WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil esters-in-water nanoemulsions

  1. A potential tocopherol acetate loaded palm oil esters-in-water nanoemulsions for nanocosmeceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Raja

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic-pharmaceutical hybrids intended to enhance health and beauty of the skin. Nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized system for the delivery of active ingredients to the targeted cells for better penetration. In this work, nanoemulsion from palm oil esters was developed as a delivery system to produce nanocosmeceuticals. The stability of the resulting formulation was tested using various methods. In addition, the effect of components i.e. Vitamin E and Pluronic F-68 on the formulation was also studied. Results Both vitamin E and Pluronic F-68 were found to co-emulsify and co-stabilized the formulations. The best formulation was found to be the one having the composition of 10% Palm Oil Esters (POEs, 10% vitamin E, 24% Tween 80, 2.4% Pluronic F-68 and 53.6% deionised water. Those compositions are considered to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small particle size (94.21 nm, low occurrence of Ostwald ripening and stable at different storing temperatures (5, 25 and 45°C for four weeks. Conclusions Palm oil esters-in-water nanoemulsions loaded with vitamin E was successfully formulated and has the potential for the use as nanocosmeceuticals.

  2. The Role of Soya Oil Ester in Water-Based PCM for Low Temperature Cool Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Rasta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the preparation of the water-based phase change material (PCM with very small soya oil solution for low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES. Soya oil ester is soluble very well in water and acts as nucleating agent for a novel solid-liquid PCM candidate that is suitable for low temperature cool storage in the range between −9°C and −6°C. Thermal energy storage properties of the water with very small soya oil ester solution were measured by T-history method. The experimental results show that very small amount of soya oil ester in water can lower the freezing point and trigger ice nucleation for elimination of the supercooling degree. The phase transition temperatures of the water-based PCMs with soya oil as nucleate agent were lower than those of individual water. The thermal properties make it potential PCM for LHTES systems used in low temperature cool energy storage applications.

  3. Thyme oil nanoemulsions coemulsified by sodium caseinate and lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-10-08

    Many nanoemulsions are currently formulated with synthetic surfactants. The objective of the present work was to study the possibility of blending sodium caseinate (NaCas) and lecithin to prepare transparent thyme oil nanoemulsions. Thyme oil was emulsified using NaCas and soy lecithin individually or in combination at neutral pH by shear homogenization. The surfactant combination improved the oil content in transparent/translucent nanoemulsions, from 1.0% to 2.5% w/v for 5% NaCas with and without 1% lecithin, respectively. Nanoemulsions prepared with the NaCas-lecithin blend had hydrodynamic diameters smaller than 100 nm and had significantly smaller and more narrowly distributed droplets than those prepared with NaCas or lecithin alone. Particle dimension and protein surface load data suggested the coadsorption of both surfactants on oil droplets. These characteristics of nanoemulsions minimized destabilization mechanisms of creaming, coalescence, and Ostwald ripening, as evidenced by no significant changes in appearance and particle dimension after 120-day storage at 21 °C.

  4. Development and characterization of evening primrose (Oenothera biennis oil nanoemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railane F. Rodrigues

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEvening primrose (Oenothera biennis L., Onagraceae seeds oil has great economic importance due to its wide industrial application, mainly for medicines and nutraceutics. However, to our knowledge, it remains almost unexplored regarding development of innovative formulations, such as nanoemulsions. On the present study, required Hydroprophile–Lipophile Balance of evening primrose seeds oil was determined (HLB 12 and a stable nanoemulsion (Day 1: mean droplet size: 214.3 ± 0.69 nm, polydispersity index: 0.253 ± 0.012. Day 7: mean droplet size: 202.8 ± 0.23 nm, polydispersity index: 0.231 ± 0.008 was achieved. Moreover, pseudo-ternary diagram allowed delimitation of nanoemulsion region, contributing to nanobiotechnology of natural products.

  5. Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  6. Essential oil nanoemulsions as antimicrobial agents in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donsì, Francesco; Ferrari, Giovanna

    2016-09-10

    The crescent interest in the use of essential oils (EOs) as natural antimicrobials and preservatives in the food industry has been driven in the last years by the growing consumers' demand for natural products with improved microbial safety, and fresh-like organoleptic properties. Nanoemulsions efficiently contribute to support the use of EOs in foods by increasing their dispersibility in the food areas where microorganisms grow and proliferate, by reducing the impact on the quality attributes of the product, as well as by enhancing their antimicrobial activity. Understanding how nanoemulsions intervene on the mass transfer of EOs to the cell membrane and on the mechanism of antimicrobial action will support the engineering of more effective delivery systems and foster the application of EOs in real food systems. This review focuses on the enabling contribution of nanoemulsions to the use of EOs as natural preservative agents in food, (a) specifically addressing the formulation and fabrication of stable EO nanoemulsions, (b) critically analyzing the reported antimicrobial activity data, both in vitro and in product, to infer the impact of the delivery system on the mechanisms of action of EOs, as well as (c) discussing the regulatory issues associated with their use in food systems.

  7. Development of a Larvicidal Nanoemulsion with Pterodon emarginatus Vogel Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E M F M Oliveira

    Full Text Available Pterodon emarginatus Vogel is a Brazilian species that belongs to the family Fabaceae, popularly known as sucupira. Its oil has several biological activities, including potent larvicidal property against Aedes aegypti. This insect is the vector of dengue, a tropical disease that has been considered a critical health problem in developing countries, such as Brazil. Most of dengue control methods involve larvicidal agents suspended or diluted in water and making active lipophilic natural products available is therefore considered a technological challenge. In this context, nanoemulsions appear as viable alternatives to solve this major problem. The present study describes the development of a novel nanoemulsion with larvicidal activity against A. aegypti along with the required Hydrophile Lipophile Balance determination of this oil. It was suggested that the mechanism of action might involve reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and our results also suggest that the P. emarginatus nanoemulsion is not toxic for mammals. Thus, it contributes significantly to alternative integrative practices of dengue control, as well as to develop sucupira based nanoproducts for application in aqueous media.

  8. Biodegradable polymer based encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion for controlled release of Aza-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerobin, Jayakumar; Sureshkumar, R S; Anjali, C H; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2012-11-06

    Azadirachtin a biological compound found in neem have medicinal and pesticidal properties. The present work reports on the encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion using sodium alginate (Na-Alg) by cross linking with glutaraldehyde. Starch and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used as coating agents for smooth surface of beads. The SEM images showed beads exhibited nearly spherical shape. Swelling of the polymeric beads reduced with coating which in turn decreased the rate of release of Aza-A. Starch coated encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion was found to be effective when compared to PEG coated encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion. The release rate of neem Aza-A from the beads into an aqueous environment was analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometer (214 nm). The encapsulated neem oil nanoemulsion have the potential for controlled release of Aza-A. Neem oil nanoemulsion encapsulated beads coated with PEG was found to be toxic in lymphocyte cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neem oil (Azadirachta indica) nanoemulsion--a potent larvicidal agent against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjali, C H; Sharma, Yamini; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2012-02-01

    Nanoemulsion composed of neem oil and non-ionic surfactant Tween 20, with a mean droplet size ranging from 31.03 to 251.43 nm, was formulated for various concentrations of the oil and surfactant. The larvicidal effect of the formulated neem oil nanoemulsion was checked against Culex quinquefasciatus. O/W emulsion was prepared using neem oil, Tween 20 and water. Nanoemulsion of 31.03 nm size was obtained at a 1:3 ratio of oil and surfactant, and it was found to be stable. The larger droplet size (251.43 nm) shifted to a smaller size of 31.03 nm with increase in the concentration of Tween 20. The viscosity of the nanoemulsion increased with increasing concentration of Tween 20. The lethal concentration (LC50) of the nanoemulsion against Cx. quinquefasciatus was checked for 1:0.30, 1:1.5 and 1:3 ratios of oil and surfactant respectively. The LC50 decreased with droplet size. The LC50 for the ratio 1:3 nanoemulsions was 11.75 mg L(-1). The formulated nanoemulsion of 31.03 nm size was found to be an effective larvicidal agent. This is the first time that a neem oil nanoemulsion of this droplet size has been reported. It may be a good choice as a potent and selective larvicide for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Study on antimicrobial potential of neem oil nanoemulsion against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Labeo rohita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prabhakar; R S, Suresh Kumar; Jerobin, Jayakumar; Thomas, John; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2014-01-01

    Presence of several biochemical constituents in neem makes it an efficient antimicrobial agent for pathogenic diseases. The current investigation was aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of neem nanoemulsion as a control measure for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in freshwater fish Labeo rohita. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for the neem oil and neem nanoemulsion was 73.9 and 160.3 mg/L, respectively. The biomarker enzymes of treated fish tissues showed a significant difference in the level of glutathione reductase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation in neem oil-treated samples than in neem nanoemulsion-treated samples at Pneem nanoemulsion was more effective in both in vitro and in vivo methods. Present findings suggest that neem-based nanoemulsion has negligible toxicity to Rohu fishes. This makes neem-based nanoemulsion as an efficient therapeutic agent against P. aeruginosa infection, leading to its possible usage in the aquaculture industry. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Modification of palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsions with hydrocolloid gum for enhanced topical delivery of ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah DK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Norazlinaliza Salim,1 Mahiran Basri,1,2 Mohd BA Rahman,1 Dzulkefly K Abdullah,1 Hamidon Basri31Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Laboratory of Biomolecular Medicine, Institute of Bioscience, 3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaIntroduction: During recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of nanoemulsion as a drug-carrier system for topical delivery. A nanoemulsion is a transparent mixture of oil, surfactant and water with a very low viscosity, usually the product of its high water content. The present study investigated the modification of nanoemulsions with different hydrocolloid gums, to enhanced drug delivery of ibuprofen. The in vitro characterization of the initial and modified nanoemulsions was also studied.Methods: A palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsion was modified with different hydrocolloid gums for the topical delivery of ibuprofen. Three different hydrocolloids (gellan gum, xanthan gum, and carrageenan were selected for use. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed using palm kernel oil esters as the oil, Tween 80 as the surfactant, and water. Nanoemulsions were prepared by phase inversion composition, and were gradually mixed with the freshly prepared hydrocolloids. The initial nanoemulsion and modified nanoemulsions were characterized. The abilities of the nanoemulsions to deliver ibuprofen were assessed in vitro, using a Franz diffusion cell fitted with rat skin.Results: No significant changes were observed in droplet size (~16–20 nm but a significant difference in polydispersity indexes were observed before and after the modification of nanoemulsions using gellan gum, carrageenan, and xanthan gum. The zeta potentials of the initial nanoemulsions (–11.0 mV increased to –19.6 mV, –13.9 mV, and –41.9 mV, respectively. The abilities of both the initial nanoemulsion (T802 and the modified nanoemulsion to deliver ibuprofen

  12. Exotic Vegetable Oils for Cosmetic O/W Nanoemulsions: In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil-in-water nanoemulsions are stable systems with droplet sizes in the 20–200 nm range. The physicochemical properties of these systems may be influenced by the addition of additives. Thus, the influence of ethoxylated (EL and acetylated lanolin (AL addition on the droplet size, pH values, electrical conductivity and stability of nanoemulsions was investigated. Then, effect of nano-emulsions additives with EL (NE-EL or AL (NE-AL in hydration, oiliness and pH of the skin were evaluated. Nanoemulsion safety was evaluated through the observation of no undesirable effects after skin formulation application. Both additives caused changes in droplet size and electrical conductivity, but not in pH values. Nanoemulsions containing up to 6.0% ethoxylated lanolin and 2.0% acetylated lanolin remained stable after centrifugation tests. Higher concentrations of the additives made the nanoemulsions unstable. Stability tests showed that ethoxylated lanolin produced more stable nanoemulsions then acetylated lanolin and that the major instability phenomenon occurring in these systems is coalescence at elevated temperatures. Nanoemulsion-based lanolin derivatives increased skin hydration and oiliness and did not change cutaneous pH values. These formulations are non-toxic since they did not cause any irritation on the skin surface after nanoemulsion application, showing potential as carriers for pharmaceuticals and cosmetic applications.

  13. Application of CMC as Thickener on Nanoemulsions Based on Olive Oil: Physical Properties and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arancibia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a hydrocolloid with surface activity that could act as emulsifiers in oil-in-water emulsions; however the principal role is that it acts as structuring, thickening, or gelling agent in the aqueous phase. This study aims to evaluate the application of CMC as thickener into nanoemulsions based on olive oil and their influence on particle characteristics, flow behavior, and color. Four nanoemulsions with different oil (5% and 15% w/w olive oil and CMC (0.5% and 0.75% w/w concentration and two control samples without CMC added were prepared using Tween 80 as emulsifier. All physical properties studied on nanoemulsions were depending on both oil and CMC concentration. In general, z-average particle size varied among 107–121 nm and those samples with 5% oil and CMC were the most polydisperse. The addition of CMC increased anionic charge of nanoemulsions obtaining zeta potential values among −41 and −55 mV. The oil concentration increased both consistency and pseudoplasticity of samples, although samples were more stable to gravitational separation at the highest CMC concentration. Color of nanoemulsions was affected principally by the oil concentration. Finally, the results showed that CMC could be applied in nanoemulsions as thickener increasing their physical stability although modifying their physical properties.

  14. A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Z

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Zhenhua Hu,1,2,* Meiling Liao,2,* Yinghui Chen,3,* Yunpeng Cai,2 Lele Meng,2 Yajun Liu,2 Nan Lv,2 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan21Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Jinshan District, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Silicone oil, as a major component in conditioner, is beneficial in the moisture preservation and lubrication of hair. However, it is difficult for silicone oil to directly absorb on the hair surface because of its hydrophobicity. Stable nanoemulsions containing silicone oil may present as a potential solution to this problem.Methods: Silicone oil nanoemulsions were prepared using the oil-in-water method with nonionic surfactants. Emulsion particle size and distribution were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The kinetic stability of this nanoemulsion system was investigated under accelerated stability tests and long-term storage. The effect of silicone oil deposition on hair was examined by analyzing the element of hair after treatment of silicone oil nanoemulsions.Results: Nonionic surfactants such as Span 80 and Tween 80 are suitable emulsifiers to prepare oil-in-water nanoemulsions that are both thermodynamically stable and can enhance the absorption of silicone oil on hair surface.Conclusion: The silicone oil-in-water nanoemulsions containing nonionic surfactants present as a promising solution to improve the silicone oil deposition on the hair surface for hair care applications.Keywords: silicone oil, nanoemulsion, stability, moisture preservation, lubrication

  15. Superior antibacterial activity of nanoemulsion of Thymus daenensis essential oil against E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Roya; Ghaderi, Lida; Rafati, Hasan; Aliahmadi, Atousa; McClements, David Julian

    2016-03-01

    Natural preservatives are being extensively investigated for their potential industrial applications in foods and other products. In this work, an essential oil (Thymus daenensis) was formulated as a water-dispersible nanoemulsion (diameter=143nm) using high-intensity ultrasound. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil in both pure and nanoemulsion forms was measured against an important food-borne pathogen bacterium, Escherichia coli. Antibacterial activity was determined by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil against E. coli was enhanced considerably when it was converted into a nanoemulsion, which was attributed to easier access of the essential oils to the bacterial cells. The mechanism of antibacterial activity was investigated by measuring potassium, protein, and nucleic acid leakage from the cells, and electron microscopy. Evaluation of the kinetics of microbial deactivation showed that the nanoemulsion killed all the bacteria in about 5min, whereas only a 1-log reduction was observed for pure essential oil. The nanoemulsion appeared to amplify the antibacterial activity of essential oils against E. coli by increasing their ability to disrupt cell membrane integrity.

  16. In Vitro Characterization and Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) Repellent Activity of Essential-Oils-Loaded Nanoemulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Nuchuchua, Onanong; Sakulku, Usawadee; Uawongyart, Napaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Soottitantawat, Apinan; Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2009-01-01

    The nanoemulsions composed of citronella oil, hairy basil oil, and vetiver oil with mean droplet sizes ranging from 150 to 220 nm were prepared and investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Larger emulsion droplets (195–220 nm) shifted toward a smaller size (150–160 nm) after high-pressure homogenization and resulted in higher release rate. We proposed that thin films obtained from the nanoemulsions with smaller droplet size would have higher integrity, thus increasing the vaporization of essen...

  17. Formation and stability of oil-in-water nanoemulsions containing rice bran oil: in vitro and in vivo assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha-Filho Pedro A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoemulsions have practical application in a multitude of commercial areas, such as the chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Cosmetic industries use rice bran oil in sunscreen formulations, anti ageing products and in treatments for skin diseases. The aim of this study was to create rice bran oil nanoemulsions using low energy emulsification methods and to evaluate their physical stability, irritation potential and moisturising activity on volunteers with normal and diseased skin types. Results The nanoemulsion developed by this phase diagram method was composed of 10% rice bran oil, 10% surfactants sorbitan oleate/PEG-30 castor oil, 0.05% antioxidant and 0.50% preservatives formulated in distilled water. The nanoemulsion was stable over the time course of this study. In vitro assays showed that this formulation has a low irritation potential, and when applied to human skin during in vivo studies, the nanoemulsion improved the skin's moisture and maintained normal skin pH values. Conclusion The results of irritation potential studies and in vivo assessments indicate that this nanoemulsion has potential to be a useful tool to treat skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  18. Argan oil nanoemulsions as new hydrophobic drug-loaded delivery system for transdermal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, D; Mora-Huertas, C E; Fessi, H; Zaanoun, I; Elaissari, A

    2012-10-01

    This research work deals with the development of argan oil-based nanoemulsions as vehicle of hydrophobic drugs such as diclofenac used as model. Nanoemulsions of oil in water were prepared using the ultrasonication method in order to obtain submicron size colloidal dispersion. The size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency of the dispersions obtained were investigated. In addition, the ability of sorbitan ester derivatives to form nanovesicles (niosomes), which in turn were used for encapsulating drug in oily solutions forming stable nanoemulsions, was particularly examined. Thus, additional stabilizing agents were not required in the recipe and formulations using only sorbitan monolaurate, argan oil and water lead to attractive results. Their submicronic size (<250 nm), high negative zeta potential (between -40 and -50 mV) and drug-encapsulation efficiency (higher than 85%) allow predicting both a good physical stability and a good performance as drug carriers.

  19. Application of an oregano oil nanoemulsion to the control of foodborne bacteria on fresh lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Kanika; Conti, Denise S; da Rocha, Sandro R P; Zhang, Yifan

    2015-05-01

    Although antimicrobial activities of plant essential oils are well documented, challenges remain as to their application in fresh produce due to the hydrophobic nature of essential oils. Oregano oil nanoemulsions were formulated with a food-grade emulsifier and evaluated for their efficacy in inactivating the growth of foodborne bacteria on fresh lettuce. Lettuce was artificially inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7, followed by a one-minute dipping in oregano oil nanoemulsions (0.05% or 0.1%). Samples were stored at 4 °C and enumerated for bacteria at fixed intervals (0 h, 3 h, 24 h, and 72 h). Compared to control, 0.05% nanoemulsion showed an up to 3.44, 2.31, and 3.05 log CFU/g reductions in L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Up to 3.57, 3.26, and 3.35 log CFU/g reductions were observed on the same bacteria by the 0.1% treatment. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) demonstrated disrupted bacterial membranes due to the oregano oil treatment. The data suggest that applying oregano oil nanoemulsions to fresh produce may be an effective antimicrobial control strategy.

  20. A new nano-engineered hierarchical membrane for concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from oil-in-water nanoemulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Bai, Hongwei; Sun, Darren Delai; Song, Xiaoxiao

    2016-04-01

    Surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions pose a severe threat to both the environment and human health. Recent development of membrane filtration technology has enabled efficient oil removal from oil/water nanoemulsion, however, the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil remains unsolved because the existing filtration membranes still suffer from low surfactant removal rate and serious surfactant-induced fouling issue. In this study, to realize the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from nanoemulsion, a novel hierarchically-structured membrane is designed with a nanostructured selective layer on top of a microstructured support layer. The physical and chemical properties of the overall membrane, including wettability, surface roughness, electric charge, thickness and structures, are delicately tailored through a nano-engineered fabrication process, that is, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet assisted phase inversion coupled with surface functionalization. Compared with the membrane fabricated by conventional phase inversion, this novel membrane has four times higher water flux, significantly higher rejections of both oil (~99.9%) and surfactant (as high as 93.5%), and two thirds lower fouling ratio when treating surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Due to its excellent performances and facile fabrication process, this nano-engineered membrane is expected to have wide practical applications in the oil/water separation fields of environmental protection and water purification.

  1. Ultrathin cellulose nanosheet membranes for superfast separation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke; Zhang, Qiu Gen; Li, Hong Mei; Guo, Nan Nan; Zhu, Ai Mei; Liu, Qing Lin

    2014-08-01

    Oily wastewater is generated in diverse industrial processes, and its treatment has become crucial due to increasing environmental concerns. Herein, novel ultrathin nanoporous membranes of cellulose nanosheets have been fabricated for separation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions. The fabrication approach is facile and environmentally friendly, in which cellulose nanosheets are prepared by freeze-extraction of a very dilute cellulose solution. The as-prepared membranes have a cellulose nanosheet layer with a cut-off of 10-12 nm and a controllable thickness of 80-220 nm. They allow ultrafast water permeation and exhibit excellent size-selective separation properties. A 112 nm-thick membrane has a water flux of 1620 l m-2 h-1 bar-1 and a ferritin rejection of 92.5%. These membranes have been applied to remove oil from its aqueous nanoemulsions successfully, and they show an ultrafast and effective separation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions. The newly developed ultrathin cellulose membranes have a wide application in oily wastewater treatment, separation and purification of nanomaterials.Oily wastewater is generated in diverse industrial processes, and its treatment has become crucial due to increasing environmental concerns. Herein, novel ultrathin nanoporous membranes of cellulose nanosheets have been fabricated for separation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions. The fabrication approach is facile and environmentally friendly, in which cellulose nanosheets are prepared by freeze-extraction of a very dilute cellulose solution. The as-prepared membranes have a cellulose nanosheet layer with a cut-off of 10-12 nm and a controllable thickness of 80-220 nm. They allow ultrafast water permeation and exhibit excellent size-selective separation properties. A 112 nm-thick membrane has a water flux of 1620 l m-2 h-1 bar-1 and a ferritin rejection of 92.5%. These membranes have been applied to remove oil from its aqueous nanoemulsions successfully, and they show an ultrafast and effective

  2. In vitro characterization and mosquito (Aedes aegypti) repellent activity of essential-oils-loaded nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuchuchua, Onanong; Sakulku, Usawadee; Uawongyart, Napaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Soottitantawat, Apinan; Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2009-01-01

    The nanoemulsions composed of citronella oil, hairy basil oil, and vetiver oil with mean droplet sizes ranging from 150 to 220 nm were prepared and investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Larger emulsion droplets (195-220 nm) shifted toward a smaller size (150-160 nm) after high-pressure homogenization and resulted in higher release rate. We proposed that thin films obtained from the nanoemulsions with smaller droplet size would have higher integrity, thus increasing the vaporization of essential oils and subsequently prolonging the mosquito repellant activity. The release rates were fitted with Avrami's equations and n values were in the same range of 0.6 to 1.0, implying that the release of encapsulated limonene was controlled by the diffusion mechanism from the emulsion droplet. By using high-pressure homogenization together with optimum concentrations of 5% (w/w) hairy basil oil, 5% (w/w) vetiver oil (5%), and 10% (w/w) citronella oil could improve physical stability and prolong mosquito protection time to 4.7 h due to the combination of these three essential oils as well as small droplet size of nanoemulsion.

  3. Ketoprofen-loaded pomegranate seed oil nanoemulsion stabilized by pullulan: Selective antiglioma formulation for intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luana M; Cervi, Verônica F; Gehrcke, Mailine; da Silveira, Elita F; Azambuja, Juliana H; Braganhol, Elizandra; Sari, Marcel H M; Zborowski, Vanessa A; Nogueira, Cristina W; Cruz, Letícia

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to prepare pomegranate seed oil nanoemulsions containing ketoprofen using pullulan as a polymeric stabilizer, and to evaluate antitumor activity against in vitro glioma cells. Formulations were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method and different concentrations of pullulan were tested. Nanoemulsions presented adequate droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, pH, ketoprofen content and encapsulation efficiency. Nanoemulsions were able to delay the photodegradation profile of ketoprofen under UVC radiation, regardless of the concentration of pullulan. In vitro release study indicates that nanoemulsions were able to release approximately 95.0% of ketoprofen in 5h. Free ketoprofen and formulations were considered hemocompatible at 1 μg/mL, in a hemolysis study, for intravenous administration. In addition, a formulation containing the highest concentration of pullulan was tested against C6 cell line and demonstrated significant activity, and did not reduce fibroblasts viability. Thus, pullulan can be considered an interesting excipient to prepare nanostructured systems and nanoemulsion formulations can be considered promising alternatives for the treatment of glioma.

  4. Optimization of ultrasonic emulsification conditions for the production of orange peel essential oil nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashtjin, Adel Mirmajidi; Abbasi, Soleiman

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of emulsifying conditions on some physical and rheological properties of orange peel essential oil (OPEO) in water nanoemulsions. In this regard, using the response surface methodology, the influence of ultrasonication conditions including sonication amplitude (70-100 %), sonication time (90-150 s) and process temperature (5-45 °C) on the mean droplets diameter (Z-average value), polydispersity index (PDI), and viscosity of the OPEO nanoemulsions was evaluated. In addition, the flow behavior and stability of selected nanoemulsions was evaluated during storage (up to 3 months) at different temperatures (5, 25 and 45 °C). Based on the results of the optimization, the optimum conditions for producing OPEO nanoemulsions (Z-average value 18.16 nm) were determined as 94 % (sonication amplitude), 138 s (sonication time) and 37 °C (process temperature). Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed high coefficients of determination values (R (2) > 0.95) for the response surface models of the energy input and Z-average. In addition, the flow behavior of produced nanoemulsions was Newtonian, and the effect of time and storage temperature as well as their interactions on the Z-average value was highly significant (P < 0.0001).

  5. Multiple spectroscopic studies of the structural conformational changes of human serum albumin—Essential oil based nanoemulsions conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekar, Gajalakshmi; Sugumar, Saranya; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan, E-mail: nchandra40@hotmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Nanoemulsions have numerous biomedical applications. For the first time, we have investigated the effects of orange and eucalyptus essential oil based nanoemulsions towards the structural aspect of human serum albumin (HSA). Quenching effect of nanoemulsion against the intrinsic fluorescence potential of tryptophan and tyrosine residues were evidenced from the fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Static quenching mechanism was found to lead the binding of HSA–nanoemulsion systems. Synchronous and three dimensional spectroscopic studies have revealed the possible changes to the aromatic environment of HSA by the nanoemulsion. UV–Visible spectroscopic studies have confirmed the existence of the ground state complex formation between HSA and the surface of nanoemulsions by exhibiting the hyper-chromic effect in a concentration dependant manner. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the slight alteration in the Amide I, II and III bands of HSA after interaction. FT-Raman spectroscopy showed the decrease in the Raman intensity of the aromatic amino acid residues and shift in the amide bands of HSA upon binding with the nanoemulsion. Dichoric band obtained from the far UV-CD spectra at 208 and 222 nm of HSA showed the corresponding decrease in the alpha-helical contents upon interaction with nanoemulsions. Near UV-CD spectra also showed the prominent changes in the aromatic positions of the amino acid residues of HSA on binding with nanoemulsions. The above study has extrapolated the side effect analysis of the nanoemulsions in pharmaceutical applications in vitro in reference to their interaction with serum proteins. - Highlights: • Orange and eucalyptus oil based nanoemulsions were formulated and characterized. • UV–Visible spectroscopy confirmed the ground state complex formation. • Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the molecular conformational changes. • FTIR spectroscopy deep-rooted the alteration in the amide bands of HSA. • FT-Raman spectroscopy established

  6. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of nanoemulsions containing Eucalyptus globulus oil against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatrin, Priscilla Maciel; Verdi, Camila Marina; Ebling de Souza, Márcia; Nunes de Godoi, Samantha; Klein, Bruna; Gundel, Andre; Wagner, Roger; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Vianna Santos, Roberto Christ

    2017-09-29

    Candida species are the main responsible microorganisms for causing fungal infections worldwide, and Candida albicans is most frequently associated with infectious processes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium commonly found in immunocompromised patients. The infection persistence caused by these microorganisms is often related to antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. In this context, the objective of the present study was to prepare and characterize nanoemulsions containing Eucalyptus globulus oil and to verify its antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities against P. aeruginosa and Candida spp. The nanoemulsions had a size of approximately 76 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.22, a zeta potential of - 9,42 mV and a pH of approximately 5.0. The E. globulus oil was characterized by gas chromatography, being possible to observe its main components, such as 1-8-Cineol (75.8%), p- Cymene (7.5%), α-Pinene (7.4%) and Limonene (6.4%). The antimicrobial activity of the nanoemulsion was determined from the macrodilution tests and the cell viability curve, where the minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.7 mg/mL for C. albicans and 1.4 mg/mL for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata were obtained. However, the nanoemulsions did not present antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, since it contains only 5% of the oil, being ineffective for this microorganism. The nanoencapsulated oil action against the formed biofilm was evaluated by atomic force microscopy and calcofluor staining, and the nanoemulsion was more efficient for two of the three Candida species when compared to free oil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of a nanoemulsion of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas L. Duarte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising area for innovative products, including insecticides. Dengue is a tropical disease which is considered a critical health problem in developing countries, due to negative impacts to the environment caused by synthetic chemicals used for vector control (Aedes aegypti. Thus, developing of natural products based insecticidal are considered very promising. On this context, the aim of the present study was to obtain an O/W nanoemulsion containing Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae, essential oil and evaluate its larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. Low energy method was employed, allowing achievement of small droplets. The nanoemulsion also presented low polydispersity and mean droplet below 200 nm, even after 30 days of storage. Potential mortality levels were observed after 24 h (80 ± 10% and 48 h (90 ± 10% in A. aegypti larvae at final concentration of 250 ppm, related to R. officinalis essential oil. This study contributes to nanobiotechnology of natural products, presenting a potential larvicidal nanoemulsion prepared with R. officinalis essential oil. Moreover, nanoemulsion production involved a non-heating procedure, describing easy technique which may be useful for integrative control programs.

  8. The use of Brazilian vegetable oils in nanoemulsions: an update on preparation and biological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Bajerski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vegetable oils present important pharmacological properties, which gained ground in the pharmaceutical field. Its encapsulation in nanoemulsions is considered a promising strategy to facilitate the applicability of these natural compounds and to potentiate the actions. These formulations offer several advantages for topical and systemic delivery of cosmetic and pharmaceutical agents including controlled droplet size, protection of the vegetable oil to photo, thermal and volatilization instability and ability to dissolve and stabilize lipophilic drugs. For these reasons, the aim of this review is to report on some characteristics, preparation methods, applications and especially analyze recent research available in the literature concerning the use of vegetable oils with therapeutic characteristics as lipid core in nanoemulsions, specially from Brazilian flora, such as babassu (Orbignya oleifera, aroeira (Schinus molle L., andiroba (Carapa guaianiensis, casca-de-anta (Drimys brasiliensis Miers, sucupira (Pterodon emarginatus Vogel and carqueja doce (Stenachaenium megapotamicum oils.

  9. Eugenol oil nanoemulsion: antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and phytotoxicity on cottonseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2015-02-01

    The current research deals with the formulation and characterization of bio-based oil-in-water nanoemulsion. The formulated eugenol oil nanoemulsion was characterized by dynamic light scattering, stability test, transmission electron microscopy and thin layer chromatography. The nanoemulsion droplets were found to have a Z-average diameter of 80 nm and TEM study reveals the spherical shape of eugenol oil nanoemulsion (EON). The size of the nanoemulsion was found to be physically stable up to more than 1-month when it was kept at room temperature (25 °C). The TEM micrograph showed that the EON was spherical in shape and moderately mono or di-dispersed and was in the range of 50-110 nm. Three concentrations of the nanoformulation were used to evalute the anti-fusarium activity both in vitro and in vivo experiments. SDS-PAGE results of total protein from the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) isolate before and after treatment with eugenol oil nanoemulsion indicate that the content of extra cellular soluble small molecular proteins decreased significantly in EON-treated fungus. Light micrographs of mycelia and spores treated with EON showed the disruption of the fungal structures. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Fusarium wilt incidence indicated highly significant ( p = 0.000) effects of concentration, genotype, and their interaction. The difference in wilt incidence between concentrations and control was not the same for each genotype, that is, the genotypes responded differently to concentrations. Effects of three EON concentration on germination percentage, and radicle length, were determined in the laboratory. One very interesting finding in the current study is that cotton genotypes was the most important factors in determining wilt incidence as it accounted for 93.18 % of the explained (model) variation. In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential phytotoxic effect of three EON concentrations. Concentration, genotype and

  10. Bactericidal action mechanism of negatively charged food grade clove oil nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hamid; Liu, Fei; Hategekimana, Joseph; Sharif, Hafiz Rizwan; Qi, Jing; Ali, Barkat; Bian, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Jianguo; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhong, Fang

    2016-04-15

    Clove oil (CO) anionic nanoemulsions were prepared with varying ratios of CO to canola oil (CA), emulsified and stabilized with purity gum ultra (PGU), a newly developed succinylated waxy maize starch. Interfacial tension measurements showed that CO acted as a co-surfactant and there was a gradual decrease in interfacial tension which favored the formation of small droplet sizes on homogenization until a critical limit (5:5% v/v CO:CA) was reached. Antimicrobial activity of the negatively charged CO nanoemulsion was determined against Gram positive GPB (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative GNB (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a time kill dynamic method. Negatively charged PGU emulsified CO nanoemulsion showed prolonged antibacterial activities against Gram positive bacterial strains. We concluded that negatively charged CO nanoemulsion droplets self-assemble with GPB cell membrane, and facilitated interaction with cellular components of bacteria. Moreover, no electrostatic interaction existed between negatively charged droplets and the GPB membrane.

  11. Eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion-impregnated chitosan film: antibacterial effects against a clinical pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumar S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Saranya Sugumar, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore, India Abstract: Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus nanoemulsion was formulated using low- and high-energy emulsification methods. Development of nanoemulsion was optimized for system parameters such as emulsifier type, emulsifier concentration, and emulsification methods to obtain a lower droplet size with greater stability. The minimized droplet diameter was achieved using the high-energy method of ultrasonication. Tween 80 was more effective in reducing droplet size and emulsion appearance when compared to Tween 20. Stable nanoemulsion was formulated with Tween 80 as a surfactant, and the particle size was found to be 9.4 nm (1:2 v/v. The eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was impregnated into chitosan (1% as a biopolymer in varying concentrations. Further, the film was characterized by moisture content, microscopic study, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also, the film with and without nanoemulsion was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus. The nanoemulsion-impregnated chitosan film showed higher antibacterial activity than chitosan film. These results support the inclusion of nanoemulsion-impregnated chitosan film in wound management studies. Keywords: essential oil, emulsion, biopolymer, impregnation, thin film, wound isolate

  12. Study of content of oil phase in the nanoemulsion oil/water during the oil demulsification; Aplicacao de nanoemulsoes com diferentes teores de fase oleosa no processo de desemulsificacao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Veronica B.; Almeida, Sarah M. de; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano. Lab. de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo], e-mails: veronicabs@ima.ufrj.br, celias@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Oil-in-water nano emulsions are being developed to break up crude oil emulsions. In this initial study, the nanoemulsions were prepared the nonionic ethoxylated polymeric surfactants lauryl ether (Ultrol L100) - and the solvent xylene as the oil phase. The nanoemulsions obtained with 5,7 and 10%wt of the oil phase were evaluated for their efficiency in demulsifying oil emulsions by means of gravitational separation tests (bottle tests). For purposes of comparison, the efficiency was evaluated of aqueous solution of the pure surfactant and solvent xylene in the same concentrations used to prepare the nanoemulsions. The results show that the nanoemulsions are an alternative to demulsify water-in-oil emulsions with efficiency values of 90-95%. Moreover, was observed the influence the concentration oil phase in the nanoemulsion: the higher the concentration of oil phase, the higher the rate of break up crude oil emulsion. (author)

  13. Statistical Analysis of Optimal Ultrasound Emulsification Parameters in Thistle-Oil Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miastkowska, Małgorzata A; Banach, Marcin; Pulit-Prociak, Jolanta; Sikora, Elżbieta S; Głogowska, Agata; Zielina, Michał

    2017-01-01

    Thistle oil (INCI: Silybum marianum seed oil) is known as an anti-oxidant, moisturizing and skin regenerating cosmetic raw material. Nanoemulsions are a new form of cosmetic product showing very good user properties (ease of spreading over the skin with no greasy feeling). Moreover, due to their structure, they can also transport both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active substances to the skin. The aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of nanoemulsions, based on thistle oil. The non-ionic surfactants polysorbate 80 (PEG-20 sorbitan monooleate), decyl glucoside, and a polyglyceryl-4 ester blend were applied to stabilize the nanosystems. All formulations were obtained by a high energy method, using an ultrasonic device (Labsonic U, an ultrasound homogenizer). Variations in the emulsification parameters were tested, including surfactants concentration, pre-emulsification time, ultrasound power and sonication time. On the basis of statistical analysis (experimental design, cluster analysis, classification and regression trees) the best emulsification process parameters were determined. In order to verify the results of statistical analysis, once more an experimental study was conducted. The results obtained confirmed that statistical analysis can be a useful method in determining the conditions for obtaining stable nanoemulsions with desired properties. Formulations obtained with the use of Silybum marianum seed oil were characterized by long-term stability, a low polydispersity index, low viscosity and an average droplet size less than 200 nm.

  14. Synthesis of Oil-Laden Poly(ethylene glycol) Diacrylate Hydrogel Nanocapsules from Double Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengwen; Nowak, Maksymilian; Malo de Molina, Paula; Abramovitch, Michael; Santizo, Katherine; Mitragotri, Samir; Helgeson, Matthew E

    2017-06-20

    Multiple emulsions have received great interest due to their ability to be used as templates for the production of multicompartment particles for a variety of applications. However, scaling these complex droplets to nanoscale dimensions has been a challenge due to limitations on their fabrication methods. Here, we report the development of oil-in-water-in-oil (O1/W/O2) double nanoemulsions via a two-step high-energy method and their use as templates for complex nanogels comprised of inner oil droplets encapsulated within a hydrogel matrix. Using a combination of characterization methods, we determine how the properties of the nanogels are controlled by the size, stability, internal morphology, and chemical composition of the nanoemulsion templates from which they are formed. This allows for identification of compositional and emulsification parameters that can be used to optimize the size and oil encapsulation efficiency of the nanogels. Our templating method produces oil-laden nanogels with high oil encapsulation efficiencies and average diameters of 200-300 nm. In addition, we demonstrate the versatility of the system by varying the types of inner oil, the hydrogel chemistry, the amount of inner oil, and the hydrogel network cross-link density. These nontoxic oil-laden nanogels have potential applications in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic formulations.

  15. Nanoemulsions produced by varying the type of emulsifier and oil content: Effect of formulation and process parameters on the characteristics and physical stability

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Sanela M.; Cekić Nebojša D.; Isailović Tanja M.; Milić Jela R.; Vuleta Gordana M.; Lazić Miodrag L.; Savić Snežana D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized with a novel natural alkyl polyglucoside surfactant and to compare them with corresponding lecithin/polysorbate 80 - based nanoemulsions in terms of physicochemical properties and physical stability. Nanoemulsions were prepared by high pressure homogenization, using 20, 30 and 40% (w/w) medium chain triglyceride as oil phase, and 4, 6 and 8% (w/w) lecithin/polysorbate 80 mixtu...

  16. Photodynamic therapy mediated by acai oil (Euterpe oleracea Martius) in nanoemulsion: A potential treatment for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Fuentes, Victoria; Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Silva, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Fascineli, Maria Luiza; de Souza, Paulo; Faria, Fernando; Degterev, Igor Anatolievich; Rodriguez, Anselmo; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Lucci, Carolina Madeira; Escobar, Patricia; Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer, responsible for >80% of deaths. Standard treatments for late-stage melanoma usually present poor results, leading to life-threatening side effects and low overall survival. Thus, it is necessary to rethink treatment strategies and design new tools for the treatment of this disease. On that ground, we hereby report the use of acai oil in nanoemulsion (NanoA) as a novel photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) used to treat melanoma in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. NIH/3T3 normal cells and B16F10 melanoma cell lines were treated with PDT and presented 85% cell death for melanoma cells, while maintaining high viability in normal cells. Flow cytometry indicated that cell death occurred by late apoptosis/necrosis. Tumor bearing C57BL/6 mice treated five times with PDT using acai oil in nanoemulsion showed tumor volume reduction of 82% in comparison to control/tumor group. Necrotic tissue per tumor area reached its highest value in PDT-treated mice, supporting PDT efficacy. Overall, acai oil in nanoemulsion was an effective photosensitizer, representing a promising source of new photosensitizing molecules for PDT treatment of melanoma, a tumor with an inherent tendency to be refractory for this type of therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Trypanocidal activity of the essential oils in their conventional and nanoemulsion forms: in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Oliveira, Camila B; Zimmermann, Carine E P; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Santos, Roberto C V; Rech, Virginia C; Tonin, Alexandre A; Giongo, Janice L; Mattos, Cristiane B; Koester, Letícia; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility in vitro of Trypanosoma evansi to the essential oils of andiroba (Carapa guaianensis) and aroeira (Schinus molle), in their conventional and nanostructured forms. For that, pure oils at concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% were used. A negative control (untreated) and a positive control (diminazene aceturate 0.5%) were used as comparative parameters. Later, the same tests were performed, using nanoemulsions oils at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0%. The tests were carried out in triplicates and the numbers of parasites were quantified on 1, 3 and 6 h from onset of the study. A dose-dependent reduction in the number of parasites to the forms of two oils tested was observed after 1 h. The concentration of parasites was significantly reduced at low concentrations after 3 h, as well as at 6 h no alive parasites were observed for the essential oils tested. Ours findings indicate, for the first time, that oils of andiroba and aroeira (in their conventional and nanoemulsion forms) have high activity against T. evansi in vitro, leading to the suggestion that these oils may be applied as an alternative treatment for this disease.

  18. Development and Evaluation of Solbrax-Water Nanoemulsions for Removal of Oil from Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila F. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, surfactants have been used to clean up soils and aquifers contaminated by petroleum and petroleum derivatives. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate nanoemulsions for remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum, by using a commercial solvent Solbrax. The nanoemulsions were prepared by the phase inversion temperature (PIT method, using oil phase Solbrax (a solvent extracted from naphtha with low aromatics content and a nonionic ethoxylated lauryl ether surfactant. The surfactant concentrations were varied from 10 to 12 wt% and the oil phase was varied from 5 to 20 wt%. A 23 factorial experimental design with center point run was used to evaluate the soil washing process, varying time, temperature, and shear rate of the system. The results show that the most efficient system (with 90% efficiency was that using the nanoemulsion containing 5 wt% of Solbrax and 12 wt% of surfactant after four hours of washing, on 240 rotation·min−1 of shear rate and at a temperature of 318 K.

  19. Thermal Degradation and Isomerization of β-Carotene in Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Supplemented with Natural Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-03-09

    The goal of this study was to see the impact on the retention and isomerization of encapsulated β-carotene (BC) in nanoemulsions fortified with natural antioxidants (α-tocopherol (AT) and l-ascorbic acid (AA)). The physical stability of nanoemulsion, oxidative stability, and isomerization of all-trans-β-carotene (BC) in oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions were determined in the presence or absence of natural antioxidants at 25 and 50 °C at certain intervals of time by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sodium caseinate was used as the emulsifier, and corn oil (CO) was more protective than medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and used for isomerization studies. Mean diameters of control (without antioxidants) and AA- and AT-fortified particles were similar. Mean particle diameter of nanoemulsions increased from 10 to 25 nm at 25 °C and from 40 to 50 nm at 50 °C during 30 days of storage. The isomerization from all-trans-BC to cis-BC isomers was inhibited by antioxidants. The isomerization rates were in the following order: 13-cis-BC > 15-cis-BC > 9-cis-BC. AT had better antioxidant activities than AA in inhibiting BC degradation in O/W nanoemulsions. The results indicated that BC encapsulated in nanoemulsions supplemented with antioxidants could significantly improve BC's chemical stability.

  20. Physicochemical Property and Oxidative Stability of Whey Protein Concentrate Multiple Nanoemulsion Containing Fish Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Young; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Lee, Mee-Ryung; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Won-Jae

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to produce whey protein concentrate (WPC) multiple nanoemulsion (MNE) and to study how whey protein concentration level and antioxidant type affected the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of fish oil in MNE. The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of MNE were investigated by using transmission electron microscopy and particle size analyzer, respectively. The oxidative stability of fish oil in MNEs was assessed by measuring peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value, and volatile compounds. The spherical forms of emulsions with size ranging from 190 to 210 nm were observed indicating the successful production of MNE. Compared with free fish oil, fish oil in MNE exhibited lower PV, p-anisidine value, and formation of maker of oxidation of fish oil indicating the oxidative stability of fish oil in MNE was enhanced. PV, p-anisidine value, and makers of oxidation of fish oil were decreased with increased WPC concentration level. The combined use of Vitamin C and E in MNE resulted in a reduction in PV and p-anisidine value, and development of maker of oxidation. In conclusion, WPC concentration level and antioxidant type are key factors affecting the droplet size of MNE and oxidative stability of fish oil.

  1. Plum coatings of lemongrass oil-incorporating carnauba wax-based nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hah; Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jung Eun; Song, Kyung Bin; Lee, Youn Suk; Chung, Dae Sung; Min, Sea C

    2013-10-01

    Nanoemulsions containing lemongrass oil (LO) were developed for coating plums and the effects of the nanoemulsion coatings on the microbial safety and physicochemical storage qualities of plums during storage at 4 and 25 °C were investigated. The emulsions used for coating were produced by mixing a carnauba wax-based solution (18%, w/w) with LO at various concentrations (0.5% to 4.0%, w/w) using dynamic high pressure processing at 172 MPa. The coatings were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and their ability to preserve various physicochemical qualities of plums. Uniform and continuous coatings on plums, formed with stable emulsions, initially inhibited S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 by 0.2 to 2.8 and 0.8 to 2.7 log CFU/g, respectively, depending on the concentration of LO and the sequence of coating. The coatings did not significantly alter the flavor, fracturability, or glossiness of the plums. The antimicrobial effects of the coatings against S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were demonstrated during storage at 4 and 25 °C. The coatings reduced weight loss and ethylene production by approximately 2 to 3 and 1.4 to 4.0 fold, respectively, and also retarded the changes in lightness and the concentration of phenolic compounds in plums during storage. The firmness of coated plums was generally higher than uncoated plums when stored at 4 °C and plum respiration rates were reduced during storage. Coatings containing nanoemulsions of LO have the potential to inhibit Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 contamination of plums and may extend plum shelf life.

  2. New Edible Bionanocomposite Prepared by Pectin and Clove Essential Oil Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ronaldo S; Mattoso, Luiz H C; de Moura, Márcia Regina

    2016-06-01

    Nanocomposites are being extremely investigated to provide packaging with interesting characteristics for packages. Because of essential oils' natural occurrence and antibacterial activity, they are considered as an alternative for synthetic additives in the food industry. In this paper, we studied an edible bionanocomposite film made up of pectin and clove essential oil nanoemulsion for application as edible package. Mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and antibacterial activity were analyzed. From mechanical and WVP analyses, we noticed an interesting improvement in film properties. In the antibacterial activity test, disk diffusion was used to assess the inhibition zones of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. With these results, we concluded that the most interesting results were promoted by smaller nanodroplets (diameter of approximately 142 nm).

  3. Hydrogels Containing Nanocapsules and Nanoemulsions of Tea Tree Oil Provide Antiedematogenic Effect and Improved Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Fernanda C; De Lima, Julia A; Da Silva, Cássia R; Benvegnú, Dalila; Ferreira, Juliano; Burger, Marilise E; Beck, Ruy C R; Rolim, Clarice M B; Rocha, Maria Isabel U M; Da Veiga, Marcelo L; Da Silva, Cristiane de B

    2015-01-01

    In previous works, we developed nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing the tea tree oil. The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize hydrogels containing these nanocarriers, and to evaluate their in vivo efficacy in protecting skin damage induced by UVB and cutaneous wound healing. Hydrogels were prepared using Carbopol Ultrez and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated: macroscopic analysis, pH, spreadability and rheological properties. The in vivo antiedematogenic effect was evaluated by ear thickness measurement after UVB-irradiation. In order to evaluate healing action of hydrogels, we investigated the regression of the cutaneous lesion in rats. Hydrogels showed homogeneous aspect and pH values between 5.6-5.8 and a non-Newtonian behavior. The presence of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions in hydrogels did not change their spreadability profile. The inclusion of tea tree oil in the nanocapsules and nanoemulsions allowed reducing the edema induced by UVB exposure. Hydrogel containing nanocapsules presented a higher reduction of the wound area compared to the hydrogel containing nanoemulsions and hydrogel containing allantoin. This study shows the feasibility of obtained dermatological formulations containing the tea tree oil associated in nanostructured systems. These formulations represent a promising approach to topical treatment of inflammatory disorders and wound healing.

  4. Effect of salts on the phase behavior and the stability of nanoemulsions with rapeseed oil and an extended surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Angelika; Tiddy, Gordon J T; Solans, Conxita; Harrar, Agnes; Touraud, Didier; Kunz, Werner

    2012-06-05

    For many decades, the solubilization of long-chain triglycerides in water has been a challenge. A new class of amphiphiles has been created to overcome this solubilization problem. The so-called "extended" surfactants contain a hydrophilic-lipophilic linker to reduce the contrast between the surfactant-water and surfactant-oil interfaces. In the present contribution, the effects of different anions and cations on the phase behavior of a mixture containing an extended surfactant (X-AES), a hydrotrope (sodium xylene sulfonate, SXS), water, and rapeseed oil were determined as a function of temperature. Nanoemulsions were obtained and characterized by conductivity measurements, light scattering, and optical microscopy. All salting-out salts show a transition from a clear region (O/W nanoemulsion), to a lamellar liquid crystalline phase region, a clear phase (bicontinuous L(3)), and again to a lamellar liquid crystalline phase region with increasing temperature. For the phase diagrams with NaSCN and Na(2)SO(4), only one clear region (O/W nanoemulsion) was observed, which turns into a lamellar phase region at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, the stability of the nanoemulsions was investigated by time-dependent measurements: the visual observation of phase separation, droplet size by dynamic light scattering (DLS), and optical microscopy. The mechanism of the different phase transitions is also discussed.

  5. Protection against oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and preliminary photosafety assessment of Punica granatum seed oil nanoemulsions entrapping polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarin, Thaisa; Mitjans, Montserrat; Lemos-Senna, Elenara; Vinardell, Maria Pilar

    2015-12-25

    The main purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of nanoemulsion entrapping pomegranate peel polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) prepared from pomegranate seed oil and medium chain triglyceride to protect human erythrocyte membrane from oxidative damage and to assess preliminary in vitro photosafety. In order to evaluate the phototoxic effect of nanoemulsions, human red blood cells (RBCs) are used as a biological model and the rate of haemolysis and photohaemolysis (5 J cm(-2) UVA) is assessed in vitro. The level of protection against oxidative damage caused by the peroxyl radical generator AAPH in human RBCs as well as its effects on bilayer membrane characteristics such as fluidity, protein profile and RBCs morphology are determined. EAF-loaded nanoemulsions do not promote haemolysis or photohaemolysis. Anisotropy measurements show that nanoemulsions significantly retrain the increase in membrane fluidity caused by AAPH. SDS-PAGE analysis reveals that AAPH induced degradation of membrane proteins, but that nanoemulsions reduce the extension of degradation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations corroborate the interaction between AAPH, nanoemulsions and the RBC membrane bilayer. Our work demonstrates that Punica granatum nanoemulsions are photosafe and protect RBCs against oxidative damage and possible disturbance of the lipid bilayer of biomembranes. Moreover it suggests that these nanoemulsions could be promising new topical products to reduce the effects of sunlight on skin.

  6. Andiroba Oil (Carapa guianensis Aublet Nanoemulsions: Development and Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, and Hematotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Suely Rodrigues Milhomem-Paixão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Andiroba oil (AO is obtained from an Amazonian plant and is used in traditional medicine. We carried out a comparative study to test the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and hematotoxicity of the oil and its nanoemulsion (AN in vitro (fibroblasts, lineage NIH/3T3 and in vivo (Swiss mice. The AN was characterized by DLS/Zeta, and its stability was investigated for 120 days. The biological activity of AN was assessed in vitro by MTT test and cell morphology analyses and in vivo by micronucleus, comet, and hematotoxicity tests. The AN presented a hydrodynamic diameter (Hd of 142.5±3.0 and PDI of 0.272±0.007 and good stability at room temperature. The MTT test evidenced the cytotoxicity of AO and of AN only at their highest concentrations, but AN showed lower cytotoxicity than AO. A lower cytotoxicity of AN, when compared to AO, is in fact an interesting data suggesting that during therapeutic application there will be a lower impact in the cell viability of healthy cells. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and hematotoxicity were not observed in vivo. These tests on the biological and toxicological effects of andiroba oil and nanostructured oil are still initial ones but will give a direction to future application in cosmetics and/or the development of new phytotherapics.

  7. Optimization of isothermal low-energy nanoemulsion formation: hydrocarbon oil, non-ionic surfactant, and water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaiko, Jennifer; McClements, David Julian

    2014-07-01

    Nanoemulsions can be fabricated using either high-energy or low-energy methods, with the latter being advantageous because of ease of implementation, lower equipment and operation costs, and higher energy efficiency. In this study, isothermal low-energy methods were used to spontaneously produce nanoemulsions using a model system consisting of oil (hexadecane), non-ionic surfactant (Brij 30) and water. Rate and order of addition of surfactant, oil and water into the final mixture were investigated to identify optimal conditions for producing small droplets. The emulsion phase inversion (EPI) and spontaneous emulsion (SE) methods were found to be the most successful, which both require the surfactant to be mixed with the oil phase prior to production. Order of addition and surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR) influenced the particle size distribution, while addition rate and stirring speed had a minimal effect. Emulsion stability was strongly influenced by storage temperature, with droplet size increasing rapidly at higher temperatures, which was attributed to coalescence near the phase inversion temperature. Nanoemulsions with a mean particle diameter of approximately 60 nm could be produced using both EPI and SE methods at a final composition of 5% hexadecane and 1.9% Brij 30, and were relatively stable to droplet growth at temperatures <25 °C.

  8. Optimization on the Stability of Linseed Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Generated by Ultrasonic Emulsification Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Hosseini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-in-water (O/W nanoemulsions formed from bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, are commercially attractive because of the potential health benefits associated with their consumption. Emulsions with a mean droplet size as small as 72±5.14 nm and viscosity 3.84±0.26 mPa·s were achieved using a mixture of 10:100 (V/V linseed oil and water in the presence of surfactants i.e. Tween 80 and Span 60 with the HLB of 11.7. The zeta potential of the generated nanoemulsion was approximately -18 mV at its original pH of 5.9. Results of this study indicated that desired zeta potential might be achieved by changing the pH of final emulsion.

  9. Tea tree oil nanoemulsions for inhalation therapies of bacterial and fungal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Lifei; Liu, Boming; Du, Lina; Jia, Xiaodong; Han, Li; Jin, Yiguang

    2016-05-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a natural essential oil with strong antimicrobial efficacy and little drug resistance. However, the biomedical applications of TTO are limited due to its hydrophobicity and formulation problems. Here, we prepared an inhalable TTO nanoemulsion (nanoTTO) for local therapies of bacterial and fungal pneumonia. The optimal formulation of nanoTTOs consisted of TTO/Cremophor EL/water with a mean size of 12.5nm. The nanoTTOs showed strong in vitro antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. After inhalation to the lung, the nanoTTOs had higher anti-fungal effect than fluconazole on the fungal pneumonia rat models with reduced lung injury, highly microbial clearance, blocking of leukocyte recruitment, and decrease of pro-inflammatory mediators. In the case of rat bacterial pneumonia, the nanoTTOs showed slightly lower therapeutic efficacy than penicillin though at a much lower dose. Taken together, our results show that the inhalable nanoTTOs are promising nanomedicines for local therapies of fungal and bacterial pneumonia with no obvious adverse events.

  10. Development and evaluation of tocopherol-rich argan oil-based nanoemulsions as vehicles possessing anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Melanie; Nayel, Amy; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, diverse nanoemulsion vehicles (NEs) have been developed with vast potential for improving therapeutic index of clinically approved and experimental drugs. Using oils rich in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), several promising nanoemulsion formulations have been developed recently for oral and systemic administration. The aim of our present work is to successfully develop and characterize optimized nanoemulsion platform, using the PUFA-rich argan oil that contain several important anti-inflammatory and antimitotic natural components. Using various emulsifying mixtures of polyethoxylated solutol HS-15 and polyethyleneglucol Vitamin E succinyl ester (TPGS), to form different NEs showing extended shelf-life stability. The physicochemical properties of prototype argan NEs were analyzed and utilizing a 32 full factorial design, followed by biocompatibility screen, using normal vascular myocytes and areolar fibroblasts. While 90-180 day stability of NEs correlated with TPGS:solutol surfactant blend ratios, adverse effects on integrity of test cultures were only noted at high TPGS content in the emulsifier system, exceeding 80%. Finally, the anti-proliferative efficacy of selected stable and acceptably biocompatible nanoscale TPGS-emulsified argan oil formulations was investigated using murine breast and colon carcinoma cells. The IC50 values of the combination of argan oil and TPGS (40-80% wt of emulsifiers) were 5-9 folds lower compared to TPGS-free and argan-oil free control NEs. Argan oil NE, stabilized with Vitamin E TPGS and solutol HS mixtures, demonstrated significant pro-apoptotic effect on both test cancer cell lines, indicating built-in anticancer properties for such NE platform, potentially enhancing overall antineoplastic effects of incorporated candidate chemotherapeutic agents.

  11. Curcumin and linseed oil co-delivered in phospholipid nanoemulsions enhances the levels of docosahexaenoic acid in serum and tissue lipids of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugasini, D; Lokesh, B R

    2017-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) primarily found in marine fishes. The diets of vegetarian population do not contain preformed DHA, but they can derive it from shorter chain α-linolenic acid (ALA) found in plant oils. However, the conversion efficiency of ALA to DHA is minimal in human adults. This may cause insufficiency of DHA in the vegetarian population. Curcumin, diferuloyl methane found in the spice turmeric, has the potential to increase the formation of DHA from ALA by activating the enzymes FADS2 and elongase 2. The present study was designed to prepare curcumin nanoemulsion using phospholipid core material (Lipoid™) and exploring the possibility of enhancing its bioavailability and its impact on DHA levels in rats. Curcumin was dissolved in coconut oil (CNO, MCFA rich), Sunflower oil (SNO, n-6 PUFA rich) or Linseed oil (LSO, n-3 PUFA rich) and nanoemulsions were prepared after mixing with Lipoid™ using high pressure homogenizer. The nanoemulsions were fed to weaning rats for 60 days along with AIN-93 diets. Rats fed nanoemulsion containing curcumin in LSO showed high levels of curcumin in serum liver, heart and brain. Significant increase in DHA levels of serum and tissue lipids were observed in rats given LSO with curcumin in nanoemulsions. Therefore, supplementation of diets with ALA rich LSO and curcumin could increase DHA concentrations in serum, liver, heart and brain lipids which have implications for meeting the DHA requirements of vegetarian populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 牛至油纳米乳的制备及其稳定性研究%Preparation and Stability Evaluation of Origano Oil Nanoemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文娟; 吴旭锦; 尹宝英; 熊忙利; 朱小甫

    2015-01-01

    The origano oil nanoemulsion that was prepared with oregano, Tween-80, ethanol and water (mass ratio 7.5:3:1:2.5:8) was oil-in-water. The TEM showed that drops of origano oil nanoemulsion were spheroidal and without adhesion to each other. The average droplet size was 16.4 nm with PDI at 0.062. The origano oil nanoemulsion was still clarity after lighttest, acceleration test and long-term test. The tests showed a fine stability of the origano oil nanoemulsion.%将牛至油、吐温-80、无水乙醇、液体石蜡和水按照7.5:3:1:2.5:8的质量比制备的牛至油纳米乳为水包油型,在透射电镜下呈圆球形,无粘连,其平均粒径为16.4nm,多分散系数(PDI)为0.062。在光照试验、加速试验和长期试验中,牛至油纳米乳均保持澄清透明。该制剂制备工艺简单,有优良的稳定性。

  13. Enhancement of the antimicrobial properties of bacteriophage-K via stabilization using oil-in-water nano-emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Patricia Perez; Alves, Diana R; Enright, Mark C; Bean, Jessica E; Gaudion, Alison; Jenkins, A T A; Young, Amber E R; Arnot, Tom C

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophage therapy is a promising new treatment that may help overcome the threat posed by antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria, which are increasingly identified in hospitalized patients. The development of biocompatible and sustainable vehicles for incorporation of viable bacterial viruses into a wound dressing is a promising alternative. This article evaluates the antimicrobial efficacy of Bacteriophage K against Staphylococcus aureus over time, when stabilized and delivered via an oil-in-water nano-emulsion. Nano-emulsions were formulated via thermal phase inversion emulsification, and then bacterial growth was challenged with either native emulsion, or emulsion combined with Bacteriophage K. Bacteriophage infectivity, and the influence of storage time of the preparation, were assessed by turbidity measurements of bacterial samples. Newly prepared Bacteriophage K/nano-emulsion formulations have greater antimicrobial activity than freely suspended bacteriophage. The phage-loaded emulsions caused rapid and complete bacterial death of three different strains of S. aureus. The same effect was observed for preparations that were either stored at room temperature (18-20°C), or chilled at 4°C, for up to 10 days of storage. A response surface design of experiments was used to gain insight on the relative effects of the emulsion formulation on bacterial growth and phage lytic activity. More diluted emulsions had a less significant effect on bacterial growth, and diluted bacteriophage-emulsion preparations yielded greater antibacterial activity. The enhancement of bacteriophage activity when delivered via nano-emulsions is yet to be reported. This prompts further investigation into the use of these formulations for the development of novel anti-microbial wound management strategies. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Nanoemulsions produced with varied type of emulsifier and oil content: An influence of formulation and process parameters on the characteristics and physical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Sanela M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to prepare oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized with a novel natural alkyl polyglucoside surfactant and to compare them with corresponding lecithin/polysorbate 80 - based nanoemulsions in terms of physicochemical properties and physical stability. Nanoemulsions were prepared by high pressure homogenization, using 20, 30 and 40% (w/w medium chain triglyceride as oil phase, and 4, 6 and 8% (w/w lecithin/polysorbate 80 mixture (1/1 or caprylyl/capryl glucoside as emulsifiers. The influence of emulsifier type, emulsifier concentration and oil content was investigated with respect to changes in particle size, particle size distribution, surface charge and physical stability. The influence of production parameters (number of homogenization cycles, type of homogenization process, homogenization pressure on particle size was also investigated. Analysis was performed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction, zeta potential, pH and electrical conductivity measurements. All formulations produced revealed a small droplet size ranging from 147 to 228 nm and a very narrow size distribution (polydispersity index range 0,072-0,124. Zeta potentials were about -20 mV and -50 mV for nanoemulsions stabilized with lecithin/polysorbate 80 and caprylyl/capryl glucoside, respectively. The results obtained during the stability studies (6 months at 25°C and 1 month at 40°C indicated that nanoemulsion stability was influenced by their composition. Acquired results also suggested the most appropriate production parameters: 9 homogenization cycles, homogenization pressure of 500 bar and discontinuous process of homogenization.

