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Sample records for oil compositions comprising

  1. Compositions comprising free-standing two-dimensional nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michel W.; Gogotsi, Yury; Abdelmalak, Michael Naguib; Mashtalir, Olha

    2017-12-05

    The present invention is directed to methods of transferring urea from an aqueous solution comprising urea to a MXene composition, the method comprising contacting the aqueous solution comprising urea with the MXene composition for a time sufficient to form an intercalated MXene composition comprising urea.

  2. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  3. Coating compositions comprising bismuth-alloyed zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present application discloses (i) a coating composition comprising a particulate zinc-based alloyed material, said material comprising 0.05-0.7% by weight of bismuth (Bi), the D50 of the particulate material being in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (ii) a coated structure comprising a metal structure...... having a first coating of the zinc-containing coating composition applied onto at least a part of the metal structure in a dry film thickness of 5-100 µm; and an outer coating applied onto said zinc-containing coating in a dry film thickness of 30-200 µm; (iii) a particulate zinc-based alloyed material......, wherein the material comprises 0.05-0.7%(w/w) of bismuth (Bi), and wherein the D50 of the particulate material is in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (iv) a composite powder consisting of at least 25%(w/w) of the particulate zinc-based alloyed material, the rest being a particulate material consisting of zinc...

  4. Non-cementitious compositions comprising vaterite and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenney, Martin; Fernandez, Miguel; Morgan, Samuel O.

    2015-09-15

    Non-cementitious compositions and products are provided. The compositions of the invention include a carbonate additive comprising vaterite such as reactive vaterite. Additional aspects of the invention include methods of making and using the non-cementitious compositions and products.

  5. Essential oil composition of Pimpinella cypria and its insecticidal, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water-distilled essential oil from the aerial parts of Pimpinella cypria Boiss. (Apiaceae), an endemic species in northern Cyprus, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Forty-five compounds were identified in the oil and these comprised 81.7% of the total composition. The compound classes in the oil were ...

  6. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  7. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin [Los Alamos, NM; Jeon, Sea Ho [Dracut, MA; Mack, Nathan H [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  8. Compositions comprising enhanced graphene oxide structures and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Priyank Vijaya; Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Belcher, Angela; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2016-12-27

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to compositions comprising a graphene oxide species. In some embodiments, the compositions advantageously have relatively high oxygen content, even after annealing.

  9. Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Greuter Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Multivariate Analysis, and Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitic, Violeta; Stankov Jovanovic, Vesna; Ilic, Marija; Jovanovic, Olga; Djordjevic, Aleksandra; Stojanovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activities of Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Greuter essential oil was studied. Moreover, using agglomerative hierarchical cluster (AHC) and principal component analyses (PCA), the interrelationships of the D. graveolens essential-oil profiles characterized so far (including the sample from this study) were investigated. To evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil, GC-FID and GC/MS analyses were performed. Altogether, 54 compounds were identified, accounting for 92.9% of the total oil composition. The D. graveolens oil belongs to the monoterpenoid chemotype, with monoterpenoids comprising 87.4% of the totally identified compounds. The major components were borneol (43.6%) and bornyl acetate (38.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that the compounds borneol and bornyl acetate exerted the greatest influence on the spatial differences in the composition of the reported oils. The antimicrobial activity against five bacterial and one fungal strain was determined using a disk-diffusion assay. The studied essential oil was active only against Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Composition comprising lignin and antidi arrheal component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising lignin and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of bromelain, papain, tannin, carvacrol, thymol, alliin, allicin, fenugreek seed, egg, poppy, poppy seeds, humic acid, roots, kaolin, catechu, cellulase, flavonoid...

  11. Composite Membrane with Underwater-Oleophobic Surface for Anti-Oil-Fouling Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangxin; Hou, Deyin; Lin, Shihong

    2016-04-05

    In this study, we fabricated a composite membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a commercial hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane with a nanocomposite coating comprising silica nanoparticles, chitosan hydrogel and fluoro-polymer. The composite membrane exhibits asymmetric wettability, with the modified surface being in-air hydrophilic and underwater oleophobic, and the unmodified surface remaining hydrophobic. By comparing the performance of the composite membrane and the pristine PVDF membrane in direct contact MD experiments using a saline emulsion with 1000 ppm crude oil (in water), we showed that the fabricated composite membrane was significantly more resistant to oil fouling compared to the pristine hydrophobic PVDF membrane. Force spectroscopy was conducted for the interaction between an oil droplet and the membrane surface using a force tensiometer. The difference between the composite membrane and the pristine PVDF membrane in their interaction with an oil droplet served to explain the difference in the fouling propensities between these two membranes observed in MD experiments. The results from this study suggest that underwater oleophobic coating can effectively mitigate oil fouling in MD operations, and that the fabricated composite membrane with asymmetric wettability can enable MD to desalinate hypersaline wastewater with high concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants.

  12. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material Comprising Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  13. Compositions, methods, and systems comprising fluorous-soluble polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M.; Lim, Jeewoo; Takeda, Yohei

    2015-10-13

    The present invention generally relates to compositions, methods, and systems comprising polymers that are fluorous-soluble and/or organize at interfaces between a fluorous phase and a non-fluorous phase. In some embodiments, emulsions or films are provided comprising a polymer. The polymers, emulsions, and films can be used in many applications, including for determining, treating, and/or imaging a condition and/or disease in a subject. The polymer may also be incorporated into various optoelectronic device such as photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, or the like. In some embodiments, the polymers comprise pi-conjugated backbones, and in some cases, are highly emissive.

  14. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2017-08-08

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  15. Compositional modification of crude oil during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yangming; Weng, Huanxin [Department of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Zulin; Chen, Qi [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, Hubei (China)

    2003-05-01

    Ten crude oils from two recovery stages spanning 5-10-year interval of five productive wells in the Tarim Basin, northwest China were analyzed for their compositional modification during production process. Significant compositional changes in polar and nonpolar fractions between the previous oil samples and the latter ones were noted at both bulk and molecular level. The latter oil samples appear to contain more aromatic fraction and less asphaltenes and resin, and their gas chromatography (GC) data for whole oil show reduced alkanes with low molecular weight and enhanced high homologue relative to the previous oil samples. Compared with the oils collected from the previous recovery stage, the concentration of basic type of nitrogen-containing compounds and organic acids in oils from the latter recovery stage have a reducing trend, suggesting the occurrence of interaction between crude oil and reservoir rock.

  16. Fibrous composites comprising carbon nanotubes and silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huisheng [Shanghai, CN; Zhu, Yuntian Theodore [Cary, NC; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos, NM; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-10-11

    Fibrous composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes; and a silica-containing moiety having one of the structures: (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NR.sub.1R.sub.2) or (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NCO; where n is from 1 to 6, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2H.sub.5.

  17. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  18. Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Perkins, Simon [Los Alamos, NM; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos, NM; Fischer, William M [Los Alamos, NM; Theiler, James [Los Alamos, NM; Letvin, Norman [Boston, MA; Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos, NM; Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  19. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  20. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  1. Chemical Composition of Oil Fraction Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix DC as Antibacterial Activity of E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatika Ayu Habsari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the composition of oil fraction kaffir lime which is consists as antibacterial activity of E. coli. This research was applied a branch kaffir lime to produce oil using fractional distillation (PiloDist 104-VTU number the stages 120 and reflux ratio 20/10 with 5 mbar pressure. Oil kaffir lime composition was analyzed using GC-MS (type Shimadzu QP 2010S by helium as a carrier gas with flow rate of 3mL/min. Antibacterial activity assay was employed agar well diffusion which conducted at three concentrations (500, 300, and 100 µL/mL. The result of oil fraction kaffir lime was afforded five fraction oil based on boiling point interval, such as A fraction oil (63.00 – 70.010 oC, B fraction (71.30 – 70.800 oC, C fraction (74.50 – 74.200 oC, D fraction (74.20 – 74.000 oC and E fraction (72.90 – 91.100 oC. All fractions contained oxygenated monoterpene (MO, except A oil fraction which comprises hydrocarbon monoterpene composition (MH with a yield of 12.1%. The main components of a fraction which MO compound they are citronella, linalool and isopulegol, while in MH compound they are sabine, β-pinene, β-micrene and limonene. The result of antibacterial activity assay obtained at the highest concentration (500 µL/mL. Antibacterial activity assay also depends on the fraction composition with higher composition of MO. The highest MO component of oil fraction was found on C oil fraction which has MO component such as citronella 74.94%; linalool 20.13%; and isopulegol 3.08%.

  2. The effect of 60Co-gamma radio-sterilization on Boswellia carterii essential oil composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Badr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Gamma-irradiation is used vastly for both decontamination and sterilization of natural products; but these high-energy rays can affect heat-sensitive essential oils. Methods: The oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia carterii (Burseraceae was sterilized by γ-irradiation at dose 30 KGy. The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of non-irradiated Boswellia (NIB and irradiated Boswellia (IB were analyzed by GC/MS and the changes were compared. The structure of octyl acetate as the major component and marker of B. carterii was confirmed by MS/MS. Results: Twenty-five compounds comprising 99.55% of NIB oil and nineteen compounds comprising 98.61% of IB oil were identified. Major constituents which were common for both oils were octyl acetate (52.67 % in NIB, 76.51 % in IB, 1-octanol (6.37 % in NIB, 5.19 % in IB, duva-4, 8, 13-triene-1,3α diol (5.52 % in NIB, 3.94 % in IB, verticiol (13.63 % in NIB and verticillane type diterpene (5.4 % in IB they made up 78.19% and 91.04% of NIB and IB, respectively. Conclusion: Gamma irradiation was an efficient method for sterilization of Boswellia carterii oleo-gum resin, but it resulted in change in the essential oil composition particularly octyl acetate changed from 52.67% to 76.51%.

  3. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic effects of essential oil from Urtica dioica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Süleyman; Demirci, Betül; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Akpulat, H Aşkin; Aksu, Pinar

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of Urtica dioica essential oil, and to evaluate its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, using cytogenetic tests such as the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration analysis in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro. GC-MS analysis of U. dioica essential oil identified 43 compounds, representing 95.8% of the oil. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of U. dioica revealed that carvacrol (38.2%), carvone (9.0%), naphthalene (8.9%), (E)-anethol (4.7%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (3.0%), (E)-geranyl acetone (2.9%), (E)-β-ionone (2.8%) and phytol (2.7%) are the main components, comprising 72.2% of the oil. A significant correlation was found between the concentration of essential oil and the following: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, apoptotic cells, necrotic cells, and binucleated cells.

  4. Separation of oils from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Slyke, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for cleaning oil-contaminated particulate solids. It comprises: contacting contaminated solids with a non-aqueous liquid composition comprising a carboxylic acid; then contacting the solids with an aqueous wash containing a reagent for converting the carboxylic acid to a water-soluble carboxylate salt; and removing an aqueous phase containing carboxylate salt and entrained oil

  5. Chemical composition, anthelmintic, antibacterial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal; Adwan, Lina; K'aibni, Shadi; Shraim, Naser; Zaid, Abdel Naser

    2016-10-26

    It has been recently recognized that oxidative stress, helminth and microbial infections are the cause of much illness found in the underdeveloped, developing and developed countries. The present study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition, and to assess anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antimicrobial activity was tested against the selected strains from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinical isolates such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans using MIC assay. The anthelmintic assay was carried out on adult earthworm (Pheretima posthuma), while antioxidant activity was analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. Trans-geraniol (35.38 %), α-citral (20.37 %) and β-citral (14.76 %) were the major compounds comprising 70.51 % of the essential oil. Our results showed that T. bovei essential oil exhibited strong anthelmintic activity, even higher than piperazine citrate, the used reference standard, with potential antioxidant activity almost equal to the Trolox standard. Furthermore, T. bovei essential oil had powerful antibacterial and antifungal activities against the studied pathogens. Essential oil of T. bovei exerted excellent antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anthelmintic activities. Moreover, this study found that T. bovei volatile oil contains active substances that could potentially be used as natural preservatives in food and pharmaceutical industries, these substances could also be employed for developing new anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  6. High Amounts of n-Alkanes in the Composition of Asphodelus aestivus Brot. Flower Essential Oil from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Demirci, Betül; Can Başer, Kemal Hüsnü

    2016-10-01

    There is only a couple of reports indicating essential oil composition of Asphodelus species in the literature. However, from the members of this genus many non-volatile secondary metabolites were isolated. In Cyprus, Asphodelus aestivus Brot. can be found abundantly in all regions of the island. This plant has various ethnobotanical uses in Cyprus. There is no report on the volatiles nor the essential oil composition of A. aestivus. The smell of A. aestivus flowers resembles that of a cat pee which caught our attention. Therefore, we have carried out GC, GC/MS analysis of the essential oil (yield: 0.01 v/w) obtained from Asphodelus aestivus flowers. Seventeen compounds were identified in the essential oil comprising 96.2% of the oil. The major components of the essential oil were hexadecanoic acid 35.6%, pentacosane 17.4%, tricosane 13.4% and heptacosane 8.4%. In our results, we expected to see sulfur containing cat pee odorants due to the odor of the flower whereas high amounts of n-alkanes, saturated fatty acids and minor amounts of acyclic diterpenes were observed.

  7. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncero, J.M.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Gomez, R.; Rabadan, A.; Pardo, J.E.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2) and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses). The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.

  8. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncero, J.M.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Gomez, R.; Rabadan, A.; Pardo, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2) and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses). The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.

  9. Compositions and methods comprising cellulase variants with reduced affinity to non-cellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascao-Pereira, Luis; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R.; Liu, Amy D.

    2017-07-04

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase, compositions comprising said cellulase, methods of identifying cellulose variants and methods of using the compositions.

  10. Compositions and methods comprising cellulase variants with reduced affinity to non-cellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascao-Pereira, Luis G.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R; Liu, Amy D.

    2012-08-07

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase, compositions comprising said cellulase, methods of identifying cellulose variants and methods of using the compositions.

  11. Compositions and methods comprising cellulase variants with reduced affinity to non-cellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascao-Pereira, Luis G; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R; Liu, Amy D

    2015-04-07

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase, compositions comprising said cellulase, methods of identifying cellulose variants and methods of using the compositions.

  12. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from cones of Pinus koraiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Yang, Hye-Young; Lee, Hong-Sub; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2008-03-01

    The essential oil from the cones of Pinus koraiensis was prepared after removing the seeds, and its chemical composition analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrodistillation of the P. koraiensis cones yielded 1.07% (v/w) of essential oil, which was almost three times the amount of essential oil extracted from the needles of the same plant. Moreover, the antimicrobial activities of the oil against the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi were evaluated using the agar disc diffusion method and broth microdilution method. Eighty-seven components, comprising about 96.8% of the total oil, were identified. The most abundant oil components were limonene (27.90%), alpha-pinene (23.89%), beta-pinene (12.02%), 3-carene (4.95%), beta-myrcene (4.53%), isolongifolene (3.35%), (-)-bornyl acetate (2.02%), caryophyllene (1.71%), and camphene (1.54%). The essential oil was confirmed to have significant antimicrobial activities, especially against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida glabrata YFCC 062 and Cryptococcus neoformans B 42419. Therefore, the present results indicate that the essential oil from the cones of Pinus koraiensis can be used in various ways as a nontoxic and environmentally friendly disinfectant.

  13. Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and γ-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT.

  14. Solidifier effectiveness : variation due to oil composition, oil thickness and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldhouse, B.; Fingas, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provided an overview of solidifier types and composition. Solidifiers are a class of spill treating agents that offer an effective means to convert a liquid oil into a solid material. They are used as a treatment option for oil spills on water. This paper also reported on recent laboratory studies that consist of 4 components: (1) a qualitative examination of the characteristics of the interaction of a broad range of solidifier products with a standard oil to evaluate reaction rate, states of solidification, and the impact of dosage, (2) a comparison of a smaller subset of solidifiers on the standard oil at lower temperatures, (3) solidifier treatment on a range of oils of varying physical properties and composition to assess the potential scope of application, and (4) the treatment of a series of small-scale oil layers of varying thickness to determine the significance of oil thickness on solidifier effectiveness and recovery. This paper also reviewed solidifier chemistry with particular reference to polymer sorbents; cross-linking agents; and cross-linking agents and polymeric sorbents combined. Toxicity is also an important issue regarding solidifiers. The aquatic toxicity of solidifiers is low and not measurable as the products are not water-soluble. There have not been any studies on the effects of the solidifier or the treated oil on surface feeders and shoreline wildlife that may come into contact with the products. It was concluded that oil composition may play a major role in solidifier effectiveness. The effectiveness of solidifiers is also inhibited at reduced temperatures, increased viscosity and density of the oil. 25 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix

  15. Essential oil content and composition of aniseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in three localities in Vojvodina (Serbia with the application of six different fertilizer regimes aimed at determining the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average essential oil content of aniseed, obtained by hydrodistillation, was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizers was not statistically significant for the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil composition was determined using GC-MS technique, and a total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, 94.78% on the average, and the coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%. All other components were present in less than 1%.

  16. Composites comprising silicon carbide fibers dispersed in magnesia-aluminate matrix and fabrication thereof and of other composites by sinter forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Prakash C.; Seydel, Edgar R.; Raj, Rishi

    1989-10-03

    A novel ceramic-ceramic composite of a uniform dispersion of silicon carbide fibers in a matrix of MgO.multidot.nAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 wherein n ranges from about 1 to about 4.5, said composite comprising by volume from 1 to 50% silicon carbide fibers and from 99 to 50% MgO.multidot.nAl.sub.2 O.sub.3. The composite is readily fabricated by forming a powder comprising a uniform dispersion of silicon carbide fibers in poorly crystalline phase comprising MgO and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in a mole ratio of n and either (a) hot pressing or preferably (b) cold pressing to form a preform and then forging utilizing a temperature in the range of 1100.degree. C. to 1900.degree. C. and a strain rate ranging from about 10.sup.-5 seconds .sup.-1 to about 1 seconds .sup.-1 so that surfaces cracks do not appear to obtain a shear deformation greater than 30%.

  17. Process of cleaning oil spills and the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breisford, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    A process of cleaning spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like from bodies of water, garage floors, roadways and the like, comprising spraying unbonded shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles onto the spill, absorbing the spill into the shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles, and removing the soaked shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles and the spill absorbed therein. An absorbent composition for absorbing spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and like, comprising shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and means for absorbing the spill and for stiffening the co-position so that the composition fights against being compressed so that less of the absorbed spill escapes from the composition when it is being removed from the spill, said means including cork particles dispersed in with the fiberglass blowing wool particles. An absorbent sock for absorbing or containing a spill of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like, comprising a hollow tube, said tube being permeable to the toxic or hazardous materials and being made of nylon or polypropylene, and unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles enclosed in the tube. Apparatus for controlling an oil slick on the surface of water, comprising a craft for traversing the slick, a supply of fiberglass blowing wool composition particles stored on the craft in position for being dispersed, shredding means on the craft for shredding the fiberglass blowing wool particles to form unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and dispensing means on the craft for dispensing the unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles onto the slick

  18. Formation of the oil composition of the Yu0 Bazhenov formation, Salym oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Soboleva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bazhenov horizon of Western Siberia has been studied in considerable detail from different perspectives and different methods, a large number of studies have been devoted to a wide range of issues related to the lithological composition of rocks, their reservoir properties, the study of organic matter, properties and composition of oil at various analytical levels, and many others. This work is devoted to restoring conditions for the formation of oil properties and composition of the Yu0 Salym oil field, based mainly on the geochemical aspects of the study of oil changes both in area and in the section within the productive layer of Salym structure, using some geological data, such as structural plan for the reflecting horizon B (the roof of the Bazhenov formation, having a complex configuration, reservoir temperatures and pressure, well flow rates, and others. There is no single reservoir at the Salym field in the Yu0 formation. For the conclusions of the geological-geochemical interpretation, a sampling of 61 samples of oil from exploration, appraisal and production wells of the initial stages of production was used, since in the future when oil is extracted, the ecology in the deposits changes, and 21 samples of oil from other fields in the West Siberian oil and gas basin. Conventionally, three types of oils are distinguished, differing in their physicochemical parameters, group hydrocarbon and molecular composition. It was suggested that in addition to the own organic matter of the Bazhenov formation, hydrocarbon fluids of the Vasyugan, Tyumen formations and possibly Paleozoic rocks were involved in the formation of the oil composition. The flow of light liquid hydrocarbons and gases occurred along the zones of faults of different genesis and duration of existence.

  19. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8.21 %), bornene (8.02 %), and β-thujone (7.31 %) [10]. This suggests that the oil composition of these plants differs according to location and growth stage [10,11]. Thus, the composition of this essential oil must be standardized prior to its.

  20. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we studied the chemical composition of the essential oil of Cistus ladanifer and Cistus libanotis growing in Eastern Morocco. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical composition was analysed using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Camphene, borneol ...

  1. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  2. Essential Oil Compositions of Malaysian Lauraceae: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Salleh, Farediah Ahmad * , Khong Heng Yen, Razauden Mohamed Zulkifli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been largely employed for human need due to their antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities. At present, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important. Essential oils or some of their components are used in perfumes and make-up products, sanitary products, dentistry, agriculture, as food preservers and additives, and as natural remedies. The essential oil compositions of Malaysian Lauraceae family have been investigated for many years. In the recent years, studies on the essential oils of the species have been progressing and many of them have reported interesting pharmacological activities. In this article, we summarized and updated the chemical compositions and biological activities of Malaysian Lauraceae. Throughout our literature review, only four genera which are Lindera, Beilschmiedia, Litsea, and Cinnamomum have been studied for their essential oil compositions in Malaysia. They were found to contain mainly safrole, eugenol, linalool, camphor, benzyl benzoate or cinnamaldehyde as major components. There were significant priorities to find out the details of the chemical compositions of the essential oils from Malaysian Lauraceae. Therefore, more clinical studies on the toxicity of the essential oil of the species are also crucial to ensure their safety and to assess their eligibility to be used as the sources of modern medicines.

  3. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  4. Meta-Analyses of QTLs Associated with Protein and Oil Contents and Compositions in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Kyujung; McHale, Leah K

    2017-06-01

    Soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable and nutritious crop in part due to the high protein meal and vegetable oil produced from its seed. Soybean producers desire cultivars with both elevated seed protein and oil concentrations as well as specific amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Numerous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed composition traits, but validation of these QTLs has rarely been carried out. In this study, we have collected information, including genetic location and additive effects, on each QTL for seed contents of protein and oil, as well as amino acid and fatty acid compositions from over 80 studies. Using BioMercator V. 4.2, a meta-QTL analysis was performed with genetic information comprised of 175 QTLs for protein, 205 QTLs for oil, 156 QTLs for amino acids, and 113 QTLs for fatty acids. A total of 55 meta-QTL for seed composition were detected on 6 out of 20 chromosomes. Meta-QTL possessed narrower confidence intervals than the original QTL and candidate genes were identified within each meta-QTL. These candidate genes elucidate potential natural genetic variation in genes contributing to protein and oil biosynthesis and accumulation, providing meaningful information to further soybean breeding programs.

  5. Composites comprising novel RTIL-based polymers, and methods of making and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Douglas; Carlisle, Trevor; Noble, Richard; Nicodemus, Garret; McDanel, William; Cowan, Matthew

    2017-06-27

    The invention includes compositions comprising curable imidazolium-functionalized poly(room-temperature ionic liquid) copolymers and homopolymers. The invention further includes methods of preparing and using the compositions of the invention. The invention further includes novel methods of preparing thin, supported, room-temperature ionic liquid-containing polymeric films on a porous support. In certain embodiments, the methods of the invention avoid the use of a gutter layer, which greatly reduces the overall gas permeance and selectivity of the composite membrane. In other embodiments, the films of the invention have increased gas selectivity and permeance over films prepared using methods described in the prior art.

  6. Effect of Kevlar and carbon fibres on tensile properties of oil palm/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, S. M. M.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Jawaid, M.; Cardona, F.; Ishak, M. R.; Yusof, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid composites with natural and synthetic fibers have captured the interests of many researchers. In this work, Kevlar/oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB)/Kevlar and carbon/oil palm EFB hybrid/carbon composites were prepared using hand lay-up technique by keeping the oil palm EFB fiber as the core material. The tensile properties which include tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break were investigated. It is observed that the tensile strength and modulus for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites were much higher as compared with Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites. However, the elongation at break for Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites exhibited higher value as compared to carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites and oil palm EFB/epoxy composites. The tensile strength for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites is 93.6 MPa and the tensile modulus for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites is 6.5 GPa. The elongation at break for Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites is 3.6%.

  7. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Ilievska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  8. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  9. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  10. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14-0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7-10.3% range), γ-cymene (5-7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8-7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50-66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The antioxidant

  11. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Biocrude Compositions Compared to Petroleum Crude and Shale Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Jacqueline M.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner M.

    2017-02-17

    We provide a direct and detailed comparison of the chemical composition of petroleum crude oil (from the Gulf of Mexico), shale oil, and three biocrudes (i.e., clean pine, microalgae Chlorella sp., and sewage sludge feedstocks) generated by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) reveals that HTL biocrudes are compositionally more similar to shale oil than petroleum crude oil and that only a few heteroatom classes (e.g., N1, N2, N1O1, and O1) are common to organic sediment- and biomass-derived oils. All HTL biocrudes contain a diverse range of oxygen-containing compounds when compared to either petroleum crude or shale oil. Overall, petroleum crude and shale oil are compositionally dissimilar to HTL oils, and >85% of the elemental compositions identified within the positive-ion electrospray (ESI) mass spectra of the HTL biocrudes were not present in either the petroleum crude or shale oil (>43% for negative-ion ESI). Direct comparison of the heteroatom classes that are common to both organic sedimentand biomass-derived oils shows that HTL biocrudes generally contain species with both smaller core structures and a lower degree of alkylation relative to either the petroleum crude or the shale oil. Three-dimensional plots of carbon number versus molecular double bond equivalents (with observed abundance as the third dimension) for abundant molecular classes reveal the specific relationship of the composition of HTL biocrudes to petroleum and shale oils to inform the possible incorporation of these oils into refinery operations as a partial amendment to conventional petroleum feeds.

  12. Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Water-distilled essential oils from leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. and Myrtus communis L., collected ... volatile oils, tannins, sugars, flavonoids and organic acids such as .... in the chemical composition of myrtle oil.

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  14. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  15. Essential oil composition of some plants of family zygophyllaceae and euphorbiaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastagir, G.

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives were to find out the chemical constituents of some selected plants of family Zygophyllaceae and Euphorbiaceae collected from Peshawar and Attock Hills during 2009, by GC/MS. The oil obtained from three analysed plants of family Zygophyllaceae showed that oxygenated monoterpenes were the highest (90.99%) in Tribulus terrestris, followed by Fagonia cretica (89.94%) and the lowest (36.01%) found in Peganum harmala. Peganum harmala had maximum esters (11.58%) followed by Tribulus terrestris (5.8%) and Fagonia cretica (5.5%). Monoterpenes hydrocarbons were the highest (1.22%) in Fagonia cretica followed by Peganum harmala and absent in Tribulus terrestris. Sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons were maximum (11.01%) in Peganum harmala and absent in Tribulus terrestris. The analysis of essential oils revealed that Fagonia cretica oils had 17 compounds that constituted 100% of the oil composition. Oxygenated monoterpenes (89.94%), were a major group of compounds. Peganum harmala oil had 18 compounds. There were 10 compounds in Tribulus terrestris oil that consisted 100% of the total oil composition. Eight compounds were identified in Chrozophora tinctoria oils giving complete oil composition. It had oxygenated monoterpenes (86.93%), constituting 2(4H) - Benzofuranone, 5, 6, 7, 7a tetrahydro-4, 4, 7a-trimethy (50.718%). Ricinus communis . oil had 8 compounds with 100% of the oil composition. The present study exhibited that phytochemical attributes and chemical composition of the studied plants have potential uses for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry in future. Detailed research work on the antioxidant principles and biological activities of the studied plants is further recommended. (author)

  16. Essential oil composition of four Artemisia species from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of four Artemisia species, namely A. schimperi Sch. Bip. ex Engl. A. abyssinica Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich., A. afra Jacq. ex Willd., and A. absinthium L. (previously called A. rehan from Ethiopia has been studied. The essential oil obtained from A. absinthium (seedling from Europe grown in two places in Ethiopia (Addis Ababa and Butajira was also analyzed for comparison. Morphological study on the leaves of A. absinthium L. from Ethiopia (previously called A. rehan and A. absinthium (from Europe was also conducted. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Forty three compounds representing 76 to 94% of the oils were identified. The composition of the essential oils of A. schimperi, A. afra and A. abyssinica are mainly dominated by irregular monoterpenes: yogomi alcohol (13.5-37.6%, artemisyl acetate (12.7-35.5%, and artemisia ketone (2.3-13.2%. The composition of the oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan however, differs from the other three species in having camphor (21.2-28.3% and davanone (21.3-26.5% as major components. The composition of A. absinthum (Europe was found to have β-thujone (42.3-66.4% and chamazulene (11.3-24.2% as major components. The study indicated that the composition of the essential oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan is not only different from the other three species but also from A. absinthium from Europe and does not belong to any of the chemotypes described for the species in the literature. The morphological study on the leaves also showed that it differs from that of A. absinthium from Europe. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.11

  17. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Verbenaceae Species Growing in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Pérez Zamora

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Verbenaceae family includes 2600 species grouped into 100 genera with a pantropical distribution. Many of them are important elements of the floras of warm-temperature and tropical regions of America. This family is known in folk medicine, and its species are used as digestive, carminative, antipyretic, antitussive, antiseptic, and healing agents. This review aims to collect information about the essential oils from the most reported species of the Verbenaceae family growing in South America, focusing on their chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, and synergism with commercial antimicrobials. The information gathered comprises the last twenty years of research within the South American region and is summarized taking into consideration the most representative species in terms of their essential oils. These species belong to Aloysia, Lantana, Lippia, Phyla, and Stachytarpheta genera, and the main essential oils they contain are monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, such as β-caryophyllene, thymol, citral, 1,8-cineole, carvone, and limonene. These compounds have been found to possess antimicrobial activities. The synergism of these essential oils with antibiotics is being studied by several research groups. It constitutes a resource of interest for the potential use of combinations of essential oils and antibiotics in infection treatments.

  19. Fatty Acid And Essential Oil Compositions Of The Seed Oil Of Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid and essential oil compositions of the seed oil of Annona cherimola, A. muricata, A. reticulata, A. senegalensis and A. squamosa were investigated by GC and GC/MS spectra. About eleven fatty acids were identified of which oleic, gondoic, palmitic and stearic acids predominated in each sample, and others ...

  20. Composite materials comprising two jonal functions and methods for making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Ali Syed; Garnier, John Edward; Schiroky, Gerhard Hans; Kennedy, Christopher Robin; Sonuparlak, Birol

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to mechanisms for preventing undesirable oxidation (i.e., oxidation protection mechanisms) in composite bodies. The oxidation protection mechanisms include getterer materials which are added to the composite body which gather or scavenge undesirable oxidants which may enter the composite body. The getterer materials may be placed into at least a portion of the composite body such that any undesirable oxidant approaching, for example, a fiber reinforcement, would be scavenged by (e.g., reacted with) the getterer. The getterer materials) may form at least one compound which acts as a passivation layer, and/or is able to move by bulk transport (e.g., by viscous flow as a glassy material) to a crack, and sealing the crack, thereby further enhancing the oxidation protection of the composite body. One or more ceramic filler materials which serve as reinforcements may have a plurality of super-imposed coatings thereon, at least one of which coatings may function as or contain an oxidation protection mechanism. Specifically, a coating comprising boron nitride which has been engineered or modified to contain some silicon exhibits improved corrosion resistance, specifically to oxygen and moisture. The coated materials may be useful as reinforcing materials in high performance composites to provide improved mechanical properties such as fracture toughness. The present invention also relates to improved composites which incorporate these materials, and to their methods of manufacture.

  1. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  2. Composites comprising biologically-synthesized nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Seamus; Dias, Sampath; Blau, Werner; Wang, Jun; Oremland, Ronald S; Baesman, Shaun

    2013-04-30

    The present disclosure describes composite materials containing a polymer material and a nanoscale material dispersed in the polymer material. The nanoscale materials may be biologically synthesized, such as tellurium nanorods synthesized by Bacillus selenitireducens. Composite materials of the present disclosure may have optical limiting properties and find use in optical limiting devices.

  3. easonal variation in the essential oil composition of origanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of Origanum syriacum L. subsp. sinaicum Greuter and Burdet obtained by hydrodistillation during four seasons was analyzed by GC-MS. The composition of the oil showed qualitative and quantitative variation. Carvacrol was the major component (64.71%, 36.50%) in summer and spring oils, respectively.

  4. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without affecting production; this recommendation satisfies the minimum requirements of the industry and preserves the organoleptic characteristics of the milk and its acceptability for human consumption. In addition, buriti oil replacing ground corn by up to 4.5% DM in the diet of lactating goats decrease medium-chain SFA which are hypercholesterolemic and increase the concentrations of the C18:19, CLA and DFA in goat milk fat, helping to protect against cardiovascular disease.

  5. Sorption of diesel oil from polyurethane composite reinforced with palm fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, I.R.; Cipriano, J.P.; Costa, I.L.M.; Mulinari, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    One of the methods to contain the diesel oil spill is the application of materials polymeric sorbents and the polyurethane is an option of porous sorbents. In this way, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of polyurethane composites derivative of castor oil reinforced with palm fibers to sorption of diesel oil and compare with pure polyurethane. The composites were reinforced with 5 to 20% w/w of fibers. Subsequently, the sorption capacity of the composite in function of inserted fiber content in the matrix was analyzed. The physical and morphological characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM) and diffraction X-ray (XRD) and the contact angle. The results showed that the composite with 20% w /w showed higher sorption capacity oil diesel compared to pure PU and other composites this fact was due to the heterogeneity of the pores and dispersion of fiber in the matrix. (author)

  6. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli wher...

  7. Assessment of chemical composition of essential oil of Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin from two different sites of Yazd province in center of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hadavand Mirzaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum resin collected from two different sites of Yazd province (Tabas and Yazd in the center of Iran, were identified. The gas chromatography mass-spectroscopy (GC/MS data showed that the qualitative composition of the components appeared to be constant in two different regions. Moreover, no remarkable variations were found in the amounts of the essential oil major constituents. A total thirty-nine components, comprising 91.52% and 95.61% of the total oil, were characterized in Tabas and Yazd samples, respectively. The hydrodistilled oils contained E-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (40.15 and 44.36% in Tabas and Yazd samples, respectively, Z-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (23.93 and 27.98%, Guaiol (5.50 and 3.14% and Carotol (5.14 and 1.63% as major constituents.

  8. GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES COMPRISING PERMEABILITY ENHANCING ADDITIVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Sterescu, D.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to polymer compositions comprising a (co)polymer comprising (a) an arylene oxide moiety and (b) a dendritic (co)polymer, a hyperbranched (co)polymer or a mixture thereof, and the use of these polymer compositions as membrane materials for the separation of gases. The

  9. Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Essential Oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the composition of essential oils of two types of mint as well as compare the antimicrobial ... was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). ..... autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion.

  10. Essential oils in aerial parts of Myrcia tomentosa: composition and variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyola A. S. Sá

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Species in the Myrtaceae family are used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders, infectious diseases and hemorrhagic conditions and are known for their essential oil contents. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used to characterize the chemical composition of essential oils of the leaves, stem bark and flowers of Myrcia tomentosa (Aubl. DC., as well as to assess the chemical variability in the constituents of the essential oils of the leaf. Soil and foliar analyses were also performed to determine the mineral compositions. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to examine the interrelationships between the obtained data. The most abundant component in the essential oils of the flowers was (2E,6E-methyl farnesoate, whereas hexadecanoic acid was the most abundant essential oil component in the stem bark. The leaf essential oils showed seasonal variation in their chemical composition, with bicyclogermacrene and (2E,6E-methyl farnesoate as the major chemical components. Forty-four constituents were identified, and only nine compounds were found in all of the samples. Sesquiterpenes were mainly produced in the flowers and leaves. The PCA showed a positive correlation between the oxygenated sesquiterpenes and the foliar nutrients Cu and P. Significant statistical correlations were verified between the climatic data, foliar nutrients and essential oil compositions.

  11. Essential oils in aerial parts of Myrcia tomentosa: composition and variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyola A. S. Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Species in the Myrtaceae family are used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders, infectious diseases and hemorrhagic conditions and are known for their essential oil contents. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used to characterize the chemical composition of essential oils of the leaves, stem bark and flowers of Myrcia tomentosa (Aubl. DC., as well as to assess the chemical variability in the constituents of the essential oils of the leaf. Soil and foliar analyses were also performed to determine the mineral compositions. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to examine the interrelationships between the obtained data. The most abundant component in the essential oils of the flowers was (2E,6E-methyl farnesoate, whereas hexadecanoic acid was the most abundant essential oil component in the stem bark. The leaf essential oils showed seasonal variation in their chemical composition, with bicyclogermacrene and (2E,6E-methyl farnesoate as the major chemical components. Forty-four constituents were identified, and only nine compounds were found in all of the samples. Sesquiterpenes were mainly produced in the flowers and leaves. The PCA showed a positive correlation between the oxygenated sesquiterpenes and the foliar nutrients Cu and P. Significant statistical correlations were verified between the climatic data, foliar nutrients and essential oil compositions.

  12. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Frančáková; Eva Ivanišová; Štefan Dráb; Tomáš Krajčovič; Marián Tokár; Ján Mareček; Janette Musilová

    2015-01-01

    Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA) were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest c...

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of solidago canadensis linn. Root essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-06-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans.

  14. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Methyl cinnamate-Linalool Chemovariant of Ocimum basilicum L. from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Chandra Padalia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation of Ocimum basilicum L. harvested at four different growth stages during spring-summer and rain-autumn cropping seasons , were characterized using GC and GC-MS. The e ssential oil yield was found to vary from 0.28–0.32% and 0.40–0.52% during spring-summer and rain-autumn cropping season, respectively with its maximal at full bloom stage. Altogether , forty constituents, comprising 94.9–98.3% were identified represented by ( E -methyl cinnamate (36.6 – 66.4%, linalool (11.2 – 43.8%, and (Z -methyl cinnamate (5.4-7.6% as main constituents. Results showed that growth stages strongly influenced the chemical composition of the essential oil in two cropping seasons, particularly concerning to the content of ( E -methyl cinnamate and linalool. Seed setting stage was optimized for harvesting ( E -methyl cinnamate rich oil (66.4% in rain-winter cropping season. The antimicrobial potential of the essential oil was tested againist eight pathogenic bacteria and three fungal strains. Antimicrobial assay showed that the essential oil possessed good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli , and antifungal activity against Candida kefyr and Candida albicans. Ocimum basilicum , essential oil, ( E - methyl cinnamate, linalool, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity

  15. Chemical Composition Variability of Essential Oils of Daucus gracilis Steinh. from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyelles, Batoul; Allali, Hocine; Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

    2017-06-01

    The chemical compositions of 20 Algerian Daucus gracilis essential oils were investigated using GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR analyses. Altogether, 47 compounds were identified, accounting for 90 - 99% of the total oil compositions. The main components were linalool (18; 12.5 - 22.6%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (20; 9.2 - 20.2%), 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate (10; 4.2 - 12.2%), ammimajane (47; 2.6 - 37.1%), (E)-β-ocimene (15; 0.2 - 12.8%) and 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (19; 3.3 - 9.6%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs was also studied. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaves and flowers allowed identifying 47 compounds, amounting to 92.3% and 94.1% of total oil composition, respectively. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaf and flower oils allowed identifying linalool (22.7%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (18.9%), 2-methylbutyl isovalerate (13.6%), ammimajane (10.4%), 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (10.3%), (E)-β-ocimene (8.4%) and isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate (8.1%) as main components. The chemical variability of the Algerian oil samples was studied using statistical analysis, which allowed the discrimination of three main Groups. A direct correlation between the altitudes, nature of soils and the chemical compositions of the D. gracilis essential oils was evidenced. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Mechanical and thermal properties of sisal fiber-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakare, I.O.; Okieimen, F.E.; Pavithran, C.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Brahmakumar, M.

    2010-01-01

    The development of high-performance composite materials from locally sourced and renewable materials was investigated. Rubber seed oil polyurethane resin synthesized using rubber seed monoglyceride derived from glycerolysis of the oil was used as matrix in the composite samples. Rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composite reinforced with unidirectional sisal fibers were prepared and characterized. Results showed that the properties of unidirectional fiber-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composites gave good thermal and mechanical properties. Also, the values of tensile strengths and flexural moduli of the polyurethane composites were more than tenfold and about twofold higher than un-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane. The improved thermal stability and the scanning electron micrographs of the fracture surface of the composites were attributed to good fiber-matrix interaction. These results indicate that high-performance 'all natural products' composite materials can be developed from resources that are readily available locally.

  17. Essential oil composition of wild growing Sage from R. Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjoshe Stefkov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze and identify the essential oil composition of S. officinalis populations growing in Republic of Macedonia and to evaluate these data according to different standards’ requirements for, commercially most utilized, Dalmatian sage. The essential oil yield, obtained after hydrodestilation from leaves, of three different populations of Salvia officinalis L. from Republic of Macedonia was determined, varying from 1.40 to 3.46%. The GC/FID/MS analysis of the composition of the essential oils revealed 63, 57 and 51 components in Galicica Mtn., Jablanica Mtn. and Karaorman Mtn. sage populations, respectively. The main components of the oil, in all three samples, were the terpene hydrocarbons, encompassing the monoterpenes: camphor (13.15 - 25.91%, α-thujone (19.25 - 26.33%, β-thujone (2.03 - 5.28%, 1,8-cineole (6.51 – 13.60%, α-pinene (0.93 – 1.47%, borneol (1.07 – 4.67%, then sesquiterpenes: trans (E-caryophyllene (1.72 – 5.33%, α-humulene (2.89 – 7.99%, viridiflorol (4.27 – 7.99%, and the diterpene manool (2.13 - 3.79%. Thus, our results for the essential oil composition of sage complied with the reference values specified in the DAC 86 monograph for Salvia essential oil.

  18. Composition of plasma and atheromatous plaque among coronary artery disease subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Rajesh, P C; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nair, Shiv K; Vasudevan, D M

    2012-12-01

    Coconut oil, which is rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids, is the principal cooking medium of the people of Kerala, India. Replacement of saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat is effective in reducing serum cholesterol levels. However, the effect of substituting coconut oil with sunflower oil on the fatty acid composition of plaque has not been thoroughly investigated. We therefore evaluated and compared the fatty acid composition of plasma and plaque among subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium. Endarterectomy samples and plasma samples were obtained from subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafts (n = 71). The subjects were grouped based on the type of oil they were using as their cooking medium (coconut oil or sunflower oil). The fatty acid composition in the plaques and the plasma was determined by HPLC and the data were analyzed statistically. Sunflower oil consumers had elevated concentrations of linoleic acid (p = 0.001) in plasma, while coconut oil users had higher myristic acid levels (p = 0.011) in plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids did not differ significantly between the two groups in the plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids were detected in the plaques in both groups of subjects. In contrast to previous reports, long-chain saturated fatty acids dominated the lipid content of plaque in this population, and the fatty acid composition of plaque was not significantly different between the two groups. No correlation between fatty acids of plasma and plaque was observed in either group. A change in cooking medium, although it altered the plasma fatty acid composition, was not reflected in the plaque composition.

  19. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han-Yu; Gao, Yang; Lai, Peng-Xiang

    2017-02-28

    Premna microphylla Turczaninow, an erect shrub, was widely used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat dysentery, appendicitis, and infections. In this study, the essential oil from P. microphylla Turcz. was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC (Gas Chromatography) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer). Fifty-six compounds were identified in the oil which comprised about 97.2% of the total composition of the oil. Major components of the oil were blumenol C (49.7%), β-cedrene (6.1%), limonene (3.8%), α-guaiene (3.3%), cryptone (3.1%), and α-cyperone (2.7%). Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro biological activities displayed by the oil obtained from the aerial parts of P. microphylla, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. For this, the IC50 value was estimated to be 0.451 mg/mL. The essential oil of P. microphylla exhibited considerable antibacterial capacity against Escherichia coli with an MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) value of 0.15 mg/mL, along with noticeable antibacterial ability against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC value of 0.27 mg/mL. However, the essential oil did not show significant activity against fungus. The oil was tested for its cytotoxic activity towards HepG2 (liver hepatocellular cells) and MCF-7 Cells (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line) using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay, and exerted cytotoxic activity with an IC50 of 0.072 and 0.188 mg/mL for 72 h. In conclusion, the essential oil from P. microphylla is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as cytotoxic activity. Thus, it has the potential for utilization in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26000025

  1. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity.

  2. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Novy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae, is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47% as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%, myristic acid (4.71%, linalool (4.65%, and anethole (4.09%. The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity.

  3. Composition and chemical variability of Corsican Pinus halepensis cone oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2014-09-01

    The composition of the essential oil isolated from cones of Pinus halepensis grown in Corsica has been investigated by a combination of chromatographic (CC, GC) and spectroscopic (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 48 compounds that accounted for 95.5% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene (47.5%) was the major component followed by myrcene (11.0%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (8.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.9%). Various diterpenes have been identified by 13C NMR in the fractions of CC. Fifteen oil samples isolated from cones harvested in three forests have been analyzed and two groups of similar importance have been differentiated within the 15 compositions. Oil samples of the first group contained α-pinene (mean 45.0 g/100 g, SD = 5.5) as the major component. The composition of samples of the second group was dominated by myrcene (mean 30.3 g/100g, SD = 9.0) and α-pinene (mean 24.6 g/100 g, SD = 3.1).

  4. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  5. Chemical composition of olive oils of the cultivar Colombaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunin, P.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of monovarietal olive oils from the cultivar Colombaia was studied. Free acidity, peroxide value and UV absorbance attested to the good quality of the analyzed oils. Their fatty acid composition appeared to be quite different from the typical fatty acid profile of olive oils from Liguria but met the limits reported in the EC Regulations for olive oils. On the contrary, the amounts of Δ7-stigmastenol were often higher than the 0.5 % limit set by EC Regulations and total ß-sitosterol was below the minimum 93 % limit. The composition of polar compounds and of the volatile fraction was representative of the peculiar organoleptic character of these oils. Thus, the anomalous sterol composition of the monovarietal oils from the cultivar Colombaia calls for blending with other oils. Moreover, the use of these oils for the production of PDO oils “Riviera Ligure” must also be carefully controlled because it changes their nutritional and sensorial featuresEn este trabajo se ha estudiado la composición química de aceites de oliva mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia. La acidez libre, el índice de peróxidos y la absorción UV confirmaron la buena calidad de los aceites analizados. Su composición en ácidos grasos resultó bastante diferente del perfil típico de ácidos grasos de los aceites de oliva virgen de la región de Liguria, pero se mantuvo dentro de los límites establecidos por los Reglamentos EC para aceites de oliva. Por otro lado, las cantidades de Δ7-estigmastenol resultaron normalmente superiores al 0.5 % del límite fijado por los Reglamentos EC y el ß-sitosterol total fue inferior al 93 % del límite mínimo. La composición en compuestos polares y de la fracción volátil confirmó las características organolépticas peculiares de estos aceites. Por tanto, la composición esterólica anómala de los aceites mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia hace necesaria una mezcla con otros

  6. Modeling comprehensive chemical composition of weathered oil following a marine spill to predict ozone and potential secondary aerosol formation and constrain transport pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Greg T.; Worton, David R.; Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M.; Zhang, Haofei; Variano, Evan; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2015-11-01

    Releases of hydrocarbons from oil spills have large environmental impacts in both the ocean and atmosphere. Oil evaporation is not simply a mechanism of mass loss from the ocean, as it also causes production of atmospheric pollutants. Monitoring atmospheric emissions from oil spills must include a broad range of volatile organic compounds (VOC), including intermediate-volatile and semivolatile compounds (IVOC, SVOC), which cause secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and ozone production. The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster in the northern Gulf of Mexico during Spring/Summer of 2010 presented a unique opportunity to observe SOA production due to an oil spill. To better understand these observations, we conducted measurements and modeled oil evaporation utilizing unprecedented comprehensive composition measurements, achieved by gas chromatography with vacuum ultraviolet time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-VUV-HR-ToFMS). All hydrocarbons with 10-30 carbons were classified by degree of branching, number of cyclic rings, aromaticity, and molecular weight; these hydrocarbons comprise ˜70% of total oil mass. Such detailed and comprehensive characterization of DWH oil allowed bottom-up estimates of oil evaporation kinetics. We developed an evaporative model, using solely our composition measurements and thermodynamic data, that is in excellent agreement with published mass evaporation rates and our wind-tunnel measurements. Using this model, we determine surface slick samples are composed of oil with a distribution of evaporative ages and identify and characterize probable subsurface transport of oil.

