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Sample records for oil composition traits

  1. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukesh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026 and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128. A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM. Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition. At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV, myristic acid (C14:0, palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3

  2. Variability in seed oil content and fatty acid composition, phenotypic traits and self-incompatibility among selected niger germplasm accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niger (Guizotia abyssinica, L.) is a desirable oilseed crop for birdseed, especially for finches (Spinus spp.) because of its high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and relatively high oil content. In 2012, phenotypic traits, seed oil and fatty acid content measurements were made on 14 p...

  3. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis of palm oil fatty acid composition in an interspecific pseudo-backcross from Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortés and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Carmenza; Lopes, Ricardo; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Cuellar, Teresa; Summo, Maryline; Espeout, Sandra; Rivallan, Ronan; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Bittencourt, Daniela; Zambrano, Jorge R.; Alarcon G, Wilmar H.; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Nouy, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We chose an Elaeis interspecific pseudo-backcross of first generation (E. oleifera x E. guineensis) x E. guineensis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition of palm oil. A dense microsatellite linkage map of 362 loci spanned 1.485 cM, representing the 16 pairs of homologous chromosomes in the Elaeis genus from which we traced segregating alleles from both E. oleifera and E. guineensis grandparents. The relative linear orders of mapped loci suggested the probable a...

  4. Avocado, sunflower and olive oils as replacers of pork back-fat in burger patties: effect on lipid composition, oxidative stability and quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carpena, J G; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of avocado, sunflower and olive oils used as back-fat replacers, on the fatty acid composition, oxidative stability, volatiles profile and color and texture properties of cooked pork patties. The vegetable oils modified the fatty acid profiles of the patties by lowering the percentages of SFA (from 36.96% to ~25.30%) and reducing the atherogenic index (from 0.41 to ~0.24). Vegetable oils had higher amounts of antioxidant compounds such as tocopherols (10.8-53.9 mg/100 g) than back-fat (5.9 mg/100 g). Consistently, patties manufactured with the oils had significantly lower amounts of lipid and protein oxidation products than control patties. Avocado oil contributed with specific aroma-active terpenes to patties and had a significant impact on particular color and texture parameters. The results from this study highlight the technological applications of the vegetable oils as food ingredients in the design of healthier meat commodities.

  5. Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

  6. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Teosinte Alleles for Kernel Composition Traits in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Avinash; Gillman, Jason D; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A

    2017-02-10

    Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) is the wild ancestor of modern maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). Teosinte contains greater genetic diversity compared to maize inbreds and landraces, but its use is limited by insufficient genetic resources to evaluate its value. A population of teosinte near isogenic lines (teosinte NILs) was previously developed to broaden the resources for genetic diversity of maize, and to discover novel alleles for agronomic and domestication traits. The 961 teosinte NILs were developed by backcrossing ten geographically diverse parviglumis accessions into the B73 (reference genome inbred) background. The NILs were grown in two replications in 2009 and 2010 in Columbia, Missouri and Aurora, New York, respectively, and Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) calibrations were developed and used to rapidly predict total kernel starch, protein and oil content on a dry matter basis in bulk whole grains of teosinte NILs. Our joint-linkage quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis identified two starch, three protein and six oil QTLs, which collectively explained 18%, 23% and 45% of the total variation, respectively. A range of strong additive allelic effects for kernel starch, protein and oil content were identified relative to the B73 allele. Our results support our hypothesis that teosinte harbors stronger alleles for kernel composition traits than maize, and that teosinte can be exploited for the improvement of kernel composition traits in modern maize germplasm.

  8. Essential oil content and composition of aniseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in three localities in Vojvodina (Serbia with the application of six different fertilizer regimes aimed at determining the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average essential oil content of aniseed, obtained by hydrodistillation, was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizers was not statistically significant for the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil composition was determined using GC-MS technique, and a total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, 94.78% on the average, and the coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%. All other components were present in less than 1%.

  9. Combination Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fish Oil on Carcass Traits, Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Peroxidation Status of Muscles of Male Broiler Chickens%共轭亚油酸和鱼油组合对雄性肉鸡屠体性状、肌肉脂肪酸组成和脂质过氧化状态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永祥; 刘艳丽; 姜东风; 朱宽佑

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate the combination effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and fish oil on the carcass traits, the fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation status of muscles of male broiler chickens. A total of 120 twenty one-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four dietary groups: 2% soybean oil diet, 2% CLA diet, 2% fish oil diet and mixed diet ( 1%CLA+1% fish oil) . There were 6 replicates per group and 5 chickens per replicate. Muscle samples were col-lected at the 42 days of broiler chickens. The results showed as follows: the percentages of broiler chickens breast muscle and thigh muscle from mixed group were not significantly diferent to those of the CLA group and fish oil group ( P>0.05) . The broiler chicks from CLA group, fish oil group and mixed group had significantly lower abdominal fat percentages than that of soybean oil group ( P0.05) . The broilers from the mixed diet group had significantly lower lipid peroxidation levels in both breast and thigh muscles than those fed the fish oil diet (P0.05)。 CLA组、鱼油组和混合组肉仔鸡的腹脂率显著低于豆油组(P0.05)。混合组肉仔鸡胸肌和腿肌的脂质过氧化水平均显著低于鱼油组( P<0.05)。结果表明, CLA和鱼油在肉仔鸡胸肌和腿肌的不饱和脂肪酸尤其是n-3 PUFA的沉积和脂质稳定性方面有一定的互补作用。

  10. Composite interval mapping of QTL for dynamic traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Huijiang; YANG Runqing

    2006-01-01

    Many economically important quantitative traits in animals and plants are measured repeatedly over time. These traits are called dynamic traits. Mapping QTL controlling the phenotypic profiles of dynamic traits has become an interesting topic for animal and plant breeders. However, statistical methods of QTL mapping for dynamic traits have not been well developed. We develop a composite interval mapping approach to detecting QTL for dynamic traits. We fit the profile of each QTL effect with Legendre polynomials. Parameter estimation and statistical test are performed on the regression coefficients of the polynomials under the maximum likelihood framework. Maximum likelihood estimates of QTL parameters are obtained via the EM algorithm. Results of simulation study showed that composite interval mapping can improve both the statistcial power of QTL detecting and the accuracy of parameter estimation relative to the simply interval mapping procedure where only one QTL is fit to each model. The method is developed in the context of an F2 mapping population, but extension to other types of mapping populations is straightforward.

  11. QTL detection for stover yield and quality traits using two connected populations in high-oil maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mengguan; Li, Xuehui; Li, Junzhou; Fu, Jiafeng; Wang, Yanzhao; Li, Yuling

    2009-10-01

    Both yield and quality traits for stover portion were important for forage and biofuel production utility in maize. A high-oil maize inbred GY220 was crossed with two normal-oil dent maize inbred lines 8984 and 8622 to generate two connected F(2:3) populations with 284 and 265 F(2:3) families. Seven yield and quality traits were evaluated under two environments. The variance components of genotype (sigma(g)(2)), environment (sigma(e)(2)) and genotype x environment interactions (sigma(ge)(2)) were all significant for most traits in both populations. Different levels of correlations were observed for all traits. QTL mapping was conducted using composite interval mapping (CIM) for data under each environment and in combined analysis in both populations. Totally, 45 and 42 QTL were detected in the two populations. Only five common QTL across the two populations, and one and three common QTL across the two environments in the two populations were detected, reflecting substantial influence of genetic backgrounds and environments on the results of QTL detection for stover traits. Combined analysis across two environments failed to detect most QTL mapped using individual environmental data in both populations. Few of the detected QTL displayed digenic epistatic interactions. Common QTL among all traits were consistent with their correlations. Some QTL herein have been detected in previous researches, and linked with candidate genes for enzymes postulated to have direct and indirect roles in cell wall components biosynthesis.

  12. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for oil content in cottonseed kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Quampah; Liu, Hai Ying; Xu, Hai Ming; Li, Jin Rong; Wu, Jian Guo; Zhu, Shui Jin; Shi, Chun Hai

    2012-01-01

    Oil content in cottonseed is a major quality trait which when improved through breeding could enhance the competitiveness of cottonseed oil among other vegetable oils. Cottonseed oil content is a quantitative trait controlled by genes in the tetraploid embryo and tetraploid maternal plant genomes, and the knowledge of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the genetic effects related to oil content in both genomes could facilitate the improvement in its quality and quantity. However, till date, QTL mapping and genetic analysis related to this trait in cotton have only been conducted in the tetraploid embryo genome. In the current experiment, an IF(2) population of cottonseed kernels from the random crossing of 188 intraspecific recombinant inbred lines which were derived from the hybrid of two parents, HS46 and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88, were used to simultaneously locate QTLs for oil content in the embryo and maternal plant genomes. The four QTLs found to be associated with oil content in cottonseed were: qOC-18-1 on chromosome 18; qOC-LG-11 on linkage group 11; qOC-18-2 on chromosome 18; and qOC-22 on chromosome 22. At a high selection threshold of 0.05, there was strong evidence linking the QTLs above the oil content in cottonseed. Embryo additive and dominant effects from the tetraploid embryo genome, as well as maternal additive effects from the tetraploid maternal plant genome were found to be significant contributors to genetic variation in cottonseed oil content.

  13. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for oil content in cottonseed kernel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quampah Alfred; Hai Ying Liu; Hai Ming Xu; Jin Rong Li; Jian Guo Wu; Shui Jin Zhu; Chun Hai Shi

    2012-12-01

    Oil content in cottonseed is a major quality trait which when improved through breeding could enhance the competitiveness of cottonseed oil among other vegetable oils. Cottonseed oil content is a quantitative trait controlled by genes in the tetraploid embryo and tetraploid maternal plant genomes, and the knowledge of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the genetic effects related to oil content in both genomes could facilitate the improvement in its quality and quantity. However, till date, QTL mapping and genetic analysis related to this trait in cotton have only been conducted in the tetraploid embryo genome. In the current experiment, an IF2 population of cottonseed kernels from the random crossing of 188 intraspecific recombinant inbred lines which were derived from the hybrid of two parents, HS46 and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88, were used to simultaneously locate QTLs for oil content in the embryo and maternal plant genomes. The four QTLs found to be associated with oil content in cottonseed were: qOC-18-1 on chromosome 18; qOC-LG-11 on linkage group 11; qOC-18-2 on chromosome 18; and qOC-22 on chromosome 22. At a high selection threshold of 0.05, there was strong evidence linking the QTLs above the oil content in cottonseed. Embryo additive and dominant effects from the tetraploid embryo genome, as well as maternal additive effects from the tetraploid maternal plant genome were found to be significant contributors to genetic variation in cottonseed oil content.

  14. Nut traits and nutritional composition of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) as influenced by zinc fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özenç, Nedim; Özenç, Damla Bender

    2015-07-01

    Zinc is an essential element for plants and its deficiency is a widespread problem throughout the world, causing decreased yields and nutritional quality. In this study the effect of zinc fertilization on some nut traits and the nutritional composition of 'Tombul' hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) variety cultivated in the Black Sea region of Turkey was investigated and the contribution of this nut to human nutrition determined. Trials were carried out at 'Tombul' hazelnut orchards, and zinc fertilizers were applied at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) in three consecutive years. Significant differences in some nut traits and mineral composition (protein, total oil, ash, kernel percentage, empty and wrinkled nuts, copper, boron, manganese and molybdenum) were observed with zinc fertilizer applications. In terms of daily nutritional element requirements, 100 g of hazelnut provided about 44.74% phosphorus, 13.39% potassium, 19.32% calcium, 37.49% magnesium, 0.19% sodium, 51.63% iron, 25.73% zinc and 14.05% boron of the recommended daily amounts (RDAs), while copper, manganese and molybdenum contents exceeded their RDAs. In order to improve some nut traits and the mineral composition of hazelnut, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) fertilizations could be recommended in practice. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncero, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2 and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses. The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.En este trabajo se revisan los métodos de extracción del aceite de almendra virgen y su composición química. Los métodos más habituales para la obtención del aceite son la extracción con disolventes, la extracción con fluidos supercríticos (CO2 y los sistemas de presión (prensas hidráulica y de tornillo. El mayor rendimiento industrial, pero también la peor calidad de los aceites, se consigue mediante el uso de disolventes. Además, los aceites obtenidos por este método no se pueden considerar vírgenes, pues se obtienen por medio de tratamientos químicos. La extracción con fluidos supercríticos da lugar a aceites de mayor calidad pero a un precio muy elevado. La extracción mediante prensado se convierte en la mejor opción de extracción, al conseguir aceites de alta calidad a un precio asequible. En cuanto a su composición química, el aceite de almendra se caracteriza por su bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados y el predominio de los monoinsaturados, en

  16. Distillation time as tool for improved antimalarial activity and differential oil composition of cumin seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given...

  17. Hunting alters seedling functional trait composition in a Neotropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurten, Erin L; Wright, S Joseph; Carson, Walter P

    2015-07-01

    Defaunation alters trophic interactions between plants and vertebrates, whichmay disrupt trophic cascades, thereby favoring a subset of plant species and reducing diversity. If particular functional traits characterize the favored plant species,.then defaunation may alter community-wide patterns of functional trait composition. Changes in plant functional traits occurring with defaunation may help identify the species interactions affected by defaunation and the potential for other cascading effects of defaunation. We tested the hypotheses that defaunation would (1) disrupt seed dispersal, thereby favoring species whose dispersal agents are not affected (e.g., small birds, bats, and abiotic agents), (2) reduce seed predation, thereby favoring larger-seeded species, and (3) reduce herbivory, thereby favoring species with lower leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf toughness, and wood density. We examined how these six traits responded to vertebrate defaunation caused by hunters or by experimental exclosures among more than-30 000 woody seedlings in a lowland tropical moist forest. Exclosures reduced terrestrial frugivores, granivores, and herbivores, while hunters also reduced volant and arboreal frugivores and granivores. The comparison of exclosures and hunting allowed us to parse the impacts of arboreal and volant species (reduced by hunters only) and terrestrial species (reduced by both hunters and exclosures). The loss of terrestrial vertebrates alone had limited effects on plant trait composition. The additional loss of volant and arboreal vertebrates caused significant shifts in plant species composition towards communities with more species dispersed abiotically, including lianas and low wood-density tree species, and fewer species dispersed by large vertebrates. In contrast to previous studies, community seed mass did not decline significantly in hunted sites. Our exclosure results suggest this is because reducing seed predators disproportionately benefits large

  18. Characteristics and composition of melon seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried melon seeds (Citrullus colocynthis L of the family Cucurbitaceae were investigated for nutritional quality and the oil seed characteristics. These melon seeds, on a dry weight basis, consisted of 52.3% of test and 47.7% of kernel. The moisture content in melon seeds was 54.5% and the mineral constituents were also determined. The oil content of seeds was very high ranging from 22.1-53.5%, due to the presence of the hulls, 22% from the seeds and 53% of the kernel, and also the crude protein content was so high as the 21.8% of the seeds. Standard procedures were applied to determine the fatty acids composition of the seed oil. The fatty acid profiles of the seed oil showed an unsaturated fatty acid content of 77.4% and the high content of 63.2% of PUFA. The predominant fatty acid was linoleic (18:2 acid in 62.2%. The presence of other fatty acids ranged in 10-14% for oleic (18:1 stearic (18:0 and palmitic (16:0 acids, respectively. Furthermore, the physical and chemical characteristics of the seed oil was also determined as iodine, acid, saponification, peroxide values and specific gravity.

  19. Use of composite materials in oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Trifunović, Prvoslav

    2011-01-01

    The most frequently used composites for fabrication of primary and secondary constructions within the oil industry are made of epoxy, phenolic or polymer matrix combined with glass, carbon or aramid fibers. For fabrication of risers, thermoplastic polymers (polyethylene, polyvinyldenefluoride, and polyamide) are used, which are to be wound around steel reinforcement of riser. Polymer may be reinforced with glass or carbon fibers. Instead of thermoplastic polymers, epoxy matrix reinforced with...

  20. Detection of quantitative trait loci for carcass composition traits in pigs

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    Renard Christine

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of carcass composition data from a three-generation experimental cross between Meishan (MS and Large White (LW pig breeds is presented. A total of 488 F2 males issued from six F1 boars and 23 F1 sows, the progeny of six LW boars and six MS sows, were slaughtered at approximately 80 kg live weight and were submitted to a standardised cutting of the carcass. Fifteen traits, i.e. dressing percentage, loin, ham, shoulder, belly, backfat, leaf fat, feet and head weights, two backfat thickness and one muscle depth measurements, ham + loin and back + leaf fat percentages and estimated carcass lean content were analysed. Animals were typed for a total of 137 markers covering the entire porcine genome. Analyses were performed using a line-cross (LC regression method where founder lines were assumed to be fixed for different QTL alleles and a half/full sib (HFS maximum likelihood method where allele substitution effects were estimated within each half-/full-sib family. Additional analyses were performed to search for multiple linked QTL and imprinting effects. Significant gene effects were evidenced for both leanness and fatness traits in the telomeric regions of SSC 1q and SSC 2p, on SSC 4, SSC 7 and SSC X. Additional significant QTL were identified for ham weight on SSC 5, for head weight on SSC 1 and SSC 7, for feet weight on SSC 7 and for dressing percentage on SSC X. LW alleles were associated with a higher lean content and a lower fat content of the carcass, except for the fatness trait on SSC 7. Suggestive evidence of linked QTL on SSC 7 and of imprinting effects on SSC 6, SSC 7, SSC 9 and SSC 17 were also obtained.

  1. Predicting disease trait with genomic data: a composite kernel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haitao; Li, Shaoyu; Cao, Hongyan; Zhang, Chichen; Cui, Yuehua

    2016-06-02

    With the advancement of biotechniques, a vast amount of genomic data is generated with no limit. Predicting a disease trait based on these data offers a cost-effective and time-efficient way for early disease screening. Here we proposed a composite kernel partial least squares (CKPLS) regression model for quantitative disease trait prediction focusing on genomic data. It can efficiently capture nonlinear relationships among features compared with linear learning algorithms such as Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator or ridge regression. We proposed to optimize the kernel parameters and kernel weights with the genetic algorithm (GA). In addition to improved performance for parameter optimization, the proposed GA-CKPLS approach also has better learning capacity and generalization ability compared with single kernel-based KPLS method as well as other nonlinear prediction models such as the support vector regression. Extensive simulation studies demonstrated that GA-CKPLS had better prediction performance than its counterparts under different scenarios. The utility of the method was further demonstrated through two case studies. Our method provides an efficient quantitative platform for disease trait prediction based on increasing volume of omics data.

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LACPREENE

    2012-08-12

    Aug 12, 2012 ... The chemical composition of C. ladanifer essential oil was characterized by high ... Analysis of essential oils was carried out by GC–MS using a .... with literature shows important qualitative and quantita- tive differences in ...

  3. Diurnal effects on spearmint oil yields and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Native’ spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) is one of the two spearmint species grown commercially in the United States and other countries for essential oil production. The two major constituents of spearmint oil are carvone and limonene. It is not known if the essential oil yield (content) and composit...

  4. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, β-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The modification of plant oil composition via metabolic engineering--better nutrition by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Richard P; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Eastmond, Peter; Moloney, Maurice; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A

    2013-02-01

    This article will focus on the modification of plant seed oils to enhance their nutritional composition. Such modifications will include C18 Δ6-desaturated fatty acids such as γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid, as well as the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (often named 'fish oils') such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. We will consider how new technologies (such as synthetic biology, next-generation sequencing and lipidomics) can help speed up and direct the development of desired traits in transgenic oilseeds. We will also discuss how manipulating triacylglycerol structure can further enhance the nutritional value of 'designer' oils. We will also consider how advances in model systems have translated into crops and the potential end-users for such novel oils (e.g. aquaculture, animal feed, human nutrition).

  6. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  7. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R.; Turner, Glenn W.; Davis, Edward M.; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C.; Boydston, Rick A.; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2011-01-01

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by tr...

  8. Analysis of chemical composition of high viscous oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Germanovna Yashchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of viscous oils which are considered as an important reserve for oil-production in future were studied on base of information from global database on oil physical and chemical properties. Changes in chemical composition of viscous oils in different basins and continents were analyzed as well. It is shown, on average, viscous oils are sulfur-bearing, low paraffin, highly resinous oils with an average content of asphaltenes and low content of the fraction boiling at 200 C. Study results of viscous oils peculiarities of Canada, Russia and Venezuela are given. The analysis results can be used to determine the optimal layouts and conditions of oil transportation, to improve the search methods of geochemical exploration, and to solve other problems in the oil chemistry.

  9. Composition of human VLDL triacylglycerols after ingestion of olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Morgado, N; Prada, J L; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Muriana, F J

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine the effect of diets enriched with olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil on very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol composition of healthy human subjects. Both oils contain a similar proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) but differ in their triacylglycerol composition. All 22 human subjects initially consumed a low fat, high carbohydrate diet as recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-I). They then consumed the two experimental oils (40% dietary energy) in a crossover design. The olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil diets resulted in significant increases in palmitoleic (55%, P 100%, P sunflower oil diet increased the content of stearic acid (60%, P 100%, P sunflower oil diet). Intake of olive oil, in particular, significantly decreased the content of sn-glycerol-tripalmitate (36%, P sunflower oil diets. In addition, olive oil, but not high oleic sunflower oil, further contributed to VLDL triacylglycerols that contained alpha-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids acylated in the sn-2 position. These data suggest that differences in the composition of VLDL triacylglycerols may be of major importance in explaining the beneficial effects of dietary olive oil in reducing the atherogenic risk profile in healthy subjects.

  10. Sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lesley; Stephenson, Kate [Earth Sciences, McMaster University (Canada)], email: warrenl@mcmaster.ca; Penner, Tara [Syncrude Environmental Research (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings (CT). The Government of Alberta is accelerating reclamation activities on composite tailings. As a CT pilot reclamation operation, Syncrude is currently constructing the first freshwater fen. Minor unpredicted incidents with H2S gas released from the dewatering process associated with these reclamations have been reported. The objective of this study is to ascertain the connection between microbial activity and H2S generation within CT and to assess the sulfur biogeochemistry of untreated and treated (fen) CT over seasonal and annual timescales. The microbial geochemical interactions taking place are shown using a flow chart. CT is composed of gypsum, sand, clay and organics like naphthenic acids and bitumen. Sulfur and Fe cycling in mining systems and their microbial activities are presented. The chemistry and the processes involved within CT are also given along with the results. It can be said that the diverse Fe and S metabolizing microorganisms confirm the ecology involved in H2S dynamics.

  11. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  12. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R; Turner, Glenn W; Davis, Edward M; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C; Boydston, Rick A; Croteau, Rodney B

    2011-10-11

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost.

  13. Method for Attaining Caraway Seed Oil Fractions with Different Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwakoti, Santosh; Poudyal, Shital; Saleh, Osama; Astatkie, Tess; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D

    2016-06-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is a medicinal and aromatic plant; its seeds (fruits) are used as spice and they contain essential oils. We hypothesized that by collecting caraway oil at different time points during the extraction process, we could obtain oil fractions with distinct chemical composition. A hydrodistillation time (HDT) study was conducted to test the hypothesis. The caraway seed oil fractions were collected at eight different HDT (at 0 - 2, 2 - 7, 7 - 15, 15 - 30, 30 - 45, 45 - 75, 75 - 105, and 105 - 135 min). Additionally, a non-stop HD for 135 min was conducted as a control. Most of the oil was eluted early in the HD process. The non-stop HDT treatment yielded 2.76% oil by weight. Of the 24 essential oil constituents, limonene (77 - 19% of the total oil) and carvone (20 - 79%) were the major ones. Other constituents included myrcene (0.72 - 0.16%), trans-carveol (0.07 - 0.39%), and β-caryophyllene (0.07 - 0.24%). Caraway seed oil with higher concentration of limonene can be obtained by sampling oil fractions early in HD process; conversely, oil with high concentration of carvone can be obtained by excluding the fractions eluted early in the HD process. We demonstrated a method of obtaining caraway seed oil fractions with various and unique composition. These novel oil fractions with unique composition are not commercially available and could have much wider potential uses, and also target different markets compared to the typical caraway essential oil.

  14. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K Cortes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmenza Montoya

    Full Text Available We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL, 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs, 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs, 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL, and 40% (two QTLs for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Oil-Chitosan Composite Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oil-chitosan composite spheres were synthesized by encapsulation of sunflower seed oil in chitosan droplets, dropping into NaOH solution and in situ solidification. Hydrophilic materials (i.e., iron oxide nanoparticles and lipophilic materials (i.e., rhodamine B or epirubicin could be encapsulated simultaneously in the spheres in a one step process. The diameters of the prepared spheres were 2.48 ± 0.11 mm (pure chitosan spheres, 2.31 ± 0.08 mm (oil-chitosan composites, 1.49 ± 0.15 mm (iron-oxide embedded oil-chitosan composites, and 1.69 ± 0.1 mm (epirubicin and iron oxide encapsulated oil-chitosan composites, respectively. Due to their superparamagnetic properties, the iron-oxide embedded oil-chitosan composites could be guided by a magnet. A lipophilic drug (epirubicin could be loaded in the spheres with encapsulation rate measured to be 72.25%. The lipophilic fluorescent dye rhodamine B was also loadable in the spheres with red fluorescence being observed under a fluorescence microscope. We have developed a novel approach to an in situ process for fabricating oil-chitosan composite spheres with dual encapsulation properties, which are potential multifunctional drug carriers.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of oil-chitosan composite spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Shiang; Wang, Chih-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hui; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Lin, Yung-Sheng; Kung, Chao-Pin; Lin, I-Yin; Chang, Yi-Ching; Weng, Wei-Jie; Wang, Wei-Ting

    2013-05-16

    Oil-chitosan composite spheres were synthesized by encapsulation of sunflower seed oil in chitosan droplets, dropping into NaOH solution and in situ solidification. Hydrophilic materials (i.e., iron oxide nanoparticles) and lipophilic materials (i.e., rhodamine B or epirubicin) could be encapsulated simultaneously in the spheres in a one step process. The diameters of the prepared spheres were 2.48 ± 0.11 mm (pure chitosan spheres), 2.31 ± 0.08 mm (oil-chitosan composites), 1.49 ± 0.15 mm (iron-oxide embedded oil-chitosan composites), and 1.69 ± 0.1 mm (epirubicin and iron oxide encapsulated oil-chitosan composites), respectively. Due to their superparamagnetic properties, the iron-oxide embedded oil-chitosan composites could be guided by a magnet. A lipophilic drug (epirubicin) could be loaded in the spheres with encapsulation rate measured to be 72.25%. The lipophilic fluorescent dye rhodamine B was also loadable in the spheres with red fluorescence being observed under a fluorescence microscope. We have developed a novel approach to an in situ process for fabricating oil-chitosan composite spheres with dual encapsulation properties, which are potential multifunctional drug carriers.

  17. Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and γ-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT.

  18. Influence of Ecological Conditions on Seeds Traits and Essential Oil Contents in Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica G ACIMOVIC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anise (Pimpinella anisum L. is an annual plant of the Apiaceae family, widely cultivated for seeds (fruits and essential oil. Under field condition anise is cultivated wide range of countries in Southern Europe including Serbia. Field experiments were carried out during two growing seasons, at three localities in order to determine the effect of different soil and climatic conditions on quality traits of anise seed principal traits (thousand seed mass, germination energy and total germination as well as on content and quality of its essential oil. During experiment thousand seed mass was significantly lower in 2012 in comparison to the previous year. Germination energy and total germination were significantly higher in 2011, because of more favourable weather conditions for seed development during this year. A significantly higher concentration of essential oil was accumulated in 2011 in comparison to 2012. This can be attributed to a longer period of fruit formation and synthesis of essential oils and better climate conditions. Unlike the content of essential oil, trans-anethole content was significantly higher in dry 2012 than in 2011. It can be concluded that drought caused significantly decrease in weight of thousand seed, germination energy and total germination and content of essential oil in anise. Contrary to this, trans-anethole content was significantly higher in the dry year. It can be assumed that under stress conditions the amount of trans-anethole in the essential oil increased, because in such conditions the plants produce more secondary metabolites, the substances that prevent oxidation processes in the cells.

  19. Determining the composition of green oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glyantz, S.T.; Allulova, R.A.; Saifullin, R.Kh.

    1980-01-01

    Research was done on the composition of ''green oil'' (GO), a by product of the hydration of C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, deactivating catalyst hydration. Identification of the individual GO components was done on the basis of physical-chemical characteristics and infrared spectrum. The hydration of GO was carried out in a continous-flow reactor with a Ni/kieselguhr catalyst at 100/sup 0/C and 1 atm of pressure. The separation of the individual component from the hydrogenate is done using liquid chromatography with a solid adsorbing agent- SG. From the results it was concluded that the basic component of GO is the unsaturated hydrocarbon C /sub 15/ H /sub 24/ with a structure of the linear trimer piperylene. This is the product of the thermopolomerization of C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and, possibly, propylene additives. The conclusion was made that the purity of the ethane-ethylene fraction can considerably influence the amount of GO formed.

  20. Essential Oil Compositions of Malaysian Lauraceae: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Salleh, Farediah Ahmad * , Khong Heng Yen, Razauden Mohamed Zulkifli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been largely employed for human need due to their antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities. At present, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important. Essential oils or some of their components are used in perfumes and make-up products, sanitary products, dentistry, agriculture, as food preservers and additives, and as natural remedies. The essential oil compositions of Malaysian Lauraceae family have been investigated for many years. In the recent years, studies on the essential oils of the species have been progressing and many of them have reported interesting pharmacological activities. In this article, we summarized and updated the chemical compositions and biological activities of Malaysian Lauraceae. Throughout our literature review, only four genera which are Lindera, Beilschmiedia, Litsea, and Cinnamomum have been studied for their essential oil compositions in Malaysia. They were found to contain mainly safrole, eugenol, linalool, camphor, benzyl benzoate or cinnamaldehyde as major components. There were significant priorities to find out the details of the chemical compositions of the essential oils from Malaysian Lauraceae. Therefore, more clinical studies on the toxicity of the essential oil of the species are also crucial to ensure their safety and to assess their eligibility to be used as the sources of modern medicines.

  1. Constituent composition and biological activity of Nepeta manchuriensis essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil present in the aerial parts of the plant Nepeta manchuriensis was prepared by steam distillation using clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition of the oil was studied by GCMS. Sabinene, elemol, selinene, 4-terpineol, menthatriene and neoisothujol are the major components and r...

  2. Essential Oil Composition of Two Grammosciadium DC Species, G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate and compare the essential oil composition of two Grammosciadium ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African ..... Graz; Austria, 1982; p 97. 4.

  3. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patrick

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... chemical composition of the species of Algerian citrus. (Baaliouamer, 1987). ... Osbeck), Bigaradier (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limonum) and ..... The fungi anti capacities of essential oils of the Algerian citrus proved to ...

  4. Essential oil composition of different fractions of Piper guineense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mme ESTHER

    done on the essential oil composition of P. guineense seeds from different ... A Markes Series 2 ultra-unity system (Markes. International Ltd., UK) was ... attaching treated halves to untreated halves with clear adhesive tape. Each remade disc ...

  5. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of oil shale: oil yield, composition, and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J H; Huss, E B; Ott, L L; Clarkson, J E; Bishop, M O; Taylor, J R; Gregory, L J; Morris, C J

    1982-09-01

    A quartz isothermal fluidized-bed reactor has been used to measure kinetics and oil properties relevant to surface processing of oil shale. The rate of oil formation has been described with two sequential first-order rate equations characterized by two rate constants, k/sub 1/ = 2.18 x 10/sup 10/ exp(-41.6 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/ and k/sub 2/ = 4.4 x 10/sup 6/ exp(-29.7 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/. These rate constants together with an expression for the appropriate weighting coefficients describe approximately 97/sup +/% of the total oil produced. A description is given of the results of different attempts to mathematically describe the data in a manner suitable for modeling applications. Preliminary results are also presented for species-selective kinetics of methane, ethene, ethane and hydrogen, where the latter is clearly distinguished as the product of a distinct intermediate. Oil yields from Western oil shale are approximately 100% Fischer assay. Oil composition is as expected based on previous work and the higher heating rates (temperatures) inherent in fluidized-bed pyrolysis. Neither the oil yield, composition nor the kinetics varied with particle size between 0.2 and 2.0 mm within experimental error. The qualitatively expected change in oil composition due to cracking was observed over the temperature range studied (460 to 540/sup 0/C). Eastern shale exhibited significantly faster kinetics and higher oil yields than did Western shale.