  15. In Vitro Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) in Its Free Oil and Nanoemulsion Formulations Against Pythium insidiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Silveira Valente, Júlia; de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; Brasil, Carolina Litchina; Sagave, Lauren; Flores, Fernanda Cramer; de Bona da Silva, Cristiane; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Pötter, Luciana; Santurio, Janio Morais; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2016-12-01

    Pythium insidiosum is an important aquatic oomycete which can cause pythiosis in both animals and humans. This microorganism shows low susceptibility to antifungal drugs available. This study analyzed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia in its free oil (FO) and nanoemulsion (NE) formulations against Brazilian P. insidiosum isolates. The antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed by the broth microdilution method according to CSLI M38-A2 document adapted to phytopharmaceuticals. Twenty-six P. insidiosum isolates were evaluated, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined at 100 % growth inhibition. Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil or FO was obtained commercially. The NE containing 1 % M. alternifolia essential oil was prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method. All P. insidiosum isolates evaluated showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 531.5 to 2125 μg/mL for the FO formulation; MIC50 and MIC90 showed values between 1062.5 and 2125 μg/mL, respectively. When the NE formulation was evaluated, MIC values ranged from 132.7 to 2125 μg/mL and both MIC50 and MIC90 corresponded to 1062.5 μg/mL. FO and NE formulations of M. alternifolia showed antimicrobial activity against P. insidiosum. This study demonstrated that M. alternifolia oil can be an additional therapy in pythiosis treatment; however, further studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of the plant essential oils in the treatment of clinical pythiosis.

  16. Comparative biodistribution and safety profiling of olmesartan medoxomil oil-in-water oral nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorain, Bapi; Choudhury, Hira; Tekade, Rakesh Kumar; Karan, Saumen; Jaisankar, P; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Poor aqueous solubility and unfavourable de-esterification of olmesartan medoxomil (a selective angiotensin II receptor blocker), results in low oral bioavailability of less than 26%. Improvement of oral bioavailability with prolonged pharmacodynamics activity of olmesartan in Wistar rats had been approached by nanoemulsification strategy in our previous article [Colloid Surface B, 115, 2014: 286]. In continuation to that work, we herewith report the biodistribution behaviour and 28-day repeated dose sub-chronic toxicity of olmesartan medoxomil nanoemulsion in Wistar rats following oral administration. The levels of olmesartan in collected biological samples were estimated using our validated LC-MS/MS technique. Our biodistribution study showed significantly higher brain concentrations of olmesartan (0.290 ± 0.089 μg/mL, 0.333 ± 0.071 μg/mL and 0.217 ± 0.062 μg/mL at 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0 h post dosing, respectively) when administered orally as nanoemulsion formulation as compared to the aqueous suspension. In addition, the olmesartan nanoemulsion was found to be safe and non-toxic, as it neither produced any lethality nor remarkable haematological, biochemical and structural adverse effects as observed during the 28-days sub-chronic toxicity studies in experimental Wistar rats. It is herewith envisaged that the developed nanoemulsion formulation approach for the delivery of olmesartan medoxomil via oral route can further be explored in memory dysfunction and brain ischemia, for better brain penetration and improved clinical application in stroke patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanoemulsion of orange oil with non ionic surfactant produced emulsion using ultrasonication technique: evaluating against food spoilage yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumar, Saranya; Singh, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, food industries have shown great interest in developing nanoemulsion (NE) using essential oils (EOs) to prevent food spoilage caused by microorganisms. The hydrophobic properties of EOs have lead to reduced solubilization effect of food, which in turn, created a negative impact on the quality of food and its antimicrobial efficacy. Focusing this issue, we attempted a unique NE preparation using orange oil, Tween 80 (organic phase) and water (aqueous phase) by sonication technique. Based on thermodynamic stability studies, the effective diameter was reported to be in the size range from 20 to 30 nm. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in testing the anti-yeast effect. Their activity was studied in both growth medium and apple juice. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this NE was determined using broth dilution method. At 2 μl/ml, orange oil NE demonstrated inhibition of tested microorganisms. The kinetics of killing curve, have shown that the NE treated cells had lost its viability within 30 min of interaction. Also, SEM image revealed that the treated cells became distorted in comparison to their control cells. NE treated apple juice showed complete loss of viability even on dilution as compared to their controls.

  18. Optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction for analysis of {beta}-caryophyllene in a nanoemulsion dosage form prepared with copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne) oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Daiane de O; Colombo, Mariana; Kelmann, Regina G. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, CEP 90610-000 (Brazil); De Souza, Tatiane P. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Bassani, Valquiria L.; Teixeira, Helder F. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, CEP 90610-000 (Brazil); Veiga, Valdir F. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, UFAM, Av. Gal. Rodrigo Octavio, 6.200 - Japiim, 69.079-000, Manaus - AM (Brazil); Limberger, Renata P. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, CEP 90610-000 (Brazil); and others

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A SPME-CG method is proposed for {beta}-caryophyllene assay in nanoemulsions containing copaiba oil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPME parameters were optimized for efficient {beta}-caryophyllene extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stability-indicating capability and specificity of the method were satisfied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoemulsions partially protected {beta}-caryophyllene under stressing conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed method presents linearity, lows LOD and LOQ, good precision, accuracy and robustness. - Abstract: Recent studies have shown the anti-inflammatory activity of Copaiba oils may be addressed to the high content of {beta}-caryophyllene, the most common sesquiterpene detected, especially in the Copaifera multijuga Hayne species. In the present study, nanoemulsions were proposed as a delivery system for copaiba oil in view to treat locally inflamed skin. This article describes the optimization and validation of a stability-indicating SPME-GC method, for {beta}-caryophyllene analysis in the nanoemulsions produced by high pressure homogenization. SPME methods are performed with PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) fiber (100 {mu}m). Three SPME parameters were evaluated by a three-level-three-factor Box-Behnken factorial design as potentially affecting the technique efficiency. According to the results obtained, the best conditions to extract {beta}-caryophyllene were: (i) sampling temperature of 45 Degree-Sign C, (ii) sampling time of 20 min and (iii) no NaCl addition. Results coming from the forced degradation tests showed a reduction of {beta}-caryophyllene peak area when both caryophyllene methanolic solution and nanoemulsions were exposed to acid hydrolysis, UV-A irradiation, oxidative (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and thermolitic (60 Degree-Sign C) conditions. Such reduction occurred in lower extent in the nanoemulsions, suggesting a protective effect of the formulation to {beta

  19. Photoprotection by Punica granatum seed oil nanoemulsion entrapping polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction against UVB-induced DNA damage in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarin, Thaisa; Mitjans, Montserrat; Ramos, David; Lemos-Senna, Elenara; Vinardell, Maria Pilar

    2015-12-01

    There has been an increase in the use of botanicals as skin photoprotective agents. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is well known for its high concentration of polyphenolic compounds and for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to analyze the photoprotection provided by P. granatum seed oil nanoemulsion entrapping the polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction against UVB-induced DNA damage in the keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. For this purpose, HaCaT cells were pretreated for 1h with nanoemulsions in a serum-free medium and then irradiated with UVB (90-200 mJ/cm(2)) rays. Fluorescence microscopy analysis provided information about the cellular internalization of the nanodroplets. We also determined the in vitro SPF of the nanoemulsions and evaluated their phototoxicity using the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test. The nanoemulsions were able to protect the cells' DNA against UVB-induced damage in a concentration dependent manner. Nanodroplets were internalized by the cells but a higher proportion was detected along the cell membrane. The SPF obtained (~25) depended on the concentration of the ethyl acetate fraction and pomegranate seed oil in the nanoemulsion. The photoprotective formulations were classified as non-phototoxic. In conclusion, nanoemulsions entrapping the polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction show potential for use as a sunscreen product.

  20. Oil/water nano-emulsion loaded with cobalt ferrite oxide nanocubes for photo-acoustic and magnetic resonance dual imaging in cancer: in vitro and preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Raffaele; Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Giustetto, Pierangela; Calabria, Dominic; Sathya, Ayyappan; Marotta, Roberto; Profeta, Martina; Nitti, Simone; Silvestri, Niccolò; Pellegrino, Teresa; Iaffaioli, Rosario V; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Dual imaging dramatically improves detection and early diagnosis of cancer. In this work we present an oil in water (O/W) nano-emulsion stabilized with lecithin and loaded with cobalt ferrite oxide (Co0.5Fe2.5O4) nanocubes for photo-acoustic and magnetic resonance dual imaging. The nanocarrier is responsive in in vitro photo-acoustic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests. A clear and significant time-dependent accumulation in tumor tissue is shown in in vivo photo-acoustic studies on a murine melanoma xenograft model. The proposed O/W nano-emulsion exhibits also high values of r2/r1 (ranging from 45 to 85, depending on the magnetic field) suggesting a possible use as T2 weighted image contrast agents. In addition, viability and cellular uptake studies show no significant cytotoxicity on the fibroblast cell line. We also tested the O/W nano-emulsion loaded with curcumin against melanoma cancer cells demonstrating a significant cytotoxicity and thus showing possible therapeutic effects in addition to the in vivo imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of coffee oil-algae oil-based nanoemulsions and the study of their inhibition effect on UVA-induced skin damage in mice and melanoma cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chu-Ching; Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2017-01-01

    Coffee grounds, a waste by-product generated after making coffee, contains approximately 15% coffee oil which can be used as a raw material in cosmetics. Algae oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been demonstrated to possess anticancer and anti-inflammation functions. The objectives of this study were to develop a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of fatty acids in coffee oil and algae oil and prepare a nanoemulsion for studying its inhibition effect on ultraviolet A-induced skin damage in mice and growth of melanoma cells B16-F10. A total of 8 and 5 fatty acids were separated and quantified in coffee oil and algae oil by GC-MS, respectively, with linoleic acid (39.8%) dominating in the former and DHA (33.9%) in the latter. A nanoemulsion with a particle size of 30 nm, zeta potential -72.72 mV, and DHA encapsulation efficiency 100% was prepared by using coffee oil, algae oil, surfactant (20% Span 80 and 80% Tween 80), and deionized water. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed a high stability of nanoemulsion when heated up to 110°C at a pH 6, whereas no significant changes in particle size distribution and pH occurred over a 90-day storage period at 4°C. Animal experiments showed that a dose of 0.1% coffee oil-algae oil nanoemulsion was effective in mitigating trans-epidermal water loss, skin erythema, melanin formation, and subcutaneous blood flow. Cytotoxicity test implied effective inhibition of melanoma cell growth by nanoemulsion with an IC50 value of 26.5 µg/mL and the cell cycle arrested at G2/M phase. A dose-dependent upregulation of p53, p21, cyclin B, and cyclin A expressions and downregulation of CDK1 and CDK2 occurred. Also, both Bax and cytochrome c expressions were upregulated and bcl-2 expression downregulated, accompanied by a rise in caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities for apoptosis execution. Collectively, the apoptosis pathway of melanoma cells B16-F10 may involve

  2. Nanoemulsion: A new concept of delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoemulsion has been identified as a promising delivery system for various drugs including biopharmaceuticals. Nanoemulsion is a heterogeneous system composed of one immiscible liquid dispersed as droplets within another liquid. The droplets size of nano emulsion is between 20 to 500 nm. Diameter and surface properties of droplets of nanoemulsion plays an important role in the biological behavior of the formulation. Small droplet sizes lead to transparent emulsions so that product appearance is not altered by the addition of an oil phase. In this paper various aspects of nanoemulsion have been discussed including advantages, disadvantages and methods of preparation. Furthermore new approaches of stability of formulation, effect of types and concentration of surfactant, process variables and method are also discussed to improve the stability of nanoemulsion formulation

  3. Edible films from methylcellulose and nanoemulsions of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils as shelf life extenders for sliced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoni, Caio G; Pontes, Silvania F O; Medeiros, Eber A A; Soares, Nilda de F F

    2014-06-04

    Consumers are increasingly demanding foods with lower synthetic preservatives. Plant essential oils are natural compounds with remarkable antimicrobial properties and may be incorporated as emulsions into water-soluble polymers to form antimicrobial films. Coarse emulsions (diameters of 1.3-1.9 μm) and nanoemulsions (diameters of 180-250 nm) of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils were produced through low-speed mixing and ultrasonication, respectively. Methylcellulose was added for film-forming purposes. Both essential oils reduced the rigidity and increased the extensibility of the methylcellulose films, effects that were even more pronounced for nanodroplets. Both essential oils lessened the counts of yeasts and molds in sliced bread during 15 days, and droplet size reduction provided a further improvement in antimicrobial properties. Due to increased bioavailability, less preservative content might be used and still deliver the same antimicrobial efficiency if encapsulated in smaller particles.

  4. Natural oil nanoemulsions as cores for layer-by-layer encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, M; Para, G; Simon, C; Warszyński, P

    2013-01-01

    In this study, emulsions of three different natural oils were prepared using spontaneous emulsification technique. The effect of three emulsifiers, AOT, lecithin and cholesterol on emulsion properties was studied. Their influence on interfacial tension at oil/water interface was evaluated by the pendant drop shape analysis method. Then, the mean droplet size, zeta potential and stability of emulsions were investigated in relation with the type of oil, surfactant, oil-to-ethanol ratio and surfactant concentration. We found that in the case of linseed oil, fine emulsion droplets are formed without any surfactant due to its low oil/water interfacial tension. A hydrophobic dye (Coumarin 6) was encapsulated within oil cores and its presence was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy. The obtained emulsions can be used alone or as the cores for layer-by-layer encapsulation, which was demonstrated by enclosing droplets within first layer of synthetic polycation poly(allyamine hydrochloride) (PAH).

  5. Orange oil/water nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenizer; Nanoemulsoes oleo de laranja/agua preparadas em homogeneizador de alta pressao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourniatis, Loretta R.; Spinelli, Luciana S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Gonzalez, Gaspar [Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to use the high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) to prepare stable oil/water nanoemulsions presenting narrow particle size distribution. The dispersions were prepared using nonionic surfactants based on ethoxylated ether. The size and distribution of the droplets formed, along with their stability, were determined in a Zetasizer Nano ZS particle size analyzer. The stability and the droplet size distribution in these systems do not present the significant differences with the increase of the processing pressure in the HPH). The processing time can promote the biggest dispersion in the size of particles, thus reducing its stability. (author)

  6. Nanoemulsions: a new vehicle for skincare products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville-Aubrun, O; Simonnet, J-T; L'Alloret, F

    2004-05-20

    Nanoemulsions consist in very fine oil-in-water dispersions, having droplet diameter smaller than 100 nm. Compared to microemulsions, they are in a metastable state, and their structure depends on the history of the system. In the present work, nanoemulsions were prepared with a high shear device, which is less constraining than spontaneous emulsification procedures. Nanoemulsions are very fragile systems by nature. As they are transparent, the slightest sign of destabilisation appears visually. Two major sources of unstability were identified and extensively studied: Ostwald ripening and depletion induced floculation following the addition of thickening polymers. The control of these two mechanisms allowed the industrial production of a large variety of cosmetic products, from water-like fluids, to ringing gels obtained by increasing the oil phase content or by adding polymers. The nanoemulsions are easily valued in skin care due to their good sensorial properties (rapid penetration, merging textures) and their biophysical properties (especially their hydrating power).

  7. Photothermal-Responsive Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Ultrathin Membranes for On/Off Switchable Separation of Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Gao, Shoujian; Ding, Xianguang; Wang, Dong; Jiang, Jiang; Jin, Jian; Jiang, Lei

    2015-05-26

    Oil-contaminated wastewater threatens our environment and health, especially that stabilized by surfactants. Conventional separation protocols become invalid for those surfactant-stabilized nanoemulsions due to their nanometer-sized droplets and extremely high stability. In this paper, photothermal-responsive ultrathin Au nanorods/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide) cohybrid single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) nanoporous membranes are constructed. Such membranes are capable of separating oil-in-water nanoemulsions with a maximum flux up to 35 890 m(2)·h(-1)·bar(-1) because they feature hydrophilicity, underwater oleophobicity, and nanometer pore sizes. It is remarkable that the permeation flux can be simply modulated by light illumination during the process of separation, due to the incorporation of thermal-responsive copolymers and Au nanorods. Meanwhile, it shows ultrahigh separation efficiency (>99.99%) and desired antifouling and recyclability properties. We anticipate that our ultrathin photothermal-responsive SWCNT-based membranes provide potential for the generation of point-of-use water treatment devices.

  8. Anti-Candida activity assessment of Pelargonium graveolens oil free and nanoemulsion in biofilm formation in hospital medical supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, Janice Luehring; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Fausto, Viviane Pedroso; Quatrin, Priscilla Maciel; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Gündel, André; Gomes, Patrícia; Steppe, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Infections due to microbial biofilm formation on the surface of catheters and other medical devices are constantly reported as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to hospitals. Furthermore, sessile cells are more resistant to phagocytosis and most antimicrobial, which complicates the treatment of such infections. Researches aimed at new antimicrobial originating mainly from plants have increased in recent years and the development of new strategies for their release is critical in combating the formation of biofilms. Geranium oil (GO) has proven antimicrobial activity. Because of this, the aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsions containing this oil (NEG) and evaluate its activity after the biofilm formation of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei in hospital medical supplies. For quantification of the biofilm, crystal violet, total protein, and ATP-bioluminescence assays were used. The results revealed that GO and NEG showed lower MIC for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The biofilms formed by different species of Candida on the surfaces of polyethylene and polyurethane were quantified. GO and NEG significantly inhibited the formation of biofilms in all species tested on the surfaces of polyethylene. However, NEG antibiofilm has had better activity than GO for C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata, according to the surface potential analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The analysis of the biofilm formation on the polyethylene surface by ATP-bioluminescence and CFU showed similar results. In both methods the formation of biofilm in the catheter occurred in greater quantity for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. GO did not significantly inhibit the formation of biofilms only in C. krusei, although NEG significantly increased this activity GO in all species tested when compared to the control training biofilm. The following study shows that the development of NEG may become an effective

  9. An Artificial Neural Network Based Analysis of Factors Controlling Particle Size in a Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Copper Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Shazwani; Basri, Mahiran; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Abdul Malek, Emilia; Abedi Karjiban, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    A predictive model of a virgin coconut oil (VCO) nanoemulsion system for the topical delivery of copper peptide (an anti-aging compound) was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN) to investigate the factors that influence particle size. Four independent variables including the amount of VCO, Tween 80: Pluronic F68 (T80:PF68), xanthan gum and water were the inputs whereas particle size was taken as the response for the trained network. Genetic algorithms (GA) were used to model the data which were divided into training sets, testing sets and validation sets. The model obtained indicated the high quality performance of the neural network and its capability to identify the critical composition factors for the VCO nanoemulsion. The main factor controlling the particle size was found out to be xanthan gum (28.56%) followed by T80:PF68 (26.9%), VCO (22.8%) and water (21.74%). The formulation containing copper peptide was then successfully prepared using optimum conditions and particle sizes of 120.7 nm were obtained. The final formulation exhibited a zeta potential lower than -25 mV and showed good physical stability towards centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test and storage at temperature 25°C and 45°C.

  10. An Artificial Neural Network Based Analysis of Factors Controlling Particle Size in a Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Copper Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Shazwani; Basri, Mahiran; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Abdul Malek, Emilia; Abedi Karjiban, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    A predictive model of a virgin coconut oil (VCO) nanoemulsion system for the topical delivery of copper peptide (an anti-aging compound) was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN) to investigate the factors that influence particle size. Four independent variables including the amount of VCO, Tween 80: Pluronic F68 (T80:PF68), xanthan gum and water were the inputs whereas particle size was taken as the response for the trained network. Genetic algorithms (GA) were used to model the data which were divided into training sets, testing sets and validation sets. The model obtained indicated the high quality performance of the neural network and its capability to identify the critical composition factors for the VCO nanoemulsion. The main factor controlling the particle size was found out to be xanthan gum (28.56%) followed by T80:PF68 (26.9%), VCO (22.8%) and water (21.74%). The formulation containing copper peptide was then successfully prepared using optimum conditions and particle sizes of 120.7 nm were obtained. The final formulation exhibited a zeta potential lower than -25 mV and showed good physical stability towards centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test and storage at temperature 25°C and 45°C. PMID:27383135

  11. An Artificial Neural Network Based Analysis of Factors Controlling Particle Size in a Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Copper Peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazwani Samson

    Full Text Available A predictive model of a virgin coconut oil (VCO nanoemulsion system for the topical delivery of copper peptide (an anti-aging compound was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN to investigate the factors that influence particle size. Four independent variables including the amount of VCO, Tween 80: Pluronic F68 (T80:PF68, xanthan gum and water were the inputs whereas particle size was taken as the response for the trained network. Genetic algorithms (GA were used to model the data which were divided into training sets, testing sets and validation sets. The model obtained indicated the high quality performance of the neural network and its capability to identify the critical composition factors for the VCO nanoemulsion. The main factor controlling the particle size was found out to be xanthan gum (28.56% followed by T80:PF68 (26.9%, VCO (22.8% and water (21.74%. The formulation containing copper peptide was then successfully prepared using optimum conditions and particle sizes of 120.7 nm were obtained. The final formulation exhibited a zeta potential lower than -25 mV and showed good physical stability towards centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test and storage at temperature 25°C and 45°C.

  12. Evaluation of Biosourced Alkyd Nanoemulsions as Drug Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Yong Teo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel oil-in-water (O/W nanoemulsions were formulated using short, medium, and long oil length alkyds synthesized from palm kernel oil by a two-stage alcoholysis-polyesterification reaction. Alkyd/surfactant/water ternary phase diagrams identified a composition of 1% alkyd, 9% Tween 80, and 90% water where spontaneous production of nanoemulsions occurred. The pH, droplet size, and zeta potential of all formulations were in the range of 6.4–6.6, 11–14 nm, and −6 mV to −8 mV, respectively. Rheological studies showed that the nanoemulsions displayed non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior at low shear rates up to 20 s−1 with conversion to Newtonian behavior above this shear rate. All nanoemulsions were found to be stable against phase separation on storage at 4°C and 25°C for three months. Short oil length alkyd nanoemulsions exhibited significantly higher stability compared with medium and long oil length alkyd nanoemulsions, as demonstrated by an absence of phase separation and only minor changes of droplet size on storage at an elevated temperature of 45°C for 3 months. The drug carrying capacity and storage stability of the nanoemulsions were assessed using phenytoin. The entrapment efficiency of alkyd nanoemulsions was in excess of 90% and loss of phenytoin content was restricted to less than 4% during storage of the nanoemulsions for three months at 4°C, 25°C, and 45°C. Taken together, these findings indicate that nanoemulsions prepared from palm kernel oil-based alkyds offer potential as nanocarriers for drug delivery applications.

  13. Formation of water-in-diesel oil nano-emulsions using high energy method and studying some of their surface active properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, formations of water-in-diesel oil nano-emulsions using water/mixed nonionic surfactant/diesel oil system have been studied. The high energy emulsification method was used to form three emulsions using different water contents: 5%, 10% and 14% (v/v namely; E1, E2 and E3, respectively. These nano-emulsions were stabilized with emulsifiers having different Hydrophilic–Lipophilic Balance (HLB namely; span 80 (HLB = 4.3, emarol 85 (HLB = 11 and their mixture (SE with HLB = 10. The effect of water on the droplet size formation has been investigated. The interfacial tension and thermodynamic properties of the individual and emulsifiers blends have been studied. The interfacial tension (γ measurements at 30 °C were used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC and surface active properties of these emulsifiers. The water droplet sizes were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS. From the obtained data, it was found that, mean sizes between 19.3 and 39 nm were obtained depending on the water content and concentration of blend emulsifiers (SE. Also, the results show that, the interfacial tension (γ gives minimum value (10.85 mN/m for SE comparing with individual emulsifier (17.13 and 12.77 mN/m for span 80 and emarol 85, respectively. The visual inspection by TEM showed that the obtained results support the data obtained by dynamic light scattering.

  14. A Novel Approach for Microencapsulation of Nanoemulsions to Overcome the Oxidation of Bioactives in Aqueous Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Jamshaid Qazi; Hamid Majeed; Waseem Safdar; John Antoniou; Zhong Fang

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation is a promising technique to retain the physical attributes of nanoemulsions and to overcome the oxidation of bioactives that become more available to aqueous phase during emulsification. Purity Gum Ultra (PGU) and Hi-CAP 100 (HiCap) emulsified nanoemulsions of Clove Oil (CO) co-encapsulated with Canola oil (CA) and Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT) (5:5% v/v CO:CA and CO:MCT) were prepared through high pressure homogenization. Microencapsulation of nanoemulsions was performed...

  15. Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG and human bladder carcinoma (T24 cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madson R. F. Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion formulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma and T24 (human bladder carcinoma cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6% and cyclocolorenone (18.2% were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8 and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8 cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

  16. Challenges associated in stability of food grade nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, P; Ezhilarasi, P N; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2017-05-03

    Food grade nanoemulsions are being increasingly used in the food sector for their physico-chemical properties towards efficient encapsulation, entrapment of bioactive compounds, solubilization, targeted delivery, and bioavailability. Nanoemulsions are considered as one of the important vehicles for the sustained release of food bioactive compounds due to their smaller size (nm), increased surface area, and unique morphological characteristics. Nanoemulsification is an ideal technique for fabricating the bioactive compounds in a nano form. Formation and stabilization of nanoemulsion depends on the physi-cochemical characteristics of its constituents including oil phase, aqueous phase, and emulsifiers. This review is mainly focused on the instability mechanisms of nanoemulsion such as flocculation, Ostwald ripening, creaming, phase separation, coalescence, and sedimentation. Further, the major factors associated with these instability mechanisms like ionic strength, temperature, solubilization, particle size distribution, particle charge, pH strength, acid stability, and heat treatment are also discussed. Finally, safety issues of food grade nanoemulsions are highlighted.

  17. Transdermal delivery of imipramine and doxepin from newly oil-in-water nanoemulsions for an analgesic and anti-allodynic activity: development, characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandig, A Gimeno; Campmany, A C Calpena; Campos, F Fernández; Villena, M J Martín; Naveros, B Clares

    2013-03-01

    Antidepressants have been considered by their analgesic activity in numerous studies, and specifically tricyclic antidepressants to possess the greatest efficacy. Imipramine and doxepin have been reported to exhibit local anaesthetic properties. In order to investigate their cutaneous analgesic effect after topical application a nanoemulsion vehicle was developed. This nanoemulsion is composed of propilenglicol, Transcutol, water, Labrasol, Plurol Oleique, isostearyl isostearate, oleic acid, and d-limonene. The final concentration of imipramine or doxepin in the nanoemulsion system was 3% (w/w). The nanoemulsions were characterized by pH, viscosity, droplet size, polydispersity index and finally, a morphological and structural examination was carried out by using transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the present work also reports stability studies on the nanoemulsion formulations to evaluate the integrity of the formulation; these indicate that formulations are stable for a period of three months. Moreover ex vivo studies were performed to evaluate permeation behaviour through human skin and predict plasma concentrations concluding that topically applied imipramine and doxepin loaded nanoemulsions were safe for a local effect. Similarly, the in vivo analgesic and anti-allodynic activity in rats was evaluated being stronger for the doxepin loaded nanoemulsion. This study demonstrated that nanoemulsion containing doxepin could be promising as an alternative analgesic therapy with a potential clinical application.

  18. Eugenol-loaded antimicrobial nanoemulsion preserves fruit juice against, microbial spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Vijayalakshmi; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2014-02-01

    Oil-in-water nanoemulsion was formulated using sesame oil, non-ionic surfactant (Tween20/Tween80) and water by ultrasound cavitation method. Development of nanoemulsion was optimized for process parameters such as surfactant type, surfactant concentration and emulsification time to obtain lower droplet diameter with greater stability. Increase in surfactant concentration and emulsification time resulted in nanoemulsion with minimized droplet diameter. Tween80 was more effective in reducing droplet size when compared to that of Tween20. Selected formulation with optimized process parameter (with oil-surfactant mixing ratio of 1:3 v/v and Tween80 as surfactant) was used for delivery of eugenol. Eugenol-loaded nanoemulsion was formulated with droplet diameter of 13 nm and was stable for more than 1 month. Sesame oil blended eugenol-loaded nanoemulsion demonstrated lower droplet size and higher stability than only-eugenol (without sesame oil) nanoemulsion. Eugenol-loaded nanoemulsion S3E3 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Inactivation kinetics of S. aureus showed time and concentration killing of bacteria upon treatment with S3E3 nanoemulsion. Fluorescence microscopy results demonstrated that S3E3 nanoemulsion treatment resulted in alteration of membrane permeability. In situ assessment of S3E3 in orange juice exhibited a significant reduction in the native bacteria population.

  19. Antibacterial and physical effects of modified chitosan based-coating containing nanoemulsion of mandarin essential oil and three non-thermal treatments against Listeria innocua in green beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Renato; Vu, Khanh Dang; Donsì, Francesco; Salmieri, Stephane; Ferrari, Giovanna; Lacroix, Monique

    2014-11-17

    The antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua of three different combined non-thermal treatments, along with the impact on color and texture on green bean samples, was evaluated. In this study a bioactive coating formulation based on modified chitosan containing 0.05% nanoemulsion of mandarin essential oil was tested in combination with γ-irradiation, UV-C and ozonated water treatments, and the results in terms of antimicrobial activity, color and texture changes, were evaluated during 14 days storage. The combined coating and γ-irradiation treatment gave promising results, showing 3.3 log CFU/g initial microbial reduction, and exhibiting a strong synergistic antimicrobial effect. The treatment based on UV-C and coating formulation allowed a 3 log CFU/g reduction of initial L. innocua population on samples, showing a good residual antimicrobial activity and preventing loss of firmness and color changes during storage. The combined treatment of coating and ozonated water did not show any synergistic or additive antimicrobial effect, but they showed an impact on firmness and color. In conclusion UV-C and γ-irradiation treatments, in combination with the bioactive coating, represent an effective approach to control the growth of L. innocua on vegetable foods.

  20. Organogel-nanoemulsion containing nisin and D-limonene and its antimicrobial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Weiya eBei; Yan eZhou; Xuya eXing; Mohamed Red eZahi; Yuan eLi; Qipeng eYuan; Hao eLiang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a novel delivery system containing D-limonene and nisin by food organogel-nanoemulsion and study its effect on the antimicrobial activity. Organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin or without nisin was prepared by a homogenization method. Factors that may affect the droplet size and stability of organogel-nanoemulsion such as pressure and surfactant to oil ratio (SOR) were studied. The average droplet size decreased with pressure, and...

  1. Nanoemulsion formulation of fisetin improves bioavailability and antitumour activity in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Crauste-Manciet, Sylvie; Seguin, Johanne; Brossard, Denis; Scherman, Daniel; Arnaud, Philippe; Chabot, Guy,

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The natural flavonoid fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) has shown antitumour activity but its administration is complicated by its low water solubility. Our aim was to incorporate fisetin into a nanoemulsion to improve its pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy. Solubility and emulsification tests allowed to develop an optimal nanoemulsion composed of Miglyol 812N/Labrasol/Tween 80/Lipoid E80/water (10%/10%/2.5%/1.2%/76.3%). The nanoemulsion had an oil droplet...

  2. Nanoemulsion formulation of fisetin improves bioavailability and antitumour activity in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Crauste-Manciet, Sylvie; Seguin, Johanne; Brossard, Denis; Scherman, Daniel; Arnaud, Philippe; Chabot, Guy

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The natural flavonoid fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) has shown antitumour activity but its administration is complicated by its low water solubility. Our aim was to incorporate fisetin into a nanoemulsion to improve its pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy. Solubility and emulsification tests allowed to develop an optimal nanoemulsion composed of Miglyol 812N/Labrasol/Tween 80/Lipoid E80/water (10%/10%/2.5%/1.2%/76.3%). The nanoemulsion had an oil droplet...

  3. Action mechanism of small and large molecule surfactant-based clove oil nanoemulsions against food-borne pathogens and real-time detection of their subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hamid; Antoniou, John; Shoemaker, Charles F; Fang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry exactly discriminated three subpopulations, i.e., viable, damage and sublethal cells of L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and E. coli when treated at their MIC values. Purity gum ultra (PGU) a large molecule surfactant-based CO nanoemulsion exerted significant impact on cellular subpopulations of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, with more membrane-damaged cells. On the other hand, when compared with bulk CO the results showed minimum membrane damage and more viable cells, whereas PGU CO nanoemulsion showed minimum effect on cellular subpopulation and represented more viable than damaged cells in case of E. coli. Similarly, Tween 80 a small molecule surfactant-based CO nanoemulsion showed limited overall activity against three tested microorganisms with more viable cells. We conclude that it was due to sequestration of CO constituents in interfaces, less availability in aqueous phase and finally inhibit bactericidal activity. Moreover, both CO and CO nanoemulsions showed membrane damage as primary inactivation mechanism of tested bacterial cells.

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Nanoemulsion Containing Vegetable Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves Rocha-Filho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil/Water nanoemulsions were obtained, employing PEG castor oil derivatives/fatty esters surfactant, babassu oil, and purified water from a study based on phase diagrams. The nanoemulsions had been prepared by a low energy process inversion phase emulsion. Different parameters, such as order of addition of the components, temperature, stirring speed, and time, were studied to prepare O/W nanoemulsions. The influence of vegetable extract addition on size distribution of nanoemulsions was also analyzed. Evaluation of the nanoemulsions was studied in vitro by HET-CAM and RDB methods. Stable transparent bluish O/W babassu oil nanoemulsion were obtained with surfactant pair fatty ester/PEG-54 castor oil, in an HLBrequired value = 10.0 and with a particle droplet size of 46 ± 13 nm. Vegetable extract addition had not influenced nanoemulsion’s stability. The results obtained for in vitro and in vivo nanoemulsion evaluation, based on the hydration and oiliness, and pH of the skin, shows O/W nanoemulsions as potential vehicle for topical application.

  5. FORMULATION OF CLINDAMYCIN NANO-EMULSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jiyauddin *, A. Fadli , J. C. Wei , A. Jawad , A. D. Samer , M. Kaleemullah, S. Budiasih, S. Rasha , M. R. Rasny , Y. K. Sung , A. H. Junainah , H. Todo and Y. Eddy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nano-emulsions consist of fine oil-in-water or water-in-oil dispersions, having droplets covering the size range of 10 - 600 nm. The aim of this study is to formulate nano-emulsion of Clindamycin by using Emulsion Phase Inversion method and olive oil as the oil phase. Pseudo ternary phase diagram was first developed by using distilled water, olive oil and mixture of surfactants (Tween®80 and Span®20 at a ratio of 1:1. Then, appearance test and microscopic examination were done for all the pre-formulation. Three potential pre-formulation were then selected and incorporated with the Clindamycin Phosphate and Methyl Paraben. The mean droplet size and stability studies were done for these three formulations. Clindamycin Nano-emulsions were not obtained using the Emulsion Phase Inversion (EPI method in this study, whereby the mean droplet sizes were in micro-range. However, out of all the three formulations which undergone extensive studies which include the heating-cooling cycle, whereby the formulation F8 and F17 were found to be physically stable. Significant differences were identified on the pH value and viscosity measurement for all the three formulations which undergone the heating-cooling cycle; except for the pH in F17. Furthermore, the formulation F8 had the smallest droplet size of 0.92 µm. Future research on this topic is needed to reduce the droplet size of the formulation.

  6. Nanoemulsões óleo de laranja/água preparadas em homogeneizador de alta pressão Orange oil/water nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta R. Kourniatis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to use the high-pressure homogenizer (HPH to prepare stable oil/water nanoemulsions presenting narrow particle size distribution. The dispersions were prepared using nonionic surfactants based on ethoxylated ether. The size and distribution of the droplets formed, along with their stability, were determined in a Zetasizer Nano ZS particle size analyzer. The stability and the droplet size distribution in these systems do not present the significant differences with the increase of the processing pressure in the HPH. The processing time can promote the biggest dispersion in the size of particles, thus reducing its stability.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antialgic actions of a nanoemulsion of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and a molecular docking study of its major chemical constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Raphaelle Sousa; Lima, Emerson Silva; Keita, Hady; Ferreira, Irlon Maciel; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Cruz, Rodrigo Alves Soares; Duarte, Jonatas Lobato; Velázquez-Moyado, Josué; Ortiz, Brenda Lorena Sánchez; Castro, Andrés Navarrete; Ferreira, Jaderson Vieira; da Silva Hage-Melim, Lorane Izabel; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares

    2017-07-13

    We evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antialgic potency of a nanoemulsion (NEORO) containing the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (EORO), which is composed primarily of limonene, camphor and 1,8-cineole. The EORO and NEORO were administered orally 30 min prior to starting the experiments. In a test of rat paw oedema induced by carrageenan, NEORO was effective in doses of 498 µg/kg, and it inhibited 46% of the maximum peak of the oedema; in a dose of 300 mg/kg, EORO inhibited 50% of the maximum peak of the oedema. In an acetic acid-induced writhing test, NEORO yielded a dose-dependent effect, and a dose of 830 µg/kg inhibited 84% of the algesic process; a dose of 100 mg/kg of EORO inhibited 55%. In an assay for H2S production in rat stomachs, a dose of 498 µg/kg of NEORO inhibited H2S production in all of the measurement phases, and a dose of 100 mg/kg EORO inhibited 60% and influenced the effect of the ethanol significantly, reducing the production of H2S. We suggest that NEORO potentiated the effect of EORO, demonstrating effectiveness in doses 600 times lower than those applied with EORO. Among the major compounds of EORO, the camphor molecule exhibited the largest number of interactions with the therapeutic targets related to the inflammatory process, suggesting that it is responsible for EORO's anti-inflammatory and antialgic effects. This work paves the way for future investigations related to the therapeutic role of NEORO in the inflammation process.

  8. Formulation and in vitro release evaluation of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters-based nanoemulsion delivery system for 30% ethanolic dried extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria for skin antiaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi ES

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Elrashid Saleh Mahdi1, Azmin Mohd Noor1, Mohamed Hameem Sakeena1, Ghassan Z Abdullah1, Muthanna F Abdulkarim1, Munavvar Abdul Sattar2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Physiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia Background: Recently there has been a remarkable surge of interest about natural products and their applications in the cosmetic industry. Topical delivery of antioxidants from natural sources is one of the approaches used to reverse signs of skin aging. The aim of this research was to develop a nanoemulsion cream for topical delivery of 30% ethanolic extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria for skin antiaging. Methods: Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs-based nanoemulsions were loaded with P. urinaria extract using a spontaneous method and characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, and rheological properties. The release profile of the extract was evaluated using in vitro Franz diffusion cells from an artificial membrane and the antioxidant activity of the extract released was evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Results: Formulation F12 consisted of wt/wt, 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 0.5% glyceryl monostearate, 12% PKOEs, and 27% Tween® 80/Span® 80 (9/1 with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and a 59.5% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4. Formulation F36 was comprised of 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 1% glyceryl monostearate, 14% PKOEs, 28% Tween® 80/Span® 80 (9/1 with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and 56% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4 with shear thinning and thixotropy. The droplet size of F12 and F36 was 30.74 nm and 35.71 nm, respectively, and their nanosizes were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy images. Thereafter, 51.30% and 51.02% of the loaded extract was released from F12 and F36 through an artificial cellulose membrane

  9. Influence of emulsifier concentration on nanoemulsion gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erramreddy, Vivek Vardhan; Ghosh, Supratim

    2014-09-23

    Nanoemulsion gels are a new class of soft materials that manifest stronger elasticity even at lower dispersed phase volume fraction. In this work, gelation in 40 wt % canola oil-in-water nanoemulsions was investigated as a function of emulsifier type (anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or nonionic Tween 20) and concentration. It was observed that the liquid nanoemulsions transformed into viscoelastic gels at a specific concentration range of SDS, whereas no gelation was observed for Tween 20. The apparent viscosity, yield stress, and storage modulus of the nanogels increased with SDS concentration until 15 times critical micelle concentration (CMC), thereafter decreased steadily as the gelation weakened beginning 20 CMC. Three regimes of colloidal interactions in the presence of emulsifier were proposed. (1) Repulsive gelation: at low SDS concentration (0.5-2 times CMC) the repulsive charge cloud around the nanodroplets acted as interfacial shell layer that significantly increased the effective volume fraction of the dispersed phase (ϕ(eff)). When ϕ(eff) became comparable to the volume fraction required for maximal random jamming, nanoemulsions formed elastic gels. (2) Attractive gelation: as the SDS concentration increased to 5-15 times CMC, ϕ(eff) dropped due to charge screening by more counterions from SDS, but depletion attractions generated by micelles in the continuous phase led to extensive droplet aggregation which immobilized the continuous phase leading to stronger gel formation. (3) Decline in gelation due to oscillatory structural forces (OSF): at very high SDS concentration (20-30 time CMC), structural forces were manifested due to the layered-structuring of excess micelles in the interdroplet regions resulting in loss of droplet aggregation. Tween 20 nanoemulsions, on the other hand, did not show repulsive gelation due to lack of charge cloud, while weak depletion attraction and early commencement of OSF regime leading to liquid-like behavior at

  10. Pentyl Gallate Nanoemulsions as Potential Topical Treatment of Herpes Labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmann, Regina G; Colombo, Mariana; De Araújo Lopes, Sávia Caldeira; Nunes, Ricardo J; Pistore, Morgana; Dall Agnol, Daniele; Rigotto, Caroline; Silva, Izabella Thais; Roman, Silvane S; Teixeira, Helder F; Oliveira Simões, Cláudia M; Koester, Letícia S

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the antiherpes activity of pentyl gallate (PG), suggesting that it could be a promising candidate for the topical treatment of human herpes labialis. PG low aqueous solubility represents a major drawback to its incorporation in topical dosage forms. Hence, the feasibility of incorporating PG into nanoemulsions, the ability to penetrate the skin, to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 replication, and to cause dermal sensitization or toxicity were evaluated. Oil/water nanoemulsions containing 0.5% PG were prepared by spontaneous emulsification. The in vitro PG distribution into porcine ear skin after topical application of nanoemulsions was assessed, and the in vitro antiviral activity against HSV-1 replication was evaluated. Acute dermal toxicity and risk of dermal sensitization were evaluated in rat model. Nanoemulsions presented nanometric particle size (from 124.8 to 143.7 nm), high zeta potential (from -50.1 to -66.1 mV), loading efficiency above 99%, and adequate stability during 12 months. All formulations presented anti-HSV-1 activity. PG was able to reach deeper into the dermis more efficiently from the nanoemulsion F4. This formulation as well as PG were considered safe for topical use. Nanoemulsions seem to be a safe and effective approach for topically delivering PG in the treatment of human herpes labialis infection.

  11. Preparation and Optimization of Nanoemulsions for targeting Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoemulsions have appeared as a novel drug delivery system which allows sustained or controlled release of drug, biological active ingredient and genetic material. Nanoemulsion is a dispersion consisting of oil, surfactant and an aqueous phase, which is a isotropically clear and thermo-dynamically or kinetically stable liquid solution, usually with droplet diameter within the range of 10-500nm. Although interest in nano-emulsions was developed for more than two decades now, mainly for nanoparticle preparation, it is in the last few years that direct applications of nano-emulsions in consumer products are being developed, mainly in pharmacy and cosmetics. These recent applications have made that studies on optimization methods for nano-emulsion preparation be a requirement. The design of effective formulations for drugs has long been a major task, because drug efficacy can severely limited by instability or poor solubility in the vehicle. Nanoemulsion is being applied to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of water insoluble drugs. The nanosized droplets leading to an enormous increase in interfacial areas associated with nanoemulsion would influence the transport properties of the drug [1, 2]. Recently, there has been a considerable attraction for this formulation, for the delivery of hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic drug as drug carriers because of its improved drug solubilization capacity, long shelf life, ease of preparation and improvement of bioavailability of drugs. This review is focused on the most recent literature on developments of nano-emulsions as final application products and on the optimization of their preparation.

  12. Application of nanoemulsions in the regeneration of adsorbent polymeric resins; Emprego de nanoemulsoes na regeneracao de resinas polimericas adsorvedoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Josane A.; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Vieira, Helida V.P.; Lucas, Elizabete F.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas. Lab. de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo], e-mails: josaneacosta@yahoo.com.br, yuregomes@ima.ufrj.br, elucas@ima.ufrj.br, celias@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the solbrax/water/polyoxyethylene nanoemulsions were produced under high pressure homogenizer (HPH). These systems presented droplets diameter ranging between 7 to 30 nm. The nanoemulsions were used in regeneration of a polymeric resin, which has been used in treatment of oily water. This resin was contaminated with different kinds of oils. The nanoemulsions presented high cleaning efficiency, above of 90% and its performance was higher than equivalent micellar systems. (author)

  13. Influence of palmitoyl pentapeptide and Ceramide III B on the droplet size of nanoemulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondari, Dewi; Haryono, Agus; Harmami, Sri Budi; Randy, Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    The influence of the Palmitoyl Pentapeptide (PPp) and Ceramide IIIB (Cm III B) as active ingredients on the droplet size of nano-emulsion was studied using different kinds of oil (avocado oil, sweet almond oil, jojoba oil, mineral oil and squalene). The formation of nano-emulsions were prepared in water mixed non ionic surfactant/oils system using the spontaneous emulsification mechanism. The aqueous solution, which consist of water and Tween® 20 as a hydrophilic surfactant was mixed homogenously. The organic solution, which consist of oil and Span® 80 as a lipophilic surfactant was mixed homogenously in ethanol. Ethanol was used as a water miscible solvent, which can help the formation of nano-emulsion. The oil phase (containing the blend of surfactant Span® 80, ethanol, oil and active ingredient) and the aqueous phase (containing water and Tween® 20) were separately prepared at room temperatures. The oil phase was slowly added into aqueous phase under continuous mechanical agitation (18000 rpm). All samples were subsequently homogenized with Ultra-Turrax for 30 minutes. The characterizations of nano-emulsion were carried out using photo-microscope and particle size analyzer. Addition of active ingredients on the formation of nano-emulsion gave smallest droplet size compared without active ingredients addition on the formation of nano-emulsion. Squalene oil with Palmitoyl Pentapeptide (PPm) and Ceramide IIIB (Cm IIIB) gave smallest droplet size (184.0 nm) compared without Palmitoyl Pentapeptide and Ceramide IIIB (214.9 nm), however the droplets size of the emulsion prepared by the other oils still in the range of nano-emulsion (below 500 nm). The stability of nano-emulsion was observed using two methods. In one method, the stability of nano-emulsion was observed for three months at temperature of 5°C and 50°C, while in the other method, the stability nano-emulsion was observed by centrifuged at 12000 rpm for 30 minutes. Nanoemulsion with active ingredient

  14. Clotrimazole nanoemulsion for malaria chemotherapy. Part I: preformulation studies, formulation design and physicochemical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhade, Vivek; Pathak, Sulabha; Sharma, Shobhona; Patravale, Vandana

    2012-07-15

    Clotrimazole was formulated in nanoemulsion based system with the aim of improving its solubility and dissolution, which can further used for its preclinical evaluation. Clotrimazole nanoemulsion was prepared using spontaneous nanoemulsification method. Preformulation studies were preformed to evaluate drug-excipient compatibility, solution state pH stability and pH solubility profile. Solubility of clotrimazole in oils, surfactants and cosurfactants was determined to identify nanoemulsion components. Surfactants and cosurfactants were screened for their ability to emulsify selected oily phases. Phase diagrams were constructed to identify area of nanoemulsification. Influence of clotrimazole and pH of dilution medium on phase behavior were assessed. Drug-excipient chemical compatibility study facilitated to anticipate acid catalyzed degradation of clotrimazole. The pH of nanoemulsion was adjusted to 7.5, which could stabilize clotrimazole. Nanoemulsion composed of Capryol 90, Solutol HS 15 and Gelucire 44/14 enhanced solubility of clotrimazole up to 25mg/ml. The optimized clotrimazole nanoemulsion could withstand the extensive dilution and did not show any phase separation or drug precipitation. The nanoemulsion exhibited mean globule size <25 nm, which was not affected by pH of dilution medium. Dissolution profile of clotrimazole nanoemulsion in various media showed 100% drug release within 15 min irrespective of pH of medium.

  15. Stability of Positively Charged Nanoemulsion Formulation Containing Steroidal Drug for Effective Transdermal Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the formation of a positively charged nanoemulsion system for steroid drugs (hydrocortisone. It is believed that positively charged nanoemulsion provides more effective penetration of the skin. Therefore in our study we focused on the incorporation of phytosphingosine which serves as a positively charged cosurfactant in the nanoemulsion system. Negatively charged nanoemulsions were formulated mainly for comparison. Freshly prepared formulations were formed with particle size less than 300 nm and showed good stability over time. The oil-in-water nanoemulsion also showed good viscosity, conductivity, and pH values. From TEM micrograph, particle size showed consistent results with the measurement using photon correlation spectroscopy. It was concluded that both positively and negatively charged nanoemulsions showed good stability and have great potential in transdermal delivery system. Though, further investigation of the drug release and drug penetration of both positively and negatively charged nanoemulsions will be studied to further prove the efficacy of nanoemulsion with hydrocortisone as a delivery system for dermal application.

  16. Experimental design in formulation of diazepam nanoemulsions: physicochemical and pharmacokinetic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Sanela M; Radulović, Tamara S; Cekić, Nebojša D; Ranđelović, Danijela V; Savić, Miroslav M; Krajišnik, Danina R; Milić, Jela R; Savić, Snežana D

    2013-11-01

    With the aid of experimental design, we developed and characterized nanoemulsions for parenteral drug delivery. Formulations containing a mixture of medium-chain triglycerides and soybean oil as oil phase, lecithin (soybean/egg) and polysorbate 80 as emulsifiers, and 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 8) as aqueous phase were prepared by cold high-pressure homogenization. To study the effects of the oil content, lecithin type, and the presence of diazepam as a model drug and their interactions on physicochemical characteristics of nanoemulsions, a three factor two-level full factorial design was applied. The nanoemulsions were evaluated concerning droplet size and size distribution, surface charge, viscosity, morphology, drug-excipient interactions, and physical stability. The characterization revealed the small spherical droplets in the range 195 -220 nm with polydispersity index below 0.15 and zeta potential between -30 and - 60 mV. Interactions among the investigated factors, rather than factors alone, were shown to more profoundly affect nanoemulsion characteristics. In vivo pharmacokinetic study of selected diazepam nanoemulsions with different oil content (20%, 30%, and 40%, w/w) demonstrated fast and intense initial distribution into rat brain of diazepam from nanoemulsions with 20% and 30% (w/w) oil content, suggesting their applicability in urgent situations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. HOW TO FORMULATE A STABLE AND MONODISPERSE WATER-IN-OIL NANOEMULSION CONTAINING PUMPKIN SEED OIL: THE USE OF MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Nikolovski

    Full Text Available Abstract The multiobjective optimization method was applied in order to improve the droplet size distribution and stability of water-in-oil emulsions composed of sunflower and pumpkin seed oils as continuous phase, polyglycerol polyricinoleate as emulsifier, water as dispersed phase and sodium chloride as co-stabilizer (lipophobe. Three composition factors were varied based on the three level Box-Behnken design and three characteristics of the obtained emulsions were measured for each experimental run. The mean volume diameter of water droplets and the span of the droplet size distribution, both determined immediately upon preparation of the emulsion, as well as the stability index over a three-month period were interrelated by regression functions with the surfactant concentration, oil composition and the salt content in the water phase of the emulsion. Also, the fourth objective function based on a difference in the prices of pumpkin seed and sunflower oils was considered for optimization. The multiobjective optimum was calculated by using the minimal loss method with weight factors. Additionally, effects of the continuous phase composition and the salt content on the equilibrium interfacial tension of water-oil systems and the changes of the droplet size distribution over time were studied.

  18. Organogel nanoemulsion containing Nisin and D-limonene and its antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya eBei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate a novel delivery system containing D-limonene and nisin by food organogel-nanoemulsion and study its effect on the antimicrobial activity. Organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin or without nisin was prepared by a homogenization method. Factors that may affect the droplet size and stability of organogel-nanoemulsion such as pressure and surfactant to oil ratio were studied. The average droplet size decreased with pressure, and the organogel-nanoemulsion could achieve good stability at low surfactant to oil ratio. Positive effects and outstanding antimicrobial activities of organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin were confirmed by MICs comparison, growth curves of bacteria, scanning electron microscopy and determination of cell constituents’ release. Furthermore, the organogel-nanoemulsion applied as food preservative in milk also shown excellent antimicrobial performance. Overall, the research described in the current article show that organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin may be an effective antimicrobial system for the production and preservation of food.

  19. Calixarene-entrapped nanoemulsion for uranium extraction from contaminated solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnul, Aurélie; Bouvier-Capely, Céline; Phan, Guillaume; Rebière, François; Fattal, Elias

    2010-03-01

    Accidental cutaneous contamination by actinides such as uranium occurring to nuclear power plant workers can lead to their dissemination in other tissues and induce severe damages. Until now, no specific emergency treatment for such contamination has been developed. The aim of the present work was to formulate a tricarboxylic calix[6]arene molecule, known to exhibit good affinity and selectivity for complexing uranium, within a topical delivery system for the treatment of skin contamination. Since calixarene was shown to reduce oil/water interfacial tension, we have designed an oil-in-water nanoemulsion, taking advantage of the small droplet size offering a high contact surface with the contaminated aqueous medium. Characterization of the calixarene nanoemulsion was performed by determination of the oily droplet size, zeta potential and pH, measured as a function of the calixarene concentration. The obtained results have confirmed the surface localization of calixarene molecules being potentially available to extract uranyl ions from an aqueous contaminated solution. In a preliminary experiments, the calixarene nanoemulsion was used for the removal of free uranium from an aqueous contaminated solution. Results showed that the calixarene nanoemulsion extracted up to 80 +/- 5% of uranium, which demonstrates the potential interest of this delivery system for uranium skin decontamination.

  20. Nanoemulsion Based Hydrogel for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Ketoprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Arora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the nanoemulgel as transdermal delivery system for poorly water soluble drug, ketoprofen, in order to overcome the troubles associated with its oral delivery. Different nanoemulsion components (oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant were selected on the basis of solubility and emulsification ability. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using titration method to figure out the concentration range of components. Carbomer 940 was added as gel matrix to convert nanoemulsion into nanoemulgel. Drug loaded nanoemulsions and nanoemulgels were characterized for particle size, TEM, viscosity, conductivity, spreadability, rheological behavior, and permeation studies using Wistar rat skin and stability studies. Transdermal permeation of ketoprofen from nanoemulgels was determined by using Franz diffusion cell. Nanoemulgel containing 6% oleic acid as oil, 35% Tween 80, and Transcutol P as surfactant cosurfactant mixture, 56.5% water, 2.5% drug, and 0.6% carbomer was concluded as optimized formulation (NG6. The ex vivo permeation profile of optimized formulation was compared with nanoemulsion and marketed formulation (Fastum. Nanoemulgel showed significantly higher (P<0.05 cumulative amount of drug permeated and flux along with lower lag time and skin retention than marketed formulation. Thus, the study substantiated that nanoemulgel formulation can be used as a feasible alternative to conventional formulations of ketoprofen with advanced permeation characteristics for transdermal application.

  1. Cell Labeling for 19F MRI: New and Improved Approach to Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsion Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Williams

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This report describes novel perfluorocarbon (PFC nanoemulsions designed to improve ex vivo cell labeling for 19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. 19F MRI is a powerful non-invasive technique for monitoring cells of the immune system in vivo, where cells are labeled ex vivo with PFC nanoemulsions in cell culture. The quality of 19F MRI is directly affected by the quality of ex vivo PFC cell labeling. When co-cultured with cells for longer periods of time, nanoemulsions tend to settle due to high specific weight of PFC oils (1.5–2.0 g/mL. This in turn can decrease efficacy of excess nanoemulsion removal and reliability of the cell labeling in vitro. To solve this problem, novel PFC nanoemulsions are reported which demonstrate lack of sedimentation and high stability under cell labeling conditions. They are monodisperse, have small droplet size (~130 nm and low polydispersity (<0.15, show a single peak in the 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum at −71.4 ppm and possess high fluorine content. The droplet size and polydispersity remained unchanged after 160 days of follow up at three temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C. Further, stressors such as elevated temperature in the presence of cells, and centrifugation, did not affect the nanoemulsion droplet size and polydispersity. Detailed synthetic methodology and in vitro testing for these new PFC nanoemulsions is presented.

  2. Organogel-nanoemulsion containing nisin and D-limonene and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Weiya; Zhou, Yan; Xing, Xuya; Zahi, Mohamed Reda; Li, Yuan; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a novel delivery system containing D-limonene and nisin by food organogel-nanoemulsion and study its effect on the antimicrobial activity. Organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin or without nisin was prepared by a homogenization method. Factors that may affect the droplet size and stability of organogel-nanoemulsion such as pressure and surfactant to oil ratio (SOR) were studied. The average droplet size decreased with pressure, and the organogel-nanoemulsion could achieve good stability at low SOR. Positive effects and outstanding antimicrobial activities of organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin were confirmed by minimal inhibitory concentrations comparison, growth curves of bacteria, scanning electron microscopy and determination of cell constituents' release. Furthermore, the organogel-nanoemulsion applied as food preservative in milk also shown excellent antimicrobial performance. Overall, the research described in the current article show that organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin may be an effective antimicrobial system for the production and preservation of food.

  3. Eugenol improves physical and chemical stabilities of nanoemulsions loaded with β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongguang; Wu, Jine; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-03-01

    Food-grade nanoemulsions are potential vehicles of labile lipophilic compounds such as β-carotene, but much work is needed to improve physical and chemical stabilities. The objective of this work was to study impacts of eugenol on physical and chemical stabilities of β-carotene-loaded nanoemulsions prepared with whey protein and lecithin. The combination of whey protein and lecithin resulted in stable nanoemulsions with eugenol added at 10% mass of soybean oil. Nanoemulsions, especially with eugenol, drastically reduced the degradation of β-carotene during ambient storage, heating at 60 and 80°C, and UV radiation at 254, 302, and 365nm. The droplet diameter of the nanoemulsion without eugenol increased from 153.6 to 227.3nm after 30-day ambient storage, contrasting with no significant changes of nanoemulsions with eugenol. Heating or UV radiation up to 8h did not significantly change the droplet diameter. Therefore, eugenol can be used to improve the stability of nanoemulsion delivery systems.

  4. Stability studies of silymarin nanoemulsion containing Tween 80 as a surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabea Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silymarin, a flavonolignan from "milk thistle" (Silybum marianum plant is used almost exclusively for hepatoprotection. Because of its low bioavailability, it was incorporated into a nanoemulsion formulation. The aim of the present study was to check the stability of silymarin nanoemulsion at different temperatures for 3 months. Materials and Methods: The oil-in-water based nanoemulsion formulation was prepared by titration method. Silymarin nanoemulsion was characterized by droplet size, viscosity, and refractive index. Droplet size, viscosity, and refractive index were determined every month. The shelf-life of silymarin nanoemulsion was determined by accelerated stability testing. Results: It was found that there was no significant change in the droplet size, viscosity, and refractive index at refrigerator and room temperature during the period of 3 months. The half-life of the optimized nanoemulsion formulation was found to be 4.74 years at room temperature. Conclusion: These results indicated that stability of silymarin can be enhanced in nanoemulsion formulation using Tween 80 as a surfactant.

  5. Rationalizing lipid nanoemulsion formation for utilization in the food and beverage industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jiajia

    There is growing interest in the use of nanoemulsions as delivery systems for lipophilic functional agents in food and beverage products due to their high optical clarity, physical stability and bioavailability. The goal of this research is to establish quantitative structure-function relationships to allow rational formulation of food-grade nanoemulsions for food and beverage applications. Initially, formation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions using a low energy method was examined. Nanoemulsions were formed using the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method, which involves heating a surfactant, oil, water (SOW) systems near the PIT, and then cooling rapidly with stirring. Preliminary experiments were carried out using a model system consisting of a non-ionic surfactant (C12E4), hydrocarbon oil (tetradecane), and water. Nanoemulsions were formed by holding SOW mixtures near their PIT (38.5 °C) and then cooling them rapidly to 10 °C. The PIT was measured using electrical, conductivity and turbidity methods. The optimum storage temperature for PIT-nanoemulsions was about 27 °C lower than the PIT. The stability of PIT-nanoemulsions at ambient temperatures can be improved by adding either Tween 80 (0.2 wt%) or SDS (0.1 wt%) to displace the C12E4 (Brij 30) from the nano-droplet surfaces. Experiments were then carried out to establish if stable nanoemulsions could be formed using the PIT method from food-grade ingredients. Nanoemulsions were fabricated from a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80) and flavor oil (lemon oil) by heat treatment. Different types of colloidal dispersion could be formed by simple heat treatment (90 °C, 30 minutes) depending on the surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR): emulsions at SOR 2. The results suggested that there was a kinetic energy barrier in the SOW system at ambient temperature that prevented it from moving from a highly unstable system into a nanoemulsion system. The conditions where stable nanoemulsions could be fabricated were also

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol nanoemulsion as a topical delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Fariba; Rajabnejhad, Saeid; Partoazar, Ali Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Syedmoradi, Leila; Rajabnejhad, Mohammad Reza; Amani, Amir

    2016-11-01

    Eugenol is the main constituent of clove oil with anti-inflammatory properties. In this work, for the first time, O/W nanoemulsion of eugenol was designed for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects as a topical delivery system. Topical formulations containing 1%, 2% and 4% of eugenol as well as a nanoemulsion system containing 4% eugenol and 0.5% piroxicam were prepared. Further to physicochemical examinations, such as determination of particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and physical stability, anti-inflammatory activity was examined in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The optimum formulation was found to contain 2% eugenol (oil phase), 14% Tween 20 (surfactant) and 14% isopropyl alcohol (co-surfactant) in water. Nanoemulsion with polydispersity index of 0.3 and median droplet diameter of 24.4 nm (d50) was obtained. Animal studies revealed that the nanoemulsions exhibited significantly improved anti-inflammatory activity after 1.5 h, compared with marketed piroxicam gel. Additionally, it was shown that increasing the concentration of eugenol did not show higher inhibition of inflammation. Also, the nanoemulsion having piroxicam showed less anti-inflammatory properties compared with the nanoemulsion without piroxicam.