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Nouara Ait Mimoune; Djouher Ait Mimoune; Aziza Yataghene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay. Results: Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9%) and β-seli...

  8. Chemical composition of essential oil of exudates of Dryobalanops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the chemical composition of essential oil from the exudates of Dryobalanops aromatica from Malaysia. Methods: Exudate was collected from D. aromatica and subjected to fractional distillation to obtain essential oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to characterize the ...

  9. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare Linnaeus (Lamiaceae) on the growth of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The minimum inhibitory ...

  10. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  11. Oils; lubricants; paraffin-wax compositions; hydrocarbon condensation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-04-04

    Petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene, Diesel fuel oil, lubricating-oil, and paraffin wax, and like hydrocarbons such as are obtainable from shale oil and by the hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials, are improved by addition of products obtained by condensing a cyclic hydrocarbon with a saturated dihalogen derivative of an aliphatic hydrocarbon containing less than five carbon atoms. The addition of the condensation products increases the viscosity of the hydrocarbon oils specified, and is particularly useful in the case of lubricating-oils; addition of the condensation products to paraffin wax increases the transparency and adherent properties of the wax, and is useful in the manufacture of moulded articles such as candles; the products may also be used in solid lubricating-compositions.

  12. Essential oil composition and bioactivity of Thuja orientalis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger apparatus from aerial parts of Thuja orientalis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in Ondo State, Nigeria was analysed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry technique. Toxicity of the essential oils using anti-feedant and ...

  13. Composition of the essential oil of Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. leaves from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlke, J D; Boligon, A A; Machado, M M; Athayde, M L

    2013-01-01

    This study is designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from Buddleja thyrsoides Lam leaves from south Brazil. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the detection of 12 components, representing 91.4% of the total oil composition. Germacrene D (27.16%), 1,10-di-epi-Cubenol (13.37%), α-Cadinol (12.95%), Bicyclogermacrene (9.00%), Globulol (8.59%) and caryophylene E (5.26%) were the main components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the composition of essential oil of the B. thyrsoides collected in Brazil.

  14. Chemical composition and toxicities of essential oil of Illicium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and toxicities of essential oil derived from Illicium fargesii Finet et Gagnep fruits against the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch). Essential oil of I. fargesii fruits was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by GC (Gas Chromatography) ...

  15. Properties of An Oral Nanoformulation of A Molecularly Dispersed Amphotericin B Comprising A Composite Matrix of Theobroma Oil and Bee’S Wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe See Wei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An amphotericin B-containing (AmB solid lipid nanoparticulate drug delivery system intended for oral administration, comprised of bee’s wax and theobroma oil as lipid components was formulated with the aim to ascertain the location of AmB within the lipid matrix: (a a homogenous matrix; (b a drug-enriched shell; or (c a drug enriched core. Both the drug-loaded and drug-free nanoparticles were spherical with AmB contributing to an increase in both the z-average diameter (169 ± 1 to 222 ± 2 nm and zeta potential (40.8 ± 0.9 to 50.3 ± 1.0 mV of the nanoparticles. A maximum encapsulation efficiency of 21.4% ± 3.0%, corresponding to 10.7 ± 0.4 mg encapsulated AmB within the lipid matrix was observed. Surface analysis and electron microscopic imaging indicated that AmB was dispersed uniformly within the lipid matrix (option (a above and, therefore, this is the most suitable of the three models with regard to modeling the propensity for uptake by epithelia and release of AmB in lymph.

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouara Ait Mimoune

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay. Results: Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9% and β-selinene (13.45% were predominant compounds. The essential oil exhibited a moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, but did not affect the growth of Erwinia amylovora. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were not inhibited by maritime pine essential oils. Conclusions: The essential oils from Pinus pinaster can be used as an antibacterial agent.

  17. Tribological properties and lubrication mechanism of in situ graphene-nickel matrix composite impregnated with lubricating oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Du, Jinfang; Pang, Xianjuan; Wang, Haizhong; Yang, Hua; Jiang, Jinlong

    2018-05-01

    A solid-liquid synergetic lubricating system has been designed to develop a novel self-lubricating nickel matrix composite. The graphene-nickel (G-Ni) matrix composite with porous structure was fabricated by in situ growing graphene in bulk nickel using a powder metallurgy method. The porous structures of the composite were used to store polyalphaolefin (PAO) oil for self-lubricating. It is found that the G-Ni matrix composite under oil lubrication condition exhibited superior tribological properties as compared to pure nickel and the composite under dry sliding condition. The prestored oil was released from pores to the sliding surface forming a lubricating oil film during friction process. This lubricating oil film can protect the worn surface from severe oxidation, and help the formation and transfer of a carbon-based solid tribofilm derived from graphene and lubricating oil. This solid (graphene)-liquid (oil) synergistic lubricating mechanism is responsible for the reduction of friction coefficient and improvement of wear resistance of the in situ fabricated G-Ni matrix composite.

  18. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  19. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  20. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Górecki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  1. Chemical Composition and Biological Investigations of Eryngium triquetrum Essential Oil from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medbouhi, Ali; Merad, Nadjiya; Khadir, Abdelmounaim; Bendahou, Mourad; Djabou, Nassim; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil obtained from Eryngium triquetrum from Algeria were studied. The chemical composition of sample oils from 25 locations was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Twenty-four components representing always more than 87% were identified in essential oils from total aerial parts of plants, stems, flowers and roots. Falcarinol is highly dominant in the essential oil from the roots (95.5%). The relative abundance of falcarinol in the aerial parts correlates with the phenological stages of the plant. Aerial parts of E. triquetrum produce an essential oil dominated by falcarinol during the early flowering stage, and then there is a decrease in falcarinol and rebalancing of octanal during the flowering stage. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the chemical composition of E. triquetrum essential oil. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity by means of the paper disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration assays, showed a moderate efficiency of E. triquetrum essential oil. Using the DPPH method, the interesting antioxidant activity of E. triquetrum essential oil was established. These activities could be attributed to the dominance of falcarinol. The outcome of our literature search on the occurrence of falcarinol in essential oils suggests that E. triquetrum from Algeria could be considered as a possible source of natural falcarinol. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. Heating on the volatile composition and sensory aspects of extra-virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Antônio Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main ways by which extra-virgin olive oil is consumed include direct application on salads or as an ingredient in sauces, but it is also been used by some for cooking, including frying and baking. However, it has been reported that under heat stress, some nonglyceridic components of olive oil are degraded. So, the effect of heating (at 50, 100, 150, and 200 °C for 2 h on the volatile composition and sensory aspects of extra-virgin olive oil were evaluated. Heating altered the volatile composition of extra-virgin olive oil, mainly at higher temperatures (above 150 °C. The main modifications were related to the formation of large amounts of oxidized compounds, particularly large chain aldehydes. Sensory aspects were also altered when the oil was heated to higher temperatures, which might have occurred because of color alterations and mainly changes in the volatile composition of the oil.

  3. A Simple Geotracer Compositional Correlation Analysis Reveals Oil Charge and Migration Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunlai; Arouri, Khaled

    2016-03-01

    A novel approach, based on geotracer compositional correlation analysis is reported, which reveals the oil charge sequence and migration pathways for five oil fields in Saudi Arabia. The geotracers utilised are carbazoles, a family of neutral pyrrolic nitrogen compounds known to occur naturally in crude oils. The approach is based on the concept that closely related fields, with respect to filling sequence, will show a higher carbazole compositional correlation, than those fields that are less related. That is, carbazole compositional correlation coefficients can quantify the charge and filling relationships among different fields. Consequently, oil migration pathways can be defined based on the established filling relationships. The compositional correlation coefficients of isomers of C1 and C2 carbazoles, and benzo[a]carbazole for all different combination pairs of the five fields were found to vary extremely widely (0.28 to 0.94). A wide range of compositional correlation coefficients allows adequate differentiation of separate filling relationships. Based on the established filling relationships, three distinct migration pathways were inferred, with each apparently being charged from a different part of a common source kitchen. The recognition of these charge and migration pathways will greatly aid the search for new accumulations.

  4. A Simple Geotracer Compositional Correlation Analysis Reveals Oil Charge and Migration Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunlai; Arouri, Khaled

    2016-03-11

    A novel approach, based on geotracer compositional correlation analysis is reported, which reveals the oil charge sequence and migration pathways for five oil fields in Saudi Arabia. The geotracers utilised are carbazoles, a family of neutral pyrrolic nitrogen compounds known to occur naturally in crude oils. The approach is based on the concept that closely related fields, with respect to filling sequence, will show a higher carbazole compositional correlation, than those fields that are less related. That is, carbazole compositional correlation coefficients can quantify the charge and filling relationships among different fields. Consequently, oil migration pathways can be defined based on the established filling relationships. The compositional correlation coefficients of isomers of C1 and C2 carbazoles, and benzo[a]carbazole for all different combination pairs of the five fields were found to vary extremely widely (0.28 to 0.94). A wide range of compositional correlation coefficients allows adequate differentiation of separate filling relationships. Based on the established filling relationships, three distinct migration pathways were inferred, with each apparently being charged from a different part of a common source kitchen. The recognition of these charge and migration pathways will greatly aid the search for new accumulations.

  5. Essential Oil Composition of Two Grammosciadium DC Species, G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turk J Bot 2012; 36: 637-643. 7. Buchbauer G. The detailed analysis of essential oils leads to the understanding of their properties. Perfumer. & Flavourist 2000; 25: 64-67. 8. Tzakou O, Pitarokili D, Chinou IB, Harvala C. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Salvia ringens. Planta Med 2001; 67: 81-83.

  6. Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanida Lamaisri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid compositions in the oils used as feedstock can influence quality of the biodiesel. In the present study, oil content and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and kernel oil were examined from nine commercial oil palm Elaeis guineensis cultivars. Saponification number, iodine value and cetane number were calculated from palm oil fatty acid methyl ester compositions. Fruits of tenera oil palm were collected from a farmer’s plantation in Dan Makham Tia District, Kanchanaburi Province in 2009. Variation between cultivars was observed in oil content and fatty acid profile of mesocarp oil rather than kernel oil. The percentage of oil in dry mesocarp ranged from 63.8% to 74.9%. The mesocarp oil composed of 41.5 - 51.6% palmitic acid, 3.58-7.10% stearic acid, 32.8-42.5% oleic acid and 9.3-13.0% linoleic acid. Likewise saponification number, iodine value and cetane number of mesocarp oil fatty acid methyl ester showed more variation among cultivars, ranging from 196.5-198.9, 45.7-54.6 and 61.8-63.6, respectively. While those of kernel oil fatty acid methyl ester showed no different among cultivars, ranging from 229-242, 13.6-16.4 and 65.3-66.5, respectively. The cetane number of fatty acid methyl ester positively correlated with contents of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids in palm oil and saponification number of biodiesel, but negatively correlated with iodine value

  7. Catalytic Cracking of Used Palm Oil using Composite Zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.H.; Tye, C.T.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid expansion of human society implies greater energy demand and environmental issues. In face of depletion energy resources, research is being carried out widely in order to convert the plant oil into biofuel. In this research, the production of liquid biofuels via catalytic cracking of used palm oil in the presence of composite zeolite was studied. The performance of composite zeolite of different properties in the reaction has been evaluated. The catalytic cracking reactions were carried out in a batch reactor at reaction temperature of 350 degree Celsius for an hour. In the present study, adjusting the ratio of meso porous coating to microporous zeolite and magnesium loading on composite zeolite catalyst were found to be able to increase the gasoline fraction and overall conversion of the reaction. (author)

  8. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of Algerian citrus. They were extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves of citrus species (orange, Bigaradier, mandarin and lemon), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their chemical composition and antifungal ...

  9. Drought and heat stress effects on soybean fatty acid composition and oil stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that oil concentration and fatty acid profile (composition) change with genotype, environment (mainly heat and drought), and geographical location. The changes in fatty acid composition under these conditions affect fatty acid stability, creating a challenge to oil proces...

  10. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSITES COMPRISING MODIFIED HARDWOOD AND WOOD POLYMERS/POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxanda Bodîrlău

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of hardwood sawdust from ash-tree species was carried out with a solution of maleic anhydride in acetone. Wood polymers, lignin, and cellulose were isolated from the wood sawdust and modified by the same method. Samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, providing evidence that maleic anhydride esterifies the free hydroxyl groups of the wood polymer components. Composites comprising chemically modified wood sawdust and wood polymers (cellulose, lignin-as variable weight percentages-, and poly (vinyl chloride were obtained and further characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal behavior of composites was investigated by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. In all cases, thermal properties were affected by fillers addition.

  11. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition of annual halophyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suaeda acuminata produces two morphologically distinct types of seeds on the same plant. This study was conducted to compare oil content and fatty acid composition of the two seed morphs. Though oil characteristics between dimorphic seeds showed statistically significant difference, these differences were relatively ...

  12. Constituent composition and biological activity of Nepeta manchuriensis essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil present in the aerial parts of the plant Nepeta manchuriensis was prepared by steam distillation using clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition of the oil was studied by GCMS. Sabinene, elemol, selinene, 4-terpineol, menthatriene and neoisothujol are the major components and r...

  13. The relationship between fatty acid compositions and thermal stability of extra virgin olive oils

    OpenAIRE

    Fayegh Moulodi; Peyman Qajarbeigi; Ashraf Haj Hosseini Babaei; Asghar Mohammadpoor Asl

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fatty acids are one of the most important compounds in edible oils. Further, the stability of oils depends on the composition of fatty acids. So, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition on the oxidative stability of extra virgin olive oils during the heating process. Methods: In total, eight samples of extra virgin olive oil were studied. To evaluate their thermal stability, the oils were heated at 120 ° C for 4 h and sampling was carried o...

  14. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  15. Polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants and refrigerant oils colored with fluorescent dyes and method for their use as leak detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, M.

    1988-07-19

    A leak detectable refrigeration composition is described comprising: (A) a refrigeration liquid selection from the group consisting of: (1) a polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant; (2) a refrigeration oil selected from the group consisting of naphthenic oils, paraffinic oils, alkylated benzenes, silicones, polyglycols, diesters or triesters of dicarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids, and polyalkyl silicate oils, and (3) a mixture of A(1) and A(2), and (B) a fluorescent dye compound or composition comprising the dye selected from the group consisting of: (1) a fluorescent dye selected from the group consisting of perylene, naphthoxanthene, monocyclic aromatic compounds having an organometallic compound, (2) a solution of fluorescent dye in a solvent, and (3) a mixture of B(1) and B(2). The fluorescent dye compound or composition is soluble in the refrigeration liquid. The concentration of the dye being at least 0.001 grams per 100 grams of the refrigeration liquid.

  16. Method for attaining rosemary essential oil with differential composition from dried or fresh material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Zhalnov, Ivan; Georgieva, Tonya D

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) is a well-known medicinal and essential oil plant, utilized by humankind since ancient times. The objective was to determine the effect of steam distillation time (DT) and material (dry or fresh biomass) on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity; and to develop regression models that can predict oil yield and composition at specific DT. The oil yield (content) from dry biomass was higher (0.43%) than that from fresh biomass (0.35%) and ranged from 0.18% in the 1.25 min DT to 0.51% in the 40 min DT. There was no yield advantage in extending the DT beyond 40 min, which is much shorter than the DT used by industry. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of the rosemary oil using the ORACoil method was 4,108 μmolVE/L. Rosemary oil did not exhibit significant antileishmanial, antimalarial, or antimicrobial activity. In general, the low-boiling constituents eluted earlier than the higher boiling constituents of the essential oil, resulting in a great variation of essential oil composition obtained at different DT. The most important constituents are α-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. The highest α-pinene concentration in the oil (30.4%) was obtained from dry biomass at 2.5 min DT; eucalyptol (23.3% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 2.5 min DT; and camphor (15.9% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 160 min DT. The DT could be used as an inexpensive tool to alter essential oil composition of the essential oil from fresh or dried rosemary biomass, and to produce rosemary oils with elevated or lowered concentration of specific targeted oil constituents to meet specific market demands.

  17. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, β-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oil hyphae of endolithic lichens and their fatty acid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnir, E; Tietz, A; Galun, M

    1978-01-01

    The structure of medullary oil hyphae of twelve endolithic lichen species, belonging to different taxa and colonizing different habitats, was examined by light and electron microscopy. The chemical composition of lipids isolated from the oil hyphae and from two corresponding mycobionts grown in culture was determined. The oil hyphae of the various species appeared in different forms and contained large amounts of lipid in the form of oil globules. The hyphae of mycobionts isolated from two of the endoliths and grown in culture also contained large amounts of lipids. Triacylglycerol was the predominant lipid component in all the organisms examined. Hexadecanoic acid was the main saturated fatty acid; octadecenoic acid and octadecdienoic acid the predominant unsaturated fatty acids. Tetradecanoic, hexadecenoic, octadecanoic and octadectrienoic acids were also detected. The fatty acid distribution pattern appeared unaffected by the nature of substrate and climatic conditions. There is a certain similarity in the fatty acid composition in related species. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  19. effect of cold storage on the composition of the essential oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrodistilled volatile oil of fresh leaves and leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. stored for 24hr at 4oC were compared. The GC, LSC and GC-MS analyses of the oils revealed major quantitative differences in their chemical composition. The predominantly sesquitepene rich oils differed mainly in the percentage of their ...

  20. Composite Coiled Tubing for Extended Reach in Horizontal Oil Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Conventional steel coiled tubing cannot reach along the entire length of very long horizontal oil wells. A lighter and more buoyant coiled tube is made possible using composite materials. The high stiffness to weight ratio of fiber reinforced polymers, coupled with a lower coefficient of friction......, has the potential of greatly extending the reach in horizontal oil wells. This study shows how to design composite coiled tubing and gives a comprehensive discussion about the most influential parameters. Several solutions, using glass-fiber and carbon are considered. Finite element models are used...

  1. Chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm/jute fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawaid, M.; Khalil, H.P.S. Abdul; Bakar, A. Abu; Khanam, P. Noorunnisa

    2011-01-01

    Tri layer hybrid composites of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and jute fibres was prepared by keeping oil palm EFB as skin material and jute as the core material and vice versa. The chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm EFB/Jute composites was investigated with reference to the relative weight of oil palm EFB/Jute, i.e. 4:1, the fibre loading was optimized and different layering pattern were investigated. It is found from the chemical resistance test that all the composites are resistant to various chemicals. It was observed that marked reduction in void content of hybrid composites in different layering pattern. From the different layering pattern, the tensile properties were slightly higher for the composite having jute as skin and oil palm EFB as core material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study tensile fracture surfaces of different composites.

  2. Investigating Asphaltenes Composition in Crude Oil Samples using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-22

    Dec 22, 2015 ... composition of asphaltenes by Iatroscan TLC-FID method was compared with the weight% of asphaltenes precipitated. ... SARA in the crude oil samples were determined in this work ..... Fractionation and characterization of.

  3. Composition and morphology of stack emissions from coal and oil fuelled boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.; Starkova, B.; Blazek, J.

    1989-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) together with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in the study of fly ash from large electric power and heating plants. Two basic kinds of fly ash originating from brown coal or heavy oil combustion can be characterized both by morphology and trace element composition. The avarage composition and determination limits obtained by INAA for coal fly ash were compared with those obtained for heavy oil. Coal fly ash showed much higher concentrations of many elements in comparison with oil fly ash. (author) 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  4. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  5. Modification of yield and composition of essential oils by distillation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to model the length of the steam distillation time (DT) on essential oil yield and oil composition of peppermint, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. The DTs tested were 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min for peppermint, and 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40...

  6. Variation in oil content and fatty acid composition of sesame accessions from different origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kurt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil content and fatty acid composition are very important parameters for the human consumption of oilseed crops. Twenty-four sesame accessions including seven collected from various geographical regions of Turkey and 11 from different countries were investigated under field conditions for two consecutive years (2015 and 2016. The sesame accessions varied widely in their oil content and fatty acid compositions. The oil content varied between 44.6 and 53.1% with an average value of 48.15%. The content of oleic acids, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid,and stearic acid varied between 36.13–43.63%, 39.13–46.38%, 0.28–0.4%, 8.19–10.26%, and 4.63–6.35%, respectively. When total oil content and fatty acid composition were compared, Turkish sesame showed wide variation in oil and fatty acid compositions compared to those from other countries. However, the accessions from other countries were fewer compared to those from Turkey. It is essential to compare oil and fatty acid composition using a large number of germ plasm from different origins. In sesame oil, the average contents of oleic acid and linoleic acid were 39.02% and 43.64%, respectively, and their combined average content was 82.66%, representing the major fatty acid components in the oil from the sesame accessions used in the present study. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the identification of better parents with high linoleic and oleic acid contents for developing elite sesame varieties with traits which are beneficial to consumer health.

  7. Composition of the Essential oil of Artemisia absinthium from Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farukh S. Sharopov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three samples of Artemisia absinthium were collected from two different locations in the central-south of Tajikistan. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. A total of 41 compounds were identified representing 72-94% of total oil compositions. The major components of A. absinthium oil were myrcene (8.6-22.7%, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (7.7-17.9%, a dihydrochamazulene isomer (5.5-11.6%, germacrene D (2.4-8.0%, β-thujone (0.4-7.3%, linalool acetate (trace-7.0%, α-phellandrene (1.0-5.3%, and linalool (5.3-7.0%. The chemical compositions of A. absinthium from Tajikistan are markedly different from those from European, Middle Eastern, or other Asian locations and likely represent new chemotypes.

  8. Chemical Composition of Iran's Pistacia atlantica Cold-Pressed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saber-Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid fraction of Pistacia atlantica seeds was extracted for the first time by means of cold-press technique and analyzed for its chemical composition. The fatty acids, sterols, triacylglycerols (TAG, tocopherols, polyphenols, and pigments were identified and their concentrations were determined by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. Because of its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, it might prove to be of value in diets and it may be used as edible cooking or salad oils or for margarine manufacture. Pistacia atlantica seed oil has the unique sterols and tocopherols content providing source of natural antioxidants. The main triacylglycerols were SLL + PLO, SOL + POO, OOLn + PLL, OOO, and SOO. This paper examined the phenolic fraction of Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Moreover, caffeic acid followed by cinnamic acid, pinoresinol, vanillin, p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and o-Coumaric acid was also determined. This paper presents the first investigation of chlorophyll's and carotene's composition in Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Furthermore, pheophytin a was the major component, followed by luteoxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, lutein isomers, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a′, and pheophytin a′ were also determined.

  9. Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, A. H., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my, E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com; Dasan, Y. K., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my, E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred.

  10. Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, A. H.; Dasan, Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred

  11. The features of the isotope composition of carbon in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic oils of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golyshev, S.I.; Lebedena, L.V.

    1984-01-01

    The isotope composition of the carbon in the oils from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic deposits is measured. The variations in the isotope composition of carbon for the Paleozoic oils is between 27.5 and 30.8 percent, while for the oils from the lower Jurassic and Triassic levels it is between 27.7 and 31.2 percent and for the upper Jurassic oils it is between 30.1 and 34.5 percent. The dependence of the isotope composition of the carbon in the oils on the type of original organic matter and its metamorphosis conditions during lithogenesis is analyzed. A softening in the isotope composition of the carbon in the oils from the oceanic deposits relative to continental deposits is found, together with a genetic individualism of the oils from the Paleozoic deposits and their difference from the oils in the Mesozoic deposits.

  12. Ball bearings comprising nickel-titanium and methods of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Glennon, Glenn N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a friction reducing nickel-titanium composition. The nickel-titanium composition includes a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38. A bearing for reducing friction comprising a nickel-titanium composition comprising a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38; where the bearing is free from voids and pinholes.

  13. Effect of γ irradiation on the fatty acid composition of soybean and soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Ikuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Todoriki, Setsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a form of food processing to extend the shelf life and reduce spoilage of food. We examined the effects of γ radiation on the fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidative activity of soybean and soybean oil which both contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Irradiation at 10 to 80 kGy under aerobic conditions did not markedly change the fatty acid composition of soybean. While 10-kGy irradiation did not markedly affect the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 40-kGy irradiation considerably altered the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, 40-kGy irradiation produced a significant amount of trans fatty acids under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Irradiating soybean oil induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the radical scavenging activity under aerobic conditions, but had no effect under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition of soybean was not markedly affected by radiation at 10 kGy, and that anaerobic conditions reduced the degradation of soybean oil that occurred with high doses of γ radiation.

  14. Chemical composition and anti-bacterial activity of essential oil from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work assesses the chemical compositions and in vitro anti-bacterial activities of seed essential oil from Cedrela sinesis (A. Juss.) Roem. seed. which has abundant mineral elements such as K, Ca, Fe. The fatty acid profiles of seed essential oil are characterized by considerable unsaturated fatty acids (90.39%) ...

  15. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest content of saturated fatty acids was observed in pumpkinseed oil (19.07%, the lowest content was found in rapeseed oil (7.03%, with low level of palmitic and stearic acids and high level of behenic acid (0.32% among the evaluated oils. The highest content of linoleic acid was determined in pumpkinseed (46.40% and sesame oil (40.49%; in these samples was also found lowest content of α-linolenic acid. These oils have important antioxidant properties and are not subject to oxidation. The richest source of linolenic acid was flaxseed oil which, which is therefore more difficult to preserve and process in food industry. In olive oil was confirmed that belongs to the group of oils with a predominantly monosaturated oleic acid (more than 70% and a small amount of polysaturated fatty acid. The most commonly used rapeseed oil belongs to the group of oils with the medium content of linolenic acid (8.76%; this oil also showed a high content of linoleic acid (20.24%. The group of these essentially fatty acids showed a suitable ratio ∑n3/n6 in the rapessed oil (0.44.

  16. Composition of the essential oils of Pinus nigra Arnold from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Turkey, Composition of the essential oils of Pin

    2010-01-01

    Essential oil composition of the needles of Pinus nigra Arnold collected from different localities in Turkey was investigated by GC and GC/MS. The main components in the oils were a-pinene, b-pinene, b-caryophyllene, and germacrene D.

  17. Composition of the essential oils of Pinus nigra Arnold from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Turkey, Composition of the essential oils of Pin; SEZİK, Ekrem; ÜSTÜN, Osman; DEMİRCİ, Betül; BAŞER, K. Hüsnü Can

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil composition of the needles of Pinus nigra Arnold collected from different localities in Turkey was investigated by GC and GC/MS. The main components in the oils were a-pinene, b-pinene, b-caryophyllene, and germacrene D.

  18. Composition of essential oil of lemon thyme (Thymus × citriodorus) at different hydrodistillation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurevičiūtė, Rūta; Ložienė, Kristina; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio

    2018-02-02

    Distillation time can both to optimise the production and to engineer the composition of essential oil in essential oil bearing plants. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of duration of hydrodistillation on composition of essential oil of Thymus × citriodorus, the natural source of commercially important geraniol and citral, a component with valuable biological properties. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation at different distillation times and analysed by GC/MS analytical methods. Increase in percentage of essential oil during all hydrodistillation time gradient was uneven. Elongation of hydrodistillation time decreased percentages of monoterpenes but increased percentages of sesquiterpenes in essential oil. Results showed that the hydrodistillation of essential oil from lemon thyme longer than 60 min is useless.

  19. Chemical composition and biological activities of Tunisian Cupressus arizonica Greene essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amri; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Hamrouni, Lamia; Hanana, Mohsen; Jamoussi, Bassem; Gargouri, Samia; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of leaves, stems, and female cones of Cupressus arizonica Greene, grown in Tunisia, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Altogether, 62 compounds were identified, 62 in the leaf oil, 19 in the cone oil, and 24 in the stem oil. The cone and stem oils were mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (96.6 and 85.2%, resp.). In the leaf oil, the total sesquiterpene fraction constituted 36.1% and that of the monoterpene hydrocarbons 33.8% of the total oil composition. The three oils were evaluated for their in vitro herbicidal activity by determining their influence on the germination and the shoot and root growth of the four weed species Sinapis arvensis L., Lolium rigidum Gaudin, Trifolium campestre Schreb., and Phalaris canariensis L. At the highest doses tested (0.8 and 1.0 mg/ml), the leaf essential oil inhibited either totally or almost completely the seed germination and the shoot and root growth of S. arvensis and T. campestre. The oils were also tested for their antifungal activity; however, their effects on the fungal growth were statistically not significant. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. Biological activity and phytochemical composition of the volatile oils from basilicum polystachyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, H.X.; Cheng, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper extracted and determined the chemical components of the volatile oil in Basilicum polystachyon, and measured and evaluated the bioactivity of the volatile oil in Basilicum polystachyon. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were separated and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by using the 8 kinds of plant pathogenic fungi. The free radicals scavenging activity of its volatile oil for the IC/sub 50/ were investigated by using Trolox as the comparison and cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethal bioassay. The results show that 64 constituents of oils isolated respectively from Basilicum polystachyon were identified. The appraised components take up 99.75% of the total peak area. The main composition of the volatile oil is sesquiterpenoids and monoterpene. The results exhibit that the volatile oil in Basilicum polystachyon has very strong bioactivity of antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity. These results provided the reference for further understanding the chemical components and its bioactivity of this aromatic plant as well as its further development. (author)

  1. Oil and fatty acid composition of peanut cultivars grown in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, F.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-01-01

    Quality and flavor of edible peanuts and its products are affected by fatty acid composition of oil. The information related to chemical composition of Peanut grown in the country are scarce, therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine the oil and fatty acid composition of some commonly grown peanut cultivars in Pakistan. Seven Peanut cultivars were grown during 2008 in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The tested cultivars differed significantly for oil content which ranged from 49.83 to 53.06% on dry weight basis, thus showing differences of 7% among cultivars. The saturated fatty acids (Palmetic and Stearic acid) in different cultivars ranged between 9.95 to 10.79% and 1.63 to 2.19%, respectively. Differences among cultivars for oleic acid exhibited significance which ranged between 49.34 to 54.83%. Similarly, cultivars differed statistically for linoleic ac id which showed a range of 28.99 to 34.23%, thus depicted difference of 7%. Significant differences among tested cultivars may be attributed to the place of origin of particular cultivar. An inverse relationship was exhibited between oleic and linoleic acid, similar to other edible oils. (author)

  2. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-05-04

    This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus). The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were δ-cadinol (12.8%), caryophyllene (12.7%), β-cubebene (7.9%), 4-terpineol (7.5%) and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%), while humulene epoxide II (29.4%), caryophyllene oxide (24.0%), diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7%) and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7%) were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively.

  3. Properties of composite laminates based on basalt fibers with epoxidized vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper, M.D.; Petrucci, R.; Sanchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.; Kenny, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New environmentally friendly composites from biobased epoxies and basalt fibers. • Improved performance with conventional silane treatment on basalt fabrics. • Composites with excellent appearance due to basalt shiny brown color. • Potential applications as substitute of glass fiber reinforced composites in engineering design. • Processing with conventional resin transfer molding (RTM) techniques. - Abstract: This paper deals with the development of polymeric materials derived from epoxidized vegetable oils which have been used in the manufacture of laminated composite materials with basalt fabrics. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) were used as biobased matrices. The basalt fabrics were modified with amino-silane and glycidyl-silane to increase fiber–matrix interactions. The curing behavior of both resins was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and oscillatory rheometry (OR). The evaluation of mechanical properties was made by tensile, flexural and Charpy tests. The extent of the fiber–matrix interactions among interface was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained results revealed that surface modification of basalt fibers with glycidyl-silane clearly improves the mechanical properties of the composites. The use of the ELO resin as matrix for composite laminates improved substantially the mechanical performance compared to composites made with ESBO

  4. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT BASIL OILS

    OpenAIRE

    H.C. Srivastava, Pankaj Shukla, Ajay Singh Maurya and Sonia Tripathi*

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS) and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; tanethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol...

  5. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosana M. Debonsi Navickiene

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of essential oils from leaves, stems and fruits of Piper aduncum, P. arboreum and P. tuberculatum was examined by means of GC-MS and antifungal assay. There was a predominance of monoterpenes in P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum and of sesquiterpenes in P. arboreum. P. aduncum showed the richest essential oil composition, including linalool. The essential oils from fruits of P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum showed the highest antifungal activity with the MIC of 10 µg as determined against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. This is the first report of the composition of essential oils from P. tuberculatum.

  6. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils of Deverra scoparia Coss. & Dur. (Apiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudi, R.; Dehak, K.; Hadj Mahammed, M.; Didi Ouldelhadj, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the essential oils of the aerial part of the plant Deverra scoparia Coss. &Dur. The extraction of essential oils was carried out by hydrodistillation. The composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC and GC/MS). 22 constituents were identified, representing 84.63% of the essential oil. The major compounds are: α-bornyl acetate (31.99%) andα-pinene (12.05%). The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH and ABTS. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil wasmore effective than the two references tested,ascorbic acidand Trolox (author)

  7. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Portuguese Foeniculum vulgare Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Ana; Martins, M. Rosário; Arantes, Silvia; Lopes, Violeta; Bettencourt, Eliseu; Pombal, Sofia; Gomes, Arlindo; Silva, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fruits of six fennel accessions collected from wild populations occurring in the centre and south of Portugal. Composition of essential oils was established by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The obtained yields of the essential oils were found to vary greatly ...

  8. The significance of different diacylgycerol synthesis pathways on plant oil composition and bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip David Bates

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The unique properties of vegetable oils from different plants utilized for food, industrial feedstocks, and fuel is dependent on the fatty acid (FA composition of triacylglycerol (TAG. Plants can use two main pathways to produce diacylglycerol (DAG, the immediate precursor molecule to TAG synthesis: 1 De novo DAG synthesis, and 2 conversion of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC to DAG. The FA esterified to PC are also the substrate for FA modification (e.g. desaturation, hydroxylation, etc., such that the FA composition of PC-derived DAG can be substantially different than that of de novo DAG. Since DAG provides two of the three FA in TAG, the relative flux of TAG synthesis from de novo DAG or PC-derived DAG can greatly affect the final oil FA composition. Here we review how the fluxes through these two alternate pathways of DAG/TAG synthesis are determined and present evidence that suggests which pathway is utilized in different plants. Additionally, we present examples of how the endogenous DAG synthesis pathway in a transgenic host plant can produce bottlenecks for engineering of plant oil FA composition, and discuss alternative strategies to overcome these bottlenecks to produce crop plants with designer vegetable oil compositions.

  9. Study on the Tribological Properties of MC Nylon Composites Filled with Hydraulic Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Li, Y.; Wen, J.; Yin, L.; Zhang, Q.

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical parts utilized in machinery, such as nylon slider and pulley, should have certain mechanical properties and good tribological properties, so that equipments’ stability and smoothness can be assured. A kind of MC nylon (monomer cast nylon) composites filled with hydraulic oil was studied in this paper. The addition of hydraulic oil changed nylon’s mechanical properties and tribological properties significantly, and improved the material’s toughness and coefficient of friction. The composites have excellent strength, toughness and relatively low coefficient of friction when the content of the hydraulic oil is 4wt%.

  10. Essential oil composition of Salvia fruticosa Mill. populations from Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cvetkovikj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO isolated from 19 different populations of Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Greek sage, Lamiaceae from nine different regions of Albania and Greece. The EO yield ranged from 0.25% to 4.00%. Eighteen of the total analyzed populations met the Ph.Eur.8.0 minimal requirements concerning the essential oil yield. Performing GC/FID/MS analyses, a total of 75 components were detected, representing 79.15-97.83% of the oils. Thirteen components (α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, γ-terpinene, cis-thujone, trans-thujone, camphor, terpinene-4-ol, trans-(E-caryophyllene, aromadendrene and α-humulene were identified in all samples, with 1,8-cineole as a predominant constituent. Statistical analysis showed that the geographical origin of plants did not have significant influence on the variation in chemical composition of the Greek sage essential oil.

  11. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  12. Composition and antioxidant capacity of the essential oil of leaves of Vitex megapotamica (Sprengel) Moldenke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Frohlich, Janaína Kieling; Schwanz, Thiago Guilherme; Zadra, Marina; Piana, Mariana; Froeder, Amanda Luana Forbrig; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2013-04-01

    This study is designed to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of Vitex megapotamica. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the detection of 27 components, representing 92.36% of the total oil composition. The main components in the oil were butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (34.17%), phytol (12.66%), α-caryophyllene (11.84%), δ-elemene (10.65%), β-caryophyllene (7.82%), γ-elemene (4.24%) and germacrene D (2.82%). The antioxidant activity of the oil was evaluated in terms of their free-radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The oil showed percentage inhibition of 35.62% and 75.25% at concentrations of 76 and 101.6 mg mL(-1), respectively. BHT (36.30%) was also determined by HPLC-DAD in the hexane fraction from the leaves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of the species V. megapotamica.

  13. Tensile Mechanical Property of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazilan, A. L. Ahmad; Mokhtar, H.; Shaik Dawood, M. S. I.; Aminanda, Y.; Ali, J. S. Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Natural, short, untreated and randomly oriented oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber reinforced epoxy composites were manufactured using vacuum bagging technique with 20% fiber volume composition. The performance of the composite was evaluated as an alternative to synthetic or conventional reinforced composites. Tensile properties such as tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio were compared to the tensile properties of pure epoxy obtained via tensile tests as per ASTM D 638 specifications using Universal Testing Machine INSTRON 5582. The tensile properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber reinforced epoxy composites were lower compared to plain epoxy structure with the decrement in performances of 38% for modulus of elasticity and 61% for tensile strength.

  14. Essential Oil Composition of Endemic Arabis purpurea Sm. & Arabis cypria Holmboe (Brassicaceae) from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Servi, Hüseyin; Özçınar, Özge; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Gücel, Salih

    2017-01-01

    There are very few reports on the phytochemistry of the Arabis L. (Brassicaceae) species in the literature. Here we present essential oil composition of aerial parts of two endemic Arabis species from Cyprus. The essential oils of Arabis purpurea Sm. and Arabis cypria Holmboe afforded very low oil yields (essential oil of A. purpurea that represent 82.75 ± 0.21 % (n = 3) of the oil. The major components of the oil were nonacosane 16.18 ± 0.13 %, heptacosane 14.91 ± 0.17 %, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone 12.44 ± 0.10 % and phytol 7.36 ± 0.10 % (n = 3). Forty three compounds were identified in the essential oil of A. cypria which represent 81.28 ± 1.55 % (n = 3) of the oil. The major components of the oil were nonacosane 20.25 ± 0.47 %, heptacosane 9.13 ± 1.88 %, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone 9.03 ± 0.44 % and 1-tetradecanol 4.38 ± 2.60 % (n = 3). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the essential oil compositions of these species.

  15. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

    2012-07-04

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species.

  16. Evaluation of composition of acai berry oil (Euterpe oleracea) submitted to sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Ana Carolina H.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar V.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: acmachado@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), the Acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. Therefore, it is proposed a more effective topical administration of the Acai oil by its immobilization in BandGel type hydrogels, which is crosslinked and sterilized by ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the oil when submitted to a sterilizing dose of ionizing radiation. The oil composition was determined by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed a small decrease in the concentration of ester acids and increase of some main products, i.e., ethyl oleic and palmitic acids. (author)

  17. Evaluation of composition of acai berry oil (Euterpe oleracea) submitted to sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Ana Carolina H.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar V.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2007-01-01

    Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), the Acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. Therefore, it is proposed a more effective topical administration of the Acai oil by its immobilization in BandGel type hydrogels, which is crosslinked and sterilized by ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the oil when submitted to a sterilizing dose of ionizing radiation. The oil composition was determined by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed a small decrease in the concentration of ester acids and increase of some main products, i.e., ethyl oleic and palmitic acids. (author)

  18. The volatile oil composition of fresh and air-dried buds of Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; ElSohly, M A

    1996-01-01

    The composition of the steam-distilled volatile oil of fresh and air-dried, indoor-grown marijuana was studied by GC/FID and GC/MS. In all, 68 components were detected of which 57 were fully identified. Drying of the plant material had no effect on the qualitative composition of the oil and did not affect the ability of individuals familiar with marijuana smell to recognize the odor.

  19. Mechanical properties of short random oil palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zuhri Mohamed Yusoff; Mohd Sapuan Salit; Napsiah Ismail; Riza Wirawan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the study of mechanical properties of short random oil palm fibre reinforced epoxy (OPF/epoxy) composites. Empty fruit bunch (EFB) was selected as the fibre and epoxy as the matrix. Composite plate with four different volume fractions of oil palm fibre was fabricated, (5 vol %, 10 vol %, 15 vol % and 20 vol %). The fabrication was made by hand-lay up techniques. The tensile and flexural properties showed a decreasing trend as the fibre loading was increased. The highest tensile properties was obtained for the composite with fibre loading of 5 vol % and there were no significant effect for addition of more than 5 vol % to the flexural properties. Interaction between fibre and matrix was observed from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph. (author)

  20. EFFECT OF OIL TEMPERATURE ON THE WAX DEPOSITION OF CRUDE OIL WITH COMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Quan

    Full Text Available Abstract Wax deposition behavior was investigated in a set of one-inch experiment flow loops, using a local crude oil with high wax content. The temperature of the oil phase is chosen as a variable parameter while the temperature of the coolant media is maintained constant. Detailed composition of the deposit is characterized using High Temperature Gas Chromatography. It was found that the magnitude of the diffusion of the heavier waxy components (C35-C50 decreases when the oil temperature decreases, but the magnitude of the diffusion of the lighter waxy components increases. This result means that the diffusion of wax molecules shifts towards lower carbon number, which further proves the concept of molecular diffusion. Meanwhile, a meaningful phenomenon is that the mass of the deposit increases with the oil temperature decrease, which definitely proves the influence of wax solubility on deposition, while the formation of an incipient gel layer reflects the fact that an increase in the mass of the deposit does not mean a larger wax percentage fraction at lower oil temperature.

  1. Bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products: composition of the microbial consortium

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    JELENA S. MILIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation, a process that utilizes the capability of microorganism to degrade toxic waste, is emerging as a promising technology for the treatment of soil and groundwater contamination. The technology is very effective in dealing with petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The aim of this study was to examine the composition of the microbial consortium during the ex situ experiment of bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products from the Oil Refinery Pančevo, Serbia. After a 5.5-month experiment with biostimulation and bioventilation, the concentration of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH had been reduced from 29.80 to 3.29 g/kg (89 %. In soil, the dominant microorganism population comprised Gram-positive bacteria from actinomycete-Nocardia group. The microorganisms which decompose hydrocarbons were the dominant microbial population at the end of the process, with a share of more than 80 % (range 107 CFU/g. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that a stable microbial community had been formed after initial fluctuations.

  2. Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill obtained by different distillation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica-Dukić, N; Kujundzić, S; Soković, M; Couladis, M

    2003-04-01

    The influence of different hydrodistillation conditions was evaluated from the standpoint of essential oil yield, chemical composition and antifungal activity from seeds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Three hydrodistillation conditions were considered. The main constituents of the oils were: (E)-anethole (72.27%-74.18%), fenchone (11.32%-16.35%) and methyl chavicol (3.78%-5.29%). The method of distillation significantly effected the essential oil yield and quantitative composition, although the antifungal activity of the oils against some fungi was only slightly altered. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Chemical compositions of Cinnamomum tamala oil from two different regions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was made to investigate the chemical composition of Cinnamomum tamala, (Buch.-Ham. Nees & Eberm (Tejpat oil (CTO which was taken from two different regions. The plant leaves were collected from two different regions of India (Southern India and Northern India. Methods: The chemical composition of the hydro distilled essential oil of Cinnamomum tamala were analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Results: The GCMS analysis of the oil collected from northern region (Chandigarh Botanical garden, Chandigarh showed 20 constituents of which methyl eugenol (46.65%, eugenol (26.70%, trans-cinnamyl acetate (12.48% and Beta-Caryophyllene (6.26% were found the major components. The GC-MS analysis of the oil collected from southern area showed 31 constituents of which cinnamaldehyde (44.898%, Tans-cinnamyl acetate (25.327% and Ascabin (1 5.249% were found the major components. Conclusions: The oil is used in various preparations in pharmaceutical industries so it should be used after the verifications of quality of the oil. The difference observed in the amount and type of constituents may be due to the geographical origin of the plant.

  4. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris essential oil

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    S. Farsaraei*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The antifungal activity of the essential oils and their constituents against some phytopathogenic fungi has been reported. Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae is one of the Thymus species.  A large number of studies have concerned the chemical compositions and antifungal activity of thyme’s oil. In order to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides, recently considerable attention has been given to search for naturally occurring compounds. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical composition and antifungal activity of T. vulgaris oil cultivated in Iran. Methods: The essential oil from aerial parts of the plant at full flowering stage was subjected to hydrodistillation and chemical compounds were analyzed by GC/GC-MS. The in vitro antifungal activity against three phytopathogenic fungi (Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris and Macrophomina phaseolinaby of the oil was evaluated by agar dilution method. The data were subjected to ANOVA according to the SPSS 21 software. Results: Totally 45 compounds representing 96.75% of the oil were found. Thymol (36.81% and ρ-cymene (30.90% were the main components of thyme oil. According to the results, the antifungal activity of the oil increased with a rising in concentration. All of the tested fungi growth was completely inhibited on 1600 µL/L. In this study fungicidal activity was only observed on F. oxysporum and D. spicifera at concentrations higher than 800 µL/L.  Conclusion: The antifungal activity of T. vulgaris essential oil could be probably due to the high concentration of oxygenated monoterpenes (thymol and monoterpene hydrocarbons (ρ-cymene.

  5. Automatic 1H-NMR Screening of Fatty Acid Composition in Edible Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Castejón

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the fatty acid composition analysis of edible oils. We describe the evaluation and optimization needed for the automated analysis of vegetable oils by low-field NMR to obtain the fatty acid composition (FAC. To achieve this, two scripts, which automatically analyze and interpret the spectral data, were developed. The objective of this work was to drive forward the automated analysis of the FAC by NMR. Due to the fact that this protocol can be carried out at low field and that the complete process from sample preparation to printing the report only takes about 3 min, this approach is promising to become a fundamental technique for high-throughput screening. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, the fatty acid composition of extra virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties (arbequina, cornicabra, hojiblanca, manzanilla, and picual was determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy according to this protocol.

  6. Characteristics, Composition and Oxidative Stability of Lannea microcarpa Seed and Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bazongo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of seeds and main physicochemical properties and thermal stability of oil extracted from Lannea microcarpa seeds were evaluated. The percentage composition of the seeds was: ash (3.11%, crude oil (64.90%, protein (21.14%, total carbohydrate (10.85% and moisture (3.24%. Physicochemical properties of the oil were: refractive index, 1.473; melting point, 22.60°C; saponification value, 194.23 mg of KOH/g of oil; iodine value, 61.33 g of I2/100 g of oil; acid value, 1.21 mg of KOH/g of oil; peroxide value, 1.48 meq of O2/kg of oil and oxidative stability index, 43.20 h. Oleic (43.45%, palmitic (34.45%, linoleic (11.20% and stearic (8.35% acids were the most dominant fatty acids. Triacylglycerols with equivalent carbon number (ECN 48 and ECN 46 were dominant (46.96% and 37.31%, respectively. The major triacylglycerol constituents were palmitoyl diolein (POO (21.23%, followed by dipalmitoyl olein (POP (16.47%, palmitoyl linoleyl olein (PLO (12.03%, dipalmitoyl linolein (PLP (10.85% and dioleoyl linolein (LOO (9.30%. The total polyphenol and tocopherol contents were 1.39 mg GAE g−1 DW and 578.56 ppm, respectively. γ-Tocopherol was the major tocopherol (437.23 ppm. These analytical results indicated that the L. microcarpa seed oil could be used as a frying oil and in the cosmetic industry.