  6. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of oil shale: oil yield, composition, and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J H; Huss, E B; Ott, L L; Clarkson, J E; Bishop, M O; Taylor, J R; Gregory, L J; Morris, C J

    1982-09-01

    A quartz isothermal fluidized-bed reactor has been used to measure kinetics and oil properties relevant to surface processing of oil shale. The rate of oil formation has been described with two sequential first-order rate equations characterized by two rate constants, k/sub 1/ = 2.18 x 10/sup 10/ exp(-41.6 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/ and k/sub 2/ = 4.4 x 10/sup 6/ exp(-29.7 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/. These rate constants together with an expression for the appropriate weighting coefficients describe approximately 97/sup +/% of the total oil produced. A description is given of the results of different attempts to mathematically describe the data in a manner suitable for modeling applications. Preliminary results are also presented for species-selective kinetics of methane, ethene, ethane and hydrogen, where the latter is clearly distinguished as the product of a distinct intermediate. Oil yields from Western oil shale are approximately 100% Fischer assay. Oil composition is as expected based on previous work and the higher heating rates (temperatures) inherent in fluidized-bed pyrolysis. Neither the oil yield, composition nor the kinetics varied with particle size between 0.2 and 2.0 mm within experimental error. The qualitatively expected change in oil composition due to cracking was observed over the temperature range studied (460 to 540/sup 0/C). Eastern shale exhibited significantly faster kinetics and higher oil yields than did Western shale.

  7. Effects of anthropogenic salinization on biological traits and community composition of stream macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöcs, Eduard; Coring, Eckhard; Bäthe, Jürgen; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2014-01-15

    Salinization of rivers resulting from industrial discharge or road-deicing can adversely affect macroinvertebrates. Trait-based approaches are a promising tool in ecological monitoring and may perform better than taxonomy-based approaches. However only little is known how and which biological traits are affected by salinization. We investigated the effects of anthropogenic salinization on macroinvertebrate communities and biological traits in the Werra River, Germany and compared the taxonomic and trait response. We found a change in macroinvertebrate community and trait composition. Communities at saline sites were characterized by the three exotic species Gammarus tigrinus, Apocorophium lacustre and Potamopyrgus antipodarum. The frequencies of trait modalities long life cycle duration, respiration by gill, ovoviviparity, shredder and multivoltinism were statistically significantly increased at saline sites. The trait-based ordination resulted in a higher explained variance than the taxonomy-based ordination, indicating a better performance of the trait-based approach, resulting in a better discrimination between saline and non-saline sites. Our results are in general agreement with other studies from Europe, indicating a trait convergence for saline streams, being dominated by the traits ovoviviparity and multivoltinism. Three further traits (respiration by gill, life cycle duration and shredders) responded strongly to salinization, but this may primarily be attributed to the dominance of a single invasive species, G. tigrinus, at the saline sites in the Werra River.

  8. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  9. Compositional Analysis of North Sea Oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandekar, Abhijit; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    on the paraffin-naphthene-aromatic distribution and its geographic origin. In this work we have performed the true TBP distillation of 7 stabilized North Sea oil samples. All the oils were distilled from carbon number 6 to 19 and the distillation was terminated at C20+, which was termed as the residue. We have...

  10. Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean.

  11. Effect of Rare Earth Composite Ceramic Materials on Oil Combustion of Oil-Burning Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The rare earth composite ceramic materials were prepared using rare earths and far infrared natural mineral. The effects of the as-prepared ceramic materials on the oil consumption and air pollutants emissions of oil-burning boiler were investigated. The results show that the composite ceramic materials can radiate higher intensity of far infrared. The molecular movement is strengthened and the chemical bonds of the molecules are easily ruptured when the diesel oil is dealt with the composite materials. The oil-saving rate of the RBS·VH-1.5 boiler dealt with the rare earth composite ceramic materials is 3.49%, and the reducing rates of CO and NO in the exhaust gas are 25.4% and 9.7%, respectively.

  12. Genetic parameters and trends of meat quality, carcass composition and performance traits in two selected lines of large white pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonesson, A.K.; Greef, de K.H.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    1998-01-01

    Meat quality, carcass composition and performance traits were measured in two selection lines selected for either low backfat thickness (BF) at a fixed live weight or high live weight (WEIGHT) at a fixed age. The performance traits were measured on 3966 to 3985, carcass composition trait on 278 and

  13. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  14. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtcho D Zheljazkov

    Full Text Available A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. seed (fruits. Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT. Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed, was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14-0.5% concentration range, β-pinene (3.7-10.3% range, γ-cymene (5-7.3% range, γ-terpinene (1.8-7.2% range, cumin aldehyde (50-66% range, α-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range, and β-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The

  15. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14-0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7-10.3% range), γ-cymene (5-7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8-7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50-66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The antioxidant

  16. ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF FOUR ARTEMISIA SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    E-mail: nigasfaw@gmail.com ; nigistasfaw@hotmail.com. ESSENTIAL OIL ... strongly aromatic annual to perennial herb endemic to Ethiopia. .... The area percentage was obtained electronically from the GC-FID response without the use.

  17. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Brazilian Passiflora Seed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Fernanda Carvalho; Shinagawa, Fernanda Branco; Araujo, Elias da Silva; Costa, Ana Maria; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The seed oils of different varieties of 4 Passiflora species cultivated in Brazil were analyzed and compared regarding their physicochemical parameters, fatty acid composition and the presence of minor components, such as phytosterols, tocopherols, total carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. The antioxidant capacities of the oil extracts were determined using the 2,2'azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] and oxygen radical absorbance capacity methods. The results revealed that all studied Passiflora seed oils possessed similar physicochemical characteristics, except for color, and predominantly contained polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high percentage of linolenic acid (68.75% to 71.54%). Other than the total phytosterol content, the extracted oil from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seeds had higher quantities (% times higher than the average of all samples), of carotenoids (44%), phenolic compounds (282%) and vitamin E (215%, 56%, 398%, and 100% for the α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol isomers, respectively). The methanolic extracts from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seed oil also showed higher antioxidant activity, which was positively correlated with the total phenolic, δ-tocopherol, and vitamin E contents. For the first time, these results indicate that Passiflora species have strong potential regarding the use of their seeds for oil extraction. Due to their interesting composition, the seed oils may be used as a raw material in manufacturing industries in addition to other widely used vegetable oils.

  18. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U S; Patra, R K; Sahoo, N R; Bakhara, C K; Panda, M K

    2015-07-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorbance value from 0.149 to 0.079 (in spectrophotometer at 460 nm) were observed from crude to refined oil. It was observed that refining did not have significant effect on fatty acid compositions as found in the percentage peak area in the GC-MS chromatogram. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in both the oils were recorded to be about 95 % containing 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) and 11,14-Eicosadienoic acid (elongated form of linoleic acid). The research results will be useful to small entrepreneurs and farmers for refining of sunflower oil for better marketability.

  19. Meta-Analyses of QTLs Associated with Protein and Oil Contents and Compositions in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Kyujung; McHale, Leah K

    2017-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable and nutritious crop in part due to the high protein meal and vegetable oil produced from its seed. Soybean producers desire cultivars with both elevated seed protein and oil concentrations as well as specific amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Numerous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed composition traits, but validation of these QTLs has rarely been carried out. In this study, we have collected information, including genetic location and additive effects, on each QTL for seed contents of protein and oil, as well as amino acid and fatty acid compositions from over 80 studies. Using BioMercator V. 4.2, a meta-QTL analysis was performed with genetic information comprised of 175 QTLs for protein, 205 QTLs for oil, 156 QTLs for amino acids, and 113 QTLs for fatty acids. A total of 55 meta-QTL for seed composition were detected on 6 out of 20 chromosomes. Meta-QTL possessed narrower confidence intervals than the original QTL and candidate genes were identified within each meta-QTL. These candidate genes elucidate potential natural genetic variation in genes contributing to protein and oil biosynthesis and accumulation, providing meaningful information to further soybean breeding programs.

  20. COMPARING ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION AND ESSENTIAL OIL YIELD OF ROSEMARINUS OFFICINALIS AND LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA BEFORE AND FULL FLOWERING STAGES

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils and essential oil yield obtained from Rosemarinus officinalis (family Lamiaceae) and Lavandula angustifolia (family Lamiaceae) were determined in two harvesting times. Their essential oil was determined by hydro-distillation, and analysed by GC/MS. The results showed that harvesting time had significant effects on the oil content and compositions in both plants. The maximum essential oil percentage was obtained in full flowering stage in rosemary. Al...

  1. Effect of Brine Composition on Wettability Alteration and Oil Recovery from Oil-wet Carbonate Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswani, P.; Karpyn, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Brine composition is known to affect the effectiveness of waterflooding during enhanced oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs. Recent studies have identified Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42- as critical ions, responsible for incremental oil recovery via wettability alteration. To investigate the underlying mechanism of wettability alteration and, to evaluate the individual contribution of these ions towards improving oil recovery, a series of coreflooding experiments are performed. Various characterization techniques like zeta potential (ZP), drop angle analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) analysis are performed to evaluate the surface interactions taking place at the carbonate core samples, brine solution and crude oil interfaces. Total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity measurements confirm the ionic strength of the brine samples. Acid number calculations, ZP and contact angle measurements confirm the initial oil-wetting state of the core. ICP MS analysis of the effluent brine, confirm the relationship between the ionic interactions and oil recovery.

  2. Changes in the Composition of Aromatherapeutic Citrus Oils during Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of some commercial Citrus oils, lemon, sweet orange, and tangerine, designated for aromatherapy, was examined before and after partial evaporation in a stream of nitrogen. The intact oils contained the expected mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpenes, with hydrocarbons dominating and lesser amounts of oxygenated analogues making up the remainder. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to follow alterations in the relative amounts of the various components present as evaporation proceeded. Changes were marked, and in particular more volatile components present in the intact oils rapidly disappeared. Thus the balance of content was shifted away from monoterpene hydrocarbons towards the analogous alcohols and carbonyl compounds. The results of this differential evaporation are discussed and possible consequences for aromatherapy use are noted. The case of lemon oil was especially interesting as the relative amount of citral, a known sensitizer, remaining as time elapsed represented an increasing percentage of the total oil.

  3. Exercise and diet affect quantitative trait loci for body weight and composition traits in an advanced intercross population of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Larry J; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Pomp, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Driven by the recent obesity epidemic, interest in understanding the complex genetic and environmental basis of body weight and composition is great. We investigated this by searching for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting a number of weight and adiposity traits in a G(10) advanced intercross population produced from crosses of mice in inbred strain C57BL/6J with those in a strain selected for high voluntary wheel running. The mice in this population were fed either a high-fat or a control diet throughout the study and also measured for four exercise traits prior to death, allowing us to test for pre- and postexercise QTLs as well as QTL-by-diet and QTL-by-exercise interactions. Our genome scan uncovered a number of QTLs, of which 40% replicated QTLs previously found for similar traits in an earlier (G(4)) generation. For those replicated QTLs, the confidence intervals were reduced from an average of 19 Mb in the G(4) to 8 Mb in the G(10). Four QTLs on chromosomes 3, 8, 13, and 18 were especially prominent in affecting the percentage of fat in the mice. About of all QTLs showed interactions with diet, exercise, or both, their genotypic effects on the traits showing a variety of patterns depending on the diet or level of exercise. It was concluded that the indirect effects of these QTLs provide an underlying genetic basis for the considerable variability in weight or fat loss typically found among individuals on the same diet and/or exercise regimen.

  4. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Chaerophyllum temulum (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Jelena G; Stojanović, Gordana S; Radojković, Ivana R; Petrović, Goran M; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports the chemical composition on the essential oil obtained from fresh roots, stems, inflorescences and fruits of Chaerophyllum temulum. In all samples, except the roots, the most dominant components were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. (Z)-Falcarinol was the principal constituent of the root essential oils (61.7% at the flowering stage and 62.3% at the fruiting stage). The blossom oil was dominated by (Z,E)-α-famesene (23.4%), (E)-β-farnesene (9.0%) and germacrene D-4-ol (9%), whereas the oil from the fruit had germacrene D-4-ol (27.6%) as its main compound, accompanied by (Z,E)-α-famesene (13.4%). Germacrene D was the most abundant component of the stem essential oil (38.4% at the flowering stage and 32.5% at the fruiting stage). The obtained results show that the qualitative composition of the oil depends on the part of the plant which is analyzed, while the quantitative composition of the main components depends on the growing stage of the plant.

  5. Essential oil composition of wild growing Sage from R. Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjoshe Stefkov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze and identify the essential oil composition of S. officinalis populations growing in Republic of Macedonia and to evaluate these data according to different standards’ requirements for, commercially most utilized, Dalmatian sage. The essential oil yield, obtained after hydrodestilation from leaves, of three different populations of Salvia officinalis L. from Republic of Macedonia was determined, varying from 1.40 to 3.46%. The GC/FID/MS analysis of the composition of the essential oils revealed 63, 57 and 51 components in Galicica Mtn., Jablanica Mtn. and Karaorman Mtn. sage populations, respectively. The main components of the oil, in all three samples, were the terpene hydrocarbons, encompassing the monoterpenes: camphor (13.15 - 25.91%, α-thujone (19.25 - 26.33%, β-thujone (2.03 - 5.28%, 1,8-cineole (6.51 – 13.60%, α-pinene (0.93 – 1.47%, borneol (1.07 – 4.67%, then sesquiterpenes: trans (E-caryophyllene (1.72 – 5.33%, α-humulene (2.89 – 7.99%, viridiflorol (4.27 – 7.99%, and the diterpene manool (2.13 - 3.79%. Thus, our results for the essential oil composition of sage complied with the reference values specified in the DAC 86 monograph for Salvia essential oil.

  6. Responses of leaf traits to climatic gradients: adaptive variation versus compositional shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, T.-T.; Wang, H.; Harrison, S. P.; Prentice, I. C.; Ni, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-09-01

    , but Parea increased with temperature. Although the adaptive nature of many of these trait-climate relationships is understood qualitatively, a key challenge for modelling is to predict them quantitatively. Models must take into account that community-level responses to climatic gradients can be influenced by shifts in PFT composition, such as the replacement of deciduous by evergreen trees, which may run either parallel or counter to trait variation within PFTs. The importance of PFT shifts varies among traits, being important for biophysical traits but less so for physiological and chemical traits. Finally, models should take account of the diversity of trait values that is found in all sites and PFTs, representing the "pool" of variation that is locally available for the natural adaptation of ecosystem function to environmental change.

  7. Variation and relationships of morphological traits, shoot yields and essential oil contents of four Anthemis species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Mohammad Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthemis L. is a genus of aromatic flowering plants in the family Asteraceae and is native to Iran. In this research, 62 accessions of four chamomile species including Anthemis tinctoria, A. triumfetti, A. haussknechtii and A. pseudocotula were evaluated for morphological traits. Four experiments were conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Institute of Forest and Rangeland, Tehran, Iran in 2011. Data were collected for the morphological traits for all of the species and essential oil content for A. triumfetti and A. pseudocotula. The results showed that plant height was positively correlated with canopy area for all of the species except A. triumfetti (p < 0.01. There were positive correlations between flower number with plant height and canopy area in both A. tinctoria and A. haussknechtii (p < 0.01. Fresh and dry weight were positively correlated with canopy area and plant height in all of the species (p < 0.01, except A. tinctoria for canopy area and A. triumfetti for plant height. GDD had a positive correlation with canopy area for A. triumfetti (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between essential oil yield and plant height, fresh and dry weight in A. triumfetti and A. pseudocotula (p < 0.05. Using cluster analysis (Ward method, the accessions of A. triumfetti, A. tinctoria, A. haussknechtii and A. pseudocotula were grouped into 3, 2, 4 and 2 clusters, respectively. The results of cluster analysis separated the accession based on shoot yield, morphological traits and maturity. In some items, the accessions within each cluster were coordinated with their geographical provenance.

  8. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  9. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-β-ocimene (43.3%), α-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml−1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml−1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml−1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:26114148

  10. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  11. Essential oil composition of Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC.) Boiss. from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ayşe Betül; Korkmaz, Mustafa; Özçelik, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the essential oil content and composition of Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC.) Boiss., a rare species spread in flora of Turkey. The samples were collected during the fructifying period of the plant from Erzincan, Turkey, at an altitude of 2430 m, in 2010. Essential oils were obtained from different parts of the plant such as fruits and herbal parts with Clevenger apparatus by hydro-distillation. Essential oil contents of the plant material were 0.38 ± 0.015%, 0.23 ± 0.012% and 0.21 ± 0.015% from fruits, herbal parts with fruits and herbal parts without fruits, respectively. Composition of essential oil was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil of the herbal parts of the plant was dominated by fatty alcohols and aldehydes which accounted for 73.10% and 24.64%, respectively. Myristyl alcohol (1-tetradecanol) was identified as a major component of essential oil with an average content of 73.10%.

  12. Pollen grain traits of oil species from the Novi Sad collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Jovanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The collection of oil species in Novi Sad contains 12 species represented with 1-4 cultivars or landraces. In the continuous work on this collection in the sense of breeding of some of those species and their usage as a source of 'desirable genes' we analyzed pollen grain morphology (shape and size, as well as pollen viability. To determine mentioned pollen traits we used Axiovert 40C microscope together with a software package (AxioVision LE; Rel.4.3. for measurement of pollen length and width. Pollen viability was determined using a staining method (ALEXANDER, 1969. The results showed that species differ by pollen grain shape (round, egg-shaped, triangular and rod as well as by shape of exine (thick and spiky, thick to thin. In some species there was a specific number of apertures present (1-11. The size of viable pollen grains ranged from 29,10/12,58μ (coriander to 176,63/169,94μ (oil gourd, while non-viable pollen grains were always smaller (27,27/10,97μ to 119,62/100,86μ at the same plant species. Pollen viability of most species was around 80%. Lowest pollen viability was found in white flax (56,98%, and the highest in oil pumpkin (91,43%.

  13. Composition of the Essential oil of Artemisia absinthium from Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farukh S. Sharopov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three samples of Artemisia absinthium were collected from two different locations in the central-south of Tajikistan. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. A total of 41 compounds were identified representing 72-94% of total oil compositions. The major components of A. absinthium oil were myrcene (8.6-22.7%, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (7.7-17.9%, a dihydrochamazulene isomer (5.5-11.6%, germacrene D (2.4-8.0%, β-thujone (0.4-7.3%, linalool acetate (trace-7.0%, α-phellandrene (1.0-5.3%, and linalool (5.3-7.0%. The chemical compositions of A. absinthium from Tajikistan are markedly different from those from European, Middle Eastern, or other Asian locations and likely represent new chemotypes.

  14. Characteristics and composition of tomato seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazos, Evangelos S.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato seeds were separated from dried pomace, and seeds were ground and extracted with hot petroleum ether. The extracted oil was degummed, neutralised and bleached, and then the physical and chemical characteristics of crude and purified oils were determined. Purification led to a decrease in acidity, colour, unsaponifiables, E1%1cm 232 and oxidative stability, and to an increase in smoke point and E1%1cm 270. The fundamental physicochemical properties of the oil were not affected by purification. Tomato seed oil was found to contain high levels of linoleic (54%, followed by oleic (22%, while the dominant saturated acids were palmitic (14% and stearic (6%. Purification led to an increase in C18:2 trans, while the fatty acid profile of the oil remained unchanged, a- and ô-tocopherols were detected at levels of 202 and 1059 mg/kg; purification reduced tocopherol content to 161 and 898 mg/kg, respectively (β-sitosterol was found as the most predominant component of the sterolic fraction from tomato seed oil. A large percentage (16% of cholesterol was detected. Other sterols found in percentages higher than 1.5% were campesterol, stigmasterol and Δ5-avenasterol. In addition, trace to minor amounts of 24- methylenecholesterol, brassicasterol, Δ7-campesterol, clerosterol, Δ7 24-stigmastadienol, Δ7-stigmastanol, Δ7-avenasterol and erythrodiol were found. Sterol profile was not affected by purification.

    Se separaron semillas de tomate de la pulpa seca y posteriormente se trituraron y extrajeron con éter de petróleo en caliente. El aceite extraído se desgomó, neutralizó y decoloró, y luego se determinaron las características físicas y químicas de los aceites crudos y purificados. La purificación produjo una disminución en la acidez, color, insaponificables, E1%1cm 232 y estabilidad oxidativa y un aumento en

  15. Polymer composite coatings to protect parts of oil field equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kislyy, P.S.; Alekseyenko, A.A.; Dzyadykevich, Yu.V.; Kalba, Ye.N.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the possibility of using polymer composite coating for protection from corrosion and wear of working wheels of oil pumping pumps. A study was made of the physicomechanical properties of the polymer matrix. Technology was developed for applying the coating based on a polymer matrix and refractory filler which was introduced at the UMN ''Druzhba.''

  16. Tea tree oil: contact allergy and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-09-01

    In this article, contact allergy to, and the chemical composition of, tea tree oil (TTO) are reviewed. This essential oil is a popular remedy for many skin diseases, and may be used as neat oil or be present in cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals and household products. Of all essential oils, TTO has caused most (published) allergic reactions since the first cases were reported in 1991. In routine testing, prevalences of positive patch test reactions have ranged from 0.1% to 3.5%. Nearly 100 allergic patients have been described in case reports and case series. The major constituents of commercial TTO are terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene, 1,8-cineole, α-terpinene, α-terpineol, p-cymene, and α-pinene. Fresh TTO is a weak to moderate sensitizer, but oxidation increases its allergenic potency. The major sensitizers appear to be ascaridole, terpinolene, α-terpinene, 1,2,4-trihydroxymenthane, α-phellandrene, and limonene. The clinical picture of allergic contact dermatitis caused by TTO depends on the products used. Most reactions are caused by the application of pure oil; cosmetics are the culprits in a minority of cases. Patch testing may be performed with 5% oxidized TTO. Co-reactivity to turpentine oil is frequent, and there is an overrepresentation of reactions to fragrance mix I, Myroxylon pereirae, colophonium, and other essential oils.

  17. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  18. Using a trait-based approach to link microbial community composition and functioning to soil salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Kristin; Fierer, Noah; Rousk, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Our knowledge of the dynamics structuring microbial communities and the consequences this has for soil functions is rudimentary. In particular, predictions of the response of microbial communities to environmental change and the implications for associated ecosystem processes remain elusive. Understanding how environmental factors structure microbial communities and regulate the functions they perform is key to a mechanistic understanding of how biogeochemical cycles respond to environmental change. Soil salinization is an agricultural problem in many parts of the world. The activity of soil microorganisms is reduced in saline soils compared to non-saline soil. However, soil salinity often co-varies with other factors, making it difficult to assign responses of microbial communities to direct effects of salinity. A trait-based approach allows us to connect the environmental factor salinity with the responses of microbial community composition and functioning. Salinity along a salinity gradient serves as a filter for the community trait distribution of salt tolerance, selecting for higher salt tolerance at more saline sites. This trait-environment relationship can be used to predict responses of microbial communities to environmental change. Our aims were to (i) use salinity along natural salinity gradients as an environmental filter, and (ii) link the resulting filtered trait-distributions of the communities (the trait being salt tolerance) to the community composition. Soil samples were obtained from two replicated salinity gradients along an Australian salt lake, spanning a wide range of soil salinities (0.1 dS m-1 to >50 dS m-1). In one of the two gradients salinity was correlated with pH. Community trait distributions for salt tolerance were assessed by establishing dose-dependences for extracted bacterial communities using growth rate assays. In addition, functional parameters were measured along the salt gradients. Community composition of sites was compared

  19. Responses of leaf traits to climatic gradients: adaptive variation vs. compositional shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-T. Meng

    2015-05-01

    temperature, but Parea increased with temperature. Although the adaptive nature of many of these trait–climate relationships is understood qualitatively, a key challenge for modelling is to predict them quantitatively. Models must also take into account that community-level responses to climatic gradients can be influenced by shifts in PFT composition, such as the replacement of deciduous by evergreen trees, which may run either parallel or counter to trait variation within PFTs. The importance of PFT shifts varies among traits, being important for biophysical traits but less so for physiological and chemical traits.

  20. Chemical composition of olive oils of the cultivar Colombaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunin, P.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of monovarietal olive oils from the cultivar Colombaia was studied. Free acidity, peroxide value and UV absorbance attested to the good quality of the analyzed oils. Their fatty acid composition appeared to be quite different from the typical fatty acid profile of olive oils from Liguria but met the limits reported in the EC Regulations for olive oils. On the contrary, the amounts of Δ7-stigmastenol were often higher than the 0.5 % limit set by EC Regulations and total ß-sitosterol was below the minimum 93 % limit. The composition of polar compounds and of the volatile fraction was representative of the peculiar organoleptic character of these oils. Thus, the anomalous sterol composition of the monovarietal oils from the cultivar Colombaia calls for blending with other oils. Moreover, the use of these oils for the production of PDO oils “Riviera Ligure” must also be carefully controlled because it changes their nutritional and sensorial featuresEn este trabajo se ha estudiado la composición química de aceites de oliva mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia. La acidez libre, el índice de peróxidos y la absorción UV confirmaron la buena calidad de los aceites analizados. Su composición en ácidos grasos resultó bastante diferente del perfil típico de ácidos grasos de los aceites de oliva virgen de la región de Liguria, pero se mantuvo dentro de los límites establecidos por los Reglamentos EC para aceites de oliva. Por otro lado, las cantidades de Δ7-estigmastenol resultaron normalmente superiores al 0.5 % del límite fijado por los Reglamentos EC y el ß-sitosterol total fue inferior al 93 % del límite mínimo. La composición en compuestos polares y de la fracción volátil confirmó las características organolépticas peculiares de estos aceites. Por tanto, la composición esterólica anómala de los aceites mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia hace necesaria una mezcla con otros

  1. Effects of dietary rosemary and oregano volatile oil mixture on quail performance, egg traits and egg oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilbag, D; Gezen, S S; Biricik, H; Meral, Y

    2013-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of volatile oil mixture on quail laying performance, egg traits and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. 2. A total of 260 Pharaoh quails (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) aged 6 weeks were equally divided into 5 groups of 65 (4 replicates of 13 quails each). The mixture of diets was as follows: a control treatment with 0 mg volatile oil/kg of diet; (1) 200 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil; (2) 200 mg/kg oregano volatile oil; (3) 40 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil plus 160 mg/kg oregano volatile oil (ratio 20:80) and (4) 160 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil plus 40 mg/kg oregano volatile oil (ratio 80:20). The diets were prepared fresh for each treatment. The experimental period lasted 10 weeks. 3. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences amongst the groups in body weight, egg weight, egg mass, egg shape index, Haugh unit, egg shell thickness or egg shell-breaking strength. 4. Diets containing rosemary volatile oil increased the egg production significantly. Feed intake significantly increased in the groups containing volatile oil mixture (groups 4 and 5). The inclusion of rosemary volatile oil at 200 mg/kg improved feed efficiency. 5. Egg albumen and egg yolk index values showed significant increases in the group given diets containing rosemary volatile oil. Egg yolk colour became darker with the addition of rosemary and oregano volatile oil. The treatment group had lower egg yolk MDA concentration than the control group. 6. It is concluded that, alone or in combination, rosemary and oregano volatile oil can be used in quail diets without adverse effects on the measured parameters. Inclusion of rosemary and oregano volatile oil in quail diets enhanced the antioxidant status of eggs.

  2. Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for bovine milk protein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopen, G.C.B.; Koks, P.D.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for milk protein composition in 849 Holstein–Friesian cows originating from seven sires. One morning milk sample was analysed for the major milk proteins using capillary zone electrophoresis. A gen

  3. Does Virtual Team Composition Matter? Trait and Problem-Solving Configuration Effects on Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increased importance and usage of self-managed virtual teams, many recent studies have examined factors that affect their success. One such factor that merits examination is the configuration or composition of virtual teams. This article tackles this point by (1) empirically testing trait-configuration effects on virtual team…

  4. Stable carbon isotope composition of monoterpanes in essential oils and crude oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-five monoterpanes from six types of essential oils and hydrogenated turpentine oil have been identified and their stable carbon isotope composition determined.Monoterpanes in essential oils sourced from terrestrial higher plants display a δ13C value in the range of-34‰-26‰,and mostly between-29‰ and-27‰.The δ13C value of any single monoterpane is very consistent in different essential oils.Acyclic monoterpanes show closer isotope composition between-28.6‰ and-26.2‰,with an average value of-27.7‰.In contrast,the isotope composition of cyclic monoterpanes is more scattered with an average value of-28.6‰.Isotopic fractionation with 13C enrichment has been observed during both artificial and geological hydrogenation of monoterpenoids to monoterpanes,and this is more obvious for the acyclic monoterpenoids.In addition to higher plants,acyclic monoterpane 2,6-dimethylheptane in crude oil can also be originated from other organic inputs.

  5. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette, E-mail: abp@bios.au.dk [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Göthe, Emma [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Riis, Tenna [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 1, Building 1135, Room 217, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); O' Hare, Matthew T. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-01

    stress. The ability to disentangle several stressors is particularly important in lowland stream environments where several stressors act in concert since the impact of the most important stressor can be targeted first, which is essential to improve the ecological status. - Highlights: • Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can distinguish hydromorphological degradation from eutrophication in streams • A conceptual framework on how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact on functional trait composition • Weed cutting can set aside light as a factor controlling trait-abundance pattern in eutrophic lowland streams.

  6. Impact of oil on groundwater chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakorenko, N. N.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the paper is to characterize the chemical composition of groundwater samples from the monitoring wells drilled in the petrol station areas within the vicinity of Tomsk. The level of contamination has increased since many macro - and microcomponent concentrations (such as petroleum products, chlorine, sulphates, carbon dioxide and lead, etc.) in groundwater samples of the present study is higher than that in previous period samples.

  7. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D.; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems. PMID:26366576

  8. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Sahner

    Full Text Available Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization. Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra. We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems.

  9. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahner, Josephine; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Barus, Henry; Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems.

  10. Nutrient composition of rose (Rosa canina L.) seed and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Musa

    2002-01-01

    Rose seeds were evaluated for weight of 100 seeds, moisture, crude protein, ash, crude oil, energy, and mineral content. Also, fatty acid composition was determined in the seed oils. The weight of 100 seeds, moisture, crude oil, energy, and iron (Fe) content of Ermenek rose seeds were found to be higher than those of other regions. The major fatty acids identified by gas chromatography of rose seed oils growing wild in the Hadim, Taskent, and Ermenek regions in Turkey were, respectively, as follows: palmitic (3.17%, 1.71%, and 2.14%), stearic (2.47%, 2.14%, and 1.69%), oleic (16.73%, 18.42%, and 14.71%), linoleic (54.41%, 51.71%, and 48,64%), linolenic (17.14%, 16.42%, and 18.41%), and arachidic (2.11%, 1.87%, and 2.61%). The seeds were rich in oil and minerals. The oil may be valuable for food and other uses because of its high unsaturated content.

  11. Convergent Diversity and Trait Composition in Temporary Streams and Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-19

    2002, Vieira et al. 2004, Hoeinghaus et al. 2007) influences invertebrate and vertebrate species richness and composition, predator distribution...T. 2000. Annual and seasonal variation and the effects of hydroperiod on benthic macroin- vertebrates of seasonal forest (“vernal”) ponds in central...term studies of vertebrate communities. Academic Press, San Di- ego, California, USA. Skelly, D. K. 1996. Pond drying, predators, and the distri

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

  13. Compositional heterogeneity of crude oil and its origin in the Linnan subsag, Linyi County, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Xiangchun; DUAN Yunge; CHEN Qingchun; MA Lixin

    2008-01-01

    The Linnan subsag is the main oil producer of the Linpan oil zone. Based on the oil group composition, gas chromatography data and biomarker analysis, it was indicated that crude oils from different oilfields varied greatly in group composition and showed obvious heterogeneities in the aspects of precursor type, crude oil maturity and hydrocarbon depositional environment. According to the characteristics of source rocks, three oil populations can be distinguished, i.e., the southern, northern and transitional oil populations. Furthermore, on the basis of post-reservoir reworking processes, the medium conditions of hydrocarbon-generating environment and differences in maturity, six oil families and twelve sub-families were distinquished. An integrated study suggested that the factors leading to such heterogeneities in crude oil composition mainly include different source rocks, multi-stage oil/gas charging, geo-chromatographic effects during oil/gas migration, reservoir heterogeneities and various post-reservoir secondary alterations.