  7. Design of nanoemulsion-based delivery systems of natural antimicrobials: effect of the emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donsì, Francesco; Annunziata, Marianna; Vincensi, Mariarosaria; Ferrari, Giovanna

    2012-06-30

    This work aims at investigating the effect of the nanoemulsion delivery systems on the antimicrobial activity of different essential oil components. Carvacrol, limonene and cinnamaldehyde were encapsulated in the sunflower oil droplets of nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenization and stabilized by different emulsifiers: (a) lecithin, (b) pea proteins, (c) sugar ester and (d) a combination of Tween 20 and glycerol monooleate. The antimicrobial activity was measured against three different microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The measured antimicrobial activity was significantly affected by the formulation of the nanoemulsion, where the different bioactive compounds were encapsulated. In particular, the effect of the delivery systems on the antimicrobial activity was correlated to the concentration of the essential oil components in the aqueous phase in equilibrium with the nanoemulsion droplets, suggesting that the ability of the active molecules to interact with cell membranes is associated to their dissolution in the aqueous phase. These considerations can lead to a more rational design of the nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for essential oils, based on the opportune choice of the emulsifiers in dependence of the desired function of the antimicrobials within the food system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanoemulsion Based Hydrogel for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Ketoprofen

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the nanoemulgel as transdermal delivery system for poorly water soluble drug, ketoprofen, in order to overcome the troubles associated with its oral delivery. Different nanoemulsion components (oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant) were selected on the basis of solubility and emulsification ability. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using titration method to figure out the concentration range of components. Carbomer 940 was added as gel...

  9. Development of Curcumin loaded chitosan polymer based nanoemulsion gel: In vitro, ex vivo evaluation and in vivo wound healing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lydia; Zakir, Foziyah; Mirza, Mohd Aamir; Anwer, Md Khalid; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Iqbal, Zeenat

    2017-03-16

    In the present study, various nanoemulsions were prepared using Labrafac PG+Triacetin as oil, Tween 80 as a surfactant and polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) as a co-surfactant. The developed nanoemulsions (NE1-NE5) were evaluated for physicochemical characterizations and ex-vivo for skin permeation and deposition studies. The highest skin deposition was observed for NE2 with 46.07% deposition amongst all developed nanoemulsions (NE1-NE5). Optimized nanoemulsion (NE2) had vesicle size of 84.032±0.023nm, viscosity 78.23±22.2 cps, refractive index 1.404. Nanoemulsion gel were developed by incorporation of optimized nanoemulsion (NE2) into 1-3% chitosan and characterized by physical evaluation and rheological studies. Chitosan gel (2%) was found to be suitable for gelation of nanoemulsion based on its consistency, feel and ease of spreadability. The flux of nanoemulsion gel was found 68.88μg/cm(2)/h as compared to NE2 (76.05μg/cm(2)/h) is significantly lower suggesting limited skin permeation of curcumin form gel. However, the retained amount of curcumin on skin by gel formulation (980.75±88μg) is significantly higher than NE2 (771.25±67μg). Enhanced skin permeation of NE2 (46.07%) was observed when compared to nanoemulsion gel (31.25%) and plain gel (11.47%). The outcome of this study evidently points out the potential of curcumin entrapped nanoemulsion gel in wound healing.

  10. Encapsulation of natural ingredient for skin protection via nanoemulsion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Usta, Aybala; Alzahrani, Naif; Patil, Vinay; Vanderwall, Adeesha

    2017-04-01

    Many of the sunscreens are used during the hot summer time to protect the skin surface. However, some of ingredients in the sunscreens, such as oxybenzone, retinyl palmitate and synthetic fragrances including parabens, phthalates and synthetic musk may disrupt the cells on the skin and create harmful effects to human body. Natural oils may be considered for substitution of harmful ingredients in sunscreens. Many natural oils (e.g., macadamia oil, sesame oil, almond oil and olive oil) have UV protective property and on top of that they have natural essences. Among the natural oils, olive oil has a long history of being used as a home remedy for skincare. Olive oil is used or substituted for cleanser, moisturizer, antibacterial agent and massage reliever for muscle fatigue. It is known that sun protection factor (SPF) of olive oil is around eight. There has been relatively little scientific work performed on the effect of olive oil on the skin as sunscreen. With nanoencapsulation technique, UV light protection of the olive oil can be extended which will provide better coverage for the skin throughout the day. In the present study, natural olive oil was incorporated with DI water and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate - SDS) and sonicated using probe sonicators. Sonication time, and concentrations of olive oil, DI water and surfactant were investigated in detail. The produced nanoemulsions were characterized using dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is believed that the nanoencupsulation of olive oil could provide better skin protection by slow releasing and deeper penetration of the nanoemulsion on skin surface. Undergraduate engineering students were involved in the project and observed all the process during the laboratory studies, as well as data collection, analysis and presentation. This experience based learning will likely enhance the students' skills and interest in the scientific and engineering studies.

  11. Comparative evaluation of propofol in nanoemulsion with solutol and soy lecithin for general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Rittes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The vehicle for propofol in 1 and 2% solutions is soybean oil emulsion 10%, which may cause pain on injection, instability of the solution and bacterial contamination. Formulations have been proposed aiming to change the vehicle and reduce these adverse reactions. OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of pain caused by the injection of propofol, with a hypothesis of reduction associated with nanoemulsion and the occurrence of local and systemic adverse effects with both formulations. METHOD: After approval by the CEP, patients undergoing gynecological procedures were included in this prospective study: control (n = 25 and nanoemulsion (n = 25 groups. Heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure and peripheral oxygen saturation were monitored. Demographics and physical condition were analyzed; surgical time and total volume used of propofol; local or systemic adverse effects; changes in variables monitored. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: There was no difference between groups regarding demographic data, surgical times, total volume of propofol used, arm withdrawal, pain during injection and variables monitored. There was a statistically significant difference in pain intensity at the time of induction of anesthesia, with less pain intensity in the nanoemulsion group. CONCLUSIONS: Both lipid and nanoemulsion formulations of propofol elicited pain on intravenous injection; however, the nanoemulsion solution elicited a less intense pain. Lipid and nanoemulsion propofol formulations showed neither hemodynamic changes nor adverse effects of clinical relevance.

  12. Identification of an emulsifier and conditions for preparing stable nanoemulsions containing the antioxidant astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D-M; Hyun, S-S; Yun, P; Lee, C-H; Byun, S-Y

    2012-02-01

    In this study, oil-in-water nanoemulsions of astaxanthin were prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The influence of emulsifying conditions including emulsifier type, concentration, passing time, astaxanthin concentration and coantioxidants were optimized. The stabilities of nanoemulsions were measured using zetasizer, FF-SEM, TEM, colorimeter and particle size analyzer. The mean diameter of the dispersed particles containing astaxanthin ranged from 160 to 190 nm. The size distribution was unimodal and extended from 100 to 200 nm. The nanoemulsions prepared with glyceryl citrate/lactate/linoleate/oleate (glyceryl ester) had smaller particle size and narrower size distribution than the emulsion prepared with hydrogenated lecithin. Stable incorporation of astaxanthin in nanoemulsion was performed and checked using HPLC, FF-SEM and TEM. The nanoemulsion was not significantly affected during storage under light and thermal condition for one month indicating that the nanoemulsion had a zeta potential of less than -41 mV, indicating a stable colloid. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Development of Lecithin Nanoemulsion Based Organogels for Permeation Enhancement of Metoprolol through Rat Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Varshosaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Drugs with low oral bioavailability due to the first pass metabolism are good candidates for transdermal delivery. Objectives. The aim of this work was preparation of transdermal nanoemulsion of metoprolol which has high first pass metabolism. Methods. Three commercially available types of lecithin (200, 100p, and 170, three short chain alcohol (n-butanol, isopropyl alcohol, and n-propanol, and isopropyl myristate (IPM were used as surfactant, cosurfactant, and oil phase, respectively. The aqueous phase was composed of metoprolol tartrate. Nanoemulsions with different surfactant/cosurfactant weight ratio, various amounts of drug, and different types of alcohol were prepared, and their phase diagrams were studied. Drug release, permeability, and diffusion coefficient of the drug were studied using hairless rat skin. Results. A significant increase in drug solution rate was observed with increasing the metoprolol content in the nanoemulsions, while it decreased when lecithin concentration increased from 40% to 60%. Increasing the water content resulted in a significant increase in metoprolol release. N-butanol enhanced the drug flux from nanoemulsions more than n-propanol and isopropyl alcohol. The o/w nanoemulsions of metoprolol showed high flux and permeability through the skin. Conclusion. Both w/o and o/w nanoemulsions of metoprolol could enhance permeation and diffusion of metoprolol through rat skin.

  14. Comparative evaluation of propofol in nanoemulsion with solutol and soy lecithin for general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittes, José Carlos; Cagno, Guilherme; Perez, Marcelo Vaz; Mathias, Ligia Andrade da Silva Telles

    2016-01-01

    The vehicle for propofol in 1 and 2% solutions is soybean oil emulsion 10%, which may cause pain on injection, instability of the solution and bacterial contamination. Formulations have been proposed aiming to change the vehicle and reduce these adverse reactions. To compare the incidence of pain caused by the injection of propofol, with a hypothesis of reduction associated with nanoemulsion and the occurrence of local and systemic adverse effects with both formulations. After approval by the CEP, patients undergoing gynecological procedures were included in this prospective study: control (n=25) and nanoemulsion (n=25) groups. Heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure and peripheral oxygen saturation were monitored. Demographics and physical condition were analyzed; surgical time and total volume used of propofol; local or systemic adverse effects; changes in variables monitored. A value of p<0.05 was considered significant. There was no difference between groups regarding demographic data, surgical times, total volume of propofol used, arm withdrawal, pain during injection and variables monitored. There was a statistically significant difference in pain intensity at the time of induction of anesthesia, with less pain intensity in the nanoemulsion group. Both lipid and nanoemulsion formulations of propofol elicited pain on intravenous injection; however, the nanoemulsion solution elicited a less intense pain. Lipid and nanoemulsion propofol formulations showed neither hemodynamic changes nor adverse effects of clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving the oral bioavailability of curcumin using novel organogel-based nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hailong; Huang, Qingrong

    2012-05-30

    Curcumin is a natural bioactive compound with many health-promoting benefits. Its low oral bioavailability limits its application in functional foods. In the present study, novel organogel-based nanoemulsions have been developed for oral delivery of curcumin and improvement of its bioavailability. Recently developed curcumin organogel was used as the oil phase in the curcumin nanoemulsion formulation. Tween 20 was selected as the emulsifier on the basis of maximum in vitro bioaccessibility of curcumin in the nanoemulsion. In vitro lipolysis profile revealed that the digestion of nanoemulsion was significantly faster and more complete than the organogel. Permeation experiments on Caco-2 cell monolayers suggested that digestion-diffusion was the major absorption mechanism for curcumin in the nanoemulsion. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacokinetics analysis on mice confirmed that the oral bioavailability of curcumin in the nanoemulsion was increased by 9-fold compared with unformulated curcumin. This novel formulation approach may also be used for oral delivery of other poorly soluble nutraceuticals with high loading capacity, which has significant impact in functional foods, dietary supplements and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Encapsulation of ω-3 fatty acids in nanoemulsion-based delivery systems fabricated from natural emulsifiers: Sunflower phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaiko, Jennifer; Sastrosubroto, Ashtri; McClements, David Julian

    2016-07-15

    Nanoemulsions have considerable potential for encapsulating and delivering ω-3 fatty acids, but they are typically fabricated from synthetic surfactants. This study shows that fish oil-in-water nanoemulsions can be formed from sunflower phospholipids, which have advantages for food applications because they have low allergenicity and do not come from genetically modified organisms. Nanoemulsions containing small droplets (dphospholipid type and concentration, with the smallest droplets being formed at high phosphatidylcholine levels and at surfactant-to-oil ratios exceeding unity. The physical stability of the nanoemulsions was mainly attributed to electrostatic repulsion, with droplet aggregation occurring at low pH values (low charge magnitude) and at high ionic strengths (electrostatic screening). These results suggest that sunflower phospholipids may be a viable natural emulsifier to deliver ω-3 fatty acids into food and beverage products.

  17. Food protein-stabilized nanoemulsions as potential delivery systems for poorly water-soluble drugs: preparation, in vitro characterization, and pharmacokinetics in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Tian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei He1, Yanan Tan1, Zhiqiang Tian1, Lingyun Chen2, Fuqiang Hu3, Wei Wu11Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Nanoemulsions stabilized by traditional emulsifiers raise toxicological concerns for long-term treatment. The present work investigates the potential of food proteins as safer stabilizers for nanoemulsions to deliver hydrophobic drugs. Nanoemulsions stabilized by food proteins (soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, ß-lactoglobulin were prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The toxicity of the nanoemulsions was tested in Caco-2 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide viability assay. In vivo absorption in rats was also evaluated. Food protein-stabilized nanoemulsions, with small particle size and good size distribution, exhibited better stability and biocompatibility compared with nanoemulsions stabilized by traditional emulsifiers. Moreover, ß-lactoglobulin had a better emulsifying capacity and biocompatibility than the other two food proteins. The pancreatic degradation of the proteins accelerated drug release. It is concluded that an oil/water nanoemulsion system with good biocompatibility can be prepared by using food proteins as emulsifiers, allowing better and more rapid absorption of lipophilic drugs.Keywords: oil in water nanoemulsions, food proteins, poorly water-soluble drugs, biocompatibility, in vivo absorption

  18. Study on Tetradecane Nanoemulsion for Thermal Energy Transportation and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Koji; Kawaji, Masahiro; Kawanami, Tsuyoshi

    Phase change emulsion (PCE) is a novel fluid used for heat storage and transfer. It has the following characteristics: higher apparent specific heat and higher heat transfer ability in the phase-change temperature range as compared to the conventional single-phase heat transfer fluids. In particular, oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions are latent heat storage materials that have low melting points, thus offering attractive opportunities for heat transfer enhancement and thermal energy transportation and storage. In this paper, milky white oil-in-water emulsions have been formed using water, Tween 80, Span 80, and tetradecane by low-energy emulsification methods (e.g., the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method). The relations between the component ratios of the emulsions and both the particle diameters and the stability of the resulting emulsions have been determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibration viscometry. The results show that the apparent viscosity of the nanoemulsion is lower than that of an emulsion, which was prepared with the same mixing ratio of surfactant and concentration of phase change material. Moreover, the surfactant concentration is found to contribute to the stability of the phase change nanoemulsion. Results indicate that the phase change nanoemulsion is a promising material for thermal storage applications.

  19. Formation and stabilization of nanoemulsions using biosurfactants: Rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Long; McClements, David Julian

    2016-10-01

    Nanoemulsions are used in the food, cosmetics, personal care and pharmaceutical industries to provide desirable optical, textural, stability, and delivery characteristics. In many industrial applications, it is desirable to formulate nanoemulsions using natural ingredients so as to develop label-friendly products. Rhamnolipids are biosurfactants isolated from certain microorganisms using fermentation processes. They are glycolipids that have a polar head consisting of rhamnose units and a non-polar tail consisting of a hydrocarbon chain. In this study, the interfacial characteristics of this natural surfactant at medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil-water interfaces were characterized, and its ability to form nanoemulsions was compared to that of another natural surfactant (quillaja saponins). The influence of rhamnolipid concentration, homogenization pressure, and oil type on the mean droplet diameter of emulsions produced by microfluidization was determined. Rhamnolipids were highly effective at forming small droplets (d32<0.15μm) at low surfactant-to-oil ratios (SOR<1:10) for MCT oil. Rhamnolipids could also be used to form small droplets using long chain triglyceride oils, such as corn and fish oil. Rhamnolipid-coated droplets were stable to aggregation over a range of pH values (5-9), salt concentrations (<100mM NaCl) and temperatures (20-90°C). However, droplet aggregation was observed at highly acidic (pH 2-4) and high ionic strength (200-500mM NaCl) conditions. These effects were attributed to a reduction in electrostatic repulsion at low pH and high salt levels. Rhamnolipid-coated droplets had a high negative charge at neutral pH that decreased in magnitude with decreasing pH. These results indicate that rhamnolipids are effective natural surfactants that may be able to replace synthetic surfactants in certain commercial applications.

  20. Concurrent study of stability and cytotoxicity of a novel nanoemulsion system - an artificial neural networks approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedhassantehrani, Negar; Karimi, Roya; Tavoosidana, Gholamreza; Amani, Amir

    2017-05-01

    Problems commonly associated with using nanoemulsions are their cytotoxic effects and low stability profiles. Here, for the first time, concentrations of ingredients of a nanoemulsion system were investigated to obtain the most stable nanoemulsion system with the least cytotoxic effect on MCF7 cell line. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to model the experimentally obtained data. Surfactant concentration was found to be the dominant factor in determining the stability - surfactant concentration above a critical point made the preparation unstable, while it appeared not to be influencing the cytotoxicity. Concentration of oil showed a direct relationship to the cytotoxicity with a minimum value required to provide an acceptable safety profile for the preparation. Co-surfactant appeared not to be considerably effective on neither stability nor cytotoxicity. To obtain the optimum preparation with maximum stability and minimum cytotoxicity, surfactant and oil values need to be kept at their maximum and minimum possible, respectively.

  1. Nanoemulsion strategy for olmesartan medoxomil improves oral absorption and extended antihypertensive activity in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorain, Bapi; Choudhury, Hira; Kundu, Amit; Sarkar, Lipi; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Jaisankar, P; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is hydrolyzed to its active metabolite olmesartan by the action of aryl esterase to exert its antihypertensive actions by selectively blocking angiotensin II-AT1 receptor. Poor aqueous solubility and uncontrolled enzymatic conversion of OM to its poorly permeable olmesartan limits its oral bioavailability. The aim of the current study was to formulate a novel nanoemulsion of OM to improve its pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy. The oil-in-water (o/w) nanoemulsion of OM was developed using lipoid purified soybean oil 700, sefsol 218 and solutol HS 15. We have characterized the nanoemulsions by considering their thermodynamic stability, morphology, droplet size, zeta potential and viscosity and in vitro drug release characteristics in fasting state simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and intestinal fluid (pH 6.5). The thermodynamically stable nanoemulsions comprises of spherical nanometer sized droplets (olmesartan in rat plasma following oral absorption study was determined by our validated LC-MS/MS method. The result of the pharmacokinetic study showed 2.8-fold increased in area under the curve (AUC0-27) of olmesartan upon oral administration of OM nanoemulsion and sustained release profile. Subsequent, in vivo studies with nanoemulsion demonstrated better and prolonged control of experimentally induced hypertension with 3-fold reduction in conventional dose. By analysing the findings of the present investigations based on stability study, Caco-2 permeability, pharmacokinetic profile and pharmacodynamic evaluation indicated that the nanoemulsion of OM (OMF6) could significantly enhance the oral bioavailability of relatively insoluble OM contributing to improved clinical application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, Juarana; Zermiani, Tailyn; Thiesen, Liliani C; Silveira, Joana LM; da Silva, Kathryn ABS; de Souza, Márcia M; Malheiros, Angela; Bresolin, Tania MB; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was −34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 μg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27660442

  3. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, Juarana; Zermiani, Tailyn; Thiesen, Liliani C; Silveira, Joana Lm; da Silva, Kathryn Abs; de Souza, Márcia M; Malheiros, Angela; Bresolin, Tania Mb; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth M

    The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was -34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 μg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity.

  4. A Novel Approach for Microencapsulation of Nanoemulsions to Overcome the Oxidation of Bioactives in Aqueous Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Jamshaid Qazi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a promising technique to retain the physical attributes of nanoemulsions and to overcome the oxidation of bioactives that become more available to aqueous phase during emulsification. Purity Gum Ultra (PGU and Hi-CAP 100 (HiCap emulsified nanoemulsions of Clove Oil (CO co-encapsulated with Canola oil (CA and Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT (5:5% v/v CO:CA and CO:MCT were prepared through high pressure homogenization. Microencapsulation of nanoemulsions was performed using Whey Protein Isolates (WPI under vacuum using freeze drying, which is considered as appropriate method for heat sensitive compounds. The reconstituted emulsions of microencapsulated powder had similar particle sizes as that of fresh nanoemulsions while uncoated showed a big increase (<400 nm. Oxidation of bioactives with and without CO, before and after freeze drying was investigated at different intervals during 60 days of storage at 4 and 25°C by Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS assay. Microencapsulated PGU-CO:CA showed minimum TBARS values compared to other emulsions. Gas chromatography analysis of microcapsules also showed higher retention of CO and lower content on the interphase for aqueous interaction. Conclusively, this study proposes a novel strategy using a freeze drying process to microencapsulate nanoemulsion.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of chlorambucil delivered in long-circulating nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Srinivas; Sharma, Puneet; Paxton, James W; Baguley, Bruce C; Garg, Sanjay

    2010-02-01

    Chlorambucil was incorporated into a nanoemulsion modified with poly(ethylene glycol) to improve its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution, and thus enhance its therapeutic efficacy. A long-circulating nanoemulsion (LNE) was prepared using soybean oil, egg lecithin, cholesterol and PEG(2000)DSPE. The LNE had an oil droplet size chlorambucil was encapsulated in the LNE. Intravenous (i.v.) administration of the chlorambucil LNE to C57 B/6 mice showed improved pharmacokinetic parameters with 1.4-fold higher area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and 1.3-fold longer half-life compared to a non-PEG-modified nanoemulsion, and 2.7-fold higher AUC and 7.6-fold longer half-life compared to chlorambucil solution. Tissue distribution studies after i.v. administration with LNE showed a considerable decrease in drug uptake in the reticulo-endothelial system containing organs compared to non-PEG-modified nanoemulsion. Additionally, the chlorambucil delivered in LNE significantly enhanced therapeutic efficacy in the subcutaneous colon-38 adenocarcinoma tumor mouse model with no apparent increase in toxicity. This study suggests that LNE could produce remarkably improved pharmacokinetic profile and therapeutic efficacy of chlorambucil compared to non-PEG-modified nanoemulsion and solution.

  6. Physicochemical Characterization and Thermodynamic Studies of Nanoemulsion-Based Transdermal Delivery System for Fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Loong Ngan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated in palm kernel oil esters stabilized by low amount of mixed nonionic surfactants. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were established in the colloidal system of PKOEs/Tween 80 : Span 80/water incorporated with fullerene as antioxidant. Preformulation was subjected to combination of high and low energy emulsification methods and the physicochemical characteristics of fullerene nanoemulsions were analyzed using electroacoustic spectrometer. Oil-in-water (O/W nanoemulsions with particle sizes in the range of 70–160 nm were formed. The rheological characteristics of colloidal systems exhibited shear thinning behavior which fitted well into the power law model. The effect of xanthan gum (0.2–1.0%, w/w and beeswax (1–3%, w/w in the estimation of thermodynamics was further studied. From the energetic parameters calculated for the viscous flow, a moderate energy barrier for transport process was observed. Thermodynamic study showed that the enthalpy was positive in all xanthan gum and beeswax concentrations indicating that the formation of nanoemulsions could be endothermic in nature. Fullerene nanoemulsions with 0.6% or higher xanthan gum content were found to be stable against creaming and flocculation when exposed to extreme environmental conditions.

  7. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Michel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions were taken according to size, electrophoretic mobility, conductivity, viscosity, turbidity, cristallization and melting point. The RHLB was calculated for each formulation in order to achieve maximum stability. Results Both tween 80 and soya lecithin were found to stabilize formulations. The results showed that rapeseed oil and miglyol are the predominant parameters for determining the expression of results concerning the characterization of emulsion. Based on the mixture design, we achieved the optimal point using the following formulation: 56.5% rapessed oil, 35.5% miglyol, and 8% salmon oil. We considered this formulation to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small size, good turbidity, and average HLB. Conclusions This study demonstrates the influence of formulation on the physico-chemical properties of each nano-emulsion obtained by the mixture design.

  8. Nanoemulsions as vehicles for transdermal delivery of glycyrrhizin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Kumar Harwansh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to evaluate an isotropic and thermodynamically stable nanoemulsion formulation for transdermal delivery of glycyrrhizin (GZ, with minimum surfactant and cosurfactant (Smix concentrations that could improve its solubility, permeation enhancement, and stability. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were developed and various nanoemulsion formulations were prepared using soyabean oil as oil, Span 80, Brij 35 as a surfactant and isopropyl alcohol as a cosurfactant. Nanoemulsion formulations that passed the thermodynamic stability tests were characterized for pH, viscosity and droplet size using a transmission electron microscopy. The transdermal ability of glycyrrhizin through human cadaver skin was determined using Franz diffusion cells. The in vitro skin permeation profile of the optimized nanoemulsion formulation (NE2 was compared to that of conventional gel. A significant increase in permeability parameters such as steady-state flux (Jss and permeability coefficient (Kp was observed in the optimized nanoemulsion formulation (NE2, which consisted of 1% wt/wt of mono ammonium glycyrrhizinate (MAG, 32.4% Span 80, 3.7% Brij 35, 10% isopropyl alcohol, 46.5% soyabean oil and 6.4% distilled water. No obvious skin irritation was observed for the studied nanoemulsion formulation (NE2 or the gel. The results indicated that nanoemulsions are promising vehicles for transdermal delivery of glycyrrhizin through human cadaver skin, without the use of additional permeation enhancers, because excipients of nanoemulsions act as permeation enhancers themselves.O objetivo da investigação é avaliar uma nanoemulsão isotrópica termodinamicamente estável para a administração transdérmica da glicirrizina (GZ, com concentrações mínimas de tensoativo e co-tensoativo (Smix, que poderiam melhorar a sua solubilidade, a permeação e a estabilidade. Os diagramas pseudo-ternários de fase foram desenvolvidos e diversas nanoemulsões foram

  9. Characteristics of cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion prepared using APV-high pressure homogenizer and ultra turrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmawati, Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Shamsuddin, Ahmad Fuad

    2014-09-01

    This work aims at determining the optimized parameter to prepare cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion by using high pressure homogenizer (2 passes at 900 bar) and ultra turrax T25 (12000 rpm for 5 min). Thirteen formulation of cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion obtained by Design Expert software were prepared at a range of oil and surfactant concentration between of 5% and 10% (v/v). Commercial cinnamaldehyde was blended with deionized water and Tween 80 (emulsifier). The responses used in obtaining the optimized condition were droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI) and emulsion stability (ζ-potential). Result showed that nanoemulsion prepared using 5% (v/v) cinnamaldehyde and 5% (v/v) Tween 80 and homogenized using high pressure homogenizer (APV, Germany) has the smallest size of droplet. The response surface plots for droplet size showed that droplet size (diameter, nm) decreased as the concentration of cinnamaldehyde oil and Tween 80 decreased. However ζ-potential value (mV) showed an increment as the cinnamaldehyde oil concentration decreased and Tween 80 increased. The optimum formulation as predicted by response surface methodology in order to produce a stable cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion was at 5% cinnamaldehyde oil and 7.11% Tween 80. At this optimized conditions the droplet size and ζ-potential values were 56.56 nm and -4.32 mV, respectively.

  10. Chemoprevention of skin cancer using low HLB surfactant nanoemulsion of 5-fluorouracil: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Al-Dhfyan, Abdullah; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2015-01-01

    Oral delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is difficult due to its serious adverse effects and extremely low bioavailability. Therefore, the aim of present investigation was to develop and evaluate low HLB surfactant nanoemulsion of 5-FU for topical chemoprevention of skin cancer. Low HLB surfactant nanoemulsions were prepared by oil phase titration method. Thermodynamically stable nanoemulsions were characterized in terms of droplet size distribution, zeta potential, viscosity and refractive index. Selected formulations and control were subjected to in vitro skin permeation studies through rat skin using Franz diffusion cells. Optimized formulation F9 was subjected to stability and in vitro cytotoxic studies on melanoma cell lines. Enhancement ratio was found to be 22.33 in formulation F9 compared with control and other formulations. The values of steady state flux and permeability coefficient for formulation F9 were found to be 206.40 ± 14.56 µg cm(-2) h(-1) and 2.064 × 10(-2) ± 0.050 × 10(-2 )cm h(-1), respectively. Optimized formulation F9 was found to be physical stable. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on SK-MEL-5 cancer cells indicated that 5-FU in optimized nanoemulsion is much more efficacious than free 5-FU. From these results, it can be concluded that the developed nanoemulsion might be a promising vehicle for chemoprevention of skin cancer.

  11. Nanoemulsions of thymol and eugenol co-emulsified by lauric arginate and lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiumin; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-09-01

    Lauric arginate (LAE) is a cationic surfactant with excellent antimicrobial activities. To incorporate essential oil components (EOCs) in aqueous systems, properties of EOC nanoemulsions prepared with a LAE and lecithin mixture were studied. The LAE-lecithin mixture resulted in stable translucent nanoemulsions of thymol and eugenol with spherical droplets smaller than 100nm, contrasting with the turbid emulsions prepared with individual emulsifiers. Zeta-potential data suggested the formation of LAE-lecithin complexes probably through hydrophobic interaction. Negligible difference was observed for antimicrobial activities of nanoemulsions and LAE in tryptic soy broth. In 2% reduced fat milk, nanoemulsions showed similar antilisterial activities compared to free LAE in inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes, but was less effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 than free LAE, which was correlated with the availability of LAE as observed in release kinetics. Therefore, mixing LAE with lecithin improved the physical properties of EOC nanoemulsions but did not improve antimicrobial activities, especially against Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physicochemical properties of lecithin-based nanoemulsions obtained by spontaneous emulsification or high-pressure homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselena S. Schuh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoemulsions composed of a medium-chain triglyceride oil core stabilized by rapeseed or sunflower lecithins were prepared by spontaneous emulsification and high-pressure homogenization. These nanoemulsions are compared with formulations stabilized by egg lecithin. Nanoemulsions obtained by high-pressure homogenization display larger droplet size (230 to 440 nm compared with those obtained by spontaneous emulsification (190 to 310 nm. The zeta potentials of the emulsions were negative and below -25 mV. Zeta potential inversion occurred between pH 3.0 and 4.0. The results demonstrate the feasibility of preparing lipid emulsions comprising rapeseed or sunflower lecithins by spontaneous emulsification and high-pressure homogenization.

  13. Nanoemulsion of D-limonene in water system prepared by ultrasonic emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Chien; Zhang, Ting-Jie; Huang, Da-Wei; Li, Po-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    D-Limonene is a component of essential oil extracted from citrus fruits. This component has shown chemopreventive and therapeutic activity against a wide variety of experimental tumors, but D-limonene is unstable and lose its lemon-like flavor under normal storage condition, and it is almost insoluble in water. Therefore, studying the formation of nanoemulsion in D-limonene in water system is probably a good method to prevent the oxidation degradation of D-limonene. For the purpose of our study, we used mixed surfactant to form D- limonene-in-water emulsion, and found the best formula for forming nanoemulsion droplets with specified hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value and droplet size. The results demonstrated that nanoemulsion droplets formed at So ratio of 0.4 and applied power of 18 W for 120 s under mixed surfactant at HLB values 12 and had droplet size of 20-50 nm.

  14. Pterodon emarginatus oleoresin-based nanoemulsion as a promising tool for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anna E M F M; Duarte, Jonatas L; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Souto, Raimundo N P; Ferreira, Ricardo M A; Peniche, Taires; da Conceição, Edemilson C; de Oliveira, Leandra A R; Faustino, Silvia M M; Florentino, Alexandro C; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2017-01-03

    Preparation of nanoformulations using natural products as bioactive substances is considered very promising for innovative larvicidal agents. On this context, oil in water nanoemulsions develop a main role, since they satisfactorily disperse poor-water soluble substances, such as herbal oils, in aqueous media. Pterodon emarginatus, popularly known as sucupira, has a promising bioactive oleoresin. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies were carried out to evaluate its potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, the main vector of the tropical neglected disease called lymphatic filariasis or elephantiasis. Thus, we aimed to investigate influence of different pairs of surfactants in nanoemulsion formation and investigate if a sucupira oleoresin-based nanoemulsion has promising larvicidal activity against this C. quinquefasciatus. We also evaluated morphological alteration, possible mechanism of insecticidal action and ecotoxicity of the nanoemulsion against a non-target organism. Among the different pairs of surfactants that were tested, nanoemulsions obtained with polysorbate 80/sorbitan monooleate and polysorbate 80/sorbitan trioleate presented smallest mean droplet size just afterwards preparation, respectively 151.0 ± 2.252 and 160.7 ± 1.493 nm. They presented high negative zeta potential values, low polydispersity index (algae Chlorella vulgaris at low concentration (25 mg/L). Our results suggest that optimal nanoemulsions may be prepared with different surfactants using a low cost and low energy simple method. Moreover, this prototype proved to be effective against C. quinquefasciatus, being considered an ecofriendly novel nanoproduct that can be useful in integrated control programs of vector control.

  15. Formulation of a Novel Nanoemulsion System for Enhanced Solubility of a Sparingly Water Soluble Antibiotic, Clarithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuti Vatsraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sparingly water soluble property of majority of medicinally significant drugs acts as a potential barrier towards its utilization for therapeutic purpose. The present study was thus aimed at development of a novel oil-in-water (o/w nanoemulsion (NE system having ability to function as carrier for poorly soluble drugs with clarithromycin as a model antibiotic. The therapeutically effective concentration of clarithromycin, 5 mg/mL, was achieved using polysorbate 80 combined with olive oil as lipophilic counterion. A three-level three-factorial central composite experimental design was utilized to conduct the experiments. The effects of selected variables, polysorbate 80 and olive oil content and concentration of polyvinyl alcohol, were investigated. The particle size of clarithromycin for the optimized formulation was observed to be 30 nm. The morphology of the nanoemulsion was explored using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The emulsions prepared with the optimized formula demonstrated good physical stability during storage at room temperature. Antibacterial activity was conducted with the optimized nanoemulsion NESH 01 and compared with free clarithromycin. Zone of inhibition was larger for NESH 01 as compared to that with free clarithromycin. This implies that the solubility and hence the bioavailability of clarithromycin has increased in the formulated nanoemulsion system.

  16. Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds: Influence of formulation parameters on Polymethoxyflavone crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Jinkai; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2011-01-01

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) extracted from citrus peel exhibit potent anti-cancer activity, but are highly hydrophobic molecules with poor solubility in both water and oil at ambient and body temperature, which limits their bioavailability. The possibility of encapsulating PMFs within nanoemulsion-based delivery systems to facilitate their application in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products was investigated. The influence of oil type (corn oil, MCT, orange oil), emulsifier type (β-lactogl...

  17. Lipid-nanoemulsions as drug delivery carriers for poorly-water soluble drug

    OpenAIRE

    Veerendra K. Nanjwade; F. V. Manvi; Basavaraj K. Nanjwade; Katare, O P

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug Aceclofenac, a lipidnanoemulsion comprising ethanolic solution of phospholipid 90 G and tween 80 in 1:1 ratio (Smix), triacetin and anseed oil as oil phase and distilled water as aqueous phase, in the ratio of 55:15:30 (% w/w) was developed by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and evaluated for viscosity, % transmittance, and surface morphology of nanoemulsions. In vitro diffusion (release) of Aceclofenac from three diff...

  18. Vitamin E loaded resveratrol nanoemulsion for brain targeting for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease by reducing oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangeni, Rudra; Sharma, Shrestha; Mustafa, Gulam; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol, a potent natural antioxidant, possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities, but its oral bioavailability is very low due to its extensive hepatic and presystemic metabolism. The aim of the present study was to formulate a kinetically stable nanoemulsion (o/w) using vitamin E:sefsol (1:1) as the oil phase, Tween 80 as the surfactant and Transcutol P as the co-surfactant for the better management of Parkinson’s disease. The nanoemulsion was prepared by a spontaneous emulsification method, followed by high-pressure homogenization. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to locate the area of nanoemulsion. The prepared formulations were studied for globule size, zeta potential, refractive index, viscosity, surface morphology and in vitro and ex vivo release. The homogenized formulation, which contained 150 mg ml-1 of resveratrol, showed spherical globules with an average globule diameter of 102 ± 1.46 nm, a least poly dispersity index of 0.158 ± 0.02 and optimal zeta potential values of -35 ± 0.02. The cumulative percentage drug release for the pre-homogenized resveratrol suspension, pre-homogenized nanoemulsion and post-homogenized nanoemulsion were 24.18 ± 2.30%, 54.32 ± 0.95% and 88.57 ± 1.92%, respectively, after 24 h. The ex vivo release also showed the cumulative percentage drug release of 85.48 ± 1.34% at 24 h. The antioxidant activity determined by using a DPPH assay showed high scavenging efficiency for the optimized formulation. Pharmacokinetic studies showed the higher concentration of the drug in the brain (brain/blood ratio: 2.86 ± 0.70) following intranasal administration of the optimized nanoemulsion. Histopathological studies showed decreased degenerative changes in the resveratrol nanoemulsion administered groups. The levels of GSH and SOD were significantly higher, and the level of MDA was significantly lower in the resveratrol nanoemulsion treated group.

  19. Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds: Influence of formulation parameters on Polymethoxyflavone crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Jinkai; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2012-06-01

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) extracted from citrus peel exhibit potent anti-cancer activity, but are highly hydrophobic molecules with poor solubility in both water and oil at ambient and body temperature, which limits their bioavailability. The possibility of encapsulating PMFs within nanoemulsion-based delivery systems to facilitate their application in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products was investigated. The influence of oil type (corn oil, MCT, orange oil), emulsifier type (β-lactoglobulin, lyso-lecithin, Tween, and DTAB), and neutral cosolvents (glycerol and ethanol) on the formation and stability of PMF-loaded nanoemulsions was examined. Nanoemulsions (r emulsifier types, except DTAB. Lipid droplet charge could be altered from highly cationic (DTAB), to near neutral (Tween), to highly anionic (β-lactoglobulin, lyso-lecithin) by varying emulsifier type. PMF crystals formed in all nanoemulsions after preparation, which had a tendency to sediment during storage. The size, morphology, and aggregation of PMF crystals depended on preparation method, emulsifier type, oil type, and cosolvent addition. These results have important implications for the development of delivery systems for bioactive components that have poor oil and water solubility at application temperatures.

  20. Nanoemulsion Thermoreversible Pluronic F127-Based Hydrogel Containing Hyptis pectinata (Lamiaceae) Leaf Essential Oil Produced a Lasting Anti-hyperalgesic Effect in Chronic Noninflammatory Widespread Pain in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Brito, Renan G; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Santos, Priscila L; Camargo, Zaine T; Barreto, Péricles A; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria F; Lucca-Júnior, Waldecy; Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus T; Kolker, Sandra J; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2017-02-13

    We evaluated if a nanostructured thermoreversible Pluronic F127-based hydrogel incorporated with Hyptis pectinata leaf essential oil (NE-EOH) produces a long-lasting anti-hyperalgesic effect on chronic muscle pain in an animal model. We induced chronic muscle pain by injecting the gastrocnemius with saline injections. Paw and muscle withdrawal thresholds and motor performance were evaluated after treatment and compared with morphine, diazepam, or vehicle. Naloxone and methysergide administration tested the involvement of opioid and serotonin receptors, respectively. Sites of action in the central nervous system for the NE-EOH were examined by measuring substance P (SP) levels in the spinal cord and Fos protein in the brainstem. NE-EOH increased paw and muscle withdrawal thresholds when compared with vehicle but had no effect on motor function. This analgesic effect was reversed by both naloxone and methysergide. NE-EOH decreased elevated substance P levels and reduced Fos-labeled neurons in the spinal cord and increased the number of Fos-labeled neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), and locus coeruleus (LC). NE-EOH was shown to produce a lasting anti-hyperalgesic effect. It uses opioid and serotonin receptors, activates brainstem inhibitory pathways, and reduces the release of excitatory neurotransmitters in the spinal cord and is a substance with potential to be used in the treatment of noninflammatory pain conditions. Graphical Abstract.

  1. Antimicrobial eugenol nanoemulsion prepared by gum arabic and lecithin and evaluation of drying technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiaobin; Gerhard, Hannah; Upadhyaya, Indu; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of present work was to develop eugenol oil nanoemulsions using gum arabic and lecithin as food grade natural emulsifiers, and study their antimicrobial activity. In addition, our study also evaluated different drying techniques (spray drying and freeze drying) on the morphology and redispersibility of nanoemulsion powders. The optimal fabrication method, physicochemical and structural characterization, stability, and antimicrobial activity were investigated. Results showed that nanoemusions with a particle size of 103.6±7.5nm were obtained by mixing aqueous phase (0.5% gum arabic, 0.5% lecithin, w/v) and eugenol oil (1.25%, w/v), which was premixed with ethanol (as a co-surfactant), followed by high speed homogenization process. The molecular interactions among emulsifiers and eugenol were evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Buchi B-90 Nano Spray Dryer was evaluated as a powerful tool to obtain ultrafine spherical powders with a size of less than 500nm, compared to flake-like aggregation obtained by freeze-drying. The dried powders exhibited excellent re-dispersibility in water and maintained their physicochemical properties after re-hydration. The nanoemulsions did not adversely affect the antimicrobial activity of eugenol against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. Therefore, the nanoemulsions have the potential to be applied in the food industry as a food preservative or sanitizer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ostwald Ripening Stability of Curcumin-Loaded MCT Nanoemulsion: Influence of Various Emulsifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Hyung; Ji, Yeun-Sun; Lee, Eui-Seok; Hong, Soon-Taek

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is a flavonoid found in the rhizome of the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L.) and has recently attracted interest because it has numerous biological functions and therapeutic properties. In the present study, we attempted to incorporate curcumin into medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) nanoemulsions (0.15 wt% curcumin, 10 wt% MCT oil, and 10 wt% emulsifiers) with various emulsifiers [polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween-20), sorbitan monooleate (SM), and soy lecithin (SL)]. The physicochemical properties of the nanoemulsions including the Ostwald ripening stability were investigated. The initial droplet size was found to be 89.08 nm for the nanoemulsion with 10 wt% Tween-20 (control), and when Tween-20 was partially replaced with SM and SL, the size decreased: 73.43 nm with 4 wt% SM+6 wt% Tween-20 and 67.68 nm with 4 wt% SL+6 wt% Tween-20 (prepared at 15,000 psi). When the nanoemulsions were stored for 28 days at room temperature, the droplet size increased as the storage time increased. The largest increase was observed for the control nanoemulsion, followed by the 4 wt% SL+6 wt% Tween-20 and 4 wt% SM+6 wt% Tween-20 systems. The Turbiscan dispersion stability results strongly supported the relationship between droplet size and storage time. The time-dependent increase in droplet size was attributed to the Ostwald ripening phenomenon. Thus, the Ostwald ripening stability of curcumin-loaded MCT nanoemulsions with Tween-20 was considerably improved by partially replacing the Tween-20 with SM or SL. In addition, curcumin may have acted as an Ostwald ripening inhibitor. PMID:27752506

  3. Enhanced oral absorption and therapeutic effect of acetylpuerarin based on D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun DQ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Deqing Sun,1,2 Xinbing Wei,1 Xia Xue,2 Zengjun Fang,3 Manru Ren,1 Haiyan Lou,1 Xiumei Zhang11Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Acetylpuerarin (AP, because of its lower water solubility, shows poor absorption that hinders its therapeutic application. Thus, the aim of this study was to prepare nanoemulsions for AP, enhance its oral bioavailability, and thus improve the therapeutic effect.Methods: The nanoemulsions stabilized by D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and characterized in terms of particle size, drug loading, morphology, and in vitro drug release. A lipid digestion model was used to predict in vivo drug solubilization in the gastrointestinal environment. The pharmacokinetics of AP formulations were performed in rats; meanwhile, a chylomicron flow-blocking rat model was used to evaluate the lymphatic drug transport. Moreover, the therapeutic effects of AP nanoemulsions on the model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion for brain injury were also assessed.Results: The nanoemulsions with a droplet size of 150 nm were well stabilized by TPGS and showed a high loading capacity for AP. In the digestion model, the distribution of AP in aqueous phase/pellet phase was about 90%/10% for nanoemulsions and 5%/95% for oil solution, indicating that the drug encapsulated in nanoemulsions would present in solubilized form after transportation into the gastrointestinal tract, whereas drug precipitation would occur as the oil solution was orally administered. The area under the curve value of AP nanoemulsions was 5.76±0.56 µg·hour·mL-1, or was about 2.6 and 1.7 times as great as that of suspension and oil solution, respectively, indicating enhanced drug

  4. Optimization of homogenization-evaporation process for lycopene nanoemulsion production and its beverage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Oh; Ha, Thi Van Anh; Choi, Young Jin; Ko, Sanghoon

    2014-08-01

    Lycopene is a natural antioxidant which has several health benefits. Undesirable oxidation of lycopene compromises its health benefits and also affects the sensory quality of food products containing lycopene. Health benefits associated with lycopene in food preparations can be enhanced by preventing its degradation by incorporating it into the oil phase of an oil-in-water nanoemulsion. In this study, lycopene nanoemulsions were prepared from a low-concentration lycopene extract using an emulsification-evaporation technique. The effects of the concentrations of the lycopene extract (0.015 to 0.085 mg/mL) and emulsifier (0.3 to 0.7 mg/mL), and the number of homogenization cycles (2 to 4) on the droplet size, emulsification efficiency (EE), and nanoemulsion stability were investigated and optimized by statistical analysis using a Box-Behnken design. Regression analysis was used to determine the 2nd-order polynomial model relationship of independent and dependent variables, with multiple regression coefficients (R(2)) of 0.924, 0.933, and 0.872, for the droplet size, EE, and nanoemulsion stability, respectively. Analysis of variance showed that the lycopene extract concentration has the most significant effect on all the response variables. Response surface methodology predicted that a formulation containing 0.085 mg/mL of lycopene extract and 0.7 mg/mL of emulsifier, subjected to 3 homogenization cycles, is optimal for achieving the smallest droplet size, greatest emulsion stability, and acceptable EE. The observed responses were in agreement with the predicted values of the optimized formulation. This study provided important information about the statistical design of lycopene nanoemulsion preparation.

  5. The influence of cationic lipid type on in-vitro release kinetic profiles of antisense oligonucleotide from cationic nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagigit, Tal; Nassar, Taher; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Lambert, Gregory; Benita, Simon

    2008-09-01

    Novel formulations of cationic nanoemulsions based on three different lipids were developed to strengthen the attraction of the polyanionic oligonucleotide (ODN) macromolecules to the cationic moieties on the oil nanodroplets. These formulations were developed to prolong the release of the ODN from the nanoemulsion under appropriate physiological dilutions as encountered in the eye following topical application. Increasing the concentration of the new cationic lipid exhibiting two cationic amine groups (AOA) in the emulsion from 0.05% to 0.4% did not alter markedly the particle size or zeta potential value of the blank cationic nanoemulsion. The extent of ODN association did not vary significantly when the initial concentration of ODN remained constant at 10 microM irrespective of the cationic lipid nature. However, the zeta potential value dropped consistently with the low concentrations of 0.05% and 0.1% of AOA in the emulsions suggesting that an electrostatic attraction occurred between the cationic lipids and the polyanionic ODN molecules at the o/w interface. Only the nanoemulsion prepared with N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium salts (DOTAP) remained physically stable over time. DOTAP cationic lipid nanoemulsion was the most efficient formulation capable of retaining the ODN despite the high dilution of 1:100 with simulated tear solution (STS). Less than 10% of the ODN was exchanged in contrast to 40-50% with the other cationic nanoemulsions. The in-vitro release kinetic behavior of ODN exchange with physiological anions present in the STS appears to be complex and difficult to characterize using mathematical fitting model equations. Further pharmacokinetic studies are needed to verify our kinetic assumptions and confirm the in-vitro ODN release profile from DOTAP cationic nanoemulsions.

  6. Ultrasonic emulsification of parenteral valproic acid-loaded nanoemulsion with response surface methodology and evaluation of its stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Suk Fei; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Karjiban, Roghayeh Abedi; Stanslas, Johnson; Kirby, Brian P; Basri, Mahiran; Basri, Hamidon Bin

    2016-03-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the formulation of a nanoemulsion for central delivery following parenteral administration. A mixture of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and safflower seed oil (SSO) was determined as a sole phase from the emulsification properties. Similarly, a natural surfactant (lecithin) and non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80) (ratio 1:2) were used in the formulation. A central composite design (CCD) with three-factor at five-levels was used to optimize the processing method of high energy ultrasonicator. Effects of pre-sonication ultrasonic intensity (A), sonication time (B), and temperature (C) were studied on the preparation of nanoemulsion loaded with valproic acid. Influence of the aforementioned specifically the effects of the ultrasonic processing parameters on droplet size and polydispersity index were investigated. From the analysis, it was found that the interaction between ultrasonic intensity and sonication time was the most influential factor on the droplet size of nanoemulsion formulated. Ultrasonic intensity (A) significantly affects the polydispersity index value. With this optimization method, a favorable droplet size of a nanoemulsion with reasonable polydispersity index was able to be formulated within a short sonication time. A valproic acid loaded nanoemulsion can be obtained with 60% power intensity for 15 min at 60 °C. Droplet size of 43.21±0.11 nm with polydispersity index of 0.211 were produced. The drug content was then increased to 1.5%. Stability study of nanoemulsion containing 1.5% of valproic acid had a good stability as there are no significant changes in physicochemical aspects such as droplet size and polydispersity index. With the characteristisation study of pH, viscosity, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and stability assessment study the formulated nanoemulsion has the potential to penetrate blood-brain barrier in the treatment of epilepsy.

  7. Delivery of dietary triglycerides to Caenorhabditis elegans using lipid nanoparticles: Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Daniel; Sun, Quancai; Shen, Peiyi; Yue, Yiren; McClements, D Julian; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-07-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful tool for studying food bioactives on specific biochemical pathways. However, many food bioactives are highly hydrophobic with extremely low water-solubilities, thereby making them difficult to study using C. elegans. The purpose of this study was to develop nanoemulsion-based systems to deliver hydrophobic molecules in a form that could be ingested by C. elegans. Optical microscopy showed that oil-in-water nanoemulsions with a range of particle diameters (40-500nm) could be ingested by C. elegans. The amount of lipid ingested depended on the size and concentration of the nanoparticles. Fatty acid analysis showed incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and there was a significant reduction in the fat levels of C. elegans when they were incubated with nanoemulsions containing conjugated linoleic acid, which suggested that this hydrophobic lipid was successfully delivered to the nematodes. The incorporation of hydrophobic molecules into nanoemulsion based-delivery systems may therefore enable their activities to be studied using C. elegans.

  8. Preparation and in vitro /ex vivo evaluation of nanoemulsion for transnasal delivery of paliperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mrunali R.; Patel, Mitali H.; Patel, Rashmin B.

    2016-11-01

    Paliperidone was formulated in mucoadhesive nanoemulsion with the aim of improving its solubility and transnasal delivery, which can further utilized for its preclinical evaluation. Solubility of Paliperidone in oils, emulsifiers, co-emulsifiers was determined to identify nanoemulsion components. Emulsifier and co-emulsifiers were screened for their ability to emulsify selected oily phase. Phase diagrams were constructed to identify the area of nanoemulsification. Paliperidone nanoemulsion was formulated using spontaneous nanoemulsification method. The three nanoemulsions (PMNE4, PMNE5, and PMNE6) containing 5.71-6.80 % oleic acid as an oily phase, 47.62-51.63 % labrasol and plurol oleique CC 497 as emulsifier mixture (1:1), 42.86-45.58 % (wt/wt) aqueous phase having a suitable optical transparency of 98.33-99.33 %, globule size of 28.8-43.2 nm and polydispersity of 0.129-0.152 were selected for the incorporation of mucoadhesive polymer. The PMNE6 showed highest flux (5.072 ± 0.13 µg/cm2/min) with enhancement ratio of 1.1 as compared to Paliperidone solution (PS). The diffusion co-efficient of PMNE6 was significantly higher than PMNE5, PMNE4 and PS and followed higuchi model. The formulation was found to be free from nasal cilio toxicity. All formulations were found to be stable for 6 months at room temperature.

  9. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of self-assembled alcohol/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammouda Boualem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Very large thermal conductivity enhancement had been reported earlier in colloidal suspensions of solid nanoparticles (i.e., nanofluids and more recently also in oil-in-water emulsions. In this study, nanoemulsions of alcohol and polyalphaolefin (PAO are spontaneously generated by self-assembly, and their thermal conductivity and viscosity are investigated experimentally. Alcohol and PAO have similar thermal conductivity values, so that the abnormal effects, such as particle Brownian motion, on thermal transport could be deducted in these alcohol/PAO nanoemulsion fluids. Small angle neutron-scattering measurement shows that the alcohol droplets are spheres of 0.8-nm radius in these nanoemulsion fluids. Both thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of the fluids are found to increase with alcohol droplet loading, as expected from classical theories. However, the measured conductivity increase is very moderate, e.g., a 2.3% increase for 9 vol%, in these fluids. This suggests that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity is observed in the alcohol/PAO nanoemulsion fluids tested in this study.

  10. Effects of Small and Large Molecule Emulsifiers on the Characteristics of β-Carotene Nanoemulsions Prepared by High Pressure Homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Like Mao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil-in-water (O/W nanoemulsion allows the preparation of lipophilic nutrients such as carotenoids in liquid form, which may improve their bioavailability and broaden applications. In the present study, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20, TW-20, decaglycerol monolaurate (DML, octenyl succinate starch (OSS, whey protein isolate (WPI, and finally a blend of TW-20 and WPI (1 % by mass have been tested for the preparation of β-carotene nanoemulsions. Interfacial tension, droplet size, zeta potential, microstructures observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM, stability of the emulsion and β-carotene have been compared. Results show that nanoemulsions stabilized with TW-20 and DML had smaller droplet size, but relatively poorer stability, compared with the ones stabilized with OSS and WPI (p0.05.

  11. Antibacterial activity of neem nanoemulsion and its toxicity assessment on human lymphocytes in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Jerobin, Jayakumar; Makwana, Pooja; Suresh Kumar, RS; Sundaramoorthy, Rajiv; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is recognized as a medicinal plant well known for its antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Neem nanoemulsion (NE) (O/W) is formulated using neem oil, Tween 20, and water by high-energy ultrasonication. The formulated neem NE showed antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus by disrupting the integrity of the bacterial cell membrane. Despite the use of neem NE in various biomedical applications, the toxicity s...

  12. Antibacterial activity of neem nanoemulsion and its toxicity assessment on human lymphocytes in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Jayakumar, Jerobin; Makwana, Pooja; Kumar, Suresh; Mukherjee, Amitava; Sundaramoorthy, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Jayakumar Jerobin, Pooja Makwana, RS Suresh Kumar, Rajiv Sundaramoorthy, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Neem (Azadirachta indica) is recognized as a medicinal plant well known for its antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Neem nanoemulsion (NE) (O/W) is formulated using neem oil, Tween 20, and water by high-energy ultrasonication. The formulated neem NE showed antibac...

  13. Analysis of anti-neoplastic drug in bacterial ghost matrix, w/o/w double nanoemulsion and w/o nanoemulsion by a validated 'green' liquid chromatographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssof, Abdullah M E; Salem-Bekhit, Mounir M; Shakeel, Faiyaz; Alanazi, Fars K; Haq, Nazrul

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to develop and validate a 'green' reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for rapid analysis of a cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in bulk drug, marketed injection, water-in-oil (w/o) nanoemulsion, double water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) nanoemulsion and bacterial ghost (BG) matrix. The chromatography study was carried out at room temperature (25±1°C) using an HPLC system with the help of ultraviolet (UV)-visible detector. The chromatographic performance was achieved with a Nucleodur 150mm×4.6mm RP C8 column filled with 5µm filler as a static phase. The mobile phase consisted of ethyl acetate: methanol (7:3% v/v) which was delivered at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin(-1) and the drug was detected in UV mode at 254nm. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity (r(2)=0.998), accuracy (98.19-102.09%), precision (% RSD=0.58-1.17), robustness (% RSD=0.12-0.53) and sensitivity with satisfactory results. The efficiency of the method was demonstrated by the assay of the drug in marketed injection, w/o nanoemulsion, w/o/w nanoemulsion and BG with satisfactory results. The successful resolution of the drug along with its degradation products clearly established the stability-indicating nature of the proposed method. Overall, these results suggested that the proposed analytical method could be effectively applied to the routine analysis of 5-FU in bulk drug, various pharmaceutical dosage forms and BG.

  14. Process optimization of ultrasound-assisted curcumin nanoemulsions stabilized by OSA-modified starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Shabbar; Bashari, Mohanad; Akhtar, Waseem; Li, Wei Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2014-07-01

    This study reports on the process optimization of ultrasound-assisted, food-grade oil-water nanoemulsions stabilized by modified starches. In this work, effects of major emulsification process variables including applied power in terms of power density and sonication time, and formulation parameters, that is, surfactant type and concentration, bioactive concentration and dispersed-phase volume fraction were investigated on the mean droplet diameter, polydispersity index and charge on the emulsion droplets. Emulsifying properties of octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches, that is, Purity Gum 2000, Hi-Cap 100 and Purity Gum Ultra, and the size stability of corresponding emulsion droplets during the 1 month storage period were also investigated. Results revealed that the smallest and more stable nanoemulsion droplets were obtained when coarse emulsions treated at 40% of applied power (power density: 1.36 W/mL) for 7 min, stabilized by 1.5% (w/v) Purity Gum Ultra. Optimum volume fraction of oil (medium chain triglycerides) and the concentration of bioactive compound (curcumin) dispersed were 0.05 and 6 mg/mL oil, respectively. These results indicated that the ultrasound-assisted emulsification could be successfully used for the preparation of starch-stabilized nanoemulsions at lower temperatures (40-45 °C) and reduced energy consumption.

  15. Modified Nanoemulsions with Iron Oxide for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi Fan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A nanoemulsion (NE is a surfactant-based, oil-in-water, nanoscale, high-energy emulsion with a mean droplet diameter of 400–600 nm. When mixed with antigen and applied nasally, a NE acts as a mucosal adjuvant and induces mucosal immune responses. One possible mechanism for the adjuvant effect of this material is that it augments antigen uptake and distribution to lymphoid tissues, where the immune response is generated. Biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles have been used as a unique imaging approach to study the dynamics of cells or molecular migration. To study the uptake of NEs and track them in vivo, iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and dispersed in soybean oil to make iron oxide-modified NEs. Our results show that iron oxide nanoparticles can be stabilized in the oil phase of the nanoemulsion at a concentration of 30 µg/μL and the iron oxide-modified NEs have a mean diameter of 521 nm. In vitro experiments demonstrated that iron oxide-modified NEs can affect uptake by TC-1 cells (a murine epithelial cell line and reduce the intensity of magnetic resonance (MR images by shortening the T2 time. Most importantly, in vivo studies demonstrated that iron oxide-modified NE could be detected in mouse nasal septum by both transmission electron microscopy and MR imaging. Altogether these experiments demonstrate that iron oxide-modified NE is a unique tool that can be used to study uptake and distribution of NEs after nasal application.

  16. Non-enzymatic glucose detection using magnetic nanoemulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahendran, V.; Philip, John, E-mail: philip@igcar.gov.in [SMARTS, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-09-22

    We probe the optical properties and intermolecular interactions in magnetically responsive nanoemulsions in the presence of glucose. The equilibrium interdroplet distance between the emulsion droplets in an one-dimensional array increases by several nanometers in the presence of glucose because of intermolecular hydrogen bonding with sodium dodecyl sulphate molecules at the oil-water interface that gives rise to stretched lamellae-like structure. The observed large red shift in the diffracted Bragg peak (∼50–100 nm) and the linear response in the glucose concentration range of 0.25–25 mM offer a simple, fast, and cost effective non-enzymatic approach for glucose detection.

  17. Induction of systemic and mucosal immunity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection by a novel nanoemulsion adjuvant vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, HongWu; Wei, Chao; Liu, BaoShuai; Jing, HaiMing; Feng, Qiang; Tong, YaNan; Yang, Yun; Yang, LiuYang; Zuo, QianFei; Zhang, Yi; Zou, QuanMing; Zeng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterial pathogen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can cause infections in the bloodstream, endocardial tissue, respiratory tract, culture-confirmed skin, or soft tissue. There are currently no effective vaccines, and none are expected to become available in the near future. An effective vaccine capable of eliciting both systemic and mucosal immune responses is also urgently needed. Here, we reported a novel oil-in-water nanoemulsion adjuvant vaccine containing an MRSA recombination protein antigen, Cremophor EL-35(®) as a surfactant, and propylene glycol as a co-surfactant. This nanoemulsion vaccine, whose average diameter was 31.34±0.49 nm, demonstrated good protein structure integrity, protein specificity, and good stability at room temperature for 1 year. The intramuscular systemic and nasal mucosal immune responses demonstrated that this nanoemulsion vaccine could improve the specific immune responses of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and related subclasses, such as IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b, as well as IgA, in the serum after Balb/c mice intramuscular immunization and C57 mice nasal immunization. Furthermore, this nanoemulsion vaccine also markedly enhanced the interferon-γ and interleukin-17A cytokine cell immune response, improved the survival ratio, and reduced bacterial colonization. Taken together, our results show that this novel nanoemulsion vaccine has great potential and is a robust generator of an effective intramuscular systemic and nasal mucosal immune response without the need for an additional adjuvant. Thus, the present study serves as a sound scientific foundation for future strategies in the development of this novel nanoemulsion adjuvant vaccine to enhance both the intramuscular systemic and nasal mucosal immune responses.

  18. Development and validation of an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric method for determination of phenylethyl resorcinol in new topical nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, L; Han, D; Li, M-X; Zhang, P; Liu, C-G

    2017-06-01

    To develop a rapid, simple and efficient ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric method for the quantification of phenylethyl resorcinol (PR), a potent skin-lightening agent, incorporated into new topical nanoemulsions, and to validate this method according to International Commission for Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. UV-vis spectrophotometric method for quantification of PR in new topical nanoemulsions was developed and validated in terms of specificity, linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. The method was applied to determine PR content (extraction recoveries) in the nanoemulsions and entrapment efficiencies. The calibration curve for PR was linear in the range of 10-60 μg mL(-1) , with a determination coefficient (r(2) ) which is higher than 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 1.55 and 4.69 μg mL(-1) , respectively. The method was shown to be specific, precise [intraday, interday and reproducibility levels relative standard deviation < 3%] and accurate (between 91.90 ± 1.28% and 104.73 ± 0.60%). The extraction recoveries of PR in nanoemulsions were 97.07%, 96.64% and 103.54% at concentrations of 3, 6 and 9 mg mL(-1) , respectively. The entrapment efficiencies were nearly 100%, which agrees with the oil core location of PR in nanoemulsions. This developed method was confirmed to be rapid, simple, cost-effective, specific, precise, accurate and suitable for determination of PR content in nanoemulsions and entrapment efficiencies. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Development and evaluation of zinc phthalocyanine nanoemulsions for use in photodynamic therapy for Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzler de Oliveira de Siqueira, Luciana; da Silva Cardoso, Verônica; Almeida Rodrigues, Igor; Lúcia Vazquez-Villa, Ana; Pereira dos Santos, Elisabete; da Costa Leal Ribeiro Guimarães, Bruno; dos Santos Cerqueira Coutinho, Cristal; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Ricci Junior, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) combines light with photosensitizers (PS) for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill infectious microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The application of nanotechnology has enabled the advancement of PDT because many PS are insoluble in water, necessitating a nanocarrier as a physiologically acceptable carrier. Nanoemulsions are efficient nanocarriers for solubilizing liposoluble drugs, like the PS, in water. Cutaneous (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) are caused by different species of the genus Leishmania, transmitted to humans by sandfly bites. Parasites are hosted in skin macrophages producing ulcerative lesions. Thus, a topical treatment, effective and inexpensive, for CL and ML is preferable to systemic interventions. There are topical treatments like paromomycin and amphotericin B, but they have many local side effects or a very high cost, limiting their use. This work aimed to develop a zinc phthalocyanine (photosensitizer) oil-in-water nanoemulsion, essential clove oil and polymeric surfactant (Pluronic® F127) for the formulation of a topical delivery system for use in PDT against Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania infantum. The nanoemulsion was produced by a high-energy method and characterized by size, polydispersity, morphology, pH, content and stability studies. The toxicity in the dark and the photobiological activity of the formulations were evaluated in vitro for Leishmania and macrophages. The formulation presented was pH compatible with topical use, approximately 30 nm in size, with a polydispersity index ≤0.1 and remained stable at room and refrigerator temperature during the stability study (60 days). The zinc phthalocyanine nanoemulsion is effective in PDT against Leishmania spp.; use against skin infections can be a future application of this topical formulation, avoiding the use of oral or injectable medications, decreasing systemic adverse effects.