  7. Changes occurring in vegetable oils composition due to microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Mallah, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave heating on three vegetable oils having different lipid compositions was studied. Sunflower, soybean and peanut oils in comparison with oil admixture of soybean and peanut oil (1:1, w/w, were selected for this study. Each oil was heated for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 18 minutes in microwave oven. Peroxide value, free acidity and colour absorbance (at 420 nm were proportionally increasing with the increase of heating period. Colour absorption threw light on the formation of browning products arising from phospholipids during microwave heating. Total tocopherol contents were determined by preparative thin layer chromatography, whereas the fatty acid compositions and formed epoxy acid were analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography. The formed conjugated dienes and trienes were determined by UV spectrophotometry. It was found that the total tocopherols of the microwave heated oils, decreased depending on the type of the predominating tocopherols. Also a relation of peroxide formation, during microwave heating, with changes in total tocopherol composition was discussed. It was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids generally decreased by increasing the heating period. The results obtained from the heated oil admixture helped interpret the results obtained from other heated individual oils.Se estudia el efecto del calentamiento en horno de microondas sobre aceites de diferente composición en ácidos grasos. Aceites de girasol, soja, cacahuete y una mezcla de soja y cacahuete al 50%, se calentaron durante 2, 4, 6, 8 10, 12, 15 y 18 minutos. Los valores de índice de peróxidos, acidez libre y absorbancia a 420 nm fueron proporcionales al tiempo de calentamiento. Otras determinaciones incluyeron el contenido total en tocoferoles mediante cromatografía en capa fina, la composición en ácidos grasos y en epoxiácidos mediante cromatografía gas líquido, y la formación de dienos y trienos conjugados mediante

  8. Composition of the essential oil of Helichrysum chasmolycicum growing wild in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalchat, J C; Ozcan, M M

    2006-01-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Helichrysum chasmolycicum were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. From the 57 identified constituents, representing 66.55% of the oil, the main constituents of the oil were beta-caryophyllene (27.6%), beta-selinene (8.9%), alpha-selinene (8.4%), caryophyllene oxide (7.3%), and carvacrol (2.4%). The essential oil was almost totally characterized by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as beta-caryophyllene and alpha- and beta-selinene.

  9. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemica...

  10. MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITES FROM UNSATURATED POLYESTER FILLED WITH OIL PALM ASH

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    M.S. Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm ash (OPA is available in abundance, is renewable, can be obtained at no cost and shows good performance at high thermal conditions. Combinations of the unsaturated polyester with natural fillers have been reported to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of composites. Utilisation of oil palm ash as a filler in the manufacture of polymer composites can significantly reduce the requirement for other binders or matrixes of composite materials. This research uses oil palm ash as a filler to form composites through the investigation of the effect of different contents of filler on the properties of OPA-filled unsaturated polyester (UP/OPA composites. The effect of different volume fractions, i.e., 0, 10, 20 and 30 vol.% of oil palm ash introduced into 100, 90, 80 and 70 vol.% of an unsaturated polyester matrix on the composite mechanical properties, i.e., tensile and flexural, has been studied, together with thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC. Specimens were prepared using compression moulding techniques based on the ASTM D790 and D5083 standards for flexural and tensile tests, respectively. The tensile and flexural mechanical properties of UP/OPA composites were improved in modulus by increasing the filler content. Thermal stability of the composites increased as the OPA filler content was increased, which was a logical consequence because of the high thermal stability of the silica compound of the OPA filler compared with that of the UP matrix. The results from the surface electron microscope (SEM analysis were the extension of mechanical and thermal tests.

  11. Roasting pumpkin seeds and changes in the composition and oxidative stability of cold-pressed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyk, Marianna; Siger, Aleksander; Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is valuable oil for its distinctive taste and aroma, as well as supposed health- promoting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate how roasting pumpkin seeds influences the physicochemical properties of cold-pressed oils. The fatty acid composition, content of phytosterols, carotenoids and tocopherols, oxidative stability and colour were determined in oils after cold pressing and storage for 3 months using GC-FID, GCxGC-ToFMS, HPLC, Rancimat and spectrophotometric methods. The results of this study indicate that the seed-roasting and storage process have no effect on the fatty acid composition of pumpkin seed oils, but does affect phytosterols and tocopherols. The carotenoid content decreased after storage. The colour of the roasted oil was darker and changed significantly during storage. Pumpkin oil obtained from roasted seeds shows better physicochemical properties and oxidative stability than oil from unroasted seeds.

  12. Harvest time on the content and chemical composition of essential oil from leaves of guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida Josefi da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The essential oil plants contents can be affected by several factors. For example, in certain plants, collection time has been observed to affect the content and chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the plant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of collection time on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil from guava ( Psidium guajava L. leaves. Leaves were collected at different times of the day and the content and chemical composition of their essential oil was determined. Collection time did not qualitatively affect the chemical composition of the essential oil. However, concentration of certain substances in the oil, such as α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene, did significantly vary at different collection times. The main constituents of the essential oil of Psidium guajava are limonene (2.2-4.4%, trans-caryophyllene (18.1-17.1%, α-humulene (26.3-20.4%, aromadendrene (7.6-12.2%, α-selinene (7.3-11.3%, caryophyllene oxide (3.7-3.3%, humulene epoxide II (4.1-1.9%, and selin-11-en-4α-ol (7.2-11.1%. Leaves collected at 7:00 AM had higher essential oil production, with a content of 0.38% (d.b., whereas leaves collected at 7:00 PM had lower essential oil production, 0.24% (d.b.. Chemical analysis showed that sesquiterpene compounds represented the highest concentration (62.0%, and monoterpenoids and monoterpenes represented the lowest concentrations (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively. Chemical classes that underwent major changes with respect to collection time were monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenoids (2.2-4.4%, 63.8-61.7%, and 15.9-13.2%, respectively.

  13. The influence of modification of elastomer compositions in polyethylene oxides on their resistance to mineral oils

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    E. P. Uss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of modifying of elastomer compositions based on nitrile rubber in the medium of low molecular weight polyethylene oxide on resistance of rubbers to liquid aggressive mediawas studied. Standard hydrocarbon oilsoil ASTM №1 and ASTM №3, having a constant chemical composition and properties, were used as aggressive fluids. Resistance of elastomer compositions to standard oil was evaluated by change in weight, volume and relative compression set after keeping the samples in these oils at elevated temperatures. The influence of aggressive environment on the degree of swelling and the value of compression set of compositions modified in polyethylene oxides medium was established. It has been shown that the mass/volume of modified rubbers during aging in oil ASTM №1 reduced to a lesser degree compared to unmodified samples, which is probably due to the influence of low molecular weight polyethylene oxides for the formation of vulcanizates structure. At the same time exposure to oil ASTM №3 of elastomer compositions increases the degree of swelling of modified rubber more than unmodified, which can be due to destruction by the action of aggressive medium additional intermolecular bonds between macromolecules of polyethylene oxide and rubber, resulting in increased flexibility of the elastomeric matrix segments. It revealed that modification of rubbers in low molecular weightpolyethylene oxides facilitates preparation of rubber with low compression set after aging in standard oils at elevated temperatures.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Echinophora spinosa L. (Apiaceae Essential Oil

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    Jasmina M. Glamočlija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition and effectiveness of the essential oil isolated from Echinophora spinosa on different bacterial and fungal species. Chemical analysis (GC/MS showed that δ³-carene (60,86 %, α-phellandrene (7,12%, p-cymene (6,22 %, myrcene (4,82 % and β-phellandrene (2,73 % were dominant components in this oil. Essential oil tested showed good antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial potential of this oil was higher than potential of commercial antimicrobial drugs tested, streptomycin, bifonozole and ketoconazole.

  15. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

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    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  16. Essential Oil Composition of the Different Parts and In Vitro Shoot Culture of Eryngium planum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kurowska

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the different parts (inflorescence, stalk leaves, rosette leaves and root as well as from in vitro shoot culture of Eryngium planum L. were analyzed by GC-FID-MS in respect to their chemical composition. The different parts of E. planum and in vitro shoots showed different yields. The part with higher amount was the inflorescences, followed by the stalk leaves and in vitro shoots, rosette leaves and finally roots. The essential oils obtained from rosette leaves and in vitro-derived rosettes had totally different composition. Quantitative differences were also found between compounds of intact plant organs. The main components of stalk leaf oil and rosette leaf oil were monoterpene (limonene, α- and β-pinene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. In inflorescence oil cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (43.2% was accompanied by other esters (propionate, butanoate, hexanoate and octanoate and numerous oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Root oil and in vitro shoot oil contained mainly (Z-falcarinol and 2,3,4-trimethylbenzaldehyde. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this species.

  17. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum

    OpenAIRE

    Navickiene, HMD; Morandim, ADA; Alecio, A. C.; Regasini, L. O.; Bergamo, DCB; Telascrea, M.; Cavalheiro, Alberto José [UNESP; Lopes, Márcia Nasser [UNESP; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP; Furlan, Maysa [UNESP; Marques, MOM; Young, MCM; Kato, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    The composition of essential oils from leaves, stems and fruits of Piper aduncum, P. arboreum and P. tuberculatum was examined by means of GC-MS and antifungal assay. There was a predominance of monoterpenes in P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum and of sesquiterpenes in P. arboreum. P. aduncum showed the richest essential oil composition, including linalool. The essential oils from fruits of P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum showed the highest antifungal activity with the MIC of 10 µg as determined ...

  18. Composition, diagenetic transformation and alkalinity potential of oil shale ash sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motlep, Riho; Sild, Terje; Puura, Erik; Kirsimaee, Kalle

    2010-01-01

    Oil shale is a primary fuel in the Estonian energy sector. After combustion 45-48% of the oil shale is left over as ash, producing about 5-7 Mt of ash, which is deposited on ash plateaus annually almost without any reuse. This study focuses on oil shale ash plateau sediment mineralogy, its hydration and diagenetic transformations, a study that has not been addressed. Oil shale ash wastes are considered as the biggest pollution sources in Estonia and thus determining the composition and properties of oil shale ash sediment are important to assess its environmental implications and also its possible reusability. A study of fresh ash and drillcore samples from ash plateau sediment was conducted by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The oil shale is highly calcareous, and the ash that remains after combustion is derived from the decomposition of carbonate minerals. It is rich in lime and anhydrite that are unstable phases under hydrous conditions. These processes and the diagenetic alteration of other phases determine the composition of the plateau sediment. Dominant phases in the ash are hydration and associated transformation products: calcite, ettringite, portlandite and hydrocalumite. The prevailing mineral phases (portlandite, ettringite) cause highly alkaline leachates, pH 12-13. Neutralization of these leachates under natural conditions, by rainwater leaching/neutralization and slow transformation (e.g. carbonation) of the aforementioned unstable phases into more stable forms, takes, at best, hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years.

  19. Composition, diagenetic transformation and alkalinity potential of oil shale ash sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motlep, Riho, E-mail: riho.motlep@ut.ee [Department of Geology, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Sild, Terje, E-mail: terje.sild@maaamet.ee [Estonian Land Board, Mustamaee tee 51, 10621 Tallinn (Estonia); Puura, Erik, E-mail: erik.puura@ut.ee [Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Kirsimaee, Kalle, E-mail: kalle.kirsimae@ut.ee [Department of Geology, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2010-12-15

    Oil shale is a primary fuel in the Estonian energy sector. After combustion 45-48% of the oil shale is left over as ash, producing about 5-7 Mt of ash, which is deposited on ash plateaus annually almost without any reuse. This study focuses on oil shale ash plateau sediment mineralogy, its hydration and diagenetic transformations, a study that has not been addressed. Oil shale ash wastes are considered as the biggest pollution sources in Estonia and thus determining the composition and properties of oil shale ash sediment are important to assess its environmental implications and also its possible reusability. A study of fresh ash and drillcore samples from ash plateau sediment was conducted by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The oil shale is highly calcareous, and the ash that remains after combustion is derived from the decomposition of carbonate minerals. It is rich in lime and anhydrite that are unstable phases under hydrous conditions. These processes and the diagenetic alteration of other phases determine the composition of the plateau sediment. Dominant phases in the ash are hydration and associated transformation products: calcite, ettringite, portlandite and hydrocalumite. The prevailing mineral phases (portlandite, ettringite) cause highly alkaline leachates, pH 12-13. Neutralization of these leachates under natural conditions, by rainwater leaching/neutralization and slow transformation (e.g. carbonation) of the aforementioned unstable phases into more stable forms, takes, at best, hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years.

  20. Quality and Chemical Composition of Organic and Non-Organic Vetiver Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kadarohman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vetiver oil (Vetiveria zizanoides has been used as perfume materials, cosmetics, fragrance soaps, anti-inflammation, repellent, and insecticidal agents. Organic vetiver oil has higher economical value than non-organic vetiver oil and it has been regarded to be able to compete in the global market. Therefore, studies have been carried out using 1 hectare of land and the first generation of organic vetiver oil has produced 0.57% of yield, greater than non-organic (0.50%. The quality of organic and non-organic vetiver oil was analyzed by Indonesian Standard (SNI parameter, pesticide residue test, chemical composition by GC/MS, and the appearance of vetiver root. In general, the result of organic and non-organic vetiver oil has fulfilled the national standard; the quality of organic vetiver oil was better than non-organic one. Physically, the appearance of organic vetiver root was better than non-organic vetiver root; organic vetiver root was denser, more appealing, and did not have any black spots. The pesticide residue of organic vetiver oil was lower than non-organic vetiver oil. Based on SNI test, vetiverol (oxygen compounds in organic vetiver oil was higher than non-organic vetiver oil.

  1. Hardware Development of Ultrasonic Tomography for Composition Determination of Water and Oil Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzairi Abdul Rahim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A monitoring system for water and oil flow using ultrasonic Tomography is implemented. Information such as the type of flow, the composition of the water and oil can be obtained from the system. The composition of the flow is determined based on the propagation time of the ultrasonic waves. The ultrasonic Tomography system includes the sensors fixture design, signal conditioning circuits and image reconstruction software. The image reconstruction algorithm that used is the Linear Back Projection (LBP algorithm.

  2. Oil slick skimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karterman, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    A craft for removing an oil slick from a body of water is described comprising: a pair of spacedly arranged paralleled positioned elongated floats, a platform mounted on and extending between said floats, a weir mounted on said platform between said floats and being movable independently and substantially vertical of the longitudinal axis of said floats to a position below the surface of said body of water, a submersible oil receiving and storage means detachedly mounted to said platform between said floats and having an inlet port at one level and comprising a substantially enclosed oil accumulator having an outlet port at a lower level, said weir comprising a sluice gate constructed and arranged to admit into said inlet port of said oil receiving and storage means under the effects of gravity a portion of an oil stick comprising a water and oil mixture skimmed from said body of water, and a first pump connected to said outlet port of said accumulator to control the movement of water from the inside lower level of said accumulator out of said accumulator to thereby control the amount of the oil slick flowing into said accumulator

  3. Chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Heracleum persicum essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Gharachorloo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study essential oil of the aerial parts of Heracleum persicum a spice widely used in Iran was isolated by conventional hydrodistillation (HD and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD techniques. The extraction yield was determined and the chemical compositions of essential oils were identified by the application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The antioxidant activity was determined by two different methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and oven test methods. Although the main compounds of essential oils by the both extraction methods were similar, the essential oil extracted by HD with lower extraction efficiency showed more diverse compounds. The evaluation of antioxidant activity of the essential oil measured by delay in sunflower oil oxidation indicated that the antioxidant activity was dependent on the concentration which increased when higher concentrations of the essential oils were applied. The results of DPPH radical assay also indicated that the percentage of inhibition increased with increasing of essential oil concentration and IC50 value for essential oil extracted by MAHD method was obtained 1.25 mg/mL. Therefore the Heracleum persicum essential oil might be recommended for use as a flavoring agent and a source of natural antioxidants in functional foods, formulation of the supplements and in medicinal due to numerous pharmacological activities.

  4. Green polyurethane synthesis by emulsion technique: a magnetic composite for oil spill removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Raphael Maria Dias da; Hungerbühler, Gabriela; Saraiva, Thiago; De Jong, Gabriel; Moraes, Rafael Silva; Ferreira, Luciana Spinelli; Souza Junior, Fernando Gomes de, E-mail: fgsj@ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LaBioS/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Biopolímeros e Sensores; Furtado, Evandro Goncalves [Alfa Rio Química Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Fabrício Machado [Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil); Oliveira, Geiza Esperandio de [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    After the consolidation of the Brazilian biodiesel industry, issues related to the final destination of the glycerin, the by-product from the biodiesel industrial process, drawing the attention of several researchers. There are several uses to this byproduct. Among them, the obtaining of polymers, such as polyurethane (PU), are very encouraged since the glycerin ca be used, as well as the castor oil, in the replacement of petrochemical polyols. The aim of this work was to propose a new route for the obtainment of a petroleum sorbent based on polyurethane resin from glycerin and castor oil, through the emulsion technique. In addition, maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was mixed to the polymer matrix, producing a magnetic composite, able to make easier the oil cleanup process. The products synthesized were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, simultaneous Thermogravimetry (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, magnetic force and oil removal capability tests were also performed. The magnetic material was used to remove oil from water, exhibited a good oil removal capability. In a typical test, 1g of the composite containing 5wt% of maghemite was able to remove 10g of oil from water. (author)

  5. Green polyurethane synthesis by emulsion technique: a magnetic composite for oil spill removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Raphael Maria Dias da; Hungerbühler, Gabriela; Saraiva, Thiago; De Jong, Gabriel; Moraes, Rafael Silva; Ferreira, Luciana Spinelli; Souza Junior, Fernando Gomes de; Silva, Fabrício Machado; Oliveira, Geiza Esperandio de

    2017-01-01

    After the consolidation of the Brazilian biodiesel industry, issues related to the final destination of the glycerin, the by-product from the biodiesel industrial process, drawing the attention of several researchers. There are several uses to this byproduct. Among them, the obtaining of polymers, such as polyurethane (PU), are very encouraged since the glycerin ca be used, as well as the castor oil, in the replacement of petrochemical polyols. The aim of this work was to propose a new route for the obtainment of a petroleum sorbent based on polyurethane resin from glycerin and castor oil, through the emulsion technique. In addition, maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) was mixed to the polymer matrix, producing a magnetic composite, able to make easier the oil cleanup process. The products synthesized were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, simultaneous Thermogravimetry (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, magnetic force and oil removal capability tests were also performed. The magnetic material was used to remove oil from water, exhibited a good oil removal capability. In a typical test, 1g of the composite containing 5wt% of maghemite was able to remove 10g of oil from water. (author)

  6. The relationship between fatty acid compositions and thermal stability of extra virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayegh Moulodi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatty acids are one of the most important compounds in edible oils. Further, the stability of oils depends on the composition of fatty acids. So, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition on the oxidative stability of extra virgin olive oils during the heating process. Methods: In total, eight samples of extra virgin olive oil were studied. To evaluate their thermal stability, the oils were heated at 120 ° C for 4 h and sampling was carried out in 2-hour intervals. Then, fatty acid composition, peroxide value, anisidine value and totox value were evaluated according to Iranian national standards. Results: Results showed a significantly direct correlation between Palmitoleic acid and Totox index in the second (r=0.786 and fourth hours (r=0.762, and between linoleic and Totox index in the second (r=0.643 and fourth hours (r=0.786. However, there was a significantly inverse relationship between oleic acid and Totox index in the fourth hour (r=-0.833. Conclusion: Result indicated that linoleic and Palmitoleic acids had a reducing effect on thermal stability of extra virgin olive oil after the second hour. But, Oleic acid caused a positive effect on thermal stability after the fourth hour. Thus, it is concluded that unsaturated fatty acids especially oleic acid affect the thermal stability at final hours.

  7. Yield and oil composition of 38 basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) accessions grown in Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Callahan, Amber; Cantrell, Charles L

    2008-01-09

    A field experiment was conducted to assess yield, oil content, and composition of 38 genotypes of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Overall, biomass yields were high and comparable to those reported in the literature. However, basil genotypes differed significantly with respect to oil content and composition. Oil content of the tested accessions varied from 0.07% to 1.92% in dry herbage. On the basis of the oil composition, basil accessions were divided into seven groups: (1) high-linalool chemotype [19-73% (-)-linalool], (2) linalool-eugenol chemotype [six chemotypes with 28-66% (-)-linalool and 5-29% eugenol], (3) methyl chavicol chemotype [six accessions with 20-72% methyl chavicol and no (-)-linalool], (4) methyl chavicol-linalool chemotype [six accessions with 8-29% methyl chavicol and 8-53% (-)-linalool], (5) methyl eugenol-linalool chemotype [two accessions with 37% and 91% methyl eugenol and 60% and 15% (-)-linalool], (6) methyl cinnamate-linalool chemotype [one accession with 9.7% methyl cinnamate and 31% (-)-linalool], and (7) bergamotene chemotype [one accession with bergamotene as major constituent, 5% eucalyptol, and basil could be a viable essential oil crop in Mississippi. The availability of various chemotypes offers the opportunity for production of basil to meet the market requirements of specific basil oils or individual compounds such as (-)-linalool, eugenol, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate, or methyl eugenol.

  8. CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF PINE RESIN, ROSIN AND TURPENTINE OIL FROM WEST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Wiyono Bambang; Tachibana Sanro; Djaban Tinambunan

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify chemical composition of merkus pine resin, rosin and turpentine oil. Initially, pine resin was separated into neutral and acidic fractions with an aqueous 4% sodium hydroxide solution. After methylation, the fraction containing turpentine oil and rosin were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), and gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The neutral fraction of pine resin and turpentine oil mainly consisted of a-pinene, D-3-carene and b-p...

  9. Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiacae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakusić, Branislava; Lakusić, Dmitar; Ristić, Mihailo; Marcetić, Mirjana; Slavkovska, Violeta

    2014-06-01

    Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils obtained from the same individual (of the same genotype) of Lavandula angustifolia cultivated in Belgrade were determined by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole (7.1-48.4%), linalool (0.1-38.7%), bomeol (10.9-27.7%), beta-phellandrene (0.5-21.2%) and camphor (1.5-15.8%). Cluster analysis showed that the 21 samples collected each month during the vegetation cycle were separable into three main clades with different compositions of essential oils. In the shoots with flowers, inflorescences and fruits of clade I, linalool is dominant, in the young leaves before flowering and old leaves of clade II, 1,8-cineole is dominant. In the young and incompletely developed leaves of clade III, beta-phellandrene is dominant. The composition of the essential oils of lavender depended on the plant part and the stage of development.

  10. Changes in the Composition of Aromatherapeutic Citrus Oils during Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of some commercial Citrus oils, lemon, sweet orange, and tangerine, designated for aromatherapy, was examined before and after partial evaporation in a stream of nitrogen. The intact oils contained the expected mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpenes, with hydrocarbons dominating and lesser amounts of oxygenated analogues making up the remainder. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to follow alterations in the relative amounts of the various components present as evaporation proceeded. Changes were marked, and in particular more volatile components present in the intact oils rapidly disappeared. Thus the balance of content was shifted away from monoterpene hydrocarbons towards the analogous alcohols and carbonyl compounds. The results of this differential evaporation are discussed and possible consequences for aromatherapy use are noted. The case of lemon oil was especially interesting as the relative amount of citral, a known sensitizer, remaining as time elapsed represented an increasing percentage of the total oil.

  11. Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the effects of the dietary intake of red palm oil (RPO) on fatty acid composition in the liver of rats. Male Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups were fed with different doses of red palm oil. The control group received no red palm oil; while the experimental groups were fed with 1 ml, 2 ml and 4 ml of ...

  12. Effect of oven drying and storage on essential oil composition of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) from Toli-Toli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murni, V. W.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Hastuti, L. T.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    The research about post-harvested clove is still limited especially in Indonesia, as the biggest producer of clove in the world. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of drying process and storage on the composition of essential oil of Indonesian clove originated from Toli-Toli. The essential oil of fresh and dried clove was obtained by steam distillation and the composition of the oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In all of the clove oil samples, eugenol was the major component, followed by caryophyllene and acetyleugenol. The drying method used was oven drying at 50°C until clove's moisture content reaches 13±1%. During the drying process, the content of phenylpropanoids such as eugenol, isoeugenol, and chavicol increased, while esters and monoterpenes decreased. The composition of clove oil was studied from dried clove after oven drying, then stored in the laboratory at room temperature for 4 months. There was slightly change on clove oil composition after 4 months of storage. The content of major components of clove like eugenol was higher while acetyleugenol was lower after 4 months of storage.

  13. Lantana montevidensis Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Mosquito Repellent Activity against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil (EO) of Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (L. sellowiana Link & Otto) was investigated for its chemical composition and mosquito repellent activity. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial plant parts was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents we...

  14. Proximate composition and phytochemistry of seed oil five cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and phytochemistry of seed oil five cultivars of Cajanus cajan in Nigeria. BA Iwalokun, OJ Adeyemi, TI Adeleke, EO Abayomi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Food Journal Vol. 24(1) 2006: 50-60. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Essential oil of Algerian Eucalyptus citriodora: Chemical composition, antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Supercritical CO2 extract and essential oil of bay (Laurus nobilis L. – chemical composition and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASNA IVANOVIĆ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction and hydrodistillation (HD of dried bay leaves (Laurus nobilis L.. The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the SC-CO2 extract and essential oil (EO from dried leaves of bay were compared to each other and literature data. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the SC-CO2 extract and EO were performed using GC–FID and GC–MS analytical methods. A significant difference in the chemical composition of the SC-CO2 extract and EO was observed. The EO comprised high contents of monoterpenes and their oxygenated derivates (98.4 %, principally 1,8-cineole (33.4 %, linalool (16.0 % and α-terpinyl acetate (13.8 %, sabinene (6.91 % and methyl eugenol (5.32 %. The SC-CO2 extract comprised twice less monoterpenes and their oxygenated derivates (43.89 %, together with sesquiterpenes (12.43 %, diterpenes (1.33 % and esters (31.13 %. The major components were methyl linoleate (16.18 %, α-terpinyl acetate (12.88 %, linalool (9.00 %, methyl eugenol (8.67 %, methyl arachidonate (6.28 % and eugenol (6.14 %. An investigation of the antibacterial activity of bay SC-CO2 extract and EO was completed on different Staphylococcus strains using the broth macrodilution method. Staphylococcus intermedius strains were the most susceptible to both the SC-CO2 extract and EO (MIC = 640 µg/ml.

  17. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandini, J A; Pinto, F G S; Scur, M C; Santana, C B; Costa, W F; Temponi, L G

    2018-02-01

    The essential oils are extracted from plant compounds and can present activities antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The goals of the present study were: (a) to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss using the method of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS); (b) to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of this oil using the broth microdilution method against different microorganisms: five Gram-negative bacteria, four Gram-positive bacteria and a yeast and (c) to determine the antioxidant activity of the oil using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical assay. The GC-MS analyses allowed identifying 13 constituents, representing 96.52% of the essencial oil composition. The main compounds identified were α-zingiberene (34.48%), β-sesquiphellandrene (22.90%), and α-curcumene (16.17%). With respect to the antimicrobial activity, the essential oil was effective against all the microorganisms tested, except for the bacteria E. coli and K. pneumoniae, which were resistant to the action of the oil. From a general point of view, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the action of the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The essential oil exhibited antioxidant potential.

  18. Chemical Composition of Juniperus communis L. Cone Essential Oil and Its Variability among Wild Populations in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Miftari, Elheme; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Ripe cones of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) were collected from five wild populations in Kosovo, with the aim of investigating the chemical composition and natural variation of essential oils between and within wild populations. Ripe cones were collected, air dried, crushed, and the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The essential-oil constituents were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The yield of essential oil differed depending on the population origins and ranged from 0.4 to 3.8% (v/w, based on the dry weight). In total, 42 compounds were identified in the essential oils of all populations. The principal components of the cone-essential oils were α-pinene, followed by β-myrcene, sabinene, and D-limonene. Taking into consideration the yield and chemical composition, the essential oil originating from various collection sites in Kosovo fulfilled the minimum requirements for J. communis essential oils of the European Pharmacopoeia. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the influence of the geographical variations on the essential-oil composition. These statistical analyses suggested that the clustering of populations was not related to their geographic location, but rather appeared to be linked to local selective forces acting on the chemotype diversity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of essential oil from Cladanthus arabicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Cladanthus arabicus (L.) Cass was studied for its chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. The essential oil (EO) was analyzed by GC-MS. Sixty seven compounds representing 94.2% of the oil were identified. The m...

  20. Radiation polymerizable compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stvan, O.J.; Brodie, M.G.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to radiation polymerizable compositions particularly useful in the preparation of printing inks and to a method of preparing said radiation polymerizable compositions which comprises (1) a condensation product with (2) up to about 90% by weight thereof of at least one ethylenically unsaturated monomer and (3) up to about 50% by weight thereof of at least one sensitizer. The condensation products are prepared by condensing at least one alkoxy-methyl aminotriazine or methylol aminotriazine with one or more polyols, e.g., raw caster oil and at least one hydroxy-alkyl acrylate. The polymerizable composition may be cured with radiation, e.g., light or electrons, to obtain coatings useful for a variety of purposes

  1. Using multiple criteria for fingerprinting unknown oil samples having very similar chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.F.; Sigouin, L.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted in which 3 mystery oil samples from Quebec were fingerprinted using a multi-criterion approach. The three objectives of the study were to determine the nature and the type of product, to obtain the detailed hydrocarbon composition of the samples, and to determine if the samples came from the same source. The product type was first determined by identifying the hydrocarbon distribution patterns. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) profiles were then compared and then the conclusions were verified by quantifying biomarkers and by determining several diagnostic ratios of source-specific marker compounds. Additives in the oil were also identified. The samples were analyzed using gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was determined that the 3 oils were probably hydraulic-fluid type oil. They were very pure, and composed mostly of saturated hydrocarbons with the total aromatics being 4 to 10 per cent of the total petroleum hydrocarbon. Although it was determined that the oils were mixtures of 2 different hydraulic fluids, there was no clear indication if they had been weathered. The PAH concentration was very low, while the biomarker concentration was very high. Three unknown compounds (antioxidants) were positively identified. Two of the samples came from the same source. One of the samples had similar group hydrocarbon composition but it was not identical in chemical composition and did not come from the same source. 34 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils from different parts of the oregano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Ma, Guang-Qiang; Yang, Ming; Yan, Li; Xiong, Wei; Shu, Ji-Cheng; Zhao, Zhi-Dong; Xu, Han-Lin

    This research was undertaken in order to characterize the chemical compositions and evaluate the antioxidant activities of essential oils obtained from different parts of the Origanum vulgare L. It is a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of heat stroke, fever, vomiting, acute gastroenteritis, and respiratory disorders. The chemical compositions of the three essential oils from different parts of the oregano (leaves-flowers, stems, and roots) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity of each essential oil was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and reducing the power test. Among the essential oils from different parts of the oregano, the leaf-flower oils have the best antioxidant activities, whereas the stem oils are the worst. The results of the DPPH free radical scavenging assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of the essential oils were (0.332±0.040) mg/ml (leaves-flowers), (0.357±0.031) mg/ml (roots), and (0.501±0.029) mg/ml (stems), respectively. Interestingly, the results of reducing the power test also revealed that when the concentration exceeded 1.25 mg/ml, the leaf-flower oils had the highest reducing power; however, the stem oils were the lowest.

  3. Influence of spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Med.) essential oil in the quality, stability and composition of soybean oil during microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Nuno; Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Asensio-S-Manzanera, M Carmen; Bento, Albino; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Lipids oxidation is one of the main factors leading to quality losses in foods. Its prevention or delay could be obtained by the addition of antioxidants. In this sense the present work intend to monitor the protective effects of Lavandula latifolia essential oil during soybean oil microwave heating. To achieve the proposed goal quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide value, specific coefficients of extinction and ΔK), fatty acids profile, tocopherols and tocotrienols composition, antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were evaluated in soybean oil with and without spike lavender essential oils (EO) submitted to different microwave heating exposure times (1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 min; 1000 Watt) with a standard domestic microwave equipment. Microwave heating induced severe quality and composition losses, mainly above 3 min of microwave heating, regardless the sample tested. However, spike lavender EO addition counteracts the oxidation comparatively to control oils, by presenting enhanced values in quality parameters. A higher protection in unsaturated fatty acids loss was also observed as well as a higher antioxidant activity and oxidative stability. The microwave heating effects were clearly different in the samples with essential oils addition, allowing discrimination from plain soybean oils by a principal component analysis, being also capable to discriminate the different heating times tested within each sample. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Foamable compositions and formations treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clampitt, R.L.

    1981-11-17

    Thermally stable foamable gelled compositions are disclosed suitable for postprimary oil recovery e.g., steam- or gas-foamed systems comprising water, a surfactant, a polymeric viscosifier, an aldehyde component, and at least one phenolic component such as resorcinol, catechol, and the like, as well as selected oxidized phenolic materials such as 1,4-benzoquinone of natural or synthetic origin and natural and modified tannins. The gel compositions can additionally contain gel stabilizers such as sulfomethylated quebracho (Smq) and chemical buffering agents such as sodium bicarbonate.

  5. Composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils obtained from plants of the Lamiaceae family against pathogenic and beneficial bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán, Lina P; Díaz, Gonzalo J; Duringer, Jennifer M

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative composition and antibacterial activity of six essential oils obtained from plants cultivated in the Colombian Andes (Mentha spicata, Mentha piperita, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) and a commercial essential oil of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum were investigated. The essential oil composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while the antibacterial activity of the essential oils against Escheric...

  6. Composition of Algal Oil and Its Potential as Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Schlagermann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First test flights using blends with algae oil are already carried out and expectations by the aviation and other industries are high. On the other hand technical data about performance of cultivation systems, downstream processing, and suitability of algae oil as fuel are still limited. The existing microalgae growing industry mainly produces for the food and feed market. Energy efficiency is so far out of scope but needs to be taken into account if the product changes to biofuel. Energy and CO2 balances are used to estimate the potential of algae oil to fulfil the EU sustainability criteria for biofuels. The analysis is supported by lab tests as well as data gained by a pilot scale demonstrator combined with published data for well-known established processes. The algae oil composition is indicator of suitability as fuel as well as for economic viability. Approaches attaining high value fractions are therefore of great importance and will be discussed in order to determine the most intended market.

  7. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of the Subterranean Parts of Valeriana alliariifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Husnu Can Baser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subterranean parts of Valeriana alliariifolia Adams were subjected to hydrodistillation and traceamount of essential oil was obtained. The chemical composition of the oil was identified by using capillary GasChromatography (GC and GC/MS simultaneously. In total 68 constituents were identified, representing 87.6 %of the total oil. The essential oil was dominated by isovaleric acid (28.6%, which is followed by -guaiane(7.2%, -humulene (4.7%, hexadecanoic acid (4.3%, valeric acid (3.7% and humulene epoxide-II (3.6% asthe major components.

  8. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THREE ESSENTIAL OILS FROM PORTUGUESE FLORA

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, M. Rosário; Tinoco, M. Teresa; Almeida, A. S.; Cruz-Morais, J.

    2012-01-01

    The present work reports on the evaluation of chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils of three aromatic herbs, growing wild in the south of Portugal, used in traditional food preparations: Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha spicata and Rosmarinus officinalis. The principal components of essential oils were anethole (41.2%) for F. vulgare, carvone (41.1%) for M. spicata and myrcene (23.7%) for R. officinalis. Essential oils showed antioxidant activity eit...

  9. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Schinus weinmannifolius collected in the spring and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Camila; Taleb-Contini, Silvia H; Bartolomeu, Ana Carolina D; Bertoni, Bianca W; França, Suzelei C; Pereira, Ana Maria S

    2014-09-01

    Reports on the chemical and pharmacological profile of the essential oil of Schinus weinmannifolius do not exist, although other Schinus species have been widely investigated for their biological activities. This work aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of S. weinmannifolius collected in the spring and winter. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation, analyzed by GC/MS and submitted to microdilution tests, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The oils displayed different chemical composition and antimicrobial action. Bicyclogermacrene and limonene predominated in the oils extracted in the winter and spring, respectively, whereas only the latter oil exhibited antifungal activity.

  10. Pinus Roxburghii essential oil anticancer activity and chemical composition evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Arfaa; Manzoor, Qaisar; Iqbal, Munawar; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Sajid, Anam

    2018-01-01

    The present study was conducted to appraise the anticancer activity of Pinus roxburghii essential oil along with chemical composition evaluation. MTT assay revealed cytotoxicity induction in colon, leukemia, multiple myeloma, pancreatic, head and neck and lung cancer cells exposed to essential oil. Cancer cell death was also observed through live/dead cell viability assay and FACS analysis. Apoptosis induced by essential oil was confirmed by cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 that suppressed the colony-forming ability of tumor cells and 50 % inhibition occurred at a dose of 25 μg/mL. Moreover, essential oil inhibited the activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and inhibited expression of NF-κB regulated gene products linked to cell survival (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, c-Myc, c-IAP2), proliferation (Cyclin D1) and metastasis (MMP-9). P. roxburghii essential oil has considerable anticancer activity and could be used as anticancer agent, which needs further investigation to identify and purify the bioactive compounds followed by in vivo studies.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Hăncianu, Monica; Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Spac, A; Cioană, Oana; Gille, Elvira; Stănescu, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    In our study, four samples of volatile oil from Foeniculum vulgare, cultivated in different pedoclimatic conditions, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and chemical composition. Organisms. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Candida albicans were included in the report. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The comparative inhibitory activity of volatile oil samples with other antimicrobial agents was quantitative determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Oil samples are the volatile oils extracted by steam distillation, from two ecological vegetative populations of Foeniculum vulgare. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils. All oil samples have a good activity against E. coli and S. aureus at low concentrations. Against B. cereus and P. aeruginosa these oil samples are less active. The oil samples were generally bactericidal at a concentration up to twofold or fourfold higher than the MIC value. Significantly synergic activity with amoxicillin or tetracycline showed all fennel samples against E. coli, Sarcina lutea and B. subtilis strains. Fennel oil samples have shown high activity against Candida albicans. No significant antimicrobial activity variations were observed for Foeniculum vulgare volatile oil samples obtained after two or three years cultivation period. The most important identified compounds in all samples of fennel volatile oils were trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone, limonene, alpha-pinene and gamma-terpinene.

  12. Process for hydroprocessing heavy oils utilizing sepiolite-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auden, C.A.; Yan, T.-Y.

    1986-04-15

    A process is described for demetallizing and desulfurizing a hydrocarbon oil comprising contacting the hydrocarbon oil in the presence of hydrogen and a sepiolite-based catalyst composition under conditions of pressure and temperature sufficient to effect demetallization and desulfurization. The sepiolite-based catalyst composition has been prepared by first contacting the sepiolite with an aqueous solution of a first metal salt, then contacting the resultant metal ion-exchanged sepiolite with an aqueous solution of a compound of a second metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten and vanadium, and finally contacting the resultant metal-exchanged sepiolite product with an aqueous solution of a magnesium compound, thereby effecting a magnesium ion-exchange with the metal-exchanged sepiolite product and neutralizing acid sites on the sepiolite product.

  13. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Pandini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The essential oils are extracted from plant compounds and can present activities antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The goals of the present study were: (a to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss using the method of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS; (b to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of this oil using the broth microdilution method against different microorganisms: five Gram-negative bacteria, four Gram-positive bacteria and a yeast and (c to determine the antioxidant activity of the oil using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay. The GC-MS analyses allowed identifying 13 constituents, representing 96.52% of the essencial oil composition. The main compounds identified were α-zingiberene (34.48%, β-sesquiphellandrene (22.90%, and α-curcumene (16.17%. With respect to the antimicrobial activity, the essential oil was effective against all the microorganisms tested, except for the bacteria E. coli and K. pneumoniae, which were resistant to the action of the oil. From a general point of view, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the action of the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The essential oil exhibited antioxidant potential.

  14. The effect of environmental factors on stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes in Mediterranean olive oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Mihailova, Alina; Abbado, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    Traceability of the geographic origin of olive oils is an important issue from both commercial and health perspectives. This study evaluates the impact of environmental factors on stable C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes in extra virgin olive oils from Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain. The data are used to investigate the applicability of stable isotope methodology for olive oil regional classification in the Mediterranean region. Analysis of stable C isotope composition of n-C29 alkane showed that extra virgin olive oils from Portugal and Spain have the most positive n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Conversely, olive oils from Slovenia, northern and central Italy are characterized by the most negative values. Overall, the n-C29 alkane delta13C values show a positive correlation with the mean air temperature during August-December and a negative correlation with the mean relative humidity during these months. Analysis of stable H isotope composition of n-C29 alkane revealed that the deltaD values are the most positive in olive oils from Greece and Morocco and the most negative in oils from northern Italy. The deltaD values of oils show significant correlation with all the analyses geographical parameters: the mean air temperature and relative humidity during August-December, the total amount of rainfall (the same months) and the annual deltaD values of precipitation. As predictor variables in the Categorical Data Analysis, the n-C29 alkane deltaD values show the most significant discriminative power, followed by the n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Overall, 93.4% of olive oil samples have been classified correctly into one of the production regions. Our findings suggest that an integrated analysis of C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes extracted from extra virgin olive oil could become a useful tool for geographical provenancing of this highly popular food commodity.

  15. Chemical composition of essential oils of Eugenia caryophylla and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The essential oils obtained yielded of 5.9 for Eugenia caryophylla and 0.2% Mentha sp cf piperita respectively. The chemical composition was assigned by GC and GC/SM and showed that E. caryophylla was mainly composed of eugenol (80.0 %), E-caryophyllene (8.3%), and eugenol acetate (6.7%) while Mentha ...

  16. Influence of vegetable oils fatty acid composition on reaction temperature and glycerides conversion to biodiesel during transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzi, S; Gandía, L M; Arzamendi, G; Ruiz, J J; Dorado, M P

    2011-01-01

    Presence of unreacted glycerides in biodiesel may reduce drastically its quality. This is why conversion of raw material in biodiesel through transesterification needs to readjust reaction parameter values to complete. In the present work, monitoring of glycerides transformation in biodiesel during the transesterification of vegetable oils was carried out. To check the influence of the chemical composition on glycerides conversion, selected vegetable oils covered a wide range of fatty acid composition. Reactions were carried out under alkali-transesterification in the presence of methanol. In addition, a multiple regression model was proposed. Results showed that kinetics depends on chemical and physical properties of the oils. It was found that the optimal reaction temperature depends on both length and unsaturation degree of vegetable oils fatty acid chains. Vegetable oils with higher degree of unsaturation exhibit faster monoglycerides conversion to biodiesel. It can be concluded that fatty acid composition influences reaction parameters and glycerides conversion, hence biodiesel yield and economic viability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative study of essential oil content and composition of Ducrosia anethifolia at two phenologocal stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Karimi*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ducrosia anethifolia is one species which belongs to Apiaceae family that is used to improve the odor of foods and drinks. It is used also to treat catarrh, headache and backache in folk medicine. The herb is also reported to relax the mind and body and induce a peaceful sleep. The growing stage has an important role in quantity and quality of medicinal plants metabolite. In this study, the oil content and composition of D. anethifolia at two growth stages (full flowering and seed formation were studied. Methods: Oil content of this plant was isolated by hydrodistillation method by Clevenger type apparatus. Chemical composition was detected by GC and GC/MS analysis. Results: The results showed that the phenological stage had significant effect on the oil content and composition. Oil content at seed formation was more than the flowering stage (0.24 and 0.96% v/w, respectively. At the flowering stage, n-dodecanal (14.43%, dodecanal (13.30% and n-decanoic acid (11.61% were the major constituents while in the seed formation stage, they were detected slightly. Besides, at seed formation stage cis-chrysanthenyl acetae (39.06%, cubenol (7.97% and p-cymene-7-ol (4.30% were identified as the main composition. Conclusion: The results showed depending on our goal for each plant usage, the harvest time could be different; during seed formation the oil content increased significantly.

  19. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of oregano (Lippia palmeri S. Wats) essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Nieblas, Ma. Magdalena; Robles-Burgueño, Ma. Refugio; Acedo-Félix, Evelia; González-León, Alberto; Morales-Trejo, Adriana; Vázquez-Moreno, Luz

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Lippia palmeri S. Wats essential oil extracted from plants collected of two localities (Álamos and Puerto del Orégano) in the State of Sonora, México, was examined. Essential oils (EO) were obtained from oregano leaves by steam distillation, analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer, and their antimicrobial activity against human pathogens investigated by disc diffusion. Álamos and Puerto del Orégano essential oils (...

  20. Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L. Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Uddin Chowdhury

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and M. paniculata (L. Jack from Bangladesh was studied by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. M. koenigii oil contained 39 compounds of which the major is 3-carene (54.2% followed by caryophyllene (9.5%. Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds of which the major are caryophyllene oxide (16.6%, b-caryophyllene (11.8%, spathulenol (10.2%, b-elemene (8.9%, germacrene D (6.9% and cyclooctene, 4-methylene-6-(1-propenylidene (6.4%. The compositions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.

  1. Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L. Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Uddin Chowdhury

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and M. paniculata (L. Jack from Bangladesh was studied by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. M. koenigii oil contained 39 compounds of which the major is 3-carene (54.2% followed by caryophyllene (9.5%. Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds of which the major are caryophyllene oxide (16.6%, beta-caryophyllene (11.8%, spathulenol (10.2%, beta-elemene (8.9%, germacrene D (6.9% and cyclooctene, 4-methylene-6-(1-propenylidene (6.4%. The composi-tions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.

  2. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Sokovic, M.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van, L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined. Antibacterial activity of these oils and their components; i.e. linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, pinene, ß-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, carvacrol, thymol and menthol were assayed against a variety...

  3. Determination and Comparison of Seed Oil Triacylglycerol Composition of Various Soybeans (Glycine max (L. Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Woo Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG composition of 32 soybean varieties were determined and compared using 1H-NMR. The contents of linolenic (Ln, linoleic (L, and oleic (O ranged from 10.7% to 19.3%, 37.4%–50.1%, and 15.7%–34.1%, respectively. As is evident, linoleic acid was the major fatty acid of soybean oil. Compositional differences among the varieties were observed. Natural oils containing unsaturated groups have been regarded as important nutrient and cosmetic ingredients because of their various biological activities. The TAG profiles of the soy bean oils could be useful for distinguishing the origin of seeds and controlling the quality of soybean oils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the TAG composition of various soybean oils has been analyzed using the 1H-NMR method.

  4. Determination and comparison of seed oil triacylglycerol composition of various soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Woo; Rho, Ho Sik; Hong, Yong Deog; Yeom, Myung Hun; Shin, Song Seok; Yi, Jun Gon; Lee, Min-Seuk; Park, Hye Yoon; Cho, Dong Ha

    2013-11-21

    Seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of 32 soybean varieties were determined and compared using ¹H-NMR. The contents of linolenic (Ln), linoleic (L), and oleic (O) ranged from 10.7% to 19.3%, 37.4%-50.1%, and 15.7%-34.1%, respectively. As is evident, linoleic acid was the major fatty acid of soybean oil. Compositional differences among the varieties were observed. Natural oils containing unsaturated groups have been regarded as important nutrient and cosmetic ingredients because of their various biological activities. The TAG profiles of the soy bean oils could be useful for distinguishing the origin of seeds and controlling the quality of soybean oils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the TAG composition of various soybean oils has been analyzed using the ¹H-NMR method.