  14. Chemical composition of Chenopodium botrys L. (Chenopodiaceae essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Adji Andov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of essential oil isolated from aerial parts of Chenopodium botrys L. (Chenopodiaceae collected from five different locations in the Republic of Macedonia was analysed by GC/FID/MS. Seventy five compounds were identified representing 90.02- 91.24% of the oil. The analysis has shown that the oils were rich in sesquiterpenе components (83.18-87.54% comprising elemol acetat (9.88%-21.98%, seline-11-en-4α-ol (9.81%-13.5%, selina-3,11-dien-6α-ol (6.42%-9.71% and elemol (5.57%-9.49% as major oxygen containing sesquiterpenes, followed by lower content of α-eudesmol acetat (3.24%-4.11%, α-chenopodiol (2.42%-5.43%, botrydiol (1.87-5.73% and α-chenopodiol-6-acetat (1.9%-4.73%.

  15. Composition of the Floral Essential Oil of Brugmansia suaveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William N. Setzer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The floral essential oils of Brugmansia suaveolens, from Monteverde, Costa Rica, were collected atthree different times of the day by hydrodistillation and the oils analyzed by gas chromatography-massspectrometry (GC-MS. The floral essential oil showed a dramatic change in composition between the freshlyopened night (white blossoms and the rose-colored senescent blossoms the following day. The white blossomswere dominated by 1,8-cineole (72.1%, (E-nerolidol (11.7%, a-terpineol (5.3%, and phenethyl alcohol(3.2%, notably different from headspace analyses of B. suaveolens reported previously. The floral essential oilfrom “rose-colored” senescent blossoms of B. suaveolens showed dramatic decreases in 1,8-cineole (2.0%, (E-nerolidol (1.9%, and phenethyl alcohol (not detected, with concomitant increases in heptanal (10.2%, nonanal(17.4%, terpinen-4-ol (10.5%, and megastigmatrienones (35.5%.

  16. Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borugă, O; Jianu, C; Mişcă, C; Goleţ, I; Gruia, A T; Horhat, F G

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), γ-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  17. The composition analysis of coal-derived light oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen-nan; LIU Li-lin; ZHU Xiao-man; LI Wen-bo

    2008-01-01

    The composition of coal-derived light oil (IBP-220 ℃) was separated into 5 fractions by atmospheric distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spec-trometry (GC/MS). The light oil was made at 0.1 t/d coal direct liquefaction bench scale unit (BSU) at China Coal Research Institute (CCRI). Six groups of organics, including acyclic hydrocarbon, alicyclic hydrocarbon, aromatics, phenols, polynuclear aromatics and heterocyclics, were found and 80 compounds were tentatively identified in total. Alicyclic hydrocarbon is the main component of the light oil compared to other groups whether in relative mass percentage or the number of compounds in group. The predominant oxy-gen-contained compound is phenols, and the nitrogen-containing compound is pyridine.No sulfur-containing compound is detected.

  18. Composition and placement process for oil field chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu, L.A.; Yost, M.E.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a process for the continuous release of an oil field chemical within a subterranean hydrocarbon bearing formation or wellbore penetrating such formation. It comprises placing the oil field chemical in a polymeric microcapsule; dispersing such polymeric microcapsules; introducing the wellbore fluid containing the microcapsules into a well bore or subterranean formation through a wellbore; then allowing water and temperature at formation conditions to degrade; continuously releasing the chemical from the degraded microcapsules. This patent describes a composition comprising an oil field chemical incorporated in a polymeric microcapsule comprising the condensation product of hydroxyacetic acid monomer or hydroxyacetic acid co-condensed with up to 15 percent by weight of other hydroxy-, carboxylic acid-, or hydroxycarboxylic acid- containing moieties. The product has a number average molecular weight of from about 200 to about 4000.

  19. Macroinvertebrate Taxonomic and Functional Trait Compositions within Lotic Habitats Affected By River Restoration Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. C.; Hill, M. J.; Bickerton, M. A.; Wood, P. J.

    2017-09-01

    The widespread degradation of lotic ecosystems has prompted extensive river restoration efforts globally, but many studies have reported modest ecological responses to rehabilitation practices. The functional properties of biotic communities are rarely examined within post-project appraisals, which would provide more ecological information underpinning ecosystem responses to restoration practices and potentially pinpoint project limitations. This study examines macroinvertebrate community responses to three projects which aimed to physically restore channel morphologies. Taxonomic and functional trait compositions supported by widely occurring lotic habitats (biotopes) were examined across paired restored and non-restored (control) reaches. The multivariate location (average community composition) of taxonomic and functional trait compositions differed marginally between control and restored reaches. However, changes in the amount of multivariate dispersion were more robust and indicated greater ecological heterogeneity within restored reaches, particularly when considering functional trait compositions. Organic biotopes (macrophyte stands and macroalgae) occurred widely across all study sites and supported a high alpha (within-habitat) taxonomic diversity compared to mineralogical biotopes (sand and gravel patches), which were characteristic of restored reaches. However, mineralogical biotopes possessed a higher beta (between-habitat) functional diversity, although this was less pronounced for taxonomic compositions. This study demonstrates that examining the functional and structural properties of taxa across distinct biotopes can provide a greater understanding of biotic responses to river restoration works. Such information could be used to better understand the ecological implications of rehabilitation practices and guide more effective management strategies.

  20. Changes occurring in vegetable oils composition due to microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Mallah, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave heating on three vegetable oils having different lipid compositions was studied. Sunflower, soybean and peanut oils in comparison with oil admixture of soybean and peanut oil (1:1, w/w, were selected for this study. Each oil was heated for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 18 minutes in microwave oven. Peroxide value, free acidity and colour absorbance (at 420 nm were proportionally increasing with the increase of heating period. Colour absorption threw light on the formation of browning products arising from phospholipids during microwave heating. Total tocopherol contents were determined by preparative thin layer chromatography, whereas the fatty acid compositions and formed epoxy acid were analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography. The formed conjugated dienes and trienes were determined by UV spectrophotometry. It was found that the total tocopherols of the microwave heated oils, decreased depending on the type of the predominating tocopherols. Also a relation of peroxide formation, during microwave heating, with changes in total tocopherol composition was discussed. It was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids generally decreased by increasing the heating period. The results obtained from the heated oil admixture helped interpret the results obtained from other heated individual oils.Se estudia el efecto del calentamiento en horno de microondas sobre aceites de diferente composición en ácidos grasos. Aceites de girasol, soja, cacahuete y una mezcla de soja y cacahuete al 50%, se calentaron durante 2, 4, 6, 8 10, 12, 15 y 18 minutos. Los valores de índice de peróxidos, acidez libre y absorbancia a 420 nm fueron proporcionales al tiempo de calentamiento. Otras determinaciones incluyeron el contenido total en tocoferoles mediante cromatografía en capa fina, la composición en ácidos grasos y en epoxiácidos mediante cromatografía gas líquido, y la formación de dienos y trienos conjugados mediante

  1. Chemical Composition of Iran's Pistacia atlantica Cold-Pressed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saber-Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid fraction of Pistacia atlantica seeds was extracted for the first time by means of cold-press technique and analyzed for its chemical composition. The fatty acids, sterols, triacylglycerols (TAG, tocopherols, polyphenols, and pigments were identified and their concentrations were determined by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. Because of its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, it might prove to be of value in diets and it may be used as edible cooking or salad oils or for margarine manufacture. Pistacia atlantica seed oil has the unique sterols and tocopherols content providing source of natural antioxidants. The main triacylglycerols were SLL + PLO, SOL + POO, OOLn + PLL, OOO, and SOO. This paper examined the phenolic fraction of Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Moreover, caffeic acid followed by cinnamic acid, pinoresinol, vanillin, p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and o-Coumaric acid was also determined. This paper presents the first investigation of chlorophyll's and carotene's composition in Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Furthermore, pheophytin a was the major component, followed by luteoxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, lutein isomers, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a′, and pheophytin a′ were also determined.

  2. Effects of irrigation intervals and organic manure on morphological traits, essential oil content and yield of oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Farzad; Moghaddam, Parviz R; Ghorbani, Reza; Hassani, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation intervals and cattle manure levels on morphological traits, essential oil content and yield of oregano, an experiment was conducted at the experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Iran. The experimental design was split-plots, arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots including irrigation intervals (1, 2 and 3 weeks) and four levels of cattle manure at 0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1 were allocated to sub plots. Our results showed that increasing irrigation intervals reduced values of all morphological traits except for proportion of stems. Also, values for stems number, plant spread, stem diameter, leaf area, fresh and dry herb yield increased by increasing cattle manure levels. On the other hand, morphological traits not influenced by interaction of treatments except for plant spread and leaf area. The highest essential oil content (2.07%) and yield (66.62 kg ha-1) obtained in highest irrigation intervals and cattle manure levels. Whereas, 1 week irrigation interval without use of cattle manure produce lowest essential oil content (1.55%). For essential oil yield, the lowest value (46.37 kg ha-1) was found in 2 weeks irrigation interval with application of 20 t ha-1 cattle manure.

  3. Variable effects of dispersal on productivity of bacterial communities due to changes in functional trait composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Severin

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown variable relationships between dispersal rate and ecosystem functioning, but the reasons for and mechanisms behind variable dispersal rate-functioning patterns are currently unknown. In this study we used six bacterial lake water communities in a laboratory experiment in order to investigate how dispersal among communities influences community productivity by evaluating three different mechanisms: 1 changes in taxonomic diversity, 2 changes in phylogenetic diversity or 3 changes in the composition of functional traits. The experiment was conducted in two phases; (A a dialysis bag experiment where the dispersal rate among six communities was manipulated and the subsequent change in bacterial diversity and growth rate was recorded, and (B a regrowth experiment where we manipulated available resources to study how well a taxon grows on certain organic carbon resources, i.e. their functional traits. From experiment (B we could thus estimate changes in functional traits in communities in experiment (A. Bacterial production was affected by dispersal, but not consistently among lakes. Neither change in taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity with dispersal could explain the observed dispersal-productivity relationships. Instead, changes in trait composition with dispersal, especially the communities' ability to use p-coumaric acid, an aromatic compound, could explain the observed dispersal-productivity relationships. Changes in this trait caused by dispersal seemed especially important for bacterial productivity in waters with a high aromaticity of the organic matter pool. We conclude that the effect of dispersal on bacterial communities can affect ecosystem functioning in different ways, through changes in functional key-traits which are important for the local environment.

  4. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of petroleum-derived substances on life history traits of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) and on the growth and chemical composition of broad bean

    OpenAIRE

    Rusin, Milena; GOSPODAREK, Janina; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances, namely petrol, diesel fuel and spent engine oil, on life history traits and population dynamics of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. and on growth and chemical composition of its host plant Vicia faba L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 g kg−1 and 18 g kg−1). The experiment was conducted in four replications (four pots with five plants in each pot per treatment). Pl...

  6. The meaning of functional trait composition of food webs for ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Dominique; Albouy, Camille; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2016-05-19

    There is a growing interest in using trait-based approaches to characterize the functional structure of animal communities. Quantitative methods have been derived mostly for plant ecology, but it is now common to characterize the functional composition of various systems such as soils, coral reefs, pelagic food webs or terrestrial vertebrate communities. With the ever-increasing availability of distribution and trait data, a quantitative method to represent the different roles of animals in a community promise to find generalities that will facilitate cross-system comparisons. There is, however, currently no theory relating the functional composition of food webs to their dynamics and properties. The intuitive interpretation that more functional diversity leads to higher resource exploitation and better ecosystem functioning was brought from plant ecology and does not apply readily to food webs. Here we appraise whether there are interpretable metrics to describe the functional composition of food webs that could foster a better understanding of their structure and functioning. We first distinguish the various roles that traits have on food web topology, resource extraction (bottom-up effects), trophic regulation (top-down effects), and the ability to keep energy and materials within the community. We then discuss positive effects of functional trait diversity on food webs, such as niche construction and bottom-up effects. We follow with a discussion on the negative effects of functional diversity, such as enhanced competition (both exploitation and apparent) and top-down control. Our review reveals that most of our current understanding of the impact of functional trait diversity on food web properties and functioning comes from an over-simplistic representation of network structure with well-defined levels. We, therefore, conclude with propositions for new research avenues for both theoreticians and empiricists.

  7. Genotype by Energy Expenditure Interaction and Body Composition Traits: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Energy expenditure has been negatively correlated with fat accumulation. However, this association is highly variable. In the present study we applied a genotype by environment interaction method to examine the presence of Genotype x by Total Daily Energy Expenditure and Genotype x by Daily Energy Expenditure interactions in the expression of different body composition traits. Methods and Results. A total of 958 subjects from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. TDEE and DEE were assessed using a physical activity recall. Body fat percentages were measured with a bioelectrical impedance scale. GxTDEE and GxDEE examinations were performed using SOLAR 4.0 software. All BC traits were significantly heritable, with heritabilities ranging from 21% to 34%. The GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction models fitted the data better than the polygenic model for all traits. For all traits, a significant GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction was due to variance heterogeneity among distinct levels of TDEE and DEE. For WC, GxTDEE was also significant due to the genetic correlation function. Conclusions. TDEE and DEE are environmental constraints associated with the expression of individuals’ BC genotypes, leading to variability in the phenotypic expression of BC traits.

  8. Dried flour-oil composites for lipid delivery in low-fat cake mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess steam jet-cooked wheat flour and canola oil composites containing 30 to 55% oil were drum dried. The composites were used to replace the flour and oil in the low-fat cake mix formulations. The cake batter specific gravity and viscosity were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain...

  9. Compositional and geochemical characteristics of light hydrocarbons for typical marine oils and typical coal-generated oils in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang; ZHANG Min

    2008-01-01

    Different types of crude oils have different light hydrocarbon compositional and geochemical characteristics. Based on the light hydrocarbon data from two kinds of oils, i.e., coal-generated oils and marine oils in China, light hydrocarbons in marine oils in the Tazhong area are generally relatively enriched in n-heptane, and coal-generated oils from the Turpan Basin are enriched in methylcyclohexane . The K1 values, reported by Mango (1987), range from 0.97 to 1.19 in marine oils, basically consistent with what was reported by Mango on light hydrocarbons in terms of the majority of the crude oil data. But the K1 values of coal-generated oils are particularly high (1.35-1.66) and far greater than those of marine oils; heptane values in marine oils, ranging from 32.3% to 45.4%, and isoheptane values, ranging from 1.9 to 3.7, are respectively higher than those of coal-generated oils, indicating that the oils are in the high-maturity stage. In addition, expulsion temperatures of coal-generated oils from the Turpan Basin are obviously lower than those of marine oils from the Tazhong area.

  10. Chemical composition and leishmanicidal activity of Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Asghari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Several natural compounds have been identified for the treatment ofleishmaniasis. Due to a few safe drugs and the side effects caused by available chemotherapy, some new drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis are requested.  The genus Pulicaria (Asteraceae is represented in the flora of Iran by five species. Phytochemical studies on Pulicaria species have revealed some flavonoids and terpenoids with leishmanicidal activity. In the present investigation chemical composition and leishmanicidal activity of Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil have been studied. Methods: The essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant was obtained by Clevenger apparatus and was analyzed by GC/MS. Antileishmanil activity was assessed against promastigoes of Leishmania major. Results:The major components from P. gnaphalodes essential oil have been reported to be geraniol, 1,8-cineole, chrysanthenone, α-pinene, chrystanthenone, α-terpineol and filifolone. The alcohol monoterpenes with contribution of 25.04% constituted the major portion of the essential oil, while hydrocarbon monoterpenes and hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes with contribution of 7.08% and 2.38%, respectively occupied the next rates.In the present experiment the essential oil of P. gnaphalodes progressively inhibited Leishmania major growth in concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 50 µL/mL (parasite culture in 24 h. The essential oil at 50 µL/mL eliminated the promastigotes at the beginning of treatment. It showed antileishmanial activity in concentration of 1.06 µL/mL and destroyed all parasits in 24 h.  Conclusion: Pulicaria gnaphalodes antileishmanial activity, could suggest the species and constituents as possible lead structures for antileishmanial drug discovery.

  11. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  12. Effect of oil type and fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Dogan, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    In this study, effect of fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of oils was studied. For this aim, different types of vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, olive, hazelnut, cottonseed and canola), were used. Rheological properties of oil samples were identified by rheometer (Thermo-Haake) at 25°C and fatty acid composition of oils was determined by GC (Agilent 6890). Steady shear rheological properties of oil samples were measured at shear rate range of 0.1-100 s⁻¹. Viscosity of olive, hazelnut, cottonseed, canola, soybean and sunflower was 61.2 mPa.s, 59.7 mPa.s, 57.3 mPa.s, 53.5 mPa.s, 48.7 mPa.s and 48.2 mPa.s, respectively. There was a significant difference between viscosity of oils except soybean and sunflower. As a result it was seen that there was a correlation between viscosity and monounsaturated (R=0.89), polyunsaturated (R=-0.97) fatty acid composition of oils, separately. Equation was found to predict viscosity of the oils based on mono and polyunsaturation composition of oils. In addition the dynamic rheological properties of oils were also examined. G', G'' and tan δ (G''/G') values were measured at 0.3 Pa (in viscoelastic region) and 0.1-1 Hz. As a result of multiple regression analysis another equations were found between tan δ, viscosity and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  13. Composition of Algal Oil and Its Potential as Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Schlagermann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First test flights using blends with algae oil are already carried out and expectations by the aviation and other industries are high. On the other hand technical data about performance of cultivation systems, downstream processing, and suitability of algae oil as fuel are still limited. The existing microalgae growing industry mainly produces for the food and feed market. Energy efficiency is so far out of scope but needs to be taken into account if the product changes to biofuel. Energy and CO2 balances are used to estimate the potential of algae oil to fulfil the EU sustainability criteria for biofuels. The analysis is supported by lab tests as well as data gained by a pilot scale demonstrator combined with published data for well-known established processes. The algae oil composition is indicator of suitability as fuel as well as for economic viability. Approaches attaining high value fractions are therefore of great importance and will be discussed in order to determine the most intended market.

  14. Chemical compositions of two different Thymus species essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Jaberi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thymus is one of the most important members of Lamiaceae family. Aerial parts of the plant have been widely used in medicine. It has been reported that most of these effects are related to phenolic compounds especially thymol and carvacrol in Thymus essential oil. In this study, aerial parts of Thymus daenensis and Thymus lancifolius were collected from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Iran. Essential oils of aerial parts of these plants were gained by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The major components of the essential oil of T. daenensis were thymol (39.91%, carvacrol (29.93%, linalool (5.55%, caryophyllene (3.5% and geraniol (3.09%, whereas the major components of the essential oil of T. lancifolius were: carvacrol (25.55%, thymol (20.79%, linalool (16.8%, α-terpineol (6.34%, borneol (4.00%, caryophyllene (3.98%, p-cymene (3.38% and cis-linalool oxide (3.21%. Linalool was reported as another major component in T. lancifolius

  15. EFFECT OF OIL TEMPERATURE ON THE WAX DEPOSITION OF CRUDE OIL WITH COMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Quan

    Full Text Available Abstract Wax deposition behavior was investigated in a set of one-inch experiment flow loops, using a local crude oil with high wax content. The temperature of the oil phase is chosen as a variable parameter while the temperature of the coolant media is maintained constant. Detailed composition of the deposit is characterized using High Temperature Gas Chromatography. It was found that the magnitude of the diffusion of the heavier waxy components (C35-C50 decreases when the oil temperature decreases, but the magnitude of the diffusion of the lighter waxy components increases. This result means that the diffusion of wax molecules shifts towards lower carbon number, which further proves the concept of molecular diffusion. Meanwhile, a meaningful phenomenon is that the mass of the deposit increases with the oil temperature decrease, which definitely proves the influence of wax solubility on deposition, while the formation of an incipient gel layer reflects the fact that an increase in the mass of the deposit does not mean a larger wax percentage fraction at lower oil temperature.

  16. [Study on the chemical compositions of VOCs emitted by cooking oils based on GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Tian, Gang; Li, Jing; Shao, Xia; Wang, Min-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in air, and the differences in the compositions of VOCs lead to their different contribution to atmospheric reaction. Cooking oil fume is one of the important sources of atmospheric VOCs, and its chemical compositions are distinct under different conditions of oil types, food types, cooking methods and heating temperatures etc. In this study, the production of cooking oil fume was simulated by heating typical pure vegetable oils (peanut oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, olive oil and blend oil) at different temperatures in beakers to investigate the chemical compositions of VOCs. The emitted VOCs were sampled with a Tenax adsorption tube and analyzed using GC-MS after thermal desorption. According to spectral library search and map analysis, using area normalized semi-quantitative method, preliminary qualitative and quantitative tests were conducted for the specific components of VOCs under different conditions.

  17. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  18. The Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc Levels on Essential Oil Yield and some Morphological Traits of Hypericum perforatums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Zadeh Esfahlan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of nitrogen and zinc fertilizer on the morphological traits and essential oil yield of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum a greenhouse experiment in a factorial randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. Treatments consisted of three levels of zinc sulphate with a concentration of zinc fertilizer (zero, 3 and 6 parts per thousand and four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (zero, 50, 100, 150 kg/ha. One half of the fertilizers were applied 20 days after planting of plants and the rest 40 days after transplanting. Traits evaluated were plant height, inflorescence number, leaf area, plant fresh and dry weights and plant essential oil content. The results showed that the traits under study were affected by rate of fertilizer applications. Highest plant height, number of inflorescences, leaf area and essential oil yield were obtained by using 150 kg/ha of nitrogen and applying zinc with 0.006 concentration. Highest fresh and dry weights of above ground parts were also produced by using 150 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizer along with zinc fertilizer 0.003.

  19. Research of Composite oil displacement effect of M20

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵识远

    2015-01-01

    This paper selects the Daqing Refining &Chemical relativemolecular mass of 1900 ×104 ,the concentration of polymer solution of 1500mg/L,by simulation of physics,the SS (petroleum sulfonate)alkali free two system system,sodium carbonate three system toachieve ultra-low interfacial tension is a component concentration,and on this basis the viscoelastic properties,viscosity and oil displacement experiment. Research shows that,three element system in the surfactant concentration is 0.3%,the alkali concentration is 1.2%,the interfacial tension can reach 10 -3mN /m,two system of surfactant concentration of 0.3% can reach 10 -3mN /m;because of absence of alkali,the viscoelastic proper-ties of monomers was higher than that of the composite system,in the composite system,elastic properties two system to more than three system system.Artificial heterogeneous oil displacement experiment results,SS alkali free two system system recovery rate reached 30.1%,6.7 percent-age points higher than the single poly,2.7 percentage points higher than thethree element composite system.

  20. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  1. Vitamin E and Beta Carotene Composition in Four Different Vegetable Oils

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Some vegetable oils contains natural antioxidants such as beta carotene and vitamin E namely tocopherol and tocotrienol. Different vegetable oils contained different amount of vitamin E and β-carotene. Approach: Study was carried out to investigate the natural antioxidants (vitamin E and beta carotene) composition in four different vegetable oils [Red Palm Olein (RPO), palm plein (PO), Corn Oil (CO) and Coconut Oil (COC)]. Results: The results showe...

  2. Effect of oil and oil with graphite on tribological properties of glass filled PTFE polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y R Kharde; K V Saisrinadh

    2011-07-01

    Present work deals with the experimental investigation of tribological properties of GF-filled polymer composites considering three velocities, i.e. 0.5, 1 and 2.0 m/s and loads ranging from 15.7 N to 45.13 N keeping rest of the parameters constant. The test has been carried out for three materials, PTFE + 15% GF, PTFE + 25% GF and PTFE + 35% GF in wet (oil) and adding additive as graphite (5% wt) in oil. SAE 20W40 oil is used for the test. Friction and wear tests of PTFE composite against a counter surface of EN8 with surface finish of 0.56 m are carried out at ambient conditions using pin-on-disc tribometre (TR-20), Ducom make, Bangalore. The results are tabulated and graphs are plotted. It has been found that load and wet conditions have significant effect on coefficient of friction and specific wear rate of the materials. Where as sliding velocity also plays little role in wear mechanism of the material. It is concluded from the experimental study that the specific wear rate in wet condition as well as by adding additives in lubricating oil with 5% (by wt.) has been declined. Also the specific wear rate decreases with normal load and sliding velocity. Wear of PTFE + GF composite decreases with increase in glass percentage. Microscopic analysis of pin and disc surface is made with optical microscope. The mathematical models has been developed by using regression analysis and found to be valid for the above tested parameters.

  3. Identification of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass composition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Stone, R T

    2004-02-01

    A genomic screening to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits was pursued. Two hundred nineteen microsatellite markers were genotyped on 176 of 620 (28%) progeny from a Brahman x Angus sire mated to mostly MARC III dams. Selective genotyping, based on retail product yield (%) and fat yield (%), was used to select individuals to be genotyped. Traits included in the study were birth weight (kg), hot carcass weight (kg), retail product yield, fat yield, marbling score (400 = slight00 and 500 = small00), USDA yield grade, and estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat (%). The QTL were classified as significant when the expected number of false positives (ENFP) was less than 0.05 (F-statistic greater than 17.3), and suggestive when the ENFP was carcass weight at 49 cM, and for estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat at 62 cM on chromosome 16, and for fat yield at 35 cM on chromosome 17. Two suggestive QTL for birth weight were identified, one at 12 cM on chromosome 20 and the other at 56 cM on chromosome 21. An additional suggestive QTL was detected for retail product yield, for fat yield, and for USDA yield grade at 26 cM on chromosome 26. Results presented here represent the initial search for quantitative trait loci in this family. Validation of detected QTL in other populations will be necessary.

  4. Flexible, Mechanically Durable Aerogel Composites for Oil Capture and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatum, Osman; Steiner, Stephen A; Griffin, Justin S; Shi, Wenbo; Plata, Desiree L

    2016-01-13

    More than 30 years separate the two largest oil spills in North American history (the Ixtoc I and Macondo well blowouts), yet the responses to both disasters were nearly identical in spite of advanced material innovation during the same time period. Novel, mechanically durable sorbents could enable (a) sorbent use in the open ocean, (b) automated deployment to minimize workforce exposure to toxic chemicals, and (c) mechanical recovery of spilled oils. Here, we explore the use of two mechanically durable, low-density (0.1-0.2 g cm(-3)), highly porous (85-99% porosity), hydrophobic (water contact angles >120°), flexible aerogel composite blankets as sorbent materials for automated oil capture and recovery: Cabot Thermal Wrap (TW) and Aspen Aerogels Spaceloft (SL). Uptake of crude oils (Iraq and Sweet Bryan Mound oils) was 8.0 ± 0.1 and 6.5 ± 0.3 g g(-1) for SL and 14.0 ± 0.1 and 12.2 ± 0.1 g g(-1) for TW, respectively, nearly twice as high as similar polyurethane- and polypropylene-based devices. Compound-specific uptake experiments and discrimination against water uptake suggested an adsorption-influenced sorption mechanism. Consistent with that mechanism, chemical extraction oil recoveries were 95 ± 2 (SL) and 90 ± 2% (TW), but this is an undesirable extraction route in decentralized oil cleanup efforts. In contrast, mechanical extraction routes are favorable, and a modest compression force (38 N) yielded 44.7 ± 0.5% initially to 42.0 ± 0.4% over 10 reuse cycles for SL and initially 55.0 ± 0.1% for TW, degrading to 30.0 ± 0.2% by the end of 10 cycles. The mechanical integrity of SL deteriorated substantially (800 ± 200 to 80 ± 30 kPa), whereas TW was more robust (380 ± 80 to 700 ± 100 kPa) over 10 uptake-and-compression extraction cycles.

  5. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Matthäus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa, were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil. The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol.

  6. Conditional QTL mapping of oil content in rapeseed with respect to protein content and traits related to plant development and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianyi; Becker, Heiko C; Zhang, Dongqing; Zhang, Yaofeng; Ecke, Wolfgang

    2006-06-01

    Oil content in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is generally regarded as a character with high heritability that is negatively correlated with protein content and influenced by plant developmental and yield related traits. To evaluate possible genetic interrelationships between these traits and oil content, QTL for oil content were mapped using data on oil content and on oil content conditioned on the putatively interrelated traits. Phenotypic data were evaluated in a segregating doubled haploid population of 282 lines derived from the F(1) of a cross between the old German cultivar Sollux and the Chinese cultivar Gaoyou. The material was tested at four locations, two each in Germany and in China. QTLMapper version 1.0 was used for mapping unconditional and conditional QTL with additive (a) and locus pairs with additive x additive epistatic (aa) effects. Clear evidence was found for a strong genetic relationship between oil and protein content. Six QTL and nine epistatic locus pairs were found, which had pleiotropic effects on both traits. Nevertheless, two QTL were also identified, which control oil content independent from protein content and which could be used in practical breeding programs to increase oil content without affecting seed protein content. In addition, six additional QTL with small effects were only identified in the conditional mapping. Some evidence was apparent for a genetic interrelationship between oil content and the number of seeds per silique but no evidence was found for a genetic relationship between oil content and flowering time, grain filling period or single seed weight. The results indicate that for closely correlated traits conditional QTL mapping can be used to dissect the genetic interrelationship between two traits at the level of individual QTL. Furthermore, conditional QTL mapping can reveal additional QTL with small effects that are undetectable in unconditional mapping.

  7. The Role of Individual Traits and Environmental Factors for Diet Composition of Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysterud, Atle; Austrheim, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Large herbivore consumption of forage is known to affect vegetation composition and thereby ecosystem functions. It is thus important to understand how diet composition arises as a mixture of individual variation in preferences and environmental drivers of availability, but few studies have quantified both. Based on 10 years of data on diet composition by aid of microhistological analysis for sheep kept at high and low population density, we analysed how both individual traits (sex, age, body mass, litter size) linked to preference and environmental variation (density, climate proxies) linked to forage availability affected proportional intake of herbs (high quality/low availability) and Avenella flexuosa (lower quality/high availability). Environmental factors affecting current forage availability such as population density and seasonal and annual variation in diet had the most marked impact on diet composition. Previous environment of sheep (switch between high and low population density) had no impact on diet, suggesting a comparably minor role of learning for density dependent diet selection. For individual traits, only the difference between lambs and ewes affected proportion of A. flexuosa, while body mass better predicted proportion of herbs in diet. Neither sex, body mass, litter size, ewe age nor mass of ewe affected diet composition of lambs, and there was no effect of age, body mass or litter size on diet composition of ewes. Our study highlights that diet composition arises from a combination of preferences being predicted by lamb and ewes' age and/or body mass differences, and the immediate environment in terms of population density and proxies for vegetation development.

  8. Unsaturated Renewable Oil Transformation into Novel Biofuel Compositions via an Olefin Metathesis-Transesterification-Hydrogenation Sequence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lima, Priscilla S; Ferreira, Leonildo A; Freitas, Luiza H; Rheinheimer, Martin W; Sokolovicz, Yuri C. A; Schrekker, Henri S

    2014-01-01

    .... The ethenolyzed olive oil was quantitatively transesterified with methanol and, subsequently, hydrogenated with molecular hydrogen over Pd/C, affording access to novel biofuel compositions, including...

  9. Trait-specific responses of wild bee communities to landscape composition, configuration and local factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hopfenmüller

    Full Text Available Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes. Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats. Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales.

  10. Variable effects of dispersal on productivity of bacterial communities due to changes in functional trait composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Ina; Östman, Örjan; Lindström, Eva S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown variable relationships between dispersal rate and ecosystem functioning, but the reasons for and mechanisms behind variable dispersal rate - functioning patterns are currently unknown. In this study we used six bacterial lake water communities in a laboratory experiment......) a dialysis bag experiment where the dispersal rate among six communities was manipulated and the subsequent change in bacterial diversity and growth rate was recorded, and (B) a regrowth experiment where we manipulated available resources to study how well a taxon grows on certain organic carbon resources, i...... dispersal - productivity relationships. Instead, changes in trait composition with dispersal, especially the communities' ability to use p-coumaric acid, an aromatic compound, could explain the observed dispersal - productivity relationships. Changes in this trait caused by dispersal seemed especially...

