process. (author)

  13. OIL DISPLACEMENT IN MISCIBLE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Juttner

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available After primary oil recovery in reservoirs remains about 70% of unexploited oil. To improve the recovery of the remaining reserves, injection of a fluid provide the extra energy in a mchunical form. Oil displacement can he achieved by gas injection of lean natural gas, mainly methane, carbon dioxide etc. Oil displacement can be in immiscible or miscible conditions. This paper deals with mechanism of miscible gas drive. On the basis of simulation of the oil displacement process by gas injection into oil field Žutica the character of process, i. c. a degree of miscibility or immiscibility between the injected fluid and reservoir oil was determined.

  14. MOC encourages private oil companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Commerce issued a guideline in late June, encouraging private oil companies to take part in refined oil's processing, transportation and retail. The government will support competitive and large companies to integrate into asset-based oil groups and technology service-based oil companies, according to the guideline. Private business will be encouraged to obtain stable access to refined oil resources, technology and management service. China's refined oil market is largely controlled by three State-owned heavyweights: PetroChina, the largest oil producer in Asia; Sinopec,

  15. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. [Rowland (P.) Associates (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA``) and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy`s Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry`s behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  16. New exploration and production sharing agreements in Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, J. (Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (United Kingdom))

    1995-01-01

    Although the political situation in Libya is volatile, the rewards to be gained from exploration and exploitation of Libya's oil reserves, make it attractive to a number of foreign oil companies, although none from America. This article describes three such new exploration and production sharing agreements between Libya and some European companies. The author considers the political, economic and technical aspects of such joint initiatives and concludes that the commercial risks taken will probably be worthwhile as substantial reservoirs containing good quality crude reservoirs do exist. (UK)

  17. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 467 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  18. Exploration limited since '70s in Libya's Sirte basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D. (Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom))

    1995-03-13

    Esso Standard made the first Libyan oil discovery in the western Ghadames basin in 1957. The Atshan-2 well tested oil from Devonian sandstones, and the play was a continuation of the Paleozoic trend found productive in the neighboring Edjeleh region of eastern Algeria. Exploration in the Sirte basin began in earnest in 1958. Within the next 10 years, 16 major oil fields had been discovered, each with recoverable reserves greater than 500 million bbl of oil. Libya currently produces under OPEC quota approximately 1.4 million b/d of oil, with discovered in-place reserves of 130 billion bbl of oil. The paper describes the structural framework, sedimentary basins of Libya, the Sirte basin, petroleum geology, play types, source rocks, generation and migration of hydrocarbons, oil reserves, potential, and acreage availability.

  19. Thermochemical Ablation Therapy of VX2 Tumor Using a Permeable Oil-Packed Liquid Alkali Metal

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alkali metal appears to be a promising tool in thermochemical ablation, but, it requires additional data on safety is required. The objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of permeable oil-packed liquid alkali metal in the thermochemical ablation of tumors. Methods Permeable oil-packed sodium–potassium (NaK) was prepared using ultrasonic mixing of different ratios of metal to oil. The thermal effect of the mixture during ablation of muscle tissue ex vivo was evaluat...

  20. Investigating the Potential of Nanomaterials for Enhanced Oil Recovery: State of Art

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Moh. Salem Ragab

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum industry has been changed by the introduction of the nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has been tried in exploration. Drilling, production, and finally in enhanced oil recovery. For EOR, nanomaterials are considered an additive to the fluid used to displace the residual oil from the reservoir, which changes the characteristics of these solutions. These nano solutions have unique properties for a wide range of applications in oil field industry.   There are several approaches fo...