  5. Impact of Crude Oil Quality on the Refining Conditions and Composition of Nutraceuticals in Refined Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Klicia A; Ayala, Jose Vila; Van Hoed, Vera; Monteiro, Simone; Ceriani, Roberta; Verhé, Roland; Meirelles, Antonio J A

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil is the major vegetable oil used worldwide due to its unique properties. The effect of crude palm oil acidity on the final free fatty acids (FFA) content, neutral oil loss (NOL), and nutraceutical compounds, such as carotenes, total tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols), squalene, and phytosterols was investigated. A central composite design was employed to study the influence of the refining conditions: temperature (200 to 260 °C), steam percentage (0.5% to 3.5%), and initial FFA content (2.2% to 6.0%) on the quality of the refined product. The results revealed that initial palm oil acidity is a statistically important parameter to obtain commercially acceptable values for final FFA content. The increase of temperature presented the most important effect on the reduction of all nutraceutical compounds. The highest tocopherols (88%), phytosterols (98%), and squalene retention (84%) was obtained when applying the mildest temperature (200 °C). From the experimental results, 3 equations were generated enabling the prediction of the free fatty acids content, the tocols content, and the losses of neutral oil. Therefore, this work contributes to the understanding and optimization of the process for the production of palm oil with high nutraceutical quality and low free fatty acid contents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Horgan, Thomas; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used.

  7. Geographical Variation in the Terpene Composition of the Leaf Oil of Douglas Fir,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two forms of Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii and var. glauca, differ quite considerably with regard to the monoterpenes of...their leaf oils. Several chemical races, differing quantitatively in certain monoterpenes , appear to exist in each variety and the leaf oil composition seems to be particularly useful in classifying intermediate forms. (Author)

  8. Chemical composition and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of the essential oil of Stevia serrata Cav. from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Simas, Daniel Luiz; Mérida-Reyes, Max Samuel; Muñoz-Wug, Manuel Alejandro; Cordeiro, Millena Santos; Giorno, Thais Biondino Sardella; Taracena, Edwin Adolfo; Oliva-Hernández, Bessie Evelyn; Martínez-Arévalo, José Vicente; Fernandes, Patricia Dias; Pérez-Sabino, Juan Francisco; Jorge Ribeiro da Silva, Antonio

    2017-11-13

    The composition and the antinociceptive activity of the essential oil of Stevia serrata Cav. from a population located in the west highlands of Guatemala were evaluated. A yield of 0.2% (w/w) of essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation of the dried aerial parts of the plant. The essential oil analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS showed a high content of sesquiterpenoids, with chamazulene (60.1%) as the major component and 91.5% of the essential oil composition was identified. To evaluate antinociceptive activity in mice, the essential oil of S. serrata Cav. was administered as gavage, using three different doses. In the formalin test, the animals were pre-treated with oral doses of the essential oil before the administration of formalin. Oral administration of S. serrata Cav. essential oil produced a marked antinociceptive activity. Therefore, the plant could be domesticated as a source of essential oil rich in chamazulene for developing medicinal products.

  9. Essential-oil composition of Helichrysum italicum (ROTH) G.DON ssp. italicum from Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Michele; Ambryszewska, Katarzyna E; Melai, Bernardo; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Parri, Federico; Pistelli, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The composition of 21 essential-oil samples isolated from Helichrysum italicum collected in seven locations of Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy), characterized by different soil types, during three different periods (January, May, and October 2010) was determined by GC-FID and GC/EI-MS analyses. In total, 115 components were identified, representing 96.8-99.8% of the oil composition. The oils were characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (38.6-62.7%), while monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons accounted for 2.3-41.9 and 5.1-20.1% of the identified constituents, respectively. The main oxygenated derivatives were nerol (2.8-12.8%) and its ester derivative neryl acetate (5.6-45.9%). To compare the chemical variability of the species within Elba Island and between the island and other localities within the Mediterranean area, studied previously, multivariate statistical analysis was performed. The results obtained showed a difference in the composition of the essential oils of H. italicum from Elba Island, mainly due to the environment where the plant grows, and, in particular, to the soil type. These hypotheses were further confirmed by the comparison of these oils with essential oils obtained from H. italicum collected on other islands of the Tuscan archipelago. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Effective utilizations of palm oil mill fly ash for synthetic amorphous silica and carbon zeolite composite synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, P. S.; Saputra, E.; Khairat

    2018-04-01

    Palm Oil Mill Fly Ash (POMFA) the solid waste of palm oil industry was used as a raw material for synthetic amorphous silica and carbon zeolite composite synthesis in order to minimize the wastes of palm oil industry. The alkaline extraction combine with the sol-gel precipitation and mechanical fragmentation was applied to produce synthetic amorphous silica. The byproduct, extracted POMFA was rich in carbon and silica content in a significant amount. The microwave heated hydrothermal process used to synthesize carbon zeolite composite from the byproduct. The obtained silica had chemical composition, specific surface area and the micrograph similar to commercial precipitated silica for rubber filler. The microwave heated hydrothermal process has a great potential for synthesizing carbon zeolite composite. The process only needs one-step and shorter time compare to conventional hydrothermal process.

  11. Identification of candidate genes from the SAD gene family in cotton for determination of cottonseed oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Chaoze; Ding, Jian; Guo, Wangzhen

    2017-02-01

    Cotton is an economically important crop grown for natural fiber and seed oil production. Cottonseed oil ranks third after soybean oil and colza oil in terms of edible oilseed tonnage worldwide. The fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil determines its industrial application and nutritional values. However, little progress has been made in understanding cottonseed oil biogenesis. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD), the only known enzyme to convert saturated fatty acids into unsaturated fatty acids in plants, plays key roles in determining the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil. In this study, we identified 9, 9, 18 and 19 SAD genes in the genomes of four sequenced cotton species: diploid Gossypium raimondii (D 5 ), G. arboreum (A 2 ), tetraploid G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 (AD 1 ) and G. barbadense cv. Xinhai21 (AD 2 ), respectively. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that cotton SADs can be classified into two classes. Expression patterns showed developmental and spatial regulation of SADs in cotton. GhSAD2 and GhSAD4 were preferentially expressed in developing ovules 20-35 days post-anthesis, and significantly different expression patterns were found between high-oil and low-oil cotton cultivars, implying these two genes could be involved in cottonseed oil biogenesis. Association analysis further confirmed that GhSAD4-At expression was closely related to the oleic acid (O) content, linoleic acid (L) content and O/L value in cottonseed, implying GhSAD4 plays an important role in cottonseed oil composition. This study brings new perspectives for integrated genome-wide identification of SADs in cotton and provides references for the genetic improvement of cottonseed oil.

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant and anti-Listeria activities of essential oils obtained from some Egyptian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuda-Martos, Manuel; El Gendy, Abd El-Nasser G S; Sendra, Esther; Fernández-López, Juana; Abd El Razik, K A; Omer, Elsayed A; Pérez-Alvarez, Jose A

    2010-08-25

    The aim of this work was to (i) determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of six spices widely cultivated in Egypt (Origanum syriacum, Majorana hortensis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris, and Artemisia annua); (ii) determine the antioxidant activity of the Egyptian essential oils by means of five different antioxidant tests; and (iii) determine the effectiveness of these essential oils on the inhibition of Listeria innocua CECT 910. There is a great variability in the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from the six Egyptian aromatic plants. Overall, thyme (highest percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical: 89.40%) and oregano (highest percentage of inhibition of TBARS: 85.79) essential oils presented the best antioxidant profiles, whereas marjoram, lemongrass, and artemisia were highly effective in metal chelating but had a pro-oxidative behavior by Rancimat induction test. Lemongrass essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against L. innocua with an inhibition zone of 49.00 mm, followed in effectiveness by thyme, marjoram, and oregano.

  13. Lipid Composition of Oil Extracted from Wasted Norway Lobster (Nephrops norvegicus Heads and Comparison with Oil Extracted from Antarctic Krill (Euphasia superba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Albalat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the UK, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus supports its most important shellfish fishery. Nephrops are sold either whole, or as “tails-only” for the scampi trade. In the “tailing” process, the “head” (cephalothorax is discarded as waste. A smaller crustacean species, the Antarctic krill Euphasia superba, represents an economically valuable industry, as its extractable oil is sold as a human dietary supplement. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and composition of the oil contained in discarded Nephrops heads and to compare its composition to the oil extracted from krill. Differences due to Geographical variation and seasonal patterns in the amount and composition of lipid were also noted. Results indicated that Nephrops head waste samples collected from more southern locations in Scotland (Clyde Sea area contained higher levels of oil when compared to samples collected from northern locations in Iceland. Moreover, seasonal differences within the Clyde Sea area in Scotland were also observed, with oil extracted from Nephrops head waste peaking at around 11.5% during the summer months when larger and more mature females were caught by trawl. At this time of the year, the valuable fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA accounted for around 23% of the total fatty acid content in oil extracted from Nephrops head waste. A seasonal effect on EPA content was found, with higher levels obtained in the summer, while no trend was found in DHA percentages. Finally, oil from Nephrops head waste contained a higher proportion of EPA and DHA than krill oil but these fatty acids were more abundantly linked to the neutral lipids rather to than polar lipids. The characterization of lipid that could be extracted from Nephrops head waste should be seen as a first step for the commercial use of a valuable resource currently wasted. This approach is extremely relevant given the current limited supply of

  14. Oil synthesis and composition in developidng cotyledons of groundnut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Niranjan; Srivastava, K N; Sharma, N D; Mehta, S L [Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi (India). Div. of Biochemistry

    1988-03-01

    Oil synthesis in groundnut mutants TG-1 and TG-16 along with its parent Spanish Improved was studied during kernel development. Dry weight, oil and protein content increased progressively with kernel development. Acetate 2-{sup 14}C incorporation in lipids increased in both the mutants during development, while in parent it increased up to 95 day stage and then showed a decline at maturity. However, during development the rate of incorporation per kernel was lower in parent than mutants. Polar lipids decreased while non-polar lipids increased during development both in parent as well as mutants. Fatty acid composition of the oil differed between mutants and also from the parent during development. TG-16 had higher oleic and lower linoleic than parent Spanish Improved while TG-1 had intermediate oleic acid levels. During development, palmitate decreased slightly in parent while in TG-1 and TG-16, the decrease at maturity was lesser than the parent. The other fatty acid present in minor amounts, showed variation which was neither characteristic of the variety nor of any stage. Results, thus indicate developmental differences with respect to oil content and quality between mutant and parent. (author). 21 refs.

  15. Oil synthesis and composition in developidng cotyledons of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Niranjan; Srivastava, K.N.; Sharma, N.D.; Mehta, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    Oil synthesis in groundnut mutants TG-1 and TG-16 along with its parent Spanish Improved was studied during kernel development. Dry weight, oil and protein content increased progressively with kernel development. Acetate 2- 14 C incorporation in lipids increased in both the mutants during development, while in parent it increased up to 95 day stage and then showed a decline at maturity. However, during development the rate of incorporation per kernel was lower in parent than mutants. Polar lipids decreased while non-polar lipids increased during development both in parent as well as mutants. Fatty acid composition of the oil differed between mutants and also from the parent during development. TG-16 had higher oleic and lower linoleic than parent Spanish Improved while TG-1 had intermediate oleic acid levels. During development, palmitate decreased slightly in parent while in TG-1 and TG-16, the decrease at maturity was lesser than the parent. The other fatty acid present in minor amounts, showed variation which was neither characteristic of the variety nor of any stage. Results, thus indicate developmental differences with respect to oil content and quality between mutant and parent. (author). 21 refs

  16. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil of Skimmia laureola leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkatullah; Ibrar, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-03-16

    The composition of the essential oil from leaves of Skimmia laureola was determined by GC and GC-MS. Twenty-eight components were identified, accounting for 93.9% of the total oil. The oil is mainly composed of monoterpenes (93.5%), of which monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes represent 11.0% and 82.5%, respectively. Sesquiterpenes constitute only 0.3% of the total oil. Linalyl acetate is the main component (50.5%), with linalool (13.1%), geranyl acetate (8.5%) and cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (6.2%) as other principal constituents. The essential oil showed a significant antispasmodic activity, in a dose range of 0.03-10 mg/mL. The essential oil also possesses antibacterial and antifungal activities against some pathogenic strains. The phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities were also assessed.

  17. Composition of the Essential oil of Endemic Haplophyllum megalanthum Bornm. from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Ünver-Somer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil produced from the flowering aerial parts of Haplophyllum megalanthum Bornm. (Rutaceae, endemic to Turkey, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Among the fifty-eight compounds constituting about 91.7 % of the essential oil, the main components were characterized as palmito- g -lactone (45.8 %, octadecatrienoic acid (10.7 %, linoleic acid (6.5 %, octadecatetraenoic acid (6.3 % and nonacosane (4.8 %.

  18. Chemical composition of the essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelačić Slavica Ć.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia basil has been grown traditionally as a decorative, medicinal, seasoning and ritual herb, and there is a variety of different populations of basil. Basil is considered to have been brought to Serbia in the 12th century by monks returning from their pilgrimages. Essential oils isolated from herb of ten basil populations traditionally grown on the territory of the Republic of Serbia have been analyzed. The selected populations have been designated under codes from T-1 to T-10 and deposited in the Plant Genes Bank at Serbia and at the Institute for Crop Sciences of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade. Essential oils of all tested basil populations were light yellow and had a specific aromatic scent. The composition of essential oil in the dry herb of the tested populations ranged from 0.87 to 1.84%. The results of gas chromatographic analysis of essential oils in tested basil populations pointed to their complex chemical composition and to the fact that they belong to the most appreciated European chemotype. In total thirty three components have been identified in the essential oils. The most common fraction of components in all tested oils was terpenoides. The predominant component in all essential oils is monoterpen linalol, ranging from 51.52 to 74.73%. Phenylpropranoid methylchavicol ranged from 2.49 to 18.97%. Essential oils of populations T-6, T-7, T-8 and T-10 were characterized by elevated 1.8-cineol (4.44, 3.70, 4.01 and 3.43%, respectively. Populations T-3 and T-4 in essential oil contained higher percent of geraniol (4.27 and 3.31%, respectively. In all ten essential oils sesquiterpen fraction consisted of greater number of components, with germacrene having special significance as it was found in high percentage in all populations. The highest content of germacrene was registered in population T-9 (4.30%, T-10 (4.18%, while in others it ranged from 2.17 to 3.69%. Basil populations traditionally grown in Serbia have

  19. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Ismail; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo; Mancini, Emilia

    2013-03-01

    Aromatic plants can interfere in the Mediterranean ecosystem, mainly by the introduction in the environment of volatile compounds. For this reason, we studied the chemical composition and the possible phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Tunisian Artemisia herba-alba Asso. The chemical composition of the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 24 compounds were identified. The main components were camphor (39.1%), chrysanthenone (15.0%) and cis-thujone (7.8%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of the five seeds was affected to different extents by the oil, while germination was not affected. The oil, when tested against eight selected bacterial strains, showed low antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition of the oil of A. herba-alba can help in the chemosystematics of this complex genus. However, the recorded biological activities seem to be neither ecologically nor medicinally significant.

  20. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial potential of Actinodaphne macrophylla leaves oils from East Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, A. S.; Purba, F. F.; Kusuma, I. W.; Kuspradini, H.

    2018-04-01

    Essential oils producing plants comprises about 160-200 species, one of which belongs to Lauraceae family. Actinodaphne macrophylla is a plant of the Lauraceae family and widely spread on Kalimantan island. For humans, essential oils are used in cosmetics industry, food industry, and pharmaceutical industry. This research aimed to analyze the characteristics of essential oil and potential of antimicrobial activity from A. macrophylla leaves oils. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation method. Antimicrobial activity was assayed using agar diffusion method which compared with two synthetic standards including chlorhexidine and chloramphenicol. Four microorganisms were used in this study were Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus. The obtained oil was determined for its characteristics including the yield, refractive index, and chemical components. The attained components were analyzed using GC-MS. The results of this study showed that essential oils of A. macrophylla leaves contained 0.1051% of yield, clearless, and refractive index was 1.425. Based on GC-MS analysis result, it showed chemical components including spathulenol, 2-monopalmitin, (+)-sabinene, copaen, camphene, and β-pinene. This plant potentially can inhibit the growth of S. aureus, C. albicans, S. sobrinus, and S. mutans with inhibition zones of 17.22, 20.89, 22.34 and 22.89 mm, respectively.

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil from leaves and rhizomes of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Sudipta; Ray, Asit; Banerjee, Anwesha; Sahoo, Ambika; Nasim, Noohi; Sahoo, Suprava; Kar, Basudeba; Patnaik, Jeetendranath; Panda, Pratap Chandra; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2017-09-01

    The essential oil extracted from rhizome and leaf of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) was characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 32 and 35 identified constituents, comprising 92.6% and 92% of total leaf and rhizome oil, respectively. Curzerenone (33.2%), 14-hydroxy-δ-cadinene (18.6%) and γ-eudesmol acetate (7.3%) were the main components in leaf oil. In rhizome oil, curzerenone (72.6%), camphor (3.3%) and germacrone (3.3%) were found to be the major constituents. Antioxidant capacities of oil were assessed by various methods, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and reducing power ability (RPA). Based on the results, the leaf oil showed more antioxidant potential as compared to rhizome oil and reference standards (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)). Thus, the leaf essential oil of C. angustifolia can be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidant.

  2. Chemical composition and functional characterisation of commercial pumpkin seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procida, Giuseppe; Stancher, Bruno; Cateni, Francesca; Zacchigna, Marina

    2013-03-30

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil is a common product in Slovenia, Hungary and Austria and is considered a preventive agent for various pathologies, particularly prostate diseases. These properties are related to its high content of carotenoids and liposoluble vitamins. In this study the carotenoid (lutein and zeaxanthin), vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) and fatty acid contents of 12 samples of commercial pumpkin seed oil were investigated together with the composition of the volatile fraction resulting from the roasting process. The aromatic profile obtained from the commercial samples was directly related to the intensity of the roasting process of the crushed pumpkin seeds. The roasting temperature played a crucial role in the concentrations of volatile substances originating from Strecker degradation, lipid peroxidation and Maillard reaction. The findings suggest that high-temperature roasting leads to the production of an oil with intense aromatic characteristics, while mild conditions, generally employed to obtain an oil with professed therapeutic characteristics, lead to a product with minor characteristic pumpkin seed oil aroma. The nutraceutical properties of the product are confirmed by the high content of α- and γ-tocopherol and carotenoids. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Ostericum grosseserratum against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamaisD. Methods: Steam distillation of the aerial parts of O. grosseserratum during the flowering stage was carried out using a Clavenger ...

  4. Chemical composition of anthropogenic particles on needles collected close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinander, O.

    1995-01-01

    Within the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea, north-eastern Estonia is among the most polluted areas. Emissions from the oil-shale power plants produce air pollution problems both locally and on a larger scale. In the atmosphere, pollutants mix and convert. Consequently, the particles deposited due to the use of oil-shale can have various chemical compositions. From the point of view of air chemistry, ecological effects and air pollution modelling, knowledge of the chemical composition of the deposited particles can be of great value. The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition of single anthropogenic particles occurring on needle surfaces in north-eastern Estonia and Southern Finland close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants. For the purpose, scanning electron microscopical microanalysis was used

  5. Seasonal Variation in Essential oil Composition of Artemisianilagirica var. septentrionalis from Foot Hills of Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Chandra Padalia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils composition of the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke Pamp. var. septentrionalis Pamp. in different seasons viz. spring, summer, rainy, autumn and winter seasons under foot hills agroclimatic conditions of western Himalaya were analyzed and compared by GC–FID and GC–MS. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpenoids (59.0%-77.3% and sesquiterpenoids (15.7%-31.6%. The major constituents identified were artemisia ketone (38.3%-61.2%, chrysanthenone (1.5%-7.7%, germacrene D (3.1%-6.8%, β-caryophyllene (1.9%-6.8%, germacra-4,5,10-trien-1-α-ol (1.9%-4.9% and artemisia alcohol (1.4%-3.6%. Compositional analysis showed significant variations in the terpenoid compositions due to seasonal variations. Further, this is for the first time the seasonal variations in essential oil compositions of artemisia ketone rich chemotype of A. nilagirica var. septentrionalis is being reported from India.

  6. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Different Morphological Parts of Pinus cembra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Anna; Kalinowska, Aleksandra; Krajewska, Agnieszka; Mellor, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    The essential oils from needles, twigs, bark, wood, and cones of Pinus cembra were analyzed by GC-FID, GC/MS, and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. More than 130 compounds were identified. The oils differed in the quantitative composition. The principal components of the oil from twigs with needles were α-pinene (36.3%), limonene (22.7%) and β-phellandrene (12.0%). The needle oil was dominated by α-pinene (48.4%), whereas in the oil from bark and in the oil from twigs without needles there were limonene (36.2% and 33.6%, resp.) and β-phellandrene (18.8% and 17.1%, resp.). The main constituents of the wood oil as well as cone oil were α-pinene (35.2% and 39.0%, resp.) and β-pinene (10.4% and 18.9%, resp.). The wood oil and the cone oil contained large amounts of oxygenated diterpenes in comparison with needle, twig, and bark oils. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. Variation on Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oils of Four Common Curcuma Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanyue; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Dingkang; Huang, Zebin; Li, Yongliang; Lan, Xinzi; Su, Ping; Pan, Wanyi; Zhou, Wei; Zheng, Xi; Du, Zhiyun

    2017-11-01

    Chemical compositions, antioxidative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of essential oils extracted from four common Curcuma species (Curcuma longa, Curcuma phaeocaulis, Curcuma wenyujin, and Curcuma kwangsiensis) rhizomes in P. R. China are comparatively studied. In total, 47, 49, 35, and 30 compounds are identified in C. longa, C. phaeocaulis, C. wenyujin, and C. kwangsiensis essential oils by GC/MS, and their richest compounds are ar-turmerone (21.67%), elemenone (19.41%), curdione (40.23%) and (36.47%), respectively. Moreover, C. kwangsiensis essential oils display the strongest DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity (IC 50 , 3.47 μg/ml), much higher than ascorbic acid (6.50 μg/ml). C. phaeocaulis oils show the best antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (MIC, 235.54 μg/ml), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (391.31 μg/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (378.36 μg/ml), while C. wenyujin and C. kwangsiensis oils show optimum activities against Candida albicans (208.61 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (193.27 μg/ml), respectively. C. phaeocaulis (IC 50 , 4.63 μg/ml) and C. longa essential oils (73.05 μg/ml) have the best cytotoxicity against LNCaP and HepG2, respectively. C. kwangsiensis oils also exhibit the strongest anti-inflammatory activities by remarkably down-regulating expression of COX-2 and TNF-α. Therefore, due to their different chemical compositions and bioactivities, traditional Chinese Curcuma herbs should be differentially served as natural additives for food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Kılıç

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

  9. "Green" composites from renewable resources: preparation of epoxidized soybean oil and flax fiber composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zengshe; Erhan, Sevim Z; Akin, Danny E; Barton, Franklin E

    2006-03-22

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in using natural plant fibers as reinforcements for plastics. The motivation includes cost, performance enhancement, weight reduction, and environment concerns. High performance flax fiber could potentially substitute for glass or carbon fibers as reinforcements for plastics. This study reports the "green" composites obtained from a mixture of epoxidized soybean oil and epoxy resin, 1,1,1-tris(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane triglycidyl ether (THPE-GE), reinforced with flax fiber. The compression molding method is used for making the composites. Curing agents triethylenetetramine and diethylenetriamine provide better physical properties of the composites than Jeffamine agents D-230 and EDR-148. Both the flexural modulus and the tensile modulus of the composites increase as the amount of THPE-GE increases. The flexural modulus increased at a fiber content of fiber content until a maximum at 13.5 wt %, and then it decreases. The flax fiber length affected the mechanical properties of the composites: the longer the fiber length, the better are the mechanical properties observed.

  10. Evaluation of essential oil composition and DNA diversity of mint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Evaluation of essential oil composition and DNA diversity of mint resources from China. Chen Xiao Hua, G. R. Wang and Yao Lei*. Aromatic Plant R&D Centre, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai 200240, China. Accepted 19 September ...

  11. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2017-08-05

    Garlic, Allium sativum , is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale , has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum , cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  12. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare essential oil from Iran

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    M. Vazirian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are very complex mixture of components and their composition may vary in different species or varieties or even within the same variety. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare is one of the most distributed subspecies within the genus Origanum and has been found to be a poor-oil, categorized in cymyl, bornane or sabinyl chemotypes with higher proportion of sesquiterpenes. In this experiment, the Iranian sample was studied for the chemical composition of the oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. Methods: Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC/MS for determination of components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by radical scavenging ability (DPPH method and reducing power (FRAP assay. Results: The sample belonged to “thymol” chemotype with the main components as thymol (37.13%, gama-terpinene (9.67%, carvacrol (9.57%, carvacrol methyl ether (6.88, cis-alpha-bisabolene (6.80%, eucalyptol (3.82%, p-cymene (3.58% and elemol (2.04%. The oil of plant showed very strong antioxidant activity (IC50=2.5 µg/mL in DPPH method, which was stronger than the standard antioxidants (Vit E and BHA, p

  14. Phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils from different parts of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.

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    Xuan-Feng Yue

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from the seed, pulp, and leaf of sea buckthorn were obtained with hydrodistillation, and their phytochemical composition was analyzed through gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the oils was tested on five food-borne bacteria by spectrometry and evaluated in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration. The results indicate that the composition of all essential oils is dominated by free fatty acids, esters, and alkanes. Minimum inhibitory concentration values on each bacterium were obtained for oils from different parts. The oils from different parts exhibited nearly equal inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus. The pulp oil was found to be the most effective for the rest of bacteria tested except Escherichia coli, on which seed oil shows twice the inhibitory effect to that of leaf or pulp oil. Three natural inhibitory examples were found comparable with or even better than the positive control: pulp oil on Bacillus subtilis, and pulp oil and leaf oil on Bacillus coagulans.

  15. Chemical composition and anti-Acanthamoeba activity of Melaleuca styphelioides essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouchi, Ferdaous; Sifaoui, Ines; Reyes-Batlle, Maria; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Abderrabba, Manef

    2017-12-01

    Acanthamoeba infections cause serious humans diseases, such as amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Melaleuca essential oil has been reported to be effective in treating bacterial and fungal infections. However, the anti-parasitic effects of this essential oil are not well studied. In the present study, we first characterized the composition of the essential oil, extracted from the Tunisian Melaleuca styphelioides leaves, and then tested its effect on the Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the major common compounds were Caryophyllene oxide (23.42%), Spathulenol (20.5%), Isoaromadendrene epoxide (7.45%), Ledol (5.98%), α-Pinene (3.82%), Isopinocarveol (2.18%). Our data also showed that M. styphelioides essential oil inhibited the growth of Acanthamoeba with an IC 50 value of 69.03 ± 9.17 μg/ml. This work suggests M. styphelioides essential oil as a potential anti amoeba drug. Nevertheless, further studies are still needed to further verify the cytotoxicity of the studied oil on human macrophages and check its applicability to treat Acanthamoeba infections in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Palm Oil Fiber-TiO_2 Ratio in the Composite on the Reduction of BTX and Formaldehyde in the Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Rahafza Abdul Manap; Roslinda Shamsudin; Mohd Norhafsam Maghpor; Muhammad Azmi Abdul Hamid; Azman Jalar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of palm oil fiber-TiO_2 ratio in the composite on the reduction of benzene, toluene, xylene and formaldehyde in the air is studied. The ratio was set at 1:0, 1:9 and 5:5. The combination of adsorption process by palm oil fiber and photooxidation of volatile organic compounds by titanium dioxide was revealed. The composite were prepared by using mechanical milling technique. The performance of the composite was characterized in terms of percentage of recovery of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) using GC/ FID and formaldehyde concentration reduction using formaldehyde meter. The results of recovery of the BTX by palm oil fiber/ titanium dioxide composite were more than 90 %. The palm oil fiber/ titanium dioxide composite has successfully reduced the concentration of formaldehyde by up to 66.7 %. Therefore, the palm oil mesocarp fiber/ titanium dioxide composite produced is able to reduce the concentration of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  17. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil

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    Bei Gao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004 and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008. Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. D-limonene, one of terpenes, was the major constituent in PCR. The antioxidant capacity of PCR essential oil varied considerably with the duration of storage time, and the oil from Chachi 1994 has the strongest ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the essential oil possessed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, except Streptococcus faecalis, while had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae.

  18. Effect of saponification on composition of unsaponifiable matter in rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afinisha Deepam, L S; Arumughan, C

    2012-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil contains a variety of Unsaponifiable Constituents (USC) that are presumed to contribute to the high value of Unsaponifable Matter (USM). The objectives of the present study were to identify and quantify the constituents in USM. The changes that the unsaponifiables undergo during saponification were also quantitatively investigated. While analyzing the percentage of all constituents, the percentage of sterol get increased from 22.46 to 23.77 in USM of crude rice bran oil (CRBO) and 33.42 to 36.79 in USM of refined rice bran oil (RRBO). Oryzanol that comprised 34% of the unsaponifiable in the crude oil by direct estimation was almost eliminated in USM and same in refined oil. The results also revealed the presence of four additional classes of compounds that were quantified in USM (policosanol, fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols). Among the four classes of compounds, policosanol contributed high percentage in USM, (43.39% in CRBO and 28.46% in RRBO). Fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols together contributed 27.68% and 25.13% of USM from CRBO and RRBO respectively. The HPTLC method employed here thus, accounted for 96.75% by wt of the USM of CRBO and 92.00% by wt of the USM of RRBO.

  19. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Laserpitium latifolium L. and L. ochridanum Micevski (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Višnja B; Petrović, Silvana D; Milenković, Marina T; Drobac, Milica M; Couladis, Maria A; Niketić, Marjan S

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Laserpitium latifolium and L. ochridanum were investigated. The essential oils were isolated by steam distillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. All essential oils were distinguished by high contents of monoterpenes, and α-pinene was the most abundant compound in the essential oils of L. latifolium underground parts and fruits (contents of 44.4 and 44.0%, resp.). The fruit essential oil was also rich in sabinene (26.8%). Regarding the L. ochridanum essential oils, the main constituents were limonene in the fruit oil (57.7%) and sabinene in the herb oil (25.9%). The antimicrobial activity of these essential oils as well as that of L. ochridanum underground parts, whose composition was reported previously, was tested by the broth-microdilution method against four Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and two Candida albicans strains. Except the L. latifolium underground-parts essential oil, the other investigated oils showed a high antimicrobial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, or Candida albicans (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 13.0-73.0 μg/ml), comparable to or even higher than that of thymol, which was used as reference compound. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. Effect of soil application of humic acid on nutrients uptake, essential oil and chemical compositions of garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozisharaf, Alireza; Kaviani, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    Humic acid is natural biological organic, which has a high effect on plant growth and quality. However, the mechanisms of the promoting effect of humic acid on the volatile composition were rarely reported. In this study, the effects of soil application of humic acid on the chemical composition and nutrients uptake of Thymus vulgaris were investigated. Treatments comprised 0, 50, 75 and 100 g m -2 . Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-FID. Essential oil content was enhanced by increase of the humic acid level and its content ranged from 0.8% (control) to 2.0% (75 g m -2 ). Thirty-two volatile compounds were identified and these compounds were considerably affected by humic acid. The highest percentage of thymol (74.15%), carvacrol (6.20%), p -cymene (4.24%), borneol (3.42%), trans -caryophyllene (1.70%) and cis -sabinene hydrate (1.35%) as major compounds were observed in T. vulgaris under 100 g m -2 humic acid. There was a linear relationship ( R 2  = 97%) between humic acid levels and thymol as a major compound. The oils were dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Based on the path coefficient analysis, the highest direct effects on essential oil content were observed in monoterpene esters (3.465) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (3.146). The humic acid application also enhanced the uptake of N, P, K, Mg and Fe in garden thyme. The highest N (2.42%), P (0.75%), K (2.63%), Mg (0.23%) and Fe (1436.58 ppm) were observed in medium supplemented with 100 g m -2 humic acid. In all, the utilization of humic acid could positively change nutrients uptake, essential oil content and its major constituents in T. vulgaris .

  1. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Organic Fennel, Parsley, and Lavender from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Irene; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella; Viuda-Martos, Manuel; Navarro, Casilda; Sendra, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to (i) determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of three spices widely cultivated in Spain from organic growth: Foeniculum vulgare, Petroselium crispum, and Lavandula officinalis; (ii) determine the total phenolic content; (iii) determine the antioxidant activity of the essentials oils by means of three different antioxidant tests and (iv) determine the effectiveness of these essentials oils on the inhibition of Listeria innocua CECT 910 and Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844. There is a great variability in the chemical composition of the essential oils. Parsley had the highest phenolic content. Overall, parsley presented the best antioxidant profile, given its highest % of inhibition of DPPH radical (64.28%) and FRAP (0.93 mmol/L Trolox), but had a pro-oxidative behavior by TBARS. Lavender essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against L. innocua (>13 mm of inhibition at 20–40 μL oil in the discs), followed by parsley with an inhibition zone of 10 mm (when more than 5 μL oil in the discs), and fennel 10 mm (when more than 40 μL oil in the discs). P. fluorescens was not inhibited by the tested essential oils. PMID:28231113

  2. Composition of essential oils isolated from the needles of Pinus uncinata and P. uliginosa grown in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonikowski, Radosław; Celiński, Konrad; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Maliński, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    The compositions of mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) and peat-bog pine (P. uliginosa) needle essential oils were investigated. Enantiomeric compositions of selected monoterpene hydrocarbons were also examined. Respectively, fifty-three and seventy-six components of the essential oils were identified using GC-MS and retention indexes. The main group of essential oil components of mountain pine needles were monoterpenes, and bornyl acetate constituted approximately 30% (46.3 g/100 g) of the oil. In peat-bog pine essential oil, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes exhibited a similar content (ca. 40%). Bornyl acetate and α-pinene were the main constituents of both essential oils. In the essential oil of P. uncinata needles, limonene, camphene, myrcene and (E)-β-caryophyllene were also noticeable, while in the essential oil of P. uliginosa needles, Δ-car-3-ene, (E)-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, δ-cadinene, germacrene D 4-ol and α-cadinol were present in notable quantities. In both essential oils, borneol propionate, isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate and isovalerate were detected. Their presence was confirmed by synthesis and analysis of the standards; retention indexes on a non-polar column are published herein.

  3. The Effect of Mechanical Wounding on the Composition of Essential Oil from Ocimum Minimum L. Leaves

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    S. Grant Wyllie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical damage on the composition of the essential oil obtained from eugenol-rich Ocimum minimum leaves was determined over 48 hours. Changes in the levels of five oil-constituents were detected in the first post-wounding day but only one of those components (camphor exhibited the same behaviour the day after. The levels of eugenol (-4.8% and linalool (+2.5% were affected the most by the wounding process. Principal component analysis (PCA showed the post-wounding response to be independent from the pre-wounding levels of the particular compounds expressing the response and from the overall leaf oil-composition.

  4. Chemical Composition, Physicochemical Characteristics, and Nutritional Value of Lannea kerstingii Seeds and Seed Oil

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    Judicaël Thomas Ouilly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, main physicochemical properties, and nutritional value of seed flour and seed oil of Lannea kerstingii were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 3.61% moisture, 57.85% fat, 26.39% protein, 10.07% carbohydrates, and 2.08% ash. Potassium was the predominant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The essential amino acids were at higher levels than the estimated amino acid requirements of FAO/WHO/UNU except for lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids. Physicochemical properties of the seed oil were melting point, 19.67°C; refractive index (25°C, 1.47; iodine value, 60.72/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 0.99 meq. O2/kg of oil; p-anisidine value, 0.08; total oxidation (TOTOX value, 2.06; oxidative stability index (120°C, 52.53 h; free fatty acids, 0.39%; acid value, 0.64 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 189.73. Total amount of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols was 578.60, 4.60, and 929.50 mg/kg of oil, respectively. γ-Tocopherol (82%, lutein (80%, and β-sitosterol (93% were the most abundant forms of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols, respectively. Seeds of L. kerstingii constitute an alternative source of stable vegetable oil and protein for nutritional and industrial applications.

  5. A First Assessment of the Elemental Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in the Canadian Oil Sands Region

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    Dabek-Zlotorzynska E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Canadian Oil Sands, which comprise 97% of Canada’s 176 billion barrels of proven oil reserves, are located beneath 140,200 km2 of boreal forests, prairies and wetlands, and are the second largest known deposit of crude oil in the world. As such, this region has experienced rapid industrial development, which resulted also in increasing industrial air emissions, primarily from bitumen upgrading and mine vehicle fleet operations. This rapid development has led to concerns regarding health risk to humans, and other terrestrial and aquatic wildlife associated with exposure to toxic contaminants, especially metals and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs particularly along the Athabasca River and its watershed. Canada’s Minister of the Environment announced that Environment Canada (EC will jointly lead, in collaboration with Government of Alberta and relevant stakeholders, the development and implementation of an enhanced monitoring system in the Oil Sands region to provide information on the state of the air, water, land andbiodiversity. This work presents preliminary data on the first assessment of elemental composition of fine particulate matter (particles<2.5 mm in diameter; PM2.5 at 3 air quality sites in close proximity to Oil Sands processing activities. Since December 2010, integrated 24 hour air samples were collected every sixth day on a 47-mm Teflon filters using Thermo Fisher Partisol 2000-FRM samplers operated by the National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS network that involves EC and the Canadian provinces and territories. All samples including laboratory, travel and field blanks were subjected to gravimetric determination of PM2.5 mass and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF analysis for 46 elements. Since ED-XRF is a non-destructive technique, PM2.5 samples were subsequently analyzed for 37 trace elements including rare earth elements using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS combined with microwave

  6. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanloo, Kourosh Hasanzadeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Teguh Widodo, Riyanto; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%-61.85%) and oleic acid (1.64%-18.97%). Thymoquinone (0.72%-21.03%) was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly ( P essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique.

  7. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Novak, Johannes

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6-34.9%; twigs: 11.0-24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1-27.7; twigs: 29.0-49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0-16.1; twigs: 6.9-20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.

  8. Essential Oil from the Resin of Protium heptaphyllum: Chemical Composition, Cytotoxicity, Antimicrobial Activity, and Antimutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Cazelli, Didley Sâmia Paiva; Pinto, Fernanda Endringer; Mazuco, Renata Alves; Kalil, Ieda Carneiro; Lenz, Dominik; Scherer, Rodrigo; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere; Endringer, Denise Coutinho

    2016-01-01

    Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March is popularly used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of P. heptaphyllum essential oil, its cytotoxicity in a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), antimicrobial activity, and its antimutagenicity in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil collected in three 3 years was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Annexin V conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate, caspase-3, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) assays were performed to evaluate apoptosis and inflammatory events. The antimutagenic activity at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg was determined using a micronucleus test in murine bone marrow. The essential oil showed a predominance of monoterpene compounds, being the terpinolene, p-cymene-8-ol, and p-cymene, present in the essential oil extracted in the 3 years. The essential oil showed a protection against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity, and the cytotoxicity index polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes ratio in animals treated with oil at all doses (1.34 ± 0.33; 1.15 ± 0.1; 1.11 ± 0.13) did not differ from the negative control animal (1.31 ± 0.33), but from the cyclophosphamide group (0.61 ± 0.12). Cytotoxicity, at a concentration of 40.0 μg/mL, and antimicrobial activity were not observed for the essential oil (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥0.5 mg/mL). The essential oil did not change the levels of caspase-3 in the TNF-α level. The essential oil showed antimutagenic activity due to its chemical composition. Terpinolene, p-cymene-8-ol, and p-cymene are the main constituents of the essential oil of P. heptaphyllum collected within 3-yearsThe essential oil of P. heptaphyllum did not show antimicrobial activity (MIC >0.5 mg/mL) against E. coli, S. aureus, E. faecalis, and C. albicansThe essential oil

  9. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

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    Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%, 1,8-cineol (12.2%, eugenol (6.6%, methyl cinnamate (6.2%, α-cubebene (5.7%, caryophyllene (2.5%, β-ocimene (2.1% and α-farnesene (2.0%.The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  10. OSCAR2000 : a multi-component 3-dimensional oil spill contingency and response model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, M.; Daling, P.S.; Brakstad, O.G.; Singsaas, I.; Faksness, L.-G.; Hetland, B.; Ekrol, N.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers at SINTEF in Norway have studied the weathering of surface oil. They developed a realistic model to analyze alternative spill response strategies. The model represented the formation and composition of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of oil for both treated and untreated oil spills. As many as 25 components, pseudo-components, or metabolites were allowed for the specification of oil. Calculations effected using OSCAR were verified in great detail on numerous occasions. The model made it possible to determine rather realistically the dissolution, transformation, and toxicology of dispersed oil clouds, as well as evaporation, emulsification, and natural dispersion. OSCAR comprised a data-based oil weathering model, a three-dimensional oil trajectory and chemical fates model, an oil spill combat model, exposure models for birds, marine mammals, fish and ichthyoplankton. 17 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs

  11. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  12. Environmental and seasonal impacts on the chemical composition of Satureja horvatii Šilić (Lamiaceae) essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakušić, Branislava; Ristić, Mihailo; Slavkovska, Violeta; Milenković, Marina; Lakušić, Dmitar

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Satureja horvatii Šilić from two natural habitats (Mt. Orjen and Mt. Lovćen in Montenegro) and from cultivated plants (Belgrade, Serbia) were characterized. For the latter, plants from the locus classicus, i.e., Orjenske Lokve (Mt. Orjen), were transferred to Belgrade and, after three years of cultivation, the chemical composition of their essential oils at different phenological stages was analyzed. The essential oils were obtained from the aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The yields and chemical compositions of the S. horvatii oils showed significant differences between the plants collected in the natural habitats and those from cultivation, as well as between the plants at different phenological stages. In the populations from the natural habitats, growing in Mediterranean conditions, the most abundant oil constituents were the phenols thymol (63.7% in the samples from Mt. Orjen) or carvacrol (68.1% in the samples from Mt. Lovćen), while the oils from the cultivated plants (Belgrade), growing in continental conditions, were dominated by linalool (up to 65.8 and 55.9% in average). The basic characteristics of the essential oil from plants at the early phenological stage (before flowering) were high percentages of linalool (37.4%), thymol (27.3%), and carvacrol (12.2%). At the stage of flowering, the percentage of linalool (56.6-57.5%) increased, while those of thymol (15.5-15.8%) and carvacrol (1.4-1.5%) significantly decreased. The essential oil of plants in the full stage of fruiting was characterized by the domination of linalool (58.4 and 65.8%) and lower percentages of thymol (7.6 and 1.3%) and carvacrol (0.7 and 0.1%). In conclusion, the oil composition of S. horvatii was found to depend on the pedoclimatic conditions of the habitat and the phenological stage of the plants. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus halepensis growing in Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Tomi, Félix; Gibernau, Marc; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2016-04-01

    The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno, and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS and (13)C-NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77 - 100% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene, myrcene, and (E)-β-caryophyllene were the major component followed by α-humulene and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. 47 Oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M = 28.1 g/100 g; SD = 10.6) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 19.0 g/100 g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 28.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.9), α-pinene (M = 12.3 g/100 g; SD = 3.6), and myrcene (M = 11.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

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    Javid Hussain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa, Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium, and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods: Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc. were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results: The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, β-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II, α-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions: J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  15. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils and methanol extracts of three wild Lavandula L. species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud, C; Chograni, H; Boussaid, M

    2012-11-01

    A comparative study of essential oil composition, polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of Lavandula coronopifolia, Lavandula multifida and Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas were reported. Qualitative and quantitative variations in the composition of oils according to species were shown. Lavandula coronopifolia's oil was characterised by high proportions of trans-β-ocimene (26.9%), carvacrol (18.5%), β-bisabolene (13.1%) and myrcene (7.5%). The main components of L. multifida oil are carvacrol (65.1%) and β-bisabolene (24.7%). Lavandula stoechas oil is rich in fenchone (34.3%) and comphor (27.4%). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents also significantly varied among species. Lavandula coronopifolia exhibits the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (31.3 mg GAE g(-1) and 16.3 mg RE g(-1), respectively), followed by L. multifida (30.8 mg GAE g(-1) and 12.3 mg RE g(-1)). Methanolic extracts and essential oils displayed significant antioxidant activities. The level of antioxidant capacity varied according to extracts and species.

  16. Essential oil composition, phytotoxic and antifungal activities of Ruta chalepensis L. leaves from High Atlas Mountains (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouajaj, Sana; Romane, Abderrahmane; Benyamna, Abdennaji; Amri, Ismail; Hanana, Mohsen; Hamrouni, Lamia; Romdhane, Mehrez

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at the determination of chemical composition of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, and to evaluate their phytotoxic and antifungal activities. Leaves of Ruta chalepensis L. were collected from the region of Tensift Al Haouz (High Atlas Mountains) Marrakech, Morocco. The essential oil (oil yield is 0.56%) was analysed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Twenty-two compounds were identified and accounted for 92.4% of the total oil composition. The major components were undecan-2-one (49.08%), nonan-2-one (33.15%), limonene (4.19%) and decanone (2.71%). Antifungal ability of essential oils was tested by disc agar diffusion against five plant pathogenic fungi: Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium pseudograminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium polyphialidicum. The oils were also tested in vitro for herbicidal activity by determining their influence on the germination and the shoot and root growth of two weed species, Triticum durum and Phalaris canariensis L.

  17. Woven hybrid composites: Tensile and flexural properties of oil palm-woven jute fibres based epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Woven hybrid composites show good tensile and flexural properties. {yields} Hybridization with 20% woven jute gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Layering pattern affect mechanical properties of hybrid composites. {yields} Statistical analysis shows that there is significant difference between composites. - Abstract: In this research, tensile and flexural performance of tri layer oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/woven jute (Jw) fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites subjected to layering pattern has been experimentally investigated. Sandwich composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique in a mould and cured with 105 deg. C temperatures for 1 h by using hot press. Pure EFB and woven jute composites were also fabricate for comparison purpose. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties of pure EFB composite can be improved by hybridization with woven jute fibre as extreme woven jute fibre mat. It was found that tensile and flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of EFB composite but less than woven jute composite. Statistical analysis of composites done by ANOVA-one way, it showed significant differences between the results obtained. The fracture surface morphology of the tensile samples of the hybrid composites was performed by using scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Woven hybrid composites: Tensile and flexural properties of oil palm-woven jute fibres based epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawaid, M.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Abu Bakar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Woven hybrid composites show good tensile and flexural properties. → Hybridization with 20% woven jute gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. → Layering pattern affect mechanical properties of hybrid composites. → Statistical analysis shows that there is significant difference between composites. - Abstract: In this research, tensile and flexural performance of tri layer oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/woven jute (Jw) fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites subjected to layering pattern has been experimentally investigated. Sandwich composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique in a mould and cured with 105 deg. C temperatures for 1 h by using hot press. Pure EFB and woven jute composites were also fabricate for comparison purpose. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties of pure EFB composite can be improved by hybridization with woven jute fibre as extreme woven jute fibre mat. It was found that tensile and flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of EFB composite but less than woven jute composite. Statistical analysis of composites done by ANOVA-one way, it showed significant differences between the results obtained. The fracture surface morphology of the tensile samples of the hybrid composites was performed by using scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Chemical Composition, Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities of the Essential Oil from the Tunisian Ononis angustissima L. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghribi, Lotfi; Ben Nejma, Aymen; Besbes, Malek; Harzalla-Skhiri, Fethia; Flamini, Guido; Ben Jannet, Hichem

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of Ononis angustissima from south Tunisia has been evaluated. The oil yield was 0.04% (w/w). The chemical composition, determined by GC and GC-MS is reported for the first time. Forty-five components, accounting for 93.7% of the total oil have been identified. The oil was characterized by a high proportion of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (33.2%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (6.3%) and apocarotenoids (10.3%). The main components of the oil were α-eudesmol (22.4%), 2-tridecanone (9.3%) and acetophenone (7.4%). The essential oil was tested for its possible cytotoxic activity towards the human cervical cell line HeLa using the MTT assay and the antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and the clinical strain Acinetobacter sp. This oil exerted a cytotoxic activity with an IC50 of 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL and a significant antibacterial effect against P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis.