  11. Evaluation of Phytochemical Composition of Sahandian Savory (Satureja sahendica Bornm. Essential Oils at Different Phenological Stages

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    Heyraan Ghamari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sahandian Savory (Satureja sahandica Bornm. is an indigenous perennial aromatic plant growing in the West and North West of Iran. Its growing season starts from March till end of September. Oil and its quality are abundantly variable among different Savory species (Ahmadi et al., 2009. Although, Thymol, p-Cymene and γ-Terpinen have been determined as the main components of Sahandian Savory oil by Sefidkon et al. (2004, little data on its Phytochemistry and phenology genealogy? is available. The present study investigated the phytochemical properties of essential oils of (S. sahendica Bornm. at different harvest times from Pakal habitat and a specimen grown in greenhouse. Materials and methods The aerial parts of plants were collected on one month intervals from 20th April till 20th September. A specimen cloned from the wild plants and grown in research greenhouse, college of Agriculture, Ilam, was harvested at full blooming stage in September. Essential oils were extracted using Clevenger apparatus by hydro-distillation. Isolation and identification of oil components were carried out by gas chromatography (GC and coupled gas chromatography with mass spectrometer (GC/MS at Medicinal Plants and Drug Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti Medical University, Tehran, Iran. Antioxidant activity and total phenol content were measured following Singleton et al. (1999 methods, respectively. Results and discussion The ANOVA showed that harvest time significantly affected oil yield of samples at one percent of probability. Mean comparison analysis revealed that the maximum and minimum oil yield were belonged to May (0.42% and September (0.19% harvests, respectively. The essential oil percentage of plants grown in greenhouse were extremely low and negligible samples collected from their natural habitat. Analysis of variances for antioxidant activity and total phenol content showed that the traits were also significantly affected by harvest time

  12. Dissecting the effects of simulated cattle activity on floristic composition and functional traits in Mediterranean grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Dobarro

    Full Text Available Livestock exerts direct and indirect effects on plant communities, changing colonization and extinction rates of species and the surrounding environmental conditions. There is scarce knowledge on how and to what extent these effects control the floristic and functional composition of plant communities in grasslands. We performed an experiment that included several treatments simulating trampling, defoliation, faeces addition and their combinations in a Mediterranean scrub community grazing-abandoned for at least 50 years. We monitored the plots for four years, and collected data on species composition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and red∶far-red ratio (R∶FR, soil moisture and compaction. We estimated community weighted means (CWM for height, habit, life cycle, seed mass and SLA. Neither compaction nor soil moisture were modified by the treatments, while PAR and R∶FR increased in all treatments in comparison to the Control and Faeces treatments. The floristic composition of all treatments, except for Faeces, converged over time, but deviated from that of the Control. The functional traits displayed the trends expected in the presence of grazing: loss of erect species and increased cover of short species with light seeds, with rosettes and prostrate habit. However, contrary to the results in literature, SLA was lower in all the treatments than Control plots. Like the results for floristic composition, all treatments except for Faeces converged towards a similar functional composition at the end of the four year period. The results of this study show the initial evolution of a Mediterranean plant community in the presence of grazing, driven primarily by the destructive action of livestock. These actions seem to directly affect the rates of extinction/colonization, and indirectly affect the light environment but not the soil conditions. However, their effects on floristic and trait composition do not seem to differ, at least at

  13. Wild almond (Prunus scoparia L.) as potential oilseed resource for the future: Studies on the variability of its oil content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkheh, Karim; Kiani, Soghra; Sofo, Adriano

    2016-12-01

    Wild almond genetic resources have still not received considerable attention for oil chemical compositions and uses. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of variation in oil content and fatty acid composition in forty Iranian accessions of Prunus scoparia L. (Spach) to identify genotypes with desirable traits in terms of oil quantity, quality and industrial utilization. Oil parameters and indices were measured, and fatty acid methyl ester analysis was carried out by gas liquid chromatography. Oleic and linoleic fatty acids showed high variability among accessions, ranging from 232.4 to 359.6g/kg oil and from 190.7 to 348.8g/kg oil, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acid fraction was higher than total saturated fatty acid. The ranges of saponification number (199.2-202.1), iodine value (104.8-125.7kg I2/kg) and cetane number (43.8-48.8), confirmed that the oils have industrial potentialities. Results could contribute to select wild almond genotypes as genetic sources for oil production.

  14. Modification of yield and composition of essential oils by distillation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to model the length of the steam distillation time (DT) on essential oil yield and oil composition of peppermint, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. The DTs tested were 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min for peppermint, and 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40...

  15. Habitat-related variation in composition of the essential oil of Seseli rigidum Waldst. & Kit. (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčetić, Mirjana; Kovačević, Nada; Lakušić, Dmitar; Lakušić, Branislava

    2017-03-01

    Plant specialised metabolites like essential oils are highly variable depending on genetic and various ecological factors. The aim of the present work was to characterise essential oils of the species Seseli rigidum Waldst. & Kit. (Apiaceae) in various organs on the individual and populational levels. Geographical variability and the impact of climate and soil type on essential oil composition were also investigated. Individually sampled essential oils of roots, aerial parts and fruits of plants from seven populations were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The investigated populations showed high interpopulational and especially intrapopulational variability of essential oil composition. In regard to the variability of essential oils, different chemotypes were defined. The essential oils of S. rigidum roots represented a falcarinol chemotype, oils of aerial parts constituted an α-pinene or α-pinene/sabinene chemotype and fruit essential oils can be characterised as belonging to a complex sabinene/α-pinene/β-phellandrene/falcarinol/germacrene B chemotype. At the species level, analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) showed that the plant part exerted the strongest influence on the composition of essential oils. Climate had a high impact on composition of the essential oils of roots, aerial parts and fruits, while influence of the substrate was less pronounced. The variations in main compounds of essential oils based on climate or substrate were complex and specific to the plant part.

  16. Method for attaining fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seed oil fractions with different composition and antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is cultivated for its seeds and foliage, which contain essential oil. We hypothesized that the collection of fennel seed oil at different time points during the distillation process may result in fennel oil with distinct composition and bioactivity. We collected ess...

  17. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is widely used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv...

  18. Chemical composition and biological activity of haplophyllum tuberculatum juss. essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil of Haplophyllum tuberculatum was prepared by hydrodistillation of the fresh flowering aerial parts of the plant collected from Saudi Arabia. The oil was subsequently analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Thirty seven compounds, accounting for 96.4 % of the oil composition were identified. The ...

  19. Fatty acid composition of commercially available Iranian edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2009-08-01

    several studies reported multiple adverse effects of TFAs on human health, limited  nformation is available about total fatty acid composition, particularly TFAs, in Iranian edible oils. Our findings indicated higher content of TFAs in Iranian commercially available PHVOs.

  • KEYWORDS: Fatty Acids, Vegetable Oils, Trans Fats.
  • Mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci for grain oil content and agronomic traits using AFLP and SSR in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrani, L; Gentzbittel, L; Azanza, F; Fitamant, L; Al-Chaarani, G; Sarrafi, A

    2002-12-01

    Crosses were made between two inbred lines of sunflower. Parents and 118 F(3) families were planted in the field in a randomized complete block design in two replications. Genetic control for some agronomical traits: grain weight by plant (GWP), 1,000-grain weight (TGW), percentage of oil in grain (POG) and sowing to flowering date (STF) was investigated in F(3) families and their parents. Genetic variability was observed among the 118 F(3) families for all the traits studied. Genetic gain was obtained when the best F(3) family, or the mean of 10% of the selected families was compared with the best parent for GWP, TWG and POG. Heritability was 0.23 for GWP, 0.55 for TGW, 0.57 for POG and 0.32 for STF. A set of 244 F(3) families from the same cross, including the above 118 mentioned families and their two parents, were screened with 276 AFLP and microsatellite markers and a linkage map was constructed based on 170 markers. Two putative QTLs for the GWP trait ( gmp), one QTL for TGW ( tgw), six QTLs for POG ( pog) and two for STF ( stf) were detected. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained by each QTL ranged from 2.6% to 70.9%. The percentage of total phenotypic variance explained was 50.7% for GWP, 5.4% for TGW, 90.4% for POG and 89.3% for STF. Although these regions need to be more-precisely mapped, the information obtained should help in marker-assisted selection.

    1. Composition of biologically active lipids of lamiaceae seed oils

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antova, G. A.

      2004-06-01

      Full Text Available The content of glyceride oil, phospholipid, sterol and tocopherol composition of 7 species of fam. Lamiaceae seeds were investigated. 8.7-28.6 % of glyceride oil in the seeds were determined. The content of phospholipids in the oils was found to be 1.0-1.6 %. Phosphatidylcholine (35.5-63.1 %, phosphatidylinositol (19.1-30.2 % and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (5.8-21.6 % were the main components in the phospholipid fraction. In the sterol fraction (0.1-0.3 % total sterols in the oils 64.8-86.3 % are in free form and 13.7-35.2 % as sterol esters. β -Sitosterol predominates in all glyceride oils (48.8-87.9 %, followed by campesterol (1.5-22.5 % and stigmasterol (1.1-12.8 %. 6.3-649.7 mg/kg tocopherols were found, mainly α -tocopherol (48.5-99.9%.Se estudia el contenido en aceite, fosfolípidos, esteroles y tocoferol de semillas pertenecientes a 7 especies de la Familia Lamiaceae. Se encontraron valores comprendidos entre 8.7-28.6 % para los aceites en las semillas. El contenido en fosfolípidos para los aceites fue del 1.0-1.6 %. Los principales componentes de la fracción fosfolípido fueron: fosfatidilcolina (35.5-63.1 %, fosfatidilinositol (19.1-30.2 % y fosfatidiletanolamina (5.8-21.6 %. En la fracción de esteroles (0.1-0.3 % de esteroles totales en las muestras de aceites, 64.8-86.3 % estaban presentes en forma libre y 13.7-35.2 % como esteres de esteroles. El β -Sitosterol es el que predomina (48.8-87.9 %, seguido de campesterol (1.5-22.5 % y stigmasterol (1.1-12.8 %. Se encontró un contenido en tocoferoles de 6.3-649.7 mg/kg, principalmente α -tocopherol (48.5-99.9 %.

    2. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hosana M. Debonsi Navickiene

      2006-06-01

      Full Text Available The composition of essential oils from leaves, stems and fruits of Piper aduncum, P. arboreum and P. tuberculatum was examined by means of GC-MS and antifungal assay. There was a predominance of monoterpenes in P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum and of sesquiterpenes in P. arboreum. P. aduncum showed the richest essential oil composition, including linalool. The essential oils from fruits of P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum showed the highest antifungal activity with the MIC of 10 µg as determined against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. This is the first report of the composition of essential oils from P. tuberculatum.

    3. [Fatty acid composition variability of rapeseed oil: classical selection and biotechnology].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sakhno, L A

      2010-01-01

      The problems and achievements in the rapeseed Brassica napus L. var. oleifera breeding directed on the change of fatty acid composition in seed oil with the use of traditional and genetic engineering approaches are analyzed. It is noticed that the combination of biotechnological workings out and methods of classical breeding is the optimum for the further improvement of rapeseed oil composition.

    4. The overlaying oil type influences in vitro embryo production: differences in composition and compound transfer into incubation medium between oils.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Martinez, Cristina A; Nohalez, Alicia; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Motas, Miguel; Roca, Jordi; Romero, Inmaculada; García-Gonza Lez, Diego L; Cuello, Cristina; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Martinez, Emilio A; Gil, Maria A

      2017-09-05

      The oil overlay micro-drop system is widely used for cultures of mammalian gametes and embryos. We evaluated hereby the effects of two unaltered commercial oils- Sigma mineral oil (S-MO) and Nidoil paraffin oil (N-PO)-on in vitro embryo production (IVP) outcomes using a pig model. The results showed that while either oil apparently did not affect oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, S-MO negatively affected embryo cleavage rates, blastocyst formation rates, and, consequently, total blastocyst efficiency of the system. No differences in the oxidation state were found between the oils or culture media incubated under S-MO or N-PO. Although both oils slightly differed in elemental composition, there were no differences in the concentrations of elements between fresh media and media incubated under oils. By contrast, we demonstrated clear oil-type differences in both the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and the transfer of some of these VOC´s (straight-chain alkanes and pentanal and 1,3-diethyl benzene) to the culture medium, which could have influenced embryonic development.

    5. Effects of plant extracts and essential oils as feed supplements on quality and microbial traits of rabbit meat

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      A. P. Kone

      2016-06-01

      Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation of onion, cranberry,  strawberry and essentials oils on meat quality were analysed. Five groups of 48 Grimaud female weaned rabbits received the supplemented or the control ration; the experimental unit was a cage of 6 rabbits. Each experimental diet contained 10 ppm of added active ingredients.  Rabbits were fed with the experimental diets for 4 wk before determining slaughter and carcass traits and determining the pH at 1 and 24 h post mortem (pHu of the Longissimus dorsi (LD and the Biceps femoris (BF muscle, left and right, respectively. Cooking loss, drip loss and L*, a* and b* color parameters were obtained of the right LD and for ground meat and antioxidant status (TBARS, DNPH, Folin Ciocalteu. Only the pHu of the LD muscle for the strawberry supplemented group was significantly lower when compared to the control group (P=0.04. However, we note that for the pH of the LD, the average was less than 6 for the meat of animals who received a diet enriched in polyphenols, compared to the control group. Plant extract supplementation did not influence meat quality traits, growth performance or oxidative stability. But under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, our results indicate that diet supplementation with extracts rich in polyphenols, especially with essential oils, had a small bot sporadic positive effect in reducing bacterial microflora compared to the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, plant extracts and essential oils can be used in a rabbit diet without adverse effects on performance and meat quality traits. This effect could be optimized by investigating higher doses.

    6. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Pulicaria odora L.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hanbali, Fadwa E L; Akssira, Mohamed; Ezoubeiri, Aicha; Gadhi, Chems Eddoha A; Mellouki, Fouad; Benherraf, Ahmed; Blazquez, Amparo M; Boira, Herminio

      2005-07-14

      The chemical composition of the volatile oil constituent from Pulicaria odora L. roots has been analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty-seven components were identified, being thymol (47.83%) and its derivative isobutyrate (30.05%) the main constituents in the oil. Furthermore, the oil was tested against seven bacteria at different concentrations. Results showed that the oil exhibited a significant antibacterial activity.

    7. Effects of crossbreeding on slaughter traits and breast muscle chemical composition in chinese chickens

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ai-xia Huang

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available We investigated the effects of crossbreeding on slaughter traits and the chemical composition of chicken breast muscle. Trials were conducted using 120 broilers from four lines: Xiao-Shan chicken (XS, Xian-Ju chicken (XJ, Xiao-Shan chicken♂♂ × Xian-Ju chicken♀♀ (Zhenan 1, ZNY1 and Xiao-Shan chicken♂♂ × (Guang-Xi Yellow chicken♂♂×Xian-Ju chicken♀♀ ♀♀ (Zhenan 2, ZNY2. The birds were slaughtered at 120 days of age and the slaughter traits were measured. Breast muscles were sampled to determine chemical composition. The slaughter traits of hybrid chickens were improved. Both hybrid strains had higher intramuscular fat (IMF and inosine-5'-monophosphate (inosinic acid, IMP. Concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA in breast muscles from the two hybrids were significantly higher than in the other two breeds (p < 0.05. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the breast muscles of the two hybrids was significantly lower than in the other two breeds (p < 0.05. ZNY2 had significantly lower (p < 0.05 concentrations of myristic acid (C14:0. The breast muscle of ZNY1 had significantly higher palmitic acid (C16:0 concentrations than XS, XJ, or ZNY2 (p < 0.05. The concentrations of oleic acid (C18:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA in breast muscle from the two hybrid lines were significantly higher than the other two breeds (p < 0.05. Breast muscles from XS and XJ chickens contained significantly higher docosahexenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA than the two hybrid lines (p < 0.05. The XS and XJ chickens had lower n-6/n-3 ratios than the two hybrids (p < 0.05. Breast muscles from ZNY1 and ZNY2 contained higher concentrations of essential amino acids (p < 0.05, total amino acids (p < 0.05, and some individual amino acids (p < 0.05. In conclusion, crossbreeding improved the slaughter traits of chickens and increased intramuscular fat and inosinic acid content in breast muscle. The fatty acid and amino acid

    8. Genetic Marker Discovery in Complex Traits: A Field Example on Fat Content and Composition in Pigs

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pena, Ramona Natacha; Ros-Freixedes, Roger; Tor, Marc; Estany, Joan

      2016-01-01

      Among the large number of attributes that define pork quality, fat content and composition have attracted the attention of breeders in the recent years due to their interaction with human health and technological and sensorial properties of meat. In livestock species, fat accumulates in different depots following a temporal pattern that is also recognized in humans. Intramuscular fat deposition rate and fatty acid composition change with life. Despite indication that it might be possible to select for intramuscular fat without affecting other fat depots, to date only one depot-specific genetic marker (PCK1 c.2456C>A) has been reported. In contrast, identification of polymorphisms related to fat composition has been more successful. For instance, our group has described a variant in the stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD) gene that improves the desaturation index of fat without affecting overall fatness or growth. Identification of mutations in candidate genes can be a tedious and costly process. Genome-wide association studies can help in narrowing down the number of candidate genes by highlighting those which contribute most to the genetic variation of the trait. Results from our group and others indicate that fat content and composition are highly polygenic and that very few genes explain more than 5% of the variance of the trait. Moreover, as the complexity of the genome emerges, the role of non-coding genes and regulatory elements cannot be disregarded. Prediction of breeding values from genomic data is discussed in comparison with conventional best linear predictors of breeding values. An example based on real data is given, and the implications in phenotype prediction are discussed in detail. The benefits and limitations of using large SNP sets versus a few very informative markers as predictors of genetic merit of breeding candidates are evaluated using field data as an example. PMID:27983643

    9. Species richness and trait composition of butterfly assemblages change along an altitudinal gradient.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Leingärtner, Annette; Krauss, Jochen; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

      2014-06-01

      Species richness patterns along altitudinal gradients are well-documented ecological phenomena, yet very little data are available on how environmental filtering processes influence the composition and traits of butterfly assemblages at high altitudes. We have studied the diversity patterns of butterfly species at 34 sites along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 600 to 2,000 m a.s.l. in the National Park Berchtesgaden (Germany) and analysed traits of butterfly assemblages associated with dispersal capacity, reproductive strategies and developmental time from lowlands to highlands, including phylogenetic analyses. We found a linear decline in butterfly species richness along the altitudinal gradient, but the phylogenetic relatedness of the butterfly assemblages did not increase with altitude. Compared to butterfly assemblages at lower altitudes, those at higher altitudes were composed of species with larger wings (on average 9%) which laid an average of 68% more eggs. In contrast, egg maturation time in butterfly assemblages decreased by about 22% along the altitudinal gradient. Further, butterfly assemblages at higher altitudes were increasingly dominated by less widespread species. Based on our abundance data, but not on data in the literature, population density increased with altitude, suggesting a reversed density-distribution relationship, with higher population densities of habitat specialists in harsh environments. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for significant shifts in the composition of butterfly assemblages and for the dominance of different traits along the altitudinal gradient. In our study, these changes were mainly driven by environmental factors, whereas phylogenetic filtering played a minor role along the studied altitudinal range.

    10. Dynamics of changes in oil composition at the development of the Usinsk deposit

      Science.gov (United States)

      Savinykh, Yu. V.; Chuikina, D. I.

      2016-11-01

      To test new materials used for enhanced oil recovery, methods are needed for determining the effectiveness of their impact on the oil reservoir. Monitoring can be performed by analyzing reservoir fluids with a changed composition of oil. In the Usinsk deposit, a complex injection of surfactant compositions and the gel composition was carried out by the technology developed in the IPC SB RAS. The technology of the use of gel compositions is based on aluminum chloride and urea (GALKA-NT technology), and the technology of the use of surfactants is based on surfactant solutions and urea (IPC-PRO). The study shows that the use of gradient and displacement chromatography could effectively maintain a control over the development of the field where new materials and reagents are used for enhanced oil recovery. The change in the oil composition reflects processes occurring in the reservoir, which allows a purposeful regulation of them.

    11. Ozonation of sunflower oils: impact of experimental conditions on the composition and the antibacterial activity of ozonized oils.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Moureu, Sophie; Violleau, Frédéric; Ali Haimoud-Lekhal, Djamila; Calmon, Anne

      2015-02-01

      Ozone can react with vegetable oils to produce ozonized oils which have antimicrobial properties and can be used in dermatology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ozonation conditions and of the initial fatty acid composition on iodine index (II), peroxide index (IP), acidity value (AV) of ozonized sunflower oils. The antibacterial activity of these products against the three bacterial strains that are more often involved in mastitis (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis) was also evaluated. In that purpose, two different sunflower oils have been studied: a "classical" oil (55% linoleic acid, 35% oleic acid) and a "high oleic" oil (90% oleic acid). Both were ozonized with or without water during different times (from 1 to 7 h). Results show that the addition of water has a direct impact on the increase in IP (up to 2600 meq of active oxygen/kg of oil with water and 430 without) and AV but does not influence the kinetic of the decrease in II. Minimal inhibitory concentrations were ranging from 1.25 to 40 mg/mL and the antibacterial activity of oils ozonized with water was better than the one of oils ozonized alone. These results are an open door to new applications of ozonized oils.

    12. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Folstar, P.

      1976-01-01

      Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

    13. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Folstar, P.

      1976-01-01

      Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

    14. Method for attaining rosemary essential oil with differential composition from dried or fresh material.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Zhalnov, Ivan; Georgieva, Tonya D

      2015-01-01

      Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) is a well-known medicinal and essential oil plant, utilized by humankind since ancient times. The objective was to determine the effect of steam distillation time (DT) and material (dry or fresh biomass) on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity; and to develop regression models that can predict oil yield and composition at specific DT. The oil yield (content) from dry biomass was higher (0.43%) than that from fresh biomass (0.35%) and ranged from 0.18% in the 1.25 min DT to 0.51% in the 40 min DT. There was no yield advantage in extending the DT beyond 40 min, which is much shorter than the DT used by industry. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of the rosemary oil using the ORACoil method was 4,108 μmolVE/L. Rosemary oil did not exhibit significant antileishmanial, antimalarial, or antimicrobial activity. In general, the low-boiling constituents eluted earlier than the higher boiling constituents of the essential oil, resulting in a great variation of essential oil composition obtained at different DT. The most important constituents are α-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. The highest α-pinene concentration in the oil (30.4%) was obtained from dry biomass at 2.5 min DT; eucalyptol (23.3% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 2.5 min DT; and camphor (15.9% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 160 min DT. The DT could be used as an inexpensive tool to alter essential oil composition of the essential oil from fresh or dried rosemary biomass, and to produce rosemary oils with elevated or lowered concentration of specific targeted oil constituents to meet specific market demands.

    15. Glyceride structure and sterol composition of SOS-7 halophyte oil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      El-Shami, S. M.

      1991-06-01

      Full Text Available Glyceride structure of SOS-7 halophyte oil was studied using the lipase hydrolysis technique. This halophyte sample was obtained from 1988 harvest planted in Ghardaka, on the border of the Red Sea, Egypt. The oilseed was ground and extracted for its oil using commercial hexane in Soxhlet extractor. The unsaturated fatty acids were found centralized in the 2-position of triglycerides, whereas oleic and linolenic acids showed more preference for this position. It was found that P3 was the major component of GS3, whereas P2L and PStL; PL2, POL and StL2 are predominating among GS2U and GSU3 respectively. L3 manifested itself as the principal constituent of GU3 type. Sterol composition of the halophyte oil was determined by GLC as TMS derivative. It was found that the oil contains campsterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and 7-stigmasterol of which 7-stigmasterol is the major sterol and constitute 52.4%.

      Se ha estudiado usando la técnica de hidrólisis mediante lipasa la estructura glicerídica de aceite de halofito SOS-7. Esta muestra de halofito fue obtenida a partir de una cosecha de 1988 plantada en Ghardaka, en la orilla del Mar Rojo, Egipto. Para la extracción del aceite de la semilla molida se utilizó hexano comercial en extractor Soxhlet. Los ácidos grasos insaturados se encontraron centralizados en la posición 2 de los triglicéridos, siendo los ácidos oleico y linolénico los que mostraron mayor preferencia por esta posición. Se encontró que P3 fue el componente mayoritario de GS3, mientras que P2L y PStL; PL2 POL y StL2 son los predominantes para GS2U y GSU3 respectivamente. L3 se manifestó como el principal constituyente de los GU3. La composición esterólica del aceite de halofito se determinó por GLC como derivados del

    16. Changes in proximate composition and oil characteristics during flaxseed development

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Herchi, W.

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization-Mass Spectrometry (APPI-MS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC are the two analytical methods that were used to characterize Triacylglycerols (TAGs during flaxseed development. The HPLC method of the oils showed the presence of 15 TAG species. In contrast to the HPLC chromatograms, the APPI-MS showed 17 peaks of TAG. APPI-MS is more rapid than the HPLC method (11 min. The iodine value of the oils showed a gradual increase, while the oil stability continuously decreased. Proximate composition during flaxseed development revealed that flaxseed is potentially a good source of dietary energy and protein. At full maturity, flaxseed contained 37% oil and 24% protein on a dry-weight basis; albumin was the major storage protein (53% of total storage proteins followed by globulin (33% and glutelin fractions (11%. Prolamins had the lowest percentage with 3%. α-amylase activity was higher in the mature seeds than the young ones.Fotoionización a presión atmosférica-Espectrometría de masas (APPI-MS y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC son dos métodos de análisis que se utilizaron para caracterizar triglicéridos (TAGs durante el desarrollo de semillas de linaza. El método HPLC mostró la presencia de 15 especies de TAG, en contraste, los cromatogramas de APPI-MS mostraron 17 picos de TAG siendo el método APPI-MS más rápido que el de HPLC (11 min. El índice de yodo de los aceites mostró un aumento gradual, mientras que la estabilidad disminuyó continuamente. El estudio de la composición proximal de la linaza durante su desarrollo, mostró que esta semilla es una fuente potencialmente buena de energía y de proteína para la dieta. Al final de la maduración, la linaza contenía 37 % de aceite y 24 % de proteína sobre peso seco; albúmina fue la principal proteína de almacenamiento (53% sobre el total de las proteínas de almacenamiento seguido de la globulina (33 % y glutelina

    17. Linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality traits and intramuscular fatty acid profiles

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Pitunart Noosen

      2017-02-01

      Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality trait and intramuscular fatty acid (FA profiles. All steers were fed 14% CP concentrate. The treatments included: (1 7 kg/d concentrate; (2 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d palm oil (PO; (3 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 100 g/d PO and 100 g/d linseed oil (LSO; and (4 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d LSO. The animals in the treatment 1 were fed ad libitum rice straw (RS, whereas the animals in other treatments were fed ad libitum fresh grass (FG. Dietary treatments had no effect on nutrient intake while oil supplement decreased dry matter intake (DMI. Inclusion of LSO did not negatively affect carcass quality, but increasing amount of LSO supplement increased the n-3 fatty acids and lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in beef

    18. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Michał Górecki

      2015-04-01

      Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

    19. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Biocrude Compositions Compared to Petroleum Crude and Shale Oil

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Jarvis, Jacqueline M.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner M.

      2017-02-17

      We provide a direct and detailed comparison of the chemical composition of petroleum crude oil (from the Gulf of Mexico), shale oil, and three biocrudes (i.e., clean pine, microalgae Chlorella sp., and sewage sludge feedstocks) generated by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) reveals that HTL biocrudes are compositionally more similar to shale oil than petroleum crude oil and that only a few heteroatom classes (e.g., N1, N2, N1O1, and O1) are common to organic sediment- and biomass-derived oils. All HTL biocrudes contain a diverse range of oxygen-containing compounds when compared to either petroleum crude or shale oil. Overall, petroleum crude and shale oil are compositionally dissimilar to HTL oils, and >85% of the elemental compositions identified within the positive-ion electrospray (ESI) mass spectra of the HTL biocrudes were not present in either the petroleum crude or shale oil (>43% for negative-ion ESI). Direct comparison of the heteroatom classes that are common to both organic sedimentand biomass-derived oils shows that HTL biocrudes generally contain species with both smaller core structures and a lower degree of alkylation relative to either the petroleum crude or the shale oil. Three-dimensional plots of carbon number versus molecular double bond equivalents (with observed abundance as the third dimension) for abundant molecular classes reveal the specific relationship of the composition of HTL biocrudes to petroleum and shale oils to inform the possible incorporation of these oils into refinery operations as a partial amendment to conventional petroleum feeds.

    20. Investigation of the chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship of essential oils by chemometric methods.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Miladinović, Dragoljub L; Ilić, Budimir S; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Nikolić, Nikola D; Miladinović, Ljiljana C; Cvetković, Olga G

      2012-05-01

      The antibacterial effects of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiaceae), and Calamintha nepeta (Lamiaceae) Savi subsp. nepeta var. subisodonda (Borb.) Hayek essential oils on five different bacteria were estimated. Laboratory control strain and clinical isolates from different pathogenic media were researched by broth microdilution method, with an emphasis on a chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship. The main constituents of thyme oil were thymol (59.95%) and p-cymene (18.34%). Linalool acetate (38.23%) and β-linalool (35.01%) were main compounds in lavender oil. C. nepeta essential oil was characterized by a high percentage of piperitone oxide (59.07%) and limonene (9.05%). Essential oils have been found to have antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. Classification and comparison of essential oils on the basis of their chemical composition and antibacterial activity were made by utilization of appropriate chemometric methods. The chemical principal component analysis (PCA) and hierachical cluster analysis (HCA) separated essential oils into two groups and two sub-groups. Thyme essential oil forms separate chemical HCA group and exhibits highest antibacterial activity, similar to tetracycline. Essential oils of lavender and C. nepeta in the same chemical HCA group were classified in different groups, within antibacterial PCA and HCA analyses. Lavender oil exhibits higher antibacterial ability in comparison with C. nepeta essential oil, probably based on the concept of synergistic activity of essential oil components.

    1. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Volatile Oil of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mohamed Al-Fatimi

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available In a first study of the volatile oil of the mushroom basidiomycete Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres., the chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the oil were investigated. The volatile oil was obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres. By hydrodistillation extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against five bacteria strains and two types of fungi strains, using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the oil was determined using DPPH assay. Four volatile compounds representing 90.5% of the total oil were identified. The majority of the essential oil was dominated by 1-octen-3-ol (amyl vinyl carbinol 1 (73.6% followed by 1-octen-3-ol acetate 2 (12.4%, phenylacetaldehyde 3 (3.0% and 6-camphenol 4 (1.5%. The results showed that the Gram-positive bacteria species are more sensitive to the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus as well as Candida albicans. Moreover, the oil exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay. This first report on the chemical composition and biological properties of G. pfeifferi volatile oil makes its pharmaceutical uses rational and provides a basis in the biological and phytochemical investigations of the volatile oils of Ganodermataceae species.

    2. Influence of argan kernel roasting-time on virgin argan oil composition and oxidative stability.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Saïd; Kartah, Bader; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Guillaume, Dom; Charrouf, Zoubida

      2011-06-01

      Virgin argan oil, which is harvested from argan fruit kernels, constitutes an alimentary source of substances of nutraceutical value. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of argan oil prepared from argan kernels roasted for different times were evaluated and compared with those of beauty argan oil that is prepared from unroasted kernels. Prolonged roasting time induced colour development and increased phosphorous content whereas fatty acid composition and tocopherol levels did not change. Oxidative stability data indicate that kernel roasting for 15 to 30 min at 110 °C is optimum to preserve virgin argan oil nutritive properties.

    3. Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill obtained by different distillation conditions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mimica-Dukić, N; Kujundzić, S; Soković, M; Couladis, M

      2003-04-01

      The influence of different hydrodistillation conditions was evaluated from the standpoint of essential oil yield, chemical composition and antifungal activity from seeds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Three hydrodistillation conditions were considered. The main constituents of the oils were: (E)-anethole (72.27%-74.18%), fenchone (11.32%-16.35%) and methyl chavicol (3.78%-5.29%). The method of distillation significantly effected the essential oil yield and quantitative composition, although the antifungal activity of the oils against some fungi was only slightly altered.

    4. When music "flows". State and trait in musical performance, composition and listening: a systematic review.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chirico, Alice; Serino, Silvia; Cipresso, Pietro; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

      2015-01-01

      It is not unusual to experience a sense of total absorption, concentration, action-awareness, distortion of time and intrinsic enjoyment during an activity that involves music. Indeed, it is noted that there is a special relationship between these two aspects (i.e., music and flow experience). In order to deeply explore flow in the musical domain, it is crucial to consider the complexity of the flow experience-both as a "state" and as a "trait." Secondly, since music is a multifaceted domain, it is necessary to concentrate on specific music settings, such as (i) musical composition; (ii) listening; and (iii) musical performance. To address these issues, the current review aims to outline flow experience as a "trait" and as a "state" in the three above-mentioned musical domains. Clear and useful guidelines to distinguish between flow as a "state" and as a "trait" are provided by literature concerning flow assessment. For this purpose, three aspects of the selected studies are discussed and analyzed: (i) the characteristics of the flow assessments used; (ii) the experimental design; (iii) the results; and (iv) the interrelations between the three domains. Results showed that the dispositional approach is predominant in the above-mentioned settings, mainly regarding music performance. Several aspects concerning musical contexts still need to be deeply analyzed. Future challenges could include the role of a group level of analysis, overcoming a frequency approach toward dispositional flow, and integrating both state and dispositional flow perspectives in order to deepen comprehension of how flow takes place in musical contexts. Finally, to explain the complex relationship between these two phenomena, we suggest that music and flow could be seen as an emergent embodied system.