  20. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Mas J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Juarana Dal Mas,1 Tailyn Zermiani,1 Liliani C Thiesen,1 Joana LM Silveira,2 Kathryn ABS da Silva,1 Márcia M de Souza,1 Angela Malheiros,1 Tania MB Bresolin,1 Ruth M Lucinda-Silva1 1NIQFAR, Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was -34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 µg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanoemulsion, Rapanea ferruginea, anti-inflammatory, phytomedicine

  1. Intracellular pH measurements using perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Michael J; Janjic, Jelena M; Teng, Haibing; O'Hear, Meredith R; Brown, Cortlyn W; Stokum, Jesse A; Schmidt, Brigitte F; Ahrens, Eric T; Waggoner, Alan S

    2013-12-11

    We report the synthesis and formulation of unique perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoemulsions enabling intracellular pH measurements in living cells via fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. These nanoemulsions are formulated to readily enter cells upon coincubation and contain two cyanine-based fluorescent reporters covalently bound to the PFC molecules, specifically Cy3-PFC and CypHer5-PFC conjugates. The spectral and pH-sensing properties of the nanoemulsions were characterized in vitro and showed the unaltered spectral behavior of dyes after formulation. In rat 9L glioma cells loaded with nanoemulsion, the local pH of nanoemulsions was longitudinally quantified using optical microscopy and flow cytometry and displayed a steady decrease in pH to a level of 5.5 over 3 h, indicating rapid uptake of nanoemulsion to acidic compartments. Overall, these reagents enable real-time optical detection of intracellular pH in living cells in response to pharmacological manipulations. Moreover, recent approaches for in vivo cell tracking using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) employ intracellular PFC nanoemulsion probes to track cells using (19)F MRI. However, the intracellular fate of these imaging probes is poorly understood. The pH-sensing nanoemulsions allow the study of the fate of the PFC tracer inside the labeled cell, which is important for understanding the PFC cell loading dynamics, nanoemulsion stability and cell viability over time.

  2. Study of O/W micro- and nano-emulsions based on propylene glycol diester as a vehicle for geranic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Małgorzata; Sikora, Elżbieta; Ogonowski, Jan; Konieczna, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Nano- and microemulsions containing as the oil phase caprylic/capric propylene glycol diesters (Crodamol PC) were investigated as potential vehicle for controlled release of geranic acid. The influence of emulsifiers and co-surfactants on stability of the emulsions was investigated. Different kind of polysorbates (ethoxylated esters of sorbitan and fatty acids) were applied as the emulsifiers. The short-chain alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol) were used as co-surfactants. The emulsions were prepared at ambient temperature (25°C), by the phase inversion composition method (PIC). The stable O/W high dispersed emulsion systems based on Crodamol PC, of mean droplets size less than 200 nm, were prepared. Microemulsions stabilized by the mixture of Polisorbat 80 and 1-butanol were characterized by the largest degree of dispersion (137 nm) and the lowest PDI value (0.094), at surfactant/co-surfactant: oil weight ratio 90:10. The stable nano-emulsion (mean droplet size of 33 nm) was obtained for surfactant: oil (S:O) weight ratio 90:10, without co-surfactant addition. This nano-emulsion was chosen to release studies. The obtained results showed that the prepared stable nano-emulsion can be used as a carrier for controlled release of geranic acid. The active substance release from the nano-emulsion and the oil solution, after 24 hours was 22%.

  3. Nanoemulsions containing octyl methoxycinnamate and solid particles of TiO₂: preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of the solar protection factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flavia F F; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; Mansur, Claudia R E

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate the physical-chemical properties of oil-in-water nanoemulsions for application as nanocosmetics for sun protection. Oil-in-water dispersions were processed by ultrasound (US) to obtain small emulsion droplets. These emulsions were obtained in the presence of commercial nonionic surfactants based on polyoxides and avocado oil as the oil phase. The US generated small but unstable droplets. This problem was solved by using a different surfactant, with a longer ethylene oxide chain, able to promote stabilization by steric mechanisms. The light scattering technique was used to characterize the nanoemulsions by their dispersed droplets' size, size distribution and variation of distribution with time (stability). Chemical and physical sunscreens - octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) and titanium dioxide (TiO₂), respectively - were added to the stable system. The anti-UVB activity of the nanoemulsions and their components were evaluated by the method of Mansur et al. (1986) and spectral transmittance. The solar protection factor (SPF) was proportional to the OMC and TiO₂ concentrations. The in vitro OMC release was evaluated, and the presence of TiO₂ in the nanoemulsion did not affect the release profile, which showed the diffusion-dependent kinetics of the active ingredient in the formulation.

  4. Solid-Nanoemulsion Preconcentrate for Oral Delivery of Paclitaxel: Formulation Design, Biodistribution, and γ Scintigraphy Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of present study was to develop a solid nanoemulsion preconcentrate of paclitaxel (PAC using oil [propylene glycol monocaprylate/glycerol monooleate, 4 : 1 w/w], surfactant [polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monooleate/polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate, 1 : 1 w/w], and cosurfactant [diethylene glycol monoethyl ether/polyethylene glycol 300, 1 : 1 w/w] to form stable nanocarrier. The prepared formulation was characterized for droplet size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were used to assess surface morphology and drug encapsulation and its integrity. Cumulative drug release of prepared formulation through dialysis bag and permeability coefficient through everted gut sac were found to be remarkably higher than the pure drug suspension and commercial intravenous product (Intaxel, respectively. Solid nanoemulsion preconcentrate of PAC exhibited strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of MCF-7 cells in MTT assay. In vivo systemic exposure of prepared formulation through oral administration was comparable to that of Intaxel in γ scintigraphy imaging. Our findings suggest that the prepared solid nanoemulsion preconcentrate can be used as an effective oral solid dosage form to improve dissolution and bioavailability of PAC.

  5. Investigation of the structural organization of cationic nanoemulsion/antisense oligonucleotide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruxel, Fernanda; Vilela, José Mario Carneiro; Andrade, Margareth Spangler; Malachias, Ângelo; Perez, Carlos A; Magalhães-Paniago, Rogério; Oliveira, Mônica Cristina; Teixeira, Helder F

    2013-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy image analysis and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction experiments were used to investigate the structural organization of cationic nanoemulsion/oligonucleotide complexes. Oligonucleotides targeting topoisomerase II gene were adsorbed on cationic nanoemulsions obtained by means of spontaneous emulsification procedure. Topographical analysis by atomic force microscopy allowed the observation of the nanoemulsion/oligonucleotide complexes through three-dimensional high-resolution images. Flattening of the oil droplets was observed, which was reduced in the complexes obtained at high amount of adsorbed oligonucleotides. In such conditions, complexes exhibit droplet size in the 600nm range. The oligonucleotides molecules were detected on the surface of the droplets, preventing their fusion during aggregation. A lamellar structure organization was identified by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction experiments. The presence of the nucleic acid molecules led to a disorganization of the lipid arrangement and an expansion in the lattice spacing, which was proportional to the amount of oligonucleotides added. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment.

  7. Buffered nanoemulsion for nose to brain delivery of ziprasidone hydrochloride: preformulation and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Shiv; Pathak, Kamla

    2012-11-01

    The study was undertaken to develop buffered nanoemulsion of ziprasidone hydrochloride (fifth generation antipshychotic) and evaluate its potential for efficacious nose to brain delivery drug delivery in animal models. Homogeneous buffered ziprasidone nanoemulsions (BZNE) were prepared by aqueous (phosphate buffer, pH 8.0) titration method using capmul MCM, labrasol and transcutol as oil, surfactant and cosurfactant respectively. The NEs (F1-F7) were characterized for pharmaceutical characteristics (% transmittance, PDI value, Zeta potential, globule size, viscosity and diffusion coefficient) and F6 with mean globule size of 145.24 ± 4.75nm (PDI = 0.186 ± 0.40) and diffusion coefficient of 0.1901± 0.04cm2/min was thermodynamically stable and was developed as buffered mucoadhesive nanoemulsions. The buffered mucoadhesive NE (βmax = 0.57) that contained 0.5% by weight of chitosan (BZMNE) exhibited 1.79 times higher diffusion coefficient (0.3418 ± 0.03) than BZNE. Pharmacodynamic study confirmed the superiority of BZMNE over BZNE in locomotor activity test (p < 0.05) and paw test (p < 0.05). Nasal ciliotoxicity study revealed the optimized BZMNE to be free from acute toxicity. Conclusively, a stable and efficacious buffered mucoadhesive NE of ziprasidone hydrochloride, that can be safely administered by intranasal route was developed.

  8. Preparation and in vitro/ex vivo evaluation of nanoemulsion for transnasal delivery of paliperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrunali R. Patel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Paliperidone was formulated in mucoadhesive nanoemulsion with the aim of improving its solubility and transnasal delivery, which can further utilized for its preclinical evaluation. Solubility of Paliperidone in oils, emulsifiers, co-emulsifiers was determined to identify nanoemulsion components. Emulsifier and co-emulsifiers were screened for their ability to emulsify selected oily phase. Phase diagrams were constructed to identify the area of nanoemulsification. Paliperidone nanoemulsion was formulated using spontaneous nanoemulsification method. The three nanoemulsions (PMNE4, PMNE5, and PMNE6 containing 5.71–6.80 % oleic acid as an oily phase, 47.62–51.63 % labrasol and plurol oleique CC 497 as emulsifier mixture (1:1, 42.86–45.58 % (wt/wt aqueous phase having a suitable optical transparency of 98.33–99.33 %, globule size of 28.8–43.2 nm and polydispersity of 0.129–0.152 were selected for the incorporation of mucoadhesive polymer. The PMNE6 showed highest flux (5.072 ± 0.13 µg/cm2/min with enhancement ratio of 1.1 as compared to Paliperidone solution (PS. The diffusion co-efficient of PMNE6 was significantly higher than PMNE5, PMNE4 and PS and followed higuchi model. The formulation was found to be free from nasal cilio toxicity. All formulations were found to be stable for 6 months at room temperature.

  9. Evaluation of nano emulsion containing asphaltenes dispersant additive in dehydration of oil; Avaliacao de nanoemulsoes contendo aditivo dispersante de asfaltenos na desidratacao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Priscila F. de; Rodrigues, Jessica S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/ Instituto de Macromoleculas/ Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: prisfrias@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Due to the problem of the formation of emulsions type water-oil during oil production, new alternatives of the breakdown of these emulsions have been proposed over the years. Several polymers have been used to destabilize these emulsions and among them are those based on polyphenylene ether. The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsions type oil / water, where an asphaltenes dispersant additive was dissolved in dispersed phase in order to evaluate them as a new alternative in the breakdown of oil emulsions. The nanoemulsions were prepared in the presence of surfactant based on polyoxide using a high pressure homogenizer (HPH). We obtained stable nanoemulsions for more than 30 days in the presence or absence of additive. These nanoemulsions were effective in water /oil phase separation, and the nanoemulsion containing the dispersant additive provided a faster separation of these phases. (author)

  10. Optimization of ultrasound induced emulsification on the formulation of palm-olein based nanoemulsions for the incorporation of antioxidant β-D-glucan polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzorqi, Ibrahim; Ketabchi, Mohammad Reza; Sudheer, Surya; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2016-07-01

    Polysaccharides of β-D-glucan configuration have well-known antioxidant activity against reactive free radicals generated from the oxidation of metabolic processes. In this study, β-D-glucan-polysaccharides extracted from Ganoderma lucidum were incorporated in palm olein based nanoemulsions which act as carrier systems to enhance the delivery and bioactivity of these polysaccharides and could be potentially useful for skin care applications. Initially response surface statistical design (Central Composite Design--CCD) was subjected to optimize the formulation variables of oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions induced by ultrasound. The optimal formulation variables as predicted by CCD resulted in considerably improving the physical characteristics of ultrasonically formulated nanoemulsions by minimizing their droplet size, polydispersity index and viscosity. Moreover, the β-D-glucan-loaded nanoemulsions exhibited good stability over 90 days under different storage conditions (4 °C and 25 °C). The studies using palm olein based β-D-glucan-loaded nanoemulsion generated using ultrasound confirm higher antioxidant activity as compared to free β-D-glucan.

  11. Novel pectin-based nanoparticles prepared from nanoemulsion templates for improving in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption of poorly water-soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burapapadh, Kanokporn; Takeuchi, Hirofumi; Sriamornsak, Pornsak

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption of itraconazole (ITZ), a poorly water-soluble drug, by means of novel pectin-based nanoparticles prepared from nanoemulsion templates. Nanoemulsion templates were prepared by a high-pressure homogenization using pectin (i.e., 0.5-3.0%w/w low-methoxyl pectin (LMP), amidated low-methoxyl pectin (ALMP), or high-methoxyl pectin (HMP)) as an emulsifier and chloroform as an oil phase. HMP provided good oil-in-water emulsions with ITZ loaded in the oil phase. The chloroform in nanoemulsions was then removed to produce the suspensions of nanoparticles dispersed in water phase. After lyophilization, the dried core-shell nanoparticles with good properties in terms of redispersibility, dissolution, and stability were obtained. The alteration of ITZ crystallinity was clearly observed from powder X-ray diffractogram while no interaction between ITZ and pectin was found in the nanoparticles. The ITZ-loaded nanoparticles showed high percent drug dissolved, especially those prepared from HMP, and could maintain their good dissolution properties even after 6-month storage. The in vivo absorption study in fasted rats demonstrated that pectin-based nanoparticles prepared from nanoemulsion templates could improve absorption of ITZ, that is, 1.3-fold higher than the ITZ commercial product (pin vivo plasma profile. These findings suggested that HMP-based nanoparticles seem to be a promising formulation due to their high AUC(0-24h) and C(max).

  12. Formulation and characterization of nanoemulsion of olanzapine for intranasal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Misra, Ambikanandan; Pathak, Kamla

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to formulate an olanzapine nanoemulsion that could potentially deliver the drug directly to the brain following intranasal administration. The nanoemulsions were prepared using the water titration method. The mucoadhesive character was imparted by the addition of 0.5%w/w chitosan and 0.5%w/w polycarbophil and was characterized for drug content, pH, percentage transmittance, globule size, zeta potential, and PDI. The composition (%w/w) of the optimized olanzapine nanoemulsion was capmul MCM, tween 80, and a mixture of 1:1 ratio of polyethylene glycol 400 and ethanol, and aqueous phase in a ratio of 15:35:17.5:32.5. The optimized olanzapine nanoemulsion exhibited a high diffusion coefficient and no nasal cilio-toxicity. The drug release followed the Higuchi model. The optimized nanoemulsions were found to be stable for 3 months.

  13. Stretching Folding Instability and Nanoemulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Chon U

    2009-01-01

    Here we show a folding-stretching instability in a microfluidic flow focusing device using silicon oil (100cSt) and water. The fluid dynamics video demonstrates an oscillating thread of oil focused by two co-flowing streams of water. We show several high-speed sequences of these oscillations with 30,000 frames/s. Once the thread is decelerated in a slower moving pool downstream an instability sets in and water-in-oil droplets are formed. We reveal the details of the pinch-off with 500,000 frames/s. The pinch-off is so repeatable that complex droplet patterns emerge. Some of droplets are below the resolution limit, thus smaller than 1 micrometer in diameter.

  14. Characterization of structural stability of palm oil esters-based nanocosmeceuticals loaded with tocotrienol

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Sook Han; Woi, Pei Meng; Basri, Mahiran; Ismail, Zahariah

    2013-01-01

    Background Palm oil esters (POEs) are esters derived from palm oil and oleyl alcohol have great potential in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries due to the excellent wetting behavior of the esters without the oily feel. The role of oil-in-water nanoemulsions loaded with tocotrienol sedimentation behavior was studied. LUMiFuge® 116 particle separation analyzer was used to investigate the sedimentation behavior of POEs/tocotrienol/xanthan gum nanoemulsion system during centrifugation. An...

  15. PLGA nanoparticles from nano-emulsion templating as imaging agents: Versatile technology to obtain nanoparticles loaded with fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaguera, C; Feiner-Gracia, N; Calderó, G; García-Celma, M J; Solans, C

    2016-11-01

    The interest in polymeric nanoparticles as imaging systems for biomedical applications has increased notably in the last decades. In this work, PLGA nanoparticles, prepared from nano-emulsion templating, have been used to prepare novel fluorescent imaging agents. Two model fluorescent dyes were chosen and dissolved in the oil phase of the nano-emulsions together with PLGA. Nano-emulsions were prepared by the phase inversion composition (PIC) low-energy method. Fluorescent dye-loaded nanoparticles were obtained by solvent evaporation of nano-emulsion templates. PLGA nanoparticles loaded with the fluorescent dyes showed hydrodynamic radii lower than 40nm; markedly lower than those reported in previous studies. The small nanoparticle size was attributed to the nano-emulsification strategy used. PLGA nanoparticles showed negative surface charge and enough stability to be used for biomedical imaging purposes. Encapsulation efficiencies were higher than 99%, which was also attributed to the nano-emulsification approach as well as to the low solubility of the dyes in the aqueous component. Release kinetics of both fluorescent dyes from the nanoparticle dispersions was pH-independent and sustained. These results indicate that the dyes could remain encapsulated enough time to reach any organ and that the decrease of the pH produced during cell internalization by the endocytic route would not affect their release. Therefore, it can be assumed that these nanoparticles are appropriate as systemic imaging agents. In addition, in vitro toxicity tests showed that nanoparticles are non-cytotoxic. Consequently, it can be concluded that the preparation of PLGA nanoparticles from nano-emulsion templating represents a very versatile technology that enables obtaining biocompatible, biodegradable and safe imaging agents suitable for biomedical purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia using mixture experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fard Masoumi HR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Fard Masoumi, Mahiran Basri, Wan Sarah Samiun, Zahra Izadiyan, Chaw Jiang Lim Nanodelivery Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Aripiprazole is considered as a third-generation antipsychotic drug with excellent therapeutic efficacy in controlling schizophrenia symptoms and was the first atypical anti­psychotic agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Formulation of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole was carried out using high shear and high pressure homo­genizers. Mixture experimental design was selected to optimize the composition of nanoemulsion. A very small droplet size of emulsion can provide an effective encapsulation for delivery system in the body. The effects of palm kernel oil ester (3–6 wt%, lecithin (2–3 wt%, Tween 80 (0.5–1 wt%, glycerol (1.5–3 wt%, and water (87–93 wt% on the droplet size of aripiprazole nanoemulsions were investigated. The mathematical model showed that the optimum formulation for preparation of aripiprazole nanoemulsion having the desirable criteria was 3.00% of palm kernel oil ester, 2.00% of lecithin, 1.00% of Tween 80, 2.25% of glycerol, and 91.75% of water. Under optimum formulation, the corresponding predicted response value for droplet size was 64.24 nm, which showed an excellent agreement with the actual value (62.23 nm with residual standard error <3.2%. Keywords: schizoaffective disorder, antipsychotic drug, bipolar I disorder, D-optimal mixture design, optimization formulation

  17. Nanoemulsion of ethanolic extracts of propolis and its antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauludin, R.; Primaviri, D. S.; Fidrianny, I.

    2015-09-01

    Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical and prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity but has very small solubility in water thus was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). EEP contains steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerin; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparent, had particle size of 23.72 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25°C and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced around 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0.

  18. Development of Organogel-Derived Capsaicin Nanoemulsion with Improved Bioaccessibility and Reduced Gastric Mucosa Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Muwen; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-06-15

    Capsaicin (CAP) is the major active component in chili peppers with health-promoting benefits. However, the low bioavailability and irritating quality of CAP greatly limit its applications in functional foods. The objective of this study was to develop a food-grade nanoemulsion to increase the dissolution and bioaccessibility of CAP and to alleviate its irritating effects. To achieve this goal, CAP was first dissolved in medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT), followed by the addition of sucrose stearate S-370 as organogelator to develop CAP-loaded organogel. The oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion was formed using organogel as the oil phase and Tween 80 as the emulsifier. After ultrasonication treatment, droplet sizes of emulsion were decreased to 168 nm with enhanced dissolution rate and bioaccessibility. In vivo study further confirmed the reduced rat gastric mucosa irritation caused by CAP. The organogel-derived nanoemulsion was proved to be an effective delivery system for CAP-based functional food products.

  19. Nanoemulsion formulation of Abatacept for lupus nephritis therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Urology, Linyi People's Hospital, Linyi, Shandong Province 276003, ... treated with the nanoemulsion formulation of abatacept showed a marked reduction in immune ..... and CTLA4-Ig resistant memory CD8 T cell activation.

  20. Waterborne Epoxy Nanocoatings Modified by Nanoemulsions and Nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhenyu Wang Enhou Han Fuchun Liu Zhouhai Qian Liwei Zhu

    2014-01-01

    .... In the present investigation electrically conductive nanocoatings were prepared by the incorporation of graphite, nano-SiO2 concentrate, acrylic nanoemulsion and fluorocarbon emulsion onto the waterborne epoxy polymer...

  1. Induction of systemic and mucosal immunity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection by a novel nanoemulsion adjuvant vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun HW

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available HongWu Sun,1,* Chao Wei,1,* BaoShuai Liu,1 HaiMing Jing,1 Qiang Feng,2 YaNan Tong,1 Yun Yang,1 LiuYang Yang,1 QianFei Zuo,1 Yi Zhang,1 QuanMing Zou,1 Hao Zeng1 1National Engineering Research Center of Immunological Products, Department of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, 2Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The Gram-positive bacterial pathogen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA can cause infections in the bloodstream, endocardial tissue, respiratory tract, culture-confirmed skin, or soft tissue. There are currently no effective vaccines, and none are expected to become available in the near future. An effective vaccine capable of eliciting both systemic and mucosal immune responses is also urgently needed. Here, we reported a novel oil-in-water nanoemulsion adjuvant vaccine containing an MRSA recombination protein antigen, Cremophor EL-35® as a surfactant, and propylene glycol as a co-surfactant. This nanoemulsion vaccine, whose average diameter was 31.34±0.49 nm, demonstrated good protein structure integrity, protein specificity, and good stability at room temperature for 1 year. The intramuscular systemic and nasal mucosal immune responses demonstrated that this nanoemulsion vaccine could improve the specific immune responses of immunoglobulin (IgG and related subclasses, such as IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b, as well as IgA, in the serum after Balb/c mice intramuscular immunization and C57 mice nasal immunization. Furthermore, this nanoemulsion vaccine also markedly enhanced the interferon-γ and interleukin-17A cytokine cell immune response, improved the survival ratio, and reduced bacterial colonization. Taken together, our results show that this novel nanoemulsion vaccine has great potential and is a

  2. Inertial cavitation in theranostic nanoemulsions with simultaneous pulsed laser and low frequency ultrasound excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Bastien; Wei, Chen-Wei; Xia, Jinjun; Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Lombardo, Michael; Perez, Camilo; Matula, Thomas J.; Pozzo, Danilo; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound-induced inertial cavitation is a mechanical process used for site-localized therapies such as non-invasive surgery. Initiating cavitation in tissue requires very high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and low-frequencies. Hence, some applications like thrombolysis require targeted contrast agents to reduce peak intensities and the potential for secondary effects. A new type of theranostic nanoemulsion has been developed as a combined ultrasound (US)/photoacoustic(PA) agent for molecular imaging and therapy. It includes a nanoscale emulsion core encapsulated with a layer of gold nanospheres at the water/ oil interface. Its optical absorption exhibits a spectrum broadened up to 1100 nm, opening the possibility that 1064 nm light can excite cavitation nuclei. If optically-excited nuclei are produced at the same time that a low-frequency US wave is at peak negative pressure, then highly localized therapies based on acoustic cavitation may be enabled at very low US pressures. We have demonstrated this concept using a low-cost, low energy, portable 1064 nm fiber laser in conjunction with a 1.24 MHz US transducer for simultaneous laser/US excitation of nanoemulsions. Active cavitation detection from backscattered signals indicated that cavitation can be initiated at very low acoustic pressures (less than 1 MPa) when laser excitation coincides with the rarefaction phase of the acoustic wave, and that no cavitation is produced when light is delivered during the compressive phase. US can sustain cavitation activity during long acoustic bursts and stimulate diffusion of the emulsion, thus increasing treatment speed. An in vitro clot model has been used to demonstrate combined US and laser excitation of the nanoemulsion for efficient thrombolysis.

  3. Nanoemulsion-based gel formulation of diclofenac diethylamine: design, optimization, rheological behavior and in vitro diffusion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Rania; Basil, Marwa; AlBaraghthi, Tamadur; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Tarawneh, Ola

    2016-12-01

    Chronic oral administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac diethylamine (DDEA), is often associated with gastrointestinal ulcers and bleeding. As an alternative to oral administration, a nanoemulsion-based gel (NE gel) formulation of DDEA was developed for topical administration. An optimized formulation for the o/w nanoemulsion of oil, surfactant and cosurfactant was selected based on nanoemulsion mean droplet size, clarity, stability, and flowability, and incorporated into the gelling agent Carbopol® 971P. Rheological studies of the DDEA NE gel were conducted and compared to those of conventional DDEA gel and emulgel. The three gels exhibited an elastic behavior, where G' dominated G″ at all frequencies, indicating the formation of strong gels. NE gel exhibited higher G' values than conventional gel and emulgel, which indicated the formation of a stronger gel network. Strat-M® membrane, a synthetic membrane with diffusion characteristics that are well correlated to human skin, was used for the in vitro diffusion studies. The release of DDEA from conventional gel, emulgel and NE gel showed a controlled release pattern over 12 h, which was consistent with the rheological properties of the gels. DDEA release kinetics from the three gels followed super case II transport as fitted by Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  4. Functional nanoemulsion-hybrid lipid nanocarriers enhance the bioavailability and anti-cancer activity of lipophilic diferuloylmethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lili; Wan, Kun; Hu, Xueyuan; Zhang, Yonghong; Yan, Zijun; Feng, Jiao; Zhang, Jingqing

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the enhanced physicochemical characteristics, in vitro release behavior, anti-lung cancer activity, gastrointestinal absorption, in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence of functional nanoemulsion-hybrid lipid nanocarriers containing diferuloylmethane (DNHLNs). The DNHLNs were first fabricated by loading water-in-oil nanoemulsions into hybrid lipid nanosystems using nanoemulsion-thin film-sonication dispersion technologies. The in situ absorption and in vitro and in vivo kinetic features of DNHLNs were measured using an in situ unidirectional perfusion method, a dynamic dialysis method and a plasma concentration-time profile-based method, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of DNHLNs in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were examined using MTT colorimetric analysis. The absorptive constants and permeabilities of DNHLNs in four gastrointestinal sections increased by 1.43-3.23 times and by 3.10-7.76 times that of diferuloylmethane (DIF), respectively. The relative bioavailability of DNHLNs to free DIF was 855.02%. DNHLNs inhibited cancer cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. DNHLNs markedly improved the absorption and bioavailability of DIF after oral administration. DNHLNs had stronger inhibitory effects on the viability of A549 cells than that of free DIF. DNHLNs might be potentially promising nanocarriers for DIF delivery via the oral route to address unmet clinical needs.

  5. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB.

  6. Intranasal delivery of paroxetine nanoemulsion via the olfactory region for the management of depression: formulation, behavioural and biochemical estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Yogendra Raj; Kumar, Shobhit; Gupta, Bijay Kumar; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2016-01-01

    Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and is used for the treatment of depression and anxiety problems, but suffers from the drawback of poor oral bioavailability (less than 50%) due to its extensive first pass metabolism. The objective of the present study was to develop a paroxetine loaded nanoemulsion (o/w type) for direct nose-to-brain delivery. Nanoemulsions were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification technique using Capmul MCM, Solutol HS 15 and propylene glycol as oil phase, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively, for delivery of drug directly to the brain through the nasal route for better management of depression. Formulations were studied for droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), percentage transmittance, refractive index, viscosity, zeta potential, surface morphology and in vitro permeation study. TEM images of optimized formulation showed spherical droplets with a mean diameter of 58.47 ± 3.02 nm, PDI of 0.339 ± 0.007 and zeta potential values of -33 mV. The formulation showed good results for transmittance (100.60 ± 0.577%), refractive index (1.412 ± 0.003) and viscosity (40.85 ± 6.40 cP). Permeation studies revealed a 2.57-fold enhancement in permeation as compared to the paroxetine suspension. Behavioural studies such as the forced swimming test and locomotor activity test were done on Wistar rats to study the antidepressant effect of the optimized formulation. Treatment of depressed rats with paroxetine nanoemulsion (administered intranasally) significantly improved the behavioural activities in comparison to paroxetine suspension (orally administered). Biochemical estimation results revealed that the prepared nanoemulsion was effective in enhancing the depressed levels of glutathione and decreasing the elevated levels of TBARS.

  7. Evaluation of garlic oil in nano-emulsified form: Optimization and its efficacy in high-fat diet induced dyslipidemia in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavan, Gokulakannan; Muralidaran, Yuvashree; Sridharan, Badrinathan; Nachiappa Ganesh, Rajesh; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2017-07-01

    Garlic oil nanoemulsion was formulated using ultrasonic emulsification and the optimized garlic oil nanoemulsion ratio (1:2) of oil: surfactant showed spherical, with tiny droplet size 24.9 ± 1.11 nm. It was observed that the prepared nanoemulsion has the zeta potential of -42.63 ± 1.58 mV and a low polydispersity index of 0.2 ± 0.09 with excellent stability. The formulation was subjected to in vivo acute and sub-acute toxicity. In acute toxicity study, single oral administration of 18.63 ml of garlic oil nanoemulsion/kg resulted in immediate mortality. However, garlic oil nanoemulsion (0.46 ml/kg) and tween 80 (0.5 ml/kg) administered rats did not exhibit any toxicity and showed no changes in hematological and histological parameters. Further, both preventive and curative studies of garlic oil nanoemulsion were evaluated in high-fat diet fed dyslipidemic Wistar rats. Garlic oil nanoemulsion administered groups showed a significant effect in reducing the levels of lipid profiles (p oil. Evaluation of lipid deposits in hepatic tissues was analyzed by Oil Red O staining, which revealed that garlic oil nanoemulsion administered rats markedly reduced the fat depots. Our findings suggest that garlic oil nano-emulsified form reduced toxicity and improved efficacy in preventing and treating dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanoemulsions: Preparation, Structure, Functional Properties and their Antimicrobial Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Shams

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Recently, due to the interest of healthy lifestyle demand for research on novel methods of increasing the shelf-life of food products without the necessity of using preservatives has extended rapidly in the world. Ability of nanoemulsions to improve global food quality has attracted great attention in food preservation. This is as a result of a number ofattributes peculiar to nanoemulsions such as optical clarity, ease ofpreparation, thermodynamic stability and increased surface area. This review discusses the potential food applications of nanoemulsions as vehicles for the delivery of antimicrobial compounds. Moreover, the preparation, structure, and functional properties of nanoemulsions and their antimicrobial effects on foodborne pathogens and biofilms will be reviewed in detail. Antimicrobial nanoemulsions are formulated from the antimicrobial compounds that are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for use in foods.Results and Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of nanoemulsions is nonspecific, unlike that of antibiotics, thus they have a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity against bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus, enveloped viruses (e.g., HIV, and herpes simplex, fungi (e.g., Candida, Dermatophytes, and spores (e.g., anthrax at concentrations that are nontoxic in animals (while limiting the capacity for the generation of resistance and kill pathogens by interacting with their membranes. This physical kill-on-contact mechanism significantly reduces the possibility of the emergence of resistant strains. In general, more research is needed to improve the application processes of antimicrobial nanoemulsion, especially sensory aspects, to be appropriate for each product.Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  9. The preparation of magnetically guided lipid based nanoemulsions using self-emulsifying technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakandritsos, Aristides; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Rio, Patras (Greece); Zboril, Radek [Nanomaterial Research Centre, Palacky University, Svobody 26, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kallinteri, Paraskevi; Favretto, Marco E [Medway School of Pharmacy, Universities of Kent/Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB (United Kingdom); Parker, Terry L [School of Biomedical Science, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Mullertz, Anette [Bioneer, FARMA, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Fatouros, Dimitrios G, E-mail: abakan@upatras.gr, E-mail: zboril@prfnw.upol.cz, E-mail: dimitris.fatouros@port.ac.uk [School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael' s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth PO1 2DT (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-05

    This paper reports an easy and highly reproducible preparation route, using self-emulsifying technology, for an orally administered high quality magnetically responsive drug delivery system. Hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles of about 5 nm in diameter were prepared and incorporated into the lipid core of the produced oil droplets of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (MagC{sub 18}/SNEDDS). The produced nanoemulsion exhibits colloidal stability at high ionic strengths and temperatures. The observed value of the saturation magnetization at 2 K is {approx}4.1 emu g{sup -1}. The nanoemulsion displayed the magnetic properties of a non-interacting assembly of superparamagnetic particles and a low blocking temperature. Moreover the effect of MagC{sub 18}/SNEDDS on biological systems in vitro was investigated in rodent fibroblasts (3T3 cells). The cytotoxicity studies show that none of the formulations tested affected cell activity significantly over the 24 h incubation. Such systems might have a potential use for oral delivery of poorly soluble compounds by extending the residence time of the formulation in the small intestine resulting in increased drug absorption values.

  10. Characterization and Stability Evaluation of Thymoquinone Nanoemulsions Prepared by High-Pressure Homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Tubesha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the pharmacological properties of thymoquinone (TQ, its administration in vivo remains problematic partly due to its poor water solubility, leading to low absorptivity and bioavailability. Hence, the objective of this study is to prepare, characterize, and evaluate the stability of TQ nanoemulsion (TQNE. Conventional emulsion from TQ (TQCE and empty nano- and conventional emulsions from Triolein (TRNE and TRCE are also produced for comparison purposes. The oil-in-water nanoemulsions of TQ and Triolein were produced by high-pressure homogenization. Emulsions were characterized physically by droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and refractive index. The changes of these parameters in TQNE samples stored for 6 months at 4 and 25°C were not statistically significant (P<0.05. In addition, the initial particle sizes of TQNE and TRNE were 119.6 and 119.5 nm, respectively. Stability studies were also performed for the period of 6 months. At the end of the experiment, the percent of remaining TQ in TQNE at 4, 25, and 40°C was 90.6, 89.1, and 87.4 % respectively. Slower degradation of TQ indicated the chemical stability of TQ in TQNE samples. These results indicated that TQNE is stable over a period of 6 months.

  11. The preparation of magnetically guided lipid based nanoemulsions using self-emulsifying technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakandritsos, Aristides; Zboril, Radek; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Kallinteri, Paraskevi; Favretto, Marco E.; Parker, Terry L.; Mullertz, Anette; Fatouros, Dimitrios G.

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports an easy and highly reproducible preparation route, using self-emulsifying technology, for an orally administered high quality magnetically responsive drug delivery system. Hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles of about 5 nm in diameter were prepared and incorporated into the lipid core of the produced oil droplets of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (MagC18/SNEDDS). The produced nanoemulsion exhibits colloidal stability at high ionic strengths and temperatures. The observed value of the saturation magnetization at 2 K is ≈4.1 emu g-1. The nanoemulsion displayed the magnetic properties of a non-interacting assembly of superparamagnetic particles and a low blocking temperature. Moreover the effect of MagC18/SNEDDS on biological systems in vitro was investigated in rodent fibroblasts (3T3 cells). The cytotoxicity studies show that none of the formulations tested affected cell activity significantly over the 24 h incubation. Such systems might have a potential use for oral delivery of poorly soluble compounds by extending the residence time of the formulation in the small intestine resulting in increased drug absorption values.

  12. Nanoemulsion based intranasal delivery of antimigraine drugs for nose to brain targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanushali R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop intranasal nanoemulsion and gel formulations for rizatriptan benzoate for prolonged action. Nanoemulsion formulations were prepared by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams using lipophilic and hydrophilic surfactants and water. Various mucoadhesive agents were tried out to form thermo-triggered mucoadhesive nanoemulsions. Mucoadhesive gel formulations of rizatriptan were prepared using different ratios of HPMC and Carbopol 980. Comparative evaluation of intranasal nanoemulsions and intranasal mucoadhesive gels indicated that greater brain-targeting could be achieved with nanoemulsions.

  13. Quality preservation of deliberately contaminated milk using thyme free and nanoemulsified essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jemaa, Mariem; Falleh, Hanen; Neves, Marcos A; Isoda, Hiroko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Ksouri, Riadh

    2017-02-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of either a solution of Thymus capitatus essential oil or its nanoemulsion on the quality of milk contaminated by bacteria. After 24h of S. aureus inoculation, bacterial growth reached 202×10(3)CFU/ml in the presence of the essential oil while it was limited to 132×10(3)CFU/ml when treated with nanoemulsion. The reduction of antioxidant capacity of milk treated with essential oil was higher when treated with nanoemulsion. Moreover, free essential oil was more efficient in protecting proteins from degradation than the nanoemulsion. For instance, after 24h of E. hirae contamination, 26% of the total proteins were consumed in the presence of nano-encapsulated essential oil, while only 14% of the initial content was consumed when free essential oil was added. Concerning milk acidity increase and the inhibition of peroxide production, no statistical differences have been recorded between the use of free essential oil or its nano-emulsion. In conclusion, bulk or nano-encapsulated T. capitatus essential oil preserve milk quality and can extend its shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of process parameter optimization using different designs in nanoemulsion-based formulation for transdermal delivery of fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngan CL

    2014-09-01

    error of <2%. The optimum formulation showed more elastic and solid-like characteristics due to the existence of a large linear viscoelastic region. Keywords: nanoemulsion, palm kernel oil ester, fullerene, central composite rotatable design, Box–Behnken design, response surface methodology

  15. Thermodynamic signature of secondary nano-emulsion formation by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotticchia, Iolanda; Fotticchia, Teresa; Mattia, Carlo Andrea; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Vecchione, Raffaele; Giancola, Concetta

    2014-12-01

    The stabilization of oil in water nano-emulsions by means of a polymer coating is extremely important; it prolongs the shelf life of the product and makes it suitable for a variety of applications ranging from nutraceutics to cosmetics and pharmaceutics. To date, an effective methodology to assess the best formulations in terms of thermodynamic stability has yet to be designed. Here, we perform a complete physicochemical characterization based on isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) compared to conventional dynamic light scattering (DLS) to identify polymer concentration domains that are thermodynamically stable and to define the degree of stability through thermodynamic functions depending upon any relevant parameter affecting the stability itself, such as type of polymer coating, droplet distance, etc. For instance, the method was proven by measuring the energetics in the case of two different biopolymers, chitosan and poly-L-lysine, and for different concentrations of the emulsion coated with poly-L-lysine.

  16. Preparation and characteristics of lipid nanoemulsion formulations loaded with doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang SP

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sai-Ping Jiang,1,2,* Sai-Nan He,3,* Yun-Long Li,2,3 Da-Lin Feng,2 Xiao-Yang Lu,1 Yong-Zhong Du,2 He-Yong Yu,3 Fu-Qiang Hu,2 Hong Yuan2 1Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Safe and effective lipid nanoemulsion (LNE formulations for the antitumor delivery of doxorubicin is designed. Methods: LNEs composed of medium-chain triglyceride, soybean oil, lecithin, and doxorubicin are prepared by a solvent-diffusion method in an aqueous system. The effects of lipid material composition and polyethylene glycol (PEGylation on the size, drug encapsulation efficiency, and stability of LNEs are investigated. Based on in-vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake tests of A549 (human lung carcinoma cells, in-vivo biodistribution, antitumor activity, and cardiac toxicity are further examined using nude mouse bearing A549 tumor. Results: The LNE size decreases from 126.4 ± 8.7 nm to 44.5 ± 9.3 nm with increased weight ratio of medium-chain triglyceride to soybean oil from 1:4 to 3:2, whereas the encapsulation efficiency of doxorubicin is slightly reduced from 79.2% ± 2.1% to 71.2% ± 2.9%. The PEGylation of LNE by 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[carboxy(PEG2000] (DSPE-PEG 2000 does not significantly change the size and drug encapsulation efficiency. Three-month storage at room temperature and lyophilization process does not affect the drug encapsulation efficiency, whereas the size slightly increases to almost 100 nm. The in-vitro drug-release profiles of LNEs suggest that the present formulation can prolong drug release for 48 hours. LNEs can be internalized into tumor cells in vitro and efficiently accumulate in tumor tissues in vivo by passive targeting

  17. Effect of glycerol on formation, stability, and properties of vitamin-E enriched nanoemulsions produced using spontaneous emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Amir Hossein; Fang, Yuan; McClements, David Julian

    2013-12-01

    Oil-in-water nanoemulsions are finding increasing use as delivery systems to encapsulate lipophilic bioactive components in functional food, personal care, and pharmaceutical products. We investigated the influence of a water-soluble cosolvent (glycerol) on the formation, stability, and properties of vitamin E acetate-loaded nanoemulsions (VE-NEs) prepared by spontaneous emulsification. VE-NEs were formed by titration of a mixture of vitamin E acetate, carrier oil (MCT) and non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80) into an aqueous glycerol solution with continuous mixing. Cosolvent concentration had an appreciable effect on the particle size produced, with the smallest mean droplet diameters (dglycerol. Nanoemulsions (dglycerol levels. The turbidity of the NEs decreased at high glycerol concentrations due to the reduction in droplet size and refractive index contrast. The long-term stability of the VE-NEs was strongly influenced by glycerol concentration and storage temperature. VE-NEs containing 40% glycerol were relatively stable to droplet growth when stored at 5 and 20°C, but a rapid increase in droplet size and turbidity occurred during storage at 37°C. Temperature scanning experiments (20-80-20°C) indicated that a steep and irreversible increase in turbidity occurred during heating, which was around 70°C in the absence of glycerol and 60°C in the presence of 40% glycerol. Droplet instability was attributed to an increase in the rate of Ostwald ripening and/or coalescence as the temperature was increased, associated with dehydration of the non-ionic surfactant head-group leading to a reduction in phase inversion temperature. Dilution (100×) of VE-NEs containing glycerol with water considerably improved their stability to droplet growth, especially at high storage temperatures. This study provides important information about the effect of glycerol on the formation, stability and physical properties of VE-enriched NEs suitable for food, personal care, and

  18. Opportunities and challenges for the nasal administration of nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Claurice; Garrastazu, Gabriela; Pozzoli, Michele; Sonvico, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Nasal delivery has become a growing area of interest for drug administration as a consequence of several practical advantages, such as ease of administration and non-invasiveness. Moreover, the avoidance of hepatic first-pass metabolism and rapid and efficient absorption across the permeable nasal mucosa offer a promising alternative to other traditional administration routes, such as oral or parenteral delivery. In fact, nasal delivery has been proposed for a number of applications, including local, systemic, direct nose-to-brain and mucosal vaccine delivery. Nanoemulsions, due to their stability, small droplet size and optimal solubilization properties, represent a versatile formulation approach suitable for several administration routes. Nanoemulsions demonstrated great potential in nasal drug delivery, increasing the absorption and the bioavailability of many drugs for systemic and nose-to-brain delivery. Furthermore, they act as an active component, i.e. an adjuvant, in nasal mucosal vaccinations, displaying the ability to induce robust mucosal immunity, high serum antibodies titres and a cellular immune response avoiding inflammatory response. Interestingly, nanoemulsions have not been proposed for the treatment of local ailments of the nose. Despite the promising results in vitro and in vitro, the application of nanoemulsions for nasal delivery in humans appears mainly hindered by the lack of detailed toxicology studies to determine the effect of these formulations on the nasal mucosa and cilia and the lack of extensive clinical trials.

  19. Improvement of β-Carotene Bioaccessibility from Dietary Supplements Using Excipient Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-08

    The influence of excipient nanoemulsions on β-carotene bioaccessibility from commercial dietary supplements (tablets or soft gels) was studied employing an in vitro gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model. Excipient nanoemulsions were formulated from long or medium chain triglycerides (LCT or MCT) to determine the impact of lipid type on carotenoid bioaccessibility. Dietary supplements were tested using the GIT model in the absence or presence of excipient nanoemulsions. β-carotene bioaccessibility from tablets (0.3%) or soft gels (2.4%) was low when tested in isolation. LCT nanoemulsions greatly improved β-carotene bioaccessibility from tablets (20%) and slightly improved it from soft gels (5%), whereas MCT nanoemulsions only slightly improved bioaccessibility. These results were attributed to the ability of large carotenoid molecules to be incorporated into large mixed micelles formed by LCT digestion but not by small ones formed by MCT digestion. Our results indicate that excipient nanoemulsions have considerable potential for improving nutraceutical bioavailability from dietary supplements.

  20. Preparation and quality evaluation of enrofloxacin nanoemulsion%恩诺沙星纳米乳的制备及其质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 齐永华; 宁红梅; 王清华

    2012-01-01

    prescription for preparing enrofloxacin nanoemulsion, the oil phase was screened among isopropyl myristate (IPM), acetic ether, soybean oil and peanut oil; the surfactant was screened among polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil, polyoxyethylene castor oil (EL-40), Tween-80, lecithin and Span 80; the cosurfactant was screened among ethanol, 1, 2-propanediol, glycerin, acetic acid (HAc), lactic acid and propanoic acid; and the mass ratio (Km) of surfactant to cosurfactant was screened among 3:1,3:2 and 3:3, respectively. A pseudo-ternary phase diagram was established to investigate the effect of various compositions on the formation region of the nanoemulsion. The phase diagram was obtained by an aqueous titration method with one axis representing the mixture of surfactant and cosurfactant named as combined surfactant (Smix), another representing the oil phase, and the third representing the water phase. Based on the nanoemulsion region, the optimal prescription was screened. Then, enrofloxacin nanoemulsion was prepared according to the screened prescription and its quality was evaluated. The results showed that the optimized formulation was IPM as oil phase (Table 1), EL-40 as surfactant (Fig. IB), HAc as cosurfactant (Fig. 2A), the distilled water as the aqueous phase. In this screened prescription, Km was 3 : 2 (Fig. 3B), and it contained enrofloxacin of 15 %, IPM of 3 %, Smix of 48 %, and distilled water of 34 %. According to the prescription, the prepared enrofloxacin nanoemulsion was with a transparent and uniform appearance, the structural type of oil-in-water, and the spherical droplet observed by transmission electron microscope (Fig. 4). The mean size of the nanoemulsion droplet was (22.45 2.92) nm with Gaussian distribution verified by laser scattering analyzer (Fig. 5), and the value of pH was 4.63, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Escherichia coli ATCC25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 was both 1/2 times the MIC of the crude drug (Table 2

  1. Novel formulation of a methotrexate derivative with a lipid nanoemulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Juliana A; Valduga, Claudete J; Tavares, Elaine R; Kretzer, Iara F; Maria, Durvanei A; Maranhão, Raul C

    2011-01-01

    Background Lipid nanoemulsions that bind to low-density lipoprotein receptors can concentrate chemotherapeutic agents in tissues with low-density lipoprotein receptor overexpression and decrease the toxicity of the treatment. The aim of this study was to develop a new formulation using a lipophilic derivative of methotrexate, ie, didodecyl methotrexate (ddMTX), associated with a lipid nanoemulsion (ddMTX-LDE). Methods ddMTX was synthesized by an esterification reaction between methotrexate and dodecyl bromide. The lipid nanoemulsion was prepared by four hours of ultrasonication of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine, triolein, and cholesteryloleate. Association of ddMTX with the lipid nanoemulsion was performed by additional cosonication of ddMTX with the previously prepared lipid nanoemulsion. Formulation stability was evaluated, and cell uptake, cytotoxicity, and acute animal toxicity studies were performed. Results The yield of ddMTX incorporation was 98% and the particle size of LDE-ddMTX was 60 nm. After 48 hours of incubation with plasma, approximately 28% ddMTX was released from the lipid nanoemulsion. The formulation remained stable for at least 45 days at 4°C. Cytotoxicity of LDE-ddMTX against K562 and HL60 neoplastic cells was higher than for methotrexate (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] 1.6 versus 18.2 mM and 0.2 versus 26 mM, respectively), and cellular uptake of LDE-ddMTX was 90-fold higher than that of methotrexate in K562 cells and 75-fold in HL60 cells. Toxicity of LDE-ddMTX, administered at escalating doses, was higher than for methotrexate (LD50 115 mg/kg versus 470 mg/kg; maximum tolerated dose 47 mg/kg versus 94 mg/kg) in mice. However, the hematological toxicity of LDE-ddMTX was lower than for methotrexate. Conclusion LDE-ddMTX was stable, and uptake of the formulation by neoplastic cells was remarkably greater than of methotrexate, which resulted in markedly greater cytotoxicity. LDE-ddMTX is thus a promising formulation to be tested in

  2. Multifunctional perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions for cancer therapy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Donald A.; Fernandes, Dennis D.; Wang, Yan J.; Li, Yuchong; Gradinaru, Claudiu C.; Rousseau, Dérick; Kolios, Michael C.

    2015-03-01

    There is currently interest in the development of nanoemulsions as imaging and therapeutic agents, particularly perfluorohexane (PFH) droplets, whose amphiphilic shell protects drugs against physico-chemical and enzymatic degradation. When delivered to their target sites, these perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets can vaporize upon laser excitation, efficiently releasing their drug payload and/or imaging tracers. Due to the optical properties of gold, coupling PFC droplets with gold nanoparticles significantly reduces the energy required for vaporization. In this work, nanoemulsions with a PFC core and Zonyl FSP surfactant shell were produced using sonication. Droplets were characterized in terms of size and morphology using high resolution fluorescence microscopy (i.e. total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, TIRFM), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and light scattering techniques (i.e. dynamic light scattering, DLS). The ability of PFC droplets to vaporize was demonstrated using optical light microscopy.

  3. Lipophilic phytosterol derivatives: synthesis, thermal property and nanoemulsion behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    the productive yield of a series of -sitosteryl fatty acid esters (C2-C18) and to investigate the thermal property and nano-emulsion behaviors of those compounds. This work reported a novel approach to synthesize phytosterol (-sitosterol as a model) fatty acid ester by employing Candida antarctica lipase...... A (CAL A) which showed a superior catalytic activity towards secondary alcohol to another lipases. Series of -sitosteryl fatty acid esters (C2-C18) were successfully prepared and their molecular structures were identified by 1HNMR and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal property...... of -sitosterol fatty acid esters was governed by the carbon chain length of fatty acid incorporated. The nano-emulsions of a series of -sitosteryl fatty acid esters were prepared by probe-sonication method. The particle size distributions, zeta potentials and TEM images of those emulsions were different...

  4. Production and Characterization of Cosmetic Nanoemulsions Containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill Extract as Moisturizing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar de Azevedo Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill extract (FXE were white, homogeneous and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5–6.0; droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI around 0.200 and a zeta potential from −26.71 to −47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  5. Production and characterization of cosmetic nanoemulsions containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill extract as moisturizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renato Cesar de Azevedo; Barreto, Stella Maria de Andrade Gomes; Ostrosky, Elissa Aarantes; da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra; Ferrari, Márcio

    2015-02-02

    This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX) and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL extract (FXE) were white, homogeneus and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5-6.0); droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI) around 0.200 and a zeta potential from -26.71 to -47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  6. Cyclooxgenase-2 inhibiting perfluoropoly (ethylene glycol ether theranostic nanoemulsions-in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravan Kumar Patel

    Full Text Available Cylcooxgenase-2 (COX-2 expressing macrophages, constituting a major portion of tumor mass, are involved in several pro-tumorigenic mechanisms. In addition, macrophages are actively recruited by the tumor and represent a viable target for anticancer therapy. COX-2 specific inhibitor, celecoxib, apart from its anticancer properties was shown to switch macrophage phenotype from tumor promoting to tumor suppressing. Celecoxib has low aqueous solubility, which may limit its tumor inhibiting effect. As opposed to oral administration, we propose that maximum anticancer effect may be achieved by nanoemulsion mediated intravenous delivery. Here we report multifunctional celecoxib nanoemulsions that can be imaged by both near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF and (19F magnetic resonance. Celecoxib loaded nanoemulsions showed a dose dependent uptake in mouse macrophages as measured by (19F NMR and NIRF signal intensities of labeled cells. Dramatic inhibition of intracellular COX-2 enzyme was observed in activated macrophages upon nanoemulsion uptake. COX-2 enzyme inhibition was statistically equivalent between free drug and drug loaded nanoemulsion. However, nanoemulsion mediated drug delivery may be advantageous, helping to avoid systemic exposure to celecoxib and related side effects. Dual molecular imaging signatures of the presented nanoemulsions allow for future in vivo monitoring of the labeled macrophages and may help in examining the role of macrophage COX-2 inhibition in inflammation-cancer interactions. These features strongly support the future use of the presented nanoemulsions as anti-COX-2 theranostic nanomedicine with possible anticancer applications.

  7. Excipient Nanoemulsions for Improving Oral Bioavailability of Bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Salvia-Trujillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral bioavailability of many hydrophobic bioactive compounds found in natural food products (such as vitamins and nutraceuticals in fruits and vegetables is relatively low due to their low bioaccessibility, chemical instability, or poor absorption. Most previous research has therefore focused on the design of delivery systems to incorporate isolated bioactive compounds into food products. However, a more sustainable and cost-effect approach to enhancing the functionality of bioactive compounds is to leave them within their natural environment, but specifically design excipient foods that enhance their bioavailability. Excipient foods typically do not have functionality themselves but they have the capacity to enhance the functionality of nutrients present in natural foods by altering their bioaccessibility, absorption, and/or chemical transformation. In this review article we present the use of excipient nanoemulsions for increasing the bioavailability of bioactive components from fruits and vegetables. Nanoemulsions present several advantages over other food systems for this application, such as the ability to incorporate hydrophilic, amphiphilic, and lipophilic excipient ingredients, high physical stability, and rapid gastrointestinal digestibility. The design, fabrication, and application of nanoemulsions as excipient foods will therefore be described in this article.

  8. Development, evaluation, and optimization of flurbiprofen nanoemulsions gel using quality by design concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Aiswarya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate topical gel loaded nanoemulsions containing flurbiprofen using volatile oil. The gel released the drug at a controlled rate to the targeted site. Flurbiprofen (log P = 4.09 in generally used for transdermal treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Selection of the oil phase, surfactant, and cosurfactant was done by individual screening method with the aid of pseudo-ternary phase study. International Conference on Harmonisation Q8 guidelines was applied using 3 2 factorial designs coupled with response surface methodology. The formulations were prepared by using spontaneous emulsification method. The selected formulation from various statistical and other studies was investigated. It was found that selected formulation showed an optimum in-vitro data. Later the optimized formulation obtained within the tentative design space was incorporated in the gel and compared with the marketed formulation. The result suggested the optimized formulation with good potential for transdermal delivery of the drug than the marketed formulations.

  9. Antioxidant activity and bioaccessibility of size-different nanoemulsions for lycopene-enriched tomato extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thi Van Anh; Kim, Saehoon; Choi, Yeri; Kwak, Hae-Soo; Lee, Sung Je; Wen, Jingyuan; Oey, Indrawati; Ko, Sanghoon

    2015-07-01

    Lycopene nanoemulsions were prepared to protect the antioxidant activity and improve the bioaccessibility of lycopene-enriched tomato extract (containing 6% of lycopene) by an emulsification-evaporation method. Lycopene nanoemulsions, with droplet sizes between 100 and 200 nm, exhibited higher anti-radical efficiency and antioxidant activity, than did those smaller than 100 nm. Strong protectability of lycopene in droplets smaller than 100 nm was associated with relatively slower rates of DPPH and ABTS reactions. In vitro bioaccessibility values of lycopene-enriched tomato extract, lycopene nanoemulsions with droplets larger than 100 nm (approximately 150 nm on average), and lycopene nanoemulsions with droplets smaller than 100 nm (69 nm on average) were 0.01, 0.53, and 0.77, respectively. Interestingly, nanoemulsions with droplets smaller than 100 nm showed the highest in vitro bioaccessibility, which could be interpreted as evidence of nanoemulsification enhancing the in vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene.

  10. Nanomedicine-nanoemulsion formulation improves safety and efficacy of the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel according to preclinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, King C; Maturo, Claudia; Rodriguez, Robert; Nguyen, Hoang-Lan; Shorr, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Paclitaxel is an important anticancer drug and is currently used to treat a variety of cancers, including ovarian carcinomas, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. The objectives of the studies were to assess and compare the safety and efficacy of EmPAC (a newly developed nanoemulsion formulation of paclitaxel) versus Taxol (the injectable formulation of paclitaxel involving the use of polyethylated or polyoxyl castor oil currently used in the clinic). The objectives were also to investigate the mechanism for the improved safety and efficacy of EmPAC over Taxol. These results showed that EmPAC had better anti-tumor efficacy than Taxol, according to in vitro cell culture studies and studies in animal tumor models. EmPAC had improved anti-tumor efficacy even in tumor cell lines that are known to be multi-drug resistant. Part of the mechanism of action for the improved efficacy may be related to EmPAC inducing greater cellular uptake of paclitaxel into tumor cells than Taxol did, according to the in vitro cell culture radioactive-labeled studies and in vitro cell culture antibody studies. It may also partly be because EmPAC delivered more paclitaxel to the tumor mass than Taxol, while the delivery of paclitaxel to other tissues (e.g., blood, muscle, liver, spleen, kidney and lung) were similar between the two formulations of paclitaxel, according to studies in animals with tumor xenograft. EmPAC also had better safety than Taxol according to toxicology studies in rabbits. This may be because EmPAC does not contain the toxic ingredients used in formulating Taxol (such as polyethylated or polyoxyl castor oil). These results support the clinical development of the nanoemulsion formulation of paclitaxel.

  11. Modification of composition of a nanoemulsion with different cholesteryl ester molecular species: Effects on stability, peroxidation, and cell uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Cristina P; Vital, Carolina G; Contente, Thais C; Maria, Durvanei A; Maranhão, Raul C

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Use of lipid nanoemulsions as carriers of drugs for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes has been increasingly studied. Here, it was tested whether modifications of core particle constitution could affect the characteristics and biologic properties of lipid nanoemulsions. Methods: Three nanoemulsions were prepared using cholesteryl oleate, cholesteryl stearate, or cholesteryl linoleate as main core constituents. Particle size, stability, pH, peroxidation of the nanoemulsions, and cell survival and uptake by different cell lines were evaluated. Results: It was shown that cholesteryl stearate nanoemulsions had the greatest particle size and all three nanoemulsions were stable during the 237-day observation period. The pH of the three nanoemulsion preparations tended to decrease over time, but the decrease in pH of cholesteryl stearate was smaller than that of cholesteryl oleate and cholesteryl linoleate. Lipoperoxidation was greater in cholesteryl linoleate than in cholesteryl oleate and cholesteryl stearate. After four hours’ incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with nanoemulsions, peroxidation was minimal in the presence of cholesteryl oleate and more pronounced with cholesteryl linoleate and cholesteryl stearate. In contrast, macrophage incubates showed the highest peroxidation rates with cholesteryl oleate. Cholesteryl linoleate induced the highest cell peroxidation rates, except in macrophages. Uptake of cholesteryl oleate nanoemulsion by HUVEC and fibroblasts was greater than that of cholesteryl linoleate and cholesteryl stearate. Uptake of the three nanoemulsions by monocytes was equal. Uptake of cholesteryl oleate and cholesteryl linoleate by macrophages was negligible, but macrophage uptake of cholesteryl stearate was higher. In H292 tumor cells, cholesteryl oleate showed the highest uptakes. HUVEC showed higher survival rates when incubated with cholesteryl stearate and smaller survival with cholesteryl linoleate. H292

  12. Design of the interface of edible nanoemulsions to modulate the bioaccessibility of neuroprotective antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Oliver, M; Baranda, J Fernández Sainz de; Rodríguez Robledo, V; Castro-Vázquez, L; Gonzalez-Fuentes, J; Marcos, P; Lozano, M V; Santander-Ortega, M J; Arroyo-Jimenez, M M

    2015-07-25

    Most frequently the use of bioactive molecules for the supplementation of food and beverages is hampered by stability limitations or inadequate intestinal absorption. This work evaluates in vitro the role that the interface of the nanoemulsion has on the physicochemical properties, the stability behavior and the enzymatic degradation after oral intake. For that purpose three soybean oil (SB) formulations were studied. These formulations were based on the emulsifier lecithin but modified with two non-ionic surfactants Pluronic(®) F68 (PF68) or Pluronic(®) F127 (PF127) yielding (i) SB-NE (only lecithin on the interface), (ii) SB-NE PF68 (lecithin plus PF68) and 9 (iii) SB-NE PF127 (lecithin plus PF127). All the formulations tested were low polydispersed and showed a size of about 200 nm and ζ-potential of -50 mV. The in vitro colloidal stability assay showed that lecithin itself was able to promote that formulations reach unaltered to the small intestine and facilitate the absorption of the antioxidant payload on a tunable fashion there (with in vitro bioaccessibility values from around 40% up to a 70%). PF68 was able to sterically stabilize the formulation against the aggregation induced by the pH and electrolytes of the simulated gastrointestinal track; however, this surfactant was easily displaced by the lipases of the simulated intestinal milieu being unable to modulate the digestion pattern of the oil droplets in the small intestine. Finally, PF127 displayed a strong steric potential that dramatically reduced the interaction of the oil droplets with lipases in vitro, which will compromise the capacity of the formulation to improve the bioaccessibility of the loaded antioxidant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of thyme oil co-nanoemulsified with sodium caseinate and lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Michael Davidson, P; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-10-01

    Emulsions of essential oils are investigated as potential intervention strategies to improve food safety and are preferably prepared from generally-recognized-as-safe emulsifiers. Stable thyme oil nanoemulsions can be prepared using combinations of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and soy lecithin. The objective of the present research was to study the antimicrobial activity of these nanoemulsions and understand the impacts of emulsifier concentrations. 10 g/L thyme oil was emulsified using combinations of (A) 4% w/v NaCas and 0.5% w/v lecithin or (B) 2% w/v NaCas and 0.25% w/v lecithin by high shear homogenization. Combination A resulted in a transparent emulsion with a mean droplet diameter of 82.5 nm, while it was turbid for the Combination B with an average diameter of 125.5 nm. Nanoemulsified thyme oil exhibited quicker initial reductions of bacteria than free thyme oil in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and 2% reduced fat milk at 21 °C, due to the improved dispersibility of thyme oil. In TSB with 0.3 g/L thyme oil, it took less than 4 and 8 h for two nanoemulsions and free oil, respectively, to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes to be below the detection limit. The emulsified thyme oil also demonstrated more significant reductions of bacteria initially (4 and 8 h) in 2% reduced fat milk than free thyme oil. Especially, with 4 g/L thyme oil, the nanoemulsion prepared with Combination A reduced L. monocytogenes to be below the detection limit after 72 h, while the free thyme oil treatment was only bacteriostatic and the turbid nanoemulsion treatment with Combination B resulted in about 1 log CFU/mL reduction. However, E. coli O157:H7 treated with 3 g/L emulsified thyme oil and Salmonella Enteritidis treated with 4 g/L emulsified thyme oil recovered to a higher extent in milk than free thyme oil treatments. The increased concentration of emulsifiers in Combination A apparently reduced the antimicrobials available to alter bacteria membrane permeability

  14. Antibacterial activity of neem nanoemulsion and its toxicity assessment on human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerobin, Jayakumar; Makwana, Pooja; Suresh Kumar, R S; Sundaramoorthy, Rajiv; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is recognized as a medicinal plant well known for its antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Neem nanoemulsion (NE) (O/W) is formulated using neem oil, Tween 20, and water by high-energy ultrasonication. The formulated neem NE showed antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus by disrupting the integrity of the bacterial cell membrane. Despite the use of neem NE in various biomedical applications, the toxicity studies on human cells are still lacking. The neem NE showed a decrease in cellular viability in human lymphocytes after 24 hours of exposure. The neem NE at lower concentration (0.7-1 mg/mL) is found to be nontoxic while it is toxic at higher concentrations (1.2-2 mg/mL). The oxidative stress induced by the neem NE is evidenced by the depletion of catalase, SOD, and GSH levels in human lymphocytes. Neem NE showed a significant increase in DNA damage when compared to control in human lymphocytes (P<0.05). The NE is an effective antibacterial agent against the bacterial pathogen V. vulnificus, and it was found to be nontoxic at lower concentrations to human lymphocytes.