  20. Composition of Myrtus communis L. Essential Oils as Affected by Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae family, commonly known as myrtle, possesses a set of qualities that make it very interesting for the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. In this work, myrtle was studied over a period of three years (2006-2008, encompassing the main stages of the development cycle of the plant. The influence of climatic conditions, such as temperature and rainfall, on the chemical composition and yield of the essential oils obtained from leaves and berries was studied. The leaves and berries essential oils were obtained by Clevenger distillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The results show that the major components were limonene+1,8-cineole, myrtenyl acetate, α-pinene and linalool. Over the three year period of study, a decrease in the composition of the most volatile compounds (α-pinene and limonene+1,8-cineole was observed, the reverse being found for linalool and myrtenyl acetate. The highest value for the yield of the leaves’ essential oils was observed in the third year (0.64%, w/w, whereas that same year the lowest yield (0.07%, w/w of fruit was observed. These results were likely due to an atypically high record for rainfall in April and May of that year. The highest value of the berry essential oils (0.14%, w/w was obtained in the second year.

  1. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Blepharocalyx salicifolius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabiana Barcelos; Borges, Bruna Cristina; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; de Almeida Junior, Luiz Domingues; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2018-01-01

    Natural products represent a source of biologically active molecules that have an important role in drug discovery. The aromatic plant Blepharocalyx salicifolius has a diverse chemical constitution but the biological activities of its essential oils have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this paper were to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of an essential oil from leaves of B. salicifolius and to identify its main chemical constituents. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and biological activities were performed by a microdilution broth method. The yield of essential oil was 0.86% (w/w), and the main constituents identified were bicyclogermacrene (17.50%), globulol (14.13%), viridiflorol (8.83%), γ-eudesmol (7.89%) and α-eudesmol (6.88%). The essential oil was cytotoxic against the MDA-MB-231 (46.60 μg·mL−1) breast cancer cell line, being more selective for this cell type compared to the normal breast cell line MCF-10A (314.44 μg·mL−1). Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity results showed that this oil does not act by inducing cell death, but rather by impairment of cellular metabolism specifically of the cancer cells. Furthermore, it presented antifungal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (156.25 μg·mL−1) but was inactive against other fungi and bacteria. Essential oil from B. salicifolius showed promising biological activities and is therefore a source of molecules to be exploited in medicine or by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:29300307

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial evaluation of Achillea aucheri essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The majority of the Achillea spp. are used as medicinal plants with therapeutic applications worldwide. Achillea aucheri was selected in our study to assess its essential oil chemical composition along with antimicrobial evaluation. Methods: The essential oil of A. aucheri achieved through hydrodistillation, was analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Afterwards, the microbial growth inhibitory property of the A. aucheri essential oil was determined using the agar disk-diffusion method against five Gram-positive strains (Staphylococus aureus, Staphylococus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, three Gram-negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Psedumonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and a fungus (Candida albicans. Besides, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the sensitive strains were determined by broth dilution method to evaluate the inhibitory properties.Results: The GC-MS analysis, allowed us to identify 28 compounds, representing 98.1% of the total essential oil. The main components of the oil were identified as α-thujone (45.6%, artemisia alcohol (26.5% and yomogi alcohol (8.8%. The findings of the antimicrobial assay indicated that S. aureus was the most sensitive strain with the strongest inhibition zone of 31.5 ± 0.5 and MIC of 2.5 % v/v, followed by S. epidermidis and M. luteus, respectively.Conclusion: Overall, A. aucheri essential oil possessed potential antibacterial and antioxidant activities that could be attributed to the high content of oxygenated monoterpenes present in the oil which requisite for further exploration of the compounds in charge, considering the growing statistics of bacterial resistance worldwide.

  3. Effects of composition and processing conditions on morphology and properties of thermoplastic elastomer blends of SEBS-PP-Oil and dynamically vulcanized EPDM-PP-Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, P.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study of the morphology and structure-related properties of thermoplastic elastomer blends based on SEBS-PP-oil and dynamically vulcanized EPDM-PP-oil prepared under identical conditions. Compositions of each blend type with three different SEBS-PP and EPDM-PP ratios

  4. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Taher Maghsoodlou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil compositionfrom leaves and flowers of E. microthecaand E. viminalisleavesgrowing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013.After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results: In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%, aromadendrene (12.773%, α-pinene (6.752%, globulol (5.997%, ledene (5.665%, P-cymen (5.251%, and β-pinene (5.006% were the major constituents.  In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%, O-cymen (13.522%, β-pinene (11.082%, aromadendrene (7.444%, α-phellandrene (7.006%, globulol (5.419%, and 9-octadecenamide (5.414% were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%, α-pinene (13.379%, limonene (5.443%, and globulol (3.054%. Conclusion: The results showed the essential oils fromthe aerial parts of Eucalyptus speciesare a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  5. Phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils from different parts of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xuan-Feng; Shang, Xiao; Zhang, Zhi-Juan; Zhang, Yan-Ni

    2017-04-01

    Essential oils from the seed, pulp, and leaf of sea buckthorn were obtained with hydrodistillation, and their phytochemical composition was analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the oils was tested on five food-borne bacteria by spectrometry and evaluated in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration. The results indicate that the composition of all essential oils is dominated by free fatty acids, esters, and alkanes. Minimum inhibitory concentration values on each bacterium were obtained for oils from different parts. The oils from different parts exhibited nearly equal inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus. The pulp oil was found to be the most effective for the rest of bacteria tested except Escherichia coli, on which seed oil shows twice the inhibitory effect to that of leaf or pulp oil. Three natural inhibitory examples were found comparable with or even better than the positive control: pulp oil on Bacillus subtilis, and pulp oil and leaf oil on Bacillus coagulans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant mate...

  7. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Sodré

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

  8. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Sodré

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

  9. Antinociceptive effects, acute toxicity and chemical composition of Vitex agnus-castus essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Emad Khalilzadeh; Gholamreza Vafaei Saiah; Hamideh Hasannejad; Adel Ghaderi; Shahla Ghaderi; Gholamreza Hamidian; Razzagh Mahmoudi; Davoud Eshgi; Mahsa Zangisheh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) and its essential oil have been traditionally used to treat many conditions and symptoms such as premenstrual problems, mastalgia, inflammation, sexual dysfunction, and pain. In this study, the effects of essential oil extracted from Vitex agnus-castus (EOVAC) leaves were investigated in three behavioral models of nociception in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: Chemical composition of EOVAC was analyzed using gas chromatography ? mass spectrom...

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of different basil essential oils chemotypes from Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Koffi Koba; P.W. Poutouli; Christine Raynaud; Jean-Pierre Chaumont; Komla Sanda

    2009-01-01

    The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS) and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; t-anethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol and meth...

  11. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined.

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and essential oils from Calamintha nepeta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodja, Nabyla Khaled; Boulekbache, Lila; Chegdani, Fatima; Dahmani, Karima; Bennis, Faiza; Madani, Khodir

    2018-05-24

    Background Essential oils, infusion and decoction extracts of Calamintha nepeta L. were evaluated for their bioactive substances (polyphenols and essential oils) and antioxidant activities. Methods The amounts of phenolic compounds were determined by colorimetric assays and identified by high performance and liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) method. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. For the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of essential oils and extracts, two different assays (reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity) were used. Results Infusion extract presented the highest phenolic content, followed by the decoction one, while the lowest amount was observed in essential oils. The amount of flavonoids of the decocted extract was higher than that of the infused one. The phenolic profile of C. nepeta infusion and decoction extracts revealed the presence of 28 and 13 peaks, respectively. Four phenolics compounds were identified in infusion (gallic acid (GA), rosmarinic acid (RA), caffeine (C) and caffeic acid (CA)) and two were identified in decoction (GA and RA). The chemical composition of essential oils revealed the presence of 29 compounds, accounting for the 99.7% of the total oils. Major compounds of essential oil (EO) were trans-menthone (50.06%) and pulegone (33.46%). Infusion and decoction extracts revealed an interesting antioxidant activity which correlates positively with their total phenolic contents. Conclusions These results showed that Calamintha nepeta could be considered as a valuable source of phenolics and essential oils with potent antioxidant activity.

  13. Compositions of the volatile oils of Citrus macroptera and C. maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Virendra S; Blazquez, Maria A

    2012-10-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the fresh peels of Citrus macroptera Montr. and C. maxima (Burm.) Merr. were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The yields of oil ranged from 0.53% in C. macroptera to 0.13% in C. maxima cultivar (white). Forty-seven compounds were identified in the oils with limonene (55.3-80.0%), dodecyl acrylate (2.2-8.0%), geranial (0.4-3.5%), trans-linalool oxide (1.0-2.8%), alpha-terpineol (0.7-2.3%), linalool (0.7-1.5%) and cis-linalool oxide (0.5-1.4%) identified as major compounds. The oil ofC. macroptera contained limonene (55.3%), beta-caryophyllene (4.7%) and geranial (3.5%) as main compounds. Similarly, oils from two C. maxima (pink and white) cultivars were rich in limonene (72.0-80.0%), dodecyl acrylate (8.0-7.2%) and nootkatone (1.6-2.5%). C. maxima (pink and white) cultivars were found to contain higher amount of limonene (72.0 and 80.0%) as compared with C. macroptera (55.3%). The chemical compositions of the oils were found to be similar, but nootkatone (1.6-2.5%) was identified only in C. maxima cultivars.

  14. Chemical composition and phagocyte immunomodulatory activity of Ferula iliensis essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özek, Gulmira; Schepetkin, Igor A; Utegenova, Gulzhakhan A; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Andrei, Spencer R; Özek, Temel; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Abidkulova, Karime T; Kushnarenko, Svetlana V; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Damron, Derek S; Quinn, Mark T

    2017-06-01

    Essential oil extracts from Ferula iliensis have been used traditionally in Kazakhstan for treatment of inflammation and other illnesses. Because little is known about the biologic activity of these essential oils that contributes to their therapeutic properties, we analyzed their chemical composition and evaluated their phagocyte immunomodulatory activity. The main components of the extracted essential oils were ( E )-propenyl sec -butyl disulfide (15.7-39.4%) and ( Z )-propenyl sec -butyl disulfide (23.4-45.0%). Ferula essential oils stimulated [Ca 2+ ] i mobilization in human neutrophils and activated ROS production in human neutrophils and murine bone marrow phagocytes. Activation of human neutrophil [Ca 2+ ] i flux by Ferula essential oils was dose-dependently inhibited by capsazepine, a TRPV1 channel antagonist, indicating that TRPV1 channels mediate this response. Furthermore, Ferula essential oils stimulated Ca 2+ influx in TRPV1 channel-transfected HEK293 cells and desensitized the capsaicin-induced response in these cells. Additional molecular modeling with known TRPV1 channel agonists suggested that the active component is likely to be ( Z )-propenyl sec -butyl disulfide. Our results provide a cellular and molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic properties of FEOs. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  15. Antifungal Activity and Composition of Essential Oils of Conyza canadensis Herbs and Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Veres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed, collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%, while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis

  16. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils of Portuguese Foeniculum vulgare fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ana S; Martins, M Rosário; Arantes, Sílvia; Lopes, Violeta R; Bettencourt, Eliseu; Pombal, Sofia; Gomes, Arlindo C; Silva, Lúcia A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fruits of six fennel accessions collected from wild populations occurring in the centre and south of Portugal. Composition of essential oils was established by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The obtained yields of the essential oils were found to vary greatly in the range of 1.1 to 2.9% (v/w) and the chemical composition varied with the region of collection. A total of 16 compounds were identified. The main compounds were fenchone (16.9 - 34.7%), estragole (2.5 - 66.0%) and trans-anethole (7.9 - 77.7%). The percentages of these three main compounds were used to determine the relationship between the different oil samples and to group them into four different chemotypes: anethole/fenchone; anethole; estragole and anethole/estragole. Antifungal activity of essential oils was evaluated against six food spoilage fungi: Aspergillus niger, A. japonicus, A. oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizophus oryzae and R. stolonifer. Antibacterial activity was assessed against three Gram-positive strains: Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and S. aureus ATCC 28213; and against six Gram-negative strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922; Morganella morganii LFG 08; Proteus mirabilis LFG 04; Salmonella enteritidis LFG 05; S. entiritidis serovar typhimurium LFG 06 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 by the disc diffusion agar method; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the broth macro-dilution method. The MIC values varied from 62.5 (E. coli ATCC 25922) to 2000 µmL (P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853).

  17. Identification of the Relationship between Oil Body Morphology and Oil Content by Microstructure Comparison Combining with QTL Analysis in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianwei; Chao, Hongbo; Wang, Hao; Li, Yonghong; Li, Dianrong; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Xuekun; Long, Yan; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    Oil bodies (OBs) are relatively simple but very important organelles comprising a matrix of triacylglycerol (TAG) surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer embedded and covered with unique proteins. The OB structure in Brassica napus with different oil content and the relationship between the oil content and the OB structure needs to be better understood. In this paper, the characteristics of OBs in the embryo of a series of B. napus materials with different oil content ranging from 34% to over 60% were studied. The results indicated that the OB size was significantly positively correlated with the oil content but was significantly negatively correlated with the glucosinolates and the protein content. Many genes associated with TAG synthesis, OB-membrane proteins, and the cell progress regulatory pathway were identified in the confidence interval of co-located QTLs for oil content, fatty acid (FA) compositions, and protein content. Our results suggested that the morphology of OBs might be directly controlled by the genes associated with OB-membrane proteins and indirectly controlled by the genes associated with TAG synthesis and cell progress regulatory pathway.

  18. Study of the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) from Senegal. The plants were collected in two different localities, Dakar and. Kaolack. The extracts were obtained by steam distillation from both fresh and dried plants and analyses carried.

  19. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Nigella orientalis L. seeds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokoška, L.; Havlík, J.; Valterová, Irena; Nepovím, Aleš; Rada, V.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2005), s. 419-420 ISSN 0882-5734 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/02/0257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Nigella orientalis L. * ranunculaceae * essential oil composition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2005

  20. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avni Hajdari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%, β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%, and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%. HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and PCA (Principal Component Analyses were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.

  1. Oil palm monoculture induces drastic erosion of an Amazonian forest mammal fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Peres, Carlos A; Maués, Paula Cristina R de A; Oliveira, Geovana Linhares; Mineiro, Ivo G B; de Maria, Susanne L Silva; Lima, Renata C S

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm monoculture comprises one of the most financially attractive land-use options in tropical forests, but cropland suitability overlaps the distribution of many highly threatened vertebrate species. We investigated how forest mammals respond to a landscape mosaic, including mature oil palm plantations and primary forest patches in Eastern Amazonia. Using both line-transect censuses (LTC) and camera-trapping (CT), we quantified the general patterns of mammal community structure and attempted to identify both species life-history traits and the environmental and spatial covariates that govern species intolerance to oil palm monoculture. Considering mammal species richness, abundance, and species composition, oil palm plantations were consistently depauperate compared to the adjacent primary forest, but responses differed between functional groups. The degree of forest habitat dependency was a leading trait, determining compositional dissimilarities across habitats. Considering both the LTC and CT data, distance from the forest-plantation interface had a significant effect on mammal assemblages within each habitat type. Approximately 87% of all species detected within oil palm were never farther than 1300 m from the forest edge. Our study clearly reinforces the notion that conventional oil palm plantations are extremely hostile to native tropical forest biodiversity, which does not bode well given prospects for oil palm expansion in both aging and new Amazonian deforestation frontiers.

  2. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  3. Composition and Biological Activity of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis Seed and Cone Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The increasing consumption of natural products lead us to discover and study new plant materials, such as conifer seeds and cones, which could be easily available from the forest industry as a waste material, for their potential uses. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis was fully characterized by GC and GC/MS methods. Seed and cone oils of both tree species were composed mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, among which limonene, α- and β-pinene were the major, but in different proportions in the examined conifer essential oils. The levorotary form of chiral monoterpene molecules was predominant over the dextrorotary form. The composition of oils from P. pungens seeds and cones was similar, while the hydrodistilled oils of P. orientalis seeds and cones differed from each other, mainly by a higher amount of oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes and by other higher molar mass terpenes in seed oil. The essential oils showed mild antimicrobial action, however P. orientalis cone oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial properties against tested bacterial species than those of P. pungens. Effects of the tested cone essential oils on human skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were similar: in a concentration of 0 - 0.075 μl/ml the oils were rather safe for human skin fibroblasts and 0 - 0.005 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. IC 50 value of Picea pungens oils was 0.115 μl/ml, while that of Picea orientalis was 0.105 μl/ml. The value of IC 50 of both oils were 0.035 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. The strongest effect on cell viability had the oil from Picea orientalis cones, while on DNA synthesis the oil from Picea pungens cones. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. Compositional changes of aromatic steroid hydrocarbons in naturally weathered oil residues in the Egyptian western desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, A.O.; Qian, Y.; Kim, M.; Kennicutt, M.C. II

    2002-01-01

    Aromatic steranes are geochemical markers that can be used to study the maturation of organic matter of sediments and to correlate crude oils and source rocks. In this study, naturally weathered oil residues from an arid waste disposal site in Al-Alamein, Egypt, were analyzed for monoaromatic and triaromatic steranes to show the usefulness of biomarker compounds in assessing changes in chemical composition during the degradation of oil residues that have been released onto terrestrial environments. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to characterize the individual aromatic compounds. Results indicate that triaromatic sterane distributions are similar in oil residues with varying extents of weathering. The distribution correlated with a fresh crude oil sample from Western Desert-sourced oil. Molecular ratios of triaromatic sterane compounds were found to be suitable for source identification. The major changes in chemical compositions resulting from the weathering of the oil included the depletion of short chain mono- and tri-aromatic steranes in extremely weathered samples. The results of the triaromatic sterane distribution correspond with weathering classifications based on the analyses of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons and the ratios of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturate biomarker compounds. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Parameters influencing the yield and composition of the essential oil from Cretan Vitex agnus-castus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, J M; Katsiotis, S T

    2000-04-01

    Mature and immature fruits of a Cretan Vitex agnus-castus L. population were chosen to investigate different parameters such as comminution, maturity, distillation period and extraction method influencing the essential oil yield and composition. The effect of the comminution and the maturity of the plant material showed highly significant differences in yield and composition of the essential oils obtained, as well as the distillation duration from one to five hours and the method applied (hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction). The variation of 36 essential oil components due to the parameters applied was studied. The results showed that many different essential oil qualities can be obtained from the same plant material according to the parameters employed in its extraction. Entire fruits hydrodistilled for one hour yielded an oil much richer in monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds whereas the best combination to obtain an oil rich in less volatile compounds is by SDE of comminuted fruits for five hours. For mature fruits the main components varied as follows due to the parameters studied: sabinene 16.4-44.1%, 1,8-cineole 8.4-15.2%, beta-caryophyllene 2.1-5.0%, and trans-beta-farnesene 5.0-11.7%.

  6. Analysis of essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different hydrodistillation extraction stages: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jiajia; Ren, Na

    2015-01-01

    In this study, essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69-95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03-24.36%, 21.57-34.43% and 33.06-57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC50) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities.

  7. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemiwo, Kehinde Adenike; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Okoro, Ovie Princewill; Awojide, Shola Hezekiah; Awoniyi, Ilias Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85% larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L; LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Essential oil and composition of anise (pimpinella anisum l.) with varying seed rates and row spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, H.

    2014-01-01

    Two year study was carried out to explore the effect of seed rate and row spacing on the fruit yield, essential oil yield and composition of aniseed. The study factors included seed rate (6 g, 12 g, 24 g/10 m2) and row spacing (15 cm, 25 cm, 37.5 cm. A significantly higher fruit yield was produced at narrow row spacing of 15 cm among treatments. Wider row spacing produced markedly higher essential oil than narrow row spacing. Essential oil accumulation decreased as planting densities increased. The major constituent of anise oil was trans-anethole (82.1%) followed by himachalene (7.0%). The quality parameters including estragol, himachalene and trans-anethole were significantly affected by different row spacing. Plant grown at 37.5 cm row spacing accumulated the highest estragol and trans-anethole concentration among the row spacing treatments. It can be concluded that higher plant density and wider row spacing increased the disease infestation and lodging cultivar Enza Zaden in current study exhibited high concentration trans-anethole in essential oil composition therefore is a good quality chemotype. (author)

  9. Essential oils and crude extracts from Chrysanthemum trifurcatum leaves, stems and roots: chemical composition and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), γ-terpinene (19.68%), α-pinene (9.7%) and α-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and γ-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were α-calacorene (25.98%), α-cedrene (16.55%), β-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml.

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the leaves and flowers of Aloysia gratissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oils from leaves and flowers of Aloysia gratissima were investigated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity against the bacteria Bacilus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella choleraesuis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae and the Candida albicans yeast. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the oils were determined by the micro-dilution method, while the chemical composition was determined by GC-MS (gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The fresh leaves and inflorescence were subjected to hydrodistillation for 120 min using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and the essential oil was tested against microorganisms. High concentrations of sesquiterpenes were observed for the inflorescence, and monoterpenes were observed for the leaves. The main compounds of the inflorescence essential oil were E-caryophyllene, germacrene B, guaiol and bulnesol, while in the leaves the main compounds were trans-pinocamphone, trans-pinocarveyl acetate, and guaiol. The essential oil from the leaves showed an effect against P. aeruginosa and S. pneumonia, and the essential oil of the inflorescence showed an effect against P. aeruginosa, S. pneumonia, and Candida albicans.

  11. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Anredera cordifolia grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucéia Fátima; de Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis (Basellaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all, 19 compounds were identified, accounting for 91.6% of the total oil; hydrocarbons were the main constituents (67.7%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro potential phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. At 1.25 microg/mL and 0.625 microg/mL, the oil significantly promoted the germination of S. arvensis. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oil showed a weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens.

  12. Study of the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) from Senegal. The plants were collected in two different localities, Dakar and Kaolack. The extracts were obtained by steam distillation from both fresh and dried plants and analyses carried ...

  13. Volatile oil composition of Carthamus Tinctorius L. flowers grown in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgumbayeva, Aknur Amanbekovna; Ustenova, Gulbaram Omargazieva; Yeskalieva, Balakyz Kymyzgalievna; Ramazanova, Bakyt Amanullovna; Rahimov, Kairolla Duysenbayevich; Aisa, Hajiakbar; Juszkiewicz, Konrad T

    2018-03-14

    Carthamus tinctorius L. is commonly known as Safflower. C. tinctorius extracts and oil are important in drug development with numerous pharmacological activities in the world. This plant is cultivated mainly for its seed which is used as edible oil. For a long time, C. tinctorius has been used in traditional medicines as a purgative, analgesic, antipyretic and an antidote to poisoning. It is a useful plant in painful menstrual problems, post-partum haemorrhage and osteoporosis. The subject of this study is the seeds of Kazakhstan species of 'Akmai' safflower, collected in the flowering stage in Southern Kazakhstan. Volatile oil was carry out to study the component composition of Kazakhstan 'AkMai' safflower flowers. Pale yellow oily extracts were obtain by varying the process parameters. The volatile oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the petals Carthamus tinctorius L. was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of the oil was 0.175 % (v/w). 20 compounds representing 99.81% of the oil were characterized. The volatile oil was found to be rich in undecanoic acid, octane, 2-nonen -1-ol, hexadecanal, dodecanal, dec-2-en-1-ol, nonanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, 2 pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, isobutyl-beta-phenylpropionate, 1.3-cyclohexadiene, myrtenoic acid, octadecanoic acid, heneicosanoic acid, 2(3H)-furanone, 4,4-dipropylheptane, hexcosane,1-eicosanol, as well as heptocosane. Volatile oil from the flowers of the Kazakhstan safflower species 'Ak-Mai' were investigated by GC/MS which allowed the detection of 20 compounds. Biologically active complex of the flower of the Kazakhstan safflower species 'Ak-Mai' was released for the first time by using this oil.

  14. An overview of the Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB potential as reinforcing fibre in polymer composite for energy absorption applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizi M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB natural fibres were comprehensively reviewed to assess their potential as reinforcing materials in polymer composites for energy absorption during low-velocity impact. The typical oil palm wastes include trunks, fronds, kernel shells, and empty fruit bunches. This has a tendency to burden the industry players with disposal difficulties and escalates the operating cost. Thus, there are several initiatives have been employed to convert these wastes into value added products. The objective of this study is to review the potential of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB as natural fibre polymer composite reinforcement to absorb the energy during low-velocity impact as another option for value added products. Initially, this paper reviewed the local oil palm waste issues. Previous research works on OPEFB polymer composite, and their mechanical characterization is appraised. Their potential for energy absorption in low-velocity impact application was also elaborated. The review suggests high potential applications of OPEFB as reinforcing materials in composite structures. Furthermore, it is wisely to utilize the oil palm biomass waste into a beneficial composite, hence, promotes the green environment.

  15. Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Profile of Diospyros mespiliformis, Albizia lebbeck, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Oils from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Adewale; Oderinde, Rotimi Ayodele

    2014-01-01

    The screening of lesser-known underutilized seeds as source of food has been a way of finding solution to food insecurity in developing nations. In this regard, oil as a class of food was extracted from the seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis  (4.72 ± 0.2%), Albizia lebbeck  (6.40 ± 0.60%), and Caesalpinia pulcherrima  (7.2 ± 0.30%). The oils were finally analyzed for their fatty acid composition, lipid classes, fatty acid distribution in the lipid fractions, and molecular speciation of the triacylglycerols, glycolipids, and phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the oils varied with C18:2 fatty acid being the most dominant in the oils. Neutral lipids were the most abundant lipid class found in the oils while molecular species of the triacylglycerol with equivalent carbon chain number C40 was majorly present in the oils of Diospyros mespiliformis and Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The present study presents lesser-known underutilized seeds as possible sources of food.

  16. Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Profile of Diospyros mespiliformis, Albizia lebbeck, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Oils from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The screening of lesser-known underutilized seeds as source of food has been a way of finding solution to food insecurity in developing nations. In this regard, oil as a class of food was extracted from the seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis  (4.72±0.2%, Albizia lebbeck  (6.40±0.60%, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima  (7.2±0.30%. The oils were finally analyzed for their fatty acid composition, lipid classes, fatty acid distribution in the lipid fractions, and molecular speciation of the triacylglycerols, glycolipids, and phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the oils varied with C18:2 fatty acid being the most dominant in the oils. Neutral lipids were the most abundant lipid class found in the oils while molecular species of the triacylglycerol with equivalent carbon chain number C40 was majorly present in the oils of Diospyros mespiliformis and Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The present study presents lesser-known underutilized seeds as possible sources of food.

  17. Electromagnetic radiation absorbers and modulators comprising polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Ginder, John M.; Roe, Mitchell G.; Hajiseyedjavadi, Hamid

    1992-01-01

    A composition for absorbing electromagnetic radiation, wherein said electromagnetic radiation possesses a wavelength generally in the range of from about 1000 Angstroms to about 50 meters, wherein said composition comprises a polyaniline composition of the formula ##STR1## where y can be equal to or greater than zero, and R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently selected from the group containing of H, --OCH.sub.3, --CH.sub.3, --F, --Cl, --Br, --I, NR.sup.3 .sub.2, --NHCOR.sup.3, --OH, --O.sup.-, SR.sup.3, --OCOR.sup.3, --NO.sub.2, --COOH, --COOR.sup.3, --COR.sup.3, --CHO, and --CN, where R.sup.3 is a C.sub.1 to C.sub.8 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group.

  18. Chemical Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution, and Antifungal Activity of the Oleoresin Essential Oil of Protium amazonicum from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Powers, Chelsea N; Parducci V, Rafael; McFeeters, Robert L; Setzer, William N

    2017-09-23

    Background: Protium species (Burseraceae) have been used in the treatment of various diseases and conditions such as ulcers and wounds. Methods: The essential oil from the oleoresin of Protium amazonicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS, GC-FID, and chiral GC-MS. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil was screened for antifungal activity against Candida albicans , Aspergillus niger , and Cryptococcus neoformans . Results: A total of 54 components representing 99.6% of the composition were identified in the oil. The essential oil was dominated by δ-3-carene (47.9%) with lesser quantities of other monoterpenoids α-pinene (4.0%), p -cymene (4.1%), limonene (5.1%), α-terpineol (5.5%) and p -cymen-8-ol (4.8%). Chiral GC-MS revealed most of the monoterpenoids to have a majority of levo enantiomers present with the exceptions of limonene and α-terpineol, which showed a dextro majority. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil showed promising activity against Cryptococcus neoformans , with MIC = 156 μg/mL. Conclusions: This account is the first reporting of both the chemical composition and enantiomeric distribution of the oleoresin essential oil of P. amazonicum from Ecuador. The oil was dominated by (-)-δ-3-carene, and this compound, along with other monoterpenoids, likely accounts for the observed antifungal activity of the oil.

  19. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of jussara (Euterpe edulis M.) oil extracted by cold and hot mechanical pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Cunha, A.L.A.; Freitas, S.P.; Godoy, R.L.O.; Cabral, L.M.C.; Tonon, R.V.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of mechanical pressing on jussara oil yield, oxidative stability and carotenoid profile with or without heat application. Firstly, jussara pulp was centrifuged for juice extraction, and the resulting cake was dried until reaching 10% moisture content. Then, oil extraction was performed in an expeller press at 25 ºC (cold pressing) and at 50 ºC (hot pressing). The process performance was evaluated by the oil yield, and the crude jussara oil was characterized for fatty acid composition, acid value, carotenoid profile and oxidative stability. Jussara oil contained 74% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic acids (48% and 24%, respectively). The oil yield was almost twice as high for the hot process as compared to the cold one. Additionally, hot pressing resulted in 25% higher total carotenoid content as compared to cold pressing, with β-carotene as the most abundant one. Hot and cold pressing showed no difference in oil oxidative stability and fatty acid composition. [es

  20. Chemical composition of fennel essential oil and its impact on Staphylococcus aureus exotoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Li, Hongen; Su, Hongwei; Dong, Jing; Luo, Mingjing; Wang, Jianfeng; Leng, Bingfeng; Deng, Yanhong; Liu, Juxiong; Deng, Xuming

    2012-04-01

    In this study, fennel oil was isolated by hydrodistillation, and the chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activity of fennel oil against Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated by broth microdilution. A haemolysis assay, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) release assay, western blot, and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR were applied to investigate the influence of fennel oil on the production of S. aureus virulence-related exoproteins. The data show that fennel oil, which contains a high level of trans-anethole, was active against S. aureus, with MICs ranging from 64 to 256 μg/ml. Furthermore, fennel oil, when used at subinhibitory concentrations, could dose-dependently decrease the expression of S. aureus exotoxins, including α-toxin, Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1).

  1. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Xanthium spinosum L., an Invasive Species of Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, Stéphane; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Xanthium spinosum L. is a highly invasive plant originated from South America throughout the world as well as in Corsica Island. The chemical composition of X. spinosum essential oils from 25 Corsican locations was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Seventy-four components, which accounted for 96.2% of the total amount, were reported for the first time in the essential oil from aerial parts. The main compounds were eudesma-4(14),7-dien-1β-ol (61; 21.3%), germacrene D (36; 8.8%) and cadalene (60; 8.7%). Comparison with the literature highlighted the originality of the Corsican essential oil and eudesma-4(14),7-dien-1β-ol could be used as taxonomical marker to the systematics of the Xanthium genus. The essential oils obtained from separate organs and during the plant vegetative cycle were also studied to gain more knowledge about the correlations between the volatile production and the phenological states of this weed. The production of oxygenated sesquiterpenes was predominant during the plant-flowering process. The study focuses on direct correlation between the chemical composition of individual 25 oil samples and the morphological differences of the plant. Our results have gained more knowledge about the secondary metabolite production that occurs during the plant life, they could be interesting in order to manage the dispersal of X. spinosum. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. A Review of Structural Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber in Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mahjoub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to environmental concerns and financial problems, natural fibers have become interesting and fascinating nowadays to be used as an industrial material and structural material for rehabilitating of structures. Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPF is a natural fiber which is found a lot in tropical areas. Scientists have used OPF fiber with many types of resins such as epoxy, polypropylene, polyester, and phenol formaldehyde. Therefore, this paper focused on the properties of OPF fiber and gathered mechanical properties of OPF composites (OPF as reinforcement of polymer reported by other researchers in terms of tensile and flexural properties. Furthermore, the chemical surface modification methods to solve the interfacial bonding of fiber and polymer were mentioned. In addition, the results of hybrid composites of OPF were also discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, the results of composites were compared to pure resin properties and also the stress-strain diagram and internal strain energy of composites were considered. Besides, the effects of adding OPF to other composites to make a new hybrid composite were indicated. Finally, it is clear that the use of oil palm fiber composites for structural elements for bearing loads is not recommended but the usage of OPF composites for secondary structural elements may be recommended due to future researches.

  3. Sexual Differences in Chemical Composition and Aroma-active Compounds of Essential Oil from Flower Buds of Eurya japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Usami, Atsushi; Tanaka, Takio; Tsuji, Kaoru; Takehara, Manami; Hori, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition of essential oil from buds of male and female Eurya japonica flowers and to determine the aroma-active compounds of this plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), sensory evaluation, and odor activity values (OAV). The oils contained eighty-five compounds. We identified for the first time forty-four compounds in E. japonica. Through sensory evaluation, nineteen aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Because the chemical composition can affect the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects, our results suggest that essential oils from male and female flower buds of E. japonica differently affect herbivores. Sexual differences in essential oils deserve further investigations in this plant-insect system.

  4. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: Chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dacty...

  5. Compositional Characters and Antimicrobial Potential of Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Manika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological investigations were carried out to evaluate the composition and anti-microbial potential of a rare Artemisia species viz. Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. essential oil for the first time. GC and GC/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 27 compounds, which constituted 93.2% volatile constituents of the oil. The major constituents were capillene (41.6%, spathulenol (14.6% and β-caryophyllene (13.4%. The oil was also assayed to determine its antimicrobial potential against eight bacterial and six fungal strains. The oil exhibited both antifungal and antibacterial activities. Among bacteria, the oil was most effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC 0.625 mg/mL followed by Staphylococcu. Aureus (MIC 1.25 mg/mL . While among fungi, the oil was most effective against Aspergillus flavus followed by Aspergillus niger and Sporothrix schenckii with MIC as low as 0.625 mg/mL.

  6. Determination of the vertical distribution and areal of the composition in volatile oil and/or gas condensate reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Santos, Nicolas; Ortiz Cancino, Olga Patricia; Barrios Ortiz, Wilson

    2005-01-01

    The compositional variation in vertical and areal direction due to gravitational and thermal effects plays an important role in the determination of the original reserves in-situ and in the selection of the operation scheme for volatile oil and/or gas condensate reservoirs. In this work we presented the mathematical formulation of the thermodynamic behavior experienced by compositional fluids, such as volatile oil and/or gas condensate, under the influence of the mentioned effects (gravitational and thermal), which was implemented in a software tool, this tool determine the compositional variation in vertical direction and, in addition, it allows to know the saturation pressure variation in the hydrocarbon column and the location of the gas-oil contact. With the obtained results, product of the use of this tool, was developed a methodology to obtain one first approach of the compositional variation in areal direction to obtain compositional spatial distribution (iso composition maps) in the reservoir, for components like the methane, which experiences the greater variations. These iso composition maps allow to determine the location of the hydrocarbon deposits, in such a way that the production strategies can be selected and be applied to maximize the recovery, such as in fill wells, perforation of new zones, EOR processes, etc

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus mollis (Lamiaceae from Western Ghats region, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Joshi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. In traditional medicine P. mollis has been used against snakebites, respiratory stimulant and vasoconstrictor, cardiac depressant, cure for haemorrahage, treatment of mental retardation and rheumatism. P. mollis is reported to exhibit relaxant activity on smooth and skeletal muscles, and has cytotoxic and anti-tumour promoting activity, and can be used in the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil of P. mollis and to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of the oil. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of P. mollis as obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Twentyseven compounds were identified, which comprised 98.6% of the total constituents. The main compound was identified as fenchone (32.3%, followed by α-humulene (17.3%, piperitenone oxide (8.5%, cis-piperitone oxide (6.0% and E-β-farnesene (5.9%. The oil was found rich in oxygenated monoterpenes type constituents (52.0%, followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (40.2%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.9%, and monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.5%. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. mollis was tested against six Gram-positive and eight Gram negative bacteria, and three fungi, by using the tube dilution method. The oil was active against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi at a concentration range of 0.065±0.008-0.937±0.139mg/mL, 0.468±0.069-3.333±0.527 mg/mL and 0.117±0.0170.338±0.062mg/mL respectively. The present study revealed that the oil constituents somehow were qualitatively similar and quantitatively different than earlier reports from different parts of the world. The essential oil of P. mollis has found to be antimicrobial activity which can be

  8. Diversity in chemical composition and yield of essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. belongs to the family Lamiaceae is an herb that is extensively cultivated in some countries. Areal parts, especially leaves of sweet basil are widely used to enhance the flavour of foods such as salads, pasta, tomato products, vegetables, pizza, meat, soups, marine foods, confectioneries and other products. Essential oil yield and chemical components of two Iranian landraces of sweet basil including “Purple” and “Green” grown south-central of Iran (Isfahan province were investigated. The hydro-distillated oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The oil yields were obtained from the aerial of Purple with 0.56 ml/100 g dry matter and the aerial of Green with 0.48 ml/100 g dry matter. Results indicated significant differences (p < 0.01 among the aerial for the main constituents in the essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil. The major constituents of the essential oil from the aerial of Purple landrace were methyl chavicol or estragol (63.32% and linalool (7.96%. The main compositions of the essential oil from the aerial of Green landrace were methyl chavicol (31.82%, geranial (24.60% and neral (22.65%. Genarlly, a comparison of our results with the previous reports suggests differences in the essential oil compositions and oil yield of the plant material could be attributed to genetic diversity in two Iranian landraces of sweet basil.

  9. Pneumatically Powered Drilling of Carbon Fibre Composites Using Synthetic Biodegradable Lubricating Oil: An Experimental Study

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    Corydon M. J. Morrell

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibre composites are a key component of aircraft structures because of their enhanced material properties such as favourable strength to weight ratios when compared to metal alloys. During the assembly process of an aircraft, carbon fibre components are joined to other structures using rivets, bolts, and fasteners, and as part of the joining process, the components will need to be machined or drilled. Unlike metal alloys, composites are sensitive to heat and are vulnerable to internal structural damage from machining tools. They are also susceptible to a reduction in strength when fibres are exposed to moisture. In the machining process, carbon fibre composites may be drilled using oils to lubricate carbide machining tools. In this study, a description of the experimental apparatus is provided along with an investigation to determine the influence synthetic biodegradable lubricating oil has on drill rotational speed, drilling load, and drilling temperature when using a pneumatic drill to machine carbon fibre composite material.

  10. Electrospun PVDF fibers and a novel PVDF/CoFe2O4 fibrous composite as nanostructured sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneanu, Petronela Pascariu; Cojocaru, Corneliu; Olaru, Niculae; Samoila, Petrisor; Airinei, Anton; Sacarescu, Liviu

    2017-12-01

    In this work, pure polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and PVDF/cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic fibrous composite were successfully prepared by electrospinning method for oil spill sorption applications. The pure spinel phase of CoFe2O4 and PVDF/CoFe2O4 composites were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Electrospun sorbent materials were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) as well as by contact angle measurements. In addition, the composite sorbent (PVDF/CoFe2O4) was characterized by magnetic measurements. It revealed good magnetic properties that are of real interest to facilitate the separation of the oil-loaded sorbent under the external magnetic field. Finally, the produced electrospun sorbents were tested for sorption of oily liquids, such as: decane, dodecane and commercial motor oils. We obtained good oil sorption capacity (between 9.751-23.615 g/g of pure PVDF) and (8.133-18.074 g/g for the magnetic composite) depending on the nature of oil tested. The present electrospun magnetic PVDF/CoFe2O4 fibrous composite could be potentially useful for the efficient removal of oil in water and recovery of sorbent material.

  11. Changes in the essential oil composition of leaves of Echinodorus macrophyllus exposed to

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    Thiago M. Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth Micheli, Alismataceae, were exposed to different doses of γ-radiation (0.00, 1.00, 3.00, 5.00, 10.00, and 20.00 kGy and the chemical composition of their essential oils was investigated. The extractive process of the essential oil was more favored when the leaves were irradiated. The essential oil components were identified by correlation between GC-FID data and retention parameters obtained from the Kováts method. Moreover, GC-MS analyses of the essential oils were correlated with fragmentation profiles in the NIST standard mass fragmentation data bank. The essential oil of E. macrophyllus contains biologically active constituents of different chemical classes. Acyclic monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes showed increase in concentration when the leaves were exposed to γ-radiation. On the other hand, the component concentrations of some chemical classes were lightly decreased, i.e., for bicyclic monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, carboxylic esters, and carotenoid derivatives.

  12. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Pelargonium odoratissimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene A. Andrade

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pelargonium odoratissimum (L. L'Hér., Geraniaceae, was determined and the antimicrobial activities against the Aspergillus flavus CML 1816, Aspergillus carbonarius CML1815 and Aspergillus parasiticus CMLA 817 fungi, as well the Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25 992 bacteria were evaluated. The essential oil was isolated by steam distillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus, and its constituents were identified and quantified by GC/MS and GC-FID analyses. In vitro bioanalytical testing was performed using a completely randomized design. The concentrations of essential oil employed ranged from 0.1 to 2 μL.mL-1 (in dimethyl sulfoxide for the fungus species and from 1 to 500 μL.mL-1 for the bacteria. The diameters of the inhibition zones formed for bacteria and the mean diameters of mycelial growth in perpendicular directions for fungi were measured, followed by calculation of the percentage of inhibition. The essential oil from the leaves of P. odoratissimum furnished methyleugenol (96.80%, a phenylpropanoid. This essential oil inhibited the growth of fungi (100% inhibition and exhibited a small effect on the bacteria at the concentrations tested.

  13. Sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lesley; Stephenson, Kate [Earth Sciences, McMaster University (Canada)], email: warrenl@mcmaster.ca; Penner, Tara [Syncrude Environmental Research (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings (CT). The Government of Alberta is accelerating reclamation activities on composite tailings. As a CT pilot reclamation operation, Syncrude is currently constructing the first freshwater fen. Minor unpredicted incidents with H2S gas released from the dewatering process associated with these reclamations have been reported. The objective of this study is to ascertain the connection between microbial activity and H2S generation within CT and to assess the sulfur biogeochemistry of untreated and treated (fen) CT over seasonal and annual timescales. The microbial geochemical interactions taking place are shown using a flow chart. CT is composed of gypsum, sand, clay and organics like naphthenic acids and bitumen. Sulfur and Fe cycling in mining systems and their microbial activities are presented. The chemistry and the processes involved within CT are also given along with the results. It can be said that the diverse Fe and S metabolizing microorganisms confirm the ecology involved in H2S dynamics.

  14. Effect of crushing temperature on virgin olive oil quality and composition

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    Ö. Kula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of a modified crushing process and kneading operation on the quality parameters, volatile compounds, and the fatty acid and sterol profiles of virgin olive oil from the Edremit yaglik variety. In the study, olive oil samples were produced in two different processes. The first one was produced without malaxation and the second one was produced with the malaxing process. During crushing, the effect of different temperatures was tested. The results demonstrate that different crushing temperatures generally did not affect the amount of free fatty acids, or peroxide value. Total phenol contents were positively affected by the additional malaxation process. Fatty acids and sterol composition were not significantly altered at different crushing temperatures or during the subsequent malaxation application. PCA enabled a clear classification of the oils obtained from different processing techniques.

  15. Essential oils from wild populations of Algerian Lavandula stoechas L.: composition, chemical variability, and in vitro biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdelkader, Tarek; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Guitton, Yann; Jullien, Frédéric; Maitre, Dany; Casabianca, Hervé; Legendre, Laurent; Kameli, Abdelkrim

    2011-05-01

    In an effort to develop local productions of aromatic and medicinal plants, a comprehensive assessment of the composition and biological activities of the essential oils (EOs) extracted from the aerial flowering parts of wild growing Lavandula stoechas L. collected from eleven different locations in northern Algeria was performed. The oils were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, and 121 compounds were identified, accounting for 69.88-91.2% of the total oil compositions. The eleven oils greatly differed in their compositions, since only 66 compounds were common to all oils. Major EO components were fenchone (2; 11.27-37.48%), camphor (3, 1.94-21.8%), 1,8-cineole (1; 0.16-8.71%), and viridiflorol (10; 2.89-7.38%). The assessed in vitro biological properties demonstrated that the DPPH-based radical-scavenging activities and the inhibition of the β-carotene/linoleic acid-based lipid oxidation differed by an eight-fold factor between the most and the least active oils and were linked to different sets of molecules in the different EOs. The eleven EOs exhibited good antimicrobial activities against most of the 16 tested strains of bacteria, filamentous fungi, and yeasts, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.16 to 11.90 mg/ml. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks is described comprising: a cylindrical tank; a hollow float member for supporting said tank in a substantially upright position; a skirt assembly secured to said hollow float member and extending in a direction away from said float member opposite said tank; means for removing oil from said tank; and means for removing gas from said tank

  17. Proximate composition of Turkish sesame seeds and characterization of their oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın, Hasan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A proximate composition of four varieties of Turkish sesame seeds (moisture, ash, protein, oil was determined along with a characterization of their oils (fatty acids, triacylglycerols and desmethylsterols The results of the proximate analysis showed the following contents: moisture, 4,40%; ash, 4,41%; protein, 21,00%; and oil, 54,26%. Oleic and linoleic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids while palmitic and stearic were the main saturated. The triacylglycerol composition of the sesame oil samples was determined by HPLC and LOL; LOO; PLO; LLL; OOO were the major triglycerides while triacylglycerols containing oleic and linoleic acyl residues comprize 62,45% of the total. The major desmethyl sterols found in sesame seed oils were β-sitosterol, campasterol, stigma-sterol, and Δ-5, avenasterol. Small proportions of cholesterol, clerosterol 5,24 stigmastedienol, Δ-7, stigmastenol and avenasterol were also identified.Se ha evaluado la composición proximal de cuatro variedades de semillas de sésamo de Turquía así como el aceite obtenido mediante extracción en frío con hexano (composición en ácidos grasos, triglicéridos y esteroles. Las composiciones medias de las semillas fueron similares para todas las muestras siendo los valores medios 4,40%, 4,41%, 21,00%, 54,26% para humedad, cenizas, proteínas y aceite, respectivamente. Los ácidos oleico y linoleico fueron los ácidos grasos mayoritarios mientras los ácidos palmítico y estearico fueron los principales ácidos saturados. Los triglicéridos mayoritarios, determinados mediante HPLC fueron LOL; LOO; PLO; LLL y OOO, suponiendo un 62,45% del porcentaje total de los triglicéridos. Los esteroles mayoritarios fueron β-sitosterol, campesterol, estigmasterol, Δ-5, avenasterol, identificándose también pequeñas cantidades de colesterol, clerosterol 5,24 estigmastedienol, Δ-7 estigmastenol y avenasterol.

  18. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Salvia Palaestina Bentham growing in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq A.

    2007-01-01

    The aerial parts of Salvia Palaestina Bentham (Lamiaceae) on steam distillation afforded an essential oil, which was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Out of thirty-eight peaks (representing 99.2% of the oil), thirty-four components representing 97.1% of the total oil composition were identified. The major components were sclareol (26.8%), b-caryophyllene (16.9%), linalool (7.8%), guaiol (5.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.2%). The oil was tested against seven Gram positive and negative bacteria and two pathogenic fungi, to exhibit an interesting antimicrobial profile. (author)

  19. Bark essential oil composition of Cedrela tonduzii C. DC. (Meliaceae from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah M. Eason

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The bark essential oils from two different individuals of Cedrela tonduzii were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The chemical compositions of the two oils were qualitatively similar, but showed quantitative differences. One sample had abundant quantities of a -selinene (32% and germacrene-D (17%, while the second sample was rich in a-humulene (34%, β-caryophyllene (13% and germacrene-D (13%.