    5. Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Chanida Lamaisri

      2015-08-01

      Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid compositions in the oils used as feedstock can influence quality of the biodiesel. In the present study, oil content and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and kernel oil were examined from nine commercial oil palm Elaeis guineensis cultivars. Saponification number, iodine value and cetane number were calculated from palm oil fatty acid methyl ester compositions. Fruits of tenera oil palm were collected from a farmer’s plantation in Dan Makham Tia District, Kanchanaburi Province in 2009. Variation between cultivars was observed in oil content and fatty acid profile of mesocarp oil rather than kernel oil. The percentage of oil in dry mesocarp ranged from 63.8% to 74.9%. The mesocarp oil composed of 41.5 - 51.6% palmitic acid, 3.58-7.10% stearic acid, 32.8-42.5% oleic acid and 9.3-13.0% linoleic acid. Likewise saponification number, iodine value and cetane number of mesocarp oil fatty acid methyl ester showed more variation among cultivars, ranging from 196.5-198.9, 45.7-54.6 and 61.8-63.6, respectively. While those of kernel oil fatty acid methyl ester showed no different among cultivars, ranging from 229-242, 13.6-16.4 and 65.3-66.5, respectively. The cetane number of fatty acid methyl ester positively correlated with contents of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids in palm oil and saponification number of biodiesel, but negatively correlated with iodine value

    6. The weathering of oil after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: insights from the chemical composition of the oil from the sea surface, salt marshes and sediments

      Science.gov (United States)

      Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing; Zhu, Qingzhi; Wu, Wei

      2012-09-01

      The oil released during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill may have both short- and long-time impacts on the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystems. An understanding of how the composition and concentration of the oil are altered by weathering, including chemical, physical and biological processes, is needed to evaluate the oil toxicity and impact on the ecosystem in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This study examined petroleum hydrocarbons in oil mousse collected from the sea surface and salt marshes, and in oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead after the DWH oil spill. Oil mousses were collected at two stations (OSS and CT, located 130 and 85 km away from the wellhead, respectively) in May 2010, and two sediment samples from stations SG and SC, within 6 km of the wellhead, in May 2011. We also collected oil mousse from salt marshes at Marsh Point (MP), Mississippi, 186 km away from the wellhead in July 2010. In these samples, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, BTEX (collective name of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-, m-, and o-xylenes), C3-benzenes and trace metals were measured to examine how the oil was altered chemically. The chemical analysis indicates that the oil mousses underwent different degrees of weathering with the pattern of OSS Petroleum hydrocarbon data reveal that the oil deposited in sediments underwent only light to moderate degradation one year after the DWH oil spill, as supported by the presence of short-chained n-alkanes (C10-C 15), BTEX and C 3-benzenes. The weathering of oil in sediment may result from biological degradation and dissolution, evidenced by the preferential loss of mid-chained n-alkanes C16-C 27, lower ratios of n-C 17/Pr and n-C 18/Ph , and preferential loss of PAHs relative to alkylated PAHs.

    7. A study on the essential oil of Ferulago campestris: how much does extraction method influence the oil composition?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Riela, Serena; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Saladino, Maria L; Caponetti, Eugenio; Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice

      2011-02-01

      The essential oil of different parts of Ferulago campestris (Bess.) collected in Sicily has been extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and by classic hydrodistillation (HD). A comparative qualitative-quantitative study on the composition of the oils was carried out. A total of 100 compounds were identified in the oils obtained by MAHD, whereas 88 compounds characterized the HD oils. The most prominent components were, in all different parts of F. campestris and in both extraction methods, 2,4,5-trimethylbenzaldehyde and 2,4,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde isomers; the latter was not previously found. The attempt to evaluate where the oil components are located in all parts of the plant was carried out by means of a kinetic study. Then, electron microscopy observation on the different parts before and after MAHD and HD was performed.

    8. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ateş, Ayşe; Unver, Ahmet

      2006-01-01

      The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses.

    9. Graphene/polyester staple composite for the removal of oils and organic solvents

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wu, Ruihan; Yu, Baowei; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongliang; Bai, Yitong; Ming, Zhu; Chen, Lingyun; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Chang, Xue-Ling

      2016-06-01

      Spongy graphene has been widely applied in oil removal. However, spongy graphene is hardly applicable for crude oil removal, because the complexity and high viscosity of crude oil. Herein, we reported that graphene/polyester staple composite (GPSC) could be used for the removal of oils and organic solvents, in particular crude oil. Graphene oxide was in situ reduced in the presence of polyester staple by hydrazine hydrate to form GPSC. GPSC efficiently adsorbed oils and organic solvents with high adsorption capacities. Demonstrations of treating pure oils and those in simulated sea water by GPSC were successfully performed. Due to the loose structure, GPSC adsorbed crude oil quickly with an adsorption capacity of 52 g g-1. During the regeneration, the adsorption capacity of GPSC retained around 78% of the initial capacity up to 9 cycles. The implication to the applications of GPSC in water remediation is discussed.

    10. Composition of the Floral Essential Oil of Brugmansia suaveolens

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      Samuel J Anthony; Willow Zuchowski; William N Setzer

      2009-01-01

        The floral essential oils of Brugmansia suaveolens, from Monteverde , Costa Rica , were collected at three different times of the day by hydrodistillation and the oils analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS...

    11. COMPARING ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION AND ESSENTIAL OIL YIELD OF ROSEMARINUS OFFICINALIS AND LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA BEFORE AND FULL FLOWERING STAGES

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sharareh Najafian

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oils and essential oil yield obtained from Rosemarinus officinalis (family Lamiaceae and Lavandula angustifolia (family Lamiaceae were determined in two harvesting times. Their essential oil was determined by hydro-distillation, and analysed by GC/MS. The results showed that harvesting time had significant effects on the oil content and compositions in both plants. The maximum essential oil percentage was obtained in full flowering stage in rosemary. Also and in lavender maximum linalool percentage (19.2% was obtained in full flowering, and minimum linalool percentage (0.2% was shown in the other time. Also the concentration of β – pinene (2.1%, δ-3-carene (1.5%, β – phellandrene (6.6%, Camphor(10.6%, Cryptone (0.8%, α- terpineol (2.3% and Linalool acetate (1.2% were higher than befor flowering stage. Therefore the harvesting time have a great importance in the production of essential oil and influenced on the quantity and quality of essential oil. As consequence, the best harvesting time in both medicinal plants was obtained in full flowering stage.

    12. Variable effects of dispersal on productivity of bacterial communities due to changes in functional trait composition

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Severin, Ina; Östman, Örjan; Lindström, Eva S.

      2013-01-01

      ) a dialysis bag experiment where the dispersal rate among six communities was manipulated and the subsequent change in bacterial diversity and growth rate was recorded, and (B) a regrowth experiment where we manipulated available resources to study how well a taxon grows on certain organic carbon resources, i......Previous studies have shown variable relationships between dispersal rate and ecosystem functioning, but the reasons for and mechanisms behind variable dispersal rate - functioning patterns are currently unknown. In this study we used six bacterial lake water communities in a laboratory experiment...... in order to investigate how dispersal among communities influences community productivity by evaluating three different mechanisms: 1) changes in taxonomic diversity, 2) changes in phylogenetic diversity or 3) changes in the composition of functional traits. The experiment was conducted in two phases; (A...

    13. Vegetable oils affect the composition of lipoproteins in sea bream (Sparus aurata).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Caballero, Maria José; Torstensen, Bente E; Robaina, Lidia; Montero, Daniel; Izquierdo, Marisol

      2006-11-01

      The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the dietary fatty acid profile on the lipoprotein composition in sea bream fed different vegetable oils. Six experimental diets were formulated combining fish oil with three vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed) in order to obtain 60-80 % (w/w) fish-oil replacement. VLDL, LDL and HDL in plasma samples were obtained by sequential centrifugal flotation. The lipid class, protein content and fatty acid composition of each lipoprotein fraction were analysed. HDL was the predominant lipoprotein in sea bream plasma containing the highest proportion of protein (34 %) and phosphatidylcholine. LDL presented a high content of cholesterol, whereas triacylglycerol comprised a larger proportion of VLDL. The lipid class of the lipoprotein fractions was affected by the dietary vegetable oils. Thus, a high dietary inclusion of soyabean and linseed oil (80 %) increased the cholesterol in HDL and LDL in comparison to fish oil. Similarly, the triacylglycerol concentration of VLDL was increased in fish fed 80 % soyabean and linseed oils owing to the low n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content of these diets. Lipoprotein fatty acid composition easily responded to dietary fatty acid composition. VLDL was the fraction more affected by dietary fatty acid, followed by LDL and HDL. The n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content increased in the order VLDL less than LDL and less than HDL, regardless of dietary vegetable oils.

    14. Essential oil composition of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) grown in Australia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wohlmuth, Hans; Smith, Mike K; Brooks, Lyndon O; Myers, Stephen P; Leach, David N

      2006-02-22

      Ginger oil, obtained by steam distillation of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is used in the beverage and fragrance industries. Ginger oil displays considerable compositional diversity, but is typically characterized by a high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, including zingiberene, ar-curcumene, beta-bisabolene, and beta-sesquiphellandrene. Australian ginger oil has a reputation for possessing a particular "lemony" aroma, due to its high content of the isomers neral and geranial, often collectively referred to as citral. Fresh rhizomes of 17 clones of Australian ginger, including commercial cultivars and experimental tetraploid clones, were steam distilled 7 weeks post-harvest, and the resulting oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oils of 16 of the 17 clones, including the tetraploid clones and their parent cultivar, were found to be of substantially similar composition. These oils were characterized by very high citral levels (51-71%) and relatively low levels of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons typical of ginger oil. The citral levels of most of these oils exceeded those previously reported for ginger oils. The neral-to-geranial ratio was shown to be remarkably constant (0.61 +/- 0.01) across all 17 clones. One clone, the cultivar "Jamaican", yielded oil with a substantially different composition, lower citral content and higher levels of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Because this cultivar also contains significantly higher concentrations of pungent gingerols, it possesses unique aroma and flavor characteristics, which should be of commercial interest.

    15. Effect of Rare Earth Phosphate Composite Materials on Cleanout Oil-Dirty Property of Ceramics

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Liang Jinsheng; Zhang Jin; Liang Guangchuan; Wang Lijuan; Li Guosheng; Meng Junping; Pan Yanfen

      2004-01-01

      The ceramics with cleaning easily up oil-dirty property were prepared by doping enamel slurry with rare earth elements phosphate composite materials, and then the influence mechanisms of rare earth elements phosphate composite materials on the cleaning easily up oil-dirty property of ceramic were studied by testing the surface tension and contact angle of water, latex stability inside of ceramic product. Results that the ceramic doped enamel slurry with rare earth phosphate composite materials can reduce obviously the surface tension and contact angle of water, and make latex more stable, and so the ceramics possess excellent cleanout oil-dirty property.

    16. Composition of the essential oil of White sage, Salvia apiana.

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

      2003-08-01

      The essential oil of white sage, Salvia apiana, was obtained by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS. A total of 13 components were identified, accounting for >99.9% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole, accounting for 71.6% of the oil.

    17. Effects of Zeolite and Selenium Application on Some Physiological Traits and Oil Yield of Medicinal Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. under Drought Stress

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      Kourosh Eskandari Zanjani

      2012-07-01

      Full Text Available There is no doubt that certain plants offer valuable medicinal properties. But there are many challenges that local communities face in the harvesting and cultivation of these plants. Medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca is an economically important medicinal plant cultivated for oil production. Water source limitation is one of the important problems in agriculture worldwide. Natural zeolits have some properties such as water absorption and emission and nitrate leaching inhibition, which is useful for soil amendment. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of zeolite and selenium application on some physiological traits and oil yield of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. under drought stress. A field experiment was carried out in a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors included: Irrigation (control, drought stress imposed during at flowering phase and drought stress imposed during fruit formation, Zeolite (non-application and application of 10 ton/ha and Selenium (nonapplication and 30 g/Lit from sodium selenate. All physiological parameters were affected by drought stress and zeolite application. Drought stress decreased total chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, RWC, leaf soluble protein, oil content and oil yield and zeolite application in drought stress increased mentioned traits except oil content. Proline accumulation, WSD and CAT antioxidant enzyme activity were reduced in presence of zeolite in drought stress conditions than under control. Selenium spraying with zeolite application in drought conditions increased RWC, CAT antioxidant enzyme activity and oil yield. Drought stress at fruit formation phase reduced oil content and oil yield more severe than that on flowering stage. Finally, it seems that zeolite and selenium application in dry lands are exposed to drought stress be helpful for physiological traits and oil yield improvement and

    18. Carcass traits and meat quality of pigs fed on fodder supplemented with sunflower oil or conjugated linoleic acid

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      Pavel NEVRKLA

      2016-09-01

      Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare meat and fat content and meat quality of pigs fed diet supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and animals not receiving the supplement SFO or CLA (control group. The experiment consisted of 116 pigs, divided into three groups: two experimental (n = 40 where animals were fed feed supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (SFO or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and control (n = 36. Fattening pigs were kept and fed in standardized conditions. The animals were slaughtered at a body weight of 120 kg. Meat quality traits (pH, drip loss, backfat fat content, colour, MLLT muscle dry matter content, fat in the dry matter, IMF in MLLT were determined. Summarizing obtained results it should be concluded that 2% sunflower oil or conjugated linoleic acid did not affect the meat quality. The experimental animals were characterized by high meat content (58.26% - SFO addition; 57.63% - CLA addition; 57.99% C group and low fat content (from 14.35 mm in SFO group up to 14.70 mm in CLA group.

    19. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

      2016-03-01

      Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder

    20. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Nouara Ait Mimoune; Djouher Ait Mimoune; Aziza Yataghene

      2013-01-01

      Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils ofPinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay.Results:Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9%) and β-selinene (13.45%) were predominant compounds. The essential oil exhibited a moderate activity againstStaphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, but did not affect the growth of Erwinia amylovora. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were not inhibited by maritime pine essential oils.Conclusions:The essential oils from Pinus pinaster can be used as an antibacterial agent.

    1. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nouara Ait Mimoune

      2013-08-01

      Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay. Results: Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9% and β-selinene (13.45% were predominant compounds. The essential oil exhibited a moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, but did not affect the growth of Erwinia amylovora. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were not inhibited by maritime pine essential oils. Conclusions: The essential oils from Pinus pinaster can be used as an antibacterial agent.

    2. Effects of rootstock on the composition of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) essential oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Verzera, Antonella; Trozzi, Alessandra; Gazea, Florea; Cicciarello, Giuseppe; Cotroneo, Antonella

      2003-01-01

      This paper reports the composition of bergamot oils obtained from plants grafted on the following rootstocks: sour orange, Carrizo citrange, trifoliate orange, Alemow, Volkamerian lemon, and Troyer citrange. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using rootstocks other than sour orange, checking their effect on the composition of the essential oil. Results are reported for analysis of 203 bergamot oils during the years 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000. The oils were analyzed by HRGC and HRGC/MS; 78 components were identified, and the results were in agreement with those reported in the literature for the Calabrian bergamot oils obtained from industry. Because of the quality of their essential oils, Alemow and Volkamerian lemon can be considered as substitutes for sour orange rootstocks.

    3. Relating belowground microbial composition to the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional trait distributions of trees in a tropical forest.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Barberán, Albert; McGuire, Krista L; Wolf, Jeffrey A; Jones, F Andrew; Wright, Stuart Joseph; Turner, Benjamin L; Essene, Adam; Hubbell, Stephen P; Faircloth, Brant C; Fierer, Noah

      2015-12-01

      The complexities of the relationships between plant and soil microbial communities remain unresolved. We determined the associations between plant aboveground and belowground (root) distributions and the communities of soil fungi and bacteria found across a diverse tropical forest plot. Soil microbial community composition was correlated with the taxonomic and phylogenetic structure of the aboveground plant assemblages even after controlling for differences in soil characteristics, but these relationships were stronger for fungi than for bacteria. In contrast to expectations, the species composition of roots in our soil core samples was a poor predictor of microbial community composition perhaps due to the patchy, ephemeral, and highly overlapping nature of fine root distributions. Our ability to predict soil microbial composition was not improved by incorporating information on plant functional traits suggesting that the most commonly measured plant traits are not particularly useful for predicting the plot-level variability in belowground microbial communities.

    4. Comparison of the Essential Oil Composition of Selected Impatiens Species and Its Antioxidant Activities.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Szewczyk, Katarzyna; Kalemba, Danuta; Komsta, Łukasz; Nowak, Renata

      2016-09-01

      The present paper describes the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from four Impatiens species, Impatiens glandulifera Royle, I. parviflora DC., I. balsamina L. and I. noli-tangere L. The GC and GC-MS methods resulted in identification of 226 volatile compounds comprising from 61.7%-88.2% of the total amount. The essential oils differed significantly in their composition. Fifteen compounds were shared among the essential oils of all investigated Impatiens species. The majority of these constituents was linalool (0.7%-15.1%), hexanal (0.2%-5.3%) and benzaldehyde (0.1%-10.2%). Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the essential oils was investigated using different methods. The chemical composition of the essential oils and its antioxidant evaluation are reported for the first time from the investigated taxon.

    5. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

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      Dowd, M. K.

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, the seeds of seven Tilia species (lime or linden trees were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extraction of the seed oil with hexane, the glycerides were trans-methylated and analyzed by gas chromatography on two polar stationary phases. All of the seed oils analyzed were composed primarily of linoleic acid (49-60% with lesser amounts of oleic (16-22% and palmitic (8-10% acids. The usual secondary components were also found. In addition, cyclopropenoid acids (i.e., sterculic and malvalic acids were present at levels between 6 and 17%. In all samples, the level of malvalic acid was approximately twice the level of sterculic acid, indicating that considerable a-oxidation of sterculic acid had occurred in these seeds. Two additional a-oxidation products, 8-heptadecenoic acid and 8,11-heptadecadienoic acid were also detected. Combined, the level of these fatty acids was between 1.3 and 2.3%, roughly comparable to the levels of these acids recently reported in the seed oil of Thespesia populnea.Como parte de un estudio sobre la composición de aceites derivados de semillas de plantas Malvaceae, las semillas de siete especies de Tilia (árboles de tilia o lima fueron evaluadas con respecto a sus perfiles de ácidos grasos. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de Germplasm Research Information Network así como de varias fuentes comerciales. Tras la extracción del aceite con hexano, los glicéridos fueron trans-metilados y analizados por cromatografía de gases con dos fases polares estacionarias. Todos los aceites extraidos de las semillas analizados estaban compuestos principalmente de ácido linoleico (49-60% y, en cantidades más bajas de ácido oleico (16-22% y palmítico (8-10%. Otros componentes secundarios típicos también fueron encontrados. Además, los

    6. Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils

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      Molkary Andrea López

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available The present work evaluated the chemical composition and the DNA protective effect of the essential oils (EOs from Lippia alba against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. EO constituents were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS analysis. The major compounds encountered being citral (33% geranial and 25% neral, geraniol (7% and trans-β-caryophyllene (7% for L. alba specimen COL512077, and carvone (38%, limonene (33% and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8% for the other, COL512078. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of EO and the compounds citral, carvone and limonene, were assayed using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. The EOs were not genotoxic in the SOS chromotest, but one of the major compound (limonene showed genotoxicity at doses between 97 and 1549 mM. Both EOs protected bacterial cells against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. Antigenotoxicity in the two L. alba chemotypes was related to the major compounds, citral and carvone, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to the chemopreventive potential of L. alba EOs and its major compounds.

    7. Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils.

      Science.gov (United States)

      López, Molkary Andrea; Stashenko, Elena E; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

      2011-07-01

      The present work evaluated the chemical composition and the DNA protective effect of the essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. EO constituents were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds encountered being citral (33% geranial and 25% neral), geraniol (7%) and trans-β-caryophyllene (7%) for L. alba specimen COL512077, and carvone (38%), limonene (33%) and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8%) for the other, COL512078. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of EO and the compounds citral, carvone and limonene, were assayed using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. The EOs were not genotoxic in the SOS chromotest, but one of the major compound (limonene) showed genotoxicity at doses between 97 and 1549 mM. Both EOs protected bacterial cells against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. Antigenotoxicity in the two L. alba chemotypes was related to the major compounds, citral and carvone, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to the chemopreventive potential of L. alba EOs and its major compounds.

    8. Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for bovine milk protein composition.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schopen, G C B; Koks, P D; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H; Visker, M H P W

      2009-08-01

      The objective of this study was to perform a whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for milk protein composition in 849 Holstein-Friesian cows originating from seven sires. One morning milk sample was analysed for the major milk proteins using capillary zone electrophoresis. A genetic map was constructed with 1341 single nucleotide polymorphisms, covering 2829 centimorgans (cM) and 95% of the cattle genome. The chromosomal regions most significantly related to milk protein composition (P(genome) casein, alpha(S2)-casein, beta-casein and kappa-casein. The QTL on BTA11 was found at 124 cM, and affected beta-lactoglobulin, and the QTL on BTA14 was found at 0 cM, and affected protein percentage. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL was 3.6% for beta-casein and 7.9% for kappa-casein on BTA6, 28.3% for beta-lactoglobulin on BTA11, and 8.6% for protein percentage on BTA14. The QTL affecting alpha(S2)-casein on BTA6 and 17 showed a significant interaction. We investigated the extent to which the detected QTL affecting milk protein composition could be explained by known polymorphisms in beta-casein, kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin and DGAT1 genes. Correction for these polymorphisms decreased the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL previously found on BTA6, 11 and 14. Thus, several significant QTL affecting milk protein composition were found, of which some QTL could partially be explained by polymorphisms in milk protein genes.

    9. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

      OpenAIRE

      Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud; Mohamed Deabes; Lamia Abou El-Kassem; Mona Khalil

      2015-01-01

      BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and anal...

    10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Magiatis, P; Melliou, E; Skaltsounis, A L; Chinou, I B; Mitaku, S

      1999-12-01

      The chemical composition of the three essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the mastic gum, leaves and twigs of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, was studied by GC/MS. Sixty nine constituents were identified from the oils. alpha-Pinene, myrcene, trans-caryophyllene and germacrene D were found to be the major components. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the three essential oils and of the resin (total, acid and neutral fraction) against six bacteria and three fungi is reported.

    11. Epistatic QTL pairs associated with meat quality and carcass composition traits in a porcine Duroc × Pietrain population

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      Jüngst Heinz

      2010-10-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses in pig have revealed numerous individual QTL affecting growth, carcass composition, reproduction and meat quality, indicating a complex genetic architecture. In general, statistical QTL models consider only additive and dominance effects and identification of epistatic effects in livestock is not yet widespread. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize epistatic effects between common and novel QTL regions for carcass composition and meat quality traits in pig. Methods Five hundred and eighty five F2 pigs from a Duroc × Pietrain resource population were genotyped using 131 genetic markers (microsatellites and SNP spread over the 18 pig autosomes. Phenotypic information for 26 carcass composition and meat quality traits was available for all F2 animals. Linkage analysis was performed in a two-step procedure using a maximum likelihood approach implemented in the QxPak program. Results A number of interacting QTL was observed for different traits, leading to the identification of a variety of networks among chromosomal regions throughout the porcine genome. We distinguished 17 epistatic QTL pairs for carcass composition and 39 for meat quality traits. These interacting QTL pairs explained up to 8% of the phenotypic variance. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the significance of epistasis in pigs. We have revealed evidence for epistatic relationships between different chromosomal regions, confirmed known QTL loci and connected regions reported in other studies. Considering interactions between loci allowed us to identify several novel QTL and trait-specific relationships of loci within and across chromosomes.

    12. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

      Science.gov (United States)

      This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

    13. Relationships between milk protein composition, milk protein variants, and cow fertility traits in Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Demeter, R.M.; Markiewicz, K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

      2010-01-01

      Selective breeding can change milk protein composition to improve the manufacturing properties of milk. However, the effects of such breeding strategies on other economically important traits should be investigated before implementation. The objectives of this study were to examine the association b

    14. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana

      Science.gov (United States)

      Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated...

    15. Effect of flour-oil composite as powdered fat source in low-fat cake mixes

      Science.gov (United States)

      Excess steam jet-cooked composites containing wheat flour and 30 to 55% canola oil were drum dried and used to replace the oil and part of the flour in low-fat cake mix formulations. Specific gravity and viscosity of cake batters were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain, color, textu...

    16. Yield and Oil Composition of Thirty-Eight Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Accessions Grown in Mississippi

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) has been grown as an essential oil crop in many countries; however, the herbage yield, oil content, composition, and bioactivity of basil grown in Mississippi and other Southern U.S. states has not been explored. The hypothesis of this study was that certain basil ...

    17. Lantana montevidensis Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Mosquito Repellent Activity against Aedes aegypti

      Science.gov (United States)

      The essential oil (EO) of Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (L. sellowiana Link & Otto) was investigated for its chemical composition and mosquito repellent activity. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial plant parts was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents we...

    18. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: Chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito

      Science.gov (United States)

      Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dacty...

    19. Properties of dry film lubricants prepared by spray application of aqueous starch-oil composites

      Science.gov (United States)

      Aqueous dispersions of starch-soybean oil (SBO) and starch-jojoba oil (JO) composites, prepared by excess steam jet cooking, form effective dry film lubricants when applied as thick coatings to metal surfaces by doctor blade. This application method necessitates long drying times, is wasteful, requ...

    20. Differences in fatty acid composition between cerebral brain lobes in juvenile pigs after fish oil feeding

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Dullemeijer, C.; Zock, P.L.; Coronel, R.; Ruijter, den H.M.; Katan, M.B.; Brummer, R.J.; Kok, F.J.; Beekman, J.; Brouwer, I.A.

      2008-01-01

      Very long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish are suggested to play a role in the development of the brain. Fish oil feeding results in higher proportions of n-3 PUFA in the brains of newborn piglets. However, the effect of fish oil on the fatty acid composition of specific cerebral brain lobes in juvenile

    1. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

      2010-02-01

      The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

    2. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Sokovic, M.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

      2008-01-01

      The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined. Anti

    3. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Sokovic, M.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

      2008-01-01

      The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined.

    4. Lipid composition and antioxidant activities of the seed oil from three Mlvaceae species

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tešević V.

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available The oil content and fatty acids, unsaponifiable composition and antioxidant activities of the seed oil from three Malvaceae species (Malva sylvestris L., Malva sylvestris L. var. mauritiana and Althaea officinalis L. from Serbia were determined. The oil yields from the seeds varied from 7.18 to 9.60%. The main fatty acids of the seed oils were linoleic acid (44.14-54.49%, oleic acid (13.00-16.99% and palmitic acid (11.45-24.29%. A small amount of cyclopropenoid acids, up to 1.85% was also established. The predominant sterol in all seed oils was β-sitosterol (11.51-17.34 mg/g of oil. The antioxidant potential of all the investigated seed oils was evaluated by radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay.

    5. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the essential oils isolated from Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bahri, F; Harrak, R; Achak, N; Romane, A

      2013-01-01

      This study describes the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana (Cupressaceae). The essential oil of dried leaves was isolated by hydrodistillation, vapohydrodistillation and microwaves. Sixty-four compounds in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils were identified (79.9%, 92.4% and 98.4% of the oil, respectively). The most abundant compound in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils is sabinene (38%, 36.2% and 39.4%). Antibacterial activities of J. thurifera essential oils was tested against bacteria Gram ( - ) and Gram (+). The oil is very active against all bacteria tested except Pseudomonas, which turned out to be very resistant.

    6. Comparison of Essential oil Composition of Three Ginger Cultivars from Sub Himalayan Region

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Suresh V Nampoothiri; V V Venugopalan; Beena Joy; M M Sreekumar; A Nirmala Menon

      2012-01-01

      Objective: To investigate and compare the essential oil constituents of three most popular cultivars from sub Himalayan region namely, gorubathane, shingboi and thingria. Methods: Volatile oils were isolated using Clevenger trap and characterized by analytical gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Results: Eighty one constituents accounting for 95.24%, 97.1%and 97.03% of the gorubathane, shingboi and thingria oils respectively, were identified. Conclusions:The major compounds of gorubathane oil were zingiberene (32.2%) and β-sequiphellandrene (10.9%). The main constituents in thingria oil were zingiberene (12.58%) and ar-curcumene (9.89%) and of shingboi oil were geranial (20.07%) and neral (9.44%). This is the first report on the essential oils composition of three Sub Himalayan ginger cultivars.

    7. Spatial and temporal changes of density and chemical composition of heavy oils of Eurasia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Y.M. Polishchuk, I.G. Yashchenko

      2011-07-01

      Full Text Available Paper is devoted to analytical review of regularities of spatial and temporal changes of chemical composition and density of heavy oils of Eurasia, which are envisaged as main reserve of world’s oil production industry for future years. The contents of sulfur, paraffin, resin, asphaltene and light fraction in heavy oils and their density were analysed statistically with use the global database on petrochemistry created by Institute of petroleum chemistry. The database includes above 3,660 samples of heavy oils from 62 principal oil-bearing basins in Eurasia. The basic regularities of regional distribution of heavy oils are considered. It is shown that the heaviest oils of Eurasia are in oil-bearing basins of Southern Europe and Southern Asia. The regularities of heavy oil density changes depending on occurrence depth are given. It is shown oil density decreases with depth growth. Maximum values of density of heavy oils are observed in Cenozoic rocks and their minimum values are in Proterozoic rocks. In average, heavy oils are sulfur, high resin, high asphaltenes ones containing small paraffin and small light fractions.

    8. Chemical Composition Variability of Essential Oils of Daucus gracilis Steinh. from Algeria.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Benyelles, Batoul; Allali, Hocine; El Amine Dib, Mohamed; Djabou, Nassim; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

      2017-02-17

      The chemical compositions of 20 Algerian Daucus gracilis essential oils were investigated using GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR analyses. Altogether, 47 compounds were identified, accounting for 90-99% of the total oil compositions. The main components were linalool (18; 12.5-22.6%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (20; 9.2-20.2%), 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate (10; 4.2-12.2%), ammimajane (47; 2.6-37.1%), (E)-β-ocimene (15; 0.2-12.8%) and 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (19; 3.3-9.6%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs was also studied. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaves and flowers allowed identifying 47 compounds, amounting to 92.3% and 94.1% of total oil composition, respectively. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaf and flower oils allowed identifying linalool (22.7%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (18.9%), 2-methylbutyl isovalerate (13.6%), ammimajane (10.4%), 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (10.3%), (E)-β-ocimene (8.4%) and isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate (8.1%) as main components. The chemical variability of the Algerian oil samples was studied using statistical analysis, which allowed the discrimination of three main Groups. A direct correlation between the altitudes, nature of soils and the chemical compositions of the D. gracilis essential oils was evidenced. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    9. Chemical composition and biological activities of Tunisian Cupressus arizonica Greene essential oils.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ismail, Amri; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Hamrouni, Lamia; Hanana, Mohsen; Jamoussi, Bassem; Gargouri, Samia; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; De Feo, Vincenzo

      2014-01-01

      The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of leaves, stems, and female cones of Cupressus arizonica Greene, grown in Tunisia, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Altogether, 62 compounds were identified, 62 in the leaf oil, 19 in the cone oil, and 24 in the stem oil. The cone and stem oils were mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (96.6 and 85.2%, resp.). In the leaf oil, the total sesquiterpene fraction constituted 36.1% and that of the monoterpene hydrocarbons 33.8% of the total oil composition. The three oils were evaluated for their in vitro herbicidal activity by determining their influence on the germination and the shoot and root growth of the four weed species Sinapis arvensis L., Lolium rigidum Gaudin, Trifolium campestre Schreb., and Phalaris canariensis L. At the highest doses tested (0.8 and 1.0 mg/ml), the leaf essential oil inhibited either totally or almost completely the seed germination and the shoot and root growth of S. arvensis and T. campestre. The oils were also tested for their antifungal activity; however, their effects on the fungal growth were statistically not significant.

    10. The volatile oil composition of fresh and air-dried buds of Cannabis sativa.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ross, S A; ElSohly, M A

      1996-01-01

      The composition of the steam-distilled volatile oil of fresh and air-dried, indoor-grown marijuana was studied by GC/FID and GC/MS. In all, 68 components were detected of which 57 were fully identified. Drying of the plant material had no effect on the qualitative composition of the oil and did not affect the ability of individuals familiar with marijuana smell to recognize the odor.