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Nanoemulsion Containing Ursolic Acid: a Promising Trypanocidal Agent : Nanoemulsion with Ursolic Acid Against T. cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas de Oliveira, Erika Cristina; Carneiro, Zumira Aparecida; de Albuquerque, Sérgio; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2017-02-21

    Over a hundred years after the discovery of Chagas disease, this ailment continues to affect thousands of people. For more than 40 years, only two drugs have been available to treat it. Ursolic acid is a naturally occurring terpene that has shown a good trypanocidal action. However, the hydrophobicity of this compound presents a challenge for the development of proper delivery systems. Nanostructured systems are a prominent in delivering lipophilic drugs. Thus, a nanoemulsion containing ursolic acid was developed and had its trypanocidal activity and cytotoxicity evaluated. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) system were used in the development. The system was stable throughout 90 days of testing, as evidenced by turbidimetry analysis and measurements of the droplet size (57.3 nm) and polydispersity index (0.24). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry evidenced drug's integrity in the formulation. An in vitro dissolution profile showed 75% of ursolic acid release after 5 min from the nanoemulsion into the alkaline dissolution medium, while only 20% could be released from a physical mixture after 2 h. Trypanocidal activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated on the CL Brener strain and LLC-MK2 (monkey kidney) fibroblast by chlorophenol red-β-D-galactoside (CPRG) method. Biological studies showed that the developed formulation was nontoxic and effective against replicant forms of the parasite. A stable and efficient nanoemulsion could be developed to improve the delivery of a promising drug to treat a threatening illness such as Chagas disease.

  16. Enhancement of photoprotection potential of catechin loaded nanoemulsion gel against UVA induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwansh, Ranjit K; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Kar, Amit; Bahadur, Shiv; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Duraipandiyan, V

    2016-07-01

    The present study was aimed to develop a catechin (CA) loaded nanoemulsion based nano-gel for the protection of skin against ultraviolet radiation (UV) induced photo-damage and to ensure its enhanced skin permeability as well as bioavailability through transdermal route. The optimized nanoemulsion (CA-NE4) was prepared by spontaneous nano-emulsification method. It was composed of oil (ethyl oleate), Smix [surfactant (span 80) and co-surfactant (transcutol CG)] and aqueous system in an appropriate ratio of 15:62:23% w/w respectively. The CA-NE4 was characterized through assessment of droplet size, zeta potential, refractive index, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The average droplet size and zeta potential of CA-NE4 were found to be 98.6±1.01nm and -27.3±0.20mV respectively. The enhanced skin permeability was better with CA-NE4 based nano-gel (CA-NG4) [96.62%] compared to conventional gel (CA-CG) [53.01%] for a period of 24h. The enhanced % relative bioavailability (F) of CA (894.73), Cmax (93.79±6.19ngmL(-1)), AUC0-t∞ (2653.99±515.02nghmL(-1)) and Tmax (12.05±0.02h) was significantly obtained with CA-NG4 as compared to oral suspension for extended periods (72h). CA-NG4 could improve the level of cutaneous antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) and reduce the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBRAS) against oxidative stress induced by UVA. Nano-gel formulation of CA showed sustained release profile and enhanced photoprotection potential due to its improved permeability as well as bioavailability (Pgel. Therefore, transdermal administration of nano-gel (CA-NG4) of CA offers a better way to develop the endogenous cutaneous protection system and thus could be an effective strategy for decreasing UV-induced oxidative damage in the skin tissues.

  17. Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions for quantitative molecular imaging and targeted therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Megan M; Caruthers, Shelton; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2009-10-01

    A broad array of nanomaterials is available for use as contrast agents for molecular imaging and drug delivery. Due to the lack of endogenous background signal in vivo and the high NMR sensitivity of the (19)F atom, liquid perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions make ideal agents for cellular and magnetic resonance molecular imaging. The perfluorocarbon core material is surrounded by a lipid monolayer which can be functionalized with a variety of agents including targeting ligands, imaging agents and drugs either individually or in combination. Multiple copies of targeting ligands (approximately 20-40 monoclonal antibodies or 200-400 small molecule ligands) serve to enhance avidity through multivalent interactions while the composition of the particle's perfluorocarbon core results in high local concentrations of (19)F. Additionally, lipophilic drugs contained within molecularly targeted nanoemulsions can result in contact facilitated drug delivery to target cells. Ultimately, the dual use of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for both site targeted drug delivery and molecular imaging may provide both imaging of disease states as well as conclusive evidence that drug delivery is localized to the area of interest. This review will focus on liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticles as (19)F molecular imaging agents and for targeted drug delivery in cancer and cardiovascular disease.

  18. Ultrasound assisted manufacturing of paraffin wax nanoemulsions: process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, A J; Holkar, C R; Karekar, S E; Pinjari, D V; Pandit, A B

    2015-03-01

    This work reports on the process optimization of ultrasound-assisted, paraffin wax in water nanoemulsions, stabilized by modified sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). This work focuses on the optimization of major emulsification process variables including sonication time, applied power and surfactant concentration. The effects of these variables were investigated on the basis of mean droplet diameter and stability of the prepared emulsion. It was found that the stable emulsion with droplet diameters about 160.9 nm could be formed with the surfactant concentration of 10 mg/ml and treated at 40% of applied power (power density: 0.61 W/ml) for 15 min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the morphology of the emulsion droplets. The droplets were solid at room temperature, showing bright spots under polarized light and a spherical shape under SEM. The electrophoretic properties of emulsion droplets showed a negative zeta potential due to the adsorption of head sulfate groups of the SDS surfactant. For the sake of comparison, paraffin wax emulsion was prepared via emulsion inversion point method and was checked its intrinsic stability. Visually, it was found that the emulsion get separated/creamed within 30 min. while the emulsion prepared via ultrasonically is stable for more than 3 months. From this study, it was found that the ultrasound-assisted emulsification process could be successfully used for the preparation of stable paraffin wax nanoemulsions.

  19. Quick and efficient extraction of uranium from a contaminated solution by a calixarene nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnul, Aurélie; Bouvier-Capely, Céline; Adam, Marc; Phan, Guillaume; Rebière, François; Fattal, Elias

    2010-10-15

    This work aims to evaluate the efficiency of a calixarene emulsion for uranium extraction from a contaminated solution prior to apply such a delivery system to uranium skin decontamination. For this purpose, various experimental parameters that can influence the efficiency of the calixarene emulsion on uranium extraction were determined. The results show that the calixarene nanoemulsion effect can be observed after a very short time of contact with uranium-contaminated solution (5 min) and that it is still efficient in case of small volumes of contaminated solution. The pH of the contaminated solution was found to be the most important parameter affecting the calixarene nanoemulsion efficiency with a dramatic reduction of the uranium extraction rate in case of acidification of the contaminated medium. This lack of efficiency can be overcome by buffering the nanoemulsion continuous phase. The obtained results reveal that the calixarene nanoemulsion could represent a promising system for the emergency treatment of uranium cutaneous contamination.

  20. CAVITATION PROPERTIES OF BLOCK COPOLYMER STABILIZED PHASE-SHIFT NANOEMULSIONS USED AS DRUG CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Rapoport, Natalya; Christensen, Douglas A.; KENNEDY, ANNE M.; NAM, KWEONHO

    2010-01-01

    Cavitation properties of block copolymer stabilized perfluoropentane nanoemulsions have been investigated. The nanoemulsions were stabilized by two biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers differing in the structure of the hydrophobic block, poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(L-lactide) (PEG-PLLA) and poly(ethylene oxide)-co-polycaprolactone (PEG-PCL). Cavitation parameters were measured in liquid emulsions and gels as a function of ultrasound pressure for unfocused or focused 1-MHz ultrasound. A...

  1. Parenteral nanoemulsions as promising carriers for brain delivery of risperidone: Design, characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Sanela M; Cekić, Nebojša D; Savić, Miroslav M; Isailović, Tanja M; Ranđelović, Danijela V; Marković, Bojan D; Savić, Saša R; Timić Stamenić, Tamara; Daniels, Rolf; Savić, Snežana D

    2015-09-30

    This paper describes design and evaluation of parenteral lecithin-based nanoemulsions intended for brain delivery of risperidone, a poorly water-soluble psychopharmacological drug. The nanoemulsions were prepared through cold/hot high pressure homogenization and characterized regarding droplet size, polydispersity, surface charge, morphology, drug-vehicle interactions, and physical stability. To estimate the simultaneous influence of nanoemulsion formulation and preparation parameters--co-emulsifier type, aqueous phase type, homogenization temperature--on the critical quality attributes of developed nanoemulsions, a general factorial experimental design was applied. From the established design space and stability data, promising risperidone-loaded nanoemulsions (mean size about 160 nm, size distribution emulsifier, were produced by hot homogenization and their ability to improve risperidone delivery to the brain was assessed in rats. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated erratic brain profiles of risperidone following intraperitoneal administration in selected nanoemulsions, most probably due to their different droplet surface properties (different composition of the stabilizing layer). Namely, polysorbate 80-costabilized nanoemulsion showed increased (1.4-7.4-fold higher) risperidone brain availability compared to other nanoemulsions and drug solution, suggesting this nanoemulsion as a promising carrier worth exploring further for brain targeting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiplexed detection of various breast cancer cells by perfluorocarbon/quantum dot nanoemulsions conjugated with antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Pan Kee; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2014-07-01

    The effective targeting of cancer cell surface antigens is an attractive approach in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Multifunctional nanoprobes with cell-targeting specificity are likely to find important applications in bioanalysis, biomedicine, and clinical diagnosis. In this study, we have fabricated biocompatible perfluorocan/quantum dot nanoemulsions as bimodal imaging nanoprobes for the targeting of breast cancer cells. Perfluorocarbon/quantum dot nanoemulsions conjugated with monoclonal antibodies, as a type of bimodal imaging nanoprobe based on 19 F-MR and optical imaging, have been synthesized and applied for targeted imaging of three different breast cancer cells (SKBR3, MCF-7, MDA-MB 468), respectively. We have shown that the cancer-detection capabilities of antibody-conjugated PFC/QDs nanoemulsions could be successfully applied to target of various breast cancer cells. These modified PFC/QDs nanoemulsions were shown to target the cancer cell surface receptors specially. Conjugation of ligands to nanoemulsions targeting over-expressed cell surface receptors is a promising approach for targeted imaging to tumor cells. We further propose that the PFC/QDs nanoemulsions could be used in targeted imaging of breast cancer cells.

  3. Nanoemulsions as novel oral carriers of stiripentol: insights into the protective effect and absorption enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rong Lu,1 Shan Liu,1 Qilin Wang,1 Xia Li1,2 1School of Ocean, Shandong University, Weihai, 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Oral administration remains a significant challenge in regards to drugs with serious solubility and stability issues. This article aimed to investigate the suitability of nanoemulsions as oral carriers of stiripentol (STP, an acid-labile drug, for enhancement of stability and bioavailability. STP-loaded nanoemulsions (STP-NEs were prepared by using a solvent-diffusion/ultrasonication technique. STP-NEs were characterized in a variety of ways such as by particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, and transmission electron microscopy. A bioavailability study was performed in rats after oral administration of either STP-NEs, or commercial formulation (Diacomit®. The resultant nanoemulsions were 146.6 nm in particle size with an entrapment efficiency of 99.47%. It was demonstrated that nanoemulsions significantly improved the biochemical stability and bioavailability of STP. The bioavailability of STP-NEs was up to 206.2% relative to Diacomit®. Nanoemulsions fabricated from poly(ethylene glycol monooleate/medium-chain triglycerides exhibited excellent performance in drug stabilization and absorption enhancement. The results suggest that STP-NEs are a promising means to solve the problems associated with stability and solubility of STP. Keywords: stiripentol, nanoemulsions, stability, intestinal permeability, bioavailability

  4. Nanostructured systems containing an essential oil: protection against volatilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cramer Flores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of preparing nanocapsules and nanoemulsions using tea tree oil as oily phase aiming to protect its volatilization. The nanostructures presented nanometric mean size (160-220 nm with a polydispersity index below 0.25 and negative zeta potential. The pH values were 6.43 ± 0.37 and 5.98 ± 0.00 for nanoemulsions and nanocapsules, respectively. The oil content after preparation was 96%. The inclusion of tea tree oil in nanocapsules showed higher protection against volatilization. The analysis of mean size and polydispersity index of formulations presented no significant alteration during the storage time.

  5. Nanoemulsion Formulations of Fungicide Tebuconazole for Agricultural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney Díaz-Blancas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tebuconazole (TBZ nanoemulsions (NEs were formulated using a low energy method. TBZ composition directly affected the drop size and surface tension of the NE. Water fraction and the organic-to-surfactant-ratio (RO/S were evaluated in the range of 1–90 and 1–10 wt %, respectively. The study was carried out with an organic phase (OP consisting of an acetone/glycerol mixture containing TBZ at a concentration of 5.4 wt % and Tween 80 (TW80 as a nonionic and Agnique BL1754 (AG54 as a mixture of nonionic and anionic surfactants. The process involved a large dilution of a bicontinuous microemulsion (ME into an aqueous phase (AP. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of the OP//TW80//AP and OP//AG54//AP systems at T = 25 °C were determined to map ME regions; these were in the range of 0.49–0.90, 0.01–0.23, and 0.07–0.49 of OP, AP, and surfactant, respectively. Optical microscope images helped confirm ME formation and system viscosity was measured in the range of 25–147 cP. NEs with drop sizes about 9 nm and 250 nm were achieved with TW80 and AG54, respectively. An innovative low-energy method was used to develop nanopesticide TBZ formulations based on nanoemulsion (NE technology. The surface tension of the studied systems can be lowered 50% more than that of pure water. This study’s proposed low-energy NE formulations may prove useful in sustainable agriculture.

  6. Nanoemulsion: process selection and application in cosmetics--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukuyama, M N; Ghisleni, D D M; Pinto, T J A; Bou-Chacra, N A

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, considerable and continuous growth in consumer demand in the cosmetics field has spurred the development of sophisticated formulations, aiming at high performance, attractive appearance, sensorial benefit and safety. Yet despite increasing demand from consumers, the formulator faces certain restrictions regarding the optimum equilibrium between the active compound concentration and the formulation base taking into account the nature of the skin structure, mainly concerning to the ideal penetration of the active compound, due to the natural skin barrier. Emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible phases, and the interest in nanoscale emulsion has been growing considerably in recent decades due to its specific attributes such as high stability, attractive appearance and drug delivery properties; therefore, performance is expected to improve using a lipid-based nanocarrier. Nanoemulsions are generated by different approaches: the so-called high-energy and low-energy methods. The global overview of these mechanisms and different alternatives for each method are presented in this paper, along with their benefits and drawbacks. As a cosmetics formulation is reflected in product delivery to consumers, nanoemulsion development with prospects for large-scale production is one of the key attributes in the method selection process. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the main high- and low-energy methods applicable in cosmetics and dermatological product development, their specificities, recent research on these methods in the cosmetics and consideration for the process selection optimization. The specific process with regard to inorganic nanoparticles, polymer nanoparticles and nanocapsule formulation is not considered in this paper.

  7. Ultrasound-mediated tumor imaging and nanotherapy using drug loaded, block copolymer stabilized perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Natalya; Nam, Kweon-Ho; Gupta, Roohi; Gao, Zhongao; Mohan, Praveena; Payne, Allison; Todd, Nick; Liu, Xin; Kim, Taeho; Shea, Jill; Scaife, Courtney; Parker, Dennis L; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Kennedy, Anne M

    2011-07-15

    Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions can deliver lipophilic therapeutic agents to solid tumors and simultaneously provide for monitoring nanocarrier biodistribution via ultrasonography and/or (19)F MRI. In the first generation of block copolymer stabilized perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions, perfluoropentane (PFP) was used as the droplet forming compound. Although manifesting excellent therapeutic and ultrasound imaging properties, PFP nanoemulsions were unstable at storage, difficult to handle, and underwent hard to control phenomenon of irreversible droplet-to-bubble transition upon injection. To solve the above problems, perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether (PFCE) was used as a core forming compound in the second generation of block copolymer stabilized perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions. PFCE nanodroplets manifest both ultrasound and fluorine ((19)F) MR contrast properties, which allows using multimodal imaging and (19)F MR spectroscopy for monitoring nanodroplet pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. In the present paper, acoustic, imaging, and therapeutic properties of unloaded and paclitaxel (PTX) loaded PFCE nanoemulsions are reported. As manifested by the (19)F MR spectroscopy, PFCE nanodroplets are long circulating, with about 50% of the injected dose remaining in circulation 2h after the systemic injection. Sonication with 1-MHz therapeutic ultrasound triggered reversible droplet-to-bubble transition in PFCE nanoemulsions. Microbubbles formed by acoustic vaporization of nanodroplets underwent stable cavitation. The nanodroplet size (200nm to 350nm depending on a type of the shell and conditions of emulsification) as well as long residence in circulation favored their passive accumulation in tumor tissue that was confirmed by ultrasonography. In the breast and pancreatic cancer animal models, ultrasound-mediated therapy with paclitaxel-loaded PFCE nanoemulsions showed excellent therapeutic properties characterized by tumor regression and suppression of metastasis. Anticipated

  8. Comparison of Nanoemulsion and Aqueous Micelle Systems of Paliperidone for Intranasal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidaparthi, Kartika; Suares, Divya

    2016-10-06

    The objective of the study was to develop and compare the efficiency of nanoemulsion and aqueous micelle system of Paliperidone on intranasal administration. Both the formulations were evaluated for physical parameters such as globule size, pH, viscosity, conductivity and in vitro drug release studies. The reduction in spontaneous motor activity of L-dopa and Carbidopa-treated Swiss Albino mice on intranasal administration of nanoemulsion and micellar system of Paliperidone was compared with plain drug suspension. Histopathological evaluation of formulation treated nasal mucosal membrane was performed. Nasal spray device was evaluated for spray pattern and volume per actuation. Globule size of micellar system and nanoemulsion was found to be 16.14 & 38.25 nm, respectively. In vitro release of drug from micellar system was found to be 1.8-fold higher than nanoemulsion. The loading of drug in nanoemulsion was found to be superior (2.5 mg/mL) when compared to micellar system (0.41 mg/mL). The spray pattern of micellar system and nanoemulsion from the device was elliptical and circular, respectively. The locomotor activity of L-dopa and Carbidopa-treated Swiss albino mice was found to be 1096.5±78.49, 551.5±13.43 and 535.5±24.75 counts/min in case of plain drug suspension, micellar system and nanoemulsion, respectively. The intranasal administration of developed formulations showed significant difference (p<0.01) in the locomotor activity when compared to intranasal administration of plain drug. Thus it can be concluded that both the developed formulations have shown improved in vivo activity on intranasal administration and pose great potential for delivery of Paliperidone through intranasal route.

  9. Formation and stability of nanoemulsions with mixed ionic-nonionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Tabor, Rico; Eastoe, Julian; Li, Xuefeng; Heenan, Richard K; Dong, Jinfeng

    2009-11-14

    A simple, low-energy two-step dilution process has been applied with binary mixtures of ionic-nonionic surfactants to prepare nanoemulsions. The systems consist of water/DDAB-C(12)E(5)/decane. Nanoemulsions were obtained by dilution of concentrates located in bicontinuous microemulsion or lamellar liquid crystal phase regions. The nanoemulsions generated were investigated both by contrast-variation small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The SANS profiles show that C(12)E(5) nanodroplets suffer essentially no structural change on incorporation of the cationic DDAB surfactant, except for increased electrostatic repulsive interactions. Interestingly, SANS indicated that the preferred droplet sizes were hardly affected by the surfactant mixture composition (up to a DDAB molar ratio (m(DDAB)/(m(DDAB) + m(C(12)E(5))) of 0.40) and droplet volume fraction, phi, between 0.006 and 0.120. No notable changes in the structure or radius of nanoemulsion droplets were observed by SANS over the test period of 1 d, although the droplet number intensity decreased significantly in systems stabilized by C(12)E(5) only. However, the DLS sizing shows a marked increase with time, with higher droplet volume fractions giving rise to the largest changes. The discrepancy between apparent nanoemulsion droplet size determined by DLS and SANS data can be attributed to long-range droplet interactions occurring outside of the SANS sensitivity range. The combined SANS and DLS results suggest flocculation is the main mechanism of instability for these nanoemulsions. The flocculation rate is shown to be significantly retarded by addition of the charged DDAB, which may be due to enhanced electrostatic repulsive forces between droplets, leading to improved stability of the nanoemulsions.

  10. The effect of aspirin nanoemulsion on TNFα and iNOS in gastric tissue in comparison with conventional aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud FA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatma Abd Elhalim Mahmoud,1,2 Khalid S Hashem,3 Asmaa Mohammed M Hussein Elkelawy21Medical Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, 2Clinical Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, 3Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, EgyptBackground: No dose of aspirin is free of bleeding risk. Even at a dose as low as 75 mg/day, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is twice as high as among nonusers. Nanoemulsions (NEs are emulsion systems with droplet size in nanometer scale in which oil or water droplets are finely dispersed in the opposite phase with the help of a suitable surfactant to stabilize the system.Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aspirin NE in comparison to conventional aspirin.Materials and methods: A total of 24 male rats were used in the study and arbitrarily assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, and was given saline. Group 2 was given blank NE 1.5 mL/kg orally. Group 3 was given aspirin 30 mg/kg body weight orally. Group 4 was given aspirin NE 30 mg/kg body weight orally. Rats were killed, and gastric tissue was quickly excised after dissection of the animals. The tissues were divided into three pieces. The first one was kept in formalin 10% for pathological investigation. The second piece was kept in liquid nitrogen for molecular investigation. The third piece was homogenized in ten volumes of ice-cold phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7 using a Teflon homogenizer until a uniform suspension was obtained. The homogenate was centrifuged at 4,000 rpm for 30 minutes at 4°C to separate the supernatant from cellular debris. The supernatant was then used for the estimation of biochemical assays.Results: The present study shows that aspirin has a toxic effect on the stomach as a result of inducing marked oxidative damage and the release of reactive oxygen species. This was shown by the significant

  11. In vitro evaluation of antitumor activity of doxorubicin-loaded nanoemulsion in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhatib, Mayson H., E-mail: mhalkhatib@kau.edu.sa; AlBishi, Hayat M. [College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Biochemistry (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-03-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anticancer drug used to treat several cancer diseases. However, it has several dose limitation aspects because of its poor bioavailability, hydrophobicity, and cytotoxicity. In this study, five nanoemulsion (NE) formulations, containing soya phosphatidylcholine/polyoxyethylenglycerol trihydroxy-stearate 40 (EU)/sodium oleate as surfactant, cholesterol (CHO) as oil phase, and Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.22), were produced. The NE droplets morphologies of the entire blank and DOX-loaded formulations, revealed by the transmission electron microscope, were spherical. The droplet sizes of blank NEs, obtained between 2.9 and 6.4 nm, decreased significantly with the increase in the ratio of surfactant-to-oil, whereas the droplets sizes of DOX-loaded NE formulations were significantly higher and found in the range of 7.7-15.9 nm. The evaluation for both blank and DOX-loaded NE formulations proved that the NE carrier had improved the DOX efficacy and reduced its cytotoxicity. It showed that the cell growth inhibition of the breast cancer cells (MCF-7) have exceeded the commercial DOX by a factor of 1.7 with increased apoptosis activity and minimal cytotoxicity against the normal human foreskin cells (HFS). In contrast, commercial DOX was found to exhibit a significant non-selective toxicity against both MCF-7 and HFS cells. In conclusion, we have developed DOX-loaded NE formulations which selectively and significantly inhibited cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells and increased apoptosis.

  12. Formulation Development and Toxicity Assessment of Triacetin Mediated Nanoemulsions as Novel Delivery Systems for Rapamycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Hamideh; Tarighi, Parastoo; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Shafaati, Alireza; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Aboofazeli, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to design and develop nanoemulsions (NEs) as novel delivery systems for rapamycin. Phase behavior of quaternary systems composed of Traicetin (as oil), various surfactants and co-surfactants and water at different surfactant/co-surfactant weight ratios was investigated by the construction of phase diagrams. Formulations were taken from the o/w NE region of the phase diagrams, depending upon the extent of NE domain. The spontaneous emulsification method was used to prepare various formulations containing 1 mg/mL of the drug. The NEs were characterized and subjected to stability tests at various temperatures over 9-12 months. Cumulative drug release from the selected formulations was determined for a period of 48 h using a dialysis sac. The assay of rapamycin was carried out using an HPLC technique. The effect of NEs on the viability of SKBR-3 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. The integrity of Caco-2 cell monolayers was measured by Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) and the transport of rapamycin-loaded NEs across Caco-2 cell monolayers was then assessed. The uptake of NEs by SKBR-3 cells was also investigated using florescence microscopy. Maximum drug release was observed in case of 4 formulations prepared with Tween 80 and Tween 20. MTT test results revealed different toxicity of NEs for SKBR-3 cell line and TEER demonstrated that formulations containing Tween 20 caused a more considerable decrease in cell integrity in comparison with those prepared with Tween 80. The results obtained from cellular uptake experiments were in consistent with those obtained from TEER and cytotoxicity experiments. PMID:26185501

  13. Effects of tanshinone nanoemulsion and extract on inhibition of lung cancer cells A549

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. D.; Liang, Y. J.; Chen, B. H.

    2016-12-01

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a Chinese medicinal herb, consists of several functional components including tanshinones responsible for prevention of several chronic diseases. This study intends to prepare tanshinone extract and nanoemulsion from danshen and determine their inhibition effect on lung cancer cells A549. A highly stable tanshinone nanoemulsion composed of Capryol 90, Tween 80, ethanol and deionized water with the mean particle size of 14.2 nm was successfully prepared. Tanshinone nanoemulsion was found to be more effective in inhibiting A549 proliferation than tanshinone extract. Both nanoemulsion and extract could penetrate into cytoplasm through endocytosis, with the former being more susceptible than the latter. A dose-dependent response in up-regulation of p-JNK, p53 and p21 and down-regulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 expressions was observed with the cell cycle arrested at G0/G1 phase. The cellular microcompartment change of A549 was also investigated. The study demonstrated that tanshinone nanoemulsion may be used as a botanic drug for treatment of lung cancer.

  14. Nanoemulsions as novel oral carriers of stiripentol: insights into the protective effect and absorption enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Liu, Shan; Wang, Qilin; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Oral administration remains a significant challenge in regards to drugs with serious solubility and stability issues. This article aimed to investigate the suitability of nanoemulsions as oral carriers of stiripentol (STP), an acid-labile drug, for enhancement of stability and bioavailability. STP-loaded nanoemulsions (STP-NEs) were prepared by using a solvent-diffusion/ultrasonication technique. STP-NEs were characterized in a variety of ways such as by particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, and transmission electron microscopy. A bioavailability study was performed in rats after oral administration of either STP-NEs, or commercial formulation (Diacomit). The resultant nanoemulsions were 146.6 nm in particle size with an entrapment efficiency of 99.47%. It was demonstrated that nanoemulsions significantly improved the biochemical stability and bioavailability of STP. The bioavailability of STP-NEs was up to 206.2% relative to Diacomit. Nanoemulsions fabricated from poly(ethylene glycol) monooleate/medium-chain triglycerides exhibited excellent performance in drug stabilization and absorption enhancement. The results suggest that STP-NEs are a promising means to solve the problems associated with stability and solubility of STP.

  15. Antifungal activity of nanocapsule suspensions containing tea tree oil on the growth of Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, F C; de Lima, J A; Ribeiro, R F; Alves, S H; Rolim, C M B; Beck, R C R; da Silva, Cristiane Bona

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the antifungal efficacy of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (tea tree oil) in an onychomycosis model. The antifungal activity of nanostructured formulations was evaluated against Trichophyton rubrum in two different in vitro models of dermatophyte nail infection. First, nail powder was infected with T. rubrum in a 96-well plate and then treated with the formulations. After 7 and 14 days, cell viability was verified. The plate counts for the samples were 2.37, 1.45 and 1.0 log CFU mL(-1) (emulsion, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil and nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, respectively). A second model employed nails fragments which were infected with the microorganism and treated with the formulations. The diameter of fungal colony was measured. The areas obtained were 2.88 ± 2.08 mm(2), 14.59 ± 2.01 mm(2), 40.98 ± 2.76 mm(2) and 38.72 ± 1.22 mm(2) for the nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil, emulsion and untreated nail, respectively. Nail infection models demonstrated the ability of the formulations to reduce T. rubrum growth, with the inclusion of oil in nanocapsules being most efficient.

  16. Inhibition of colon cancer cell growth by nanoemulsion carrying gold nanoparticles and lycopene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang RFS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rwei-Fen S Huang,1,2,* Yi-Jun Wei,1,2,* Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj,3 Bing-Huei Chen1,3,4 1Graduate Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, 2Department of Nutritional Science, 3Department of Food Science, 4Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen University, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Lycopene (LP, an important functional compound in tomatoes, and gold nanoparticles (AN, have received considerable attention as potential candidates for cancer therapy. However, the extreme instability and poor bioavailability of LP limits its in vivo application. This study intends to develop a nanoemulsion system incorporating both LP and AN, and to study the possible synergistic effects on the inhibition of the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. LP–nanogold nanoemulsion containing Tween 80 as an emulsifier was prepared, followed by characterization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS analysis, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and zeta potential analysis. The particle size as determined by TEM and DLS was 21.3±3.7 nm and 25.0±4.2 nm for nanoemulsion and 4.7±1.1 nm and 3.3±0.6 nm for AN, while the zeta potential of nanoemulsion and AN was -32.2±1.8 mV and -48.5±2.7 mV, respectively. Compared with the control treatment, both the combo (AN 10 ppm plus LP 12 µM and nanoemulsion (AN 0.16 ppm plus LP 0.4 µM treatments resulted in a five- and 15-fold rise in early apoptotic cells of HT-29, respectively. Also, the nanoemulsion significantly reduced the expressions of procaspases 8, 3, and 9, as well as PARP-1 and Bcl-2, while Bax expression was enhanced. A fivefold decline in the migration capability of HT-29 cells was observed for this nanoemulsion when compared to control, with the invasion-associated markers being significantly reversed through the upregulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and downregulation of Akt, nuclear factor kappa B, pro-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, and

  17. d-α-tocopherol nanoemulsions: Size properties, rheological behavior, surface tension, osmolarity and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Teixeira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the assessment of the physicochemical stability of d-α-tocopherol formulated in medium chain triglyceride nanoemulsions, stabilized with Tween®80 and Lipoid®S75 as surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. d-α-tocopherol was selected as active ingredient because of its well-recognized interesting anti-oxidant properties (such as radical scavenger for food and pharmaceutical industries. A series of nanoemulsions of mean droplet size below 90 nm (polydispersity index < 0.15 have been produced by high-pressure homogenization, and their surface electrical charge (zeta potential, pH, surface tension, osmolarity, and rheological behavior, were characterized as a function of the d-α-tocopherol loading. In vitro studies in Caco-2 cell lines confirmed the safety profile of the developed nanoemulsions with percentage of cell viability above 90% for all formulations.

  18. Modification of composition of a nanoemulsion with different cholesteryl ester molecular species: Effects on stability, peroxidation, and cell uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina P Almeida

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cristina P Almeida1, Carolina G Vital1, Thais C Contente1, Durvanei A Maria2, Raul C Maranhão1,31Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Heart Institute (InCor, Medical School Hospital, 2Biochemistry and Biophysics Laboratories, Butantan Institute, 3Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilPurpose: Use of lipid nanoemulsions as carriers of drugs for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes has been increasingly studied. Here, it was tested whether modifications of core particle constitution could affect the characteristics and biologic properties of lipid nanoemulsions. Methods: Three nanoemulsions were prepared using cholesteryl oleate, cholesteryl stearate, or cholesteryl linoleate as main core constituents. Particle size, stability, pH, peroxidation of the nanoemulsions, and cell survival and uptake by different cell lines were evaluated.Results: It was shown that cholesteryl stearate nanoemulsions had the greatest particle size and all three nanoemulsions were stable during the 237-day observation period. The pH of the three nanoemulsion preparations tended to decrease over time, but the decrease in pH of cholesteryl stearate was smaller than that of cholesteryl oleate and cholesteryl linoleate. Lipoperoxidation was greater in cholesteryl linoleate than in cholesteryl oleate and cholesteryl stearate. After four hours’ incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC with nanoemulsions, peroxidation was minimal in the presence of cholesteryl oleate and more pronounced with cholesteryl linoleate and cholesteryl stearate. In contrast, macrophage incubates showed the highest peroxidation rates with cholesteryl oleate. Cholesteryl linoleate induced the highest cell peroxidation rates, except in macrophages. Uptake of cholesteryl oleate nanoemulsion by HUVEC and fibroblasts was greater than that of cholesteryl linoleate and cholesteryl stearate. Uptake of the three nanoemulsions by monocytes was equal. Uptake of

  19. Preparation, characterization and stability study of dutasteride loaded nanoemulsion for treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Sajid; Alam, Mohammad Sarfaraz; Alam, Nawazish; Siddiqui, Masoom Raza

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)is the most common condition in aging men, associated with lower urinary tract symptoms. It is caused due to the augmented levels of the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Dutasteride, a 5α-Reductase inhibitor has been recommended for the treatment of BPH upon oral administration. However, long term oral administration of dutasteride may cause sexual problem in man. Therefore the main objective of this study was to develop transdermal patch having nanoemulsion gel of dutasteride in order to enhance physical and chemical stability and eliminate adverse effect of dutasteride. Optimized nanoemulsion was prepared by aqueous phase-titration method and characterized by droplet size, viscosity and refractive index. In-vitro skin permeation of dutasteride through rat abdominal skin was determined by the Franz diffusion cell.Significant increase in the steady state flux (J ss), permeability coefficient (K p) and enhancement ratio (E r) was observed in optimized nanoemulsion formulation A1 (p < 0.05). The Er of optimized nanoemulsion A1 was found to be 1.52 times with respect to control which indicates transdermal delivery may be better approach for BPH. Stability studies were performed for the period of 3 months. It was found that droplet size, viscosity and refractive index were slightly increased at refrigerator and room temperature in 3 months period. However, the changes in these parameters were not statistically significant (p ≥ 0.05). The shelf-life of optimized nanoemulsion A1 was found to be 2.18 years at room temperature. These results indicated that both physical as well as chemical stability of dutasteride in nanoemulsion formulation.

  20. Atmospheric air-plasma treatment of polyester fiber to improve the performance of nanoemulsion silicone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvinzadeh, Mazeyar, E-mail: mparvinzadeh@gmail.com [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Shahre Rey Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Izadyar [Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Shahre Rey Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Influence of atmospheric air plasma treatment on performance of nanoemulsion silicone softener on polyethylene terephthalate fibers was investigated by the use of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), bending lengths (BL), wrinkle recovery angles (WRA), fiber friction coefficient analysis (FFCA), moisture absorbency (MA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflectance spectroscopy (RS). Results indicated that the plasma pretreatment modifies the surface of fibers and increases the reactivity of substrate toward nanoemulsion silicone. Moisture regain and microscopic tests showed that the combination of plasma and silicone treatments on polyethylene terephthalate can decrease moisture absorption due to uniform coating of silicone emulsion on surface of fibers.

  1. Physical and antimicrobial properties of cinnamon bark oil co-nanoemulsified by lauric arginate and Tween 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Jonas; Ma, Qiumin; Davidson, P Michael; Weiss, Jochen; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-09-16

    Lauric arginate (LAE) is a water-soluble cationic surfactant which has antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of foodborne pathogens. Some spice essential oils are effective lipophilic antimicrobials. Combining both antimicrobials may reduce their usage levels and possible negative sensory impacts when applied in complex food matrices. The objective of this study was to combine a nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) with LAE to form stable nanoemulsions with cinnamon bark essential oil (CBO) and to characterize the antimicrobial activity of these nanoemulsions. CBO was homogenized at 1% w/w in the aqueous phase with 3% w/w Tween 80 and 0.05-0.375% w/w LAE, followed by heating at 90°C for 30min to obtain final emulsions. With 0.125% and higher LAE, transparent emulsions with ~100nm in hydrodynamic diameter were observed to be stable during 30-day storage at 21°C. Antimicrobial activities of the nanoemulsion prepared with Tween 80 and 0.375% w/w LAE were studied. The respective minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the nanoemulsion in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were 12, 7, and 8ppm LAE for Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes, while those of free LAE were 11, 6, and 6ppm, respectively. MICs of CBO were 400ppm for the tested bacteria and Tween 80 at 6% w/w did not show inhibitory effect. Growth kinetics of the bacteria in TSB treated with the nanoemulsion or individual components at concentrations corresponding to the MICs of free LAE showed that binding among the LAE and Tween 80 and CBO components resulted in the antibacterial activity of nanoemulsion being lower than same concentrations of free LAE and CBO. Conversely, little difference was observed for the individual antimicrobials and the nanoemulsion in 2% reduced fat milk, and 750ppm LAE and 2000ppm CBO were observed to be the dominant antimicrobial against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. The growth of L. monocytogenes in 2% reduced fat

  2. Multimodal Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions for 19F MRI, Ultrasonography, and Catalysis of MRgFUS-Mediated Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, N.; Nam, K.-H.; Christensen, D. A.; Kennedy, A. M.; Parker, D. L.; Payne, A. H.; Todd, N.; Shea, J. E.; Scaife, C. L.

    2011-09-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions can target lipophilic therapeutic agents to solid tumors and simultaneously provide for monitoring nanocarrier biodistribution via ultrasonography and/or 19F MRI. In the first generation of block copolymer stabilized perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions, perfluoropentane (PFP) was used as the droplet forming compound. Although manifesting excellent therapeutic and ultrasound imaging properties, PFP nanoemulsions were unstable at storage, difficult to handle, and underwent droplet-to-bubble transition upon injection that was hard to control. To solve the above problems, perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether (PFCE) was used as a core forming compound in the second generation of block copolymer stabilized perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions. In the present paper, acoustic, imaging, and therapeutic properties of unloaded and paclitaxel (PTX) loaded PFCE nanoemulsions are reported. The size of paclitaxel-loaded PFCE nanodroplets (300 nm to 500 nm depending on emulsification conditions) favors their passive accumulation in tumor tissue. PFCE nanodroplets manifest both ultrasound and 19F MR contrast properties, which allows the use of multimodal imaging to monitor nanodroplet biodistribution. Ultrasonography and 19F MRI produced consistent results on nanodroplet biodistribution. Sonication with 1-MHz therapeutic ultrasound triggered reversible droplet-to-bubble transition in PFCE nanoemulsions. Microbubbles formed by acoustic vaporization underwent stable cavitation. In a pilot study on ultrasound-mediated therapy of a large breast cancer tumor, paclitaxel-loaded PFCE nanoemulsions combined with 1-MHz ultrasound (MI≥1.75) showed excellent therapeutic properties. Anticipated mechanisms of the observed effects are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of transdermal delivery of nanoemulsions in ex vivo porcine skin using two-photon microscopy and confocal laser-scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sanghoon; Kim, Jin Woong; Lee, Yong Joong; Delmas, Thomas; Kim, Changhwan; Park, Soyeun; Lee, Ho

    2014-10-01

    This study experimentally evaluates the self-targeting ability of asiaticoside-loaded nanoemulsions compared with nontargeted nanoemulsions in ex vivo experiments with porcine skin samples. Homebuilt two-photon and confocal laser-scanning microscopes were employed to noninvasively examine the transdermal delivery of two distinct nanoemulsions. Prior to the application of nanoemulsions, we noninvasively observed the morphology of porcine skin using two-photon microscopy. We have successfully visualized the distributions of the targeted and nontargeted nanoemulsions absorbed into the porcine skin samples. Asiaticoside-loaded nanoemulsions showed an improved ex vivo transdermal delivery through the stratum corneum compared with nonloaded nanoemulsions. As a secondary measure, nanoemulsions-applied samples were sliced in the depth direction with a surgical knife in order to obtain the complete depth-direction distribution profile of Nile red fluorescence. XZ images demonstrated that asiaticoside-loaded nanoemulsion penetrated deeper into the skin compared with nontargeted nanoemulsions. The basal layer boundary is clearly visible in the case of the asiaticoside-loaded skin sample. These results reaffirm the feasibility of using self-targeting ligands to improve permeation through the skin barrier for cosmetics and topical drug applications.

  4. Formation and stabilization of nanoemulsion-based vitamin E delivery systems using natural biopolymers: Whey protein isolate and gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Bengu; Argin, Sanem; Ozilgen, Mustafa; McClements, David Julian

    2015-12-01

    Natural biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum arabic (GA), were used to fabricate emulsion-based delivery systems for vitamin E-acetate. Stable delivery systems could be formed when vitamin E-acetate was mixed with sufficient orange oil prior to high pressure homogenization. WPI (d32=0.11 μm, 1% emulsifier) was better than GA (d32=0.38 μm, 10% emulsifier) at producing small droplets at low emulsifier concentrations. However, WPI-stabilized nanoemulsions were unstable to flocculation near the protein isoelectric point (pH 5.0), at high ionic strength (>100mM), and at elevated temperatures (>60 °C), whereas GA-stabilized emulsions were stable. This difference was attributed to differences in emulsifier stabilization mechanisms: WPI by electrostatic repulsion; GA by steric repulsion. These results provide useful information about the emulsifying and stabilizing capacities of natural biopolymers for forming food-grade vitamin-enriched delivery systems.

  5. Encapsulation of cadmium selenide quantum dots using a self-assembling nanoemulsion (SANE) reduces their in vitro toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmund, Anton R; Kambalapally, Swetha; Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2011-02-01

    Although, nanometer-scale semi-conductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted widespread interest in medical diagnosis and treatment, many can have intrinsic toxicities, especially those composed of CdSe, associated with their elemental composition. Using our self-assembling nanoemulsion (SANE) formulations which we have previously reported to be composed of non-toxic components, i.e., such as vegetable oil, surfactant and water, we hypothesized that their appropriate utilization would reduce the toxicity of QDs by encapsulating the CdSe QDs in our (SANE) system using a modified phase-inversion temperature (PIT) method. SANE encapsulation of the QDs did not alter their emission wavelength of 600nm which remained unchanged during the encapsulation process. In contrast, zeta potential of encapsulated QDs was reduced from -30 to -6.59 mV, which we have previously reported to be associated with beneficial properties (increased bioavailability and efficacy) for SANE-encapsulated bioactives such as pharmaceuticals. Relative to the untreated controls, the viability of HeLa cells exposed for 48 h to un-encapsulated CdSe QDs at a concentration of 115 μg/mL was 22.7±1.7% (p<0.05). In contrast, the percentage of viable HeLa cells following exposure to SANE-encapsulated CdSe QDs at the same concentration was 91.6±3.5% (p<0.05) or a 307% increase in the number of viable cells (p<0.05). When the dose of CdSe QDs was increased to 230 μg/mL, the percentage of viable HeLa cells after exposure to the un-encapsulated CdSe QDs was 16.1±1.3% compared to controls (p<0.05). In contrast, at the same increased concentration (230 μg/mL) of un-encapsulated CdSe QDs, the percentage of viable HeLa cells following exposure to SANE-encapsulated CdSe QDs was 87.9±3.3% relative to controls (p<0.05) or a 448% increase in the number of viable cells (p<0.05). Exposure of HeLa cells to a nanoblank, (nanoemulsion without QDs), showed no significant effect on cell viability (97.2±2.5%) compared to

  6. In vitro lipid peroxidation of intestinal bile salt-based nanoemulsions: potential role of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courraud, J; Charnay, C; Cristol, J P; Berger, J; Avallone, S

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decades, oxidative stress has been described as a deleterious phenomenon contributing to numerous noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancers. As many authors ascribed the healthy effect of fruit and vegetable consumption mainly to their antioxidant contents, it has been hypothesized that their protection could occur from the gut. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an original and physiological model of nanoemulsions to study lipid peroxidation within the intestine and to assess the properties of potential antioxidants in this setting. Several nanoemulsions were compared in terms of physical characteristics and reactivity to 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidation. Formulations included different types of lipids, a detergent (a conjugated bile salt or sodium dodecyl sulfate) and, finally, lipophilic antioxidants. Hemin and myoglobin were also tested as relevant potential oxidants. Fatty acid (FA) peroxidation was monitored by gas chromatography while malondialdehyde and antioxidant contents were measured by HPLC. Investigated nanoemulsions were composed of spherical or cylindrical mixed micelles, the latter being the least resistant to oxidation. In the experimental conditions, AAPH was the only efficient oxidant. Alpha-tocopherol and lutein significantly slowed FA degradation from 4 to 1 μM, respectively. On the contrary, beta-carotene did not show any protective capacity at 4 μM. In conclusion, the tested nanoemulsions were appropriate to assess antioxidant capacity during the intestinal phase of digestion.

  7. Water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions: Preparation, stability and physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Noor El-Din

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions were prepared with mixed nonionic surfactants. Several mixtures of sorbitan monooleate and polyoxyethylene (20 sorbitan monooleate, with different Hydrophilic–Lipophilic Balance (HLB values (9.6, 9.8, 10, 10.2 and 10.4 were prepared to achieve the optimal HLB value. Three mixed surfactant concentrations were prepared at 6%, 8% and 10% to identify the optimum concentration. Five emulsions with different water contents: 5%, 6%, 7%, 8% and 9% (wt./wt. were prepared using high energy method at the optimum conditions (HLB = 10 and mixed surfactant concentration = 10%. The effect of HLB value, mixed surfactant concentration and water content on the droplet size has been studied. The interfacial tension and thermodynamic properties of the individual and the blended emulsifiers were investigated. Droplet size of the prepared nanoemulsions was determined by dynamic light scattering and the nanoemulsion stability was assessed by measuring the variation of the droplet size as a function of time. From the obtained results, it was found that the mean droplet sizes were formed between 49.55 and 104.4 nm depending on HLB value, surfactant concentration and water content of the blended emulsifiers. The physical properties, kinematic viscosity and density, of the prepared nanoemulsions and the effect of different temperatures on these properties were measured.

  8. Production of Nanoemulsions from Palm-Based Tocotrienol Rich Fraction by Microfluidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pik Seah Goh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF nanoemulsions were produced as an alternative approach to improve solubility and absorption of tocotrienols. In the present study, droplet size obtained after 10 cycles of homogenization with increasing pressure was found to decrease from 120 to 65.1 nm. Nanoemulsions stabilized with Tween series alone or emulsifier blend Brij 35:Span 80 (0.6:0.4 w/w homogenized at 25,000 psi and 10 cycles, produced droplet size less than 100 nm and a narrow size distribution with a polydispersity index (PDI value lower than 0.2. However blend of Tween series with Span 80 produced nanoemulsions with droplet size larger than 200 nm. This work has also demonstrated the amount of tocols losses in TRF nanoemulsion stabilized Tweens alone or emulsifier blend Brij 35:Span 80 (0.6:0.4 w/w ranged between 3%–25%. This can be attributed to the interfacial film formed surrounding the droplets exhibited different level of oxidative stability against heat and free radicals created during high pressure emulsification.

  9. Mixed PEGylated surfactant modifying system decrease the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon of nanoemulsions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated blood clearance (ABC phenomenon which is induced by repeated injection of poly (ethylene glycol (PEG-coated colloidal carriers gives clinical challenge to the promising drug delivery system. It is necessary to decrease this unexpected immunological response. A novel 4-arm poly (ethylene glycol-50004-cholesteryl methyl amide (4-arm PEG5000-CHMA has been synthesized. The structure of 4-arm PEG5000-CHMA was confirmed by IR and 1H-NMR spectrum. The pharmacokinetics of the tocopheryl nicotinate (TN-loaded nanoemulsions modified with 4-arm PEG5000-CHMA or/and 1, 2-distearoyl-Sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-n-[methoxy(poly-ethyleneglycol-2000] (mPEG2000-DSPE have been studied. Furthermore, the ABC phenomenon has been detailed investigated in rats by TN-loaded nanoemulsions modified with 4-arm PEG5000-CHMA and mPEG2000-DSPE (CPNE. The plasma levels of TN and anti-PEG IgM antibody were determined by HPLC and ELISA, respectively. The circulation time of the CPNEs were comparable to the mPEG2000-DSPE coated nanoemulsions. Moreover, the ABC phenomenon can be decreased by CPNEs. This study designs a method to decrease the ABC phenomenon and develops a clinical promising nanoemulsion for therapeutic or imaging purpose.

  10. Hyperosmotic nanoemulsions: Development and application of a new antimicrobial treatment for wound care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Sean

    Wound healing is the intricate process that restores function to damaged skin. The process consists of the inflammatory, proliferative and remodeling phases that orchestrate dynamic cellular responses to regenerate the cutaneous barrier. However, microbial contamination of the wound site stimulates a deleterious inflammatory response with the production of endotoxins, exotoxins and proteases that result in secondary injury. The end result is delayed healing, protracted debilitation and increased health care costs. Controlling contamination is critical for proper wound management and reduced burden on the healthcare system. Based on this concern, we developed and applied a new antimicrobial therapeutic that relies on hyperosmotic nanoemulsions (HNE). The biomechanical process consists of a high-energy nanoemulsion component that permeates the protective microbial membrane and a (ii) nonionic hyperosmoticum that facilitates intracellular water extraction to critically dehydrate the pathogen. HNE was shown to be effective against a multitude of pathogens including bacteria, antibiotic-resistant variants, fungi and viruses. Reported non-clinical studies demonstrate that the membrane disrupting nanoemulsion and hyperosmotic component act synergistically to enhance microbicidal activity. Further, results illustrate that pathogen inactivation was rapid as determined by ion and macromolecule leakage assays. Application of HNE in a pre-clinical animal model of wound healing demonstrated the treatment actively promoted healing to reduce treatment times. HNE mitigated wound infection to reduce the inflammatory response and mechanically debrided the wound to facilitate wound closure. Recent work further enhanced the stability of the nanoemulsion component with the addition of surfactant stabilizers using a low-energy spontaneous emulsification process. The refined nanoemulsion composition was stable against physical stressors and long-term storage without disrupting the

  11. Nanomedicine for therapeutic drug therapy: Approaches to increase the efficacy of drug therapy with nanoemulsion delivery and reduce the toxicity of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambalapally, Swetha Reddy

    The advancement of nanotechnology has paved the way for novel nanoscale materials for use in a wide range of applications. The use of these nanomaterials in biomedicine facilitates the improvement of existing technologies for disease prevention and treatment through diagnostics, tumor detection, drug delivery, medical imaging and vaccine development. Nanotechnology delivery systems for therapeutic uses includes the formulation of nanoparticles in emulsions. These novel delivery systems can improve drug efficacy by their ability to enhance bioavailability, minimize drug side effects, decrease drug toxicity, provide targeted site delivery and increase circulation of the drug in the blood. Additionally, these delivery systems also improve the drug stability and encapsulation efficiency. In the Introduction, this thesis will describe a novel technique for the preparation of nanoemulsions which was utilized in drug delivery and diagnostic applications. This novel Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT) method is a solvent and polymer-free and low energy requiring emulsification method, typically utilizing oils stabilized by nonionic surfactants to prepare water in oil (W/O) emulsions. The correlation between the particle size, zeta potential and the emulsion stability is described. The use of this nanoemulsion delivery system for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals by utilizing in vitro systems was investigated. Using the PIT method, a self assembling nanoemulsion (SANE) of gamma Tocotrienols (gammaT3), a component of Vitamin E family has been demonstrated to reduce cholesterol accumulation in HepG-2 cells. The nanoemulsion is stable and the particle size is around 20 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.065. The effect of the nano gammaT3 on the metabolism of cholesterol, HMG-CoA activity and Apo-B levels were evaluated in an in vitro system utilizing HepG2 cells. A new class of nanoparticles, Quantum dots (QDs) has shown immense potential as novel nanomaterials used as

  12. In Vitro Study on Antihypertensive and Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of a Curcumin Nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Heni; Soraya, Irene Surya; Kurniati, Neng Fisheri; Rahma, Annisa

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and hypertension can potentially progess into dangerous cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol levels while antihypertensive agents such as captopril are widely prescribed to treat high blood pressure. Curcumin, a phenolic compound isolated from Curcuma domestica, has been proven effective for a broad spectrum of diseases, including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, curcumin is quite promising as an alternative therapeutic compound. Our previous studies have proven a significant increase in physical properties, bioavailability, and stability of curcumin when encapsulated in a nanoemulsion. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the nanoemulsion in enhancing curcumin activity as a antihypertensive and antihypercholesterolemic agent. The formulation and preparation method of the curcumin nanoemulsion have been developed in our previous study. Physical characterization was performed, including measurement of droplet size, polidispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and loading capacity. Antihypertensive activity of curcumin was evaluated by determining Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition in vitro. A substrate for ACE, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine was allowed to react with ACE, resulting in hippuric acid formation as the product. The degree of ACE inhibition by curcumin was represented by the amount of hippuric acid formed. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of curcumin was studied using the HMG-CoA reductase assay equipped with a 96-well UV plate. This assay was based on the spectrophotometric measurement of the decrease in absorbance which represents the oxidation of NADPH by the catalytic subunit of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) in the presence of the substrate HMG-CoA. Curcumin is known to have no significant difference in inhibiting ACE compared to Captopril, but when it was incorporated in the self

  13. Nanoemulsions obtained via bubble bursting at a compound interface

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Jie; Vigolo, Daniele; Arnaudov, Luben N; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Gurkov, Theodor D; Tsutsumanova, Gichka G; Stone, Howard A

    2013-01-01

    The bursting of bubbles at an air/liquid interface is a familiar occurrence important to foam stability, cell cultures in bioreactors and mass transfer between the sea and atmosphere. Here we document the hitherto unreported formation and dispersal into the water column of submicrometre oil droplets following bubble bursting at a compound air/oil/water-with-surfactant interface. We show that dispersal results from the detachment of an oil spray from the bottom of the bubble towards water during bubble collapse. We provide evidence that droplet size is selected by physicochemical interactions between oil molecules and the surfactants rather than by hydrodynamic effects. We illustrate the unrecognized role that this dispersal mechanism may play in the fate of the sea surface micro-layer and of pollutant spills by dispersing petroleum in the water column. Finally, our system provides an energy-efficient route, with potential upscalability and wide applicability, for applications in drug delivery, food production...

  14. In vitro lipid peroxidation of intestinal bile salt-based nanoemulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courraud, J; Charnay, C; Cristol, J P

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, oxidative stress has been described as a deleterious phenomenon contributing to numerous noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancers. As many authors ascribed the healthy effect of fruit and vegetable consumption mainly to their antioxidant....... Several nanoemulsions were compared in terms of physical characteristics and reactivity to 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidation. Formulations included different types of lipids, a detergent (a conjugated bile salt or sodium dodecyl sulfate) and, finally, lipophilic...... contents, it has been hypothesized that their protection could occur from the gut. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an original and physiological model of nanoemulsions to study lipid peroxidation within the intestine and to assess the properties of potential antioxidants in this setting...

  15. Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Compound Bifonazole Nanoemulsion%复方联苯苄唑纳米乳的制备及其质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莹; 欧阳五庆; 郭建军; 郑星星; 宋冠男

    2012-01-01

    以联苯苄唑为主药,辅以丙酸氯倍他索以及肉桂醛制成复方.通过绘制伪三元相图筛选处方研制复方联苯苄唑纳米乳,并对其进行质量评价.结果表明,复方联苯苄唑纳米乳最佳配方为:w(联苯苄唑)=1.6%,w(丙酸氯倍他索)=0.05%,w(肉桂醛)=0.15%,w(吐温- 80)=29.5%,w(无水乙醇)=9.8%,w(乙酸乙酯)=13.6%,w(蒸馏水)=45.3%.该纳米乳为水包油型纳米乳,可用水无限稀释.透射电镜下,纳米乳呈圆球形,无粘连.平均粒径(Z-Average)为10.4 nm,多分散系数(PDI)为0.196.在25℃时,稀释5倍后的复方联苯苄唑纳米乳的平均pH=6.1 ±0.3,对应的平均Zeta电位为(-9.18±0.2)mV.复方联苯苄唑纳米乳制备工艺简单且质量可控,有望应用于临床.%Bifonazole, as basic remedy,was combined with clobetasol propionate and cinnamaldehyde to make a compound. By drafting the pseudoternary phase diagrams, the optimal bifonazole nanoemulsion was chosen for quality evaluation. It was found that the mass fraction of the various constituents of the optimal bifonazole nanoemulsion was as follows, w (bifonazole) = 1.6%, w (clobetasol propionate ) = 0. 05% , w ( cinnamaldehyde ) = 0. 15% , w ( Tween - 80 ) = 29. 5% , w (ethanol) =9. 8% , w ( acetic ether) =13. 6% , and w ( distilled water) = 45. 3% . This oil-in-water nanoemulsion could be easily diluted by water, assuming a spherical shape without adhesion or aggregation,and having a Z-average diameter of 10. 4 nm and a polydispersity index( PDI) of 0. 196. After a 5-fold dilution,the average pH value was 6. 1 ±0.3,and the corresponding zeta potential was (9. 18 ±0. 2) mV at 25 ℃. The preparation process of this compound bifonazole nanoemulsion is easy to carry out, and the quality can be controlled, standing a chance of potential clinical applications.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Nanoemulsion in Combination with Cetylpyridinium Chloride in Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    enteric Gram - negative bacilli . J. Appl. Mi- crobiol. 89:397– 403. 10. Hemmila MR, Mattar A, Taddonio MA, Arbabi S, Hamouda T, Ward PA, Wang SC, Baker...utilization of nanoemulsions against the antibiotic-resistant forms of A. baumannii. Over the past 15 years, Acinetobacter baumannii (an aerobic, Gram ... negative coccobacillus) has become an emerging problematic pathogen with a wide array of antibiotic resistance (1), representing a serious threat not

  17. Monitoring the Stability of Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions by Cryo-TEM Image Analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapentin, Christoph; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFC-NE) are disperse systems consisting of nanoscale liquid perfluorocarbon droplets stabilized by an emulsifier, usually phospholipids. Perfluorocarbons are chemically inert and non-toxic substances that are exhaled after in vivo administration. The manufacture of PFC-NE can be done in large scales by means of high pressure homogenization or microfluidization. Originally investigated as oxygen carriers for cases of severe blood loss, their application nowadays is more focused on using them as marker agents in 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging (19F MRI). 19F is scarce in organisms and thus PFC-NE are a promising tool for highly specific and non-invasive imaging of inflammation via 19F MRI. Neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages phagocytize PFC-NE and subsequently migrate to inflamed tissues. This technique has proven feasibility in numerous disease models in mice, rabbits and mini pigs. The translation to clinical trials in human needs the development of a stable nanoemulsion whose droplet size is well characterized over a long storage time. Usually dynamic light scattering (DLS) is applied as the standard method for determining particle sizes in the nanometer range. Our study uses a second method, analysis of transmission electron microscopy images of cryo-fixed samples (Cryo-TEM), to evaluate stability of PFC-NE in comparison to DLS. Four nanoemulsions of different composition are observed for one year. The results indicate that DLS alone cannot reveal the changes in particle size, but can even mislead to a positive estimation of stability. The combination with Cryo-TEM images gives more insight in the particulate evolution, both techniques supporting one another. The study is one further step in the development of analytical tools for the evaluation of a clinically applicable perfluorooctylbromide nanoemulsion.

  18. Nanoemulsion drug delivery by ketene based polyester synthesized using electron rich carbon/silica composite surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnalatha, S; Selvi, P K; Ganesh Kumar, A; Sekaran, G

    2008-09-01

    A new carrier matrix for nanoemulsion drug delivery was synthesized from glycine as the raw material, using mesoporous/microporous electron rich carbon-silica composite surface (MAC(800)). MAC(800) was prepared from rice husk in two-stage carbonization. The surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution of MAC(800) were measured, using nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K. The unpaired electron density of MAC(800) was measured in electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), using TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine-1-oxyl) as the reference spin probe. Glycine was converted into ketene at the surface of MAC(800), which further underwent radical polymerization to form a low molecular weight ketene polymer (LMKP) of ester structure. The structure and the properties of LMKP were confirmed through (13)C, (1)H and DEPT nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The two hydrophilic drugs namely ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPH) and gentamicin sulphate (GS) were chosen for the nanoemulsion preparation and characterization. They were characterized for morphology, interaction of drugs with the polymer and their crystallinity, using HR-TEM, DSC and XRD, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of the LMKP towards the drugs ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and gentamicin sulphate were 26% and 12%, respectively. The dissolution studies of the nanoemulsion were carried out for the pH 6.5, 7.4 and 8.0. The cytocompatibility studies were done for LMKP as well as nanoemulsion using Hep2 epithelial cells.