  20. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

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    Ryan J Newton

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls. Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise

  1. Essential oils and their compositions as spatial repellents for pestiferous social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Schneidmiller, Rodney G; Hoover, Doreen R

    2013-04-01

    The study objectives were: (1) to field test potential repellency of common essential oils against several pestiferous social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), using attractant-baited traps; (2) to identify vespid antennally active compounds from the repellent essential oils; (3) to determine potential repellency of these electroantennographic detection (EAD) active compounds in the field. Of the 21 essential oils tested, 17 showed significant repellency on yellowjackets [mainly Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure)] and paper wasps [mainly Polistes dominulus (Christ)]: clove, pennyroyal, lemongrass, ylang ylang, spearmint, wintergreen, sage, rosemary, lavender, geranium, patchouli, citronella, Roman chamomile, thyme, fennel seed, anise and peppermint. Two essential oil mixtures - 3EO-mix (clove, geranium and lemongrass) and 4EO-mix (clove, geranium, lemongrass and rosemary) - totally blocked the attraction of vespid workers. Twenty-nine vespid antennally active compounds were identified from solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samples of 11 strongly repellent essential oils by GC-EAD/MS techniques. Among the synthetic EAD-active compounds field tested, eugenol, P/I-menthone, pulegone, α/β-thujone, l-carvone, E/Z-citral, citronellal, methyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate and 3-octanol showed a significant repellency on vespid workers. These compounds are likely responsible for the repellency of their corresponding essential oils. These repellent essential oils and their active compositions have great potential for efficient, environmentally sound semiochemical-based IPM of pestiferous vespid wasps. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Inflorescence and leaves essential oil composition of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD BAGHER HASSANPOURAGHDAM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the essential oils of leaves and inflorescences, water distilled volatile oils of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L. were analyzed by GC/EI-MS. Fifty components were identified in the inflorescence and leaf essential oils of the basil plants, accounting for 98.8 and 99.9 % of the total quantified components respectively. Phenylpropanoids (37.7 % for the inflorescence vs. 58.3 % for the leaves were the predominant class of oil constituents, followed by sesquiterpenes (33.3 vs. 19.4 % and monoterpenes (27.7 vs. 22.1 %. Of the monoterpenoid compounds, oxygenated monoterpenes (25.2 vs. 18.9 % were the main subclass. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (25 vs. 15.9 % were the main subclass of sesquiterpenoidal compounds. Methyl chavicol, a phenylpropane derivative, (37.2 vs. 56.7 % was the principle component of both organ oils, with up to 38 and 57 % of the total identified components of the inflorescence and leaf essential oils, respectively. Linalool (21.1 vs. 13.1 % was the second common major component followed by α-cadinol (6.1 vs. 3 %, germacrene D (6.1 vs. 2.7 % and 1,8-cineole (2.4 vs. 3.5 %. There were significant quantitative but very small qualitative differences between the two oils. In total, considering the previous reports, it seems that essential oil composition of hydroponically grown O. basilicum L. had volatile constituents comparable with field grown counterparts, probably with potential applicability in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  3. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Oil and Extracts of Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch.: Wild and Cultivated Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Rustaie 1,2, Roya Keshvari 1, Nasrin Samadi 3, Farahnaz Khalighi-Sigaroodi 4, Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani 1,5, Mahnaz Khanavi 1,2,6 *

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch (Apiaceae has been used as spice, anti-flatulence and antiseptic agent for many years. In recent years the wild resources of the plant have been threatened by extinction. Domestication of such a plant saves its genetic resources from depletion. However, concerns remain about the possible changes due to development of chemotypes and changes in the composition and biological and pharmacological potentials. Methods: Analyses of essential oils from fruits of wild and cultivated types was performed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Antimicrobial assessment was done by agar diffusion method Results: The main compounds of both oils were included γ-terpinene (30.77% and 27.57%, cuminaldehyde (20.49% and 21.1%, ρ-cymene (20.1% and 18.32% and γ-terpinen-7-al (8.29% and 7.84% respectively. Analytical results of both tested oils exhibited very close similarities in major compounds, whereas some differences in their percentages were observed. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of volatile oils, total extract and the resultant fractions against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans demonstrated some similarities and differences. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of wild grown fruits essential oils ranged between 0.375-1.5 mg/ml, while those of cultivated one were 0.75-6.25 mg/ml. All extracts and fractions showed similarly minor antibacterial potential while anti-Candida albicans activity was much remarkable with MICs calculated 2.5-5 mg/ml for cultivated and 5 mg/ml for wild grown extracts and fractions. Conclusion: In conclusion, despite the substantial similarities in composition of both oils, the alteration in antimicrobial results may be caused by variety in concentration of major and minor compounds and their synergism or antagonism in mixture.

  4. Effect of Processing on Physiochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentails) Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alademeyin, J. O.; Arawande, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of the seed oil extracted from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis). The extracted oil was degummed, neutralised and bleached. The oil yield was 42.26±0.20%. The specific gravity (at 25 degree C) of the oil was 0.923±0.003 and the refractive index (at 25 degree C) was 1.475±0.002. Processing of the crude oil resulted in progressive decrease in turbidity, colour, free fatty acid, acid value, peroxide value and saponification value. However, there was increase in smoke point (243.00±0.03 to 253.00±0.03 degree C), flash point (285.00±1.20 to 304.0 1.10 degree C) and fire point (345.001.10 to 358.0 1.55 degree C) as well as iodine value (113.00 to 121.50 g/100 g) and fatty acid composition during the processing of the oil. The fatty acids detected in the oil samples were myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, arachidic, behenic, linoleic and linolenic acids. The predominant fatty acid was oleic acid (47.40-47.90%) followed by linoleic acid (26.36-30.44%) while the least fatty acid was linolenic acid (0.01-0.05%). (author)

  5. Identification and characterization of transcript polymorphisms in soybean lines varying in oil composition and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettel, Wolfgang; Xia, Eric; Upchurch, Robert; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Pengyin; An, Yong-Qiang Charles

    2014-04-23

    Variation in seed oil composition and content among soybean varieties is largely attributed to differences in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil production related genes in seeds. Discovery and analysis of sequence and expression variations in these genes will accelerate soybean oil quality improvement. In an effort to identify these variations, we sequenced the transcriptomes of soybean seeds from nine lines varying in oil composition and/or total oil content. Our results showed that 69,338 distinct transcripts from 32,885 annotated genes were expressed in seeds. A total of 8,037 transcript expression polymorphisms and 50,485 transcript sequence polymorphisms (48,792 SNPs and 1,693 small Indels) were identified among the lines. Effects of the transcript polymorphisms on their encoded protein sequences and functions were predicted. The studies also provided independent evidence that the lack of FAD2-1A gene activity and a non-synonymous SNP in the coding sequence of FAB2C caused elevated oleic acid and stearic acid levels in soybean lines M23 and FAM94-41, respectively. As a proof-of-concept, we developed an integrated RNA-seq and bioinformatics approach to identify and functionally annotate transcript polymorphisms, and demonstrated its high effectiveness for discovery of genetic and transcript variations that result in altered oil quality traits. The collection of transcript polymorphisms coupled with their predicted functional effects will be a valuable asset for further discovery of genes, gene variants, and functional markers to improve soybean oil quality.

  6. Deep desulfurization of middle distillates. Process adaptation to oil fractions' compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedernera, Esteban; Reimert, Rainer; Nguyen, Ngoc Luan; Van Buren, Vincent [Division of Fuel Technology, Universitat Karlsruhe TH, Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2003-04-30

    The influence of oil fractions' compositions on the conversion of sulfurous components was investigated in a trickle-bed reactor in laboratory scale. A commercially available NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was used throughout the investigations. Experimental results including sulfur conversion of different oil fractions and residence time distributions under reacting conditions are presented. The hydrogen consumption is ascribed to the conversion of sulfur and of nitrogen, to the hydrogenation of aromatics and to hydrocracking based on a simulation applying ASPEN Plus. Various configurations of the desulfurization process are evaluated but no advantage is found by separate treatment of individual oil fractions. In addition, experiments were carried out to determine liquid distribution and wetting efficiency in a catalyst bed by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique.

  7. Antinociceptive effects, acute toxicity and chemical composition of Vitex agnus-castus essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilzadeh, Emad; Vafaei Saiah, Gholamreza; Hasannejad, Hamideh; Ghaderi, Adel; Ghaderi, Shahla; Hamidian, Gholamreza; Mahmoudi, Razzagh; Eshgi, Davoud; Zangisheh, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) and its essential oil have been traditionally used to treat many conditions and symptoms such as premenstrual problems, mastalgia, inflammation, sexual dysfunction, and pain. In this study, the effects of essential oil extracted from Vitex agnus-castus (EOVAC) leaves were investigated in three behavioral models of nociception in adult male Wistar rats. Chemical composition of EOVAC was analyzed using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also its possible toxicity was determined in mice. Analgesic effect of EOVAC was determined using tail immersion test, formalin test, and acetic acid-induced visceral pain in rats. EOVAC (s.c.) and morphine (i.p.) significantly (pVitex agnus-castus essential oil in these models of pain in rats.

  8. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil from Farfugium japonicum flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Oh, Tae-Heon; Kim, Byeong Jin; Kim, Sang-Suk; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrodistilled essential oil from Farfugium japonicum were investigated for the first time. The chemical constituents of the essential oil were further analyzed by GC-MS and included 1-undecene (22.43%), 1-nonene (19.83%), beta-caryophyllene (12.26%), alpha-copaene (3.70%), gamma-curcumene (2.86%), germacrene D (2.69%), and 1-decene (2.08%). The effects of the essential oil on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also examined. The results indicate that the F. japonicum essential oil is an effective inhibitor of LPS-induced NO and PGE(2) production in RAW 264.7 cells. These inhibitory effects of the F. japonicum essential oil were accompanied by dose-dependent decreases in the iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression. In order to determine whether F. japonicum essential oil can safely be applied to human skin, the cytotoxic effects of F. japonicum essential oil were determined by colorimetric MTT assays in human dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte HaCaT cells. F. japonicum essential oil exhibited low cytotoxicity at 100 mug/mL. Based on these results, we suggest that F. japonicum essential oil may be considered a potential anti-inflammatory candidate for topical application.

  9. Chemical Composition and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Vietnamese Citrus Peels Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hai Dang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inhibition of α-glucosidase is an important factor to control postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Citrus essential oils (CEO are among the most widely used essential oils, and some of them exhibited promising antidiabetic effect. However, the α-glucosidase inhibition of CEO has not been investigated so far. The present work aims to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibition of essential oils from six Vietnamese Citrus peels. Methods. The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from six Citrus peels was analyzed by GC-MS. All essential oils were tested for their inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase using p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Results. In Buddha’s hand and lime peels, the major components were limonene (59.0–61.31% and γ-terpinene (13.98–23.84% while limonene (90.95–95.74% was most abundant in pomelo, orange, tangerine, and calamondin peels. Among the essential oils, the Buddha’s hand oil showed the most significant α-glucosidase inhibitory effect with the IC50 value of 412.2 μg/mL. The combination of the Buddha’s hand essential oil and the antidiabetic drug acarbose increased the inhibitory effect. Conclusions. The results suggested the potential use of Buddha’s hand essential oil as an alternative in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Comparative study of chemistry compositions and antimicrobial potentials of essential oils and oleoresins from dried and fresh Mentha longifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical compositions and antimicrobial potentials of the essential oils and oleoresins obtained from fresh and dried Mentha longifolia L. Methods: Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer techniques were used to determine the profiling of the essential oils and oleoresins. In order to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the volatile oil and oleoresins, the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus niger (1884, Aspergillus flavus (2479, Fusarium monoliforme (1893, Fusarium graminearum (2088 and Penicillium viridicatum (2007 were undertaken whereas four pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (1790, Staphylococcus aureus (3103 (Gram-positive, Escherichia coli (1672, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1942 (Gram-negative were selected for the present study. Food poisoned, inverted Petri plate, agar well diffusion and disk diffusion methods were employed for investigating antimicrobial potentials. Results: Piperitenone oxide, an oxygenated monoterpene, dominated the chemical compositions of essential oils and oleoresins whose compositions varied from 23.5%–87.8%. Both essential oils showed good antifungal activities against Aspergillus and Fusarium species. The antibacterial investigations revealed that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oils. Conclusions: Drying the fresh herbal materials influences the chemical contents and the biological activities of the essential oils and oleoresins. Such results indicate that essential oils of Mentha longifolia L. can be possible candidates for further investigations to isolate and characterize their active principles as possible new natural preservatives.

  11. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from Ferulago angulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Izadi, Arezo; Malek Poor, Fatemeh; Hamedi, Behzad

    2016-11-01

    Ferulago angulata Boiss. (Apiaceae), a perennial aromatic herb, grows wild in Iran. The aerial parts of F. angulata are used as a flavouring in foods, especially dairy foods by indigenous people in western and southwestern Iran. This study investigates variation in chemical compositions, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oils from F. angulata collected from natural habitats in the alpine regions of southwestern Iran. The antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) of the essential oils were evaluated against four bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium). Antioxidant activity of the oils was determined by DPPH assay. The essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS, which 49 volatile components were identified. There were significant differences between the various populations for oil yield and some main compounds. The major constituents of the essential oils from F. angulata were α-pinene, and cis-β-ocimene. The MICs of the essential oils were within concentration ranges from 62 to 250 μg/mL and the respective MBCs were 125 to > 500 μg/mL. Generally, the oils from F. angulata indicated weak to moderate inhibitory activities against bacteria, especially against Listeria monocytogenes. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained from the oil of the Kallar population (IC 50 value   =   488 μg/mL) and BHT as positive control (IC 50  value =   321 μg/mL). The essential oil of F. angulata could be serving as a potential source of α-pinene and cis-β-ocimene for use in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Essential oils from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves - chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Jeferson S; Sartorelli, Patricia; Guadagnin, Rafael C; Matsuo, Alisson L; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Soares, Marisi G; da Silva, Adalberto M; Lago, João Henrique G

    2012-10-01

    In folk medicine, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), has been used as a remedy for ulcers, respiratory problems, wounds, rheumatism, gout, diarrhea, skin ailments and arthritis, as well as to treat tumors and leprosy. To investigate the chemical composition and cytotoxicity of essential oil from leaves of S. terebinthifolius as well as the identification of active compounds from this oil. Essential oil from S. terebinthifolius leaves, obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, was characterized in terms of its chemical composition. Also, the crude oil was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford an active fraction composed of α- and β-pinenes. These compounds, including hydrogenation (pinane) and epoxydation (α-pinene oxide) derivatives from α-pinene, were tested in vitro against murine melanoma cell line (B16F10-Nex2) and human melanoma (A2058), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), leukemia (human leukemia (HL-60) and cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines. Forty-nine constituents were identified in the oil (97.9% of the total), with germacrene D (23.7%), bicyclogermacrene (15.0%), β-pinene (9.1%) and β-longipinene (8.1%) as the main compounds. The crude essential oil showed cytotoxic effects in several cell lines, mainly on leukemia and human cervical carcinoma. Fractions composed mainly of α- and β-pinenes as well as those composed of individually pinenes showed effective activities against all tested cell lines. Aiming to determinate preliminary structure/activity relationships, α-pinene was subjected to epoxydation and hydrogenation procedures whose obtained α-pinene oxide showed an expressive depression in its cytotoxicity effect, similar as observed to pinane derivative. The obtained results indicated that the monoterpenes α- and β-pinenes could be responsible to the cytotoxic activity detected in the crude oil from leaves of S. terebinthifolius. In addition, it was possibly inferred that the presence

  13. Chemical composition and biological activities of leaf and fruit essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Gulden; Kara, Nazan; Bagci, Eyup; Gur, Seher

    2017-10-26

    The chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaves and fruit of Eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in Mersin, Turkey was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The biological activities (antibacterial and antifungal) were examined using the agar well diffusion method. The main leaf oil constituents were p-cymene (42.1%), eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) (14.1%), α-pinene (12.7%) and α-terpinol (10.7%). The main constituents of the fruit oil were eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) (34.5%), p-cymene (30.0%), α-terpinol (15.1%) and α-pinene (9.0%). Our results showed that both types of oils are rich in terms of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. The leaf and fruit essential oils of E. camaldulensis significantly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sp.) bacteria (poils also showed fungicidal activity against Candida tropicalis and C. globrata. Leaf essential oils showed more activity than fruit essential oils, probably due to the higher p-cymene concentration in leaves.

  14. Fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of apple seed oil obtained from apple pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Mayanka; Rawat, Kiran; Bhushan, Shashi; Padwad, Yogendra S; Singh, Bikram

    2014-03-30

    Apple pomace is generated in huge quantities in juice-processing industries the world over and continuous efforts are being made for its inclusive utilization. In this study, apple seeds separated from industrial pomace were used for extraction of oil. The fatty acid composition, physicochemical and antioxidant as well as in vitro anticancer properties of extracted oil were studied to assess its suitability in food and therapeutic applications. The fatty acid composition of seed oil revealed the dominance of oleic (46.50%) and linoleic acid (43.81%). It had high iodine (121.8 g I 100 g⁻¹) and saponification value (184.91 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil). The acid value, refractive index and relative density were 4.28 mg KOH g⁻¹, 1.47 and 0.97 mg mL⁻¹, respectively. The antioxidant potential (IC₅₀) of apple seed oil was 40.06 µg mL⁻¹. Cytotoxicity of apple seed oil against CHOK1, SiHa and A549 cancer cell lines ranged between 0.5 ± 0.06% and 88.6 ± 0.3%. The physicochemical properties of apple seed oil were comparable with edible food oil, indicating its better stability and broad application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Apple seed oil could be a good source of natural antioxidants. Also, the in vitro cytotoxic activity against specific cell lines exhibited its potential as an anticancer agent. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. In vitro biological activity and essential oil composition of four indigenous South African Helichrysum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, A C U; Reddy, D; Başer, K H C; Viljoen, A M; Van Vuuren, S F

    2004-12-01

    Helichrysum species are used widely to treat various medical conditions. In this study, the anti-microbial, anti-oxidant (DPPH assay) and anti-inflammatory activity (5-lipoxygenase assay) of Helichrysum dasyanthum, Helichrysum felinum, Helichrysum excisum and Helichrysum petiolare were investigated. The essential oil compositions of these species were determined. The acetone and methanol extracts as well as the essential oils exhibited activity against Gram-positive bacteria, while both the methanol and acetone extracts of all four species were active in the anti-oxidant assay. The essential oils, on the other hand, displayed activity in the 5-lipoxygenase assay, which was used as an indication of anti-inflammatory activity. Two extracts exhibited promising activity in the anti-microbial assay, the acetone extract of Helichrysum dasyanthum with a MIC value of 15.63 microg/ml and the methanol extract of Helichrysum excisum with a MIC value of 62.5 microg/ml. The acetone extract of Helichrysum dasyanthum was the most active free radical scavenger in the DPPH assay (IC(50) of 9.53 microg/ml) while values for the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils ranged between 25 and 32 microg/ml. The essential oil compositions of three species (Helichrysum dasyanthum, Helichrysum excisum and Helichrysum petiolare) were dominated by the presence of monoterpenes such as alpha-pinene, 1,8-cineole and p-cymene. In the oil of Helichrysum felinum, monoterpenes were largely absent. Its profile consisted of a variety of sesquiterpenes in low concentrations with beta-caryophyllene dominating.

  16. Essential oils from Schinus species of northwest Argentina: Composition and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, Diego A; Belizana, Maria Melina E; Baptista, Zareath P Terán; Vattuone, Marta A; Catalán, Cesar A N

    2014-07-01

    The composition of the essential oils from leaves (Sal) and fruits of S. areira (Saf), and fruits of S. fasciculatus (Sff) and S. gracilipes (Sgf) were analyzed by GC/MS. The major compounds identified were sabinene (26.0 +/- 0.5%), bicyclogermacrene (14.5 +/- 0.4%), and E-citral (6.7+/- 0.2%) in Sal oil, limonene (27.7 +/- 0.7%), sabinene (16.0+/- 0.5%), beta-phellandrene (14.6 +/- 0.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (8.1 +/- 0.2%) in Saf oil, sabinene (22.7 +/- 0.6%), alpha-phellandrene (18.7 +/- 0.3%), beta-phellandrene (15.7 +/- 0.4%), and bicyclogermacrene (8.1 +/- 0.2%) in Sff oil and beta-pinene (25.4 +/- 0.8%), alpha-pinene (24.7 +/- 0.7%), and sabinene (13.6 +/- 0.4%) in Sgf oil.The antifungal activity of the four oils was evaluated on strains of Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum, and the results compared with the effect of epoxyconazole, pyraclostrobin and thyme oil. The Sff oil had the highest antifungal activity among the Schinus oils tested, with MIC100 (F. graminearum) = 6 per thousand and MIC100 (F. verticillioides) = 12 per thousand. A principal component analysis suggests that 9 constituents (alpha-thujene, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, 1-terpineol, alpha-calacorene, alpha-phellandrene, and terpinen-4-ol) explain the higher antifungal effect of Sff. The MIC100s of Schinus oils were on average 30-60 and 8.5-17 fold lower than those obtained for thyme oil on F. verticillioides and F. graminearum, respectively. In the case of commercial fungicides, their MIC100s were three orders of magnitude lower than those of Schinus oils. The last ones showed an additive interaction when assayed in mixtures with the commecial fungicides and thyme oil. The results suggest that the doses of fungicides required for control of the Fusarium species can be reduced when they are assayed in mixtures with the Schinus oils.

  17. Fatty acid composition of commercial vegetable oils from the French market analysed using a long highly polar column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingering Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern for consumed fat by western populations has raised the question of the level and the quality of fat intake, especially the composition of fatty acids (FA and their impact on human health. As a consequence, consumers and nutritionists have requested updated publications on FA composition of food containing fat. In the present study, fourteen different kinds of edible oils (rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, argan, groundnut, grape seed, sesame, sunflower, walnut and organic walnut, avocado, wheat germ, and two combined oils were analysed for FA determination using a BPX-70 60 m highly polar GC column. Oils were classified according to the classification of Dubois et al. (2007, 2008. Monounsaturated FA (MUFA group oils, including rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, and avocado oils, contained mainly oleic acid (OA. Groundnut and argan oils, also rich in MUFA, showed in addition high linoleic acid (LA contents. In the polyunsaturated (PUFA group, grape seed oil presented the highest LA content while sunflower, sesame, and wheat germ oils showed noticeable MUFA amounts in addition to high PUFA contents. Walnut oils, also rich in LA, showed the highest linolenic acid (ALA content. The n-6/n-3 ratio of each oil was calculated. Trans-FA (TFA was also detected and quantified. Results were compared with the data published during the past decade, and the slight discrepancies were attributed to differences in origin and variety of seed-cultivars, and in seed and oil processes.

  18. Effect of size grading on the essential oil yield and composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of freshly harvested 12 months mature ginger rhizomes graded based on their thickness, according to three commonly occuring sizes (big, medium and small) were extracted and subjected to GC-MS evaluation, in order to establish likely variation in yield and identify possible compositional differences ...

  19. Molecular sleds comprising a positively -charged amino acid sequence and a molecular cargo and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangel, F Walter; Blainey, Paul C; Graziano, Vito; Herrmann, Andreas; McGrath, William J; van Oijen, Antonius Martinus; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions which may comprise a molecular sled linked to cargo and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention relates to a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition which may comprise a molecular sled, linkers and a molecular cargo connected to the

  20. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of two Helichrysum species from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougatsos, Christos; Ngassapa, Olipa; Runyoro, Deborah K B; Chinou, Ioanna B

    2004-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Helichrysum cymosum and H. fulgidum, from Tanzania, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of sixty-five compounds, representing 92.4% and 88.2% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. trans-Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, beta-pinene, p-cymene, spathulenol and beta-bourbonene were found to be the main components. Furthermore, the oils were tested against six gram (+/-) bacteria and three pathogenic fungi. It was found that the oil of H. fulgidum exhibited significant antimicrobial activity, while the oil of H. cymosum was not active at all.

  1. Carbon material@Chitosan composite as catalyst on the synthesis of FAME from used-cooking oil with electrocatalytic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syah Putra, Rudy; Antono, Yudi; Pratama, Kharis

    2017-07-01

    The conversion of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from soybean oil with a carbon@chitosan composite as alkaline catalyst using electrolysis process had been investigated. The carbon was added onto chitosan through sol-gel method. Carbon material@chitosan, featured with high electrical conductivity and large surface area and Scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) detector was performed to characterize the microstructures as-prepared alcolgels composite. The evaluation of the synthesis process was followed by GC-MS, determining the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) ratio at different operation variables (e.g oil:MeOH molar ratio at 1:6, THF:MeOH ratio at 1:1 v/v, 10 V and 60 mins). The results showed that the incorporation of carbon resulted in an observable change in the porous structure and an obvious increase in the conductivity strength. When compared with graphite@chitosan composite as catalyst, the carbon@chitosan composite exhibits remarkably FAME yields of 100% in 20 wt.% catalyst loading. The application of those processes was also evaluated when using used-cooking oil as a feedstock of biodiesel production.

  2. Detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid composition of rumen content from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate supplemented with soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Susana P; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R J; Fonseca, António J M; Bessa, Rui J B

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18:1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18:0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18:3n-3.

  3. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Illicium pachyphyllum Fruits against Two Grain Storage Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peng; Liu, Xin-Chao; Dong, Hui-Wen; Liu, Zhi-Long; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Illicium pachyphyllum fruits against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum, and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 36 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds in the essenti...

  4. Differences in fatty acid composition between cerebral brain lobes in juvenile pigs after fish oil feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullemeijer, Carla; Zock, Peter L.; Coronel, Ruben; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Katan, Martijn B.; Brummer, Robert-Jan M.; Kok, Frans J.; Beekman, Jet; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

    2008-01-01

    Very long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish are suggested to play a role in the development of the brain. Fish oil feeding results in higher proportions of n-3 PUFA in the brains of newborn piglets. However, the effect of fish oil on the fatty acid composition of specific cerebral brain lobes in juvenile

  5. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukesh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026 and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128. A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM. Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition. At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV, myristic acid (C14:0, palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3

  6. Intraspecific variation in essential oil composition of the medicinal plant Lippia integrifolia (Verbenaceae). Evidence for five chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcial, Guillermo; de Lampasona, Marina P; Vega, Marta I; Lizarraga, Emilio; Viturro, Carmen I; Slanis, Alberto; Juárez, Miguel A; Elechosa, Miguel A; Catalán, César A N

    2016-02-01

    The aerial parts of Lippia integrifolia (incayuyo) are widely used in northwestern and central Argentina for their medicinal and aromatic properties. The essential oil composition of thirty-one wild populations of L. integrifolia covering most of its natural range was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. A total of one hundred and fifty two terpenoids were identified in the essential oils. Sesquiterpenoids were the dominant components in all but one of the collections analyzed, the only exception being a sample collected in San Juan province where monoterpenoids amounted to 51%. Five clearly defined chemotypes were observed. One possessed an exquisite and delicate sweet aroma with trans-davanone as dominant component (usually above 80%). Another with an exotic floral odour was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenoids based on the rare lippifoliane and africanane skeletons. The trans-davanone chemotype is the first report of an essential oil containing that sesquiterpene ketone as the main constituent. The absolute configuration of trans-davanone from L. integrifolia was established as 6S, 7S, 10S, the enantiomer of trans-davanone from 'davana oil' (Artemisia pallens). Wild plants belonging to trans-davanone and lippifolienone chemotypes were propagated and cultivated in the same parcel of land in Santa Maria, Catamarca. The essential oil compositions of the cultivated plants were essentially identical to the original plants in the wild, indicating that the essential oil composition is largely under genetic control. Specimens collected near the Bolivian border that initially were identified as L. boliviana Rusby yielded an essential oil practically identical to the trans-davanone chemotype of L. integrifolia supporting the recent view that L. integrifolia (Gris.) Hieron. and L. boliviana Rusby are synonymous. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ferulago Bernardii Tomk. and M. Pimen"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Farahnaz Khalighi-Sigaroodi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Ferulago Bernardii from Iran was analysed by GC and GC/MS. Sixty constituents were found representing 87.9% of the oil. The main constituents of the essential oil were 2,4,5-trimethyl-benzaldehyde (21.2%, α-pinene (17.0%,spathulenol (5.0%, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (4.4% and caryophyllene oxide (3.2%. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ferulago Bernardii by the broth dilution method in comparison with Gentamycin and Fluconazole as standard showed weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacilus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The essential oil did not show any activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  8. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Majid Rasheed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester, santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K+ (80 mM than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K+ induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Hafiz Majid; Khan, Taous; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Rasool; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester), santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K+ (80 mM) than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K+ induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26357519

  10. Transport behavior of n-alkane penetrants into castor oil based polyurethane-polyester nonwoven fabric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satheesh Kumar, M.N.; Manjula, K.S.; Siddaramaiah

    2007-01-01

    Castor oil based polyurethane (PU)-polyester nonwoven fabric composites were fabricated by impregnating the polyester nonwoven fabric in a composition containing castor oil and diisocyanate. Composites were fabricated with two different isocyanates such as toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). Transport behavior of n-alkane penetrants (pentane, hexane and heptane) into both PUs and PU-polyester nonwoven fabric composites were studied. Sorption studies were carried out at different temperatures. From the sorption results, the diffusion (D) and permeation (P) coefficients of penetrants have been calculated. Significant increase in the diffusion and permeation coefficients was observed with increase in the temperature of sorption experiments. Drastical reduction in diffusion and permeation coefficients was noticed in the composites compared to neat PUs. Attempts were made to estimate the empirical parameters like n, which suggests the mode of transport and K is a constant depends on the structural characteristics of the composite in addition to its interaction with penetrants. The temperature dependence of the transport coefficients has been used to estimate the activation energy parameter for diffusion (E D ) and permeation (E P ) processes from Arrhenius plots. Furthermore, the sorption results have been interpreted in terms of the thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS)

  11. A study of heterogeneous systems which retard the processes of motor oil aging. VI. The effect of the composition of the oil medium on its electric conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhdanov, V V; Ashkinazi, L A; Chkalov, V A; Filanovskiy, B K; Grilikhes, M S; Nikolayenko, A V; Poray-Koshits, A B; Ravdel, A A

    1982-01-01

    A method of contact conductometry is used to study the effect of the composition of an oil medium on its electric conductivity and the factors to which this parameter is the most sensitive was determined. It is shown that the electric conductivity is a sensitive parameter, which reacts to a change in the water content in the oil, the length of operation in an internal combustion engine, to the volume of additives in the base oil and to the acid and base properties of the oil medium.

  12. Using Wild Olives in Breeding Programs: Implications on Oil Quality Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo León

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A wide genetic diversity has been reported for wild olives, which could be particularly interesting for the introgression of some agronomic traits and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in breeding programs. However, the introgression of some beneficial wild traits may be paralleled by negative effects on some other important agronomic and quality traits. From the quality point of view, virgin olive oil (VOO from olive cultivars is highly appreciated for its fatty acid composition (high monounsaturated oleic acid content and the presence of several minor components. However, the composition of VOO from wild origin and its comparison with VOO from olive cultivars has been scarcely studied. In this work, the variability for fruit characters (fruit weight and oil content, OC, fatty acid composition, and minor quality components (squalene, sterols and tocopherols content and composition was studied in a set of plant materials involving three different origins: wild genotypes (n = 32, cultivars (n = 62 and genotypes belonging to cultivar × wild progenies (n = 62. As expected, values for fruit size and OC in wild olives were lower than those obtained in cultivated materials, with intermediate values for cultivar × wild progenies. Wild olives showed a remarkably higher C16:0 percentage and tocopherol content in comparison to the cultivars. Contrarily, lower C18:1 percentage, squalene and sterol content were found in the wild genotypes, while no clear differences were found among the different plant materials regarding composition of the tocopherol and phytosterol fractions. Some common highly significant correlations among components of the same chemical family were found in all groups of plant materials. However, some other correlations were specific for one of the groups. The results of the study suggested that the use of wild germplasm in olive breeding programs will not have a negative impact on fatty acid composition, tocopherol content

  13. Wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol: Fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parczewska-Plesnar, B.; Brzozowski, R.; Gwardiak, H.; Białecka-Florjańczyk, E.; Bujnowski, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 with ethanol as entrainer was performed at a temperature of 40 o C under a pressure of 21 MPa. For comparison, a similar extraction without the entrainer was carried out. The extraction yield of wheat germ using supercritical CO2 with ethanol was slightly higher (10.7 wt%) than that of extraction without the entrainer (9.9 wt%). Fractions of SFE extracts were collected separately during the experiments and the composition of fatty acids in each fraction was analyzed. The SFE extracted oils were rich (63.4-71.3%) in the most valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their content in all collected fractions was approximately constant. Similar PUFA contents were found in the reference samples of oils extracted by n-hexane (66.2-67.0%), while the commercial cold-pressed oil contained significantly less PUFA (60.2%). These results show a higher nutritional value of the oil obtained by extraction with supercritical CO2 than cold pressed oil which is generally considered to be very valuable. [es

  14. Chemical composition and bioactivity of different oregano (Origanum vulgare) extracts and essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bárbara; Marques, António; Ramos, Cristina; Serrano, Carmo; Matos, Olívia; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Saraiva, Jorge Alexandre; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-08-30

    There is a growing interest in industry to replace synthetic chemicals by natural products with bioactive properties. Aromatic plants are excellent sources of bioactive compounds that can be extracted using several processes. As far as oregano is concerned, studies are lacking addressing the effect of extraction processes in bioactivity of extracts. This study aimed to characterise the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil and extracts (in hot and cold water, and ethanol), and the chemical composition of its essential oil. The major components of oregano essential oil were carvacrol, β-fenchyl alcohol, thymol, and γ-terpinene. Hot water extract had the strongest antioxidant properties and the highest phenolic content. All extracts were ineffective in inhibiting the growth of the seven tested bacteria. In contrast, the essential oil inhibited the growth of all bacteria, causing greater reductions on both Listeria strains (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua). O. vulgare extracts and essential oil from Portuguese origin are strong candidates to replace synthetic chemicals used by the industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The effect of essential oils on microbial composition and quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhan; Liu, Xiaochang; Jia, Shiliang; Zhang, Longteng; Luo, Yongkang

    2018-02-02

    Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of essential oils (oregano, thyme, and star anise) on microbial composition and quality of grass carp fillets were investigated. Essential oils treatment was found to be effective in inhibiting microbial growth, delaying lipid oxidation, and retarding the increase of TVB-N, putrescine, hypoxanthine, and K-value. Based on sensory analysis, shelf-life of grass carp fillets was 6days for control and 8days for treatment groups. Among the essential oils, oregano essential oil exhibited the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. GC-MS analysis of essential oils components revealed that carvacrol (88.64%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. According to the results of high-throughput sequencing, Aeromonas, Glutamicibacter, and Aequorivita were the predominant microbiota in fresh control samples. However, oregano essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Aeromonas, while thyme and star anise essential oils decreased the relative abundance of Glutamicibacter and Aequorivita in fresh treated samples. The microbial composition of both control and treatment groups became less diverse as storage time increased. Aeromonas and Pseudomonas were dominant in spoiled samples and contributed to fish spoilage. Compared to the control, essential oils effectively inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Shewanella in grass carp fillets during chilled storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives This paper describes chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against Edwardsiella spp. (n = 21), Vibrio spp. (n = 6), Aeromonas spp. (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 2), Flavobacterium spp. (n = 1), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 1) and Streptococcus spp. (n = 1) isolated from internal organs of aquatic animals. Due to the ban of antibiotics for aquaculture use, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of citronella essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotic use against systemic bacteria in cultured aquatic animals. Materials & Methods The essential oil of C. nardus was prepared by using the steam distillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil tested against bacterial isolates from various aquatic animals and ATCC type strains were determined using two-fold broth micro dilution method with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. Results A total of 22 chemical compounds were detected in C. nardus essential oil with 6-octenal, 3, 7-dimethyl- or citronellal representing the major compounds (29.6%). The MIC values of the citronella oil ranged from 0.244 µg/ml to 0.977 µg/ml when tested against the bacterial isolates. Conclusion The results of the present study revealed the potential of C. nardus essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotics for aquaculture use. PMID:23825733

  17. Preparation of a new gamma irradiated PVC-Olive oil cake plastic composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messaud, F.A.; Almsmary, Y.A.; Elwerfalli, S.M.; Benayad, S.M.; Haraga, S.O.; Benfaid, N.A.; Kabar, Y.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper dealt with the investigation on preparing new plastic composite material, utilizing polyvinyl chloride polymer (a commercial product in abu-kammash chemical complex) and olive oil cake (a waste of many olive oil production factories), followed by gamma irradiation (26.3 Kg ry) o induce crosslinking of the polymer. The new material possess good, electrical and mechanical properties as compared to plastic products of (PVC plastic pipe factory), and which could be used as new construction anti corrosive material, such as special roofing and partitioning or household goods

  18. Biological Assays and Chemical Composition of Volatile Oils of Bupleurum fruticosum L. (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maxia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of supercritical CO 2 extracts and essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Bupleurum fruticosum L., growing spontaneously in Italy and Portugal, and its antifungal activity is reported. The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus.

  19. Thermal, Morphological and Physic-Mechanical Properties of Natural Rubber - CaCO3 Composites Using Jatropha Oil as Softener.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasruddin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of green technology in rubber compounding has become a critical issue recently. In this research, the effect of using renewable resources in rubber compounding has been studied. Commercial Calcium Carbonate, Silica and Jatropha Oil were used in natural rubber composite. The research was designed by varying the types of commercial filler namely CaCO3 (47-51 phr, silica (47-51 phr and Jatropha Oil (4-6 phr in natural rubber composites (SIR-20. The formulas were intentionally designed for rubber tips vulcanizates. The samples were characterized by the determination of physic-mechanical, thermal (TGA and morphological (SEM properties. From the measured results, there is no significant effect on the tensile strength, specific gravity, and hardness on the loading of commercial CaCO3 and Silica in natural rubber composites using Jatropha Oil. However, a slight difference in elongation at break and abrasion resistance could be detected. Compared to the commercial rubber tips, the rubber tips produced in this research have higher tensile strength, elongation at break and abrasion resistance. Due to the usage of commercial CaCO3 and Silica, the SEM micrographs show rough surface because of the agglomeration. The thermogram shows clearly the compositional analysis of the rubber tips vulcanizates consist of Jatropha Oil and natural rubber, CaCO3, ash and other filler residues such as Silica.

  20. Effects of blending composition of tung oil and ultrasonic irradiation intensity on the biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manh, Do-Van; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Hanh, Hoang-Duc; Chau, Nguyen-Hoai; Tuyen, Trinh-Van; Long, Pham-Quoc; Minh, Chau-Van

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial use of tung oil in pre-blended oil for the production of biodiesel was studied at various blending compositions of tung, canola and palm oils (C BT , C BC and C BP ). The effects of C BT , ultrasonic power (P WUS ) and sample loading (V L ) on the yield (Y F ) and the properties of acid value, iodine values (IV), kinematic viscosity (KV), density and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) were investigated. The pre-blending of tung oil with palm oil greatly decreases the CFPP of palm oil biodiesel, whereas the presence of canola and palm oils with tung oil reduces the IV and KV of tung oil biodiesel. For P WUS /V L = 0.92–2.08 W/mL, C BT can be as high as 60 wt.% with 30 wt.% C BC and 10 wt.% C BP to produce biodiesel with high Y F and satisfactory qualities of the said properties. -- Highlights: ► Yield and properties of tung oil biodiesel are improved as tung oil is pre-blended with canola and palm oils. ► Pre-blending of palm oil with tung and canola oils reduces the CFPP of palm oil biodiesel from 13 to −5 °C. ► A beneficial use of tung oil as high as 60 wt.% blended with canola and palm oils is achievable. ► A sufficient P WUS per sample volume is required to ensure satisfactory properties.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Salvia pinnata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Unver Somer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Salvia pinnata L. (Labiatae, collected during flowering and fruiting periods, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. 37 compounds were identified representing 96.1 % of the essential oil obtained from the plant material collected during flowering period. 30 compounds were detected constituting 94.7 % of the essential oil of the plant material collected in fruiting period. The main components of the essential oils were characterized as bornyl acetate, camphor, camphene, bornyl formate, a -pinene and borneol. The oils were screened for antimicrobial activity by the micro-dilution assay against standard bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Both of the oils showed antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.

  2. Essential Oils from Leaves of Medicinal Plants of Brazilian Flora: Chemical Composition and Activity against Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Mendes Ferreira da Costa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biotechnological potential of medicinal plants from Brazilian Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest has not been extensively studied. Thus, screening programs are important in prospecting for compounds for developing new drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the anti-Candida activity of essential oils from leaves of Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril, Myroxylon peruiferum, and Vismia guianensis. Methods: The oils were extracted through hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory (MIC and fungicidal (MFC concentrations. Results: The major compounds of the oils were caryophyllene oxide and trans-caryophyllene for H. courbaril; spathulenol, α-pinene, and caryophyllene oxide for M. peruiferum; and caryophyllene oxide and humulene epoxide II for V. guianensis oil. The oils showed antifungal activity against all the strains tested, and the MIC values ranged between 0.625 and 1.25 μL/mL and MFC from 0.625 to 2.5 μL/mL. Conclusion: The essential oils from the species studied have the potential to be evaluated as clinical applications in the treatment of candidiasis.

  3. Chemical Composition of Herbal Macerates and Corresponding Commercial Essential Oils and Their Effect on Bacteria Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Białoń

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the chemical composition of some commercial essential oils (clove, juniper, oregano, and marjoram oils, as well as appropriate herbal extracts obtained in the process of cold maceration and their biological activity against selected Escherichia coli strains: E. coli ATTC 25922, E. coli ATTC 10536, and E. coli 127 isolated from poultry waste. On the basis of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS analysis, it was found that the commercial essential oils revealed considerable differences in terms of the composition and diversity of terpenes, terpenoids and sesquiterpenes as compared with the extracts obtained from plant material. The commercial clove, oregano, and marjoram oils showed antibacterial properties against all the tested strains of E. coli. However, these strains were not sensitive to essential oils obtained from the plant material in the process of maceration. The tested strains of E. coli show a high sensitivity, mainly against monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, α,β,γ-terpinene, limonene and some terpenoids (thymol, carvacrol. The commercial juniper oil contained mainly monoterpenes and monoterpenoids, while the extracts contained lower amounts of monoterpenes and high amounts of sesquiterpenes—the anti-microbiotic properties of the juniper herbal extract seem to be caused by the synergistic activity of mono- and sesquiterpenes.

  4. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  5. Performance, carcass traits, muscle fatty acid composition and meat sensory properties of male Mahabadi goat kids fed palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, M H; Zeinoaldini, S; Ganjkhanlou, M; Mohammadi, H; Hopkins, D L; Ponnampalam, E N

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effect of palm, soybean or fish oils on the performance, muscle fatty acid composition and meat quality of goat kids. Twenty-four male Mahabadi kids (BW=19.4±1.2 kg) were divided into three groups according to liveweight and randomly allocated to one of three diets. Animals were fed ad libitum for 84 days. Different dietary fat sources had no effect on performance and/or carcass quality attributes. The soybean oil diet decreased 16:0 and 18:0 concentrations and increased 18:2 and 18:3 and the ratio of PUFA/SFA in the muscle compared with other treatments. Fish oil feeding increased 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 concentrations and decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 in the muscle. The results demonstrate that the use of fish oil is a nutritional strategy to improve the health claimable long-chain omega-3 fatty acid content and n-6/n-3 ratio in goat meat without changing the sensory properties or colour of meat. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahramanloo KH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kourosh Hasanzadeh Ghahramanloo,1 Behnam Kamalidehghan,2 Hamid Akbari Javar,3 Riyanto Teguh Widodo,1 Keivan Majidzadeh,4 Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin1 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Medical Genetics Department, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS, 4Breast Cancer Research Center (BCRC Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Tehran, Iran Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%–61.85% and oleic acid (1.64%–18.97%. Thymoquinone (0.72%–21.03% was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that achieved by the solvent extraction technique. The present study showed that SFE can be used as a more efficient technique for extraction of N. Sativa L. essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique. Keywords: Nigella sativa L., essential oil extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, solvent extraction, fatty acid composition, thymoquinone, linoleic acid

  7. Variations in Volatile Oil Yield and Composition of "Xin-yi" (Magnolia biondii Pamp. Flower Buds) at Different Growth Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingli; Bai, Mei; Ye, Wei; Wang, Yaling; Wu, Hong

    2018-06-01

    Dried flower buds of Magnolia biondii Pamp. are the main ingredient in "Xin-yi" in China, and the volatile oils of M. biondii flower buds are the principal medicinal component. Gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) and microscopic techniques were employed to detect the volatile yields of M. biondii flowers at various growth stages. The volatile oil yields of M. biondii flowers differed significantly at different growth stages and were closely related to flower dry weight, oil cell density and degree of oil accumulation. In February 2016, flower buds had the highest dry weight, the maximum percentage of oil cells at the oil saturation stage and the highest density of oil cells, which coincided with the highest oil yield. In March 2016, flower buds had a lower dry weight, a higher percentage of oil cells at the oil-degrading stage and the lowest oil cell density, resulting in decreased oil yields. The total amounts of the major medicinal components in the M. biondii flower also showed regular changes at different growth stages. In January and February of 2016, M. biondii flowers had a higher dry weight, volatile oil yield and total content of medicinal ingredients, which was the best time for harvesting high-quality medicinal components. Our study reveals that volatile oil content and chemical composition are closely related to the growth stage of M. biondii flower buds. The results provide a scientific morphology and composition index for evaluating the medicinal value and harvesting of high-quality M. biondii medicinal herbs.

  8. Evaluation of Chemical Composition of Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) Fruits Essential Oils Grown in Aydın/Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    TİN, Betül; KURTOĞLU, Cemal; SEVİNDİK, Emre

    2017-01-01

    In this study was aimed to investigate the chemical composition determination of essential oils of Vitex agnus-castus fruits growing under the ecological conditions of Aydın’s. The essential oil was carried out with Clevenger apparatus and composition was determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). As a result, a total of 157 components were detected in V. agnus-castus fruits. Among them, 1,8 cineole (8.24%), propenamide (6.07%), caryophyllene (5.56%), bicyclogermacrene (5.51%...

  9. Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oil of Nepeta hormozganica Jamzad from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonboli, A; Saadat, M H; Arman, M; Kanani, M R

    2017-12-01

    The composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of the aerial flowering parts of Nepeta hormozganica Jamzad have been studied. Analysis of the oil was conducted by GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty-two components were characterized accounting for 99.4% of the total oil. Oxygenated monoterpenes (87.5%) were found to be the predominant group of compounds, of which 18-cineole (65.0%) and 4aα-7α-7aβ-nepetalactone (13.0%) were the main constituents. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its main constituents showed that all of the tested microorganisms were highly inhibited by the essential oil with inhibition zones ranged from 12 to 24 mm. The most sensitive bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis with the lowest MIC values of 0.3 and 0.6 mg/mL, respectively. Considering sensitivity screening it is conceivable that the activity of the oil from N. hormozganica could be attributed mainly to the synergistic property of 18-cineole and nepetalactone.

  10. Lipid composition of seed oils of different pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cultivars from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Fernandes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. is an ancient fruit tree traditionally cultivated in the Near and Middle East. Presently, its most important growing regions include Afghanistan, Iran, Israel, USA, Italy and Spain, the latter country the largest European exporter. The pomegranate fruit can be divided into several anatomical compartments: outside peel, inside peel, and arils (pulp and seeds, the last part being usually used for consumption as is or for juice, jams and jellies production. Even though pomegranate seeds are an industrial by-product, recent reports have highlighted their potential use as a source of oil with beneficial chemical attributes. Therefore, the main objective of the present work was to characterize the seed oil of nine European pomegranate varieties, collected in Spain, for their fatty acid and vitamin E compositions. All seed lipid fractions consisted mainly of punicic acid (c9,t11,c13 C-18:3, ranging between 77.3% and 83.6% of total fatty acids, followed by small amounts of linoleic acid (C18:2n6, oleic acid (C18:1n9 and palmitic acid (C16:0. Regarding vitamin E composition, α-, γ-, δ-tocopherols were found in all pomegranate seed oils, but mainly γ-tocopherol, with total tocopherols ranging from 174.5 to 627.3 mg/100g oil.The richness of these pomegranate varieties seed oils in punicic acid, a conjugated linolenic acid with interesting anti-carcinogenic activity, and the elevated amount of tocopherols on the extracted lipids, of technological and nutritional relevance, make this by-product interesting for further exploitation.