    11. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from the Tunisian Allium nigrum L.

      OpenAIRE

      Rouis-Soussi, Lamia Sakka; Ayeb-Zakhama, El Asma; Mahjoub, Aouni; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

      2014-01-01

      The chemical composition of the essential oils of different Allium nigrum L. organs and the antibacterial activity were evaluated. The study is particularly interesting because hitherto there are no reports on the antibacterial screening of this species with specific chemical composition. Therefore, essential oils from different organs (flowers, stems, leaves and bulbs) obtained separately by hydrodistillation were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The antibacterial...

    12. Lubricating oil compositions containing overbased calcium sulfonates and metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acid

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Yamaguchi, E.S.; Cerrito, E.; Liston, T.V.

      1987-05-26

      This patent describes a lubricating oil composition containing an overbased calcium hydrocarbyl sulfonate. The improvement wherein the lubricating oil composition additionally comprises an effective amount to reduce wear of a metal salt of an alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acid ester of the formula: wherein R is alkyl containing 10 to 18 carbon atoms, or mixtures thereof, M is an alkali or alkaline earth metal or transition metal and n corresponds to the valence of the metal M.

    13. Chemical composition and some biological activities of the essential oils from basil Ocimum different cultivars.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Avetisyan, Arpi; Markosian, Anahit; Petrosyan, Margarit; Sahakyan, Naira; Babayan, Anush; Aloyan, Samvel; Trchounian, Armen

      2017-01-19

      The plants belonging to the Ocimum genus of the Lamiaceae family are considered to be a rich source of essential oils which have expressed biological activity and use in different area of human activity. There is a great variety of chemotypes within the same basil species. Essential oils from three different cultivars of basil, O. basilicum var. purpureum, O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora, and O. citriodorum Vis. were the subjects of our investigations. The oils were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The gas chromatography mass selective analysis was used to determine their chemical composition. The antioxidant activities of these essential oils were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays; the tyrosinase inhibition abilities of the given group of oils were also assessed spectophotometrically, and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was determined by the agar diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentrations were expressed. According to the results, the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils was quite different: O. basilicum var. purpureum essential oil contained 57.3% methyl-chavicol (estragol); O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora oil had 68.0% linalool. The main constituents of O. citriodorum oil were nerol (23.0%) and citral (20.7%). The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora essential oil. This oil has also exhibited the highest tyrosinase inhibition level, whereas the oil from O. citriodorum cultivar demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity. The results obtained indicate that these essential oils have antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity and can be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in medicine, food industry and cosmetics.

    14. Composition and Biological Activity of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis Seed and Cone Essential Oils.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika

      2017-03-01

      The increasing consumption of natural products lead us to discover and study new plant materials, such as conifer seeds and cones, which could be easily available from the forest industry as a waste material, for their potential uses. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis was fully characterized by GC and GC/MS methods. Seed and cone oils of both tree species were composed mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, among which limonene, α- and β-pinene were the major, but in different proportions in the examined conifer essential oils. The levorotary form of chiral monoterpene molecules was predominant over the dextrorotary form. The composition of oils from P. pungens seeds and cones was similar, while the hydrodistilled oils of P. orientalis seeds and cones differed from each other, mainly by a higher amount of oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes and by other higher molar mass terpenes in seed oil. The essential oils showed mild antimicrobial action, however P. orientalis cone oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial properties against tested bacterial species than those of P. pungens. Effects of the tested cone essential oils on human skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were similar: in a concentration of 0 - 0.075 μl/ml the oils were rather safe for human skin fibroblasts and 0 - 0.005 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. IC50 value of Picea pungens oils was 0.115 μl/ml, while that of Picea orientalis was 0.105 μl/ml. The value of IC50 of both oils were 0.035 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. The strongest effect on cell viability had the oil from Picea orientalis cones, while on DNA synthesis the oil from Picea pungens cones. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

    15. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Rabdosia Iophanthoides

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      石浩; 邹建凯; 潘远江

      2002-01-01

      Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Rabdosia lophanthoides resulted in the identification of 108 compounds repreaentin4g 78. 12096 of the oil. Hydro-distillation of Rabdosia lophanthoides yielded a pale yellow oil. The compounds identified and their relative proportions are listed in Table 1 according to their order of elution on an HP-5MS capillary column.

    16. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Rabdosia lophanthoides

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      石浩; 邹建凯; 潘远江

      2002-01-01

      Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Rabdosia lophanthoides resulted in the identification of 108 compounds representing 78.120% of the oil. Hydro-distillation of Rabdosia lophanthoides yielded a pale yellow oil. The compounds identified and their relative proportions are listed in Table 1 according to their order of elution on an HP-5MS capillary column. .

    17. Agricultural Land Use Determines the Trait Composition of Ground Beetle Communities.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Helena I Hanson

      Full Text Available In order to improve biological control of agricultural pests, it is fundamental to understand which factors influence the composition of natural enemies in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we aimed to understand how agricultural land use affects a number of different traits in ground beetle communities to better predict potential consequences of land-use change for ecosystem functioning. We studied ground beetles in fields with different agricultural land use ranging from frequently managed sugar beet fields, winter wheat fields to less intensively managed grasslands. The ground beetles were collected in emergence tents that catch individuals overwintering locally in different life stages and with pitfall traps that catch individuals that could have a local origin or may have dispersed into the field. Community weighted mean values for ground beetle traits such as body size, flight ability and feeding preference were estimated for each land-use type and sampling method. In fields with high land-use intensity the average body length of emerging ground beetle communities was lower than in the grasslands while the average body length of actively moving communities did not differ between the land-use types. The proportion of ground beetles with good flight ability or a carnivorous diet was higher in the crop fields as compared to the grasslands. Our study highlights that increasing management intensity reduces the average body size of emerging ground beetles and the proportion of mixed feeders. Our results also suggest that the dispersal ability of ground beetles enables them to compensate for local management intensities.

    18. Kernel oil content and oil composition in walnut (Juglans regia L.) accessions from north-eastern Italy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Poggetti, Luca; Ferfuia, Claudio; Chiabà, Cristina; Testolin, Raffaele; Baldini, Mario

      2017-07-13

      Walnut oil use is currently limited by its poor oxidative stability due to the high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Modifying the oil composition may be a goal in walnut breeding to increase interest in this crop. Exploring natural variability and identifying the main environmental factors affecting oil quality are necessary in crop selection. Therefore 190 wild accessions were collected and evaluated during 2013 and 2014 for oil content and its fatty acid profile and compared with five commercial cultivars as references. High variation in kernel oil content and fatty acid composition was found in the native walnut. Kernel oil content ranged from 54.2 to 72.2% (w/w). The major fatty acids were linoleic (range 46.9-68.6%), oleic (10.0-25.1%), linolenic (6.9-17.6%), palmitic (3.9-11.4%) and stearic (1.1-5.2%) acids. Some accessions had oil with a fatty acid ratio very different from the reference commercial cultivars, especially the oleic acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. A significant linear relationship and positive correlation between the daily minimum temperature and oleic acid content was observed in the wild walnuts. The wide variation in fatty acid content and composition allows superior accessions to be selected for diffusion among growers. A suitable strategy would be to make a selection against PUFA content rather than just for high oleic acid. In addition, the selected high oleic accessions, before being utilized per se or as donor parents in breeding programs, have to demonstrate they are not adversely affected by the environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

    19. Productivity, Oil Content, and Oil Composition of Sweet Basil as a Function of Nitrogen and Sulfur Fertilization

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) were believed to be important nutrient management tools for the production of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. 'German') with desirable oil content and composition and also acceptable herbage yields. A multi-location research study was initiated to evaluate the effect of...

    20. [Chemical composition of the essential oil from melissa].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tittel, G; Wagner, H; Bos, R

      1982-10-01

      Different oil-samples of Melissa officinalis L. were analysed by capillary GC/MS, using fused silica columns and E.I.-Mass-spectrometry. Comparing the observed mass-spectra with those of a spectral collection, 70 compounds of the oil were identified. Geranial, neral, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, citronellal, geranyl-acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and beta-caryophyllene-oxide comprise about 96%. The fingerprint of the capillary gas-chromatogramm permitted differentiation of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Nepeta cataria var. citriodora., as well as a standardisation of pharmaceutical preparations containing Melissa oil.

    1. Impact of Crude Oil Quality on the Refining Conditions and Composition of Nutraceuticals in Refined Palm Oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sampaio, Klicia A; Ayala, Jose Vila; Van Hoed, Vera; Monteiro, Simone; Ceriani, Roberta; Verhé, Roland; Meirelles, Antonio J A

      2017-08-01

      Palm oil is the major vegetable oil used worldwide due to its unique properties. The effect of crude palm oil acidity on the final free fatty acids (FFA) content, neutral oil loss (NOL), and nutraceutical compounds, such as carotenes, total tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols), squalene, and phytosterols was investigated. A central composite design was employed to study the influence of the refining conditions: temperature (200 to 260 °C), steam percentage (0.5% to 3.5%), and initial FFA content (2.2% to 6.0%) on the quality of the refined product. The results revealed that initial palm oil acidity is a statistically important parameter to obtain commercially acceptable values for final FFA content. The increase of temperature presented the most important effect on the reduction of all nutraceutical compounds. The highest tocopherols (88%), phytosterols (98%), and squalene retention (84%) was obtained when applying the mildest temperature (200 °C). From the experimental results, 3 equations were generated enabling the prediction of the free fatty acids content, the tocols content, and the losses of neutral oil. Therefore, this work contributes to the understanding and optimization of the process for the production of palm oil with high nutraceutical quality and low free fatty acid contents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

    2. Strength Properties of Bio-composite Lumbers from Lignocelluloses of Oil Palm Fronds Agricultural Residues

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mohd Sukhairi Mat Rasat

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available The physical and strength properties of bio-composite lumbers from agricultural residues of oil palm fronds were studied. Resins of phenol formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde were used as the binders. The oil palm fronds were obtained from an oil palm plantation in Kota Belud, Sabah. The fronds were segregated into three (3 groups of matured, intermediate and young of oil palm fronds. The leaflets and the epidermis were removed from the fronds before they were sliced longitudinally into thin layers. The layers were then compressed into uniform thickness of 2 - 3 mm. The layers were air-dried and later mixed with resins using 12-15% of phenol and urea formaldehyde and recompressed with other layers forming the bio-composite lumbers. The bio-composite lumbers were then tested for their physical and strength properties. Testing was conducted in accordance to the International Organization for standardization (ISO standard. The result on the physical and strength properties shows that the oil palm fronds bio-composite lumbers to be at par with solid rubberwood. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences between bio-composite lumbers made from each groups and portion, but no differences were observed in the type of resin used. The bio-composite lumbers from oil palm fronds agricultural residues has potential to be used as an alternative to wood to overcome the shortage in materials in the wood industry.

    3. Adaptive evolution of seed oil content in angiosperms: accounting for the global patterns of seed oils.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sanyal, Anushree; Decocq, Guillaume

      2016-09-09

      Studies of the biogeographic distribution of seed oil content in plants are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in plants as seed oil is the primary energy source needed for germination and establishment of plants. However, seed oil content as an adaptive trait in plants is poorly understood. Here, we examine the adaptive nature of seed oil content in 168 angiosperm families occurring in different biomes across the world. We also explore the role of multiple seed traits like seed oil content and composition in plant adaptation in a phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic context. It was observed that the seed oil content in tropical plants (28.4 %) was significantly higher than the temperate plants (24.6 %). A significant relationship between oil content and latitude was observed in three families Papaveraceae, Sapindaceae and Sapotaceae indicating that selective forces correlated with latitude influence seed oil content. Evaluation of the response of seed oil content and composition to latitude and the correlation between seed oil content and composition showed that multiple seed traits, seed oil content and composition contribute towards plant adaptation. Investigation of the presence or absence of phylogenetic signals across 168 angiosperm families in 62 clades revealed that members of seven clades evolved to have high or low seed oil content independently as they did not share a common evolutionary path. The study provides us an insight into the biogeographical distribution and the adaptive role of seed oil content in plants. The study indicates that multiple seed traits like seed oil content and the fatty acid composition of the seed oils determine the fitness of the plants and validate the adaptive hypothesis that seed oil quantity and quality are crucial to plant adaptation.

    4. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Echinophora spinosa L. (Apiaceae Essential Oil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jasmina M. Glamočlija

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition and effectiveness of the essential oil isolated from Echinophora spinosa on different bacterial and fungal species. Chemical analysis (GC/MS showed that δ³-carene (60,86 %, α-phellandrene (7,12%, p-cymene (6,22 %, myrcene (4,82 % and β-phellandrene (2,73 % were dominant components in this oil. Essential oil tested showed good antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial potential of this oil was higher than potential of commercial antimicrobial drugs tested, streptomycin, bifonozole and ketoconazole.

    5. Chemical composition of leaf and seed essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. from Bangladesh

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Md. Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan, Jaripa Begum and Mahbuba Sultana

      2009-12-01

      Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. The leaf oil contained 44 compounds mostly of aromatic acids containing 2-decenoic acid (30.8%, E-11-tetradecenoic acid (13.4%, capric acid (12.7%, undecyl alcohol (6.4%, tridecanoic acid (5.5% and undecanoic acid (7.1% as major constituents. The seed oil contains 53 compounds where the major compounds are linalool (37.7%, geranyl acetate (17.6% and γ-terpinene (14.4%. The compositions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.

    6. Chemical composition of leaf and seed essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. from Bangladesh

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mohammad Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan

      2009-06-01

      Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. The leaf oil contained 44 compounds mostly of aromatic acids containing 2-decenoic acid (30.8%, E-11-tetradecenoic acid (13.4%, capric acid (12.7%, undecyl alcohol (6.4%, tridecanoic acid (5.5% and undecanoic acid (7.1% as major constituents. The seed oil contains 53 compounds where the major compounds are linalool (37.7%, geranyl acetate (17.6% and γ-terpinene(14.4%. The compositions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.

    7. Chemical composition of volatile oils from leaves of Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. (Lauraceae)

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Romoff, Paulete; Ferreira, Marcelo J.P., E-mail: romoff@mackenzie.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades; Padilla, Ricardo; Toyama, Daniela O.; Favero, Oriana A. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude; Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra

      2010-07-01

      The volatile oils from Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. leaves, collected in February and August of 2007 and at 7:00 and 12:00 h (samples A - D), were extracted by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition was analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. A total of nineteen compounds were identified with predominance of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, among them, a-bisabolol, was the main constituent (62.3-69.4 %). After chromatographic separation procedures, this compound was purified from crude oil and its structure was confirmed by analysis of NMR data. This paper describes for the first time the composition of the leaves volatile oil from N. megapotamica. (author)

    8. Strategies to predict and improve eating quality of cooked beef using carcass and meat composition traits in Angus cattle.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mateescu, R G; Oltenacu, P A; Garmyn, A J; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L

      2016-05-01

      Product quality is a high priority for the beef industry because of its importance as a major driver of consumer demand for beef and the ability of the industry to improve it. A 2-prong approach based on implementation of a genetic program to improve eating quality and a system to communicate eating quality and increase the probability that consumers' eating quality expectations are met is outlined. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the best carcass and meat composition traits to be used in a selection program to improve eating quality and 2) to develop a relatively small number of classes that reflect real and perceptible differences in eating quality that can be communicated to consumers and identify a subset of carcass and meat composition traits with the highest predictive accuracy across all eating quality classes. Carcass traits, meat composition, including Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat content (IMFC), trained sensory panel scores, and mineral composition traits of 1,666 Angus cattle were used in this study. Three eating quality indexes, EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, were generated by using different weights for the sensory traits (emphasis on tenderness, flavor, and juiciness, respectively). The best model for predicting eating quality explained 37%, 9%, and 19% of the variability of EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, and 2 traits, WBSF and IMFC, accounted for most of the variability explained by the best models. EATQ1 combines tenderness, juiciness, and flavor assessed by trained panels with 0.60, 0.15, and 0.25 weights, best describes North American consumers, and has a moderate heritability (0.18 ± 0.06). A selection index (I= -0.5[WBSF] + 0.3[IMFC]) based on phenotypic and genetic variances and covariances can be used to improve eating quality as a correlated trait. The 3 indexes (EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3) were used to generate 3 equal (33.3%) low, medium, and high eating quality classes, and linear combinations of traits that

    9. Enhancement of oil recovery using zirconium-chitosan hybrid composite by adsorptive method.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Sivasurian, N; Meenakshi, Sankaran

      2016-07-10

      Recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion has been investigated by many scientists and it continues to be a challenging task for environmental scientists so far. Among all the techniques, adsorption is found to be an appropriate process for the removal of oil from oil-in-water emulsion owing to its high efficiency and easy operation. A hybrid material, zirconium-chitosan composite (Zr-CS-HC) was prepared to remove the oil from oil-in-water emulsion and oil was measured by extractive gravimetric method. Various parameters viz., agitation time, pH, sorbent dosage and initial oil concentration for maximum sorption were optimized. In this study, the maximum oil removal percentage was found to be at pH 3.0 and a minimum contact time of 50min using prepared sorbent. The pH of the sorption studies revealed that oil sorption was favored in acidic condition. The sorbent was characterized using FTIR, SEM with EDAX, XRD, TGA and DSC; contact angle and heat of combustion. The experimental data were explained using Freundlich, Langmuir, D-R and Tempkin isotherms to find the best fit for the sorption process. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were calculated to understand the nature of sorption process. This work provides a potential platform for the expansion of oil removal technology.

    10. Quality and Chemical Composition of Organic and Non-Organic Vetiver Oil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Asep Kadarohman

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available Vetiver oil (Vetiveria zizanoides has been used as perfume materials, cosmetics, fragrance soaps, anti-inflammation, repellent, and insecticidal agents. Organic vetiver oil has higher economical value than non-organic vetiver oil and it has been regarded to be able to compete in the global market. Therefore, studies have been carried out using 1 hectare of land and the first generation of organic vetiver oil has produced 0.57% of yield, greater than non-organic (0.50%. The quality of organic and non-organic vetiver oil was analyzed by Indonesian Standard (SNI parameter, pesticide residue test, chemical composition by GC/MS, and the appearance of vetiver root. In general, the result of organic and non-organic vetiver oil has fulfilled the national standard; the quality of organic vetiver oil was better than non-organic one. Physically, the appearance of organic vetiver root was better than non-organic vetiver root; organic vetiver root was denser, more appealing, and did not have any black spots. The pesticide residue of organic vetiver oil was lower than non-organic vetiver oil. Based on SNI test, vetiverol (oxygen compounds in organic vetiver oil was higher than non-organic vetiver oil.

    11. Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Essential Oils of ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      linoleic acid assays, peppermint oil showed superior antioxidant properties to chocolate mint oil. (4.45 - 19.86 μl/mL). ... hybrid of spearmint (M. spicata L.) and water mint (M. aquatica .... individually to 4.8 mL of the emulsion and this was then ...

    12. Composition of the Essential Oil of Lomatium torreyi

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bedrossian, A.; Beauchamp, P.E.; Dev, Vasu; Kwan, S.; Munevar-Mendoza, Elsa; Okoreeh, E.K.; Moore, P.E.

      1998-01-01

      The stem and leaf as well as the fruit oils of Lomatium torreyi show myrcene, ??-phellandrene, (Z)-??-ocimene, (E)-??-ocimene and (Z)-ligustilide to be the major components. The root oil is primarily composed of R-(-)-falcarinol (88.0%).

    13. Essential Oil Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Clinopodium ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Results: A total of 34 components of the essential oil of C. gracile were identified. ... the control of A. albopictus larvae and could be useful in the search for new, ... systems, outbreaks of other insect species, .... Table 1(b): Main compounds of the essential oil of Artemisia frigida aerial parts (contd) .... Kuo YH, Lee SM, Lai JS.

    14. Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Greuter Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Multivariate Analysis, and Antimicrobial Activity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mitic, Violeta; Stankov Jovanovic, Vesna; Ilic, Marija; Jovanovic, Olga; Djordjevic, Aleksandra; Stojanovic, Gordana

      2016-01-01

      The chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activities of Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Greuter essential oil was studied. Moreover, using agglomerative hierarchical cluster (AHC) and principal component analyses (PCA), the interrelationships of the D. graveolens essential-oil profiles characterized so far (including the sample from this study) were investigated. To evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil, GC-FID and GC/MS analyses were performed. Altogether, 54 compounds were identified, accounting for 92.9% of the total oil composition. The D. graveolens oil belongs to the monoterpenoid chemotype, with monoterpenoids comprising 87.4% of the totally identified compounds. The major components were borneol (43.6%) and bornyl acetate (38.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that the compounds borneol and bornyl acetate exerted the greatest influence on the spatial differences in the composition of the reported oils. The antimicrobial activity against five bacterial and one fungal strain was determined using a disk-diffusion assay. The studied essential oil was active only against Gram-positive bacteria.

    15. Report-The fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of the underutilised Cassia abbreviata seed oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dangarembizi, Rachael; Chivandi, Eliton; Dawood, Sumaya; Erlwanger, Kennedy Honey; Gundidza, Mazuru; Magwa, Michael Libala; Muredzi, Perkins; Samie, Amidou

      2015-05-01

      The fatty acid composition of the underutilised Cassia abbreviata seed oil was determined using gas chromatographic methods. C. abbreviata seeds yielded 9.53% of yellowish-green oil consisting mainly of oleic acid (37.8%), palmitic acid (26.5%), linoleic acid (26.7%), stearic acid (4.1%) and elaidic acid (2.1%). The oil was solid at room temperature, had a saponification value of 376.16 mg KOH/g and an iodine value of 26.48 g I2/100g oil. The fatty acid composition and saponification value of the C. abbreviata seed oil suggest that it may find application in both cosmetic and pharmaceutical natural product formulations.

    16. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidative potential of essential oil isolated from Curcuma longa L. leaves

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      R. Priya; A. Prathapan; K.G Raghu; A. Nirmala Menon

      2012-01-01

      Objective: To determine the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of essential oil isolated from the leaves of Curcuma longa (turmeric). Methods: Chemical composition of the oil was analyzed using GC-MS. Antiperoxidative potential was evaluated using linoliec acid emulsion system. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using stable DPPH and ABTS free radicals. Results: GC-MS analyses showed that major compound present in the turmeric leaf oil is b-sesquiphellandrene (22.8%) followed by terpinolene (9.5%). Essential oil also exhibited reductive potential and antioxidant potential in linoleic acid emulsion system along with DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging potential. Conclusions: The overall result suggests that turmeric leaf oil is capable of retarding oxidation reaction and free radical mediated damage and can be developed as a potent natural antioxidant.

    17. Oil content and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave and pan.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

      2017-01-01

      In this study, the effect of heating on the oil yield and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave oven, pan and boiled were determined, and compared. The highest oil content (15.22%) was observed for egg cooked in drying oven, while the lowest oil (5.195%) in egg cooked in pan. The cooking in microwave oven caused a decrease in oleic acid content (46.201%) and an increase in the amount of palmitic acid content (26.862%). In addition, the maximum oleic acid (65.837%) and minimum palmitic acid (14.015%) contents were observed in egg oil cooked in pan. Results showed that fatty acids were significantly affected by cooking method. This study confirms that the cooking processing influences the fatty acid composition of egg oils.

    18. Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Rhododendron anthopogon Essential Oil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gabbriella Innocenti

      2010-03-01

      Full Text Available The essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogon was investigated by GC-MS, and seventeen compounds (representing approximately 98% of the oil were identified. The major components of the aerial parts of the oil were the monoterpenes α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and the sesquiterpene δ-cadinene. Biological studies revealed a weak topical anti-inflammatory activity; a significant killing effect against some Gram-positive reference strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcusfecalis, Bacillus subtilis was measured; Mycobacterium tuberculosis reference strain and a clinical isolate of Candida, C. pseudotropicalis were killed by as low as 0.04% (v/v essential oil. Moreover, the oil was able to reduce cancer cell growth independently of the cell line and the treatment protocols used.

    19. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Prabodh Satyal

      2017-08-01

      Full Text Available Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

    20. Histochemistry, content and chemical composition of essential oil in different organs of Alpinia zerumbet

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Caroline Nery Jezler

      2013-10-01

      Full Text Available Alpinia zerumbet is a medicinal plant from Asian origin used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, which effect is attributed to terpinen-4-ol, the major component of the essential oil. The objective of this work was to identify the essential oil secretory structures in the leaf, flower, root and rhizome of this plant, and analyze the content and the chemical composition of the oil in the different organs of the plant. Sections were subjected to histochemical test with Nadi reagent for in situ localization of secretion. The essential oil extraction was performed by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and the compounds were identified in CG-EM/FID. The histochemical test was positive for terpenoids, confirming the presence of essential oil stored in secretory structures named oils cells present in all analyzed organs. The higher essential oil content was found on the leaf (0.30%, while the petal and the rhizome presented content of 0.10% and 0.06%, respectively. It was not possible to determine essential oil content of the root due to the low amount of biomass produced. There were qualitative and quantitative differences in the chemical composition of the essential oil in the different plant organs, but the major constituent in all of them was the terpinen-4-ol, followed by 1,8 cineol in the leaf and by the α-terpineol in the flower and rhizome.

    1. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Kehinde Adenike Fayemiwo; Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke; Ovie Princewill Okoro; Shola Hezekiah Awojide; Ilias Olufemi Awoniyi

      2014-01-01

      Objective:To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). Method:The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. Results:The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85%larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L;LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control.

    2. Contact Toxicity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil of Acantholimon scorpius

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ardalan Pasdaran Lashgari, Abbas Delazar, Farriba Hesmati Afshar, Dena Parsa

      2016-06-01

      Full Text Available Background: Plumbaginaceae plants family is a valuable natural insecticidal compound. This research focused on contact toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil obtained from Acantholimon scorpus. Methods: The essential oil from the aerial parts of A. scorpius was extracted by hydrodistillation method and tested for their toxicity against Oryzeaphilus mercator (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenerbrionidae. Chemical compounds of the essential oil was analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Results: The essential oil showed toxic effect on tested insects. This oil showed 90.0% mortality of O. mercator and 85.2% mortality of T. castaneum at a dose of 12 μl /l air after 48h of exposure. The constituents of this oil were identified, representing more than 82.9% of the total essential oil composition. Hexadecanoic acid, tetrahydrogeranyl acetone and oleic acid were the main compounds of the essential oil. Conclusion: According to the result the essential oil of A. scorpius showed a noticeable insecticidal activity in contact toxicity model.

    3. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils from different parts of the oregano.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Han, Fei; Ma, Guang-Qiang; Yang, Ming; Yan, Li; Xiong, Wei; Shu, Ji-Cheng; Zhao, Zhi-Dong; Xu, Han-Lin

      This research was undertaken in order to characterize the chemical compositions and evaluate the antioxidant activities of essential oils obtained from different parts of the Origanum vulgare L. It is a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of heat stroke, fever, vomiting, acute gastroenteritis, and respiratory disorders. The chemical compositions of the three essential oils from different parts of the oregano (leaves-flowers, stems, and roots) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity of each essential oil was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and reducing the power test. Among the essential oils from different parts of the oregano, the leaf-flower oils have the best antioxidant activities, whereas the stem oils are the worst. The results of the DPPH free radical scavenging assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the essential oils were (0.332±0.040) mg/ml (leaves-flowers), (0.357±0.031) mg/ml (roots), and (0.501±0.029) mg/ml (stems), respectively. Interestingly, the results of reducing the power test also revealed that when the concentration exceeded 1.25 mg/ml, the leaf-flower oils had the highest reducing power; however, the stem oils were the lowest.

    4. Composition and chemical variability of leaf oil of Myrtus communis from north-eastern Algeria.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bouzabata, Amel; Boussaha, Faffani; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

      2010-10-01

      The chemical composition of 27 oil samples of Myrtus communis isolated from leaves collected in three locations in north-eastern Algeria was investigated by GC(RI) and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Yields ranged between 0.2-1.2% (w/w). The chemical composition of the oils was largely dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons, with alpha-pinene (40.5-64.0%), 1,8-cineole (10.9-29.1%) and limonene (6.7-8.2%) being the major compounds. In all the samples, 3,3,5,5,8,8-hexamethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]non-1(6)-ene-2,4-dione was identified (0.8-1.5%). The composition is similar to that reported for myrtle oils from Corsica, Sardinia and Tunisia, but differed from that of Moroccan and Spanish myrtle oils.

    5. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Croton kimosorum, an endemic species to Madagascar.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Ihandriharison, Harilala; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Benja, Rakotonirina; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, Suzanne; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

      2014-01-01

      Croton kimosorum Leandri is an endemic species to Madagascar. The chemical composition of aerial parts, leaf and stem oils is reported for the first time. Analysis was carried out by combination of chromatographic (CC, GC), spectroscopic and spectrometric (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 76 compounds have been identified. Essential oil isolated from aerial parts contained mainly linalool (21.6%), sabinene (10.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.3%), beta-pinene (6.2%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (5.9%), terpinen-4-ol (4.8%), geraniol (4,5%) and germacrene D (2.3%). In comparison with the first sample, the composition of leaf and stem oils varied slightly, while essential oil isolated by vapor distillation from a semi-industrial still exhibited similar composition.

    6. Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Bhat, A. H., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my, E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com; Dasan, Y. K., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my, E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

      2014-10-24

      Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred.

    7. Tribological performances of diamond film and graphite/diamond composite film with paraffin oil lubrication

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      2001-01-01

      In this paper, the tribological performances of diamond film and graphite/diamond com-posite film were compared on an SRV wear testing machine with paraffin oil lubrication. The sur-face morphologies of specimens and wear tracks were observed by SEM. The wear volumes ofwear tracks were measured by profilometer. The influence of load on the tribological performancesof different specimens was studied. The wear mechanism under paraffin oil lubrication was ana-lyzed. The results showed that with paraffin oil lubrication, the friction coefficient and wear volumeof graphite/diamond composite film specimen are lower than diamond film. Under paraffin oil lu-brication, the wear mechanisms of both diamond film and graphite/diamond composite film weremainly sub-micro-fracture.

    8. Chemical and fatty acids composition of rump cap from young bulls fed protected or unprotected oils

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Emanuel Almeida de Oliveira

      2015-10-01

      Full Text Available Strategies to improve the nutritional aspects of beef, mainly the fatty acids composition, have become an important goal to the scientific community. The use of different oils sources could be an interesting device due its polyunsaturated fatty acids composition. The chemical and fatty acid composition of rump cap (Biceps femoris from 35 Nellore young bulls finished at feedlot (96 days were analyzed. These animals were fed a control diet with sugar cane and concentrate without oil or diets containing sugar cane and concentrate with different sources of oil (soybean or linseed, protected or not from ruminal degradation. A randomized block design was adopted with five treatments and seven replications. The means were compared using orthogonal contrasts at 0.05 significance level. Animals fed diets with oil showed higher levels (P<0.05 of protein and lower levels (P<0.05 of ash than control diet. Lower cholesterol (P<0.05 levels resulted from linseed oil added treatment compared to soybean oil (37.70 and 43.80 mg/100 g, respectively; on the other hand, cholesterol levels increased (P<0.05 for protected oils compared to non-protected (44.53 and 33.97 mg/100 g. Oil added diets resulted in higher (P<0.05 linolenic acid levels. Linseed oil increased (P<0.05 the levels of the fatty acids C14:1, C16:1 and C18:1 n9. Addition of linseed oil, whether protected or not, to the animal diets improves the fatty acid composition of the rump cap by increasing the amount of omega-3 fatty acids and improving the omega-6:omega-3 ratio.

    9. THE YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM SPLIT CORIANDER FRUITS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mustafayev S. K.