  19. Nanoemulsions as novel oral carriers of stiripentol: insights into the protective effect and absorption enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Lu R; Liu S.; Wang Q.; Li X.

    2015-01-01

    Rong Lu,1 Shan Liu,1 Qilin Wang,1 Xia Li1,2 1School of Ocean, Shandong University, Weihai, 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Oral administration remains a significant challenge in regards to drugs with serious solubility and stability issues. This article aimed to investigate the suitability of nanoemulsions as oral carriers of stiripentol (STP), an acid-labile drug, for enhancement of stability and bioavail...

  20. Exercise training accelerates the removal from plasma of LDL-like nanoemulsion in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficker, Elisabeth S; Maranhão, Raul C; Chacra, Ana P M; Neves, Vanessa C; Negrão, Carlos E; Martins, Vanessa C N; Vinagre, Carmen G C de M

    2010-09-01

    Exercise training improves plasma lipid profile and diminishes risk of coronary heart disease. Previously, we showed that training increases LDL plasma clearance, as tested by an artificial LDL-like nanoemulsion method, presumably by increasing LDL receptor activity. In this study, we investigated whether training could also improve LDL clearance in hypercholesterolemic subjects (HCh) that are exposed to increased risk of cardiovascular events. Twenty sedentary HCh and 20 normolipidemic (NL) sedentary volunteers were divided into four groups: 12 HCh submitted to 4-month training program, 8 HCh with no exercise program, 12 NL submitted to 4-month training and 8 NL with no exercise program. An LDL-like nanoemulsion labeled with (14)C-cholesteryl ester was injected intravenously into all subjects and plasma samples were collected during 24 h after injection to determine the fractional clearance rate (FCR, in h(-1)) by compartmental analysis. The study was performed on the first and on the last day of the 4-month study period. In both, trained HCh and NL groups, training increased nanoemulsion FCR by 36% (0.0443+/-0.0126; 0.0602+/-0.0187, p=0.0187 and 0.0503+/-0.0203; 0.0686+/-0.0216, p=0.0827, respectively). After training, LDL cholesterol diminished in both HCh and NL groups. In HCh, but not in NL group, LDL susceptibility to oxidation decreased, but oxidized LDL was unchanged. In both non-trained groups FCR was the same for the last and the 4-month previous evaluation. In HCh, exercise training increased the removal of LDL as tested by the nanoemulsion, and this probably accounted for decreased LDL cholesterol and diminished LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring the Stability of Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions by Cryo-TEM Image Analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Grapentin

    Full Text Available Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFC-NE are disperse systems consisting of nanoscale liquid perfluorocarbon droplets stabilized by an emulsifier, usually phospholipids. Perfluorocarbons are chemically inert and non-toxic substances that are exhaled after in vivo administration. The manufacture of PFC-NE can be done in large scales by means of high pressure homogenization or microfluidization. Originally investigated as oxygen carriers for cases of severe blood loss, their application nowadays is more focused on using them as marker agents in 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging (19F MRI. 19F is scarce in organisms and thus PFC-NE are a promising tool for highly specific and non-invasive imaging of inflammation via 19F MRI. Neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages phagocytize PFC-NE and subsequently migrate to inflamed tissues. This technique has proven feasibility in numerous disease models in mice, rabbits and mini pigs. The translation to clinical trials in human needs the development of a stable nanoemulsion whose droplet size is well characterized over a long storage time. Usually dynamic light scattering (DLS is applied as the standard method for determining particle sizes in the nanometer range. Our study uses a second method, analysis of transmission electron microscopy images of cryo-fixed samples (Cryo-TEM, to evaluate stability of PFC-NE in comparison to DLS. Four nanoemulsions of different composition are observed for one year. The results indicate that DLS alone cannot reveal the changes in particle size, but can even mislead to a positive estimation of stability. The combination with Cryo-TEM images gives more insight in the particulate evolution, both techniques supporting one another. The study is one further step in the development of analytical tools for the evaluation of a clinically applicable perfluorooctylbromide nanoemulsion.

  2. Application of nano-encapsulated olive leaf extract in controlling the oxidative stability of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Adeleh; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Esfanjani, Afshin Faridi; Akhavan, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of olive leave extract (OLE) encapsulated by nano-emulsions in soybean oil. The average droplet size one day after production was 6.16 nm for primary W/O nano-emulsion and, 675 nm and 1443 nm for multiple emulsions stabilized by WPC alone and complex of WPC-pectin, respectively. The antioxidant activity of these emulsions containing three concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mg OLE during storage was evaluated in soybean oil by peroxide value, TBA value and rancimat thermal stability test and was compared with blank (non-encapsulated) OLE and synthetic TBHQ antioxidant. Nano-encapsulated OLE was capable of controlling peroxide value better than unencapsulated OLE. But because of blocking phenolic compounds within dispersed emulsions droplets, thermal stability of encapsulated OLE was lower. To summarize, with increased solubility and controlled release of olive leaf phenolic compounds through their nano-encapsulation, a higher antioxidant activity was achieved.

  3. Compared in vivo efficiency of nanoemulsions unloaded and loaded with calixarene and soapy water in the treatment of superficial wounds contaminated by uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivès, Sophie; Phan, Guillaume; Bouvier-Capely, Céline; Suhard, David; Rebière, François; Agarande, Michelle; Fattal, Elias

    2017-04-01

    No emergency decontamination treatment is currently available in the case of radiological skin contamination by uranium compounds. First responders in the workplace or during an industrial nuclear accident must be able to treat internal contamination through skin. For this purpose, a calixarene nanoemulsion was developed for the treatment of intact skin or superficial wounds contaminated by uranium, and the decontamination efficiency of this nanoemulsion was investigated in vitro and ex vivo. The present work addresses the in vivo decontamination efficiency of this nanoemulsion, using a rat model. This efficiency is compared to the radio-decontaminant soapy water currently used in France (Trait rouge(®)) in the workplace. The results showed that both calixarene-loaded nanoemulsion and non-loaded nanoemulsion allowed a significant decontamination efficiency compared to the treatment with soapy water. Early application of the nanoemulsions on contaminated excoriated rat skin allowed decreasing the uranium content by around 85% in femurs, 95% in kidneys and 93% in urines. For skin wounded by microneedles, mimicking wounds by microstings, nanoemulsions allowed approximately a 94% decrease in the uranium retention in kidneys. However, specific chelation of uranium by calixarene molecules within the nanoemulsion was not statistically significant, probably because of the limited calixarene-to-uranium molar ratio in these experiment conditions. Moreover, these studies showed that the soapy water treatment potentiates the transcutaneous passage of uranium, thus making it bioavailable, in particular when the skin is superficially wounded.

  4. Effects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zijie; Vriesekoop, Frank; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao

    2014-05-01

    d-Limonene has been considered to be a safer alternative compared to synthetic antimicrobial food additives. However, its hydrophobic and oxidative nature has limited its application in foods. The purpose of this research was to study effects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion and develop a novel antimicrobial delivery system by combining the positive effect of these two antibacterial agents at the same time. By the checkerboard method, both the synergistic and additive effects of d-limonene and nisin were found against four selected food-related microorganisms. Then, d-limonene nanoemulsion with or without nisin was prepared by catastrophic phase inversion method, which has shown good droplet size and stability. The positive effects and outstanding antimicrobial activity of d-limonene nanoemulsion with nisin were confirmed by MICs comparison, scanning electron microscopy and determination of cell constituents released. Overall, the research described in the current article would be helpful in developing a more effective antimicrobial system for the production and preservation of foods.

  5. P-Selectin Targeted Dexamethasone-Loaded Lipid Nanoemulsions: A Novel Therapy to Reduce Vascular Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, Viorel; Constantinescu, Cristina Ana; Stan, Daniela; Deleanu, Mariana; Tucureanu, Monica Madalina; Butoi, Elena; Manduteanu, Ileana; Simionescu, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a common process associated with numerous vascular pathologies. We hypothesized that targeting the inflamed endothelium by coupling a peptide with high affinity for P-selectin to the surface of dexamethasone-loaded lipid nanoemulsions will highly increase their specific binding to activated endothelial cells (EC) and reduce the cell activation. We developed and characterized dexamethasone-loaded lipid nanoemulsions directed towards P-selectin (PLN-Dex) and monitored their anti-inflammatory effects in vitro using cultured EC (EA.hy926 cells) and in vivo using a mouse model of acute inflammation [lipopolysaccharides (LPS) intravenously administered in C57BL/6 mice]. We found that PLN-Dex bound specifically to the surface of activated EC are efficiently internalized by EC and reduced the expression of proinflammatory genes, thus preventing the monocyte adhesion and transmigration to/through activated EC. Given intravenously in mice with acute inflammation, PLN-Dex accumulated at a significant high level in the lungs (compared to nontargeted nanoemulsions) and significantly reduced mRNA expression level of key proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1. In conclusion, the newly developed nanoformulation, PLN-Dex, is functional in vitro and in vivo, reducing selectively the endothelium activation and the consequent monocyte infiltration and diminishing significantly the lungs' inflammation, in a mouse model of acute inflammation. PMID:27703301

  6. Formation and stability of D-limonene organogel-based nanoemulsion prepared by a high-pressure homogenizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahi, Mohamed Reda; Wan, Pingyu; Liang, Hao; Yuan, Qipeng

    2014-12-31

    D-limonene organogel-based nanoemulsion was prepared by high-pressure homogenization technology. The organogelator type had a major role on the formation of the formulations, in which stearic acid has given nanoemulsions with the smallest droplet size. The surfactant type and concentration also had an appreciable effect on droplet formation, with Tween 80 giving a mean droplet diameter (d ≈ 112 nm) among a range of non-ionic surfactants (Tween 20, 40, 60, 80, and 85). In addition, high-pressure homogenization conditions played a key role in the nanoemulsion preparation. The stability of d-limonene organogel-based nanoemulsion was also investigated under two different temperatures (4 and 28 °C) through 2 weeks of storage. Results showed a good stability of the formulations, which is maybe due to the incorporation of D-limonene into the organogel prior to homogenization. This study may have a valuable contribution for the design and use of organogel-based nanoemulsion as a delivery system in food.

  7. Development and in vitro evaluation of a nanoemulsion for transcutaneous delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Grace; Pamujula, Sarala; Walker, Valencia; Simon, Shana; Graves, Richard; Mandal, Tarun K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to develop a nanoemulsion formulation for its use as a transcutaneous vaccine delivery system. Materials and methods With bovine albumin-fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate (FITC-BSA) as a vaccine model, formulations were selected with the construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and a short-term stability study. The size of the emulsion droplets was furthered optimized with high-pressure homogenization. The optimized formulation was evaluated for its skin permeation efficiency. In vitro skin permeation studies were conducted with shaved BALB/c mice skin samples with a Franz diffusion cell system. Different drug concentrations were compared, and the effect of the nanoemulsion excipients on the permeation of the FITC-BSA was also studied. Results The optimum homogenization regime was determined to be five passes at 20 000 psi, with no evidence of protein degradation during processing. With these conditions, the particle diameter was 85.2 nm ± 15.5 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.186 ± 0.026 and viscosity of 14.6 cP ± 1.2 cP. The optimized formulation proved stable for 1 year at 4 °C. In vitro skin diffusion studies show that the optimized formulation improves the permeation of FITC-BSA through skin with an enhancement ratio of 4.2 compared to a neat control solution. Finally, a comparison of the skin permeation of the nanoemulsion versus only the surfactant excipients resulted in a steady state flux of 23.44 μg/cm2/h for the nanoemulsion as opposed to 6.10 μg/cm2/h for the emulsifiers. Conclusion A novel nanoemulsion with optimized physical characteristics and superior skin permeation compared to control solution was manufactured. The formulation proposed in this study has the flexibility for the incorporation of a variety of active ingredients and warrants further development as a transcutaneous vaccine delivery vehicle. PMID:23600657

  8. Development of an optimized hyaluronic acid-based lipidic nanoemulsion co-encapsulating two polyphenols for nose to brain delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Maha

    2016-05-01

    The development of mucoadhesive lipidic nanoemulsion based on hyaluronic acid, co-encapsulating two polyphenols (resveratrol and curcumin) for the transnasal treatment of neurodegenerative diseases was attempted in the current manuscript. Nanoemulsions were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method, and were characterized for their particle size, zeta potential, mucoadhesive strength and morphology. The selected formula was tested for its antioxidant potential, in vitro and ex vivo release of the two polyphenols, safety on nasal mucosa and in vivo quantification of the two drugs in rat brains. Its stability was tested by monitoring the change in particle size, zeta potential, drugs' content and antioxidant potential upon storage for 3 months. The optimized hyaluronic acid based nanoemulsion formula displayed a particle size of 115.2 ± 0.15 and a zeta potential of -23.9 ± 1.7. The formula displayed a spherical morphology and significantly higher mucoadhesive strength compared to its non mucoadhesive counterpart. In addition, the nanoemulsion was able to preserve the antioxidant ability of the two polyphenols and protect them from degradation. Diffusion controlled release of the two drugs was achievable till 6 hours, with an ex vivo flux across sheep nasal mucosa of 2.86 and 2.09 µg/cm(2)hr for resveratrol and curcumin, respectively. Moreover, the mucoadhesive nanoemulsion was safe on nasal mucosa and managed to increase the amounts of the two polypehnols in the brain (about 7 and 9 folds increase in AUC0-7 h for resveratrol and curcumin, respectively). Hyaluronic acid based lipidic nanoemulsion proved itself as a successful carrier enhancing the solubility, stability and brain targetability of polyphenols.

  9. [Ion-sensitive nanoemulsion-in situ gel system for ophthalmic delivery of flurbiprofen axetil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jin-Qiu; Gan, Yong; Gan, Li; Zhu, Chun-Liu; Zhu, Jia-Bi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to prepare flurbiprofen axetil nanoemulsion-in situ gel system (FBA/NE-ISG) and observe its ocular pharmacokinetics, rheological behavior, TEM images, irritation and cornea retention. Production of nanoemulsion was based on high-speed shear and homogenization process, and then mixed with gellan gum to prepare FBA/NE-ISG. Rheological study showed that FBA/NE-ISG possesses strong gelation capacity and its viscosity and elastic modulus increases by 2 Pa*s and 5 Pa respectively when mixed with artificial tear at the ratio of 40 : 7. TEM images suggested no significant changes in particle morphology of the pre and post gelation. Good ocular compatibility of FBA/NE-ISG was testified by the irritation test based on histological examination. In vivo fluorescence imaging system was applied to investigate the characteristics of cornea retention, and the results indicated that the nanoemulsion-in situ gel (NE-ISG) prolonged the cornea retention time significantly since K(NE-ISG) (0.008 5 min(-1) was much lower compared with flurbiprofen sodium eye drops (FB-Na, 0.03% w/v) of which the K(Eye drops) was 0.105 2 min(-1), indicated that the cornea retention time of NE-ISG was prolonged significantly. Pharmacokinetics of FBA/NE-ISG in rabbit aqueous humor was studied by cornea puncture, the MRT (12.3 h) and AUC(0-12h) (126.8 microg x min x mL(-1)) of FBA/NE-ISG was 2.7 and 2.9 times higher than that of the flurbiprofen sodium eye drops respectively, which meant that the ocular bioavailability was improved greatly by the novel preparation. Therefore, FBA/NE-ISG can enhance the ocular bioavailability by prolonging drug corneal retention significantly. What's more, encapsulated by emulsion droplets prodrug flurbiprofen (FBA) instead of flurbiprofen (FB) can reduce the ocular irritation.

  10. On-chip microreactor system for the production of nano-emulsion loaded liposomes: towards targeted delivery of lipophilic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langelaan, M.L.P.; Emmelkamp, J.; Segers, M.J.A.; Lenting, H.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    An on-chip microreactor system for the production of novel nano-biodevices is presented. This nano-biodevice consists of a nano-emulsion loaded with lipophilic drugs, entrapped in liposomes. These nano-biodevices can be equipped with targeting molecules for higher drug efficiency. The microreactor s

  11. Antiherpes Activity and Skin/Mucosa Distribution of Flavonoids from Achyrocline satureioides Extract Incorporated into Topical Nanoemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bidone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effects of Achyrocline satureioides extract (ASE incorporated into a topical nanoemulsion on Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1/KOS strain replication, as well as the distribution of the main ASE flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, and 3-O-methylquercetin in porcine skin and mucosa. The ASE-loaded nanoemulsion showed more pronounced effects against HSV-1 replication when compared to the ASE or pure quercetin, as determined by the viral plaque number reduction assay. All flavonoids were detected in the skin epidermis (2.2 µg/cm2 and the mucosa upper layers (3.0 µg/cm2 from ASE-loaded nanoemulsion until 8 h after topical application. A higher amount of flavonoids was detected when these tissues were impaired, especially in deeper mucosa layers (up to 7-fold. Flavonoids were detected in the receptor fluid only when the mucosa was injured. Such results were supported by confocal microscopy images. Overall, these findings suggest that the tested ASE-loaded nanoemulsion has potential to be used topically for herpes infections.

  12. Physicochemical stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of ß-carotene nanoemulsions stabilized with whey protein-dextran conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, ß-carotene (BC)-loaded nanoemulsions encapsulated with native whey protein isolate (WPI) and WPI-dextran (DT, 5 kDa, 20 kDa, and 70 kDa) conjugates were prepared and the effects of glycosylation with various molecular weight DTs on the physicochemical property, lipolysis, and BC bioac...

  13. Study on the Potential Toxicity of a Thymoquinone-Rich Fraction Nanoemulsion in Sprague Dawley Tats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxicological studies constitute an essential part of the effort in developing an herbal medicine into a drug product. A newly developed thymoquinone-rich fraction nanoemulsion (TQRFNE has been prepared using a high pressure homogenizer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential acute toxicity of this nanoemulsion in Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity studies were conducted as per the OECD guidelines 425, allowing for the use of test dose limit of 20 mL TQRFNE (containing 44.5 mg TQ/kg. TQRFNE and distilled water (DW as a control were administered orally to both sexes of rats on Day 0 and observed for 14 days. All the animals appeared normal, and healthy throughout the study. There was no observed mortality or any signs of toxicity during the experimental period. The effects of the TQRFNE and DW groups on general behavior, body weight, food and water consumption, relative organ weight, hematology, histopathology, and clinical biochemistry were measured. All the parameters measured were unaffected as compared to the control (DW group. The administration of 20 mL TQRFNE /kg was not toxic after an acute exposure.

  14. Consequences of lipidic nanoemulsions on membrane integrity and ultrastructural morphology of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeru; Manaswita Verma, Saurabh; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Ranjan Prasad Verma, Priya

    2014-04-01

    The present study divulges the consequences of lipidic nanoemulsions (cationized and non-cationized) on morphology and membrane integrity of Staphylococcus aureus using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images reveal that the cationized lipidic emulsions (CLEs) remained adhered even after the hostile treatment to remove nanoemulsions by centrifugation owing to electrostatic attraction between CLE and negatively charged bacterial surface. TEM images portray the extensive cell lyses owing to the release of cytoplasmic content when treated with both CLE and Non-CLE (NCLE). The AFM analysis of the NCLE and CLE treated S. aureus cells showed the root mean square roughness of 11.3 ± 2.8 nm and 17.7 ± 3.2 nm, respectively. The complete losses of bacterial colonies after 45 min of contact with NCLE were observed. No viable bacterial colonies were noticeable after 10 min of contact when treated with CLE, indicating better rate of killing with respect to NCLE. Similar results were obtained in the zone of inhibition studies. Significant (p < 0.05) increase of cytoplasmic material was observed both in NCLE (0.192 ± 0.003) and CLE (0.308 ± 0.012) as compared to control (0.019 ± 0.002). The present finding illustrates that the NCLE and CLE had caused significant membrane disorganization leading to release of cytoplasmic content causing irreversible cell damage, which is in accordance with the TEM, SEM and AFM studies.

  15. Homogeneous percolation versus arrested phase separation in attractively-driven nanoemulsion colloidal gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Matthew E; Gao, Yongxiang; Moran, Shannon E; Lee, Jinkee; Godfrin, Michael; Tripathi, Anubhav; Bose, Arijit; Doyle, Patrick S

    2014-05-01

    We elucidate mechanisms for colloidal gelation of attractive nanoemulsions depending on the volume fraction (ϕ) of the colloid. Combining detailed neutron scattering, cryo-transmission electron microscopy and rheological measurements, we demonstrate that gelation proceeds by either of two distinct pathways. For ϕ sufficiently lower than 0.23, gels exhibit homogeneous fractal microstructure, with a broad gel transition resulting from the formation and subsequent percolation of droplet-droplet clusters. In these cases, the gel point measured by rheology corresponds precisely to arrest of the fractal microstructure, and the nonlinear rheology of the gel is characterized by a single yielding process. By contrast, gelation for ϕ sufficiently higher than 0.23 is characterized by an abrupt transition from dispersed droplets to dense clusters with significant long-range correlations well-described by a model for phase separation. The latter phenomenon manifests itself as micron-scale "pores" within the droplet network, and the nonlinear rheology is characterized by a broad yielding transition. Our studies reinforce the similarity of nanoemulsions to solid particulates, and identify important qualitative differences between the microstructure and viscoelastic properties of colloidal gels formed by homogeneous percolation and those formed by phase separation.

  16. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  17. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  18. Nanoemulsions containing a synthetic chalcone as an alternative for treating cutaneous leshmaniasis: optimization using a full factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Cristiane Bastos; Argenta, Débora Fretes; Melchiades, Gabriela de Lima; Cordeiro, Marlon Norberto Sechini; Tonini, Maiko Luis; Moraes, Milene Hoehr; Weber, Tanara Beatriz; Roman, Silvane Souza; Nunes, Ricardo José; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; Steindel, Mário; Koester, Letícia Scherer

    2015-01-01

    Nanoemulsions are drug delivery systems that may increase the penetration of lipophilic compounds through the skin, enhancing their topical effect. Chalcones are compounds of low water solubility that have been described as promising molecules for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). In this context, the aim of this work was to optimize the development of a nanoemulsion containing a synthetic chalcone for CL treatment using a 2(2) full factorial design. The formulations were prepared by spontaneous emulsification and the experimental design studied the influence of two independent variables (type of surfactant - soybean lecithin or sorbitan monooleate and type of co-surfactants - polysorbate 20 or polysorbate 80) on the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoemulsions, as well as on the skin permeation/retention of the synthetic chalcone in porcine skin. In order to evaluate the stability of the systems, the antileishmanial assay was performed against Leishmania amazonensis 24 hours and 60 days after the preparation of the nanoemulsions. The formulation composed of soybean lecithin and polysorbate 20 presented suitable physicochemical characteristics (droplet size 171.9 nm; polydispersity index 0.14; zeta potential -39.43 mV; pH 5.16; and viscosity 2.00 cP), drug content (91.09%) and the highest retention in dermis (3.03 µg·g(-1)) - the main response of interest - confirmed by confocal microscopy. This formulation also presented better stability of leishmanicidal activity in vitro against L. amazonensis amastigote forms (half maximal inhibitory concentration value 0.32±0.05 µM), which confirmed the potential of the nanoemulsion soybean lecithin and polysorbate 20 for CL treatment.

  19. Potential of chitosan-loaded nanoemulsions to control different Colletotrichum spp. and maintain quality of tropical fruits during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, N; Ali, A; Manickam, S; Siddiqui, Y; Maqbool, M

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the antifungal activity of conventional chitosan and chitosan-loaded nanoemulsions against anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. isolated from different tropical fruits. In vitro results illustrated that conventional chitosan onwards 1·5% concentration inhibited radial mycelial growth, conidial germination, sporulation and dry weight of mycelia for Colletotrichum musae (Berk. & Curt) Arx. isolated from banana, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz and Sacc. isolated from papaya and dragon fruits. For further investigations, chitosan-loaded nanoemulsions were prepared, and chitosan at 2·0% concentration with 200 nm droplet size gave the best results in terms of all the in vitro parameters tested for C. musae and at the same concentration with 600 nm droplet size for both the isolates of C. gloeosporioides. However, the results obtained at 2·0% chitosan concentration with different droplet sizes were nonsignificantly different with 1·0 and 1·5% concentrations. Therefore, for in vivo studies, only 1·0% chitosan with different droplet sizes was used. In terms of fungicidal effects and maintaining postharvest quality of banana, papaya and dragon fruits, chitosan at 1·0% concentration with a droplet size of 200 nm in banana and 600 nm in papaya and dragon fruits showed the best results in delaying the onset of anthracnose and maintaining quality of all the fruits for up to 28 days of cold storage. Chitosan used in a conventional form showed good results but not as effective as in the form of nanoemulsions. The results of this study suggest that instead of applying chitosan in a conventional form, chitosan in the form of nanoemulsions could be more effective as a biofungicide for controlling anthracnose of fresh fruits. Moreover, it could be cost-effective as the amount of chemical used is reduced when applied in the form of nanoemulsions. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied

  20. The potential applications in heavy oil EOR with the nanoparticle and surfactant stabilized solvent-based emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The main challenges in developing the heavy oil reservoirs in the Alaska North Slope (ANS) include technical challenges regarding thermal recovery; sand control and disposal; high asphaltene content; and low in-situ permeability. A chemical enhanced oil recovery method may be possible for these reservoirs. Solvent based emulsion flooding provides mobility control; oil viscosity reduction; and in-situ emulsification of heavy oil. This study evaluated the potential application of nano-particle-stabilized solvent based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in the ANS. The optimized micro-emulsion composition was determined using laboratory tests such as phase behaviour scanning, rheology studies and interfacial tension measurements. The optimized nano-emulsions were used in core flooding experiments to verify the recovery efficiency. The study revealed that the potential use of this kind of emulsion flooding is a promising enhanced oil recovery process for some heavy oil reservoirs in Alaska, Canada and Venezuela. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  1. Photophysical studies and in vitro skin permeation/retention of Foscan/nanoemulsion (NE) applicable to photodynamic therapy skin cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Fernando L; Bentley, Maria V L B; Tedesco, Antonio C

    2008-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the photophysical and in vitro properties of Foscan, a second-generation photosensitizer drug (PS) widely used in systemic clinical protocols for cancer therapy based on Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). We employed biodegradable nanoemulsions (NE) as a colloidal vehicle of the oil/water (o/w) type focusing in topical administration of Foscan and other photosensitizer drugs. This formulation was obtained and stabilized by the methodology described by Tabosa do Egito et al., based on the mixture of two phases: an aqueous solution and an organic medium consisting of nonionic surfactants and oil. The photodynamic potential of the drug incorporated into the NE was studied by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. We also analyzed the in vitro biological behavior carried out in mimetic biological environment protocols based on the animal model. After topical application in a skin animal model, we evaluated the Foscan/NE diffusion flux into the skin layers (stratum corneum and epidermis + dermis) by classical procedures using Franz Diffusion cells. Our results showed that the photophysical properties of PS were maintained after its incorporation into the NE when compared with homogeneous organic medium. The in vitro assays enabled the determination of an adequate profile for the interaction of this system in the different skin layers, with an ideal time lag of 6 h after topical administration in the skin model. The Foscan diffusion flux (J) was increased when this PS was incorporated into the NE, if compared with its flux in physiological medium. These parameters demonstrated that the NE can be potentially applied as a drug delivery system (DDS) for Foscan in both in vitro and in vivo assays, as well as in future clinical applications involving topical skin cancer PDT.

  2. The antitumor immune responses induced by nanoemulsion-encapsulated MAGE1-HSP70/SEA complex protein vaccine following different administration routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wei; Hu, Pei-Zhen; Huang, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Xiu-Min; Sun, Yu-Jing; Li, Zeng-Shan; Si, Shao-Yan; Sui, Yan-Fang

    2009-10-01

    Our previous study showed that nanoemulsion-encapsulated MAGE1-HSP70/SEA (MHS) complex protein vaccine elicited MAGE-1 specific immune response and antitumor effects against MAGE-1-expressing tumor and nanoemulsion is a useful vehicle with possible important implications for cancer biotherapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the immune responses induced by nanoemulsion-encapsulated MAGE1-HSP70 and SEA as NE(MHS) vaccine following different administration routes and to find out the new and effective immune routes. Nanoemulsion vaccine was prepared using magnetic ultrasound methods. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with NE(MHS) via po., i.v., s.c. or i.p., besides mice s.c. injected with PBS or NE(-) as control. The cellular immunocompetence was detected by ELISpot assay and LDH release assay. The therapeutic and tumor challenge assay were also examined. The results showed that the immune responses against MAGE-1 expressing murine tumors elicited by NE(MHS) via 4 different routes were approximately similar and were all stronger than that elicited by PBS or NE(-), suggesting that this novel nanoemulsion carrier can exert potent antitumor immunity against antigens encapsulated in it. Especially, the present results indicated that nanoemulsion vaccine adapted to administration via different routes including peroral, and may have broader applications in the future.

  3. 石榴皮多酚纳米乳的制备%Preparation on Nanoemulsion of Pomegranate Peel Polyphenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅力; 王华斌; 李远; 章斌; 蔡丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to obtain the preparation technology of the pomegranate peel polyphenol nanoemulsion. [Method] The pomegranate peel polyphe-nol nanoemulsion was prepared by the titration methods and the pseudo ternary dia-gram. The effect of various elements on the formation of the nanoemulsion was stud-ied. [Results] The optimal prescription of the pomegranate peel polyphenol nanoemul-sion was 4.4%(w/w) of pomegranate peel polyphenol, 34.1%(w/w) of EL-40, 17.1%(w/w) of anhydrous ethanol, 5.7%(w/w) of IPM and 38.7%(w/w) of distil ed water. [Conclusion] It is feasible to produce the pomegranate peel polyphenol nanoemulsion by the titration methods and the pseudo ternary diagram. It consists of pomegranate peel polyphe-nol, EL-40, anhydrous ethanol, IPM and distil ed water. There is 4.4%(w/w) of the pomegranate peel polyphenol in the nanoemulsion.%[目的]对石榴皮多酚纳米乳的制备工艺进行研究。[方法]采用滴定法结合伪三元相图法,对影响石榴皮多酚纳米乳形成的各种因素进行了研究,优选了表面活性剂、助表面活性剂和油相。[结果]以蓖麻油聚氧乙烯醚(EL-40)为表面活性剂、无水乙醇为助表面活性剂、肉豆蔻酸异丙酯(IPM)为油相,石榴皮多酚纳米乳的最优配方为:石榴皮多酚4.4%(w/w)、EL-4034.1%(w/w)、无水乙醇17.1%(w/w)、IPM 5.7%(w/w)、蒸馏水38.7%(w/w)。[结论]采用滴定法结合伪三元相图法制备石榴皮多酚纳米乳工艺可行,石榴皮多酚含量高,达到4.4%(w/w)。

  4. Nanoemulsions containing a synthetic chalcone as an alternative for treating cutaneous leshmaniasis: optimization using a full factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos CB

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cristiane Bastos de Mattos,1 Débora Fretes Argenta,1 Gabriela de Lima Melchiades,1 Marlon Norberto Sechini Cordeiro,2 Maiko Luis Tonini,3 Milene Hoehr Moraes,3 Tanara Beatriz Weber,4 Silvane Souza Roman,4 Ricardo José Nunes,2 Helder Ferreira Teixeira,1 Mário Steindel,3 Letícia Scherer Koester1 1Faculdade de Farmácia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 2Departamento de Química, 3Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 4Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missões, Erechim, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Nanoemulsions are drug delivery systems that may increase the penetration of lipophilic compounds through the skin, enhancing their topical effect. Chalcones are compounds of low water solubility that have been described as promising molecules for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. In this context, the aim of this work was to optimize the development of a nanoemulsion containing a synthetic chalcone for CL treatment using a 22 full factorial design. The formulations were prepared by spontaneous emulsification and the experimental design studied the influence of two independent variables (type of surfactant – soybean lecithin or sorbitan monooleate and type of co-surfactants – polysorbate 20 or polysorbate 80 on the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoemulsions, as well as on the skin permeation/retention of the synthetic chalcone in porcine skin. In order to evaluate the stability of the systems, the antileishmanial assay was performed against Leishmania amazonensis 24 hours and 60 days after the preparation of the nanoemulsions. The formulation composed of soybean lecithin and polysorbate 20 presented suitable physicochemical characteristics (droplet size

  5. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang HB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Bin Chang,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 µg/mL, demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 µg/mL, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 µg/mL. A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 µg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.Keywords: curcuminoid extract, curcuminoid nanoemulsion, Curcuma longa Linnaeus, lung cancer cell, cell cycle, apoptosis mechanism

  6. Nonlinear contrast enhancement in photoacoustic molecular imaging with gold nanosphere encapsulated nanoemulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Chen-wei; Lombardo, Michael; Larson-Smith, Kjersta; Perez, Camilo; Xia, Jinjun; Matula, Thomas; Pozzo, Danilo; O' Donnell, Matthew [Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, and Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Pelivanov, Ivan [Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, and Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); International Laser Center, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-20

    A composite contrast agent, a nanoemulsion bead with assembled gold nanospheres at the interface, is proposed to improve the specific contrast of photoacoustic molecular imaging. A phase transition in the bead's core is induced by absorption of a nanosecond laser pulse with a fairly low laser fluence (∼3.5 mJ/cm{sup 2}), creating a transient microbubble through dramatically enhanced thermal expansion. This generates nonlinear photoacoustic signals with more than 10 times larger amplitude compared to that of a linear agent with the same optical absorption. By applying a differential scheme similar to ultrasound pulse inversion, more than 40 dB contrast enhancement is demonstrated with suppression of background signals.

  7. [Influence of Perftoran nanoemulsion on blood plasma concentrations of lipophilic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenkina, N N

    2012-01-01

    The influence of perfluorocarbon blood substitute Perfloran on the plasma concentrations of bendazole, drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil upon intravenous introduction after Perfloran infusion (5 ml/kg) has been investigated on rabbits. It has been found that the plasma concentrations of verapamil, drotaverine and bendazole (highly lipophilic drugs with log(P) = 4.5, 4.9 and 3.5, respectively) increased in the presence of Perfloran. The influence of Perfloran on the concentration of weakly lipophilic ketorolac was less significant. Perfloran effectively bound drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil in vitro, whereas the binding of ketorolac by the emulsion particles was weak. Evidently, the infusion of hydrophobic nanoemulsion Perftoran elevates the sorption capacity of plasma and creates prerequisites for the redistribution drugs and favors increase in their concentrations.

  8. Nanoemulsion-based intranasal drug delivery system of saquinavir mesylate for brain targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Hitendra S; Mahajan, Milind S; Nerkar, Pankaj P; Agrawal, Anshuman

    2014-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is an immunological privileged sanctuary site-providing reservoir for HIV-1 virus. Current anti-HIV drugs, although effective in reducing plasma viral levels, cannot eradicate the virus completely from the body. The low permeability of anti-HIV drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) leads to insufficient delivery. Therefore, developing a novel approaches enhancing the CNS delivery of anti-HIV drugs are required for the treatment of neuro-AIDS. The aim of this study was to develop intranasal nanoemulsion (NE) for enhanced bioavailability and CNS targeting of saquinavir mesylate (SQVM). SQVM is a protease inhibitor which is a poorly soluble drug widely used as antiretroviral drug, with oral bioavailability is about 4%. The spontaneous emulsification method was used to prepare drug-loaded o/w nanoemulsion, which was characterized by droplet size, zeta potential, pH, drug content. Moreover, ex-vivo permeation studies were performed using sheep nasal mucosa. The optimized NE showed a significant increase in drug permeation rate compared to the plain drug suspension (PDS). Cilia toxicity study on sheep nasal mucosa showed no significant adverse effect of SQVM-loaded NE. Results of in vivo biodistribution studies show higher drug concentration in brain after intranasal administration of NE than intravenous delivered PDS. The higher percentage of drug targeting efficiency (% DTE) and nose-to-brain drug direct transport percentage (% DTP) for optimized NE indicated effective CNS targeting of SQVM via intranasal route. Gamma scintigraphy imaging of the rat brain conclusively demonstrated transport of drug in the CNS at larger extent after intranasal administration as NE.

  9. Formulation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers and nanoemulsion of lornoxicam for transdermal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönüllü Ümit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC and nanoemulsion (NE of lornoxicam (LRX were prepared for the treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions of the skin. Compritol® 888 ATO, Lanette® O and oleic acid were used as solid and liquid lipids. SLN, NLC and NE were found physically stable at various temperatures for 6 months. Case I diffusional drug release was detected as the dominant mechanism indicating Fickian drug diffusion from nanoparticles and nanoemulsion. The highest rate of drug penetration through rat skin was obtained with NE followed by NLC, SLN and a gel formulation. Nanoformulations significantly increased drug penetration through rat skin compared to the gel (p < 0.05. Thus, SLN, NLC and NE of LRX can be suggested for relieving painful and inflammatory conditions of the skin

  10. Formulation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers and nanoemulsion of lornoxicam for transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönüllü, Ümit; Üner, Melike; Yener, Gülgün; Karaman, Ecem Fatma; Aydoğmuş, Zeynep

    2015-03-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsion (NE) of lornoxicam (LRX) were prepared for the treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions of the skin. Compritol® 888 ATO, Lanette® O and oleic acid were used as solid and liquid lipids. SLN, NLC and NE were found physically stable at various temperatures for 6 months. Case I diffusional drug release was detected as the dominant mechanism indicating Fickian drug diffusion from nanoparticles and nanoemulsion. The highest rate of drug penetration through rat skin was obtained with NE followed by NLC, SLN and a gel formulation. Nanoformulations significantly increased drug penetration through rat skin compared to the gel (pSLN, NLC and NE of LRX can be suggested for relieving painful and inflammatory conditions of the skin.

  11. Protective role of free and quercetin-loaded nanoemulsion against damage induced by intracerebral haemorrhage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galho, A. R.; Cordeiro, M. F.; Ribeiro, S. A.; Marques, M. S.; Antunes, M. F. D.; Luz, D. C.; Hädrich, G.; Muccillo-Baisch, A. L.; Barros, D. M.; Lima, J. V.; Dora, C. L.; Horn, A. P.

    2016-04-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a worldwide public health problem. Experimental studies have shown that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ICH and could represent a target for its treatment. However, the blood-brain barrier is an obstacle to be overcome, as it hampers the administration of compounds to the central nervous system. In this study, we compared the effects of a quercetin-loaded nanoemulsion (QU-N) with the free form of the drug (QU-SP) in a collagenase-induced ICH rat model. Quercetin (QU) is a polyphenol that has an antioxidant effect in vitro, but due to its high lipophilicity, it has low bioavailability in vivo. In this study, animals submitted or not to ICH were treated with a single intraperitoneal QU dose (free or nanoemulsion) of 30 mg kg-1. Motor assessment was evaluated by the open field, foot fault and beam walking behavioural tests. 72 h after surgery the haematoma size was evaluated and biochemical measurements were performed. Animals treated with QU-N had a significant improvement in the beam walking and open field tests. Also, QU-N was able to reduce the size of the haematoma, preserving the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), increasing GSH content, and the total antioxidant capacity. QU-SP recovered locomotor activity and increased the GSH content and the total antioxidant capacity. Thus, it can be observed that QU presented antioxidant activity in both formulations, but the incorporation into nanoemulsions increased its antioxidant effect, which was reflected in the improvement of the motor skills and in the haematoma size decrement. These results suggest that the nanoemulsion containing QU developed in this study could be promising for future studies on treatments for ICH.

  12. In vitro and in vivo Effects of Free and Chalcones-Loaded Nanoemulsions: Insights and Challenges in Targeted Cancer Chemotherapies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Several obstacles are encountered in conventional chemotherapy, such as drug toxicity and poor stability. Nanotechnology is envisioned as a strategy to overcome these effects and to improve anticancer therapy. Nanoemulsions comprise submicron emulsions composed of biocompatible lipids, and present a large surface area revealing interesting physical properties. Chalcones are flavonoid precursors, and have been studied as cytotoxic drugs for leukemia cells that induce cell death by different ap...

  13. 油包水微乳液中抗体酶催化布洛芬酯选择性水解的酶学特性%Enzymological Characteristics of Catalytic Antibody-catalyzed enantioselective Hydrolysis of Ibuprofen Ester in Water-in-oil microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨根生; 戚映丹; 欧志敏; 姚善泾

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric hydrolyzation of racemic ibuprofen ester is one of the most important methods for chiral separation of ibuprofen. A catalytic antibody that accelerates the rate of enantioselective hydrolysis of ibuprofen methyl ester was successfully elicited against an immunogen consisting of tetrahedral sulfate hapten attached to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The rate constant enhancement factor Kcat/Kuncat was about 1.6x104. The catalytic activity of the catalytic antibody in a reverse micelle reaction system based on sodium b/s (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) in isooctane was studied. Kinetic analysis of the catalytic antibody-catalyzed reaction was found to be possible in this system. Kinetic studies showed that hydrolysis in the microemulsion system follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The catalytic antibody can also accelerate catalysis of S-ibuprofen methyl ester in the microemulsion system. Temperature effects, the pH profile, Km,app and Kcat were determined. The dependence of the catalytic antibody hydrolytic activity on the Wo (molar ratio of water to surfactant) showed a bell-shaped curve, presenting a maximum at about wo = 21.%根据过渡态理论设计和合成了能诱导产生催化选择性水解布洛芬甲酯的催化抗体的四面体硫酸盐半抗原,并与牛血清白蛋白(BSA)偶联制备成免疫源,通过免疫手段成功筛选出具有加速选择性水解生成S-布洛芬的特异性催化抗体.其Kcat,app/Kuncat,app达1.6x104.进一步地将催化抗体运用到W/O微乳体系(反胶束)中进行布洛芬酯的选择性水解研究,其动力学研究证明其催化过程同样遵循Michaelis.Menten方程.考察了pH值和温度对催化初速度影响,Wo(体系中水和琥珀酸二辛酯磺酸钠(AOT)的摩尔比)对催化初速度影响呈现为钟罩型,最适的Wo.为21.

  14. Highly enhanced optical properties of indocyanine green/perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions for efficient lymph node mapping using near-infrared and magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Pan Kee; Jung, Juyeon; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2014-03-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence probe has better tissue penetration and lower autofluorescence. Indocyanine green (ICG) is an NIR organic dye for extensive biological application, and it has been clinically approved for human medical imaging and diagnosis. However, application of this dye is limited by its numerous disadvantageous properties in aqueous solution, including its concentration-dependent aggregation, poor aqueous stability in vitro, and low quantum yield. Its use in molecular imaging probes is limited because it loses fluorescence after binding to nonspecific plasma proteins, leading to rapid elimination from the body with a half-life of 2 - 4 min. In this study, the multifunctional perfluorocarbon (PFC)/ICG nanoemulsions were investigated with the aim of overcoming these limitations. The PFC/ICG nanoemulsions as a new type of delivery vehicle for contrast agents have both NIR optical imaging and 19 F-MR imaging moieties. These nanoemulsions exhibited less aggregation, increased fluorescence intensity, long-term stability, and physicochemical stability against external light and temperature compared to free aqueous ICG. Also, the PFC/ICG bimodal nanoemulsions allow excellent detection of lymph nodes in vivo through NIR optical imaging and 19 F-MR imaging. This result showed the suitability of the proposed nanoemulsions for non-invasive lymph node mapping as they enable long-time detection of lymph nodes.

  15. 丁香酚纳米乳对鲢鱼麻醉作用研究%The Anesthetic Effect of Eugenol nanoemulsion on Hypophthalmichehys molitrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宗梅; 吕世明; 谭艾娟

    2012-01-01

    The anesthetic effect of eugenol nanoemulsion on Hypophthalmichehys molitrix was investigated in the present work. The results demonstrated that the eugenol nanoemulsion showed strong anesthetic effect to Hypophthalmichehys molitrix, and the optimal concentration was 20mg/L. The EC5O and LC50(24h) of eugenol nanoemulsion to Hypophthalmichehys molitrix were 16. 6 mg/L, and 176. 2 mg/L, respectively. The treatment indice of eugenol nanoemulsion to anesthetize Hypophthalmichehys molitrix was 10. 61. The eugenol nanoemulsion is a safe, efficient anesthetic to this species.%将鲢鱼置于不同浓度的丁香酚纳米乳中,研究其对鲢鱼的麻醉效果.结果表明:丁香酚纳米乳对鲢鱼的麻醉作用强,诱导期短;麻醉最适浓度为20 mg/L,丁香酚纳米乳对鲢鱼的EC50为16.6 mg/L,24h的LC50为176.2mg/L,治疗指数为10.61.因此,丁香酚纳米乳是一种高效、安全的鲢鱼麻醉剂.

  16. Hydrothermal liquefaction of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) into bio-oil in different organic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwono, Rakhman; Pusfitasari, Eka Dian; Ghozali, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    Thermochemical Liquefaction of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of palm oil in different organic solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, toluene and hexane) were comparatively investigated. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave at different temperatures of 300, 350 and 400 °C with a fixed solid/liquid rasio of 3 gram in 50 ml solvent, without catalysts and reaction time of 5 hours. The efficiency of above solvents in terms of conversion rate, soluble liquid and carbon products were investigated in the experiments. Increasing the reaction temperature increased the conversion rate in all organic solvents and water, but gaseous products also increased using a reaction temperature of 400 oC. The water solvent gave higher conversion rate of 49.14%, while toluene, acetone, methanol, hexane and ethanol gave conversion of 35.76%, 26.5%, 25.98%, 24.26 %, and 22.24%, respectively. The bio-oil produced in order of the largest amount were using methanol, water, ethanol, toluene, acetone, and hexane solvents. The chemical properties of bio-oil products were significantly affected by the type of liquefaction solvent. The composition of bio-oil consisted of mostly of a mixture of organic acids, ketones, and esters. The methanol and ethanol solvents resulted in mostly esters, while toluene and hexane resulted in mostly organic acids. Acetone solvent resulted in the same amount of organic acid and esters. In water as a solvent resulted in 2-pentanone, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl. The bio-oil consisted of a range of carbon C6 - C20 fragments.

  17. Nanostructured cinnamon oil has the potential to control Rhipicephalus microplus ticks on cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Daiane S; Boito, Jhonatan P; Santos, Roberto C V; Quatrin, Priscilla M; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Dos Reis, João H; Gebert, Roger R; Glombowsky, Patrícia; Klauck, Vanderlei; Boligon, Aline A; Baldissera, Matheus D; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2017-08-29

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of pure and nanostructured cinnamon oil to control the infestation and reproductive efficiency of Rhipicephalus microplus on dairy cows. In vitro (stage I)-engorged female ticks were immersed in concentrations of 1.0, 5.0 and 10% of cinnamon oil on its pure form, and 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0% of the nanostructured form. 10% cinnamon oil (pure form) showed 100% efficacy, whereas concentrations of 1 and 5% were 62 and 97% efficacious, respectively. Nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing cinnamon oil at 5% showed 95 and 97% efficacy, respectively. In vivo (stage II)-16 naturally tick-infested cows were divided into four groups of four animals each: Group A was composed of dairy cows sprayed with Triton (control); Group B was composed of dairy cows sprayed with cinnamon oil in its pure form (5%), whereas groups C and D were composed of dairy cows sprayed with nanocapsules and nanoemulsions, respectively, containing cinnamon oil at 0.5%. The ticks on each animal were counted on days 0, 1, 4 and 20 after spraying. Animals sprayed with pure and nanoencapsulated cinnamon oil carried significantly fewer ticks on days 1 and 4 post-treatment and were free of ticks on day 20 post-treatment. Ticks collected from these dairy cows (24 h after application) had impaired oviposition and larval inhibition, resulting in 90.5 and 100% efficacy when using pure and nanocapsules, respectively. In conclusion, the pure and nanostructured forms of cinnamon oil interfered with tick reproduction, whereas a significant acaricidal effect was found when applied onto cattle.

  18. Human Skin Permeation of a Chloroaluminum Phthalocyanine Nanoemulsion for Optimization of Topical Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Eugenia Ospina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nanoemulsions constitute excellent drug delivery systems for carrying and delivering active drugs. Chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc in photodynamic therapy constitutes an interesting alternative in cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment. Objective: To de-termine the diffusion and retention of ClAlPc contained in a nanoemulsion (nano-ClAlPc in human skin membranes for optimization of topical formulations. Materials and methods: Two formulations (ClAlPc-nano- and ClAlPc-solution and vehicles without ClAlPc were prepared and physicochemical characterized. The permeation was tested in Franz-diffusion cells and the retention by the tape stripping method. ClAlPc concentration was determined fluorometrically (nM/cm2. Skin biopsies were analyzed by histologic technics. Results: The ClAlPc-nano average size, zeta potential and polydispersity index diluted in water was 132.9 nm, -19.23 and 0.14 and diluted in phosphate-buffer-saline was 25.33 nm, -13.69 and 0.139. ClAlPc maintains its stabil¬ity in each formulation. ClAlPc was unable to pass completely through the skin; it was retained in the different skin layers. A ClAlPc retention in stratum corneum and epidermis+dermis was observed with values of 44.17 nM and 8.48 nM after ClAlPc-nano treatment and 96.90 nM and 9.80 nM after ClAlPc-solution treatment. The ClAlPc-solution promoted greater retention in stratum corneum and both formulations showed similar ClAlPc-retention in epidermis+dermis. Histological changes as stratum corneum detachment and collagen-fragmentation were observed. Conclusion: ClAlPc was not able to cross completely the skin, it was retained in stratum corneum and epidermis+dermis Human permeation test using skin membranes without stratum corneum, and distribution assays in cutaneous leishmaniasis-infected animals, are suggested.

  19. Design Expert® supported optimization and predictive analysis of selegiline nanoemulsion via the olfactory region with enhanced behavioural performance in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shobhit; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2016-10-01

    Selegiline is a monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor and is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The main problem associated with its oral administration is its low oral bioavailability (10%) due to its poor aqueous solubility and extensive first pass metabolism. The aim of the present research work was to develop a nanoemulsion loaded with selegiline for direct nose-to-brain delivery for the better management of Parkinson’s disease. A quality by design (QbD) approach was used in a statistical multivariate method for the preparation and optimization of nanoemulsion. In this study, four independent variables were chosen, in which two were compositions and two were process variables, while droplet size, transmittance, zeta potential and drug release were selected as response variables. The optimized formulation was assessed for efficacy in Parkinson’s disease using behavioural studies, namely forced swimming, locomotor, catalepsy, muscle coordination, akinesia and bradykinesia or pole test in Wistar rats. The observed droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), refractive index, transmittance, zeta potential and viscosity of selegiline nanoemulsion were found to be 61.43 ± 4.10 nm, 0.203 ± 0.005, 1.30 ± 0.01, 99.80 ± 0.04%, -34 mV and 31.85 ± 0.24 mPas respectively. Surface characterization studies demonstrated a spherical shape of nanoemulsion which showed 3.7 times enhancement in drug permeation as compared to drug suspension. The results of behaviour studies showed that treatment of haloperidol induced Parkinson’s disease in rats with selegiline nanoemulsion (administered intranasally) showed significant improvement in behavioural activities in comparison to orally administered drug. These findings demonstrate that nanoemulsion could be a promising new drug delivery carrier for intranasal delivery of selegiline in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

  20. Ex-vivo complexation, skin permeation, interaction and cytodermal toxicity studies of p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion for radiation decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Navneet; Ojha, Himanshu; Pathak, Dharam Pal; Goel, Rajeev; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene loaded nanoemulsion has been designed, characterized and evaluated for skin decontamination of radionuclides of interest in nuclear and radiological emergencies. Further, nanoemulsion was evaluated for Ex-vivo complexation, skin permeation, interaction and cytodermal toxicity. Ex-vivo skin complexation studies were conducted using High-resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICPMS). Skin studies at dermal and cyto-dermal level have been carried out using techniques such as florescence microscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Flow cytometry, Confocal microscopy, Prestoblue and Comet assay. HR-SF-ICPMS study confirmed >95% complexation of surrogate nuclides of thallium and Iodine applied on excised rat skin mounted over Franz diffusion cell. Temporal analysis of aliquots obtained from Franz diffusion cell using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy indicated that only 3.37% of formulation permeates through the skin. Skin penetration study of rhodamine 123 nanoemulsion carried out using florescence microscopy confirmed that formulation remains localised in epidermis of rat skin. DSC data confirmed skin compatibility of nanoemulsion, as no lipid extraction was observed from skin. In-vitro cell viability and cellular uptake assays performed on human skin fibroblasts prove no cellular uptake and cytotoxic effects. Comet assay, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis-inducing mechanistic studies prove that prepared nanoemulsion is safe at cellular level. Taken together, data indicate that p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion is both effective and safe formulation to use on skin for radio-decontamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tracking Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsion Delivery by 19F MRI for Precise High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Tumor Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soo Hyun; Park, Eun-Joo; Min, Changki; Choi, Sun Il; Jeon, Soyeon; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Daehong

    2017-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFCNEs) have recently been undergoing rigorous study to investigate their ability to improve the therapeutic efficacy of tumor ablation by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). For precise control of PFCNE delivery and thermal ablation, their accumulation and distribution in a tumor should be quantitatively analyzed. Here, we used fluorine-19 (19F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitatively track PFCNE accumulation in a tumor, and analyzed how intra-tumoral PFCNE quantities affect the therapeutic efficacy of HIFU treatment. Ablation outcomes were assessed by intra-voxel incoherent motion analysis and bioluminescent imaging up to 14 days after the procedure. Assessment of PFCNE delivery and treatment outcomes showed that 2-3 mg/mL of PFCNE in a tumor produces the largest ablation volume under the same HIFU insonation conditions. Histology showed varying degrees of necrosis depending on the amount of PFCNE delivered. 19F MRI promises to be a valuable platform for precisely guiding PFCNE-enhanced HIFU ablation of tumors. PMID:28255351

  2. Preparation and Characterization of a Lecithin Nanoemulsion as a Topical Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huafeng; Yue, Yang; Liu, Guanlan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Gong, Qiu; Yan, Zemin; Duan, Mingxing

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to establish a lecithin nanoemulsion (LNE) without any synthetic surfactant as a topical delivery vehicle and to evaluate its topical delivery potential by the following factors: particle size, morphology, viscosity, stability, skin hydration and skin penetration. Experimental results demonstrated that an increasing concentration of soybean lecithin and glycerol resulted in a smaller size LNE droplet and increasing viscosity, respectively. The droplet size of optimized LNE, with the glycerol concentration above 75% (w/w), changed from 92 (F10) to 58 nm (F14). Additionally, LNE, incorporated into o/w cream, improved the skin hydration capacity of the cream significantly with about 2.5-fold increase when the concentration of LNE reached 10%. LNE was also demonstrated to improve the penetrability of Nile red (NR) dye into the dermis layer, when an o/w cream, incorporated with NR-loaded LNE, applied on the abdominal skin of rat in vivo. Specifically, the arbitrary unit (ABU) of fluorescence in the dermis layer that had received the cream with a NR-loaded LNE was about 9.9-fold higher than the cream with a NR-loaded general emulsion (GE). These observations suggest that LNE could be used as a promising topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic compounds.

  3. The enhanced anti-obesity effect and reduced gastric mucosa irritation of capsaicin-loaded nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Muwen; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2017-05-24

    Capsaicin (CAP), the major active component of chili peppers, is known to have thermogenic and weight-loss potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of capsaicin-loaded nanoemulsions (C-NE) on male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with a high-fat diet (HFD). The food grade C-NE was prepared using capsaicin, medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) (Neobee 1053), sucrose stearate S-370, Tween 80 and distilled water with an emulsion droplet size of 168 nm and a capsaicin loading of 80.4 mg mL(-1). Results showed that C-NE effectively decreased body weight gain and hypercholesterolemia induced by HFD in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluations of the liver and adipose tissue confirmed that C-NE had significant effects on inhibiting diet-induced hepatic steatosis, reducing epididymal adipocyte size and tissue mass. A gastric mucosa irritation test demonstrated that C-NE was effective in alleviating the gastric inflammation caused by free unformulated CAP crystals.

  4. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  5. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  6. The use of some nanoemulsions based on aqueous propolis and lycopene extract in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuchici Camelia V

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of natural products based on aqueous extract of propolis and lycopene in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation was evaluated by means of experimental acute inflammation on rat paw edema. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the harmlessness of propolis - lycopene system through evaluation of skin level changes and anti-inflammatory action. The regenerative and protective effect of the aqueous propolis and lycopene extract is based on its richness in biologically active substances such as: tocopherols, flavonoids, amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, the chlorophyll pigment, all substances with strong antioxidant activity, that modify the oxidative stress, mainly by reducing the prooxidant processes and enhancing the antioxidant ones. These substances participate in the synthesis of prostaglandins and phospholipids components of cell membrane thus enhancing skin protection mechanisms. Results The experimental systems offered a sustained release of the drug, in vitro, for aim eight hours. The prepared formulations aim did not reveal a deteriorating effect on tissues. They proved a better therapeutic efficiency Compared to standard suspension, they provided a better therapeutic efficiency coupled with extended time interval of tested parameters (24 hours. Preliminary examination of tissues showed that the experimental formulations did not irritate. Local application of propolis and lycopene aqueous extract nanoemulsion has a high potential both regarding its efficiency (the analgesic effect and therapeutic safety. Conclusions This study demonstrates that propolis and lycopene extract nanoemulsions, preparations contains active substances, can confer better therapeutic effects than those of the conventional formulations, based on local control-release of dozed form, for a longer period of time, which probably improve its efficiency and skin acceptance, meaning a better compliance. The

  7. The use of some nanoemulsions based on aqueous propolis and lycopene extract in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnariu, Monica V; Giuchici, Camelia V

    2011-02-04

    The use of natural products based on aqueous extract of propolis and lycopene in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation was evaluated by means of experimental acute inflammation on rat paw edema. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the harmlessness of propolis - lycopene system through evaluation of skin level changes and anti-inflammatory action. The regenerative and protective effect of the aqueous propolis and lycopene extract is based on its richness in biologically active substances such as: tocopherols, flavonoids, amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, the chlorophyll pigment, all substances with strong antioxidant activity, that modify the oxidative stress, mainly by reducing the prooxidant processes and enhancing the antioxidant ones. These substances participate in the synthesis of prostaglandins and phospholipids components of cell membrane thus enhancing skin protection mechanisms. The experimental systems offered a sustained release of the drug, in vitro, for aim eight hours. The prepared formulations aim did not reveal a deteriorating effect on tissues. They proved a better therapeutic efficiency Compared to standard suspension, they provided a better therapeutic efficiency coupled with extended time interval of tested parameters (24 hours). Preliminary examination of tissues showed that the experimental formulations did not irritate. Local application of propolis and lycopene aqueous extract nanoemulsion has a high potential both regarding its efficiency (the analgesic effect) and therapeutic safety. This study demonstrates that propolis and lycopene extract nanoemulsions, preparations contains active substances, can confer better therapeutic effects than those of the conventional formulations, based on local control-release of dozed form, for a longer period of time, which probably improve its efficiency and skin acceptance, meaning a better compliance. The information obtained in the present study suggests that

  8. Combined passive acoustic mapping and magnetic resonance thermometry for monitoring phase-shift nanoemulsion enhanced focused ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crake, Calum; Meral, F. Can; Burgess, Mark T.; Papademetriou, Iason T.; McDannold, Nathan J.; Porter, Tyrone M.

    2017-08-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has the potential to enable precise, image-guided noninvasive surgery for the treatment of cancer in which tumors are identified and destroyed in a single integrated procedure. However, success of the method in highly vascular organs has been limited due to heat losses to perfusion, requiring development of techniques to locally enhance energy absorption and heating. In addition, FUS procedures are conventionally monitored using MRI, which provides excellent anatomical images and can map temperature, but is not capable of capturing the full gamut of available data such as the acoustic emissions generated during this inherently acoustically-driven procedure. Here, we employed phase-shift nanoemulsions (PSNE) embedded in tissue phantoms to promote cavitation and hence temperature rise induced by FUS. In addition, we incorporated passive acoustic mapping (PAM) alongside simultaneous MR thermometry in order to visualize both acoustic emissions and temperature rise, within the bore of a full scale clinical MRI scanner. Focal cavitation of PSNE could be resolved using PAM and resulted in accelerated heating and increased the maximum elevated temperature measured via MR thermometry compared to experiments without nanoemulsions. Over time, the simultaneously acquired acoustic and temperature maps show translation of the focus of activity towards the FUS transducer, and the magnitude of the increase in cavitation and focal shift both increased with nanoemulsion concentration. PAM results were well correlated with MRI thermometry and demonstrated greater sensitivity, with the ability to detect cavitation before enhanced heating was observed. The results suggest that PSNE could be beneficial for enhancement of thermal focused ultrasound therapies and that PAM could be a critical tool for monitoring this process.

  9. Galantamine-loaded PLGA nanoparticles, from nano-emulsion templating, as novel advanced drug delivery systems to treat neurodegenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaguera, C.; Feiner-Gracia, N.; Calderó, G.; García-Celma, M. J.; Solans, C.

    2015-07-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles could be promising drug delivery systems to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Among the various methods of nanoparticle preparation, nano-emulsion templating was used in the present study to prepare galantamine-loaded nano-emulsions by a low-energy emulsification method followed by solvent evaporation to obtain galantamine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles. This approach was found to be suitable because biocompatible, biodegradable and safe nanoparticles with appropriate features (hydrodynamic radii around 20 nm, negative surface charge and stability higher than 3 months) for their intravenous administration were obtained. Encapsulation efficiencies higher than 90 wt% were obtained with a sustained drug release profile as compared to that from aqueous and micellar solutions. The enzymatic activity of the drug was maintained at 80% after its encapsulation into nanoparticles that were non-cytotoxic at the required therapeutic concentration. Therefore, novel galantamine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles have been designed for the first time using the nano-emulsification approach and showed the appropriate features to become advanced drug delivery systems to treat neurodegenerative diseases.Polymeric nanoparticles could be promising drug delivery systems to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Among the various methods of nanoparticle preparation, nano-emulsion templating was used in the present study to prepare galantamine-loaded nano-emulsions by a low-energy emulsification method followed by solvent evaporation to obtain galantamine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles. This approach was found to be suitable because biocompatible, biodegradable and safe nanoparticles with appropriate features (hydrodynamic radii around 20 nm, negative surface charge and stability higher than 3 months) for their intravenous administration were obtained. Encapsulation efficiencies higher than 90 wt% were obtained with a sustained drug release profile as compared to that from

  10. Promising ion-sensitive in situ ocular nanoemulsion gels of terbinafine hydrochloride: design, in vitro characterization and in vivo estimation of the ocular irritation and drug pharmacokinetics in the aqueous humor of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Saadia Ahmed; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed; Tadros, Mina Ibrahim; Abd-Elsalam, Wessam Hamdy

    2013-02-25

    Terbinafine hydrochloride (T-HCl) is recommended for the management of fungal keratitis. To maintain effective aqueous humor concentrations, frequent instillation of T-HCl drops is necessary. This work aimed to develop alternative controlled-release in situ ocular drug-loaded nanoemulsion (NE) gels. Twelve pseudoternary-phase diagrams were constructed using oils (isopropyl myristate/Miglyol 812), surfactants (Tween 80/Cremophor EL), a co-surfactant (polyethylene glycol 400) and water. Eight drug-loaded (0.5%, w/v) NEs were evaluated for thermodynamic stability, morphology, droplet size and drug release in simulated tear fluid (pH 7.4). Following dispersion in gellan gum solution (0.2%, w/w), the in situ NE gels were characterized for transparency, rheological behavior, mucoadhesive force, drug release and histopathological assessment of ocular irritation. Drug pharmacokinetics of sterilized F31 [Miglyol 812, Cremophor EL: polyethylene glycol 400 (1:2) and water (5, 55 and 40%, w/w, respectively)] in situ NE gel and oily drug solution were evaluated in rabbit aqueous humor. The NEs were thermodynamically stable and have spherical droplets (gels were transparent, pseudoplastic, mucoadhesive and showed more retarded zero-order drug release rates. F31 in situ NE gel showed the least ocular irritation potential and significantly (P<0.01) higher C(max), delayed T(max), prolonged mean residence time and increased bioavailability.