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Tanacetum walteri (Anthemideae-Asteraceae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Airin; Sonboli, Ali

    2018-02-06

    The composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Tanacetum walteri were studied. Aerial flowering parts of plant were collected from North Khorasan Province of Iran and the essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was determined by disc diffusion and MIC and MBC determination. Thirty-five compounds were identified in the oil of T. walteri accounting for 94.4% of the total oil. Thymol (22.5%), 1,8-cineole (8.2%), umbellulone (6.9%), α-bisabolol (6.3%) and camphor (5.3%) were as the principal constituents. The highest antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MIC value of 0.63 mg/mL. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil of T. walteri could be attributed mainly to the high levels of phenolic compound thymol and oxygenated terpenes in essential oil.

  12. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula pedunculata (Miller) Cav.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzarte, Monica; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Dinis, Augusto M; Canhoto, Jorge M; Salgueiro, Lígia R

    2009-08-01

    The chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula pedunculata (Miller) Cav., harvested in North and Central Portugal, were investigated. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The minimal-inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal-lethal concentration (MLC) of the essential oils and of their major constituents were used to evaluate the antifungal activity against different strains of fungi involved in candidosis, dematophytosis, and aspergillosis. The oils were characterized by a high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes, the main compounds being 1,8-cineole (2.4-55.5%), fenchone (1.3-59.7%), and camphor (3.6-48.0%). Statistical analysis differentiated the essential oils into two main types, one characterized by the predominance of fenchone and the other one by the predominance of 1,8-cineole. Within the 1,8-cineole chemotype, two subgroups were well-defined taking into account the percentages of camphor. A significant antifungal activity of the oils was found against dermatophyte strains. The essential oil with the highest content of camphor was the most active with MIC and MLC values ranging from 0.32-0.64 microl/ml.

  13. Chemical Composition, Larvicidal and Cytotoxic Activities of the Essential Oils from two Bauhinia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leôncio M. de Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by hydrodistilation from leaves of Bauhinia pulchella Benth. and Bauhinia ungulata L. were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components of B. pulchella essential oil were identified as a -pinene (23.9%, caryophyllene oxide (22.4% and b -pinene (12.2%, while in the B. ungulata essential oil were caryophyllene oxide (23.0%, (E-caryophyllene (14.5% and a -copaene (7.2%. The essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their larvicidal and cytotoxic activities. Larval bioassay against Aedes aegypti of B. pulchella and B. ungulata essential oils showed LC 50 values of 105.9 ± 1.5 and 75.1 ± 2.8 m g/mL, respectively. The essential oils were evaluated against four human cancer cells lines: HL-60 (pro-myelocytic leukemia, MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma, NCI-H292 (lung carcinoma and HEP-2 ( cervical adenocarcinoma, showing IC 50 values in the range of 9.9 to 53.1 m g/mL. This is the first report on chemical composition of essential from leaves of B. pulchella and on larvicidal and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils.

  14. Effects of fatty acids composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on textural properties of dough and cookie quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Amita; Khatkar, B S

    2018-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on the textural properties of cookie dough and quality attributes of cookies. Fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of six fats and oils (butter, hydrogenated fat, palm oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil, and sunflower oil) were analyzed. Sunflower oil was found to be the most unsaturated oil with 88.39% unsaturated fatty acid content. Coconut oil and palm oil differed from other fats and oils by having an appreciable amount of lauric acid (59.36%) and palmitic acid (42.14%), respectively. Microstructure size of all fats and oils ranged from 1 to 20 μm being the largest for coconut oil and the smallest for palm oil. In palm oil, small rod-shaped and randomly arranged microstructures were observed, whereas sunflower oil and groundnut oil possessed large, scattered ovule shaped microstructures. It was reported that sunflower oil produced the softest dough, the largest cookie spread and the hardest cookie texture, whereas hydrogenated fat produced the stiffest dough, the lowest spread and most tender cookies. Statistical analysis depicted that palmitic acid and oleic acid demonstrated a positive correlation with dough hardness. Linoleic acid exhibited positive link with cookie spread ratio (r = 0.836**) and breaking strength (r = 0.792**). Microstructure size showed a significant positive relationship with dough density (r = 0.792**), cookie density (r = 0.386*), spread ratio (r = 0.312*), and breaking strength (r = 0.303*).

  15. Fatty acid composition and some physicochemical characteristics of Sterculia apetala seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Meza, S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the tropical rain forests of southeastern Mexico, the use of Sterculia mexicana and Sterculia apetala seed oils for human and animal nutrition is common. However, the seeds contain cyclopropene fatty acids, whose consumption is related with beneficial as well as detrimental physiological effects. The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid profile and the physicochemical characteristics of S. apetala seed oil and to evaluate the effect of roasting on both aspects. Cyclopropenoic fatty acids, sterculic acid and malvalic acid were identified in the natural and roasted seed oils. The major component in the seed oil was sterculic acid, as has been reported for Sterculia mexicana and Sterculia foetida. The roasting process modified some physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition of the seed oil, particularly by decreasing its content of sterculic acid. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the fatty acid composition of S. apetala seed oil.En zonas tropicales del sureste de México, el uso de semillas de Sterculia mexicana y Sterculia apetala es común para consumo humano y animal. Sin embargo, dichas semillas contienen ácidos grasos ciclopropenoicos, los cuales se les ha relacionado tanto con efectos fisiológicos beneficiosos como adversos para la salud. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el perfil de ácidos grasos y las características fisicoquímicas de la especie S. apetala, así como la evaluación del aceite sometido a un proceso de tostado. Se identificaron ácidos grasos ciclopropenoicos como el ácido estercúlico y malválico, en el aceite natural y tostado. Para las especies S. mexicana y S. foetida, el componente mayoritario en las semillas fue el ácido estercúlico. El proceso de tostado modificó algunas propiedades fisicoquímicas y la composción de los ácidos grasos, especificamente disminuyó el contenido de ácido estercúlico. Para nuestro conocimiento, este es la primera informaci

  16. The Essential Oil Compositions of Ocimum basilicum from Three Different Regions: Nepal, Tajikistan, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh S; Satyal, Prabodh; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Pokharel, Suraj; Zhang, Hanjing; Wink, Michael; Kukaniev, Muhammadsho A; Setzer, William N

    2016-02-01

    The aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum L. were collected from four different geographical locations, Sindhuli and Biratnagar (Nepal), Chormaghzak village (Tajikistan), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 179 essential oil compositions revealed six major chemotypes: Linalool, eugenol, estragole, methyl eugenol, 1,8-cineole, and geraniol. All four of the basil oils in this study were of the linalool-rich variety. Some of the basil oils were screened for bioactivity including antimicrobial, cytotoxicity in human cancer cells, brine shrimp lethality, nematicidal, larvicidal, insecticidal, and antioxidant. The basil oils in this study were not notably antibacterial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, nor nematicidal, but were active in the brine shrimp lethality test, and did show larvicidal and insecticidal activities. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Changes in Acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics and in vivo effects of dietary pumpkin seed oil upon thermal oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Ahmad, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine the acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics and protective role of dietary pumpkin seed oil in rabbits. Pumpkin seed oil was thermally oxidized and analyzed for quality characteristics and acylglycerols composition using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Oxidized and un-oxidized oil samples were fed to the rabbits in different doses for two weeks. The changes in the serum biochemistry, hematology, and liver histology were studied. The levels of quality parameters such peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total phenolic contents (TPC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and conjugated trienes (CT) significantly increased with thermal treatment. HPLC analyses revealed ten individual triacylglycerols (TAGs), total di-acylglycerols (DAGs), mono-acylglycerols (MAGs), and total oxidized TAGs. Trilinolein (LLL), 1-oleoyl-2,3-dilinolinoyl glycerol (OLL), triolein (OOO) and 1,2-distearoyl-3-palmitoyl glycerol (SSP) were present in higher amounts and decreased with thermal treatment. Animal's studies showed that oxidized oils decreased the whole body weight, which was ameliorated by the co-administration of un-oxidized oils. The levels of serum biochemical parameters were improved by co-administration of pumpkin seed oils. There were no significant effects of both oxidized and un-oxidized pumpkin seed oil on the hematological and histological parameters of rabbits. In conclusion, nutritionally important triacylglycerols were present in pumpkin seed oil with protective role against the toxicity of its corresponding oxidized oils.

  18. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils of Sempervivum brevipilum Muirhead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran Kahriman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the fresh flower, leaf, and stem of Sempervivum brevipilum Muirhead. (Crassulaceae were isolated by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of fifty, fourty-three, and thirty-one compounds were identified, constituting over 92.6%, 92.6%, and 94.3% of oil composition of the flower, leaf, and stem of S. brevipilum, respectively. The chemical profile reveals the dominance of hydrocarbons (flower: 65.3%, leaf: 47.6%, stem: 71.1%. The major compounds of essential oils from S. brevipilum were tetracosane (20.2% in flower, 1,2-diphenyl ethandione (16.1% in leaf and docosane (30.5% in stem. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were the major class of terpenoids in flower (2.2% and in stem (1.8%, oxygenated diterpene was the major class of terpenoids in leaf (4.5%. Oxygenated monoterpenes were in minor amounts in all parts (flower: 0.3%, leaf: 0.7%, stem: 0.1% of the plant. In addition, antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of S. brevipilum were investigated. The oils didn’t show any antibacterial and antifungal activity against tested bacteria, but showed high antituberculostatic activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis.

  19. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  20. Application of cavitation system to accelerate aqueous enzymatic extraction of seed oil from Cucurbita pepo L. and evaluation of hypoglycemic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhu-Gang; Wang, Xun; Han, Jun-Yan; Zhang, Bo; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Chun-Jian

    2016-12-01

    Cavitation-accelerated aqueous enzymatic extraction (CAEE) of seed oil from Cucurbita pepo was performed. An enzyme cocktail comprised of cellulose, pectinase and proteinase can work synergistically in releasing the oil. The CAEE extraction conditions were optimized by a Plackett-Burman design followed by a central composite methodology. A maximal extraction yield of 58.06% was achieved under optimal conditions of vacuum degree -0.07, enzyme amount 1.05% and extraction time 69min. As compared to soxhlet extraction (SE)-derived oil, CAEE-derived oil exhibited similar physical properties and better oxidation stability. In addition, chemical composition analyzing showed that the content of linoleic acid obtained by CAEE (47.67%) was higher than that of SE (44.51%). Moreover, the IC50 of oil obtained by CAEE and SE, as measured by α-amylase inhibition assay, were 40.68μg/mL and 45.46μg/mL. All results suggest that CAEE represents an excellent alternative protocol for production of oil from oil-bearing materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Organic Extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif M. Al-Reza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydrodistillated essential oil and various extracts obtained from Premna integrifolia Linn. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil was resulted in determination 29 different compounds, representing 95.73% of total oil. Antioxidant activities of the essential oil and organic extracts of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were determined by three different test systems namely DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays. The essential oil and methanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity among all the tested samples. Furthermore, the amount of total phenolic compounds was determined and its content in methanol extract was the highest as compared to other samples. The results indicate that the essential oil and extracts of Premna integrifolia could serve as an important bio-resource of antioxidants for using in the pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of oil and gas platforms over various production profiles and feed compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms present similar structural designs but process fluids with different thermo-physical and chemical properties. In addition, the field properties, such as the gas-to-oil and water-to-oil ratios, change significantly over time. It is therefore not possible to suggest a standard...... of energy and exergy. Feed compositions and production profiles, which correspond to data from actual fields, are used for calibrating the simulations. In a second step, the minimum energy and exergy losses of the platform are assessed by performing thermodynamic analyses, assuming an ideal scenario...... in which all processes are run at their design points. This approach proves to be useful for evaluating consistently different options for oil and gas production, and for determining, in a further step, the most promising solutions for minimising the energy use over a field lifetime....

  3. The composite barrel of retail prices and its relationship to crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabanoff, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper challenges assumptions about the relationship between refinery gate prices, retail prices paid by consumers and crude oil prices. The analysis presented here considers their relationship within the context of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries' (OPEC's) composite barrel statistics, which includes taxes and other government policy effects on prices. Speed of adjustment and retail price response to taxes are analysed with respect to crude import prices. OPEC's composite barrel is explained and evaluated. Test results are summarized. (UK)

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Satureja biflora (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josphat C. Matasyoh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-distilled essential oil from Satureja biflora (Lamiaceae growing in Kenya was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Twenty two compounds which constitute 99.29 % of the total oil were identified. The oil was dominated by monoterpenes, which accounted for 62.02 % of the oil. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of linalool (50.60 % such that this Satureja species can be classified as the linalool chemotype. The other major monoterpenes were α-terpineol (2.80 %, β-ocimene (2.25 %, β-pinene (1.96 % and cis-linalool oxide (1.91 %. Sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts are germacrene D (10.63 %, α-cadinol (4.53 %, β-bourbonene (2.33 %, δ-cadinene (2.19 %, τ-cadinol (2.17 %, endo-1-bourbonanol (2.14 % and β-caryophyllene (1.98 %. Aliphatic alcohols and acids accounted for 7.23 % of the oil, of which the major one was linoleic acid (4.48 %. The oil was screened for antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus ssp. and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pheumoniae, Proteus mirabilis bacteria and a pathogenic fungus (Candida albicans. To the best of our knowledge nothing concerning the chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of S. biflora has been reported.

  5. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from two Pereskia species grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucéia Fatima; De Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Pereskia aculeata Mill. and P. grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS. In all, 37 compounds were identified, 30 for P. aculeata and 15 for P. grandifolia. Oxygenated diterpenes are the main constituents, both in the oil ofP. grandifolia (55.5%) and in that ofP. aculeata (29.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The essential oil of P. grandifolia, at all doses tested, significantly inhibited the radicle elongation of R. sativus. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oils showed weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens.

  6. Fabrication of modified hydrogenated castor oil/GPTMS-ZnO composites and effect on UV resistance of leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianzhong; Duan, Limin; Lu, Juan; Lyu, Bin; Gao, Dangge; Wu, Xionghu

    2017-06-16

    Leather products are made from the natural skin collagen fibers. It is vulnerable to the environmental factor such as solar ultraviolet irradiation in the using process. Therefore anti-UV performance is a very important quality, particularly for chrome-free leather. ZnO is a well-known UV absorber commonly used in the cosmetic industry. We have investigated its potential to increase the anti-UV performance of chrome-free leather. Modified hydrogenated castor oil/GPTMS-ZnO (MHCO/ GPTMS-ZnO) composites were prepared using spherical ZnO nanoparticles, hydrogenated castor oil, maleic anhydride and sodium bisulfite. MHCO/GPTMS-ZnO composites have better anti-UV ability and stability. MHCO/GPTMS-ZnO composites were applied to the leather processing. The treated samples were exposed to artificial sunlight. Anti-yellowing tests showed that MHCO/GPTMS-ZnO composites significantly improved anti-UV performance of leather.

  7. Compositional and functional difference in cumin (Cuminum cyminum essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation and SCFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supradip Saha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils were obtained from same raw material of cumin seed by extraction with hydrodistillation and super critical fluid extraction (SCFE. For SCFE, supercritical carbon dioxide at 45°C and 100 bar was used as variable for the extraction. The composition of the extracts was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Yield of essential oil was more in the SCFE method. Extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction technique using CO2 was heavier than the hydrodistilled volatile oil. Cumin oil obtained by hydrodistillation contained higher percentage of cuminaldehyde (52.6%, then did oil obtained by SCFE (37.3%, whereas cumin oil obtained by hydrodistillation had the lower percentage of cuminic alcohol (13.3% as compared to 19.3% in SCFE method. However, cuminal (2-caren-10-al content was almost similar in cumin oil obtained by the SCFE and hydrodistillation method (24.5–25.8%. Hydrodistilled volatile oil showed better antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and FRAP assay and more total phenol content. The results indicated that though essential oil yield was more in the SCFE method, antioxidant property was more in conventional hydrodistillation method. SCFE extracted non polar (wax materials compounds along with volatile oil and it was recorded that enhanced aroma of signature compounds of cumin.

  8. Biodegradation of oil palm empty fruit bunch by composite micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusri Atan; Mat Rasol Awang; Mohammed Omar; Azizah Hashim; Tamikazu Kume; Shoji Hashimoto

    1998-01-01

    A comparison study on the comparative biodegradation ability on EFB by five groups of composite micro-organisms [Organomine, Thomas, Ohres C, Ohres II and micro-organisms from POME (palm oil mill effluent)] has been performed with the aim of producing a compost at a faster rate than that by natural biodegradation. The experiment was carried out by mixing 50 gram EFB (dry weight basis) with 3% ammonium sulphate to which was added 1% composite micro-organisms and water to produce a composting media of moisture content about 60%. Respiration of composite micro-organisms as well as from decomposition of EFB releasing CO sub 2. The choice of useful micro-organisms was based on its ability to degrade EFB as reflected by higher evolution rate of CO sub 2 released and retaining higher percentage of nitrogen in the final product

  9. Effects of dietary flaxseed oil on the muscle fatty acid composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary flaxseed oil on the fatty acid (FA) composition of two types of muscles, longissimus dorsi (LD) and semitendinosus (ST), of Mangalitsa pigs reared in an extensive system. Fourteen Mangalitsa castrated pigs, 55 ± 8 kg, 240 ± 12 days of age, were randomly assigned ...

  10. Infra specific variability in the essential oil composition of Lychnophora ericoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyra, Cynthia C.G.V.; Vieira, Roberto F.; Oliveira, Carolina B.A. de; Santos, Suzana C.; Ferri, Pedro H.; Seraphin, Jose C.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in the composition of the leaf essential oils of wild Lychnophora ericoides, with and without scent, which were grown in three sampling sites, were examined by GC-MS. Results were submitted to principal component and cluster analysis which allowed for two groups of essential oils to be distinguished with regard to scent: cluster I with specimens exhibiting an aromatic scent and containing a high percentage of α-bisabolol (34±23%) and o-cymene (8.4±6.9%); cluster II with specimens without any scent and characterised by a high percentage of caryophyllene oxide (11±9%) and δ-elemene (5.7±6.9%). The two types of oil coexist in all the populations under study, although patterns of aromatic samples deriving from Caldas Novas State Park reveal chemical differences in relation to the samples from Brasilia's National Park and Santo Antonio do Descoberto. Such chemical variations clearly suggest, apart from a geographical influence, genetic differences between individuals in the populations. The high content of α-bisabolol supports the folk medicinal use of arnica as anti-inflammatory. (author)

  11. Infra specific variability in the essential oil composition of Lychnophora ericoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyra, Cynthia C.G.V. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Vieira, Roberto F. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Oliveira, Carolina B.A. de; Santos, Suzana C.; Ferri, Pedro H. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Bioatividade Molecular]. E-mail: pedro@quimica.ufg.br; Seraphin, Jose C. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica. Nucleo de Estatistica Aplicada

    2008-07-01

    Variations in the composition of the leaf essential oils of wild Lychnophora ericoides, with and without scent, which were grown in three sampling sites, were examined by GC-MS. Results were submitted to principal component and cluster analysis which allowed for two groups of essential oils to be distinguished with regard to scent: cluster I with specimens exhibiting an aromatic scent and containing a high percentage of {alpha}-bisabolol (34{+-}23%) and o-cymene (8.4{+-}6.9%); cluster II with specimens without any scent and characterised by a high percentage of caryophyllene oxide (11{+-}9%) and {delta}-elemene (5.7{+-}6.9%). The two types of oil coexist in all the populations under study, although patterns of aromatic samples deriving from Caldas Novas State Park reveal chemical differences in relation to the samples from Brasilia's National Park and Santo Antonio do Descoberto. Such chemical variations clearly suggest, apart from a geographical influence, genetic differences between individuals in the populations. The high content of {alpha}-bisabolol supports the folk medicinal use of arnica as anti-inflammatory. (author)

  12. Composition and fatty acid profile of milk from cows on pasture subjected to licuri oil supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the best level of oil licuri concentrate on dairy cows. The best level was determined through an analysis of the milk's chemical composition and fatty acid profile. Sixteen lactating cows from the Holstein × Zebu cross breed kept on Tanzania grass pastures were divided into four 4 × 4 Latin squares, which were formed by four experimental periods of 21 days. The 21-day experimental periods were divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day, at the time of milking. Treatments consisted of four types of feed containing the following levels: 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% inclusion of dry matter (DM licuri oil concentrate. The licuri oil levels changed the fatty acids' profile with a linear increase in the short-chain fatty acid and medium and linearly reduced the concentration of LCFA. The highest level of licuri oil was 4.5% of DM concentrate, which changed the composition of milk through an increase in the percentage of fat and total solids. This result is of prominent notice to the dairy industry.

  13. Fatty acid composition of commercially available Iranian edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2009-08-01

    several studies reported multiple adverse effects of TFAs on human health, limited  nformation is available about total fatty acid composition, particularly TFAs, in Iranian edible oils. Our findings indicated higher content of TFAs in Iranian commercially available PHVOs.

  • KEYWORDS: Fatty Acids, Vegetable Oils, Trans Fats.
  • Genetic variability in Cynara cardunculus L. domestic and wild types for grain oil production and fatty acids composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raccuia, Salvatore Antonino; Piscioneri, Ilario; Sharma, Neeta; Melilli, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    This paper aimed to study the genetic variability within different types of Cynara cardunculus L., domestic and wild types, for their grain oil amount and oil fatty acid composition. The grain oils were extracted from 8 domestic cardoons and 4 wild cardoons, by Soxhlet method, and obtained oils were characterized for palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids by gas chromatography. The oil amount, resulted on average of accessions 216 g kg -1 DM with a good range of variability (CV = 11.7%). Unsaturated acids (oleic and linoleic) predominated over saturated ones (stearic and palmitic acids), the chemical characterization of extracted oil, showed the main compound (as % of analysed fatty acids), averaged for all populations, was linoleic acid (44.5%), followed by oleic acid (42.6%), palmitic acid (9.8%) and stearic acid (3.1%). In particular referring the oleic acid wild cardoon populations showed a mean value of 289 g kg -1 oil, against a mean value of 472 g kg -1 oil showed by domestic cardoon accessions. Three of the studied domestic cardoon ('DC1', 'DC3' and 'DC7') showed values higher than 795 g kg -1 oil, while all the other accessions had concentration lower than 370 g kg -1 oil. The three types of domestic cardoon 'DC1', 'DC3' and 'DC7' showed a fatty acids profile similar to genetic modified sunflower oil, representing new genetic material that potentially could be used for high quality biodiesel production, characterised by a low Iodine Number. -- Highlights: → The grain oils from 12 cardoons were characterized for fatty acids composition. → The oil amount, resulted on average of accessions 216 g kg -1 DM. → Oleic and linoleic acids predominated over stearic and palmitic acids. → Three domestic cardoons grain oil showed high oleic acid content (795 g kg -1 oil). → This oil could be used for high quality biodiesel production, with a low IN.

  • Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from Thymus lanceolatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadir, Abdelmounaim; Sobeh, Mansour; Gad, Haidy A; Benbelaid, Fethi; Bendahou, Mourad; Peixoto, Herbenya; Sporer, Frank; Ashour, Mohamed L; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Thymus lanceolatus is a rare species, which grows wild in Algeria and Tunis. It is used traditionally as a drink and to flavor and preserve meat and poultry. The composition of the essential oil was determined by GLC/FID and GLC/MS. Forty-nine components were identified and quantified, accounting for 96.75% of the total detected components in the oil. The oxygenated monoterpenes (74.85%) constitute the major class of volatile secondary metabolites in the oil. Thymol was the most abundant constituent (69.61%) followed by γ-terpinene (8.38%). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using both diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) reduction and 2-deoxyribose (2-DR) degradation prevention methods. The oil showed a very potent antioxidant activity with IC(50) values of 0.20 ± 0.07 and 4.96 ± 0.39 μg/mL for the DPPH˙ and 2-DR methods, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was assessed using the agar diffusion method, and the in vitro cytotoxicity on five different cancer cells was examined using the MTT assay. The oil revealed promising inhibitory activity against Gram positive bacteria, especially Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pyogenes with an MIC value of 62.5 μg/mL. Additionally, the highest cytotoxic activity was observed against the HL-60 cells with an IC(50) of 113.5 μg/mL. These results validate some of their traditional uses in food preservation.

  • Essential oils from Taiwan: Chemical composition and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli

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    Po-Chen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compositions of seven essential oils from Taiwan were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The eluates were identified by matching the mass fragment patents to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 08 database. The quantitative analysis showed that the major components of lemon verbena are geranial (26.9% and neral (23.1%; those of sweet marjoram are γ-terpinene (18.5%, thymol methyl ether (15.5%, and terpinen-4-ol (12.0%; those of clove basil are eugenol (73.6%, and β-(Z-ocimene (15.4%; those of patchouli are carvacrol (47.5% and p-cymene (15.2%; those of rosemary are α-pinene (54.8% and 1,8-cineole (22.2%; those of tea tree are terpinen-4-ol (33.0% and 1,8-cineole (27.7%; and those of rose geranium are citronellol (28.9% and 6,9-guaiadiene (20.1%. These components are somewhat different from the same essential oils that were obtained from other origins. Lemon verbena has the same major components everywhere. Tea tree, rose geranium, and clove basil have at least one major component throughout different origins. The major components and their amounts in sweet marjoram, patchouli, and rosemary vary widely from one place to another. These results demonstrate that essential oils have a large diversity in their composition in line with their different origins. The antibacterial activity of essential oils against Escherichia coli was evaluated using the optical density method (turbidimetry. Patchouli is a very effective inhibitor, in that it completely inhibits the growth of E. coli at 0.05%. Clove basil and sweet marjoram are good inhibitors, and the upper limit of their minimum inhibitory concentration is 0.1%.

  • Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil From Salvia mirzayanii Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Pakshir, Keyvan; Karami, Forough; Sabahi, Zahra

    2017-10-01

    Resistance of many pathogens to available drugs is a global challenge and is leading to growing interest in natural alternative products. In this study, chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oil from Salvia mirzayanii were investigated. The chemical constituents of essential oil from S mirzayanii were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity was determined by broth microdilution. The main identified compounds were 1,8-cineole (41.2 ± 1.3%), linalool acetate (11.0 ± 0.5%), and α-terpinyl acetate (6.0 ± 0.4%) (mL of essential oil/g of plant material). The MIC 95 were 0.03 to 0.5 µL/mL and 16 to 128 µL/mL for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. These results indicated that Salvia mirzayanii essential oil significantly inhibited the growth of standard and clinically isolated tested yeasts by MIC 50 0.03 to 1 µL/mL. Potent antibacterial and antifungal activities of Salvia mirzayanii essential oil may be considered in future study, particularly against antibiotic-resistant cases.

  • Composition of the essential oils of three Uzbek Scutellaria species (Lamiaceae) and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirjonovna; Sharopov, Farukh; Satyal, Prabodh; Azimova, Shahnoz Sadykovna; Wink, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Scutellaria immaculata Nevski ex Juz., Scutellaria ramosissima M. Pop. and Scutellaria schachristanica Juz. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Uzbekistan was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oils from S. immaculata were acetophenone (30.39%), eugenol (20.61%), thymol (10.04%) and linalool (6.92%), whereas constituents of the essential oils fromS. schachristanica were acetophenone (34.74%), linalool (26.98%) and eugenol (20.67%). The S. ramosissima oil is dominated by germacrene D (23.96%), β-caryophyllene (11.09%), linalool (9.63%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.34%). The essential oils of Scutellaria species exhibited weaker antioxidant effects in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. In FRAP assay, only eugenol exhibited a substantial reducing power IC 50  = 2476.92 ± 15.8 (mM Fe(II)/g).

  • Effect of natural and artificial drying of leaf biomassof Psidium guajava on the content and chemical composition of essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida Josefi da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is native to Central and South America. It is widely distributed and well adapted to Brazil, a producer of essential oils rich in terpenes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of natural and artificial drying on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of guava leaves (Psidium guajava L. grown in Rio Verde (GO. The two treatments consisted of drying fresh leaves either naturally in the shade or artificially at 40°C. Chemical composition was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas coupled with mass spectrometer chromatography (GC/MS and gas chromatography using a flame ionizer (GC-FID, respectively. The method of drying changed the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of guava leaves. Drying in the shade reduced the content and altered the constituents of the essential oil, whereas drying in an oven at 40°C, despite having reduced the amounts of the constituents, exhibited the highest essential oil content and increased the concentration of certain major constituents as compared to that in the natural shade drying method. The major components found in the essential oil of leaves regardless of the drying processes were trans-caryophyllene, ?-humulene, aromadendrene, ?-selinene, and selin-11-en-4?-ol. According to reports in the literature, these compounds possess fungicidal, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity, among others beneficial actions.

  • Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

    1. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Some Coniferous Plants Cultivated in Egypt.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ibrahim, Taghreed A; El-Hela, Atef A; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Al-Taweel, Areej M; Perveen, Shagufta

      2017-01-01

      Family Cupressaceae is the largest coniferous plant family. Essential oils of many species belonging to family Cupressaceae are known to have several biological activities specially antimicrobial activity. The essential oils from aerial parts of Calocedrus decurrens Torr., Cupressus sempervirens stricta L. and Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. were prepared by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oils has been elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The prepared essential oils were examined against selected species of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. Broth dilution methods were used to detect minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Sixteen compounds were identified in the essential oils of both Calocedrus decurrens and Cupressus sempervirens L. and fifteen compounds were identified in the essential oil of Tetraclinis articulata . δ-3-Carene (43.10%), (+)-Cedrol (74.03%) and Camphor (21.23%) were the major constituents in the essential oils of Calocedrus decurrens , Cupressus sempervirens L. and Tetraclinis articulata , respectively. The essential oils showed strong antimicrobial activities against the selected microorganisms in concentration range 0.02 3- 3.03 µL/mL. This study could contribute to the chemotaxonomic characterization of family Cupressaceae. In addition, it proved that the essential oils under investigation possess potential antimicrobial properties.

    2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF PINE RESIN, ROSIN AND TURPENTINE OIL FROM WEST JAVA

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Bambang Wiyono

      2006-03-01

      Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify chemical composition of merkus pine resin, rosin and turpentine oil. Initially, pine resin was separated into neutral and acidic fractions with an aqueous 4% sodium hydroxide solution. After methylation, the fraction containing turpentine oil and rosin were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC, and gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS, respectively. The neutral fraction of pine resin and turpentine oil mainly consisted of a-pinene, D-3-carene and b-pinene. Based on mass spectral comparison, the major constituents of the acidic fraction and rosin were identified as sandaracopimaric acid, isopimaric acid, palustric acid, dehydroabietic acid, abietic acid, neoabietic acid, and merkusic acid. The major component of the acidic fractions was palustric acid, while that of rosin was abietic acid. Using TC (tough column 1 and TC 5 columns, levopimaric acid could not be separated from rosin or acidic fraction of pine resin of Indonesian Pinus merkusii.

    3. Fixed Oil Composition and Biological Screening of Viola betonicifolia in Different Solvents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Muhammad, N.; Khan, H.; Khan, A.; Farooq, U.; Saeed, M.; Ullah, S.; Khan, S. S.; Shareef, H.; Khan, Z.; Zahoor, M.

      2016-01-01

      The aim of the paper to report a chemical study on fixed oils isolated from the n-hexane and chloroform/ ethyl acetate fractions of the whole plant Viola betonicifolia by column chromatography. The chemical compositions of the crude fixed oils were determined by using GC and GC-MS analysis. The subfractions of oils (NM 1-6) were screened for their possible antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, insecticidal, leishmanicidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity. In antifungal assay, NM-4 and NM-6 fractions showed 30 and 40 percent inhibition against Microsporum canis, while NM-6 exhibited 30 percent activity against Candida albicans. A dose-dependent phytotoxic activity was recorded for fractions NM-1, NM-3 and NM-6. Some subfractions showed low to moderate insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum, Rhyzopertha dominica and Callosobruchus analis. NM-5 and NM-6 fractions were cytotoxic, with LD50 values of 175.341 and 160.734 micro g/ml, respectively. (author)

    4. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigii (L. leaves

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mini Priya Rajendran

      2014-05-01

      Full Text Available Objective: This study is designed to extract and examine chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the hydro-distillated essential oil of Murraya koenigii leaves from the south region of Tamilnadu, India. Matherials and Methods: Gas Chromatography (GC and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of the essential oil result was indicates the 33 different compounds representing 97.56 % of the total oil. Results: Major compounds detected in the oil were Linalool (32.83%, Elemol (7.44%, Geranyl acetate (6.18%, Myrcene (6.12%, Allo-Ocimene (5.02, α-Terpinene (4.9%, and (E-β-Ocimene (3.68% and Neryl acetate (3.45%. From the identified compounds, they were classified into four groups that are oxygenated monoterpenes (72.15%, monoterpene hydrocarbons (11.81%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (10.48% and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (03.12%. The antibacterial activity of essential oil has pronounced by Disc Diffusion Method against various pathogenic microbes. Conclusion: The oil has a maximum zone of inhibition ability against Corynebacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes. The antioxidant profile of the sample was determined by different test systems. In all the systems, essential oil showed a strongest activity profile within the concentration range.

    5. Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from pine needle (Cedrus deodara).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zeng, Wei-Cai; Zhang, Zeng; Gao, Hong; Jia, Li-Rong; He, Qiang

      2012-07-01

      The chemical composition of essential oil from pine needles (Cedrus deodara) was determined, and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. Twenty-three components, representing 95.79% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The main components include α-terpineol (30.2%), linalool (24.47%), limonene (17.01%), anethole (14.57%), caryophyllene (3.14%), and eugenol (2.14%). Pine needle essential oil showed remarkable antioxidant activity in scavenging free radicals, in lipid peroxidation, and in reducing power assays. Moreover, the essential oil revealed strong antimicrobial activity against typical food-borne microorganisms, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.2 to 1.56 and 0.39 to 6.25 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscope observation ascertained that the bactericidal mechanism of pine needle essential oil may be the induction of cytoplasmic outflow and plasmolysis. These results suggest that the essential oil from pine needles has potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food processing. The present study provides a theoretical basis for the potential application of essential oil from pine needles (C. deodara) to be used as a natural resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in food industry. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

    6. Partitioning the relative contributions of inorganic plant composition and soil characteristics to the quality of Helichrysum italicum subsp. italicum (Roth) G. Don fil. essential oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bianchini, Ange; Santoni, François; Paolini, Julien; Bernardini, Antoine-François; Mouillot, David; Costa, Jean

      2009-07-01

      Composition of Helichrysum italicum subsp. italicum essential oil showed chemical variability according to vegetation cycle, environment, and geographic origins. In the present work, 48 individuals of this plant at different development stages and the corresponding root soils were sampled: i) 28 volatile components were identified and measured in essential oil by using GC and GC/MS; ii) ten elements from plants and soils have been estimated using colorimetry in continuous flux, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, or emission spectrometry (FAAS/FAES); iii) texture and acidity (real and potential) of soil samples were also reported. Relationships between the essential-oil composition, the inorganic plant composition, and the soil characteristics (inorganic composition, texture, and acidity) have been established using multivariate analysis such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and partial Redundancy Analysis (RDA). This study demonstrates a high level of intraspecific differences in oil composition due to environmental factors and, more particularly, soil characteristics.

    7. PHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS, BLOOD PROFILE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF SHEEP FED WITH CA-SAPONIFIED LEMURU OIL COATED BY HERBS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Dewi Apri Astuti

      2015-06-01

      Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the physiological status, blood profiles and body composition of sheep fed with Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by herbs. Twenty fat-tailed sheep (av. BW 23±1.2 kg were used in this experiment by using Completely Randomized Design with five treatments ration and four replications of each. Sheep fed with concentrate containing 3% Ca-saponified lemuru oil and king grass (1:1 ad libitum. Treatments were control diet without herbs (R1; Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by curcumae domestica (R2; coated by Zingiber officinale Rosc (R3; coated by Eugenia polyantha (R4 and coated by Pluchea indica Less (R5. Data of physiological parameters were measured three times a day, in the morning, at noon and afternoon. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment through jugular vein, together with zero sample for Urea Space measurement. The variables observed were physiological data (heart rate, respiration rate, and rectal temperature, blood profiles (erythrocyte, hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV, leucocytes and body composition (water, protein and fat measured using Urea Space technique. Results of the study showed that sheep fed with Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by herbs was not significantly different on heart rate, respiration rate and rectal temperature among treatments. Meanwhile, total leucocytes, neutrophil cell, and lymphocytes significantly increased (P<0.05 by the treatment. Body composition percentage (water, protein and fat were same in all treatments, except the total body fat and energy retained. In conclusion, supplementation of 3% Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by Curcumae domestica, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Eugenia polyantha and Pluchea indica Less in fat-tailed sheep had no effect on physiological parameters, but improved the leucocyte and neutrophil cells. Total body fat and energy retained lower compared to control treatment. (Key words: Body composition, Ca-saponified, Herbs, Lemuru

    8. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of seven Eucalyptus species essential oils leaves.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sebei, Khaled; Sakouhi, Fawzi; Herchi, Wahid; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Boukhchina, Sadok

      2015-01-19

      In this paper, we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of the leaves of seven Eucalyptus species developed in Tunisia. Eucalyptus leaves were picked from trees growing in different arboretums in Tunisia. Choucha and Mrifeg arboretums located in Sedjnene, region of Bizerte (Choucha: E. maideni, E. astrengens et E. cinerea; Mrifeg : E. leucoxylon), Korbous arboretums located in the region of Nabeul, North East Tunisia with sub-humid bioclimate, (E. lehmani), Souiniet-Ain Drahem arboretum located in region of Jendouba (E. sideroxylon, E. bicostata). Essential oils were individually tested against a large panel of microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6539), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Listeria ivanovii (RBL 30), Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778). The yield of essential oils ranged from 1.2% to 3% (w/w) for the different Eucalyptus species. All essential oils contain α-pinene, 1,8-cineol and pinocarveol-trans for all Eucalyptus species studied. The 1,8-cineol was the major compound in all species (49.07 to 83.59%). Diameter of inhibition zone of essential oils of Eucalyptus species varied from 10 to 29 mm. The largest zone of inhibition was obtained for Bacillus cereus (E. astrengens) and the lowest for Staphylococcus aureus (E. cinerea). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea (arboretum of Bizerte), E. bicostata (arboretum of Aindraham) showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus. The major constituents of Eucalyptus leaves essential oils are 1,8-cineol (49.07 to 83.59%) and α-pinene (1.27 to 26.35%). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea, E. bicostata showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.

    9. Chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils from roots of Pinus growing in Algeria

      OpenAIRE

      Nadia FEKIH; Hocine ALLALI; Abdeslem Nacer AREZKI AIT; Salima MERGHACHE; Djamila MAGHNIA; Jean COSTA

      2016-01-01

      The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils of three roots of genus Pinus (P. halepensis, P. pinea and P. pinaster) growing in Algeria for the first time. The essential oils used in the present study were isolated by hydrodistillation using a Cleavenger-type apparatus according the European Pharmacopoeia, and identified by GC and GC-MS. 14, 12, 11 constituents were identified, representing an average of 98.8 %, 9...

    10. Chemical composition of the essential oil and hexanic fraction of Lippia and Lantana species

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Pâmela S. Silva

      2010-11-01

      Full Text Available A comparison between two extraction approaches of volatiles compounds from six species of Verbenaceae collected at Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brazil was done. The essential oil and hexanic fraction of leaves from two Lantana and four Lippia species collected in two different seasons were analyzed by GC/MS. Among various identified compounds from both extraction methods the majority of species showed major amounts of β-caryophyllene followed by germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene and α-pinene. Few differences were observed between the composition of essential oil and the hexanic fraction regarding the two studied genera. These results suggest that the analysis of hexanic fraction can be used, as an alternative way, to analyze the volatile compounds of the essential oil.

    11. Irradiation and processing of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres - polypropylene composites

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Syarifah Hanisah Syed Abdul Aziz

      2000-01-01

      In this study, polypropylene was blended with oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres at a ratio of 60 to 40 by weight, respectively. Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) was used as the crosslinking agent. Homopolymer Polypropylene of MFI 14.0 and EFB fibres of 0.5 -1.0 mm sizes were used through out the experiment. Processing parameters such as temperature, rotor speed and processing time were optimized. Modes of irradiation were established to determine the optimum properties of the composites. The mechanical properties of the composite such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured. The results indicate that temperature, 185 degree C, with a rotor speed of 40 rpm and 9 minutes processing time are sufficient to produce the optimum mechanical properties of PP/EFB composite. Modes of adding TMPTA into the blend and modes of irradiation also have influenced the properties of the composites

    12. Enhancement of Palm Oil Extraction Using Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Formulation

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Silvamany, H.; Jamaliah Md Jahim

      2015-01-01

      In this recent work, application of aqueous enzymatic process to enhance recovery of palm oil was studied. Experiments were carried out to investigate the structural carbohydrate composition of oil palm mesocarp (Elaeis guineensis) and to analyze the effect of different combination of enzymes on the palm oil recovery and degree of digestibility and the respective correlation. The optimum combination of enzymes comprising of Cellic CTec2 (X 1 ), Cellic HTec2 (X 2 ) and Pectinex Ultra SP-L (X 3 ) for Aqueous Enzymatic Oil Extraction Process (AEOEP), were determined using Simplex Lattice mixture design under fixed parameters. Maximum oil recovery of 88 % was achieved with ratio of enzymes at 0.46: 0.34: 0.2 (X 1 :X 2 :X 3 ), at enzyme loading of 30 mg protein/ 10 g substrate, substrate loading of 50 % w/v, pH 4.8, and 2 hours of incubation at 50 degree Celsius. The conversion of reducing sugar at corresponding condition was measured to evaluate the effectiveness of enzymes in degrading fruit cell wall releasing trapped oil. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to indicate the increase in cell wall disintegration leading to higher release of oil with enzymatic treatment. (author)

    13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Politeo, Olivera; Skocibusic, Mirjana; Maravic, Ana; Ruscic, Mirko; Milos, Mladen

      2011-03-01

      The chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil isolated from the needles of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica) from Croatia were investigated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC and GC/MS analyses, and the main compounds identified were α-pinene, β-pinene, germacrene D, and β-caryophyllene. Disc-diffusion and broth-microdilution assays were used for the in vitro antimicrobial screening. The Dalmatian black pine essential oil exhibited a great potential of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC=0.03-0.50% (v/v)) and a less pronounced activity against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC=0.12-3.2% (v/v)). The volatile compounds also inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including yeast. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

    14. Chemical composition of Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula stoechas essential oils and their insecticidal effects on Orgyia trigotephras (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ben Slimane Badreddine

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate toxic activities of essential oils obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula stoechas against the fourth larval instars of Orgyia trigotephras. Methods: A total of 1 200 larvae were divided into three groups-I, II, III. Group I was to investigate the effect of extracted essential oils from these aromatic plants as gastric disturbance. Bacillus thuringiensis was used as referencee and ethanol as control. Group II was used as contact action and Group III was used as fumigant action. For both Groups II and III, Decis was used as reference and ethanol as control. During the three experiments, the effect of essential oils on larvae was assessed. Results: The chemical composition of essential oils from two medicinal plants was determined, and their insecticidal effects on the fourth larval state of Orgyia trigotephras were assessed. They presented an insecticidal activity. Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil was less efficient compared to Lavandula stoechas. Conclusions: The relationship between the chemical composition and the biological activities is confirmed by the present findings. Therefore the potential uses of these essential oils as bioinsecticides can be considered as an alternative to the use of synthetic products.

    15. The Genus Artemisia: A 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

      Science.gov (United States)

      Singh, Pooja

      2017-01-01

      Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity. PMID:28930281

    16. The Genus Artemisia: a 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Abhay K. Pandey

      2017-09-01

      Full Text Available Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017 on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity.

    17. Characteristic differences in essential oil composition of six Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae) cultivars and their biological significance.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Liu, Shu-Ming; Wang, Shi-Jun; Song, Si-Yao; Zou, Yong; Wang, Jun-Ru; Sun, Bing-Yin

      Great variations have been found in composition and content of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae), resulting from various factors such as harvest time, drying and extraction methods (Huang et al., 2006; Shao et al., 2013), solvent and herbal parts used (Zhang, 1996; Cao and Zhang, 2010; Wang et al., 2011). However, in terms of artificial introduction and cultivation, there is little research on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Z. bungeanum Maxim. cultivars, which have been introduced from different origins. In this study, the composition and content of essential oil from six cultivars (I-VI) have been investigated. They were introduced and cultivated for 11 years in the same cultivation conditions. Cultivars were as followings: Qin'an (I) cultivar originally introduced from Qin'an City in Gansu Province; Dahongpao A (II) from She County in Hebei Province; Dahongpao B (III) from Fuping County; Dahongpao C (IV) from Tongchuan City; Meifengjiao (V) from Feng County; and, Shizitou (VI) from Hancheng City, in Shaanxi Province, China. This research is expected to provide a theoretical basis for further introduction, cultivation, and commercial development of Z. bungeanum Maxim.

    18. Rapid Formation of Microbe-Oil Aggregates and Changes in Community Composition in Coastal Surface Water Following Exposure to Oil and the Dispersant Corexit

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Shawn M. Doyle

      2018-04-01

      Full Text Available During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, massive quantities of oil were deposited on the seafloor via a large-scale marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA event. The role of chemical dispersants (e.g., Corexit applied during the DWH oil spill clean-up in helping or hindering the formation of this MOSSFA event are not well-understood. Here, we present the first experiment related to the DWH oil spill to specifically investigate the relationship between microbial community structure, oil and Corexit®, and marine oil-snow in coastal surface waters. We observed the formation of micron-scale aggregates of microbial cells around droplets of oil and dispersant and found that their rate of formation was directly related to the concentration of oil within the water column. These micro-aggregates are potentially important precursors to the formation of larger marine oil-snow particles. Therefore, our observation that Corexit® significantly enhanced their formation suggests dispersant application may play a role in the development of MOSSFA events. We also observed that microbial communities in marine surface waters respond to oil and oil plus Corexit® differently and much more rapidly than previously measured, with major shifts in community composition occurring within only a few hours of experiment initiation. In the oil-amended treatments without Corexit®, this manifested as an increase in community diversity due to the outgrowth of several putative aliphatic- and aromatic-hydrocarbon degrading genera, including phytoplankton-associated taxa. In contrast, microbial community diversity was reduced in mesocosms containing chemically dispersed oil. Importantly, different consortia of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria responded to oil and chemically dispersed oil, indicating that functional redundancy in the pre-spill community likely results in hydrocarbon consumption in both undispersed and dispersed oils, but by different

    19. Rapid Formation of Microbe-Oil Aggregates and Changes in Community Composition in Coastal Surface Water Following Exposure to Oil and the Dispersant Corexit.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Doyle, Shawn M; Whitaker, Emily A; De Pascuale, Veronica; Wade, Terry L; Knap, Anthony H; Santschi, Peter H; Quigg, Antonietta; Sylvan, Jason B

      2018-01-01

      During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, massive quantities of oil were deposited on the seafloor via a large-scale marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA) event. The role of chemical dispersants (e.g., Corexit) applied during the DWH oil spill clean-up in helping or hindering the formation of this MOSSFA event are not well-understood. Here, we present the first experiment related to the DWH oil spill to specifically investigate the relationship between microbial community structure, oil and Corexit®, and marine oil-snow in coastal surface waters. We observed the formation of micron-scale aggregates of microbial cells around droplets of oil and dispersant and found that their rate of formation was directly related to the concentration of oil within the water column. These micro-aggregates are potentially important precursors to the formation of larger marine oil-snow particles. Therefore, our observation that Corexit® significantly enhanced their formation suggests dispersant application may play a role in the development of MOSSFA events. We also observed that microbial communities in marine surface waters respond to oil and oil plus Corexit® differently and much more rapidly than previously measured, with major shifts in community composition occurring within only a few hours of experiment initiation. In the oil-amended treatments without Corexit®, this manifested as an increase in community diversity due to the outgrowth of several putative aliphatic- and aromatic-hydrocarbon degrading genera, including phytoplankton-associated taxa. In contrast, microbial community diversity was reduced in mesocosms containing chemically dispersed oil. Importantly, different consortia of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria responded to oil and chemically dispersed oil, indicating that functional redundancy in the pre-spill community likely results in hydrocarbon consumption in both undispersed and dispersed oils, but by different bacterial taxa

    20. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Sadaf, S.; Shahid, M.; Iqbal, Z.