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available The article studies dynamics of losses and the change of composition of essential oil from split coriander fruits. It is found, that in the fractions of split fruits, extracted from long-stored commercial lots of raw materials, mass fraction of essential oil is two or three times lower than in whole fruits. In the composition of essential oil from split fruits the content of valuable components - linalool, geraniol, geranyl acetate is slightly higher, and the content of undesirable hydrocarbons and camphor is lower. It is shown that from freshly split fruits, which were stored in a thin layer in the open air, the oil was intensively lost in the first three days, the losses reached 86 %. At the same time, the composition of the oil changed: the content of most volatile components - hydrocarbons decreased several times and the content of high-boiling linalool, geraniol, geranyl acetate significantly increased, which increased the quality of the oil smell. The change of composition is determined not only by the ratio of components volatility. The content of relatively high boiling camphor almost half decreased. This could be associated with less ability of fruit tissue to sorb and the ability of camphor to be easily sublimated. The content of volatile n-cymene over time increased with a simultaneous decrease in the content of γ– terpinene, which confirmed predominantly chemical way of n-cymene accumulation in coriander essential oil in conditions conducive to oxidation. It is recommended to separate the split fruits as soon as the raw materials come to the plant and to process immediately. Essential oil from split fruits can be used to adjust the composition of individual lots of oil in order to improve their quality, and to provide extraction of valuable components – linalool and geraniol by vacuum rectification method

    10. Chemical composition of the volatile oil from Zanthoxylum avicennae and antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicity

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yin Lin

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Background: Through literature retrieval, there has been no report on the research of the chemical components in Zanthoxylum avicennae (Lam. DC. This paper extracted and determined the chemical components of the volatile oil in Z. avicennae, and at the same time, measured and evaluated the bioactivity of the volatile oil in Z. avicennae. Materials and Methods: We extract the volatile oil in Z. avicennae by steam distillation method, determined the chemical composition of the volatile oil by GC-MS coupling technique, and adopt the peak area normalization method to measured the relative percentage of each chemical composition in the volatile oil. Meanwhile, we use the Lethal-to-prawn larva bioactivity experiment to screen the cytotoxicity activities of the volatile oil in Z. avicennae, and using the slanting test-tube experiment to determine and evaluate its antibacterial activities in vitro for the eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi in the volatile oil of the Z. avicennae. Results: The results show that 68 kinds of compounds are determined from the volatile oil of Z. avicennae. The determined part takes up 97.89% of the total peak area. The main ingredients in the volatile oil of Z. avicennae are sesquiterpenoids and monoterpene. The test results show that the volatile oil in Z. avicennae has strong antibacterial activities and cytotoxicity, with the strongest antibacterial activity against the Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1A. Conclusion: This research results will provide reference data for understanding the chemical composition of the volatile oil in the aromatic plant of Z. avicennae and its bioactivity, and for its further development and application.

    11. Polyunsaturated fat and fish oil in diets for growing-finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and meat, fat, and sausage quality.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bryhni, E A; Kjos, N P; Ofstad, R; Hunt, M

      2002-09-01

      Forty-eight crossbred growing-finishing pigs were used to study the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 31%= low and 50%= high) and fish oil (0, 0.2, and 0.4% capelin) diets on fatty acid composition, chemical traits, and sensory properties of the longissimus muscle, fat, and sausages. High levels of PUFA, independent of the level of fish oil, increased oxidation and rancidity for whole muscle (stored at 1 and 8 months at -23 °C) and sausages (TBARS 0.6-1.3). Fish oil at 0.4% in the diet increased TBA values of loin, but did not affect sensory evaluation scores. An interaction between PUFA and fish oil occurred for TBARS values and rancid odour in sausage, where the 0.4% fish oil and high PUFA level showed highest oxidation (TBARS 1.9). Although fish oil and high PUFA levels might contribute to a more healthy meat, their undesirable affects on palatability would limit their use.

    12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from different parts of Leonurus japonicus Houtt.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Xiong, Liang; Peng, Cheng; Zhou, Qin-Mei; Wan, Feng; Xie, Xiao-Fang; Guo, Li; Li, Xiao-Hong; He, Cheng-Jun; Dai, Ou

      2013-01-14

      The herb and fruits of Leonurus japonicus Houtt., named "Yimucao" and "Chongweizi", respectively, in Chinese, have been widely used in China as gynecological medicines. The components of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils was determined by micro-dilution assay. The results showed large variations in the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the oils. The oil of "Yimucao" showed antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive bacteria and consisted mainly of sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, with phytone, phytol, caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene being the most significant constituents, whereas the oil of "Chongweizi", mainly made up of bornyl acetate and aliphatic hydrocarbons, was inactive in the antibacterial assay. Further study of the main compounds in "Yimucao oil" showed that β-caryophyllene had wide-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

    13. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Algerian Pulicaria mauritanica.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gherib, Mohammed; Bekhechi, Chahrazed; Bekkara, Fewzia Atik; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

      2016-01-01

      One oil sample isolated from aerial parts of Pulicaria mauritanica Coss. from Western Algeria has been analyzed by GC(RI), GC-MS and ¹³C NMR. In total, 21 components, accounting for 97.0% of the oil, were identified. Then, 36 oil samples coming from plants harvested at two flowering periods in three locations were analyzed by GC(RI) and ¹³C NMR. Although all the oil samples exhibited similar composition, dominated by carvotanacetone (89.2-96.1%), the yield of essential oil varied drastically from sample to sample (0.35-1.44%), depending on the location of harvest. The essential oil displayed moderate antimicrobial effect against bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi (MIC = 2-4 µL/mL).

    14. Chemical composition of essential oils of Grindelia squarrosa and G. hirsutula.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Veres, Katalin; Roza, Orsolya; Laczkó-Zöld, Eszter; Hohmann, Judit

      2014-04-01

      The essential oils of Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal and G. hirsutula Hook. & Am. cultivated in Romania were isolated by hydrodistillation. The essential oils were analyzed by a combination of GC-FID and GC-MS. The identification of the constituents was achieved from their retention indices and comparison of their MS data with computer library database and literature data. The fifty-six identified constituents accounted for 72.1-81.3% of the oils. The oils were found to contain a-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, borneol, bornyl acetate and germacrene D as main constituents. The oils obtained from the two species showed small differences in chemical composition. However, menthol, menthone and pulegone were detected only in the essential oil of G. hirsutula.

    15. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Salvia pinnata L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nehir Unver Somer

      2015-06-01

      Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Salvia pinnata L. (Labiatae, collected during flowering and fruiting periods, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. 37 compounds were identified representing 96.1 % of the essential oil obtained from the plant material collected during flowering period. 30 compounds were detected constituting 94.7 % of the essential oil of the plant material collected in fruiting period. The main components of the essential oils were characterized as bornyl acetate, camphor, camphene, bornyl formate, a -pinene and borneol. The oils were screened for antimicrobial activity by the micro-dilution assay against standard bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Both of the oils showed antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.

    16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil isolated from the cultured mycelia of Ganoderma japonicum

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Dandan Liu; Zheng Hu; Zhigang Liu; Bo Yang; Wenjuan Tu; Liang Li

      2009-01-01

      Objective:To explore a new natural antibiotic. Methods:The chemical composition of the essential oil from Ganoderma japonicum (G. japonicum) mycelia was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against eighteen microorganisms, including bacteria, mildew and yeast by using a disc diffusion method. Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory concentrations(MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations(MBC) of the essential oil against twelve clinical pathogens were determined. Results:The main components of the oil were nerolidol, decadienal, linaiool and benzyl alcohol. The antimicrobial results indicated that the oil inhibited all the tested bacterium, especially Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in which the antibacterial activity exhibited a MBC of 1.03 mg/ml. Conclusion: The essential oil of G.japonicum mycelium has significant inhibitory activity. It is a potential medicinal resource that can be used as a natural antibiotic.

    17. Vitamin E and Beta Carotene Composition in Four Different Vegetable Oils

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ab. G.M. Top

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available Problem statement: Some vegetable oils contains natural antioxidants such as beta carotene and vitamin E namely tocopherol and tocotrienol. Different vegetable oils contained different amount of vitamin E and β-carotene. Approach: Study was carried out to investigate the natural antioxidants (vitamin E and beta carotene composition in four different vegetable oils [Red Palm Olein (RPO, palm plein (PO, Corn Oil (CO and Coconut Oil (COC]. Results: The results showed that RPO contained the highest amount of vitamin E and β-carotene compared to the other three types of vegetable oils studied. Conclusion: The RPO can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant (tocopherol, tocotrienol and β-carotene.

    18. Characteristics and Composition of African Oil Bean Seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ikhuoria, Esther U.; Aiwonegbe, Anthony E.; Okoli, Peace; Idu, Macdonald

      The African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seed was analyzed for its proximate composition. The seed oil was also analyzed for mineral content and physicochemical characteristics. Proximate analysis revealed that the percentage crude protein, crude fibre, moisture and carbohydrate were 9.31, 21.66, 39.05 and 38.95%, respectively. The percentage oil content was 47.90% while the ash content was 3.27%. Results of minerals analysis showed that calcium had the highest concentration of all the elements analyzed and were found to be of the order: Ca > Mg > Pb > Fe > Mn > P > Cu. The low iodine value of the seed oil showed that it can be classified as non-drying oil and thus not suitable for paint and polish production. However, the low acid and free fatty acid values suggest its utilization as edible oil.

    19. Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

      2014-11-01

      Ruminants contribute up to 80% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock, and enteric methane production by ruminants is the main source of these GHG emissions. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were used to evaluate a number of methane measures that target methane production (MPR) independent of feed intake and to examine their phenotypic relationships with growth and body composition. The data comprised 777 young bulls and heifers that were fed a roughage diet (ME of 9 MJ/kg DM) at 1.2 times their maintenance energy requirements and measured for MP in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Methane traits evaluated included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means (± SD) of 6.2 ± 1.4 kg/d, 187 ± 38 L/d, and 30.4 ± 3.5 L/kg, respectively. Four forms of residual MPR (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMPR), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth traits evaluated were BW at birth, weaning (200 d of age), yearling age (400 d of age), and 600 d of age, with means (± SD) of 34 ± 4.6, 238 ± 37, 357 ± 45, and 471 ± 53 kg, respectively. Body composition traits included ultrasound measures (600 d of age) of rib fat, rump fat, and eye muscle area, with means (± SD) of 3.8 ± 2.6 mm, 5.4 ± 3.8 mm, and 61 ± 7.7 cm(2), respectively. Methane production was positively correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (0.65 ± 0.02), MY (0.72 ± 0.02), the RMP traits (r from 0.65 to 0.79), the growth traits (r from 0.19 to 0.57), and the body composition traits (r from 0.13 to 0.29). Methane yield was, however, not correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (-0.02 ± 0.04) as well as the growth (r from -0.03 to 0.11) and body composition (r from 0

    20. Quantitative trait loci and comparative genomics of cereal cell wall composition.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hazen, Samuel P; Hawley, Robin M; Davis, Georgia L; Henrissat, Bernard; Walton, Jonathan D

      2003-05-01

      Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting sugar composition of the cell walls of maize (Zea mays) pericarp were mapped as an approach to the identification of genes involved in cereal wall biosynthesis. Mapping was performed using the IBM (B73 x Mo17) recombinant inbred line population. There were statistically significant differences between B73 and Mo17 in content of xylose (Xyl), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), and glucose. Thirteen QTLs were found, affecting the content of Xyl (two QTLs), Ara (two QTLs), Gal (five QTLs), Glc (two QTLs), Ara + Gal (one QTL), and Xyl + Glc (one QTL). The chromosomal regions corresponding to two of these, affecting Ara + Gal and Ara on maize chromosome 3, could be aligned with a syntenic region on rice (Oryza sativa) chromosome 1, which has been completely sequenced and annotated. The contiguous P1-derived artificial chromosome rice clones covering the QTLs were predicted to encode 117 and 125 proteins, respectively. Two of these genes encode putative glycosyltransferases, displaying similarity to carbohydrate-active enzyme database family GT4 (galactosyltransferases) or to family GT64 (C-terminal domain of animal heparan synthases). The results illustrate the potential of using natural variation, emerging genomic resources, and homeology within the Poaceae to identify candidate genes involved in the essential process of cell wall biosynthesis.

    1. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

      2016-03-01

      In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively.

    2. Effect of petroleum-derived substances on life history traits of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) and on the growth and chemical composition of broad bean.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rusin, Milena; Gospodarek, Janina; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

      2017-04-01

      The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances, namely petrol, diesel fuel and spent engine oil, on life history traits and population dynamics of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. and on growth and chemical composition of its host plant Vicia faba L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 g kg(-1) and 18 g kg(-1)). The experiment was conducted in four replications (four pots with five plants in each pot per treatment). Plants were cultivated in both control and contaminated soils. After six weeks from soil contamination and five weeks from sowing the seeds, observations of the effect of petroleum-derived substances on traits of three successive generations of aphids were conducted. Aphids were inoculated separately on leaves using cylindrical cages hermetically closed on both sides. Contamination of aphid occurred through its host plant. Results showed that all tested substances adversely affected A. fabae life history traits and population dynamics: extension of the prereproductive period, reduction of fecundity and life span, reduction of the population intrinsic growth rate. In broad bean, leaf, roots, and shoot growth was also impaired in most conditions, whereas nutrient and heavy metal content varied according to substances, their concentration, as well as plant part analysed. Results indicate that soil contamination with petroleum-derived substances entails far-reaching changes not only in organisms directly exposed to these pollutants (plants), but also indirectly in herbivores (aphids) and consequently provides information about potential negative effects on further links of the food chain, i.e., for predators and parasitoids.

    3. Composite Membrane with Underwater-Oleophobic Surface for Anti-Oil-Fouling Membrane Distillation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wang, Zhangxin; Hou, Deyin; Lin, Shihong

      2016-04-05

      In this study, we fabricated a composite membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a commercial hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane with a nanocomposite coating comprising silica nanoparticles, chitosan hydrogel and fluoro-polymer. The composite membrane exhibits asymmetric wettability, with the modified surface being in-air hydrophilic and underwater oleophobic, and the unmodified surface remaining hydrophobic. By comparing the performance of the composite membrane and the pristine PVDF membrane in direct contact MD experiments using a saline emulsion with 1000 ppm crude oil (in water), we showed that the fabricated composite membrane was significantly more resistant to oil fouling compared to the pristine hydrophobic PVDF membrane. Force spectroscopy was conducted for the interaction between an oil droplet and the membrane surface using a force tensiometer. The difference between the composite membrane and the pristine PVDF membrane in their interaction with an oil droplet served to explain the difference in the fouling propensities between these two membranes observed in MD experiments. The results from this study suggest that underwater oleophobic coating can effectively mitigate oil fouling in MD operations, and that the fabricated composite membrane with asymmetric wettability can enable MD to desalinate hypersaline wastewater with high concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants.

    4. Composition and antioxidant activities of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in Soybean oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Shariatifar, Nabi; Kamkar, Abolfazl; Shamse-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Misagi, Ali; Akhonzade, Afshin; Jamshidi, Amir Hossein

      2014-07-01

      The essential oil from aerial parts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes was studied in soybean oil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activitiey of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in soybean oil during the storage period. The essential oil obtained from Pulicaria gnaphalodes by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/Mass. Fifty-eight compounds representing 90.7% of total was identified. Main ingredient in the oil were involved α -Pinene (30.2%), 1,8-Cineole (12.1%), Beta-Citronellol (9.6%), Mertenol (6.6%), α-Terpineol (6.1%), 4-Terpineol (5.9%) and Chrysanthenone (2.9%). Different concentrations (0.200, 400 and 800 ppm) of essential oil and β hydroxyl toluene (BHT; 100 and 200 ppm) was added to soybean oil and incubated for 35 days at 65°C. Peroxide values (PVs) and thiobarbitoric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels were measured every week during the time period of the study. Moreover, antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was determined using 1,1 diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene-linoleic acid methods. Values were compared among groups in each incubation time using ANOVA test. Results revealed that DPPH β-carotene-linolic acid assay findings on the P. gnaphalodes essential oil were lower than these of synthetic antioxidant, BHT. Moreover, during the incubation time, P. gnaphalodes essential oil lowered PVs and TBARs levels when compared to the control (p<0.001). According to our results essential oil was less effective than synthetic antioxidant. Therefore it may be used as a food flavor, natural antioxidant and a preventive agent for many diseases caused by free radicals.

    5. Compositional and functional difference in cumin (Cuminum cyminum essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation and SCFE

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Supradip Saha

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available Essential oils were obtained from same raw material of cumin seed by extraction with hydrodistillation and super critical fluid extraction (SCFE. For SCFE, supercritical carbon dioxide at 45°C and 100 bar was used as variable for the extraction. The composition of the extracts was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Yield of essential oil was more in the SCFE method. Extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction technique using CO2 was heavier than the hydrodistilled volatile oil. Cumin oil obtained by hydrodistillation contained higher percentage of cuminaldehyde (52.6%, then did oil obtained by SCFE (37.3%, whereas cumin oil obtained by hydrodistillation had the lower percentage of cuminic alcohol (13.3% as compared to 19.3% in SCFE method. However, cuminal (2-caren-10-al content was almost similar in cumin oil obtained by the SCFE and hydrodistillation method (24.5–25.8%. Hydrodistilled volatile oil showed better antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and FRAP assay and more total phenol content. The results indicated that though essential oil yield was more in the SCFE method, antioxidant property was more in conventional hydrodistillation method. SCFE extracted non polar (wax materials compounds along with volatile oil and it was recorded that enhanced aroma of signature compounds of cumin.

    6. Composition and antimicrobial properties of Sardinian Juniperus essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cosentino, Sofia; Barra, Andrea; Pisano, Barbara; Cabizza, Maddalena; Pirisi, Filippo Maria; Palmas, Francesca

      2003-07-01

      In this work, the chemical compositions and antimicrobial properties of Juniperus essential oils and of their main components were determined. Five berry essential oils obtained from different species of Juniperus growing wild in Sardinia were analyzed. The components of the essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the oils and their components against food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were determined by a broth microdilution method. The GC-MS analysis showed a certain variability in the concentrations of the main constituents of the oils. Alpha-pinene was largely predominant in the oils of the species J. phoenicea subsp. turbinata and J. oxycedrus. Alpha-pinene and myrcene constituted the bulk (67.56%) of the essential oil of J. communis. Significant quantitative differences were observed for myrcene, delta-3-carene, and D-germacrene. The results of the antimicrobial assay show that the oils of J. communis and J. oxycedrus failed to inhibit any of the microorganisms at the highest concentrations tested (MLC > or = 900 microg/ml), while the oils extracted from J. turbinata specimens were active against fungi, particularly against a strain of Aspergillus flavus (an aflatoxin B1 producer). Of the single compounds tested, delta-3-carene was found to possess the broadest spectrum of activity and appeared to contribute significantly to the antifungal activity observed for J. turbinata oils. This activity may be helpful in the prevention of aflatoxin contamination for many foods.

    7. Diversity of Sterol Composition in Tunisian Pistacia lentiscus Seed Oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mezni, Faten; Labidi, Arbia; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Martine, Lucy; Berdeaux, Olivier; Khaldi, Abdelhamid

      2016-05-01

      Pistacia lentiscus L. seed oil is used in some Mediterranean forest area for culinary and medicinal purposes. In this study, we aim to examine, for the first time, the effect of growing area on sterol content of Pistacia lentiscus seed oil. Fruits were harvested from 13 different sites located in northern and central Tunisia. Gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to quantify sterols and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify them. The major sterol identified was β-sitosterol with a value ranging from 854.12 to 1224.09 mg/kg of oil, thus making up more than 54% of the total sterols. The other two main sterols were cycloartenol (11%) and 24-methylene-cycloartenol (5%). Statistical results revealed that growing location significantly (P < 0.001) affected phytosterol levels in these oils.

    8. Bayesian Multi-Trait Analysis Reveals a Useful Tool to Increase Oil Concentration and to Decrease Toxicity in Jatropha curcas L.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Silva Junqueira, Vinícius; de Azevedo Peixoto, Leonardo; Galvêas Laviola, Bruno; Lopes Bhering, Leonardo; Mendonça, Simone; Agostini Costa, Tania da Silveira; Antoniassi, Rosemar

      2016-01-01

      The biggest challenge for jatropha breeding is to identify superior genotypes that present high seed yield and seed oil content with reduced toxicity levels. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for three important traits (weight of 100 seed, oil seed content, and phorbol ester concentration), and to select superior genotypes to be used as progenitors in jatropha breeding. Additionally, the genotypic values and the genetic parameters estimated under the Bayesian multi-trait approach were used to evaluate different selection indices scenarios of 179 half-sib families. Three different scenarios and economic weights were considered. It was possible to simultaneously reduce toxicity and increase seed oil content and weight of 100 seed by using index selection based on genotypic value estimated by the Bayesian multi-trait approach. Indeed, we identified two families that present these characteristics by evaluating genetic diversity using the Ward clustering method, which suggested nine homogenous clusters. Future researches must integrate the Bayesian multi-trait methods with realized relationship matrix, aiming to build accurate selection indices models. PMID:27281340

    9. Short communication: Multi-trait estimation of genetic parameters for milk protein composition in the Danish Holstein.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gebreyesus, G; Lund, M S; Janss, L; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, L B; Bovenhuis, H; Buitenhuis, A J

      2016-04-01

      Genetic parameters were estimated for the major milk proteins using bivariate and multi-trait models based on genomic relationships between animals. The analyses included, apart from total protein percentage, αS1-casein (CN), αS2-CN, β-CN, κ-CN, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin, as well as the posttranslational sub-forms of glycosylated κ-CN and αS1-CN-8P (phosphorylated). Standard errors of the estimates were used to compare the models. In total, 650 Danish Holstein cows across 4 parities and days in milk ranging from 9 to 481d were selected from 21 herds. The multi-trait model generally resulted in lower standard errors of heritability estimates, suggesting that genetic parameters can be estimated with high accuracy using multi-trait analyses with genomic relationships for scarcely recorded traits. The heritability estimates from the multi-trait model ranged from low (0.05 for β-CN) to high (0.78 for κ-CN). Genetic correlations between the milk proteins and the total milk protein percentage were generally low, suggesting the possibility to alter protein composition through selective breeding with little effect on total milk protein percentage.

    10. Essential Oil Composition of the Different Parts and In Vitro Shoot Culture of Eryngium planum L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Anna Kurowska

      2011-08-01

      Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the different parts (inflorescence, stalk leaves, rosette leaves and root as well as from in vitro shoot culture of Eryngium planum L. were analyzed by GC-FID-MS in respect to their chemical composition. The different parts of E. planum and in vitro shoots showed different yields. The part with higher amount was the inflorescences, followed by the stalk leaves and in vitro shoots, rosette leaves and finally roots. The essential oils obtained from rosette leaves and in vitro-derived rosettes had totally different composition. Quantitative differences were also found between compounds of intact plant organs. The main components of stalk leaf oil and rosette leaf oil were monoterpene (limonene, α- and β-pinene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. In inflorescence oil cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (43.2% was accompanied by other esters (propionate, butanoate, hexanoate and octanoate and numerous oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Root oil and in vitro shoot oil contained mainly (Z-falcarinol and 2,3,4-trimethylbenzaldehyde. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this species.

    11. Essential Oil Composition of the Different Parts and In Vitro Shoot Culture of Eryngium planum L.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Thiem, Barbara; Kikowska, Małgorzata; Kurowska, Anna; Kalemba, Danuta

      2011-08-19

      The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the different parts (inflorescence, stalk leaves, rosette leaves and root) as well as from in vitro shoot culture of Eryngium planum L. were analyzed by GC-FID-MS in respect to their chemical composition. The different parts of E. planum and in vitro shoots showed different yields. The part with higher amount was the inflorescences, followed by the stalk leaves and in vitro shoots, rosette leaves and finally roots. The essential oils obtained from rosette leaves and in vitro-derived rosettes had totally different composition. Quantitative differences were also found between compounds of intact plant organs. The main components of stalk leaf oil and rosette leaf oil were monoterpene (limonene, α- and β-pinene) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. In inflorescence oil cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (43.2%) was accompanied by other esters (propionate, butanoate, hexanoate and octanoate) and numerous oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Root oil and in vitro shoot oil contained mainly (Z)-falcarinol and 2,3,4-trimethylbenzaldehyde. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this species.

    12. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

      2004-10-01

      The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P Carcass composition traits analyzed were hot carcass weight, fat thickness, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses were leaner and more muscled. In the population sired by Belgian Blue x British Breed (n = 725), animals with two copies of inactive myostatin allele were heavier at birth, leaner, and had a higher proportion of muscle mass than animals with zero or one copies

    13. Studies on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mancini, Emilia; Senatore, Federica; Del Monte, Donato; De Martino, Laura; Grulova, Daniela; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Snoussi, Mejdi; De Feo, Vincenzo

      2015-07-01

      This study is aimed at assessing the essential oil composition, total phenolic content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris collected in five different area of the Campania Region, Southern Italy. The chemical composition of the essential oils was studied by GC-flame ionization detector (FID) and GC/MS; the biological activities were evaluated through determination of MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and evaluation of antioxidant activity. In total, 134 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds, and all oils belonged to the chemotype thymol. The antimicrobial activity of the five oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The oils showed different inhibitory activity against some Gram-positive pathogens. The total phenol content in the essential oils ranged from 77.6-165.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. The results reported here may help to shed light on the complex chemotaxonomy of the genus Thymus. These oils could be used in many fields as natural preservatives of food and as nutraceuticals.

    14. Diversity in chemical composition and yield of essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. belongs to the family Lamiaceae is an herb that is extensively cultivated in some countries. Areal parts, especially leaves of sweet basil are widely used to enhance the flavour of foods such as salads, pasta, tomato products, vegetables, pizza, meat, soups, marine foods, confectioneries and other products. Essential oil yield and chemical components of two Iranian landraces of sweet basil including “Purple” and “Green” grown south-central of Iran (Isfahan province were investigated. The hydro-distillated oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The oil yields were obtained from the aerial of Purple with 0.56 ml/100 g dry matter and the aerial of Green with 0.48 ml/100 g dry matter. Results indicated significant differences (p < 0.01 among the aerial for the main constituents in the essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil. The major constituents of the essential oil from the aerial of Purple landrace were methyl chavicol or estragol (63.32% and linalool (7.96%. The main compositions of the essential oil from the aerial of Green landrace were methyl chavicol (31.82%, geranial (24.60% and neral (22.65%. Genarlly, a comparison of our results with the previous reports suggests differences in the essential oil compositions and oil yield of the plant material could be attributed to genetic diversity in two Iranian landraces of sweet basil.

    15. Studies on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Emilia Mancini

      2015-07-01

      Full Text Available This study is aimed at assessing the essential oil composition, total phenolic content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris collected in five different area of the Campania Region, Southern Italy. The chemical composition of the essential oils was studied by GC-flame ionization detector (FID and GC/MS; the biological activities were evaluated through determination of MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC and evaluation of antioxidant activity. In total, 134 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds, and all oils belonged to the chemotype thymol. The antimicrobial activity of the five oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The oils showed different inhibitory activity against some Gram-positive pathogens. The total phenol content in the essential oils ranged from 77.6–165.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The results reported here may help to shed light on the complex chemotaxonomy of the genus Thymus. These oils could be used in many fields as natural preservatives of food and as nutraceuticals.

    16. Molecular dynamics and composition of crude oil by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jia, Zijian; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Zhizhan; Liao, Guangzhi; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Can

      2016-08-01

      Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used to identify pure substances and probe protein dynamics. Oil is a complex mixture composed of hydrocarbons, which have a wide range of molecular size distribution. Previous work show that empirical correlations of relaxation times and diffusion coefficients were found for simple alkane mixtures, and also the shape of the relaxation and diffusion distribution functions are related to the composition of the fluids. The 2D NMR is a promising qualitative evaluation method for oil composition. But uncertainty in the interpretation of crude oil indicated further study was required. In this research, the effect of each composition on relaxation distribution functions is analyzed in detail. We also suggest a new method for prediction of the rotational correlation time distribution of crude oil molecules using low field NMR (LF-NMR) relaxation time distributions. A set of down-hole NMR fluid analysis system is independently designed and developed for fluid measurement. We illustrate this with relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments and rotational correlation time distributions on a series of hydrocarbon mixtures that employ our laboratory-designed downhole NMR fluid analyzer. The LF-NMR is a useful tool for detecting oil composition and monitoring oil property changes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    17. Woven hybrid composites: Tensile and flexural properties of oil palm-woven jute fibres based epoxy composites

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

      2011-06-15

      Highlights: {yields} Woven hybrid composites show good tensile and flexural properties. {yields} Hybridization with 20% woven jute gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Layering pattern affect mechanical properties of hybrid composites. {yields} Statistical analysis shows that there is significant difference between composites. - Abstract: In this research, tensile and flexural performance of tri layer oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/woven jute (Jw) fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites subjected to layering pattern has been experimentally investigated. Sandwich composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique in a mould and cured with 105 deg. C temperatures for 1 h by using hot press. Pure EFB and woven jute composites were also fabricate for comparison purpose. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties of pure EFB composite can be improved by hybridization with woven jute fibre as extreme woven jute fibre mat. It was found that tensile and flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of EFB composite but less than woven jute composite. Statistical analysis of composites done by ANOVA-one way, it showed significant differences between the results obtained. The fracture surface morphology of the tensile samples of the hybrid composites was performed by using scanning electron microscopy.

    18. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      S S El-Hawary

      2013-09-01

      Full Text Available Summary. Essential oils of Neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family Meliaceae leaves and flowers were prepared by hydrodistillation method. The chemical composition of the oil samples was investigated by GC/MS. Hydrocarbon constituted 85.36% of the leaves oil .The major compounds were β-Elemene (33.39%, γ- Elemene (9.89%, Germacrene D (9.72%, Caryophyllene (6.8% and Bicyclogermacrene (5.23% while the percent of the oxygenated compounds were (5.04% mainly attributed to sesquiterpene oxide. On the other hand, flowers oil hydrocarbons constituted 63.22% composed mainly of pentacosane (18.58%, tetracosane (10.65%, β-germacrene (9.73%, β- caryophyllene (5.84% and dodecene (4.54% while the percent of the oxygenated compounds were 28.3% mainly attributed to octadecanol (16.7%, verdiflorol (5.32%, farnesol (1.63% and α– terpineol (1.51%. The antioxidant properties determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays, antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative, antifungal and larvicidal activities were promising and in relation with the chemical composition of the essential oils. The results indicated that essential oil of flowers could be especially promising as an inexpensive source of effective antioxidant /antimicrobial /larvicidal agents tantamount to fixed oil of the neem seeds.Industrial relevance. The use of medicinal plants is a universal phenomenon. Natural products from plants are rich source to identify, select and process new drugs for medicinal use. Most of research focused on fixed oil of neem seeds but very little was concerned about volatile oils of leaves and flowers. The diverse biological activities of Neem essential oils can be applied on a large scale as antioxidant, antimicrobial and larvicidal agents comprising many important benefits including their volatility, lower level of risk to the environment than with synthetic ones.Keywords. Azadirachta indica; Neem; essential oil; GC/MS; antioxidant

    19. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of the Essential Oils of Heracleum pyrenaicum subsp. pollinianum and Heracleum orphanidis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Usjak, Ljubos; Petrović, Silvana; Drobac, Milica; Soković, Marina; Stanojković, Tatjana; Ćirić, Ana; Niketić, Marjan

      2016-04-01

      The objective of this research was to analyze the chemical composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Heracleun pyrenaicum subsp. pollinianum (Bertol.) F. Pedrotti & Pignatti (HPP) and H. orphanidis Boiss. (HO) essential oils. The composition of the oils was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. β-Pinene (35.1%) was the most abundant compound in HPP root oil, while (Z)-falcarinol (80.0%) dominated in HO root oil. (E)-Nerolidol (28.5%) was the main constituent in HPP leaf oil. HPP fruit oil, as well as HO leaf and fruit oils mainly contained aliphatic esters, mostly octyl acetate (50.5-84.5%). Antimicrobial screening was performed by microdilution method against eight bacterial and eight fungal strains. The strongest antibacterial activity was shown by both root oils (MICs 0.02-0.60 mg/mL and MBCs 0.04-2.50 mg/mL for HPP, and MICs 0.02-1.25 mg/mL and MBCs 0.04-2.50 mg/mL for HO), while the best antifungal potential was exhibited by HPP fruit oil (MICs 0.30-0.60 mg/mL and MFCs 0.60-1.25 mg/mL) and HO leaf oil (MICs 0.15-0.63 mg/mL and MFCs 0.30-1.25 mg/mL). The tested root and fruit oils exhibited strong cytotoxic effect, which was determined by MTT test against HeLa (IC50 7.53-21.07 µg/mL) and LS174 (IC50 24.16-58.86 µg/mL) cell lines.

    20. Genomic prediction of continuous and binary fertility traits of females in a composite beef cattle breed

      Science.gov (United States)

      Reproduction efficiency is a major factor in the profitability of the beef cattle industry. Genomic selection (GS) is a promising tool that may improve the predictive accuracy and genetic gain of fertility traits. There is a wide range of traits used to measure fertility in dairy and beef cattle inc...