  11. Preparation of carotenoid extracts and nanoemulsions from Lycium barbarum L. and their effects on growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H. J.; Huang, R. F.; Kao, T. H.; Inbaraj, B. S.; Chen, B. H.

    2017-03-01

    Lycium barbarum L., a traditional Chinese herb widely used in Asian countries, has been demonstrated to be protective against chronic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The objectives of this study were to determine the carotenoid content in L. barbarum by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by preparation of a carotenoid nanoemulsion to evaluate the mechanism of inhibition on HT-29 colon cancer cells. The highest extraction yield of carotenoids was attained by employing a solvent system of hexane-ethanol-acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v). Nine carotenoids, including neoxanthin (4.47 μg g-1), all-trans-zeaxanthin and its cis-isomers (1666.3 μg g-1), all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin (51.69 μg g-1), all-trans-β-carotene and its cis-isomers (20.11 μg g-1), were separated within 45 min and quantified using a YMC C30 column and a gradient mobile phase of methanol-water (9:1, v/v) (A) and methylene chloride (B). A highly stable carotenoid nanoemulsion composed of CapryolTM 90, Transcutol®HP, Tween 80 and deionized water was prepared with a mean particle size of 15.1 nm. Characterization of zeaxanthin standard, blank nanoemulsion, carotenoid extract and carotenoid nanoemulsion by differential scanning calorimetry curves and Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed a good dispersion of zeaxanthin-dominated carotenoid extract with no significant chemical change after incorporation into nanoemulsion. The in vitro release kinetic study showed a higher release profile at pH 5.2 than at physiological pH 7.4, suggesting a rapid release of carotenoids in the acidic environment (pH 4.5-6.5) characteristic of tumors. Both the carotenoid nanoemulsion and the extract were effective at inhibiting growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells, with an IC50 of 4.5 and 4.9 μg ml-1, respectively. Also, both treatments could up-regulate p53 and p21 expression and down-regulate CDK2, CDK1, cyclin A and cyclin B expression and arrest the cell cycle at G2/M. The

  12. Preparation and safety evaluation of compound Olobetaso propionate nanoemulsion%复方丙酸氯倍他索纳米乳的制备及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰莹; 欧阳五庆; 宋冠男; 孙江宏; 吴敬超

    2012-01-01

    【目的】制备一种外用的水包油(O/W)型复方丙酸氯倍他索纳米乳,用于治疗宠物由真菌和螨虫混合感染引起的皮肤病。【方法】以丙酸氯倍他索(Clobetasolpropionate,CP)、特比萘酚(Terbinafine)、双甲脒(Amitraz)为主要成分,并从5种常用的油性物质和3种表面活性剂中筛选出适宜的油相和表面活性剂,利用伪三元相图法筛选出纳米乳的最佳配方;通过透射电子显微镜和粒度分析仪观察其粒径大小和分布,通过加速离心试验、光稳定性和温度稳定性试验考察其品质,通过皮肤急性毒性、刺激性和致敏性试验考察其安全性。【结果】复方丙酸氯倍他索纳米乳的适宜配方(质量分数)为23%聚氧乙烯40氢化蓖麻油、15.4%乙酸乙酯、1%特比萘酚、0.05%双甲脒、0.05%丙酸氯倍他索和60.5%蒸馏水。其乳滴平均粒径为13.7rim,分布均匀,品质稳定,无毒无刺激性。【结论】复方丙酸氯倍他索纳米乳是一种品质稳定、使用安全的治疗宠物皮肤病的外用药物。%[Objective] This study prepared a external oil-water (O/W) type of compound Clobetasol propionate (CP) nanoemulsion which consist of Clobetasol propionate,Terbinafine and Amitraz. [Method] Pseudo-ternary phase diagram was used to determine the best formula. Stability test was used to evaluate its stability. Particle size and distribution were measured by particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy,toxicity test was used to evaluate its safety. [Result] Compound Clobetasol propionate (CP) nanoemulsion consists of 23 % RH-40,15.4 % ethyl acetate, 1% Terbinafine, 0.05 % Amitraz, 0.05 % Clo- betasol propionate,60.5% distilled water. It has stable quality,the average particle size is 13.7 nm,emul- sion droplets distribute uniform,non-toxic and non-stimulation. [Conclusion] Compound Clobetasol propio- nate

  13. Interactions between Phospholipids and Organic Phases: Insights into Lipoproteins and Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ellen; Dessy, Alberto; Sommerling, Jan-Hendrik; Guthausen, Gisela; Nirschl, Hermann; Leneweit, Gero

    2016-06-14

    showed that combinations of solvent or solute saturation affect the outcome for nanoemulsions forming either expanded or condensed monolayers or multilayers.

  14. Metabolism of a Lipid Nanoemulsion Resembling Low-Density Lipoprotein in Patients with Grade III Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Simone Alves; Ficker, Elisabeth Salvatori; Vinagre, Carmen G. C.; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante; Mady, Charles

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity increases triglyceride levels and decreases high-density lipoprotein concentrations in plasma. Artificial emulsions resembling lipidic plasma lipoprotein structures have been used to evaluate low-density lipoprotein metabolism. In grade III obesity, low density lipoprotein metabolism is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics with which a cholesterol-rich emulsion (called a low-density emulsion) binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors in a group of patients with grade III obesity by the fractional clearance rate. METHODS: A low-density emulsion was labeled with [14C]-cholesterol ester and [3H]-triglycerides and injected intravenously into ten normolipidemic non-diabetic patients with grade III obesity [body mass index higher than 40 kg/m2] and into ten non-obese healthy controls. Blood samples were collected over 24 hours to determine the plasma decay curve and to calculate the fractional clearance rate. RESULTS: There was no difference regarding plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between the two groups. The fractional clearance rate of triglycerides was 0.086 ± 0.044 in the obese group and 0.122 ± 0.026 in the controls (p = 0.040), and the fractional clearance rate of cholesterol ester (h−1) was 0.052 ± 0.021 in the obese subjects and 0.058 ± 0.015 (p = 0.971) in the controls. CONCLUSION: Grade III obese subjects exhibited normal low-density lipoprotein removal from plasma as tested by the nanoemulsion method, but triglyceride removal was slower. PMID:20126342

  15. Nondermal irritating hyperosmotic nanoemulsions reduce treatment times in a contamination model of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Sean; Li, Jianming; Durkes, Abigail; Zaroura, Mohammed; Shi, Riyi

    2016-07-01

    Increased microbial burden within the wound often complicates wound healing and may lead to subsequent infection or delayed healing. Here, we investigate a novel topical for addressing wound contamination that utilizes hyperosmotic saccharides with a cell membrane disrupting emulsion. These hyperosmotic nanoemulsions (HNE) were administered topically in a full-thickness biopsy model of wound healing. Results show that HNE were well tolerated in noninfected animals with no indications of dermal irritation or acute toxicity. Additionally, HNE was able to reduce bacterial bioburden (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) levels by 3 logs within 24 h when wounds were inoculated with 5 × 10(6) total CFU. These bactericidal values were similar to wounds treated with silver sulfadiazine. Wound closure showed HNE wounds closed in 7.6 ± 0.2 days while SSD and control required 10.2 ± 0.4 and 10.4 ± 0.3 days, respectively. HNE maintained a moist wound environment, were well debrided, and exhibited improved hemostatic response. Further histological examination revealed enhanced granulation tissue as compared to silver sulfadiazine and control cohorts. These results were corroborated with 3D topographical imprints of the wounds at day 14 which qualitatively showed a smoother surface. In contrast, silver sulfadiazine appeared to delay wound closure. Finally, dermal sensitization and irritation studies conducted in guinea pig and rabbits did not reveal any acute dermal side effects from HNE exposure. The cumulative data indicates nonantibiotic-based HNEs may be a promising topical treatment for the management of contaminated wounds.

  16. Evidence of nose-to-brain delivery of nanoemulsions: cargoes but not vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ejaj; Feng, Yunhai; Qi, Jianping; Fan, Wufa; Ma, Yuhua; He, Haisheng; Xia, Fei; Dong, Xiaochun; Zhao, Weili; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2017-01-19

    The nose-to-brain pathway has been proven to be a shortcut for direct drug delivery to the brain. However, whether and to what extent nanoparticles can be delivered through this passage is still awaiting validation with evidence. In this study, nose-to-brain transportation of nanoparticles is tracked via fluorescence bioimaging strategies using nanoemulsions (NEs) as model carriers. Identification of NEs in biological tissues is based on the on → off signal switching of a new type of environment-responsive embedded dyes, P2 and P4, and two conventional probes, DiR and coumarin-6 (C6), are embedded to represent the cargoes. Evidence for the translocation of NEs was collected either via live imaging or ex vivo histological examination in rats after nasal administration. Results suggest that NEs with a particle size of about 100 nm, either naked or coated with chitosan, have longer retention duration in nostrils and slower mucociliary clearance than larger ones. P2 signals, representing integral NEs, can be found in mucosa and trigeminal nerves for all size groups, whereas only weak P2 signals are detected in the olfactory bulb for chitosan-coated NEs of 100 nm. Confocal microscopy further confirms the translocation of integral 100 nm NEs in nasal mucosa and along the trigeminal nerve in decremental intensity. Weak signals of the P4 probe, also representing integral NEs, can be detected in the olfactory bulb but few in the brain. NEs as large as 900 nm cannot be transported to the olfactory bulb. However, the DiR or C6 signals that represent the cargoes can be found in significant amounts along the nose-to-brain pathway and finally reach the brain. Evidence shows that integral NEs can be delivered to the olfactory bulb, but few to the brain, whereas the cargoes can be released and permeated into the brain in greater amounts.

  17. Validation of an LC method to determine skin retention profile of genistein from nanoemulsions incorporated in hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vargas, Bethânia Andrade; Argenta, Débora Fretes; Borghetti, Greice; Koester, Leticia Scherer; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have shown the effect of soy isoflavones in preventing skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis, especially for genistein (GEN). Nanoemulsions have been proposed as a delivery system for GEN administration due to the low water solubility of this isoflavone. This article describes the validation of an isocratic liquid chromatography method to determine GEN in porcine ear skin layers from nanoemulsions before and after incorporation into hydrogels. The analyses are performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (70:30, v/v) under acid conditions (at pH 3.0) and UV detection at 270 nm. The method is linear in the range of 0.1-10 µg/mL (r(2) > 0.999) in the presence of skin extracts. The low limit of quantitation is estimated as 0.1 µg/mL. No interferences from formulation excipients or skin layer compounds are detected. The RSD values for intra- and inter-day precision are lower than 15%. Recovery ranged from approximately 90% to 110%. The method is applied to estimate GEN retention in the skin from formulations using Franz diffusion cells. The highest amount of GEN is detected in the epidermis (185 µg/cm(2)). In conclusion, the method proved to be specific, precise, and accurate in determining GEN amounts from formulations in skin retention studies.

  18. Layer-by-layer encapsulated nano-emulsion of ionic liquid loaded with functional material for extraction of Cd(2+) ions from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizarova, Iuliia S; Luckham, Paul F

    2017-04-01

    Ionic liquids can serve as an environmentally-friendly replacement for solvents in emulsions, therefore they are considered suitable to be used as an emulsified medium for various active materials one of which are extractors of metal ions. Increasing the extraction efficiency is considered to be one of the key objectives when working with such extraction systems. One way to improve the extraction efficiency is to increase the contact area between the extractant and the working ionic solution. This can be accomplished by creating a nano-emulsion of ionic liquid containing such an extractant. Since emulsification of ionic liquid is not always possible in the sample itself, there is a necessity of creating a stable emulsion that can be added externally and on demand to samples from which metal ions need to be extracted. We propose a method of fabrication of a highly-stable extractant-loaded ionic liquid-in-water nano-emulsion via a low-energy phase reversal emulsification followed by continuous layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition process to encapsulate the nano-emulsion and enhance the emulsion stability. Such a multilayered stabilized nano-emulsion was tested for extraction of Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) ions in order to determine its extraction efficiency and selectivity. It was found to be effective in the extraction of Cd(2+) ions with near 100% cadmium removal, as well as being selective since no Ca(2+) ions were extracted. The encapsulated emulsion was removed from samples post-extraction using two methods - filtration and magnetic separation, both of which were shown to be viable under different circumstances - larger and mechanically stronger capsules could be removed by filtration, however magnetic separation worked better for both smaller and bigger capsules. The long-term stability of nano-emulsion was also tested being a very important characteristic for its proposed use: it was found to be highly stable after four months of storage time.

  19. Polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant suitable for endovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morral-Ruíz, Genoveva; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; García, María Luísa; Solans, Conxita; García-Celma, María José

    2014-01-30

    The design of new, safe and effective nanotherapeutic systems is an important challenge for the researchers in the nanotechnology area. This study describes the formation of biocompatible polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant formed from O/W nano-emulsions by polymerization at the droplet interfaces in systems composed by aqueous solution/Kolliphor(®) ELP/medium chain triglyceride suitable for intravenous administration. Initial nano-emulsions incorporating highly hydrophilic materials were prepared by the phase inversion composition (PIC) method. After polymerization, nanoparticles with a small particle diameter (25-55 nm) and low polydispersity index were obtained. Parameters such as concentration of monomer, O/S weight ratio as well as the polymerization temperature were crucial to achieve a correct formation of these nanoparticles. Moreover, FT-IR studies showed the full conversion of the monomer to polyurethane and polyurea polymers. Likewise the involvement of the surfactant in the polymerization process through their nucleophilic groups to form the polymeric matrix was demonstrated. This could mean a first step in the development of biocompatible systems formulated with polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactants. In addition, haemolysis and cell viability assays evidenced the good biocompatibility of KELP polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles thus indicating the potential of these nanosystems as promising drug carriers.

  20. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  1. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  2. Effects of Carbopol® 934 proportion on nanoemulsion gel for topical and transdermal drug delivery: a skin permeation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yin Zheng,1 Wu-Qing Ouyang,1 Yun-Peng Wei,1 Shahid Faraz Syed,2,3 Chao-Shuang Hao,1 Bo-Zhen Wang,4 Yan-Hong Shang1,5 1Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi; 3Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lasbella University of Agriculture Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal Baluchistan, Pakistan; 4College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang, 5College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China Abstract: Nanoemulsions (NEs are used as transdermal drug delivery systems for systematic therapeutic purposes. We hypothesized that the skin permeation profile of an NE could be modulated by incorporating it into a hydrogel containing differing proportions of thickening agent. The objectives of this study were as follows: 1 to determine the stability and skin irritability of NE gels (NGs containing 1%, 2%, and 3% (w/w Carbopol® 934 (CP934 (termed NG1, NG2, and NG3, respectively; 2 to compare the skin permeation profiles and drug deposition patterns of the NGs; and 3 to visualize the drug delivery routes of the NGs. Terbinafine and citral were incorporated into the NGs as model drugs. Ex vivo skin permeation tests indicated that the percutaneous flux rates of terbinafine decreased in the order NE (215 µg/cm2 > NG1 (213 µg/cm2 > NG2 (123 µg/cm2 > NG3 (74.3 µg/cm2. The flux rates of citral decreased in the order NE (1,026 µg/cm2 > NG1 (1,021 µg/cm2 > NG2 (541 µg/cm2 > NG3 (353 µg/cm2. The NGs accumulated greater amounts of the drugs in the stratum corneum and less in the epidermis/dermis than did the NE (P<0.05 over a period of 12 h. Laser scanning confocal microscopy indicated that the NGs altered the main drug delivery routes from skin appendages to intercellular paths. Histological images suggested

  3. Pre-clinical evaluation of a novel nanoemulsion-based hepatitis B mucosal vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Makidon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus infection remains an important global health concern despite the availability of safe and effective prophylactic vaccines. Limitations to these vaccines include requirement for refrigeration and three immunizations thereby restricting use in the developing world. A new nasal hepatitis B vaccine composed of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg in a novel nanoemulsion (NE adjuvant (HBsAg-NE could be effective with fewer administrations. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Physical characterization indicated that HBsAg-NE consists of uniform lipid droplets (349+/-17 nm associated with HBsAg through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Immunogenicity of HBsAg-NE vaccine was evaluated in mice, rats and guinea pigs. Animals immunized intranasally developed robust and sustained systemic IgG, mucosal IgA and strong antigen-specific cellular immune responses. Serum IgG reached > or = 10(6 titers and was comparable to intramuscular vaccination with alum-adjuvanted vaccine (HBsAg-Alu. Normalization showed that HBsAg-NE vaccination correlates with a protective immunity equivalent or greater than 1000 IU/ml. Th1 polarized immune response was indicated by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha cytokine production and elevated levels of IgG(2 subclass of HBsAg-specific antibodies. The vaccine retains full immunogenicity for a year at 4 degrees C, 6 months at 25 degrees C and 6 weeks at 40 degrees C. Comprehensive pre-clinical toxicology evaluation demonstrated that HBsAg-NE vaccine is safe and well tolerated in multiple animal models. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that needle-free nasal immunization with HBsAg-NE could be a safe and effective hepatitis B vaccine, or provide an alternative booster administration for the parenteral hepatitis B vaccines. This vaccine induces a Th1 associated cellular immunity and also may provide therapeutic benefit to patients with chronic hepatitis B infection who lack cellular immune

  4. Combinational delivery of hydrophobic and hydrophilic anticancer drugs in single nanoemulsions to treat MDR in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Dun; Wang, Yongjun; Fu, Qiang; Fallon, John K; Yang, Xinggang; He, Zhonggui; Liu, Feng

    2014-08-04

    In this study, we developed the core-matched nanoemulsions (NEs) functionalized by vitamin E (VE) and tocopherol poly(ethylene glycol)succinate (TPGS) to codeliver hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, paclitaxel (PTX) and 5-fluoroucacil (5-FU), in order to achieve synergistic effects and overcome PTX resistance in a multi-drug-resistant (MDR) human epidermal carcinoma cell line KB-8-5. Antitumor effect of the combination therapy based on core-matched technology (CMT) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in mice. The core-matched NEs showed entrapment efficiency of >90% and were of nanoscale particle size and negative zeta-potential. The combined core-matched NEs exhibited concentration and time-dependent cytotoxicity against PTX-sensitive KB-3-1 cells and PTX-resistant KB-8-5 cells as well as an obviously increased G2/M phase block. The improvements in therapeutic response over either PTX-VE or 5-FU-TPGS therapy alone were demonstrated by the ability to effectively induce the apoptosis of tumor cells via up-regulation of tumor suppressor p53 and β-tubulin and by the significant inhibition of cell cycle progression. The combination therapy led to dramatic inhibition of tumor growth with little toxicity in vivo, especially in the PTX-resistant KB-8-5 tumors, whereas Taxol had little therapeutic effect. This was mainly ascribed to the synergism of PTX and 5-FU and the reverse of MDR by the inhibition of ATPase activity by VE and TPGS. Coencapsulation of two chemotherapeutic agents with different mechanisms allows simultaneous interruption of diverse anticancer pathways, resulting in increased therapeutic response and low toxicity. The CMT markedly facilitated the long circulation of PTX and 5-FU, which was closely associated with the high accumulation of chemotherapeutic agents within the tumors and the improvement of antitumor efficacy. The current study demonstrated the feasibility of incorporating PTX and 5-FU targeting to different pathways into a single core

  5. Simvastatin increases the antineoplastic actions of paclitaxel carried in lipid nanoemulsions in melanoma-bearing mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzer, Iara F; Maria, Durvanei A; Guido, Maria C; Contente, Thaís C; Maranhão, Raul C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lipid nanoemulsions (LDEs) that bind to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors used as carriers of paclitaxel (PTX) can decrease toxicity and increase PTX antitumoral action. The administration of simvastatin (Simva), which lowers LDL-cholesterol, was tested as an adjuvant to commercial PTX and to PTX associated with LDE (LDE-PTX). Materials and methods B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice were treated with saline solution or LDE (controls), Simva, PTX, PTX and Simva, LDE-PTX, and LDE-PTX and Simva: PTX dose 17.5 μmol/kg (three intraperitoneal injections, 3 alternate days): Simva 50 mg/kg/day by gavage, 9 consecutive days. Results Compared with saline controls, 95% tumor-growth inhibition was achieved by LDE-PTX and Simva, 61% by LDE-PTX, 44% by PTX and Simva, and 43% by PTX. Simva alone had no effect. Metastasis developed in only 37% of the LDE-PTX and Simva, 60% in LDE-PTX, and 90% in PTX and Simva groups. Survival rates were higher in LDE-PTX and Simva and in LDE-PTX groups. The LDE-PTX and Simva group presented tumors with reduced cellular density and increased collagen fibers I and III. Tumors from all groups showed reduction in immunohistochemical expression of ICAM, MCP-1, and MMP-9; LDE-PTX and Simva presented the lowest MMP-9 expression. Expression of p21 was increased in the Simva, LDE-PTX, and LDE-PTX and Simva groups. In the Simva and LDE-PTX and Simva groups, expression of cyclin D1, a proliferation and survival promoter of tumor cells, was decreased. Therapy with LDE-PTX and Simva showed negligible toxicity compared with PTX and Simva, which resulted in weight loss and myelosuppression. Conclusion Simva increased the antitumor activity of PTX carried in LDE but not of PTX commercial presentation, possibly because statins increase the expression of LDL receptors that internalize LDE-PTX. PMID:27022257

  6. Phase-shift nano-emulsions induced cavitation and ablation during high intensity focused ultrasound exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yangzi; Yin, Hui; Chang, Nan; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-03-01

    Phase-shift Nano-emulsions (PSNEs) with a small initial diameter in nanoscale have the potential to leak out of the blood vessels and to accumulate at target point of tissue. At desired location, PSNEs can undergo acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) process, change into gas bubbles and enhance focused ultrasound efficiency. The aim of this work was to provide spatial and temporal information on PSNE induced cavitation and ablation effects during pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure. The PSNEs were composed of perfluorohaxane (PFH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), and then uniformly distributed in a transparent polyacrylamide phantom. The Sonoluminescence (SL) method was employed to visualize the cavitation distribution and formation process of PSNEs induced cavitation. For the phantom which was used for ablation observation, heat sensitive BSA was added. When the temperature generated by ultrasound exposure was high enough to denature BSA, the transparent phantom would turn out white lesions. The shape of the lesion and the formation process were compared with those of cavitation. Each of the pulse contained 12 cycles for a duration of 10 µs. And the duty cycle changed from 1:10 to 1:40. The total "on" time of HIFU was 2s. PSNE can evidently accelerate cavitation emitting bright SL in pre-focal region. The cavitation was generated layer by layer towards the transducer. The formed bubble wall can block acoustic waves transmitting to the distal end. And the lesion appeared to be separated into two parts. One in pre-focal region stemmed from one point and grew quickly toward the transducer. The other in focal region was formed by merging some small white dots, and grew much slower. The influence of duty cycle has also been examined. The lower duty cycle with longer pulse-off time would generate more intense cavitation, however, smaller lesion. Bubble cloud gradually developed within phantom would greatly influence the cavitation and ablation

  7. Preparation of catechin extracts and nanoemulsions from green tea leaf waste and their inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai YJ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yin-Jieh Tsai, Bing-Huei ChenDepartment of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Green tea is one of the most commonly consumed natural health beverages in Taiwan’s market, with the major functional component catechin being shown to possess several biological activities such as antioxidation, anticancer, and prevention of cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method to determine the variety and content of catechins in green tea leaf waste, a by-product obtained during processing of tea beverage. In addition, catechin nanoemulsion was prepared to study its inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results showed that a total of eight catechin standards were separated within 25 minutes by using a Gemini C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid (A and acetonitrile (B with flow rate at 1 mL/min, column temperature at 30°C, and detection wavelength at 280 nm. Among various extraction solvents, 50% ethanol generated the highest yield of total catechins from tea leaf waste, of which five catechins were identified and quantified. The catechin nanoemulsion was composed of catechin extract, lecithin, Tween 80, and deionized water in an appropriate proportion, with the mean particle size being 11.45 nm, encapsulation efficiency 88.1%, and zeta potential -66.3 mV. A high stability of catechin nanoemulsion was shown over a storage period of 120 days at 4°C. Both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could inhibit growth of PC-3 tumor cells, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration being 15.4 µg/mL and 8.5 µg/mL, respectively. The PC-3 cell cycle was arrested at S phase through elevation of P27 expression and decline of cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 expression. In addition, both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could induce

  8. Development of lycopene-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers: effect of rice oil and cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riangjanapatee, P; Müller, R H; Keck, C M; Okonogi, S

    2013-09-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were developed using a skin-compatible surfactant and natural lipid materials (rice oil, cholesterol) to incorporate lycopene. Characteristics of the NLC were explored in comparison with nanoemulsions and solid-lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffractometry (LD) and differential scanning calorimetry were used to determine particle size and thermal stability. Particle size expressed as LD (0.99) was 405 nm for the SLN, 350 nm for the NLC without cholesterol and 287 nm for the NLC with cholesterol. Rice oil and cholesterol enabled the formation of smaller particles, but cholesterol also reduced drug stability in the NLC. To preserve chemical stability of lycopene in the NLC, cholesterol should be avoided and storage should be at 4 degrees C or at room temperature.

  9. Inhibited biofilm formation and improved antibacterial activity of a novel nanoemulsion against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li YF

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yun Fei Li,1,2,* Hong Wu Sun,1,2,* Rong Gao,1–3,* Kai Yun Liu,1,2 Hua Qi Zhang,4 Qi Huan Fu,1,2 Sheng Li Qing,1,2 Gang Guo,1,2 Quan Ming Zou1,2,* 1National Engineering Research Center of Immunological Products, 2Department of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 4Wanzhou Institute for Food and Drug Control of Chongqing, Wanzhou, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The aim of this study was to prepare a novel nanoemulsion loaded with poorly water-soluble chlorhexidine acetate (CNE to improve its solubility, and specifically enhance the antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans in vitro and in vivo. In this study, a novel CNE nanoemulsion with an average size of 63.13 nm and zeta potential of −67.13 mV comprising 0.5% CNE, 19.2% Tween 80, 4.8% propylene glycol, and 6% isopropyl myristate was prepared by the phase inversion method. Important characteristics such as the content, size, zeta potential, and pH value of CNE did not change markedly, stored at room temperature for 1 year. Also, compared with chlorhexidine acetate water solution (CHX, the release profile results show that the CNE has visibly delayed releasing effect in both phosphate-buffered saline and artificial saliva solutions (P<0.005. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of CHX for S. mutans (both 0.8 µg/mL are both two times those of CNE (0.4 µg/mL. Besides, CNE of 0.8 µg/mL exhibited fast-acting bactericidal efficacy against S. mutans, causing 95.07% death within 5 minutes, compared to CHX (73.33% (P<0.01. We observed that 5 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL CNE were both superior to CHX, significantly reducing oral S. mutans numbers and reducing the severity of carious lesions in Sprague Dawley rats (P<0.05, in an in vivo test

  10. All-Solid-State Textile Batteries Made from Nano-Emulsion Conducting Polymer Inks for Wearable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Ryhänen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rollable and all-solid-state textile lithium battery based on fabric matrix and polymer electrolyte that allows flexibility and fast-charging capability is reported. When immerged into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT nano-emulsion inks, an insulating fabric is converted into a conductive battery electrode for a fully solid state lithium battery with the highest specific energy capacity of 68 mAh/g. This is superior to most of the solid-state conducting polymer primary and/or secondary batteries reported. The bending radius of such a textile battery is less than 1.5 mm while lightening up an LED. This new material combination and inherent flexibility is well suited to provide an energy source for future wearable and woven electronics.

  11. Enhanced removal from the plasma of LDL-like nanoemulsion cholesteryl ester in trained men compared with sedentary healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Carmen G C; Ficker, Elisabeth S; Finazzo, Claudia; Alves, Maria J N; de Angelis, Katia; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Negrão, Carlos E; Maranhão, Raul C

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on plasma removal of a cholesterol-rich nanoemulsion (LDE) that mimics low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lipid structure and binds to LDL receptors. LDE-derived cholesteryl ester plasma kinetics was studied in 24 exercise-trained and 20 sedentary male subjects. LDE labeled with [(14)C]cholesteryl ester was injected intravenously, and plasma samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine radioisotope decay curves. LDL cholesterol concentration was similar in both groups. Fractional clearance rate (FCR) of the nanoemulsion label was greater in the exercise-trained group compared with the sedentary group (0.138 +/- 0.152 and 0.0261 +/- 0.023 h(-1), respectively). A positive correlation was found (r = 0.60, P < 0.01) between FCR and peak O(2) consumption in trained subjects. Circulating oxidized LDL levels were lower in trained subjects compared with the sedentary group (9.0 +/- 2.0 and 16.0 +/- 3.0 mU/l). LDE was also injected into control and LDL receptor gene knockout mice submitted and not submitted to training. Muscle LDE uptake percentage was increased in the trained mice compared with the untrained mice (1.1 +/- 0.8 and 0.2 +/- 0.1, respectively, P < 0.0001) in the control group but not in the knockout animals, indicating that the LDL receptor is involved in the increased uptake elicited by exercise. These results show that exercise training increases LDE plasma removal, which in turn suggests that it also increases LDL receptors or LDL receptor activity.

  12. Protective effect of a hydrogel containing Achyrocline satureioides extract-loaded nanoemulsion against UV-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrin, L A; Bidone, J; Bortolin, R C; Moresco, K; Moreira, J C; Teixeira, H F

    2016-10-01

    Achyrocline satureioides is a medicinal plant widely used in South America that exhibits a well-documented antioxidant activity. Such activity has been related to their main aglycone flavonoids quercetin, luteolin, and 3-O-methylquercetin (3MQ). This study addresses the development of antioxidant hydrogels containing an A. satureioides extract-loaded nanoemulsions aimed at topical application. The systems investigated were A. satureioides extract-loaded nanoemulsions (ASNE) obtained by spontaneous emulsification procedure formulated in semisolid hydrogels composed of Carbopol® Ultrez 20 (HASNE). Hydrogels exhibit a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. A higher release of 3MQ from ASNE (3.61μg/cm(2)/h) was observed when compared with HASNE (2.83μg/cm(2)/h). Different parameters that may have an influence on the retention of flavonoids into the skin were investigated by using a Franz-type diffusion cells. Indeed, the amount of formulation applied on donor compartment was found to play a crucial role. At the optimized conditions, retention of approximately 2μg/cm(2) of flavonoids was detected into the skin. A higher retention of 3MQ was detected (approximately 1.0μg/cm(2)) in comparison with the other flavonoids. Finally, a protection the porcine ear skin by formulations, against oxidative stress generated by UVA/UVB light was demonstrated by means of TBARS, protein carbonylation, and protein thiol content assays. The overall results showed the potential of the formulations developed in this study for the prevention of oxidative stress on the skin.

  13. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini

    ) raising serum HDL-C without an adverse affect on serum LDL-C and TC:HDL-C ratio. Increased cholesterol, lutein and zeaxanthin intake from the 2 and 4 egg yolk interventions did not decrease the absorption of other carotenoids, such as alpha-cryptoxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, tocopherols and retinol from the diet. An unexpected increase was observed in serum alpha-cryptoxanthin and gamma-tocopherol concentrations during the 4 egg yolk phase, these carotenoids are normally present in low concentrations in serum. Lipoprotein distribution of carotenoids and tocopherols was also not affected by the increased egg consumption. In the pursuit of designing a highly bioavailable matrix for lutein/zeaxanthin, similar to the egg yolk micellar matrix, nanoemulsion formulations of lutein were developed using the MicrofluidizerRTM Processor technology. Lutein nanoemulsions are O/W emulsions of lutein which have particle sizes in the nanometer range (≤ 200 nm). Lutein consumed orally as a nanoemulsion was shown to have significantly greater bioavailability than lutein supplement-pills in pilot-scale clinical studies described here. However, lutein nanoemulsions did not raise plasma lutein concentrations to the same extent as egg yolks in a study performed on BALB/c mice. Formation of mixed micelles in the intestinal lumen during digestion and uptake of these micelles by enterocytes are crucial steps that dictate bioavailability i.e. the proportion of ingested lutein/carotenoid that enters the blood circulation and accumulates in the peripheral tissues such as the macula. In-vitro stomach and intestinal digestion experiments showed lutein nanoemulsions have significantly greater micellarization efficiency compared to egg yolks. Nanoemulsions with a phospholipid (PL) emulsifier containing 80% phosphatidyl choline (PC) or Polysorbate 80 as the emulsifier had better ability to form micelles during the intestinal digestion phase compared to a PL

  14. A drug-perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion with an ultrathin silica coating for the synergistic effect of chemotherapy and ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Xu, Huixiong; Chen, Hangrong; Jia, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Shuguang; Wu, Rong; Yao, Minghua; Cai, Xiaojun; Li, Faqi; Shi, Jianlin

    2014-11-19

    The synergistic effect of chemotherapy and ablation using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is realized with a newly developed drug-delivery system. The system comprises an ultrathin silica shell surrounding a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoemulsion core containing the drug (CPT) and a perfluorocarbon (PFOB). This nanosystem presents many advantages in drug delivery, such as excellent structural stability, high drug-loading capacity, and rapid HIFU-mediated drug release.

  15. Studies on the formation of polymeric nano-emulsions obtained via low-energy emulsification and their use as templates for drug delivery nanoparticle dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderó, G; Montes, R; Llinàs, M; García-Celma, M J; Porras, M; Solans, C

    2016-09-01

    Ethylcellulose nanoparticles have been obtained from O/W nano-emulsions of the water/polyoxyethylene 10 oleyl ether/[ethyl acetate+4wt% ethylcellulose] system by low energy-energy emulsification at 25°C. Nano-emulsions with droplet sizes below 200nm and high kinetic stability were chosen for solubilising dexamethasone (DXM). Phase behaviour, conductivity and optical analysis studies of the system have evidenced for the first time that both, the polymer and the drug play a role on the structure of the aggregates formed along the emulsification path. Nano-emulsion formation may take place by both, phase inversion and self-emulsification. Spherical polymeric nanoparticles containing surfactant, showing sizes below 160nm have been obtained from the nano-emulsions by organic solvent evaporation. DXM loading in the nanoparticles was high (>90%). The release kinetics of nanoparticle dispersions with similar particle size and encapsulated DXM but different polymer to surfactant ratio were studied and compared to an aqueous DXM solution. Drug release from the nanoparticle dispersions was slower than from the aqueous solution. While the DXM solution showed a Fickian release pattern, the release behaviour from the nanoparticle dispersions was faster than that expected from a pure Fickian release. A coupled diffusion/relaxation model fitted the results very well, suggesting that polymer chains undergo conformational changes enhancing drug release. The contribution of diffusion and relaxation to drug transport in the nanoparticle dispersions depended on their composition and release time. Surfactant micelles present in the nanoparticle dispersion may exert a mild reservoir effect. The small particle size and the prolonged DXM release provided by the ethylcellulose nanoparticle dispersions make them suitable vehicles for controlled drug delivery applications.

  16. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  17. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  18. Preparation of catechin extracts and nanoemulsions from green tea leaf waste and their inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yin-Jieh; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is one of the most commonly consumed natural health beverages in Taiwan's market, with the major functional component catechin being shown to possess several biological activities such as antioxidation, anticancer, and prevention of cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to determine the variety and content of catechins in green tea leaf waste, a by-product obtained during processing of tea beverage. In addition, catechin nanoemulsion was prepared to study its inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results showed that a total of eight catechin standards were separated within 25 minutes by using a Gemini C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) with flow rate at 1 mL/min, column temperature at 30°C, and detection wavelength at 280 nm. Among various extraction solvents, 50% ethanol generated the highest yield of total catechins from tea leaf waste, of which five catechins were identified and quantified. The catechin nanoemulsion was composed of catechin extract, lecithin, Tween 80, and deionized water in an appropriate proportion, with the mean particle size being 11.45 nm, encapsulation efficiency 88.1%, and zeta potential -66.3 mV. A high stability of catechin nanoemulsion was shown over a storage period of 120 days at 4°C. Both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could inhibit growth of PC-3 tumor cells, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration being 15.4 μg/mL and 8.5 μg/mL, respectively. The PC-3 cell cycle was arrested at S phase through elevation of P27 expression and decline of cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 expression. In addition, both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could induce apoptosis of PC-3 cells through decrease in B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2) expression and increase in cytochrome c expression for activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and

  19. Antiviral Activity of a Nanoemulsion of Polyprenols from Ginkgo Leaves against Influenza A H3N2 and Hepatitis B Virus in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Zhang Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the bioavailability levels of polyprenols (derived from ginkgo leaves (GBP in the human body, a GBP nanoemulsion was prepared, and its antiviral activity was evaluated against influenza A H3N2 and hepatitis B virus in vitro. Methods: A GBP nanoemulsion was prepared by inversed-phase emulsification (IPE. Next, we investigated the antiviral activity of the GBP nanoemulsion on influenza A H3N2 and hepatitis B virus in vitro by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenlytetrezolium bromide method. ELISA and the fluorescent quantitative PCR method were used to measure the content of HBsAg, HBeAg and DNA virus in human samples. Results: The GBP nanoemulsion exhibited uniformity at an average particle size 97 nm with a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB of 9.5. GBP is non-toxic to normal cells, hepatitis B virus DNA, hepatitis B virus antigen and HepG2215. Furthermore, GBP could reach a 70% virucidal activity and a 74.9% protection rate (*** p < 0.001 on MDCK cells infected with H3N2 virus at a high concentration of 100 μg/mL. GBP had a good inhibition rate on HBsAg (52.11%, ** p < 0.01 at 50 μg/mL and Day 9 of incubation, and a 67.32% inhibition effect on HBeAg at a high concentration of 100 μg/mL and Day 9. GBP had good inhibition on HBV DNA with CT 18.6 and lower copies (** p < 0.01 at a middle concentration of 12.5 to 25 μg/mL. Conclusions: The GBP nanoemulsion was very stable and non-toxic and had very strong antiviral activity against influenza A H3N2 and hepatitis B virus in vitro. The inhibitory effects and reactive mechanisms were similar to the drug, 3TC; by lengthening the incubation time and increasing the drug concentration, GBP has promising potential as an antiviral drug.

  20. Farmacocinética do propofol em nanoemulsão em gatos Pharmacokinetic of propofol in nanoemulsion in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martielo Ivan Gehrcke

    2013-04-01

    pharmacokinetics in this species are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of continuous infusion of propofol in lipid emulsion and compare with the nanoemulsion formulation, in cats. Domestic cats, short hair, adults, male, castrated, weighting 4.2±0.8kg in a randomized and self control trial were used. The animals received 10mg kg-1 of 1% propofol in lipid emulsion or nanoemulsion for 30 seconds and immediately after that, a continuous rate infusion of 0.3mg kg-1 min-1 of the same formulation was administered for 60 minutes. After 15 days the cats received the same treatment with the opposite formulation. Samples of 3mL of venous blood were collected by a central venous catheter inserted in the jugular vein at 0 (baseline, 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes of infusion and at 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 360, 600 and 1440 minutes after the end of the infusion. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from the decay curve of plasma concentration versus time at the end of the infusion. Statistical analysis was performed using RM-ANOVA with subsequent paired t-test between groups. There was no difference between the formulations with respect to all parameters. The volumes of distribution were high with Vdss of 23.23±12.30 liters kg-1 for the nanoemulsion and 18.12±8.54 liters kg-1 for lipid emulsion. The Cls were low with a Cl central to 22.20±10.83mL kg-1 min-1 for the nanoemulsion and 23.42±13.50mL kg-1 min-1 for lipid emulsion. The conclusion is that the pharmacokinetics of propofol in cats after infusion is characterized by a broad tissue distribution and a slow elimination, with possible cumulative effect. The formulation nanoemulsion has pharmacokinetic properties similar to the lipid emulsion.

  1. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  2. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  3. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  4. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  5. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  6. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Joo-Yeon Kim,1,* Mak-Soon Lee,1,* Sunyoon Jung,1 Hyunjin Joo,1 Chong-Tai Kim,2 In-Hwan Kim,3 Sangjin Seo,1 Soojung Oh,1 Yangha Kim11Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Functional Materials Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC and nanoemulsion OC (NOC on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.Methods: The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks.Results: NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not.Conclusion: From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.Keywords: oleoresin capsicum

  7. Efficacy and safety of a nano-emulsion gel formulation of adapalene 0.1% and clindamycin 1% combination in acne vulgaris: A randomized, open label, active-controlled, multicentric, phase IV clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a very common skin disease with a significant detrimental effect on the quality of life of the patients. Aims: To assess the comparative efficacy and safety of a nano-emulsion gel formulation of adapalene and clindamycin combination with its conventional formulation in the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face. It was a prospective, randomized, open label, active-controlled, multicentric, clinical trial. Methods: Eligible patients suffering from acne vulgaris of the face were randomized to receive once-daily treatment with a nano-emulsion gel or conventional gel formulation of adapalene 0.1% and clindamycin (as phosphate 1% combination for 12 weeks. Total, inflammatory and noninflammatory lesion counts, with grading of acne severity were carried out on a monthly basis. Safety assessments were done to determine the comparative local and systemic tolerability. Two-tailed significance testing was carried out with appropriate statistical tests, and P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: 209/212 patients enrolled in the study were eligible for efficacy and safety assessments in both nano-emulsion gel (118/119 patients and conventional gel (91/93 patients groups. Significantly better reductions in total (79.7% vs. 62.7%, inflammatory (88.7% vs. 71.4% and noninflammatory (74.9% vs. 58.4% lesions were reported with the nano-emulsion gel as compared to the conventional gel (P < 0.001 for all. Mean acne severity score also reduced significantly more with the nano-emulsion formulation (1.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0; P < 0.001 than the comparator. Significantly lower incidence and lesser intensity of adverse events like local irritation (4.2% vs. 19.8%; P < 0.05 and erythema (0.8% vs. 9.9%; P < 0.05 were recorded with the nano-emulsion gel. Conclusions: The nano-emulsion gel formulation of adapalene and clindamycin combination appears to be more efficacious and better tolerated than the conventional formulation

  8. Application of Nanoparticles in Enhanced Oil Recovery: A Critical Review of Recent Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The injected fluids in secondary processes supplement the natural energy present in the reservoir to displace oil. The recovery efficiency mainly depends on the mechanism of pressure maintenance. However, the injected fluids in tertiary or enhanced oil recovery (EOR processes interact with the reservoir rock/oil system. Thus, EOR techniques are receiving substantial attention worldwide as the available oil resources are declining. However, some challenges, such as low sweep efficiency, high costs and potential formation damage, still hinder the further application of these EOR technologies. Current studies on nanoparticles are seen as potential solutions to most of the challenges associated with these traditional EOR techniques. This paper provides an overview of the latest studies about the use of nanoparticles to enhance oil recovery and paves the way for researchers who are interested in the integration of these progresses. The first part of this paper addresses studies about the major EOR mechanisms of nanoparticles used in the forms of nanofluids, nanoemulsions and nanocatalysts, including disjoining pressure, viscosity increase of injection fluids, preventing asphaltene precipitation, wettability alteration and interfacial tension reduction. This part is followed by a review of the most important research regarding various novel nano-assisted EOR methods where nanoparticles are used to target various existing thermal, chemical and gas methods. Finally, this review identifies the challenges and opportunities for future study regarding application of nanoparticles in EOR processes.

  9. HLB value, an important parameter for the development of essential oil phytopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio P. Fernandes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are used primarily as natural preservatives, flavourants and fragrances in cosmetic products. Several pharmacopeias possess monographs of plants which are good sources of essential oils, such as Brazilian Pharmacopeia, including Illicium verum Hook. f., Schisandraceae and Rosmarinus offi cinalis. Since determination of Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB value of essential oils appears as a critical step for development of emulsions and other semi-solid formulations, evaluation of required HLB values for I. verum and R. offi cinalis essential oils is the aim of this study. They were obtained by hydrodistillation and several emulsions were prepared by changing emulsifiers. The couple sorbitan oleate/polysorbate 20 provided best emulsions and was used at different ratios, at a total blend concentration of 5% w/w. The lowest mean droplet diameters for R. offi cinalis and I. verum emulsions were obtained at HLB 16.5 (97.12 nm and 16.7 (246.6 nm, respectively. Moreover, emulsions with R. offi cinalis were finer and presented some bluish reflection, characteristic of nanoemulsions. The lowest turbidity value for R. offi cinalis emulsion was also obtained at HLB 16.5 (0.33. Thus, the present study describes for the first time HLB values for R. offi cinalis (16.5 and I. verum (16.7 essential oils, contributing to their physicochemical characterization and technology development of phytopharmaceuticals.

  10. HLB value, an important parameter for the development of essential oil phytopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio P. Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are used primarily as natural preservatives, flavourants and fragrances in cosmetic products. Several pharmacopeias possess monographs of plants which are good sources of essential oils, such as Brazilian Pharmacopeia, including Illicium verum Hook. f., Schisandraceae and Rosmarinus offi cinalis. Since determination of Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB value of essential oils appears as a critical step for development of emulsions and other semi-solid formulations, evaluation of required HLB values for I. verum and R. offi cinalis essential oils is the aim of this study. They were obtained by hydrodistillation and several emulsions were prepared by changing emulsifiers. The couple sorbitan oleate/polysorbate 20 provided best emulsions and was used at different ratios, at a total blend concentration of 5% w/w. The lowest mean droplet diameters for R. offi cinalis and I. verum emulsions were obtained at HLB 16.5 (97.12 nm and 16.7 (246.6 nm, respectively. Moreover, emulsions with R. offi cinalis were finer and presented some bluish reflection, characteristic of nanoemulsions. The lowest turbidity value for R. offi cinalis emulsion was also obtained at HLB 16.5 (0.33. Thus, the present study describes for the first time HLB values for R. offi cinalis (16.5 and I. verum (16.7 essential oils, contributing to their physicochemical characterization and technology development of phytopharmaceuticals.

  11. Combination of hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy on mesenchymal stem cell line treated with chloroaluminum phthalocyanine magnetic-nanoemulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Leonardo B.; Primo, Fernando L.; Pinto, Marcelo R.; Morais, Paulo C.; Tedesco, Antonio C.

    2015-04-01

    The present study reports on the preparation and the cell viability assay of two nanoemulsions loaded with magnetic nanoparticle and chloroaluminum phthalocyanine. The preparations contain equal amount of chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (0.05 mg/mL) but different contents of magnetic nanoparticle (0.15×1013 or 1.50×1013 particle/mL). The human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell line was used as the model to assess the cell viability and this type of cell can be used as a model to mimic cancer stem cells. The cell viability assays were performed in isolated as well as under combined magnetic hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy treatments. We found from the cell viability assay that under the hyperthermia treatment (1 MHz and 40 Oe magnetic field amplitude) the cell viability reduction was about 10%, regardless the magnetic nanoparticle content within the magnetic nanoparticle/chloroaluminum phthalocyanine formulation. However, cell viability reduction of about 50% and 60% were found while applying the photodynamic therapy treatment using the magnetic nanoparticle/chloroaluminum phthalocyanine formulation containing 0.15×1013 or 1.50×1013 magnetic particle/mL, respectively. Finally, an average reduction in cell viability of about 66% was found while combining the hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy treatments.

  12. Accumulation of Phase-Shift Nanoemulsions to Enhance MR-Guided Ultrasound-Mediated Tumor Ablation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Kopechek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU is being explored as a non-invasive technology to treat solid tumors. However, the clinical use of HIFU for tumor ablation applications is currently limited by the long treatment times required. Phase-shift nanoemulsions (PSNE, consisting of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets that can be vaporized into microbubbles, are being developed to accelerate HIFU-mediated heating. The purpose of this study was to examine accumulation of PSNE in intramuscular rabbit tumors in vivo. MR images were acquired before and after intravenous injection of gadolinium-containing PSNE. MR signal enhancement was observed in rabbit tumors up to six hours after injection, indicating that PSNE accumulated in the tumors. In addition, PSNE vaporization was detected in the tumor with B-mode ultrasound imaging, and MR thermometry measurements indicated that PSNE accelerated the rate of HIFU-mediated heating. These results suggest that PSNE could dramatically improve the efficiency and clinical feasibility of MRgHIFU.

  13. Acoustic Cavitation Enhances Focused Ultrasound Ablation with Phase-Shift Inorganic Perfluorohexane Nanoemulsions: An In Vitro Study Using a Clinical Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Yan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate whether acoustic cavitation could increase the evaporation of a phase-shift inorganic perfluorohexane (PFH nanoemulsion and enhance high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU ablation. Materials and Methods. PFH was encapsulated by mesoporous silica nanocapsule (MSNC to form a nanometer-sized droplet (MSNC-PFH. It was added to a tissue-mimicking phantom, whereas phosphate buffered saline (PBS was added as a control (PBS-control. HIFU (Pac=150 W, t=5/10 s exposures were performed in both phantoms with various duty cycles (DC. US images, temperature, and cavitation emissions were recorded during HIFU exposure. HIFU-induced lesions were measured and calculated. Results. Compared to PBS-control, MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion could significantly increase the volume of HIFU-induced lesion (P<0.01. Peak temperatures were 78.16 ± 5.64°C at a DC of 100%, 70.17 ± 6.43°C at 10%, 53.17 ± 4.54°C at 5%, and 42.00 ± 5.55°C at 2%, respectively. Inertial cavitation was much stronger in the pulsed-HIFU than that in the continuous-wave HIFU exposure. Compared to 100%-DC exposure, the mean volume of lesion induced by 5 s exposure at 10%-DC was significantly larger, but smaller at 2%-DC. Conclusions. MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion can significantly enhance HIFU ablation. Appropriate pulsed-HIFU exposure could significantly increase the volume of lesion and reduce total US energy required for HIFU ablation.

  14. 聚醋酸乙烯酯纳米乳液的稳定性%Stability of Poly(Vinyl Acetate) Nano-Emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 范慧俐; 颜运城

    2011-01-01

    Poly (vinyl acetate) (PVAc) nanoemulsion was prepared under highly diffusion-controlled conditions. The influence of the factors, such as the types and the proportion of emulsifier and the addition of buffer solution, co-emulsifier and polystyrene, on the stability of PVAc nano-emulsion was discussed. The results show that it can increase the storage stability and the calcium ion stability of the PVAc nano-emulsion by using the compound emulsifier of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and polyethylene mono(p-(1, 1, 3, 3-tetramethylbutyl) phenyl) ether (OP-10), co-emulsifier (for instance, hexadecane), sodium bicarbonate buffer solution and polystyrene. A PVAc nano-emulsion with good calcium ion stability and 10 months storage time can be prepared when the proportion of compound emulsifier SDS/OP-10 is 1:3, co-emulsifier ratio is 1% and sodium bicarbonate buffer solution as well as polystyrene is added.%采用扩散过程控制的乳液聚合方法,合成聚醋酸乙烯酯纳米乳液,研究乳化剂的种类和配比及缓冲溶液、助乳化剂、聚合物等对聚醋酸乙烯酯纳米乳液稳定性的影响.研究结果表明,使用十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)/辛基苯基聚氧乙烯基醚(OP-10)复合乳化剂体系、碳酸氢钠缓冲溶液、十六烷等助乳化剂和聚苯乙烯等能有效提高醋酸乙烯酯纳米乳液的贮存稳定性和钙离子稳定性.当SDS:0P-10=1:3,1%的十六烷为助乳化剂,且加入碳酸氢钠和聚苯乙烯改性后,聚醋酸乙烯酯纳米乳液的钙离子稳定性合格,并可稳定存储10个月.

  15. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  16. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immune system. Despite coconut oil's high calorie and saturated fat content, some people use it by mouth to ... Coconut oil is high in a saturated fat called medium chain triglycerides. These fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. However, research on the effects ...

  17. In vitro studies of cutaneous retention of magnetic nanoemulsion loaded with zinc phthalocyanine for synergic use in skin cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primo, Fernando L. [Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida do Cafe, s/n, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-903 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Marcilene M.A.; Simioni, Andreza R. [Laboratorio de Fotobiologia e Fotomedicina, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-901 (Brazil); Bentley, Maria V.L.B. [Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida do Cafe, s/n, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-903 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo C. [Instituto de Fisica, Nucleo de Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF 70919-970 (Brazil); Centro de Nanociencia e Nanobiotecnologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Tedesco, Antonio C. [Laboratorio de Fotobiologia e Fotomedicina, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-901 (Brazil); Centro de Nanociencia e Nanobiotecnologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF 70910-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: atedesco@usp.br

    2008-07-15

    In this study was developed a new nano drug delivery system (NDDS) based on association of biodegradable surfactants with biocompatible magnetic fluid of maguemita citrate derivative. This formulation consists in a magnetic emulsion with nanostructured colloidal particles. Preliminary in vitro experiments showed that the formulation presents a great potential for synergic application in the topical release of photosensitizer drug (PS) and excellent target tissue properties in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined with hyperthermia (HPT) protocols. The physical chemistry characterization and in vitro assays were carried out by Zn(II) Phtalocyanine (ZnPc) photosensitizer incorporated into NDDS in the absence and the presence of magnetic fluid, showed good results and high biocompatibility. In vitro experiments were accomplished by tape-stripping protocols for quantification of drug association with different skin tissue layers. This technique is a classical method for analyses of drug release in stratum corneum and epidermis+dermis skin layers. The NDDS formulations were applied directly in pig skin (tissue model) fixed in the cell's Franz device with receptor medium container with a PBS/EtOH 20% solution (10 mM, pH 7.4) at 37 deg. C. After 12 h of topical administration stratum corneum was removed from fifty tapes and the ZnPc retained was evaluated by solvent extraction in dimetil-sulphoxide under ultrasonic bath. These results indicated that magnetic nanoemulsion (MNE) increase the drug release on the deeper skin layers when compared with classical formulation in the absence of magnetic particles. This could be related with the increase of biocompatibility of NDDS due to the great affinity for the polar extracelullar matrix in the skin and also for the increase in the drug partition inside of corneocites wall.

  18. Factors influencing transfection efficiency of pIDUA/nanoemulsion complexes in a mucopolysaccharidosis type I murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Michelle; de Carvalho, Talita Giacomet; Bidone, Juliana; Schuh, Roselena Silvestri; Matte, Ursula; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an autosomal disease caused by alpha-l-iduronidase (IDUA) deficiency. This study used IDUA knockout mice as a model to evaluate whether parameters such as dose of plasmid and time of treatment could influence the transfection efficiency of complexes formed with PEGylated cationic nanoemulsions and plasmid (pIDUA), which contains the gene that encodes for IDUA. Formulations were composed of medium chain triglycerides, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(amino[polyethylene glycol]-2000), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP), glycerol, and water and were prepared by the adsorption or encapsulation of preformed pIDUA–DOTAP complexes by high-pressure homogenization. A progressive increase in IDUA expression was observed with an increase in the dose and time of transfection for mice treated with both complexes (adsorbed and encapsulated), especially in the liver. Regardless of the complex administered, a significant increase in IDUA activity was detected in lungs and liver compared with nontreated MPS I when a dose of 60 μg was administered and IDUA activity was measured 7 days postadministration. Tissue sections of major organs showed no presence of cell necrosis, inflammatory infiltrate, or an increase in apoptosis. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry for CD68 showed no difference in the number of macrophage cells in treated and nontreated animals, indicating the absence of inflammatory reaction caused by the treatment. The data set obtained in this study allowed establishing that factors such as dose and time can influence transfection efficiency in different degrees and that these complexes did not lead to any lethal effect in the MPS I murine model used. PMID:28352175

  19. Photodynamic Therapy treatment of onychomycosis with Aluminium-Phthalocyanine Chloride nanoemulsions: A proof of concept clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Luciano Ferreira; Trávolo, Ana Regina Franchi; Muehlmann, Luís Alexandre; Narcizo, Paulo Souza; Nunes, Rodrigo Barbosa; Pereira, Pedro Alencar Gomes; Py-Daniel, Karen Rapp; Jiang, Cheng-Shi; Gu, Jinsong; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró

    2017-08-01

    The conventional treatment of onychomycosis, a common fungal infection, consists in the use of local and systemic drugs for 4-6 months. This long protocol is often ineffective due to patient compliance, and usually promotes important collateral effects such as liver and kidney failure. As the alternative, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has been used as a noninvasive alternative local treatment for onychomycosis due to the reduction of systemic side effects, fact indicates their use for patients undergoing other systemic treatments. In the present article, we evaluated the effectiveness, as well as the safety of PDT mediated by Aluminium-Phthalocyanine Chloride, entrapped in nanoemulsions, as a drug carrier, to treat onychomycosis in a proof of concept clinical trial. To the date, this is the first published clinical trial that uses PDT mediated by nanomedicines to treat onychomycosis. As main results, we can highlight the safety of the clinical protocol and the antifungal effectiveness similar to the conventional treatments. We observed the (1) clinical cure of 60% of treated lesions; (2) the absence of local and systemic adverse effects; (3) from these clinically healed lesions, 40% were negative for fungal infection in laboratorial exams; and (4) nails that presented negative fungal culture were kept without fungal infection for at least four weeks. The innovation of this approach is the absence of collateral effects, due to the local therapeutically treatment, and the possibility to repeat the treatment without inducing fungal resistance, a fact that indicates this approach as a possible alternative protocol for onychomycosis management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Combination of hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy on mesenchymal stem cell line treated with chloroaluminum phthalocyanine magnetic-nanoemulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Leonardo B. de [Departamento de Química, Centro de Nanotecnologia e Engenharia Tecidual, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901 (Brazil); Departamento de Genética, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14049-900 (Brazil); Primo, Fernando L. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Nanotecnologia e Engenharia Tecidual, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901 (Brazil); Nanophoton Company, SUPERA Innovation and Technology Park, Av. Doutora Nadir de Aguiar, 1805, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, P 14056-680 (Brazil); Pinto, Marcelo R. [Departamento de Química, Laboratório de Enzimologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); and others

    2015-04-15

    The present study reports on the preparation and the cell viability assay of two nanoemulsions loaded with magnetic nanoparticle and chloroaluminum phthalocyanine. The preparations contain equal amount of chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (0.05 mg/mL) but different contents of magnetic nanoparticle (0.15×10{sup 13} or 1.50×10{sup 13} particle/mL). The human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell line was used as the model to assess the cell viability and this type of cell can be used as a model to mimic cancer stem cells. The cell viability assays were performed in isolated as well as under combined magnetic hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy treatments. We found from the cell viability assay that under the hyperthermia treatment (1 MHz and 40 Oe magnetic field amplitude) the cell viability reduction was about 10%, regardless the magnetic nanoparticle content within the magnetic nanoparticle/chloroaluminum phthalocyanine formulation. However, cell viability reduction of about 50% and 60% were found while applying the photodynamic therapy treatment using the magnetic nanoparticle/chloroaluminum phthalocyanine formulation containing 0.15×10{sup 13} or 1.50×10{sup 13} magnetic particle/mL, respectively. Finally, an average reduction in cell viability of about 66% was found while combining the hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy treatments. - Highlights: • Current protocols in nanotechnology allow for biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles being associated with photosensitizer photoactive drugs, which could lead to perfectly controlled drug release. • The combination of the HPT and PDT therapies can be useful to develop further protocols for both advanced in vitro and in vivo assays. • Magnetic nanodevices associated with therapies have led to the decreased of proliferation of cell population that provides a favorable environment for tumor progression.

  1. Development of Food-Grade Curcumin Nanoemulsion and its Potential Application to Food Beverage System: Antioxidant Property and In Vitro Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Hee Joung; Choi, Mi-Jung; Kim, Jun Tae; Park, Seok Hoon; Park, Hyun Jin; Shin, Gye Hwa

    2016-03-01

    Curcumin nanoemulsions (Cur-NEs) were developed with various surfactant concentrations by using high pressure homogenization and finally applied to the commercial milk system. Characterization of Cur-NEs was performed by measuring the droplet size and polydispersity index value at different Tween 20 concentrations. The morphology of the Cur-NEs was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Antioxidant activity and in vitro digestion ability were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, pH-stat method, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays. Cur-NEs were found to be physically stable for 1 mo at room temperature. The surfactant concentration affects particle formation and droplet size. The mean droplet size decreased from 122 to 90 nm when surfactant concentration increased 3 times. Cur-NEs had shown an effective oxygen scavenging activity. Cur-NEs-fortified milk showed significantly lower lipid oxidation than control (unfortified) milk and milk containing curcumin-free nanoemulsions. These properties make Cur-NEs suitable systems for the beverage industry.

  2. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deepwater Horizon well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. See a map showing the largest oil spills ... Hurricane Season Meet the New CAMEO Chemicals Mobile App Revised: Sep 25, 2017 10:35pm | Site Map | ...

  3. 苍柏纳米乳在体肠吸收机理的研究%Study on the Intestinal Absorption of Cangbai Nanoemulsion in situ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝侠丽; 田效志; 赵文龙; 周昌妮; 关延彬; 韩德恩; 贾永艳

    2016-01-01

    选用大鼠在体小肠单向灌流法为模型,以苍柏纳米乳灌流液中盐酸小檗碱的含量为指标,考察苍柏纳米乳在大鼠小肠不同肠段的吸收情况;并探讨P-糖蛋白(P-gp)抑制剂盐酸维拉帕米对苍柏纳米乳的肠吸收情况的影响。苍柏纳米乳中盐酸小檗碱在大鼠十二指肠段的吸收参数Ka、Papp值显著高于其在空肠、回肠、结肠段的吸收。苍柏纳米乳中盐酸小檗碱在吸收过程中存在高浓度饱和现象,且P-gp抑制剂盐酸维拉帕米对苍柏纳米乳小肠吸收情况的影响没有显著性差异。苍柏纳米乳的最佳吸收肠段为十二指肠,空肠、回肠次之,结肠吸收最差。苍柏纳米乳中盐酸小檗碱的吸收过程为主动转运,且不受P-gp抑制剂的影响。%The single-pass intestinal perfusion method of rats was chosen as the model,the content of Berberine Hydrochloride in the pale cypress of Cangbai nanoemulsion was taken as the index,and the intestine absorption situation was studied. The influence of P-gp protein inhibitor,verapamil hydrochloride,on the pale of the intestinal absorption of Cangbai nanoemulsion was also investigated in this study. The absorption parameters Ka,Papp values of berberine hydrochloride in duodenal of rats were significantly higher than that of jejunum,ileum,colon. High saturation phenomenon existed in the absorption process of berberine hydrochloride,and the influence of P-gp protein inhibitor, Verapamil Hydrochloride,on the intestinal absorption was not obvious. The best absorb intestinal segment of Cangbai nanoemulsion was duodenum,jejunum and ileum were much worse and colon absorption was the worst. The absorption process of berberine hydrochloride was an active transport,and it was not affected by P-gp protein inhibitors.