      2009-01-01

      The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

    1. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bryant, Rebecca S.

      1990-01-01

      A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

    2. Carbon/Attapulgite Composites as Recycled Palm Oil-Decoloring and Dye Adsorbents

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Guangyan Tian

      2018-01-01

      Full Text Available Activated clay minerals have been widely used in the edible oil refining industry for decolorization of crude oil by adsorption, and so far many methods have been used to improve their decolorization efficiency. Herein, we successfully prepared a series of carbon/attapulgite (C/APT composite adsorbents by a one-step in-situ carbonization process with natural starch (St as the carbon source. It has been revealed that the adsorbent had better decolorization efficiency for crude palm oil than acid-activated APT. However, more than a million tons of decolorized waste is produced every year in the oil-refining industry, which was often treated as solid waste and has not yet been reutilized effectively. In order to explore a viable method to recycle and reuse the decolorant, the waste decolorant was further prepared into new C/APT adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater, and then the dyes adsorbed on the adsorbent were used as the carbon sources to produce new C/APT adsorbents by a cyclic carbonization process. The results showed that the adsorbents prepared from the decolorized waste could remove more than 99.5% of the methylene blue (MB, methyl violet (MV, and malachite green (MG dyes from the simulated wastewater with the dye concentration of 200 mg/L, and the C/APT–Re adsorbent consecutively regenerated five times using the adsorbed dyes as a carbon source still exhibit good adsorption efficiency for dyes. As a whole, this process opens a new avenue to develop efficient decolorants of palm oil and achieves recyclable utilization of decolored waste.

    3. Changes in the sterol compositions of milk thistle oil (Silybium marianum L.) during seed maturation

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Harrabi, S.; Curtis, S.; Hayet, F.; Mayer, P.M.

      2016-07-01

      In this study, the total lipid content and sterol compositions were determined during the development of milk thistle seeds. The oil content increased to a maximum value of 36±1.7% and then declined to reach a value of 30.5±0.9% at full maturity. The sterol content of milk thistle seeds was affected by the ripening degree of the seeds. At the early stages of seed maturation, Δ7 -stigmastenol was the most abundant sterol followed by β-sitosterol. However, at full maturity, β-sitosterol was the most predominant sterol (46.50±0.8%). As the seed developed, campesterol and stigmasterol amounts increased, while Δ7 -avenasterol content decreased. It can be concluded that milk thistle seed oil has a characteristic sterol pattern comparable to the ones elucidated for olive oil and corn oil. The extracted oil from milk thistle seeds is rich in phytosterols and could be used in foodpreparation and human nutrition. (Author)

    4. Chemical composition, antioxidant properties and anti-cholinesterase activity of Cordia gilletii (Boraginaceae) leaves essential oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bonesi, Marco; Okusa, Philippe N; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Menichini, Federica; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; Menichini, Francesco

      2011-02-01

      This study aimed to investigate for the first time the chemical composition, the antioxidant properties and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Cordia gilletii De Wild (Boraginaceae). The essential oil, characterized by 23 constituents (90.1% of the total oil), was constituted by terpene derivatives (25.6%) and non-terpene derivatives (64.5%), among which aldehydes, fatty acids and alkanes were present with the percentage of 16.5%, 18.8% and 23.1%, respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. gilletii essential oil was screened by two in vitro tests: DPPH and beta-carotene bleaching test. The essential oil revealed antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 75.0 and 129.9 microg/mL on DPPH radical and beta-carotene decoloration tests, respectively. Moreover, C. gilletii inhibited AChE enzyme with an IC50 value of 105.6 microg/mL.

    5. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Three Melaleuca Species Grown in Tunisia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ismail Amri

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils of Melaleuca armillaris Sm., Melaleuca styphelioides Sm. and Melaleuca acuminata F. Muell., collected in Tunisia, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all, 46 compounds were identified, 38 for M. armillaris, 20 for M. acuminata and eight for M. styphelioides, respectively. The presence of a sesquiterpenic fraction (52.2% characterized the oil from M. armillaris; M. sthypheliodes oil was rich in methyl eugenol, a phenolic compound (91.1%, while M. acuminata oil is mainly constituted by oxygenated monoterpenoids (95.6%. The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro potentially phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of five seeds was inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of all seeds was not affected. Moreover, the essential oils showed low antimicrobial activity against eight selected microorganisms.

    6. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from three Melaleuca species grown in Tunisia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Amri, Ismail; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Bassem, Jamoussi; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Reverchon, Ernesto; De Feo, Vincenzo

      2012-12-05

      The chemical composition of the essential oils of Melaleuca armillaris Sm., Melaleuca styphelioides Sm. and Melaleuca acuminata F. Muell., collected in Tunisia, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all, 46 compounds were identified, 38 for M. armillaris, 20 for M. acuminata and eight for M. styphelioides, respectively. The presence of a sesquiterpenic fraction (52.2%) characterized the oil from M. armillaris; M. sthypheliodes oil was rich in methyl eugenol, a phenolic compound (91.1%), while M. acuminata oil is mainly constituted by oxygenated monoterpenoids (95.6%). The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro potentially phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of five seeds was inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of all seeds was not affected. Moreover, the essential oils showed low antimicrobial activity against eight selected microorganisms.

    7. Compositions comprising lignosulfonates for crop protection and crop improvement

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Stevens, L.H.; Kok, C.J.; Krieken, van der W.M.

      2009-01-01

      International patent application number: WO2004067699http://www.wipo.int/patentscope/search/en/WO2004067699 (EN)The invention relates to a composition for protecting an agricultural crop against external threats, such as weeds, pathogens, abiotic and biotic stresses and/or for improving the quality

    8. Chemical composition, in vitro antitumor and pro-oxidant activities of Glandora rosmarinifolia (Boraginaceae) essential oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Poma, Paola; Labbozzetta, Manuela; Notarbartolo, Monica; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Sajeva, Maurizio; Zito, Pietro

      2018-01-01

      The biological properties of essential oils have been demonstrated in the treatment of several diseases and to enhance the bioavailability of other drugs. In natural habitats the essential oils compounds may play important roles in the protection of the plants as antibacterials, antivirals, antifungals, insecticides and also against herbivores by reducing their appetite for such plants or by repelling undesirable others. We analyzed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry the chemical composition of the essential oil of aerial parts of Glandora rosmarinifolia (Ten.) D.C. Thomas obtained by hydrodistillation and verified some biological activities on a panel of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HA22T/VGH, HepG2, Hep3B) and triple negative breast cancer cell lines (SUM 149, MDA-MB-231). In the essential oil we detected 35 compounds. The results of the biological assays indicate that essential oil of G. rosmarinifolia induces cell growth inhibition at concentration-dependent way in all cell line models. This oil does not seem to possess antioxidant activity, while the cytotoxicity of G. rosmarinifolia essential oil appeared to involve, at least in part, a pro-oxidant mechanism. Our results show for the first time the antitumoral and pro-oxidant activities of G. rosmarinifolia essential oil and suggest that it may represent a resource of pharmacologically active compounds.

    9. Chemical composition and oxidative evolution of Sacha Inchi (Plukentia volubilis L. oil from Xishuangbanna (China

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Liu, Q.

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available Sacha Inchi oil was studied for its physicochemical characteristics, chemical composition, radical scavenging activity and storage stability. The fatty acid composition was studied by gas chromatography–flame ionization (GC–FID and the analysis showed that the oil is highly enriched in α–linolenic (43.5% and linoleic (39.6% acids. The tocopherol content in the oil analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet– visible detector (HPLC/UV–VIS was also high (161.87 mg.100 g-1. Both DPPH and ABTS assays detected relatively high radical scavenging activity. After twelve months of storage, the oil showed relatively good storage stability. The results will help guide further investigation of the health benefits of Sacha Inchi oil for the population and the development of better edible oil products and nutraceuticals.Se ha estudiado las características físico-químicas, la actividad de captación de radicales y la estabilidad durante el almacenamiento de aceites de sacha inchi. La composición en ácidos grasos se estudió mediante cromatografía de gases (GC-FID y mostró que el aceite es altamente rico en α-linolénico (43,5% y linoleico (39,6%. El contenido de tocoferoles analizado mediante cromatografía líquida y detección mediante ultravioleta-visible (HPLC/UV-VIS fue alto (161,87 mg.100 g-1. Los ensayos de DPPH y ABTS detectaron actividad captadora de radicales relativamente alta. Tras doce meses de almacenamiento los aceites mostraron una relativamente buena estabilidad. Los resultados ayudarán a orientar investigación adicional sobre los beneficios para la salud del aceite de Sacha Inchi para la población y al desarrollo de mejores productos de aceites comestibles y nutracéuticos.

    10. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic effects of the essential oil from Nectandra leucantha leaves.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Grecco, Simone dos S; Martins, Euder Glendes A; Girola, Natália; de Figueiredo, Carlos R; Matsuo, Alisson L; Soares, Marisi G; Bertoldo, Bruno de C; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G

      2015-01-01

      Nectandra (Lauraceae) species have been used in folk medicine as an antidiarrheal, analgesic, antifungal, etc., and have many pharmacological proprieties. Investigation of the chemical composition and cytotoxicity of essential oil from Nectandra leucantha Nees & Mart. leaves. This is the first study involving N. leucantha reported in the literature. The essential oil of N. leucantha leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation. Its chemical composition was determined using a combination of GC/FID, GC/MS, and determination of Kovats index (KI). In vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated against six cancer cell lines - murine melanoma (B16F10-Nex2), human glioblastome (U-87), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human colon carcinoma (HCT), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), and human cervical tumor (Siha) as well as against one non-tumorigenic cell line - human foreskin fibroblast (HFF). Thirty-three compounds were identified primarily sesquiterpenes (81.41%), the main compounds being bicyclogermacrene (28.44%), germacrene A (7.34%), spathulenol (5.82%), and globulol (5.25%). Furthermore, monoterpenes were also found in the analyzed oil (12.84%), predominantly α- and β-pinenes (6.59 and 4.57%, respectively). The crude essential oil displayed significant cytotoxic activity against B16F10-Nex2 (IC50 33 ± 1 μg/mL) and U87 (IC50 75.95 ± 0.03 μg/mL) and HeLa (IC50 60 ± 12 μg/mL) cell lines. The main identified compound, bicyclogermacrene, displayed IC50 ranging from 3.1 ± 0.2 to 21 ± 6 μg/mL. The results indicate that the crude oils from leaves of N. leucantha displayed cytotoxic activity being bicyclogermacrene, the main compound identified in the crude oil responsible, at least in part, for this potential.

    11. Chemical compositions of essential oils from two Artemisia species used in Mongolian traditional medicine

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Javzmaa N

      2018-02-01

      Full Text Available Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess many active constituents that work through a several modes of action. Artemisia, the largest genus of the family Asteraceae, has a number of effects against human and plant diseases. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate chemical compositions of essential oils of two Artemisia species, Artemisia palustris L and Artemisia sericea Weber ex Stechm from the Mongolian steppe zone using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil of A.palustris was characterized by the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as  trans-β-ocimene (59.1%, cis-β-ocimene (11.6% and myrcene (7.1%, while the oil of A.sericea was dominated by the presence of three oxygenated monoterpenoids as 1,8-cineole (25.8%, borneol (22.5% and camphor (18.8% which are used for preparation of a fragrance and medicinal products.

    12. Process of deparaffining oils

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      1941-03-05

      This process comprises centrifuging in the presence of a solvent which dissolves the oil and precipitates the paraffins, with the addition of an auxiliary liquid whose surface tension with respect to the oil solution does not exceed 50 dynes/cm.

    13. Chemical composition and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Eugenia platysema.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tenfen, Adrielli; Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Yamanaka, Celina Noriko; Mendes de Córdova, Caio Maurício; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi

      2016-09-01

      This study describes the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition and evaluates the antibacterial activity of essential oil from Eugenia platysema leaves. Analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS allowed the identification of 22 compounds. Different from the other species of the Eugenia genus, the major compound found in the essential oil was the diterpene phytol (66.05%), being this the first report of the presence of this compound in the essential oils from Eugenia genus. The sesquiterpene elixene was the second most concentrated compound in the studied essential oil (9.16%). The essential oil from E. platysema was tested for its antibacterial activity against cell-walled bacteria and mollicute strains of clinical interest using the microdilution broth assay. The results showed that the essential oil of E. platysema was inactive until 1000 μg mL(-1) against tested bacteria.

    14. Crude oil burning mechanisms

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

      2015-01-01

      In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

    15. Differential Essential Oil Composition and Morphology between Perennial Satureja species Growing in Spain

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      David García-Rellán

      2015-06-01

      Full Text Available Chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of thirty six samples of perennial Spanish savouries (Satureja montana L., Satureja innota (Pau G. López, Satureja cuneifolia Ten. and Satureja intricata Lange, was investigated by GC and GC-MS. A total of 72 compounds accounting between 98.25-99.55% of the total oil were identified. High content of carvacrol (59.72±1.50% followed by g -terpinene (17.40±1.11% were found in S.montana essential oils. S. cuneifolia yielded an oil rich in camphor (45.04±1.67% and camphene (12.42±1.71% whereas S. innota produces an essential oil with linalool (23.94±7.58% or geraniol (8.62±3.45% according to the locality of collection and S. intricata showed chemical polymorphism with camphor (16.02±1.75%, as the main compound followed with populations with myrcene (8.46±1.46% and populations with g -terpinene (8.22±1.33%. Although the morphological affinity between S. innota, S.cuneifolia and S. intricata could lead to consider the subspecies level, the phytochemical discriminant analysis support the taxonomic classification of Flora Iberica which ranks these taxa into species.

    16. Chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra L. and Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina (Sm.) Hayek

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M.; Vukojevic, J.; Milenkovic, I.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

      2006-01-01

      This work covers the chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils isolated from savory (Satureja thymbra) and sage (Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina) analyzed using GC/MS. The main components of S. thymbra oil were gamma-terpinene (23.2%) and carvacrol (48.5%). The main components

    17. Black Zira essential oil: Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity against the growth of some pathogenic strain causing infection.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Noshad, Mohammad; Hojjati, Mohammad; Alizadeh Behbahani, Behrooz

      2018-03-01

      The aim of this study was to perform chemical compositions and phytochemical analysis of Black Zira essential oil and other goal of this research was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of Black Zira essential oil against Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Candida albicans. Black Zira essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation method using clevenger apparatus. Black Zira essential oil chemical composition was identified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. γ-terpinene with a percentage of 24.8% was the major compound of Black Zira essential oil. The antimicrobial effect Black Zira essential oil was evaluated by several qualitative and quantitative methods (disk diffusion, well diffusion, microdilution broth, agar dilution and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration). Phytochemical analysis Black Zira essential oil were appraised based on qualitative methods. Antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene/linoleic acid inhibition) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu) were examined. The results of phytochemical analysis of Black Zira essential oil showed the existence of phenolic, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and tannins. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity (reported as IC 50 ) of Black Zira essential oil were equal to 120.50 ± 0.50 mg GAE/g and 11.55 ± 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC of the Black Zira essential oil ranged from 1 mg/ml to 8 mg/ml, while its MBC and MFC ranged from 1 mg/ml to 16 mg/ml. The results presented that the longest and the shortest inhibition zone diameter at the concentration of 8 mg/ml pertained to C. albicans and E. aerogenes, respectively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    18. Variation of essential oil composition of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (myrtaceae from the Montengero coastline

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      Grbović Slavenko

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available In the current study the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis plants collected from five localities of the Montenegro coastline was analyzed. The oil yield varied from 0.63 % (Kotor up to 1.59% (Tivat. The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil was analyzed using GC-MS technique. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were a major class of compounds. Among them, dominant compounds were p-cymene (17.38-28.60%, ß-phellandrene (12.35-14.47% and ß-pinene (0.94-11.48%. The second largest group was oxygenated monoterpenes with cryptone (4.97-7.25 and terpinene-4-ol (2.75-4.21% as predominant. Besides high content of sesquiterpene alcohol spathulenol (7.83-14.15% was found. According to the results obtained E. camaldulensis from Montenegro can be classified in the chemotype with low 1,8-cineole and high p-cymene and cryptone ratio.

    19. Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita

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      Zhi Wei Deng

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%, estragole (8.55%, and eugenol (7.54%, followed by thymol (3.62%, pulegone (2.56%, limonene (2.49% and caryophyllene (2.38%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 μg/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 μg/mL and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 μg/mL exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 μg/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.

    20. Effect of animal manure on quantitative and qualitative yield and chemical composition of essential oil in cumin (Cuminum cyminum

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      ahmad ahmadiyan

      2009-06-01

      Full Text Available Animal manure on soil prepares essential elements and increase water holding capacity and quality of plants. To study the effects of animal manure on yield and its components, nutrients absorption, chemical composition and its percentages on Cuminum cyminum this experiment was conducted at the agricultural researcher station of Zahak-Zabol, during 2003 – 2004 in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Animal manure significantly enhanced number of umbers per plant, number of seed per plant, biological and seed yield. Use of animal manure had not significant affect on Ca, Mg, Fe, P, K, Mn, Zn, and Cu and protein percentage in cumin seed but decreased Na concentration. Animal manure significantly enhanced cumin aldehyde and ρ-cymene and decrease β-pinene, γ-terpinene and α-pinene in cumin oil. A relationship or correlation exists between the main components of cumin oil. This study showed that animal manure enhances seed yield, oil percentage and qualitative chemical composition in cumin oil.

    1. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus peuce (Pinaceae) growing wild in R. Macedonia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Karapandzova, Marija; Stefkova, Gjose; Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Trajkovska-Dokik, Elena; Kaftandzieva, Ana; Kulevanova, Svetlana

      2014-11-01

      The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils isolated from twigs with needles (T+N) and from twigs without needles (T-N) from wild Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae), from three different locations in R. Macedonia, were investigated. Essential oil yields of T+N ranged from 7.5 mL/kg to 12.5 mL/kg and for T-N from 13.8 mL/kg to 17.3 mL/kg. GC/FID/MS analysis of the essential oils revealed eighty-four components, representing 93.7-95.7% and 91.2-92.0% of the T+N and T-N oils, respectively. The major components in T+N and T-N oils were monoterpenes: α-pinene (23.8-39.9%, 21.2-23.3%), camphene (2.2-5.5%, 0.7-2.0%), β-pinene (10.1-17.1%, 8.2-16.4%), myrcene (1.2-1.41%, 1.6-2.5%), limonene+β-phellandrene (6.8-14.0%, 8.8-23.6%) and bornyl acetate (2.3-6.9%, 1.1-3.4%), followed by the sesquiterpenes: trans-(E)-caryophyllene (3.6-4.3%, 3.2-7.3%), germacrene D (7.1-9.5%, 5.0-10.3%) and δ-cadinene (2.1-3.1%, 3.3-4.2%, respectively). Antimicrobial screening of the essential oils was made by disk diffusion and broth dilution methods against 13 bacterial isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. T-N essential oils showed antimicrobial activity toward Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Candida albicans as well as Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter spp. and Haemophilus influenzae. The antimicrobial activity of T+N essential oils was greater, especially against Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pyogenes, Enterococcus and Candida albicans, followed by Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all tested essential oils ranged from 15-125 μL/mL. Summarizing the obtained results, the antimicrobial activity of Pinus peuce T+N and T-N essential oils collected from different localities in R. Macedonia varied considerably. These alterations in the

    2. Fatty acid composition of Achene oils from five Moroccan climatic cultivars of Cannabis.

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      Merzouki, A.

      1997-06-01

      Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of achene oil from five Cannabis climatic cultivars cultivated in the nort of Morrocco is determined. Linoleic acid predominated (40 to 45%, followed by linolenic (12 to 17% and oleic (7 to 10% acids. Differences in the fatty acid composition of oils are attributed to environmental factors.

      Se estudia la composición en ácidos grasos del aceite de los aquenios de cinco variedades climáticas del cáñamo (Cannabis sativa L cultivadas en el norte de Marruecos. Predomina el ácido linoleico (40 a 45% seguido por el linolénico (12 a 17% y el oleico (7 a 10%. Las diferencias en la composición de los ácidos grasos del aceite se atribuyen a factores ambientales.

    3. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Two Species of Thymus Growing Wild in Southern Italy

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      Felice Senatore

      2009-11-01

      Full Text Available The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of two samples of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl, collected in Campania and in Sicily, and two samples of Thymus pulegioides L. from the same regions, were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed. Considering the four oils together, seventy-eight different compounds were identified: 57 for Thymus longicaulis from Sicily (91.1% of the total oil, 40 for Thymus longicaulis from Campania (91.5% of the oil, 39 for Thymus pulegioides from Sicily (92.5% of the oil and 29 for Thymus pulegioides from Campania (90.1% of the oil. The composition of the oils is different, although the most abundant components are identical in T. pulegioides. The essential oils showed antibacterial activity against eight selected microorganisms.

    4. Extraction of the essential oil from endemic Origanum bilgeri P.H.Davis with two different methods: comparison of the oil composition and antibacterial activity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sözmen, Fazli; Uysal, Burcu; Köse, Elif Odabaş; Aktaş, Ozgür; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Oksal, Birsen S

      2012-07-01

      The antibacterial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Origanum bilgeri P.H.Davis by two different extraction methods, i.e., hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), were examined. This endemic Origanum species had shown very good antibacterial activity. The composition of the O. bilgeri EOs obtained by SFME and HD was investigated by GC/MS analysis. The main components of the oils obtained by both methods were carvacrol (90.20-84.30%), p-cymene (3.40-5.85%), γ-terpinene (0.47-1.20%), and thymol (0.69-1.08%). The EO isolation by SFME offered many important advantages, including a higher extraction yield, a shorter extraction time, and a higher content of the active component carvacrol. The carvacrol-rich oils obtained by both HD and SFME showed a good antibacterial activity. The largest inhibition zones were observed for the O. bilgeri EO obtained by SFME. Our study suggests that O. bilgeri EO has the potential to be used as preventative against bacterial contamination in many foods, instead of the common synthetic antimicrobial products. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

    5. Combination Comprising Parthenolide For Use In The Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease And Other Neurodegenerative Disorders

      KAUST Repository

      Bajic, Vladimir B.; Essack, Magbubah

      2015-01-01

      The present invention generally concerns particular methods and compositions for treatment of a neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer's Disease. In particular embodiments, there is a composition comprising Parthenolide and a second agent

    6. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Díaz Maritza F.

      2006-01-01

      Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

    7. Chemical composition of essential oils from four Vietnamese species of piper (piperaceae).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hieu, Le D; Thang, Tran D; Hoi, Tran M; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

      2014-01-01

      The chemical composition of essential oils from four Piper species, Piper retrofractum Vahl., P. boehmeriaefolium (Miq.) C. DC., P. sarmentosum Roxb., and P. maclurei Merr., were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen to sixty-four compounds representing 92.0%-98.4% of the total contents were identified in the oil samples. The major constituents identified in P. retrofractum leaf oil were benzyl benzoate (14.4%), myrcene (14.4%), bicycloelemene (9.9%), bicyclogermacrene (7.0%) and β-caryophyllene (5.3%). On the other hand, the main constituents of P. boehmeriaefolium were α-copaene (28.3%), α-pinene (7.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.7%). P. sarmentosum showed a very different chemical profile characterized mainly by aromatic compounds and devoid of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The major constituents were benzyl benzoate (49.1%), benzyl alcohol (17.9%), 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid phenylmethyl ester (10.0%) and 2-butenyl-benzene (7.9%). The leaf of P. maclurei was characterized by higher amount of (E)-cinnamic acid (37.4%) and (E)-nerolidol (19.4%). Moreover, (Z)-9-octadecanoic acid methyl ester (28.0%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (17.2%), phytol (12.2%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (8.8%) were the major compounds identified in the stem oil.

    8. Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L. cultivated in Turkey: characterization of the seed oil and essential oil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Chalchat, Jean Claude

      2007-12-01

      Full Text Available Chemical composition and physical properties were established in carrot (Daucus carota L. seeds from Konya, Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, HCl-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were determined in the seed oil. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were petroselinic (59.35%, linoleic (11,82%, palmitic (10.01% and stearic (2.41% acids. Mineral contents (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se, Sr, V and Zn of seeds were also determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The seeds were found to be rich in protein, fiber and ash. The essential oil and edible oil compositions of carrot seeds from Konya were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The oil yields of essential and edible oil from carrot seeds were established as 0.83% and 7.84%, respectively. The major constituents of seed essential oil were carotol (66.78%, daucene (8.74%, (Z,Z--farnesene (5.86%, germacrene D (2.34%, trans--bergamotene (2.41% and -selinene (2.20%. Whereas, carotol (30.55%, daucol (12.60% and copaenol (0.62% were the important components of edible carrot seed oil. However, the dominant component of both oils was carotol.Se determinó la composición química y las propiedades físicas de las semillas de zanahoria (Daucus carota L. obtenidas en Konya, Turquía, con objeto de investigar usos potenciales de las mismas. Se determinó la humedad, el peso, el contenido proteico, en aceite, en fibra, en ceniza, en ceniza insoluble en ácido clorhídrico, los carbohidratos totales, y el rendimiento de la obtención de aceite esencial a partir de 1000 semillas maduras. Asimismo se determinó la densidad relativa, el índice de refracci

    9. Composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of Origanum dictamnus (dittany) essential oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Fitsiou, Eleni; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Papavassilopoulou, Eleni; Vamvakias, Manolis; Pappa, Aglaia; Oreopoulou, Antigoni; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

      2015-01-01

      Nowadays, there has been an increased interest in essential oils from various plant origins as potential antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative agents. This trend can be mainly attributed to the rising number and severity of food poisoning outbreaks worldwide along with the recent negative consumer perception against artificial food additives and the demand for novel functional foods with possible health benefits. Origanum dictamnus (dittany) is an aromatic, tender perennial plant that only grows wild on the mountainsides and gorges of the island of Crete in Greece. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties of O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components and assess its commercial potential in the food industry. O. dictamnus essential oil was initially analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine semi-quantitative chemical composition of the essential oils. Subsequently, the antimicrobial properties were assayed and the minimum inhibitory and non-inhibitory concentration values were determined. The antioxidant activity and cytotoxic action against the hepatoma adenocarcinoma cell line HepG2 of the essential oil and its main components were further evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, respectively. The main constituents of O. dictamnus essential oil identified by GC-MS analysis were carvacrol (52.2%), γ-terpinene (8.4%), p-cymene (6.1%), linalool (1.4%), and caryophyllene (1.3%). O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. In addition, the estimated IC50 value for the DPPH radical scavenging activity for O. dictamnus essential oil was 0.045±0.0042% (v/v) and was mainly

    10. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.

      2017-07-01

      Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

    11. Pre-irradiation technique for processing of oil palm fruit bunch fibers - polypropylene composites

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Manarpaac, G.A.; Harun Jalaluddin

      2002-01-01

      Researches on oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers and thermoplastic composites have been carried out by many workers in the last decade. The main focus was to enhance the properties of the resultant composites in view of the incompatibility of the two components. Thus, efforts have been made to enhance their properties by using coupling agents, treating the fibers and modifying the matrices. In this study, the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation and some reactive additives (RAs) on the mechanical properties of EFB-PP (polypropylene) composites were evaluated. Different modes of irradiation were investigated. Mono, di and tri functional of monomers of RAs were used. irradiating PP alone, compared to irradiating the EFB fibers or irradiating both components, gave optimum properties for EFB-PP composites. Further, improvements of the properties of the composites were achieved with the addition of RAs with TMPTA (trymethylol propane triacrylate) giving the optimum results. (Author)

    12. Composition and dynamics of biostimulated indigenous oil-degrading microbial consortia from the Irish, North and Mediterranean Seas: a mesocosm study.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gertler, Christoph; Näther, Daniela J; Cappello, Simone; Gerdts, Gunnar; Quilliam, Richard S; Yakimov, Michail M; Golyshin, Peter N

      2012-09-01

      Diversity of indigenous microbial consortia and natural occurrence of obligate hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (OHCB) are of central importance for efficient bioremediation techniques. To investigate the microbial population dynamics and composition of oil-degrading consortia, we have established a series of identical oil-degrading mesocosms at three different locations, Bangor (Menai Straits, Irish Sea), Helgoland (North Sea) and Messina (Messina Straits, Mediterranean Sea). Changes in microbial community composition in response to oil spiking, nutrient amendment and filtration were assessed by ARISA and DGGE fingerprinting and 16Sr RNA gene library analysis. Bacterial and protozoan cell numbers were quantified by fluorescence microscopy. Very similar microbial population sizes and dynamics, together with key oil-degrading microorganisms, for example, Alcanivorax borkumensis, were observed at all three sites; however, the composition of microbial communities was largely site specific and included variability in relative abundance of OHCB. Reduction in protozoan grazing had little effect on prokaryotic cell numbers but did lead to a decrease in the percentage of A. borkumensis 16S rRNA genes detected in clone libraries. These results underline the complexity of marine oil-degrading microbial communities and cast further doubt on the feasibility of bioaugmentation practices for use in a broad range of geographical locations. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

    13. Component composition of essential oils and ultrastructure of secretory cells of resin channel needles Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      N. V. Gerling

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available The results of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil Juniperus communis, growing under the canopy of spruce blueberry sphagnum subzone middle taiga. Juniperus communis essential oil is liquid light yellow color. The content of essential oil was 0.46 % in shoots with needles. 37 substances of components identified. Mass fraction of components in the essential oil of Juniperus communis reached 89 %. The highest percentage of occupied fraction of monoterpenes (82.3 %, the proportion of sesquiterpenes less than 0.5 % of the total composition of essential oils, alcohols 3.5 and 0.7 % esters. In monoterpenes fraction predominant α-pinene (24.5–32.6 %, β-pinene (15–20.3 % and α-phellandrene (6.4–8.8 %. Essential oil of Juniperus communis is characterized by high content of monoterpenoids in contrast to other conifers of the taiga zone. All stages of biosynthesis essential oils occur in the epithelial cells of the resin channel (terpenoidogennyh cells. An oval shape have epithelial cells of the resin channel needles in transverse sections the Juniperus communis, which is situated vacuole in the center. Large number of lipid globules (up to 40 noted in the hyaloplasm of explored cells. Leucoplasts surrounded by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in cross sections of epithelial cells in resin channel of juniper. Endoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed in epithelial cells, which corresponds to the low content of sesquiterpenes in the needles during the study period. Development of large leucoplasts and large number of mitochondria associated with predominance of synthesis monoterpenoids the in the epithelium cells resin channel.

    14. The Study of the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils Mentha Piperita L. are Grown in Non-Chernozem Zone of Russia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      L. SUSHKOVA

      2014-07-01

      Full Text Available By gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry has been investigated the composition of essential oils and the change in the ontogenesis and exogenous effects on the plant Mentha piperita L. drugs retardant type. With the introduction of oil crops from the southern regions to the more northern regions of the component composition of the essential oil practically does not change. There are only minor variations in the content of some terpenoids oils. Exogenous preharvest treatment plant growth regulators can in some cases deliberately influence the activity of various terpenoid biosynthesis and increase the content of the most valuable components of the essential oil.Content and composition of EM is largely determined by factors such as age and leaves of plants, as well as different climatic cal, soil and agronomic conditions. Processing plants different phytoregulators also affects the content and composition of oil. Biosynthesis of terpenoids polyenzyme performed in centers, the activity and the nature of which is determined primarily genetic characteristics of plants, in addition, the activity of certain enzymes of these centers is under the control of hormonal balance and changes in ontogeny, as well as under the influence of exogenous factors.It is shown that the formation of the maximum bioefficiency in ontogeny of aromatic plants, it is advisable to use a two-stage technology to grow them. Plants producing terpenoids of essential oils, the initial step is to create the conditions for the formation of the maximum yield of aboveground mass of plants, including the use of synthetic plant growth regulators. In the second stage "biosynthetic" upon the occurrence of the reproductive phase before harvesting plants, we recommend that inhibit the growth of phytoregulators retardant type. In this case, we observe stimulation accumulation in aboveground mass of secondary metabolites. Inhibition of growth in the preharvest period, aromatic plants

    15. Influence of harvest time on the composition and quality of Rosinjola cultivar virgin olive oils

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Olivera Koprivnjak

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of Rosinjola cultivar fruits harvest time on oil content in olive pastes and on composition and quality of obtained oils. In the late harvest time the higher value of oil in the dry matter of olive paste was determined than in the early harvest time, but the late harvest negatively affected oil quality parameters. The proportion of oleic acid decreased slightly in the late harvest time and linoleic acid increased. The ratio of oleic/linoleic acid, total phenols and ortho-diphenols, as well as bitterness index and antioxidant capacity decreased in the oil obtained from black fruit. Late harvest time influenced the decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoid content and color parameter values (a*, b* and C in obtained oils, but lightness (L* increased. The concentration of volatiles responsible for positive odour of Rosinjola oils decreased, except for aldehydes which increased slightly. Sensory score of oil obtained from the late harvest time decreased, as well as intensities of sensory characteristics olive fruity, apple, green grass, bitter and pungent, while the intensities of characteristics sweet and ripe fruits increased. Oils obtained in the early harvest time were described as harmonious and astringent with pronounced green odour notes, and oils obtained in the late harvest time as overripe and without freshness. The obtained results are important for optimal harvest time determination and understanding the potential of Rosinjola cultivar for production of high quality virgin olive oil with targeted and specific characteristics.

    16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Satureja horvatii Šilić (Lamiaceae

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      BRANISLAVA LAKUSIC

      2008-07-01

      Full Text Available The present paper describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the endemic species Satureja horvatii Šilić, collected in Montenegro. The essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC–MS. From the 34 compounds representing 100 % of the oil, the major compound was the phenolic monoterpene thymol (63.37 %. The oil contained smaller amounts of g-terpinene (7.49 %, carvacrol methyl ether (4.92 %, carvacrol (4.67 %, p-cymene (4.52%, a-terpinene (1.81 %, borneol (1.58 %, a-thujene (1.56 %, b-caryophyllene (1.55 % and b-myrcene (1.44 %. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of S. horvatii was evaluated using the agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The essential oil exhibited antimicrobial activity to varying degrees against all the tested strains. The maximum activity of S. horvatii oil was observed against Gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and against the yeast (Candida albicans. The oil exhibited moderate activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and weak activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study confirms that the essential oil of S. horvatii possesses antimicrobial activities in vitro against medically important pathogens.

    17. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Francis Ocheng

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

    18. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

      2015-01-01

      The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

    19. The analysis of composite properties reinforced with particles from palm oil industry waste produced by casting methods

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tugiman; Ariani, F.; Taher, F.; Hasibuan, M. S.; Suprianto

      2017-12-01

      Palm oil processing industries are very attractive because they offer plenty products with high economic value. The CPO factory processes not only produces crude palm oil but also generates fly ash (FA) particles waste in its final process. The purpose of this investigation to analyze and increase the benefits of particles as reinforcement materials for fabricating aluminum matrix composites (AMC’s) by different casting route. Stirring, centrifugal and squeeze casting method was conducted in this study. Further, the chemical composition of FA particles, densities and mechanical properties have been analyzed. The characteristics of composite material were investigated using an Optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), hardness (Brinell), impact strength (Charpy). The pin on disc method was used to measure the wear rate. The results show that SiO2, Fe2O3, and Al2O3 are the main compounds of fly ash particles. These particles enhanced the hardness and reduce wear resistance of aluminum matrix composites. The squeeze method gives better results than stir and centrifugal casting.

    20. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

      2015-01-01

      Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm 3 , weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

    1. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin, E-mail: leeam@dlut.edu.cn

      2015-04-15

      Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}, weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

    2. Sorption of diesel oil from polyurethane composite reinforced with palm fiber; Sorcao de oleo diesel a partir de composito de poluretano reforcado com fibras da palmeira

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Dantas, I.R.; Cipriano, J.P.; Costa, I.L.M.; Mulinari, D.R., E-mail: dmulinari@hotmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de janeiro (FAT/UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia

      2016-07-01

      One of the methods to contain the diesel oil spill is the application of materials polymeric sorbents and the polyurethane is an option of porous sorbents. In this way, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of polyurethane composites derivative of castor oil reinforced with palm fibers to sorption of diesel oil and compare with pure polyurethane. The composites were reinforced with 5 to 20% w/w of fibers. Subsequently, the sorption capacity of the composite in function of inserted fiber content in the matrix was analyzed. The physical and morphological characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM) and diffraction X-ray (XRD) and the contact angle. The results showed that the composite with 20% w /w showed higher sorption capacity oil diesel compared to pure PU and other composites this fact was due to the heterogeneity of the pores and dispersion of fiber in the matrix. (author)

    3. Chemical composition of the leaf and stem essential oil of Adenophorae Radix

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lan, Weijie; Lin, Shang; Li, Xindan; Zhang, Qing; Qin, Wen

      2017-03-01

      The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from leaves and stems of Adenophorae Radix was determined for the first time in this study. Twenty-six compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). n-Hexadecanoic acid (29.14%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (17.22%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester(8.98%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (7.03%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (5.93%), phytol (5.50%), and estradiol (4.43%) were measured as the major compounds in stem oil. The leaf essential oil was dominated by n-hexadecanoic acid (50.78%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (9.04%), phytol (8.47%), d-mannitol (5.81%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (4.31%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (2.19%) and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-(1.7%). The leaves yield was 0.12% (v/w) and the stems yield showed only 0.073% (v/w). The results might provide reference basis for further exploration of its application value.

    4. Photocatalytic Degradation of Oil using Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Titanium Dioxide Composite Membrane for Oily Wastewater Treatment

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rusli Ummi Nadiah

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Production of industrial wastewater is increasing as the oil and gas industry grows rapidly over the years. The constituents in the industrial wastewater such as organic and inorganic matters, dispersed and lubricant oil and metals which have high toxicity become the major concern to the environment and ecosystem. There are many technologies are being used for oil removal from industrial wastewater. However, there are still needs to find an effective technology to treat oily wastewater before in can be discharge safely to the environment. Membrane technology is an attractive separation technology to treat oily wastewater. The aim of this study is to fabricate polyvinylidene/titanium dioxide (PVDF/TiO2 composite membrane with further treatment using hot pressed method to enhance the adhesion between TiO2 with the membrane surfaces. In this study the structural and physical properties of fabricated membrane were conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR respectively. The photocatalytic degradation of oil was measured using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The FTIR results confirmed that, hot pressed PVDF/TiO2 membrane TiO2 was successfully deposited onto PVDF membranes surface and XRD results shows that the XRD pattern of PVDF//TiO2 found that the crystalline structure was remained unchanged after hot pressed. Clear water was obtained after synthetic oily wastewater was exposed to visible light for at least 6 hours. In conclusion, PVDF/TiO2 composite membrane can be a potential candidate to degrade oil in oily wastewater and suggested to possess an excellent performance if perform simultaneously with membrane separation process.

    5. Seasonal Variation in the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Oils of Three Species of Leptospermum (Myrtaceae Grown in Brazil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antonio Lelis Pinheiro

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available This study investigates the seasonal variation of three species of Leptospermum (Myrtaceae grown in Brazil. The chemical composition of the volatile oils of L. flavescens and L. petersonii did not show any significant seasonal variation in the major components, while for Leptospermum madidum subsp. sativum the levels of major constituents of the volatile oils varied with the harvest season. Major fluctuations in the composition of L. madidum subsp. sativum oil included α-pinene (0–15.2%, β-pinene (0.3–18.5%, α-humulene (0.8–30%, 1,8-cineole (0.4–7.1% and E-caryophyllene (0.4–11.9%. Levels of β-pinene (0.3–5.6%, terpinen-4-ol (4.7–7.2% and nerolidol (55.1–67.6% fluctuated seasonally in the L. flavescens oil. In L. petersonii, changes were noted for geranial (29.8–32.8%, citronellal (26.5–33.9% and neral (22.7–23.5%. The activity of the volatile oils against the tested bacteria differed, depending on season the oils were obtained. In general, the volatile oils were more active against Gram-positive bacteria.

    6. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of the volatile oils from Trembleya phlogiformis leaves

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sarah R. Fernandes

      Full Text Available ABSTRACT Trembleya phlogiformis DC., Melastomataceae, is a shrub whose leaves are used as a dye for dyeing wool and cotton. The present article aimed to carry out the morphological description of the species, to study the chemical composition of volatile oils from the leaves and flowers and the seasonal variability from the leaves during a year. Macroscopic characterization was carried out with the naked eye and with a stereoscopic microscope. Volatile oils were isolated by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The major components of the volatile oil of T. phlogiformis flowers were: n-heneicosane (33.5%, phytol (12.3%, n-tricosane (8.4% and linoleic acid (6.1%. It was verified the existence of a large chemical variability of the volatile oils from the leaves of T. phlogiformis over the months, with the majority compound (oleic alcohol, ranging from 5.7 to 26.8% present in all samples. A combination of Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis showed the existence of three main clusters, probably related to the seasons. The results suggested that the volatile oils of T. phlogiformis leaves possess high chemical variability, probably related to variation associated with rainfall and the variation in the behavior of specimens throughout the year. This research provides insights for future studies on the volatile oils obtained from the T. phlogiformis leaves and flowers, mainly related to biological markers of applications monitored in the leaves and flowers of this species.

    7. Characteristics of antioxidant activity and composition of pumpkin seed oils in 12 cultivars.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Kita, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

      2013-08-15

      The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties, and provide characteristics, of the oil obtained from the seeds of 12 pumpkin varieties belonging to the species Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Cucurbita pepo L. Another objective was to establish which of the two extracting agents, ethanol or methanol, is more effective. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties examined differ in chemical composition and antioxidant activity. The seeds of the cultivars belonging to the species C. maxima are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids than are the cultivars of the species C. pepo. In the seed oil, unsaturated acids are dominant (oleic and linoleic), and their proportion depends on the pumpkin variety. The highest content of unsaturated acids has been measured in the oil extracted from the seeds of the cultivar, Jet F1 (C. pepo). Antioxidant activity analysis has produced the following findings. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties that belong to the species C. pepo exhibit better antioxidant properties, regardless of the extraction solvent used. 50% ethanol is more efficient than 80% methanol when used as an extracting agent. The antioxidant activity values obtained with 50% ethanol are higher than those achieved with 80% methanol. Owing to the considerable differences in composition among the fatty acids examined, it is possible to choose the desired pumpkin variety for the intended use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    8. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising a porous support and a solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide

      Science.gov (United States)

      Liu, Han; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K; Norman, Timothy J; Griffith, Arthur E; LaConti, Anthony B

      2015-02-24

      A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a thin, rigid, dimensionally-stable, non-electrically-conducting support, the support having a plurality of cylindrical, straight-through pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores are unevenly distributed, with some or no pores located along the periphery and more pores located centrally. The pores are completely filled with a solid polymer electrolyte, the solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide. The solid polymer electrolyte may also be deposited over the top and/or bottom surfaces of the support.

    9. Coriandrum sativum and Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Activity on Central Nervous System.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Caputo, Lucia; Souza, Lucéia Fátima; Alloisio, Susanna; Cornara, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

      2016-11-30

      The aims of this study are to determine the chemical composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Coriandrum sativum L. essential oils, to evaluate their cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, to investigate whether an alteration of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) and of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression can take part in the molecular mechanisms of the essential oils, and to study their possible neuronal electrophysiological effects. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and studied by GC and GC-MS. In the oils from L. angustifolia and C. sativum , linalool was the main component (33.1% and 67.8%, respectively). SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with different concentrations of essential oils and of linalool. Cell viability and effects on ADCY1 and ERK expression were analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT and Western blotting, respectively. Variation in cellular electrophysiology was studied in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons with a multi-electrode array (MEA)-based approach. The essential oils and linalool revealed different cytotoxic activities. Linalool inhibited ADCY1 and ERK expression. Neuronal networks subjected to L. angustifolia and C. sativum essential oils showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous electrical activity.

    10. Essential Oil Composition, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Antiviral Activities of Teucrium pseudochamaepitys Growing Spontaneously in Tunisia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Saoussen Hammami

      2015-11-01

      Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antiviral activities of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Teucrium pseudochamaepitys (Lamiaceae collected from Zaghouan province of Tunisia are reported. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Thirty-one compounds were identified representing 88.6% of the total essential oil. Hexadecanoic acid was found to be the most abundant component (26.1% followed by caryophyllene oxide (6.3%, myristicin (4.9% and α-cubebene (3.9%. The antioxidant capacity of the oil was measured on the basis of the scavenging activity to the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. The IC50 value of the oil was evaluated as 0.77 mg·mL−1. In addition, the essential oil was found to possess moderate cytotoxic effects on the HEp-2 cell line (50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 = 653.6 µg·mL−1. The potential antiviral effect was tested against Coxsackievirus B (CV-B, a significant human and mouse pathogen that causes pediatric central nervous system disease, commonly with acute syndromes. The reduction of viral infectivity by the essential oil was measured using a cytopathic (CPE reduction assay.

    11. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

      2010-11-15

      Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. {yields} Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. {yields} Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    12. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Jawaid, M.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Abu Bakar, A.

      2010-01-01

      Research highlights: → Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. → Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. → Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. → Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    13. Chemotaxonomic significance of the terpene composition in natural populations of Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold from Serbia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sarac, Zorica; Bojović, Srdjan; Nikolić, Biljana; Tešević, Vele; Ethorđević, Iris; Marin, Petar D

      2013-08-01

      The essential-oil variability in seven native populations belonging to different infraspecific taxa of Pinus nigra (ssp. nigra, var. gocensis, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) growing wild in Serbia was analyzed. In the needles of 195 trees from seven populations, 58 essential-oil components were identified. The major components were α-pinene (43.6%) and germacrene D (29.8%), comprising together 73.4% of the total oil composition. Based on the average chemical profile of the main terpene components (with contents >5%), the studied populations were found to be the most similar to populations from central Italy and Greece (ssp. nigra). Cluster analysis showed the division of the populations into three principal groups: the first group consisted of Populations I, II, III, IV, and V (considered as ssp. nigra group), the second of Population VI (ssp. pallasiana group), and the third of Population VII, which had the most distinct oil composition (ssp. banatica group). The taxonomic implications of the essential-oil profiles of the investigated taxa of this very complex species are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

    14. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of flowerhead and root essential oils of Santolina chamaecyparissus L., growing wild in Tunisia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Karima Bel Hadj Salah-Fatnassi

      2017-05-01

      Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oil from various Santolina species have not been investigated enough in the previous studies dealing with the biological activities of medicinal plants. In Tunisia, Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (Asteraceae is the only Santolina species recorded and is used as vermifuge and emmenagogue. The chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils from the flowerheads and roots of spontaneous S. chamaecyparissus growing in Tunisia and the chemical composition which leads to the Tunisian chemotype are investigated here for the first time. Essential oils isolated by hydro distillation from flowerheads and roots of S. chamaecyparissus were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Two methods served for antimicrobial assays of the essential oils: diffusion in a solid medium and micro-well dilution assay. Antifungal tests were carried out by the agar incorporation method. Sixty-seven constituents were identified from the essential oil of the flowerhead. The major constituents were: 1,8-cineole and β-eudesmol. Two non iden