  4. Intra-articular methotrexate associated to lipid nanoemulsions: anti-inflammatory effect upon antigen-induced arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello SB

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Suzana BV Mello,1 Elaine R Tavares,2 Adriana Bulgarelli,2 Eloisa Bonfá,1 Raul C Maranhão2,31Rheumatology Division, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, the Heart Institute (INCOR of the Medical School Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilObjective: Commercial methotrexate formulations (MTX have poor anti-inflammatory action for intra-articular treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Our aim was to investigate whether an association between methotrexate and lipidic nanoemulsions (LDE could improve MTX intra-articular action.Methods: For its association to LDE, MTX was previously esterified with dodecyl bromide. LDE-MTX was prepared by high pressure homogenization. Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA was achieved in rabbits sensitized with methylated bovine serum albumin, and the rabbits were subsequently intra-articularly injected with the antigen. Twenty-four hours after AIA induction, groups of four to nine rabbits were intra-articularly injected with increasing doses (0.0625–0.5 µmol/kg of LDE-MTX, and were compared to treatment with 0.5 µmol/kg commercial MTX, LDE alone, and saline (controls. Synovial fluid was collected 48 hours after AIA induction for analysis of protein leakage and cell content. Synovial membranes were collected for histopathology. Uptake of LDE labeled with 3H-cholesteryl ether by the synovial tissue was also determined.Results: Uptake of radioactive LDE by arthritic joints was 2.5-fold greater than by normal joints. Treatment with intra-articular LDE-MTX elicited a clear dose response pattern by reducing the synovial leukocyte infiltrate (P = 0.004 and protein leakage (P = 0.032 when compared with arthritic non-treated joints. In contrast, the intra-articular injection of commercial MTX and LDE did not reduce leukocyte infiltrate or protein leakage. Toxicity to treatment was not observed

  5. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  6. All About Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats. Oils from plant sources (vegetable and nut oils) ... oil, and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to ...

  7. Oil-in-microgel strategy for enzymatic-triggered release of hydrophobic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busatto, C A; Labie, H; Lapeyre, V; Auzely-Velty, R; Perro, A; Casis, N; Luna, J; Estenoz, D A; Ravaine, V

    2017-05-01

    Polymer microgels have received considerable attention due to their great potential in the biomedical field as drug delivery systems. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan composed of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and d-glucuronic acid. This polymer is biodegradable, nontoxic, and can be chemically modified. In this work, a co-flow microfluidic strategy for the preparation of biodegradable HA microgels encapsulating hydrophobic drugs is presented. The approach relies on: (i) generation of a primary oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsion by the ultrasonication method, (ii) formation of a double oil-in-water-in-oil emulsion (O/W/O) using microfluidics, and (iii) cross-linking of microgels by photopolymerization of HA precursors modified with methacrylate groups (HA-MA) present in the aqueous phase of the droplets. The procedure is used for the encapsulation and controlled release of progesterone. Degradability and encapsulation/release studies in PBS buffer at 37°C in presence of different concentrations of hyaluronidase are performed. It is demonstrated that enzymatic degradation can be used to trigger the release of progesterone from microgels. This method provides precise control of the release system and can be applied for the encapsulation and controlled release of different types of hydrophobic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Citrus essential oils: Extraction, authentication and application in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Neelima; Sharma, Kavita; Koteswararao, Rakoti; Sinha, Mukty; Baral, Ek Raj; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2017-09-28

    Citrus EOs is an economic, eco-friendly and natural alternatives to chemical preservatives and other synthetic antioxidants, such as sodium nitrites, nitrates or benzoates, commonly utilized in food preservation. Citrus based EOs is obtained mainly from the peels of citrus fruits which are largely discarded as wastes and cause environmental problems. The extraction of citrus oils from the waste peels not only saves environment but can be used in various applications including food preservation. The present article presents elaborated viewpoints on the nature and chemical composition of different EOs present in main citrus varieties widely grown across the globe; extraction, characterization and authentication techniques/methods of the citrus EOs; and reviews the recent advances in the application of citrus EOs for the preservation of fruits, vegetables, meat, fish and processed food stuffs. The probable reaction mechanism of the EOs based thin films formation with biodegradable polymers is presented. Other formulation, viz., EOs microencapsulation incorporating biodegradable polymers, nanoemulsion coatings, spray applications and antibacterial action mechanism of the active compounds present in the EOs have been elaborated. Extensive research is required on overcoming the challenges regarding allergies and obtaining safer dosage limits. Shift towards greener technologies indicate optimistic future towards safer utilization of citrus based EOs in food preservation.

  9. Biocompatible lidocaine and prilocaine loaded-nanoemulsion system for enhanced percutaneous absorption: QbD-based optimisation, dermatokinetics and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Poonam; Singh, Bhupinder; Sharma, Gajanand; Beg, Sarwar; Katare, Om Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Barrier properties of the skin and physicochemical properties of the drugs are the main hiccups in delivering local anaesthetic molecules topically. The present work endeavours for systematic optimisation and evaluation of nanoemulsions (NEs) of local anaesthetic drugs, lidocaine and prilocaine, employing the systematic approach of Quality by Design. A 3(3) Box-Behnken design was employed for systematic optimisation of the factors obtained from screening studies employing Plackett-Burman design and risk assessment studies. The superior permeation rates, and higher concentrations of the drugs in skin layers from the optimised NE carriers, were achieved in permeation and dermatokinetic studies, when compared to marketed cream. Furthermore, rapid onset of action was demonstrated by the NE system in rabbit eye corneal reflex model and biocompatibility was confirmed from the absence of any marked skin change(s) in the normal skin histology. The developed NE systems demonstrated it as a promising carrier for topical delivery of lidocaine and prilocaine.

  10. PLGA nanoparticles prepared by nano-emulsion templating using low-energy methods as efficient nanocarriers for drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaguera, C; Dols-Perez, A; Calderó, G; García-Celma, M J; Camarasa, J; Solans, C

    2015-08-10

    Neurodegenerative diseases have an increased prevalence and incidence nowadays, mainly due to aging of the population. In addition, current treatments lack efficacy, mostly due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that limits the penetration of the drugs to the central nervous system. Therefore, novel drug delivery systems are required. Polymeric nanoparticles have been reported to be appropriate for this purpose. Specifically, the use of poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) seems to be advantageous due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability that ensure safe therapies. In this work, a novel approximation to develop loperamide-loaded nanoparticles is presented: their preparation by nano-emulsion templating using a low-energy method (the phase inversion composition, PIC, method). This nano-emulsification approach is a simple and very versatile technology, which allows a precise size control and it can be performed at mild process conditions. Drug-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were obtained using safe components by solvent evaporation of template nano-emulsions. Characterization of PLGA nanoparticles was performed, together with the study of the BBB crossing. The in vivo results of measuring the analgesic effect using the hot-plate test evidenced that the designed PLGA loperamide-loaded nanoparticles are able to efficiently cross the BBB, with high crossing efficiencies when their surface is functionalized with an active targeting moiety (a monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor). These results, together with the nanoparticle characterization performed here are expected to provide sufficient evidences to end up to clinical trials in the near future.

  11. Formació de nano-emulsions en sistemes amb tensioactius iònics mitjançant mètodes de condensació o de baixa energia

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Les nano-emulsions, en tant que emulsions, són dispersions col·loïdals formades per una fase líquida dispersada en una altra en forma de gotes. El que les fa d'especial interès és que aquestes gotes tenen una mida extremadament petita, entre 20 i 200 nm, fet que fa que la majoria d'elles tinguin una aparença transparent o translúcida. Les nano-emulsions són sistemes termodinàmicament inestables, i com a tals, es requereix energia per a la seva formació. Aquesta energia pot ser aportada a trav...

  12. Preparation and Property Evaluation of Ivermectin Nanoemulsion for Injection%伊维菌素纳米乳注射液的研制与质量安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘根新; 张继瑜; 吴培星; 李剑勇; 刘英; 周绪正; 魏小娟; 牛建荣; 胡宏伟

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the preparation of ivermectin nanoemulsion (5%) and its physicochemical properties, drug loading efficiency, stability and acute toxicity were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of ivermectin nanoemulsion was tested by the pseudoternary phase diagram method with the idex of viscosity, conductivity, refractive property, Z potentiometer and average diameter in normal temperature; The stability of ivermectin nanoemulsion was investigated with the idex of drug loading efficiency in different temperature, illumination and humidity; The acute toxicity was evaluated with the method of rat oral perfusion while the drug loading efficiency was detected by HPLC method. The results were as follows: 1) The ivermectin nanoemulsion was small spherical drops when observed by the electron microscopy and the average diameter was about 70 nm; 2) The ivermectin nanoemulsion was stable in different temperature, illumination and humidity; 3)The nanoemulsion (0. 1%) was innoxious for mice when tested by the acute toxicity test. These results indicated that the preparation methods of ivermectin nanoemulsion (5%) was simple, and the preparation of ivermectin nanoemulsion was stable and with high safety quality.%本研究旨在研制伊维菌素纳米乳注射液(5%)并对其理化性能、载药量、稳定性和急性毒性进行评价.采用伪三元相图法进行处方筛选,在常温下,以黏度、电导率、折光率、Z电位、平均粒径为指标考察纳米乳的理化性能;在不同的温度、光照和湿度条件下以药物含量为指标考察纳米乳的稳定性;采用HPLC法测定载药量,用小鼠灌胃的方法进行急性毒性研究.结果表明,该纳米乳在透射电镜下观察其乳滴呈球状,平均粒径为70 nm;不同温度、光照和湿度条件下含量无明显变化,稳定性良好;小鼠急性毒性试验表明该纳米乳注射液(0.1%)属于实际无毒.结果提示,本研究研制的

  13. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could also be ..... during the domestic deep-frying and pan- frying of potatoes. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 53, ... commercial edible vegetable oils. JAOCS. 84, 31-36.

  14. Temperature and pH sensitivity of a stabilized self-nanoemulsion formed using an ionizable lipid-like material via an oil-to-surfactant transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Oasa, Sho; Kinjo, Masataka; Tange, Kota; Nakai, Yuta; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Akita, Hidetaka

    2017-03-01

    Lipids functionalized with tertiary amines (ionizable lipids) for a pH-dependent positive charge have been developed extensively as a carrier material for delivering nucleic acids. We previously developed an SS-cleavable proton-activated lipid-like material (ssPalm) as a component of a functionalized lipid envelope structure of a nanoparticle that encapsulated plasmid DNA and short interfering RNA. In this study, we report on the unique characteristics of such an ionizable lipid: the formation of a nano-sized emulsion (ave. 40nm) via pH-triggered self-emulsification in the absence of a cargo (nucleic acids). The particle has a neutral charge at physiological pH and is stabilized by helper lipids and polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-conjugated lipids. The generalized polarization of 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (Laurdan), which indicates the surface polarity caused by the invasion of water onto the surface, changes dynamically in response to pH and temperature, while the fluidity of the intra-particle compartment, as measured by the fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH), is not affected. Even when the particle contains a high density of PEG on the surface, it shows a high fusogenecity to negatively charged liposomes in response to an acidic pH to a higher degree than a conventional cationic lipid. These characteristics suggest that the ssPalm particle possesses unique properties for delivering lipophilic drugs across the biomembrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Turbine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eminov, E.A.; Bogdanov, Sh.K.; Dovgopolyi, E.E.; Gryaznov, B.V.; Ivanov, V.S.; Ivanova, Z.M.; Kozlova, E.K.; Nikolaeva, N.M.; Rozhdestvenskaya, A.A.

    1981-03-10

    In the known turbine oil (TO), for the purpose of improving the anticorrosion and demulsifying properties, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether, ethylenediamine or propylene glycol or an alkylphenol are additionally introduced, where the C/sub 8/-C/sub 12/ alkyl has a molecular weight of 2000-10,000. The proportions of the components are: 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol 0.2-1.0%, quinizarin 0.01-0.05%, an acid ester of an alkenylsuccinic acid 0.02-0.1%, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether 0.02-0.2%, polymethylsiloxane 0.003-0.005%, and petroleum oil the remainder. The TO is prepared by mixing the petroleum oil with the additives in any sequence at a temperature of 60-80/sup 0/ by mechanical stirring. On the five TO samples the antioxidative, demulsifying, and anticorrosion properties by comparison with the prototype were investigated. It was shown that the obtained TO possesses improved anticorrosion properties (time until the appearance of Kr (staining.), up to 60 h as against 35 on the prototype) and demulsifying properties (quantity of water separating on breaking the emulsion 10 mg/L as against 65 mg/L on the prototype) for an antioxidative stability equal to that of the analog. The TO is designated for use in various turbo-units, in the first place in marine steam turbine units, where there is the probability of contact of the TO with seawater. Use of the TO makes it possible to increase the service life of the mechanisms, to reduce the amount of oil mixable in the form of an emulsion (by a factor of 1.5 to 2), and to lower the operating expenses.

  16. Chemistry of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.

    1974-01-01

    A review with several references covers the formation, distribution, and mining of oil shales of Fu-Shun colliery; retorting furnaces for oil shale; refining of crude shale oils; and components of oil from Fu-Shun oil shales including pyrolle, matrine, fatty acid anilides, 2,4,5-trimethylpyrrole, and middle-layer bases.

  17. Exploring Oil Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  18. Rheology of Structured Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbaliev, G. I.; Rasulov, S. R.; Rzaev, A. G.; Mustafaeva, G. R.

    2017-07-01

    Rheological models of structured oils are proposed and compared with available experimental data on oils from different deposits. It is shown that structured oils can possess properties of Bingham and power-law non-Newtonian fluids.

  19. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  20. Exploration of the best composition for prescription of AstragalosideⅣ nanoemulsion%黄芪甲苷纳米乳的处方筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁梅

    2016-01-01

    Object To explore the best composition for prescription of Astragaloside Ⅳ nanoemulsion. Methods Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams was used to analyze the impact of the composition of nanoemulsion on microemulsion area. The impact of value of PC/Tween 80, Km, AS/O and moisture on drug loading were studied. The results of both Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and RP-HPLC were taken to consideration to explore the best composition for prescription of Astragaloside Ⅳ nanoemulsio. ResultsMicroemulsion area were larger when PC/Tween 80 was 3:7 or 2:8, Km was 3:1 or 2:1. Drug loading were higher with composition of 60% moisture, PC/Tween 80 as 2:8, Km as 2:1 and AS/O as 9:1. After considering, we finaly set PC: Tween 80: cosurfactant: IPM: H2O(w/w)as 4.8%: 19.2%: 12%: 4%: 60% to be the best composition for prescription of Astragaloside Ⅳ nanoemulsio. Concludes Taking the results of both Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and drug loading to consideration is comprehensive for exploration of the best nanoemulsion composition.%目的:摸索制备黄芪甲苷纳米乳的最佳处方。方法:伪三元相图法分析不同处方比例对微乳区形成面积的影响。考察PC/Tween 80、Km、AS/O值、含水量对纳米乳载药量的影响。综合考虑伪三元相图及载药量分析结果,确定制备黄芪甲苷纳米乳的最佳处方比例。结果:当PC/Tween 80=3:7、2:8,Km=3:1、2:1时所形成的微乳区面积较大。当含水量为60%,PC/Tween 80=2:8,Km=2:1, AS/O=9:1时纳米乳载药量最大。综合考虑,最终确定黄芪甲苷纳米乳的最佳处方比例为PC: Tween 80:无水乙醇: IPM: H2O(w/w)=4.8%:19.2%:12%:4%:60%。结论:综合考虑伪三元相图及载药量分析结果,确定纳米乳最佳处方更具全面性。

  1. Particles at Oil-Air Surfaces: Powdered Oil, Liquid Oil Marbles, and Oil Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Johnston, Shaun K; Sekine, Tomoko; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2015-07-08

    The type of material stabilized by four kinds of fluorinated particles (sericite and bentonite platelet clays and spherical zinc oxide) in air-oil mixtures has been investigated. It depends on the particle wettability and the degree of shear. Upon vigorous agitation, oil dispersions are formed in all the oils containing relatively large bentonite particles and in oils of relatively low surface tension (γla cyclomethicone containing the other fluorinated particles. Particle-stabilized oil foams were obtained in oils having γla > 26 mN m(-1) where the advancing air-oil-solid contact angle θ lies between ca. 90° and 120°. Gentle shaking, however, gives oil-in-air liquid marbles with all the oil-particle systems except for cases where θ is 24 mN m(-1) with omniphobic zinc oxide and sericite particles for which advancing θ ≥ 90°, dry oil powders consisting of oil drops in air which do not leak oil could be made upon gentle agitation up to a critical oil:particle ratio (COPR). Above the COPR, catastrophic phase inversion of the dry oil powders to air-in-oil foams was observed. When sheared on a substrate, the dry oil powders containing at least 60 wt % of oil release the encapsulated oil, making these materials attractive formulations in the cosmetic and food industries.

  2. Plasma kinetics of an LDL-like non-protein nanoemulsion and transfer of lipids to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Fernanda S; Maranhão, Raul C; Guedes, Lissiane K; Borba, Eduardo F; Laurindo, Ieda M M; Bonfa, Eloisa; Vinagre, Carmen G

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease associated with cardiovascular risk, but with normal plasma lipids. The aim was to investigate low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism in RA patients using radioactive nanoemulsions resembling an LDL lipid structure (LDE) as metabolic probes. Thirty patients with RA, 16 in remission and 14 in high activity, and 30 healthy controls were studied. LDE labeled with (14)C-cholesteryl ester ((14)C-CE) and (3)H-unesterified cholesterol ((3)H-UC) was intravenously injected followed by 24-hour plasma sampling. Fractional clearance rates (FCR, h(-1)) were calculated by compartmental analysis. Lipid transfers to HDL were assayed by incubating plasma samples with a donor nanoemulsion labeled with radioactive lipids; % lipids transferred to HDL were quantified after chemical precipitation. LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, unesterified cholesterol, and oxidized LDL were equal in RA and controls, and HDL cholesterol was even higher in RA. Compared with controls, apolipoprotein B was lower, apolipoprotein A1 was equal, and apolipoprotein E was higher in RA. Decay curves of LDE labels were faster in RA patients than in controls ((14)C-CE: 0.072 ± 0.066 and 0.038 ± 0.027, P = .0115; (3)H-UC: 0.066 ± 0.042 and 0.035 ± 0.039; P < .0044). FCRs were equal in 2 RA subgroups. Transfer of UC, triglycerides, and phospholipids to HDL was equal between RA and controls, but CE transfer was lower in RA. HDL size was smaller in RA patients than in controls (8.5 ± 0.5 nm; 9.2 ± 0.8 nm, P < .0001). RA patients were more efficient in removing atherogenic LDL from plasma, as indicated by higher CE and UC FCR, with in lower apolipoprotein B. This was unexpected because of the higher cardiovascular risk in RA. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 乳清蛋白-麦芽糖糊精的Maillard反应复合物制备β-胡萝卜素纳米乳液%Preparation of β-carotene nanoemulsions stablilized by Maillard Reaction Products of whey protein isolate and maltodextrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 刘成梅; 刘伟; 钟俊桢

    2013-01-01

    系统考察乳液制备参数对乳液粒径分布及稳定性的影响,同时以干热法制备乳清分离蛋白(Whey Protein Isolate,WPI)-麦芽糖糊精(Maltodextrin,MD)的Maillard反应复合物(Maillard Reaction Products,MRPs).以此为基础,制备WPI-MD MRPs稳定的β-胡萝卜、素纳米乳液,并进一步考察乳液的物理稳定性及β-胡萝卜、素的化学稳定性.结果表明,WPI-MD的MRPs能够显著降低纳米乳液的粒径,并提高纳米乳液的物理稳定性.同时,WPI-MD的MRPs可加速油相中β-胡萝卜素的降解,其机理有待进一步研究.%Conditons for preparing nanoemulsions were investigated systematically. The Maillard Reaction Products(MRPs) were prepared by dry heating which were further used to prepare β-carotene nanoemulsions. The physical stability of the obtained nanoemulsions and the β-carotene degregation kinetics were simultaneously studied. The result showed that nanoemulsions stabilized by MRPs with smaller fat globe size were much physically stable compared with the nanoemulsions stablized by native WPI. However,the β-carotene in MRPs stablized nanoemulsions degradated more rapidly which mechanism should be futher studied in future.

  4. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  5. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  6. Evaluation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsions as carriers for UV-filters: characterization, in vitro penetration and photostability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Carmelo; Damiani, Elisabetta; Offerta, Alessia; Rizza, Luisa; Tirendi, Giorgia Giusy; Tarico, Maria Stella; Curreri, Sergio; Bonina, Francesco; Perrotta, Rosario Emanuele

    2014-01-23

    The increased awareness of protection against UV radiation damages has led to a rise in the use of topically applied chemical sunscreen agents and to an increased need of innovative carriers designed to achieve the highest protective effect and reduce the toxicological risk resulting from the percutaneous absorption of these substances. In this paper, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsions (NE) were formulated to optimize the topical application of different and widespread UVA or UVB sun filters (ethyl hexyltriazone (EHT), diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB), bemotrizinol (Tinosorb S), octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and avobenzone (AVO)). The preparation and stability parameters of these nanocarriers have been investigated concerning particle size and zeta potential. The release pattern of the sunscreens from NLC and NE was evaluated in vitro, determining their percutaneous absorption through excised human skin. Additional in vitro studies were performed in order to evaluate, after UVA radiation treatment, the spectral stability of the sunfilters once formulated in NLC or NE. From the results obtained, when incorporated in NLC, the skin permeation abilities of the sun filter were drastically reduced, remaining mainly on the surface of the skin. The photostability studies showed that EHT, DHHB and Tinosorb S still retain their photostability when incorporated in these carriers, while OMC and AVO were not photostable as expected. However, no significant differences in terms of photoprotective efficacy between the two carriers were observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrowetting Performances of Novel Fluorinated Polymer Dielectric Layer Based on Poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoroctylmethacrylate Nanoemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Hou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In electrowetting devices, hydrophobic insulating layer, namely dielectric layer, is capable of reversibly switching surface wettability through applied electric field. It is critically important but limited by material defects in dielectricity, reversibility, film forming, adhesiveness, price and so on. To solve this key problem, we introduced a novel fluorinated polyacrylate—poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoroctylmethacrylate (PFMA to construct micron/submicron-scale dielectric layer via facile spray coating of nanoemulsion for replacing the most common Teflon AF series. All the results illustrated that, continuous and dense PFMA film with surface relief less than 20 nm was one-step fabricated at 110 °C, and exhibited much higher static water contact angle of 124°, contact angle variation of 42°, dielectric constant of about 2.6, and breakdown voltage of 210 V than Teflon AF 1600. Particularly, soft and highly compatible polyacrylate mainchain assigned five times much better adhesiveness than common adhesive tape, to PFMA layer. As a promising option, PFMA dielectric layer may further facilitate tremendous development of electrowetting performances and applications.

  8. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  9. Oil spill contingency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kip, S.H. (Sarawak Shell Bhd/Saban Shell Petroleum Co. Ltd. (MY))

    1988-01-01

    Oil spill contingency planning is an essential feature required in present day activities involving oil and gas exploration, production and transportation. A well through out continency plan will not only eliminate or minimize the sense of panic, normally associated with oil spill emergency, but also can minimize damage and cost involved. Oil spill contingency planning is a process of predetermining a response to an oil spill emergency. The process of preparing a contingency plan is discussed in this paper.

  10. Developments in Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    demonstration (RD&D). The ongoing program will confirm whether an economically significant shale oil volume can be extracted under current operating...Petroleum Trade, [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/pdf/pages/sec1_15.pdf]. 2 Oil sands yield a bitumen substantially heavier most crude oils and shale oil. 3...hydrocarbon products that can be extracted from the shale. The most promising oil shales occur in the Green River formation that underlies 16,000 square

  11. The calcium phosphate coating of soy lecithin nanoemulsion with performance in stability and as an oxygen carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu B.

    This work studied the relationship between surfactant, oil, and water, by building ternary phase diagrams, the goal of which was to identify the oil-in-water phase composition. The resulting nano-sized emulsion was coated with dicalcium phosphate by utilizing the ionic affinity between calcium ions and the emulsion surface. Since the desired function of the particle is as an oxygen carrier, the particle stability, oxygen capacity, and oxygen release rate were investigated. The first step in the process was to construct ternary phase diagrams with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA) and soy derived lecithin. The results showed that the lecithin surfactant formed an oil-in-water phase region that was 36 times greater than that of DOPA. With the desired phase composition set, the lecithin emulsion was extruded, resulting in a well-dispersed nanosized particle. A pH titration study of the emulsion found an optimized calcium phosphate coating condition at pH 8.8, at which, the calcium ion had a greater affinity for the emulsion surface than phosphate. A Hill plot was used to show calcium cooperativeness on the emulsion surface which suggested one calcium ion binds to one lecithin molecule. The lecithin emulsion particles were then coated with calcium phosphate using a layering technique that allowed for careful control of the coating thickness. The overall particle hydrodynamic radius was consistent with the growth of the calcium phosphate coating, from 8 nm to 28 nm. This observation was further supported with cryo-TEM measurements. The stability of the coated emulsion was tested in conditions that simulate practical thermal, physical, and time-dependent conditions. Throughout the tests, the coated emulsion exhibited a constant mono-dispersed particle size, while the uncoated emulsion size fluctuated greatly and exhibited increased polydispersion. The fast mixing method with the stopped-flow apparatus was employed to test the product as an oxygen carrier, and it

  12. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  13. SUITABILITY OF SOYBEAN SEED OIL AS TRANSFORMER OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Egbuna, S.O.*, Ude, O.C., Ude, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    In search of solution to the harmful ecological problems due to toxicity and non-biodegradability posed by conventional transformer insulation oil (mineral oil), the production of transformer oil from soybean seed oil (vegetable oil) was carried out. The oil was extracted using n-hexane and was refined. The transformer oil was produced by transesterification and was characterized using American Society for Testing Material (ASTM) standard test. The solvent employed gave good yield of oil from...

  14. Application of magnetic graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposites for the solid-phase extraction of phthalate esters in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Yang, Xiaodi; Bi, Wentao

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposites were successfully prepared in situ and used to develop a highly sensitive magnetic solid-phase extraction method for the preconcentration of phthalate esters such as di-n-butyl phthalate, butyl phthalate, dihexyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate from water. The adsorption and desorption of the phthalate esters on magnetic graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposites were investigated and the parameters affecting the partition of the phthalate esters, such as adsorption, desorption, recovery, were assessed. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed excellent sensitivity with limits of detection (S/N = 3) in the range of 0.05-0.1 μg/L and precision in the range of 1.1-2.6% (n = 5). This method was successfully applied to the analysis of real water samples, and good spiked recoveries over the range of 79.4-99.4% were obtained. This research provides a possibility to apply this nanocomposite for adsorption, preconcentration, or even removal of various carbon-based ring or hydrophobic pollutants. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. HEAVY OIL DEVELOPMENT KEY TO CHINA'S OIL PRODUCTION GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ How to raise the heavy oil production rate has long been a difficult research project focused by international oil giants while the super-heavy oil development is particularly a world-class bottleneck for many oil producers. However, China's main oil companies will give priority to heavy oil exploration and production in the next decade to meet China's increasing energy needs.

  16. Induction of immune response to the 17 kDa OMPA Burkholderia cenocepacia polypeptide and protection against pulmonary infection in mice after nasal vaccination with an OMP nanoemulsion-based vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makidon, P E; Knowlton, J; Groom, J V; Blanco, L P; LiPuma, J J; Bielinska, A U; Baker, J R

    2010-05-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are opportunistic bacteria associated with life-threatening illness in persons with cystic fibrosis. Once Bcc colonization is established, these antimicrobial-resistant and biofilm-forming bacteria are difficult to eradicate and are associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. At present, no vaccines are available to prevent the Bcc infection. There is currently a paucity of published information regarding the development of vaccines designed to prevent Burkholderia colonization. This work expands on the recent studies published by Bertot et al. [Infect Immun 75(6):2740-2752, 2007], where successful protective immune responses were generated in mice using a B. multivorans OMP-based vaccine. Here, we evaluate an experimental mucosal vaccine against Bcc using a novel mucosal adjuvant (nanoemulsion) and a novel B. cenocepacia-based OMP antigen. The OMP antigen derived from B. cenocepacia was mixed with either nanoemulsion or with PBS and delivered intranasally to CD-1 mice. Serum analysis showed robust IgG and mucosal secretory IgA immune responses in vaccinated versus control mice. The antibodies had cross-neutralizing activity against both B. cenocepacia and B. multivorans species. We found that immunized mice were protected against pulmonary colonization with B. cenocepacia. We have also identified that a 17 kDa OmpA-like protein highly conserved between Burkholderia and Ralstonia species as a new immunodominant epitope in mucosal immunization.

  17. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    Although food grains are commonly protected by insecticidal application and fumigation, ... (1978) reported that groundnut oil applied to cowpeas has no effect on mortality or .... Effectiveness of vegetable oil fractions in controlling the Mexican.

  18. Antibody-conjugated soybean oil-filled calcium phosphate nanoshells for targetted delivery of hydrophobic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H T; Kroczynski, M; Maddox, J; Chen, Y; Josephs, R; Ostafin, A E

    2006-11-01

    Hollow calcium phosphate nanoparticles capable of encapsulating poorly water-soluble molecules were produced by self-assembly. Previously reported were solid calcium phosphate nanoparticles and water-filled calcium phosphate nanocapsules suited for encapsulating mostly hydrophilic, but not hydrophobic compounds. Here, calcium phosphate was deposited around 100 nm diameter, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate stabilized soybean oil nanoemulsions using either calcium chloride or NaOH titrations to achieve shell thickness between 20-70 nm. The surface was functionalized with carboxylic acid via the addition of carboxyethylphosphonic acid to attach Molecular Probes AB-594C antibody using sulpho-n-hydroxysuccinimide and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride with an efficiency of approximately 70%, while retaining near complete antibody function. Hydrophobic pyrene was encapsulated with an efficiency of 95%, at concentrations much higher than its water solubility limit, and exhibited spectral features characteristic of a hydrophobic environment. These materials can be used in the targeted delivery of many useful, yet poorly water-soluble pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds.

  19. China Aviation Oil Acquires Overseas Oil Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Aviation Oil (Singapore) announced an acquisition of a 20.6 percent stake in Singapore Petroleum Company (SPC) from Satya Capital Inc Ltd, the largest investment the company has ever made in its history. China Aviation Oil (Singapore),which is the largest Chinese enterprise Singapore,will become the second largest shareholder of SPC after the acquisition.

  20. Oil Module Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    in any a^regate sense, or (b) to be "valid" for crude oil production in all countries. Neither, however, is it to provide detailed point... oil production by the oil companies through their regular channels. Such oil is said to be "sold back" by the countries to the coirpanies...a royalty to the producing country government. revenue received by the producing country government as a result of sales of its share of crude

  1. Indonesia's palm oil subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald F.

    1996-01-01

    Debate on Indonesia's palm oil policy was stimulated by a sharp increase in cooking oil prices in 1994-95 and a resulting increase in the export tax rate on crude palm oil. Palm oil has been one of the fastest growing subsectors in Indonesia. Using a quantitative model, the author analyzes the effect of government policies, including the export tax, buffer stock operations by the BULOG (the national logistics agency), and directed sales from public estates. The author acknowledges the export ...

  2. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  3. 静脉注射用乌苯美司脂肪乳制备及药代动力学研究%Formulation and pharmacokinetics of the parenteral fat nano-emulsion of ubenimex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓利; 刘东华; 李鹏; 徐文方; 张娜

    2011-01-01

    The fat nano-emulsion,which has been used as a drug carrier,especially for the poorly water soluble drug,has drawn favorable attention recently.Ubenimex is a poorly soluble drug with no parenteral treatment available for patients.This study was aimed at the manufacture of a ubenimex loaded fat nano-emulsion for intravenous delivery by SolEmuls(R) technology.The formulation and the process parameters were optimized by single-factor design and the obtained ubenimex loaded fat nano-emulsion was stable even after autoclaving.The average particle size was near 200 nm with narrow size distribution and a negative zeta potential of-44 mV.The in vitro release behavior of ubenimex from the fat nano-emulsion could be described by the double phase kinetics model and expressed by the following equation:100 - Q = 75.27e-0.369t + 15.94e-0.0324t,Rα = 0.9863,Rβ = 0.9878.The pharmacokinetic study showed that the pharmacokinetic curves of both the ubenimex fat nano-emulsion and the i.v.ubenimex suspension,were similar and the main parameters showed no significant difference except t1/2.In conclusion,the fat nano-emulsion with ubenimex has potential as a safe and effective parenteral delivery system for poorly water soluble anti-cancer drugs.%脂肪乳作为难溶性药物的载体受到广泛的关注.乌苯美司作为一种水难溶性药物,市场上没有可供注射用剂型.本文利用SolEmuls(R)技术制备注射用乌苯美司脂肪乳,采用单因素设计优化处方,得到的乌苯美司脂肪乳高压灭菌前后均比较稳定.制备的乌苯美司脂肪乳平均粒径在200 nm左右,zeta电位为-44 mV,体外释放行为符合双相动力学方程:100 -Q=75.27e-0.369t+ 15.94e-0.0324t,Rα= 0.9863,Rβ=0.9878.药代动力学实验表明乌苯美司脂肪乳和静注乌苯美司混悬液药代动力学参数只有t1/2有显著性差异.实验结果表明,对于水难溶性药物乌苯美司来说,静脉注射用脂肪乳可以作为一种安全有效的给药方式.

  4. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  5. Natural oils as lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  6. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  7. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  8. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  9. Lubricating oil; Junkatsuyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H.

    1999-07-20

    As a reflection of business recession, sales amount of lubricating oils in 1998 in Japan was 2.334 million kl that is 96.1% of that in the previous year. In addition, export amount was 394 thousand kl that also decreased sharply to 81.9% of that in the previous year. In this situation, researches and developments of environment-adaptable lubricating oils such as fuel consumption-saving engine oils, new mechanism-corresponding drive system oils (AFT, CVT), refrigerating machine oils for substitute coolants, biodegradable oils and greases, environment corresponding processing oils (non-chlorine type cutting oils), and so on have been executed actively. In respect to lubricating oils for vehicles, numerous researches and developments of engine oils are executed while putting stress on the improvement of fuel consumption saving for reducing CO{sub 2} exhaust; improvement of adaptability to exhaust treating apparatus for purging harmful components from exhaust gas; and environmental corresponding of long drain for reducing waste oils. In respect to lubricating oils for industry, basic characteristics and utility characteristics of fire-resistant working fluids and biodegradable working fluids; and utility characteristics of new functional fluids and electric viscous fluids are reported in view of their relationship with environmental protection. (NEDO)

  10. Effect of Chinese Green Onion Extract Nanoemulsion Oral Spray on Electrocardiogram and Area of Myocardial Infarction in Rabbit Model With Acute Myocardial Ischemia%葱白提取物纳米乳口腔喷雾剂对急性心肌缺血兔心电图及心肌梗死面积的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何本鸿; 姜闪闪; 张介眉; 朱旭; 郝建军; 张耕; 柯于鹤; 杨祥良; 祝红达; 陈华兵

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察葱白提取物纳米乳口腔喷雾剂对急性心肌缺血兔心电图及心肌梗死(简称心梗)面积的影响.方法:日本大耳白兔56只,随机分为假手术组、空白模型组、硝酸甘油组、葱白提取物组、空白纳米组、葱白纳米乳组和葱白纳米乳原位凝胶组,每组8只.术后及时舌下给药,硝酸甘油组、葱白提取物组、空白纳米组、葱白纳米乳组和葱白纳米乳原位凝胶组给予相应的制剂5喷,假手术组和空白模型组给予同体积的生理盐水.记录给药前及用药后0、1、5、10、15、30、60、120和180 min的心电图,实验结束后处死动物,计算心梗面积.结果:①与模型组比较,各治疗组舌下给药后均可缩小兔冠脉结扎所致心肌梗死范围(P<0.05),葱白提取物及葱白提取物纳米制剂组减小心肌梗死面积的程度与硝酸甘油相当(P>0.005),葱白提取物纳米乳组和其纳米乳原位凝胶组与葱白提取物组未见明显差异(P>0.05);②对心电图的影响:与模型组比较,舌下给药后不同时间点各治疗组舌下给药后均可以使ST段显著降低(P<0.05);给药后1~5 min,葱白提取物纳米乳组与硝酸甘油组比较作用相当(P>0.05),优于葱白提取物组(P<0.05).葱白纳米乳原位凝胶起效时间为10~30 min,葱白提取物起效时间为5~10 min,葱白纳米乳组起效时间为0~5 min,葱白纳米乳优于葱白提取物和葱白纳米乳原位凝胶,与硝酸甘油起效时间相当.结论:葱白提取物纳米乳口腔喷雾剂对ST段和心肌梗死面积的作用优于葱白提取物和葱白纳米乳原位凝胶,与硝酸甘油起效时间相当.%Objective: To observe the effect of Chinese green onion (CGO) extract nanoemulsion oral spray on e-lectrocardiogram (ECG) and area of myocardial infarction in rabbits with acute myocardial ischemia. Methods: Fifty-six Japanese male white rabbits were randomly divided into sham operation group, blank

  11. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  12. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  13. Nutritional properties of poppyseed oil relative to some other oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L; Nera, E A; Levin, O L

    1979-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed a purified basal diet with 20% lard and corn oil (3:1), sunflower oil, poppyseed oil, low-erucic rapeseed oil from Brassica napus, cultivar Tower, or mixtures of these oils, for 1 or 26 weeks. None of the hearts exhibited lipidosis at 1 week. At 26 weeks, the level of serum triglycerides was higher in rats fed the mixture of lard and corn oil than in those fed only vegetable oil, and the incidence of cardiac necrosis and fibrosis was higher in rats fed the rapeseed oil than in the other animals. Cardiac phospholipids in rats fed the rapeseed oil contained an elevated level of omega 3 docosahexaenoic acid, particularly in phosphatidylethanolamine. Poppyseed oil exhibited properties similar to those of sunflower oil, was absorbed as well as olive oil, and appeared to be a promising oil for human consumption.

  14. Tarim Oil Field Company Oil Output Exceeds 5 Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Tarim Oil Field Company (Tarim Oil Field), located in the hinterland of Takelamagan Desert in Northwest Xinjiang Autonomous Region,produced 5.006 million tons of crude oil in 2002,ranking it as the sixth largest onshore oil field in China. This is the first time Tarim Oil Field has topped 5 million tons for its crude production.

  15. Oil: Economics and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, A. (Laval Univ., PQ (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs.

  16. Determination of encapsulation efficiency of capsaicin in compound capsaicin nanoemulsion%复方辣椒碱纳米乳中辣椒碱包封率的测定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜展; 刘新; 张桂平; 郭虎

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method to determine the encapsulation efficiency of capsaicin in compound capsaicin nanoemulsion.Methods: Dextran (Gel G50 mini-column was used to separate the nanoemulsion. The concentration of capsaicin in the nanoemulsion was detected by HPLC and converted into encapsulation efficiency. Results: The recovery of the Dextran Gel G50 mini-column was 97.98% (n=9).The linear range of capcaisin in the determination method was 5~80 μg/ml and the linear relationship was fine (r=0.999 4 ). The average recovery was 98.17% (n=9), and RSD = 1.69%. The entrapment efficiencies of capsaicin of three groups of samples were 83.17%,87.74% ,and 85.26% respectively. Conclusion: This method can effectively eliminate the interference of the determination, which is suitable for the determination of encapsulation efficiency of capsaicin.%目的:建立复方辣椒碱(Capsaicin)纳米乳中主药辣椒碱包封率的测定方法.方法:应用葡聚糖凝胶G50微型柱分离获取纳米乳,再采用HPLC测定纳米乳中的辣椒碱含量,换算包封率.结果:葡聚糖凝胶微柱获取纳米乳的平均回收率为97.98%(n=9),纳米乳中辣椒碱含量测定方法显示,在浓度5~80μg/ml浓度范围内,辣椒碱与其峰面积的线性关系良好(r=0.9994),平均回收率为98.17%(n=9),RSD=1.69%.3批样品中辣椒碱的包封率分别为83.17%、87.74%和85.26%.结论:所建方法能有效地消除其他成分对测定的干扰,可用于复方纳米乳制剂中辣椒碱包封率的测定.

  17. 气相色谱法测定克疣纳米乳中冰片和薄荷脑含量%GC Determination of Synthetic Borneol and Menthol in Keyou Nanoemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊静静; 袁玉霞; 尹香阁; 赵文龙; 贾永艳

    2013-01-01

    目的建立克疣纳米乳中冰片、薄荷脑的气相色谱测定方法。方法 HP-5毛细管柱(30 m×320µm×0.25µm),氮气为载气,FID 检测器,进样口温度为230℃。结果冰片、薄荷脑分离度良好,冰片在0.337~1.685µg 范围内线性关系良好,r2=0.9982,平均回收率为97.5%;薄荷脑在0.234~1.17µg 范围内线性关系良好,r2=0.9974,平均回收率为97.0%。结论该法简便、准确,可用于克疣纳米乳中冰片、薄荷脑的测定。%Objective To establish the determination method synthetic borneol and menthol in Keyou nanoemulsion. Methods HP-5 quartz capillary column (30 m×320 µm×0.25 µm) was used with nitrogen as the carrier gas, and FID as the detector. The temperature of the entrance of the capillary vessel column was at 230 ℃. Results Synthetic borneol and menthol in Keyou nanoemulsion were separated well. The calibration curves of synthetic borneol was obtained with good linear relationship within the range of 0.337-1.685 µg (r 2=0.998 2), the average recovery was 97.5%. The calibration curves of menthol was also obtained with a good linear relationship within the range of 0.234-1.17 µg (r 2=0.997 4), the average recovery was 97.0%. Conclusion The methord is simple and accurate. It can be used to control the quality of Keyou nanoemulsion.

  18. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Spectroscopic study of Mentha oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Singh, A. K.

    The visible fluorescence and excitation spectra of Mentha oils (Japanese mint oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil) have been recorded. Different physical constants which are characteristic of the fluorescent molecules have been calculated for all three oils. Results reveal that the same group of organic compounds dominate in the oils of peppermint and spearmint, whereas some different compound is present in Japanese mint oil. It is also found that the fluorescence intensity of these oils is comparable to that of Rhodamine 6G dye in methanol solution. Our studies suggest that Mentha oils may be a useful lasing material in the 450-600 nm wavelength range.

  20. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  1. Tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.

  2. Essentials of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Chelsea R; Widder, Rebecca M

    2017-05-01

    Information to guide clinicians in educating and advising patients using or intending to use essential oils for self-administered aromatherapy or other medicinal purposes is presented. The term essential oils refers to highly concentrated, aromatic oils extracted from plants by steam distillation, hydrodiffusion, or pressure. Market reports indicate strong growth in the use of essential oils in the United States in recent decades. Therapeutic claims made in the marketing of essential oils have led the Food and Drug Administration to caution a number of suppliers. Along with rapid growth in sales of essential oils to consumers there has been an increase in the amount of published evidence regarding aromatherapy and essential oils; the annual number of relevant articles indexed using Medical Subject Headings terminology has doubled since 2004. In order to help ensure proper application and safe use of essential oils as a self-care modality, healthcare professionals can benefit from a general knowledge of the terminology and foundational concepts of medicinal use of essential oils, as well as resources to facilitate evaluations of appropriateness of use. Because of the increasing popularity of essential oils and the prevalence of essential oil-based self-care practices targeting a wide variety of ailments in the United States, healthcare professionals must be prepared to address concerns about the agents' safety and efficacy. Proper literature evaluation requires the ability to discern the quality of an oil, the safety of administration, and the validity of its use. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  4. Oil:SOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese economy will be hit hard if the recent oil shortage is not eased quickly This year’s oil shortage was reminis- cent of the previous one in 2005. Cargo drivers drove gingerly with half-full tanks,diesel generators sat silently waiting for oil that wasn’t there,and many taxis even stopped running because of the shortage. This time the oil shortage,which first started in southern cities like Guangzhou and Shenzhen in August,spread to northern cities like Zhengzhou and Taiyuan in November.

  5. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  6. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Enforcement, U.S. Department of the Interior Emergency Management: Oil Spills U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Oil Spill Preparation and Response U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Return to top Oil Spills and Wildlife ...

  7. 大分子乳化剂稳定的纳米乳中β-胡萝卜素的降解%Degradation of β-carotene in Nanoemulsions Stabilized by Macromolecular Emulsifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 刘成梅; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    Macromolecular emulsifiers including whey protein isolate, heated whey isolate protein, mixture and maillard reaction products (MRPs) of whey protein isolate and maltodextrin were used to prepared β - carotene nanoemulsions. The particle size distribution as well as the β - carotene degradation at different temperatures of the obtained emulsions were investigated. The results showed that the average particle size of the nanoemulsions stabilized by MRPs was significantly lower and the β - carotene encapsulated in them degradated more rapidly than the other samples. Besides that,the heated whey isolate protein could effectively decrease the β-carotene degradation rate,which might be attributed to the protection effect of the protein aggregates formed during the heat process.%分别以乳清分离蛋白、热处理乳清分离蛋白、乳清分离蛋白与麦芽糖糊精的混合物和美拉德反应复合物为乳化剂,制备β-胡萝卜素纳米乳,并考察其乳滴粒径分布及β-胡萝卜素的降解.结果表明:乳清分离蛋白与麦芽糖糊精共价复合后,形成的纳米乳液平均粒径更小,但复合物加速纳米乳中β-胡萝卜素的降解.而热处理乳清分离蛋白能显著抑制纳米乳中β-胡萝卜素的降解,其机制可能是蛋白质大分子聚集体的形成对β-胡萝卜素起保护作用.

  8. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  9. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  10. Another Oil Disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ More than 800 fishing boats in Dalian,a coastal city in northeast China's Liaoning Province,joined the effort on July 20 to clean up crude oil that gushed into the sea after two oil pipelines exploded at Dalian Xingang Harbor four days earlier.

  11. Krill oil: new nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Krill oil is a new available health product which is produced from deep marine species. Its property is to promote good health. The good lipid composition and antioxidant enrichment make krill oil a new nutraceutical for reducing health problems.

  12. Tree nut oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  13. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use fats and oils, choose those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Choose Less Often Choose More Often Percent of Saturated Fat Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil ...

  14. Rheology of waxy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicke, Alexandra A.; Marchesini, Flavio H.; Mendes, Paulo R. de Souza [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: fhmo@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that below the crystallization temperature the rheology of waxy oils changes from Newtonian to an extremely complex non-Newtonian behavior, which is shear-rate and temperature-history dependent. Along the last decades a lot of effort has been put into obtaining reliable rheological measurements from different oils so as to understand the yielding of waxy oils as well as the effects of shear and temperature histories on rheological properties, such as viscosity, yield stress, storage and loss moduli. In this paper we examine in detail the related literature, discussing the main reasons for some disagreements concerning the history effects on the flow properties of waxy oils. In addition, we performed temperature ramps and stress-amplitude-sweep tests and compared the results obtained with the main trends observed, highlighting the effects of cooling and shear on the microstructure and consequently on the rheological properties of these oils. (author)

  15. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  16. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  17. GOOD OLD OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays everybody is getting puzzled and confused about choosing right oil for daily use. Most of the ads in the market revolving around sunflower oil only with different brand names claiming it is heart friendly. In recent years, younger generation may not be familiar much with our age old traditional oils like sesame oil. Sesame oil is also called as gingelly oil or til oil is rich in vitamin E and B. It is a good source of minerals like calcium, manganese and phosphorous and promotes healing. It contains high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreases high blood pressure. Because of its antioxidant property, it decreases cholesterol and good for heart. It acts like a sedative, relieves mental fatigue and promotes sleep when it is used for head massage. It is having laxative nature, relieving constipation. When applied topically on to the skin it is acting as an excellent moisturizer and an emollient. Because of its natural antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties it keeps away the skin and tooth infections. Hence, it can be used by one and all without any hesitation for regular cooking. However, it is not preferred for deep frying. Let us once again say OLD IS GOLD

  18. Jojoba oil and derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniak, T.

    1977-01-01

    Jojoba oil differs from all known seed oils by its almost complete absence of glycerides, making it more a liquid wax than a fat. It has become important as a possible substitute for sperm-whale oil to produce lubricants, lubricant additives and other products. The plant occurs naturally in southern Arizona and N.W. Mexico and its oil has long been used by Indians for medicinal, culinary, ritual and other purposes. It tolerates extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and grows well under the difficult soil and moisture conditions of the region. In the first part of this review the plant and its uses are described, including its floral, fruit and seed anatomy and the use of liquid wax during germination. Stored coryledon wax is used up by the embryo as a linear function of time during the first 30 days of germination and growth. Before germination, seeds weight about 0.59 mg and contain about 54% wax. The second and greater part of the review deals with jojoba oil (its extraction, properties, molecular description, toxicity and composition), jojoba meal, which remains after the oil has been extracted, and the chemical modification of the oil.

  19. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  20. Yield gaps in oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  1. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  2. Precious Oil, New Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The oil price is flying sky high, not only with respect to the purchase price, but also in oil futures and stock. On November 7, the International oil future price reached a new high of US$ 98.62 per barrel in New York.Just two days before the peak day, on November 5, the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) was back in China's A-share market with a new offering. The opening quotation on the first day of this new issue reached RMB 48.60 yuan per share.

  3. OIL DISPLACEMENT IN MISCIBLE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Juttner

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available After primary oil recovery in reservoirs remains about 70% of unexploited oil. To improve the recovery of the remaining reserves, injection of a fluid provide the extra energy in a mchunical form. Oil displacement can he achieved by gas injection of lean natural gas, mainly methane, carbon dioxide etc. Oil displacement can be in immiscible or miscible conditions. This paper deals with mechanism of miscible gas drive. On the basis of simulation of the oil displacement process by gas injection into oil field Žutica the character of process, i. c. a degree of miscibility or immiscibility between the injected fluid and reservoir oil was determined.

  4. MOC encourages private oil companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Commerce issued a guideline in late June, encouraging private oil companies to take part in refined oil's processing, transportation and retail. The government will support competitive and large companies to integrate into asset-based oil groups and technology service-based oil companies, according to the guideline. Private business will be encouraged to obtain stable access to refined oil resources, technology and management service. China's refined oil market is largely controlled by three State-owned heavyweights: PetroChina, the largest oil producer in Asia; Sinopec,

  5. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation from... the production area, that produce a spearmint flavored oil. Oil shall be segregated into the following... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4...

  6. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  7. Enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakma, A.; Rafiq Islam, M.; Berruti, F.

    1991-01-01

    Some forty to sixty percent of the original oil in place typically remains trapped in the reservoir after primary and secondary recoveries. Enhanced oil recovery refers to the recovery of the residual oil by different techniques. Many of the existing and proposed enhanced oil recovery techniques require sound understanding of basic chemical engineering principles such as fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, interfacial phenomena etc. Chemical EOR techniques require a good understanding of interfacial phenomena, chemical reaction, multicomponent absorption. Understanding of the fundamentals of the various EOR processes is not adequate. EOR is increasingly attracting a growing number of chemical engineers and, as a result, some of the fundamental aspect of EOR are now being investigated. However, much more remains to be done and chemical engineers can play an important role in providing a better understanding of EOR fundamentals. This volume presents selected papers on EOR presented at AICHE meetings.

  8. Peak oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, W. H. [W. H. Ziegler, Av. des Mousquines 40bis, Lausanne (Switzerland); Campbell, C. J. [Stabbal Hill, Ballydehob, County Cork (Ireland); Zagar, J.J. [Four Blues, Schull, County Cork (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  9. Oil Spills Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA monitors impacts and mitigates the effects of spilled oil, which threatens public health and safety, contaminates drinking water, causes fire and explosion, diminishes air and water quality, harms ecosystems, and more.

  10. Extracting oil from coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil having a high volatile load is thus obtained, presenting favourable sensory characteristics. The pulp was physically and chemically analysed to show its benefit and particular properties and, according to the results so obtained, it is a product having potential usefulness.

  11. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  12. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  13. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  14. Authentication of vegetable oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, S.C.; Amaral, J S; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Authenticity of vegetable oils continues to be a challenge and the target of many studies. Consumers expectancy on healthier products that conform to the labelled information, and the vast amount of legislation a bout the correct characterisation and classification of vegetable oils have boosted a number of scientific works on this subject. Analytical t echniques to face this challenge are, at least, as manifold as ar e the ways of adulteration, ranging fro...

  15. Shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Zengel, Scott; Baker, Mary; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-06-15

    We build on previous work to construct a comprehensive database of shoreline oiling exposure from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill by compiling field and remotely-sensed datasets to support oil exposure and injury quantification. We compiled a spatial database of shoreline segments with attributes summarizing habitat, oiling category and timeline. We present new simplified oil exposure classes for both beaches and coastal wetland habitats derived from this database integrating both intensity and persistence of oiling on the shoreline over time. We document oiling along 2113km out of 9545km of surveyed shoreline, an increase of 19% from previously published estimates and representing the largest marine oil spill in history by length of shoreline oiled. These data may be used to generate maps and calculate summary statistics to assist in quantifying and understanding the scope, extent, and spatial distribution of shoreline oil exposure as a result of the DWH incident.

  16. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  17. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  18. Spreading of oil and the concept of average oil thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, R. [Innovative Ventures Ltd., Cochrane, AB (Canada); Quintero-Marmol, A.M. [Pemex E and P, Campeche (Mexico); Bannerman, K. [Radarsat International, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Stevenson, G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The area of on oil slick on water can be readily measured using simple techniques ranging from visual observations to satellite-based radar systems. However, it is necessary to know the volume of spilled oil in order to determine the environmental impacts and best response strategy. The volume of oil must be known to determine spill quantity, response effectiveness and weathering rates. The relationship between volume and area is the average thickness of the oil over the spill area. This paper presents the results of several experiments conducted in the Gulf of Mexico that determined if average thickness of the oil is a characteristic of a specific crude oil, independent of spill size. In order to calculate the amount of oil on water from the area of slick requires information on the oil thickness, the inhomogeneity of the oil thickness and the oil-to-water ratio in the slick if it is emulsified. Experimental data revealed that an oil slick stops spreading very quickly after the application of oil. After the equilibrium thickness has been established, the slick is very sensitive to disturbances on the water surface, such as wave action, which causes the oil circle to dissipate into several small irregular shapes. It was noted that the spill source and oceanographic conditions are both critical to the final shape of the spill. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  20. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions...... emulsion formation at 0.05 mol/1. The amount of emulsion formation showed significant dependency on the type of acid doped in oil. Experiments demonstrate that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at the oil-water interface, and this ion specific interaction leads to oil emulsion formation......The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  1. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  2. Pyrolysis Oil Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Dietrich

    2017-03-14

    In biorefineries several conversion processes for biomasses may be applied to obtain maximum value from the feed materials. One viable option is the liquefaction of lignocellulosic feedstocks or residues by fast pyrolysis. The conversion technology requires rapid heating of the biomass particles along with rapid cooling of the hot vapors and aerosols. The main product, bio-oil, is obtained in yields of up to 75 wt% on a dry feed basis, together with by-product char and gas which are used within the process to provide the process heat requirements; there are no waste streams other than flue gas and ash. Bio-oils from fast pyrolysis have a great potential to be used as renewable fuel and/or a source for chemical feedstocks. Existing technical reactor designs are presented together with actual examples. Bio-oil characterization and various options for bio-oil upgrading are discussed based on the potential end-use. Existing and potential utilization alternatives for bio-oils are presented with respect to their use for heat and power generation as well as chemical and material use.

  3. Anthelmintic Activity of Grapeseed Oil and Linseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goswami J

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the anthelminthic activity of vegetable fixed oils,grapeseed and linseed oil using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The oils were tested at differentconcentrations for the determination of paralysis time and death time of the earthworms. Albendazole isused as standard and it was found that grapeseed and linseed oil showed a better anthelminthic activityin comparison with the standard.

  4. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  5. RECENT OIL PRICE DECLINE BENEFITS OIL GIANTS LIMITEDLY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sinopec, Asia's largest refiner, hasn't really benefited from recent declines in global crude oil prices, because its refining costs still far exceed domestic oil product prices. China caps refined oil product prices at relatively low levels by world standards.

  6. Oil scenarios; Escenarios petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Corradi, Alberto [Oxford Energy Policy Club (United States)

    2003-04-15

    If there is a war in Middle East affecting the Saudi Arabian crude oil production, the crude oil prices will increase at unimaginable levels. This is due to both the current decrease of the production capacity of Venezuela and the Nigeria's political fragility. Therefore, despite the fact that the majority of the reasons why the United States invade Irak are unknown, it is clear that the crude oil is one of them and is playing a major role. [Spanish] Cualesquiera que sean las verdaderas razones de Estados Unidos para invadir Irak, esta claro que el petroleo tiene un papel muy importante. Una guerra en Medio Oriente que afectara la produccion petrolera de Arabia Saudita elevaria los precios del crudo a niveles nunca vistos, debido al actual descenso de la capacidad de produccion de Venezuela y a la fragilidad politica de Nigeria.

  7. Power from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerushalmi, J.; Wohlfarth, A.; Schwartz, M.; Luria, S.

    1988-02-01

    The possibilities for burning oil shale directly to generate a substantial fraction of Israel's electric power are to be investigated by means of a demonstration plant. The plant incorporates a fluidized bed reactor in which combustion tests have shown Israeli oil-shale will burn with high carbon utilization and without the need for supplementary fuel. Sulphur dioxide emissions are nearly all absorbed by the limestone that makes up about 50% of the shale. The design is for co-generation, supplying low pressure process steam for a chemical plant and electricity to the grid. Economic evaluation suggests that oil shale power generation in Israel could in the future be at least competitive with coal and under some circumstances have a cost advantage.

  8. Wavelets in oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, A. H.

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter, the role of wavelet methods applied to identification and characterization of oil reservoir is elaborated. The market rate of petroleum product is very much related to exploration, drilling and production cost. The main goal of researchers working in oil industry is to develop tools and techniques for minimizing cost of exploration and production. Efforts of researchers working in applications of wavelet methods in different parts of the world to achieve this goal is reviewed. Wavelet based solution of Buckley-Leverett equation modelling reservoir is discussed. Variants of Buckley-Leverett equations including its higher dimension versions are introduced. Wavelet methods for inverse problems associated with Buckley-Leverett equation, which are quite useful for oil recovery, are also explained in this chapter.

  9. Oil problems of Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelier, J.P.

    1982-11-01

    Ecuador used to be referred to as a typical ''banana republic'', but beginning in 1973, it became South America's second biggest oil exporter and during that same year it was admitted into the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Ecuador then established a nationalistic policy which succeeded in giving it a certain measure of control over its oil industry even if serious problems are still hindering the management of this industry. Today, Ecuador is facing an alternative: either it continues along the road it traced beginning in 1973, or else it takes a road which aims at relatively autonomous development of the national economy, or else it becomes a country which essentially lives from its oil revenues, produced and exploited by others.

  10. Seed storage oil mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

  11. Olive oil for tuna canning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cucurachi, A

    1967-01-01

    The paper presents studies on the phenomenon of contamination of the preserving oil by contact with the tunnyfish, and attempts to discover a method for guaranteeing the genuineness of the olive oil...

  12. Business cycles in oil economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon.

  13. Oil Trading Centre to Reopen in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil companies will likely resume activities at the oil trading centre in Shanghai this year, a move to further liberalize the once tightly controlled oil market. The centre will trade forward contracts for refined oil products,including gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene and fuel oil, industrial sources said.

  14. Natural cold pressed oils as cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ligęza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It seems that patients may ask general practitioners about natural cosmetics applied on the skin regarding their safety and suitability. Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze natural cold pressed oils as potential cosmetic products. Material and methods. Cold pressed oils obtained from selected seeds and fruit stones were analyzed, including: chokeberry seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, elderberry seed oil, raspberry seed oil, apricot seed oil, tomato seed oil, strawberry seed oil, broccoli seed oil, Nigella sativa seed oil, hemp oil, safflower seed oil, Silybum marianum seed oil and coconut oil. 80 adult volunteers assessed the cosmetic properties of the analyzed oils. Each of the volunteers tested 2 to 4 different oils, by applying them on the skin. In addition, patch tests with all analyzed oils were performed on 23 individuals. Results. The majority of tested oils were positively evaluated by the participants: in the opinion of the participants, oil extracted from safflower had the best appearance (100% positive opinions, coconut oil had the best smell (70% positive opinions, while black currant seed oil showed the best absorbency (85% positive opinions. No irritation was observed within the analyzed product group, albeit one allergic reaction to apricot seed oil was observed with patch testing. Conclusions . Based on the achieved results, it could be suggested that natural cold pressed oils can be applied to the skin as cosmetics. Our observations may be helpful for general practitioners when choosing natural cosmetics.

  15. Refrigerating machine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, K.

    1981-03-17

    Refrigerating machine oil to be filled in a sealed motorcompressor unit constituting a refrigerating cycle system including an electric refrigerator, an electric cold-storage box, a small-scaled electric refrigerating show-case, a small-scaled electric cold-storage show-case and the like, is arranged to have a specifically enhanced property, in which smaller initial driving power consumption of the sealed motor-compressor and easier supply of the predetermined amount of the refrigerating machine oil to the refrigerating system are both guaranteed even in a rather low environmental temperature condition.

  16. Aquathermolysis of heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyne, J.B.; Clark, P.D.; Clarke, R.A.; Koo, J.; Greidanus, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    The use of steam injection as a recovery method is based mainly on the physical effect of transferring the energy of the steam to enhance the flow properties of heavy oils. Other physical effects, such as emulsification, also may take place but little attention has been given to the possibility of a chemical reaction between the steam and some of the heavy oil components. This work addresses the question of such a chemical reaction to which the name, Aquathermolysis, has been given. The results of gas analyses to simulate field conditions of steam injection are presented. Two samples were used. Means to enhance the flow properties during the aquathermolysis process also were determined.

  17. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  18. Suspension of oil supply and import of oil from the overseas oil development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hyung [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The import of oil from the overseas oil development is not only reducing the probability and the scale of supply suspension but also enhancing the competitive power of oil industry by securing crude oil stably and economically. Therefore, the import of oil from the overseas oil development is desperately required to meet the opening of domestic oil