    1. Swelling behaviour of isora/natural rubber composites in oils used in automobiles

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      Lovely Mathew; K U Joseph; Rani Joseph

      2006-02-01

      Natural rubber/isora fibre composites were cured at various temperatures. The solvent swelling characteristics of natural rubber composites containing both untreated and alkali treated fibres were investigated in aromatic and aliphatic solvents like toluene, and -hexane. The diffusion experiments were conducted by the sorption gravimetric method. The restrictions on elastomer swelling exerted by isora fibre as well as the anisotropy of swelling of the composite have been confirmed by this study. Composite cured at 100°C shows the lowest percentage swelling. The uptake of aromatic solvent is higher than that of aliphatic solvent for the composites cured at all temperatures. The effect of fibre loading on the swelling behaviour of the composite was also investigated in oils like petrol, diesel, lubricating oil etc. The % swelling index and swelling coefficient of the composite were found to decrease with increase in fibre loading. This is due to the increased hindrance exerted by the fibres at higher fibre loadings and also due to the good fibre–rubber interactions. Maximum uptake of solvent was observed with petrol followed by diesel and then lubricating oil. The presence of bonding agent in the composites restrict the swelling considerably due to the strong interfacial adhesion. At a fixed fibre loading, the alkali treated fibre composite showed lower percentage swelling compared to the untreated one.

    2. The effect of thermotropic oil-displacing compound thickened Ninka on reservoir microflora and the composition of oil in Usinskoe oil field

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ovsyannikova, V. S.; Shcherbakova, A. G.; Guseva, Y. Z.; Altunina, L. K.; Chuykina, D. I.

      2016-11-01

      The work presents results of the study of the impact of thermotropic sol-forming compound thickened NINKA on enhanced oil recovery, stimulation of oil production, on the composition of crude oil, and on oil reservoir microflora sampled from reservoir fluids in the testing and reference areas of Usinskoe field. In vitro, the compound in the concentrations of 0.1-0.5% has a stimulating effect on the microflora, which is more pronounced in a low-mineralized environment. In reservoir conditions, after the injection of the compound, along with the appearance of nitrogen-containing components of the compound and products of its hydrolysis in the wellstream, some wells showed a significant increase in the number of heterotrophic and denitrifying microflora, which is indicative of a stimulating effect of the compound. The change in the composition of oil from these producing wells is due to the desorption of polar and high-molecular components and, to a lesser extent, to the redistribution of filtration flows.

    3. Essential oils composition of croton species from the Amazon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Turiel, Nathalie A; Ribeiro, Alcy F; Carvalho, Elisangela Elena N; Domingos, Vanessa D; Lucas, Flávia Cristina A; Carreira, Léa Maria M; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A; Maia, José Guilherme S

      2013-10-01

      The essential oils of leaves and twigs from the Euphorbiaceous Croton draconoides, C. urucurana and Julocroton triqueter were obtained and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In total, 101 volatile constituents were identified, comprising an average of 90% of the oil, mostly made up of mono- and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene hydrocarbons varied from 1.2 to 40.2%, the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons from 34.0 to 49.6% and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes from 11.5 to 51.3%. The main compounds found in the oil of C. draconoides were beta-pinene (16.9%), alpha-pinene (16.5%), curzerene (12.8%), germacrene D (9.0%), gamma-elemene (4.7%), and elemol (4.4%). The oil of C. urucurana showed sesquicineole (23.0%), dehydro-sesquicineole (13.8%), beta-caryophyllene (7.9%), beta-bisabolol (5.0%), germacrene D (4.2%) and beta-elemene (4.1%) as the chief compounds. The oil of J. triqueter was dominated by beta-caryophyllene (16.3%), beta-phellandrene (10.2%), spathulenol (5.1%), caryophyllene oxide (5.0%), delta-cadinene (4.3%), (E)-nerolidol (4.3%), and alpha-copaene (4.1%).

    4. Effect of extraction process on composition, oxidative stability and rheological properties of purslane seed oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Delfan-Hosseini, Sasan; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Kavosi, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh

      2017-05-01

      Purslane seed oil could be considered as potential nutritious oil due to its desirable fatty acid composition and other biological active compounds. In this study the effect of three extraction procedure including solvent extraction, cold pressing and microwave pretreatment (MW) followed by cold pressing on oil yield, physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and rheological behaviors of oil was investigated. Solvent extracted oil had the highest extraction yield (72.31%). Pretreatment by microwave before cold press extraction resulted in an increase in extraction yield, total phenolic compound (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Cold press extracted oil had the lowest oxidative stability (4.64h). This property was greatly enhanced by microwave irradiation, so that the longest oxidative stability was found in MW-cold press extracted oil with 9.67h. Furthermore, all extracted oils demonstrated Newtonian flow behaviors. MW-cold press extracted oil had the greatest apparent viscosity and highest sensitivity to temperature changes (Ea=29.18kJ/mol(-1)).

    5. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

      2015-01-01

      The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

    6. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Francis Ocheng

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

    7. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Some Coniferous Plants Cultivated in Egypt.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ibrahim, Taghreed A; El-Hela, Atef A; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Al-Taweel, Areej M; Perveen, Shagufta

      2017-01-01

      Family Cupressaceae is the largest coniferous plant family. Essential oils of many species belonging to family Cupressaceae are known to have several biological activities specially antimicrobial activity. The essential oils from aerial parts of Calocedrus decurrens Torr., Cupressus sempervirens stricta L. and Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. were prepared by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oils has been elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The prepared essential oils were examined against selected species of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. Broth dilution methods were used to detect minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Sixteen compounds were identified in the essential oils of both Calocedrus decurrens and Cupressus sempervirens L. and fifteen compounds were identified in the essential oil of Tetraclinis articulata. δ-3-Carene (43.10%), (+)-Cedrol (74.03%) and Camphor (21.23%) were the major constituents in the essential oils of Calocedrus decurrens, Cupressus sempervirens L. and Tetraclinis articulata, respectively. The essential oils showed strong antimicrobial activities against the selected microorganisms in concentration range 0.02 3- 3.03 µL/mL. This study could contribute to the chemotaxonomic characterization of family Cupressaceae. In addition, it proved that the essential oils under investigation possess potential antimicrobial properties.

    8. Essential-oil composition of the Tunisian endemic cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L. var. numidica TRAB.).

      Science.gov (United States)

      El Hamrouni-Aschi, Kaouther; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Boussaid, Mohamed; Akrimi, Noureddine; Toumi, Lamjed

      2013-06-01

      The essential oils isolated from leaves, wood, and cones of the Tunisian endemic cypress Cupressus sempervirens L. var. numidica Trab. collected from three natural populations were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the wood, leaf, and cone oils, 38, 35, and 26 constituents, representing 94.4, 97.8, and 98.5% of the total oil composition, respectively, were identified. Monoterpenes constituted the major fraction of the oils from all organs and for all populations. The oils were found to be of an α-pinene (64.2%)/δ-car-3-ene (11.1%) chemotype with considerable contents of α-humulene (3.4%) in the leaf oil, cedrol (2.8%) in the wood oil, and sabinene (3.2%) in the cone oil, respectively. α-Pinene, δ-car-3-ene, limonene, carvacrol methyl ether, α-humulene, and α-amorphene were the main components that differentiated the oils of the three organs in the cypress of Makthar.

    9. Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Horgan, Thomas; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

      2013-01-01

      Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used.

    10. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Two Species of Lamiaceae against Phytopathogenic Bacteria.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gormez, Arzu; Bozari, Sedat; Yanmis, Derya; Gulluce, Medine; Sahin, Fikrettin; Agar, Guleray

      2015-01-01

      In this study, we aimed to determine chemical composition and antibacterial activities of Satureja hortensis and Calamintha nepeta against to 20 phytopathogenic bacteria causing serious crop loss. The essential oils of S. hortensis and C. nepeta were isolated by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The antibacterial properties of the essential oils were evaluated against 20 phytopathogenic bacteria through Disc diffusion assay and micro dilution assay. The results revealed that the essential oils of S. hortensis and C. nepeta have significant antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the findings of the study are valuable for future investigations focusing on the alternative natural compounds to control plant diseases.

    11. Chemical composition, phytotoxic and antifungal properties of Ruta chalepensis L. essential oils.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bouabidi, Wafa; Hanana, Mohsen; Gargouri, Samia; Amri, Ismail; Fezzani, Tarek; Ksontini, Mustapha; Jamoussi, Bassem; Hamrouni, Lamia

      2015-01-01

      The chemical composition, and phytotoxic and antifungal activities of the essential oils isolated by using hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Tunisian rue were evaluated. Significant variations were observed among harvest periods. The analysis of the chemical composition by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that 2-undecanone (33.4-49.8%), 2-heptanol acetate (13.5-15.4%) and α-pinene (9.8-11.9%) were the main components. The antifungal ability of rue essential oils was tested by using disc agar diffusion against ten plant pathogenic fungi. A high antifungal activity was observed for the essential oil isolated at flowering developmental phase. Furthermore, rue essential oils showed high level of herbicidal activity against several weeds.

    12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from Myrcia alagoensis (Myrtaceae).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Silva, Aline do N; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Lucchese, Angélica M

      2013-02-01

      The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils obtained from fresh and dried leaves of Myrcia alagoensis O. Berg, collected in a secondary forest remnant in north-eastern Brazil, was compared. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh and dried leaves, and analysed by GC/FID and GC/MS. The antimicrobial properties of the oils were investigated against five bacteria by determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC). The essential oils were rich in cyclic sesquiterpenes, such as germacrene B, with antibiotic action against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The drying process after collection interfered with the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the assessed samples.

    13. Analysis of essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different hydrodistillation extraction stages: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Liu, Xiong; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jiajia; Ren, Na

      2015-01-01

      In this study, essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69-95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03-24.36%, 21.57-34.43% and 33.06-57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC50) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities.

    14. Composition of the Essential oil of Endemic Haplophyllum megalanthum Bornm. from Turkey

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nehir Ünver-Somer

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil produced from the flowering aerial parts of Haplophyllum megalanthum Bornm. (Rutaceae, endemic to Turkey, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Among the fifty-eight compounds constituting about 91.7 % of the essential oil, the main components were characterized as palmito- g -lactone (45.8 %, octadecatrienoic acid (10.7 %, linoleic acid (6.5 %, octadecatetraenoic acid (6.3 % and nonacosane (4.8 %.

    15. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of aerial parts of Grindelia robusta from Central Italy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fraternale, Daniele; Giamperi, Laura; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

      2007-09-01

      The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from Grindelia robusta aerial parts from central Italy was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and 45 components were identified. Borneol (15.2%), alpha pinene (10.3%), trans-pinocarveol (7.0%), bornyl acetate (4.5%), limonene (4.3%) were the main components. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated using the DPPH and 5-lipoxygenase tests.

    16. The granulometric composition of solid dispersions of secondary water and oil emulsions

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Abashev, R.G.

      1983-01-01

      An evaluation is made of the chemical and granulometric composition of solid dispersions in stratum waters and intermediate emulsion layers from settlers for commercial preparation of oil. The probable sources of the solid dispersions and their role in the destabilization of the modes for preparing conditioned oil are indicated, along with the need to consider factors which cause the manifestation of a high content of mechanical admixtures, development of technical and technological measures for their complete are partial prevention in well production.

    17. Bark essential oil composition of Cedrela tonduzii C. DC. (Meliaceae from Monteverde, Costa Rica

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hannah M. Eason

      2007-11-01

      Full Text Available The bark essential oils from two different individuals of Cedrela tonduzii were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The chemical compositions of the two oils were qualitatively similar, but showed quantitative differences. One sample had abundant quantities of a -selinene (32% and germacrene-D (17%, while the second sample was rich in a-humulene (34%, β-caryophyllene (13% and germacrene-D (13%.

    18. Physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of tomato seed oils from processing wastes

      OpenAIRE

      Cantarelli,P.R.; Regitano-d'Arce,M.A.B.; Palma,E.R.

      1993-01-01

      The major component of tomato processing industry wastes is seed. Samples of tomato (Petomech var.) pomace from industries of São Paulo state submitted to Hot and Cold Break treatments, were spontaneously fermented and washed to separate seeds. The oils were analysed for specific gravity, iodine and saponifícation numbers, refractive index, viscosity and fatty acid composition. Except for saponifícation number, Hot and Cold Break seed oils were very similar. In both treatments palmitic acid w...

    19. Composition and antimicrobial studies of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris from Montenegro

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Damjanović-Vratnica, B.

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Chemical composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme from Montenegro was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and its antimicrobial activity was evaluated against 10 microorganisms, including reference and clinically isolated strains. T. vulgaris essential oil yield was 0.42% (v/w, based on the dry leaves weight whereas the analysis showed that major components, amongst 22 identified in the oil, were geraniol (25.66%, geranyl-acetate (20.34%, linalool (10.89% and caryophyllene oxide (9.89%. The results of the antimicrobial activity tests revealed that the essential oil of T .vulgaris from Montenegro has rather strong antimicrobial activity, especially against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These results confirm the potential use of T. vulgaris essential oil in food products the as well as for therapeutic applications.

    20. The Essential Oil Compositions of Ocimum basilicum from Three Different Regions: Nepal, Tajikistan, and Yemen.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sharopov, Farukh S; Satyal, Prabodh; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Pokharel, Suraj; Zhang, Hanjing; Wink, Michael; Kukaniev, Muhammadsho A; Setzer, William N

      2016-02-01

      The aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum L. were collected from four different geographical locations, Sindhuli and Biratnagar (Nepal), Chormaghzak village (Tajikistan), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 179 essential oil compositions revealed six major chemotypes: Linalool, eugenol, estragole, methyl eugenol, 1,8-cineole, and geraniol. All four of the basil oils in this study were of the linalool-rich variety. Some of the basil oils were screened for bioactivity including antimicrobial, cytotoxicity in human cancer cells, brine shrimp lethality, nematicidal, larvicidal, insecticidal, and antioxidant. The basil oils in this study were not notably antibacterial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, nor nematicidal, but were active in the brine shrimp lethality test, and did show larvicidal and insecticidal activities.

    1. Composition of the essential oil of Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) fruit pulp.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Said; Ghanmi, Mohamed; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

      2010-06-01

      The composition of the essential oil from the fresh and dried pulp of the fruit of Argania spinosa (Skeels) L. has been studied. Camphor was the major component in both oil types, but in addition, the fresh fruit oil had significant amounts of 1,8-cineole, endo-borneol, and 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol., and the dried pulp oil 3,5-dimethyl-4-ethylidene-cyclohex-2-ene-1-one, 1,8-cineole, and 2-methylbutanoic acid. The presence of camphor and 1,8-cineole in argan fruit essential oil suggests that it could be used locally as an insect repellent, offering an output for argan fruit pulp that is at present a waste product.

    2. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, antiradical and anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil of Pulicaria stephanocarpa from Soqotra.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Al-Fatimi, Mohamed A; Arnold, Norbert; Teichert, Axel; Setzer, William N; Wessjohann, Ludger

      2012-01-01

      The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled leaf essential oil from Pulicaria stephanocarpa Balf. Fil was determined by GC-MS analysis, and its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase (AChE) activities were evaluated. Eighty-three compounds were identified representing 97.2% of the total oil. (E)-Caryophyllene 13.4%, (E)-nerolidol 8.5%, caryophyllene oxide 8.5%, alpha-cadinol 8.2% spathulenol 6.8% and tau-cadinol 4.7%, were the main components. Antimicrobial activity of the oil, evaluated using the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods, demonstrated the highest susceptibility on Gram-positive bacteria and Candida albicans. The free radical scavenging ability of the oil was assessed by the DPPH assay to show antiradical activity with IC50 of 330 microg/mL. Moreover, the oil revealed an AChE inhibitory activity of 47% at a concentration of 200 microg/mL using Ellman's method.

    3. Changes in oxidative stability, antioxidant capacity and phytochemical composition of Pistacia terebinthus oil with roasting.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Durmaz, Gökhan; Gökmen, Vural

      2011-09-15

      The effect of roasting on oxidative stability, antioxidant capacity and the content of antioxidant phytochemicals in Pistacia terebinthus oil was investigated. Oils were extracted from P. terebinthus fruits roasted at 180°C for 0-40min. Roasting was found to cause an increase in the passage of phenolic compounds to the oil whereas the level of tocopherols, lutein and β-carotene was decreased. Antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of P. terebinthus oil increased with roasting. As an indicator of the presence of Maillard reaction products in oil, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) level and colour intensity was measured and found to increase with increasing roasting time. Fatty acid composition was not affected significantly by roasting.

    4. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Thymus praecox Opiz ssp. polytrichus Essential Oil from Serbia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nada V. Petrović

      2016-03-01

      Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of wild growing Thymus praecox Opiz ssp. polytrichus were studied. trans-Nerolidol (19.79%, germacrene D (18.48% and thymol (9.62% were the main components in essential oil. This study is the first report of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil obtained from the T. praecox Opiz ssp. polytrichus. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil was investigated on Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus flavus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella typhimurium, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, A. niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium strains. In the antimicrobial assays, essential oil showed high antimicrobial potential (MIC 19–150 m g/mL, MBC 39–300 m g/mL for bacteria; and MIC 19.5–39 m g/mL, MFC 39–78 m g/mL for fungi.

    5. Chemical composition of fennel essential oil and its impact on Staphylococcus aureus exotoxin production.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Qiu, Jiazhang; Li, Hongen; Su, Hongwei; Dong, Jing; Luo, Mingjing; Wang, Jianfeng; Leng, Bingfeng; Deng, Yanhong; Liu, Juxiong; Deng, Xuming

      2012-04-01

      In this study, fennel oil was isolated by hydrodistillation, and the chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activity of fennel oil against Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated by broth microdilution. A haemolysis assay, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) release assay, western blot, and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR were applied to investigate the influence of fennel oil on the production of S. aureus virulence-related exoproteins. The data show that fennel oil, which contains a high level of trans-anethole, was active against S. aureus, with MICs ranging from 64 to 256 μg/ml. Furthermore, fennel oil, when used at subinhibitory concentrations, could dose-dependently decrease the expression of S. aureus exotoxins, including α-toxin, Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1).

    6. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ferulago Bernardii Tomk. and M. Pimen"

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      "Farahnaz Khalighi-Sigaroodi

      2005-05-01

      Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Ferulago Bernardii from Iran was analysed by GC and GC/MS. Sixty constituents were found representing 87.9% of the oil. The main constituents of the essential oil were 2,4,5-trimethyl-benzaldehyde (21.2%, α-pinene (17.0%,spathulenol (5.0%, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (4.4% and caryophyllene oxide (3.2%. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ferulago Bernardii by the broth dilution method in comparison with Gentamycin and Fluconazole as standard showed weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacilus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The essential oil did not show any activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    7. Fatty acid composition and anticancer activity in colon carcinoma cell lines of Prunus dulcis seed oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mericli, Filiz; Becer, Eda; Kabadayı, Hilal; Hanoglu, Azmi; Yigit Hanoglu, Duygu; Ozkum Yavuz, Dudu; Ozek, Temel; Vatansever, Seda

      2017-12-01

      Almond oil is used in traditional and complementary therapies for its numerous health benefits due to high unsaturated fatty acids content. This study investigated the composition and in vitro anticancer activity of almond oil from Northern Cyprus and compared with almond oil from Turkey. Almond oil from Northern Cyprus was obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. Almond oil of Turkey was provided from Turkish pharmacies. Different concentrations of almond oils were incubated for 24 and 48 h with Colo-320 and Colo-741 cells. Cell growth and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assays. Anticancer and antiprolifetarive activities of almond oils were investigated by immunocytochemistry using antibodies directed against to BMP-2, β-catenin, Ki-67, LGR-5 and Jagged 1. Oleic acid (77.8%; 75.3%), linoleic acid (13.5%; 15.8%), palmitic acid (7.4%; 6.3%), were determined as the major compounds of almond oil from Northern Cyprus and Turkey, respectively. In the MTT assay, both almond oils were found to be active against Colo-320 and Colo-741 cells with 1:1 dilution for both 24 h and 48 h. As a result of immunohistochemical staining, while both almond oils exhibited significant antiproliferative and anticancer activity, these activities were more similar in Colo-320 cells which were treated with Northern Cyprus almond oil. Almond oil from Northern Cyprus and Turkey may have anticancer and antiproliferative effects on colon cancer cells through molecular signalling pathways and, thus, they could be potential novel therapeutic agents.

    8. The complex tale of the high oleic acid trait in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L = 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait wa...

    9. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

      2010-11-15

      Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. {yields} Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. {yields} Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    10. Effect of Cadmium and Lead on Quantitative and Essential Oil Traits of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Shahram AMIRMORADI

      2012-11-01

      Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb are particularly noteworthy metals that can pollute the air, soil and water contributing to serious environmental problems. Tests were done on concentrations of Pb and Cd; treatments tested in the experiment were as follows; Cd concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 ppm and concentrations of Pb (100, 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 ppm and control. Tests were done on Mentha piperita L. in a greenhouse, arranged as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Rhizomes with uniform weight were planted in pots 305035 cm. Plants were irrigated with Cd and Pb chloride after germination of all rhizomes. Results demonstrated that with increasing concentrations of Cd and Pb there was a decrease in fresh and dry weights, main stem height, leaf area per plant, leaf number, number of nodes per main stem and essential oil of peppermint compared to the control. Fresh weights were decreased at 100 ppm of Cd and 1500 ppm of Pb, 18.16% and 24.55%, respectively compared to the control at the first harvest. At the second harvest, these decreases were 15.24% and 32.72%, respectively. At the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb, dry weight of peppermint was dropped 22.92% and 39.01% at the first harvest. For the second harvest, decreased dry weights were 25.88% and 26.77% respectively. It seems that peppermint can tolerate waste water or soil polluted with medium range of Cd and Pb concentrations and the essential oil percentage was not affected by these concentrations.

    11. Effect of Cadmium and Lead on Quantitative and Essential Oil Traits of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Shahram AMIRMORADI

      2012-11-01

      Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb are particularly noteworthy metals that can pollute the air, soil and water contributing to serious environmental problems. Tests were done on concentrations of Pb and Cd; treatments tested in the experiment were as follows; Cd concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 ppm and concentrations of Pb (100, 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 ppm and control. Tests were done on Mentha piperita L. in a greenhouse, arranged as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Rhizomes with uniform weight were planted in pots 30�50�35 cm. Plants were irrigated with Cd and Pb chloride after germination of all rhizomes. Results demonstrated that with increasing concentrations of Cd and Pb there was a decrease in fresh and dry weights, main stem height, leaf area per plant, leaf number, number of nodes per main stem and essential oil of peppermint compared to the control. Fresh weights were decreased at 100 ppm of Cd and 1500 ppm of Pb, 18.16% and 24.55%, respectively compared to the control at the first harvest. At the second harvest, these decreases were 15.24% and 32.72%, respectively. At the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb, dry weight of peppermint was dropped 22.92% and 39.01% at the first harvest. For the second harvest, decreased dry weights were 25.88% and 26.77% respectively. It seems that peppermint can tolerate waste water or soil polluted with medium range of Cd and Pb concentrations and the essential oil percentage was not affected by these concentrations.

    12. Composition of tocopherols in sesame seed oil: an indicative of adulteration

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gastaldo Badolato, Elza S.

      2006-06-01

      Full Text Available The objective of this research was to verify how the composition of tocopherols can help to reveal adulteration in samples of sesame seed oils commercialized in Brazil. Five samples have been analyzed. One sample presented the composition of fatty acids, tocopherols and desmethylsterols of authentic sesame oil. Another one presented only non complying parameters. Three other samples showed the fatty acid composition of pure sesame oil, but the tocopherol and desmethylsterol profiles did not comply with those for sesame seed oil. The results indicate that samples could be adulterated by other vegetable oils like soybean, lauric and corn oils.Este trabajo examina la importancia de los tocoferoles en la detección de la adulteración del aceite de sésamo comercializado en Brasil. Se analizaron cinco muestras a las que se le determinaron su composición en ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles. Una de las muestras se reveló puro aceite de semilla de sésamo; en otra, todos los parámetros estaban en desacuerdo. En las demás, el perfil de ácidos grasos caracterizaba el aceite de sésamo, sin embargo los tocoferoles y esteroles permanecieron en desacuerdo. Los resultados indican adulteración con otros aceites vegetales como soja, aceites láuricos y maíz.

    13. Volatile composition and biological activity of key lime Citrus aurantifolia essential oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Spadaro, Federica; Costa, Rosaria; Circosta, Clara; Occhiuto, Francesco

      2012-11-01

      The essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle fruits (limes) was studied for its potential spasmolytic effects in relation to its chemical composition. The essential oil, extracted by hydrodistillation (HD), was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antispasmodic activity was evaluated on isolated rabbit jejunum, aorta and uterus. The results indicated that the essential oil of C. aurantifolia possesses important spasmolytic properties, which are likely to be due to its major constituents, limonene (58.4%), beta-pinene (15.4%), gamma-terpinene (8.5%), and citral (4.4%).

    14. The essential oil composition of aerial parts of Anthemis tricolor Boiss. from Cyprus.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Karaalp, C; Erel, S Baykan; Nalbantsoy, A; Gücel, S; Demirci, B; Baser, K H C

      2014-01-01

      The water-distilled essential oil from the aerial parts of Anthemis tricolor Boiss. (Asteraceae), an endemic taxon from Cyprus, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The analysis revealed 40 compounds accounting for 84.5% of the oil. Muurola-4,11-diene (20.2%), β-caryophyllene (9.1%) and germacrene-D (5.5%) were the main compounds of A. tricolor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of the essential oil composition of A. tricolor collected from Cyprus.

    15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia annua L. from Iran

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M R Verdian-rizi

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil obtained from the dried flowering aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. (Compositae was analysed by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-two components were identified in the essential oil of A. annua L. with campher (48.00%, 1,8-cineole (9.39%, camphene (6.98% and spathulenol (4.89% as major components. The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities . The activity was more pronounced against fungal organisms than against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    16. Genetic engineering of peppermint for improved essential oil composition and yield.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wildung, Mark R; Croteau, Rodney B

      2005-08-01

      The biochemistry, organization, and regulation of essential oil metabolism in the epidermal oil glands of peppermint have been defined, and most of the genes encoding enzymes of the eight-step pathway to the principal monoterpene component (-)-menthol have been isolated. Using these tools for pathway engineering, two genes and two expression strategies have been employed to create transgenic peppermint plants with improved oil composition and yield. These experiments, along with related studies on other pathway genes, have led to a systematic, stepwise approach for the creation of a 'super' peppermint.

    17. Variations in the essential oil composition from different parts of Coriandrum sativum L. cultivated in Tunisia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Msaada, Kamel; Hosni, Karim; Taarit, Mouna Ben; Chahed, Thouraya; Marzouk, Brahim

      2007-03-01

      Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different organs (flowers, leaves, stems and roots) of Tunisian coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) was analyzed. GC and GC-MS analysis enabled us to identify 64 compounds and revealed great qualitative and quantitative differences between the analyzed parts. In all organs, the main compound was (E)-2-dodecenal, followed by (E)-2-tridecenal, gamma-cadinene, (Z)-myroxide, neryl acetate and eugenol. Multivariate analysis (PCA) revealed a high similarity in the essential oils composition between upper leaves and flowers in one hand and basal leaves, roots and stems on the other hand. Further, it has been reported an organ-dependant distribution of essential oil compounds.

    18. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from different parts of Litsea cubeba.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wang, Hongwu; Liu, Yanqing

      2010-01-01

      The composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of different parts of Litsea cubeba, including roots, stems, leaves, alabastra (flower buds), flowers, and fruits, were investigated by GC (RI) and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oils was assessed with disc diffusion and microbroth dilution assays. The results showed large variations in the composition among the different oils. The major components in the oils from roots and fruits, from stems, leaves, and alabastra, and from flowers were citral B (neral), beta-phellandrene, and beta-terpinene, respectively. The inhibition zone (DD) and MIC values for the bacterial strains tested, which were all sensitive to the essential oil of L. cubeba, were in the range of 10.1-35.0 mm and 100-1000 microg/ml, respectively. Hence, the oils of the various parts showed moderate activity against the tested bacteria. This investigation showed that the antibacterial activity of L. cubeba was attributed to the essential oils, thus they can be a potential medicinal resource.

    19. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from four Ruta species growing in Algeria.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Haddouchi, Farah; Chaouche, Tarik Mohammed; Zaouali, Yosr; Ksouri, Riadh; Attou, Amina; Benmansour, Abdelhafid

      2013-11-01

      Antimicrobial properties of plants essential oils have been investigated in order to suggest them as potential tools to overcome the microbial drug resistance and the increasing incidence of food borne diseases problems. The aim of this research is to study the antibacterial and antifungal effects of four traditional plants essential oils, Ruta angustifolia, Ruta chalepensis, Ruta graveolens and Ruta tuberculata, against standard bacterial and fungal strains. The chemical compounds of the oils were examined by GC/MS. Results revealed a powerful antifungal activity against filamentous fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium herbarum are the most sensitive strains to these oils with MIC values less than 3.5 μg ml(-1) for certain oils, reaching 7.8 μg ml(-1) for other. GC/MS essay exhibited ketones as the most abundant constituent of these oils except for R. tuberculata essential oil which has a completely different composition, monoterpenes alcohols being the most abundant. These compositions explain their potential antifungal activity.

    20. Differential scanning calorimetry study--assessing the influence of composition of vegetable oils on oxidation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Qi, Baokun; Zhang, Qiaozhi; Sui, Xiaonan; Wang, Zhongjiang; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

      2016-03-01

      The thermal oxidation of eight different vegetable oils was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under non-isothermal conditions at five different heating rates (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15°C/min), in a temperature range of 100-400°C. For all oils, the activation energy (Ea) values at Tp were smaller than that at Ts and Ton. Among all the oils, refined palm oil (RPO) exhibited the highest Ea values, 126.06kJ/mol at Ts, 134.7kJ/mol at Ton, and 91.88kJ/mol at Tp. The Ea and reaction rate constant (k) values at Ts, Ton, and Tp were further correlated with oil compositions (fatty acids and triacylglycerols) using Pearson correlation analysis. The rate constant (k) and Ea of all oils exhibited varying correlations with FAs and TAGs, indicating that the thermal oxidation behaviors were affected by oil compositions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    1. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      rajuc

      2012-04-24

      Apr 24, 2012 ... Research into plant essential oils have also gained momentum due to their fumigant .... 1 based on their chemical structures in which they are classified. The GC-MS ... It is also well known as a preservative in food, drugs and ...

    2. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

    3. COMPOSITION OF STEMBARK ESSENTIAL OIL FROM SALVIA MACROSIPHON BOISS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      FIROUZ MATLOUBI-MOGHADDAM

      2000-07-01

      Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia macrosiphon boiss (Labiatae was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and coupled GC/MS. Twenty substances out of about thirty-three detected components were identified. The major constituents were sesquiterpenes (69.5%, a-Gurjunene (11%, P-Cubebene (10.6%, Germacrene-B (7%.

    4. Extra virgin olive oil: from composition to "molecular gastronomy".

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Savarese, Maria; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo

      2014-01-01

      The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the recent results of studies on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its interactions with other food ingredients during cooking, to highlight basic molecular aspects of the "magic" of EVOO and its role in Mediterranean gastronomy. The use of raw EVOO added to foods after cooking (or as a salad oil) is the best way to express the original flavour and to maximize the intake of natural antioxidants and compounds related to positive effects on human health (hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerogenic, among others). EVOO, however, also exhibits its protective properties during/after cooking. Different chemical interactions between biophenolic compounds and other food ingredients (water, milk proteins, carotenoids of tomato, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-oil fish and meat or fish proteins) occur. Even during cooking, EVOO exhibits strong antioxidant properties and influences the overall flavour of cooked foods. The physical (partitioning, emulsion) and chemical (hydrolysis, covalent binding, antioxidant properties) phenomena occurring during cooking of EVOO are discussed with emphasis on the changes in the sensory (bitterness and fruity flavour) and nutritional qualities of some traditional Mediterranean foods. In particular, tomato-oil interactions during cooking, fish canning in EVOO, meat marinated in EVOO before cooking and roasting and frying in EVOO are examined. The interactions between EVOO antioxidants and flavours with milk proteins are also briefly discussed.

    5. Effect of thyroglobulin gene polymorphisms on growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits in Chinese beef cattle.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zhang, Lupei; Ren, Hongyan; Yang, Jiuguang; Gan, Qianfu; Zhao, Fuping; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya

      2015-09-01

      The thyroglobulin (TG) gene has been studied as an important gene related to fat deposition, since not only does TG gene locate in a quantitative trait locus with an effect on fat deposition, but also it encodes the precursor of thyroid hormones which have crucial biological functions in energy metabolism. In the present study, we identified four novel SNPs at the 5' flanking region of the bovine TG gene. Association analysis indicated that the G275A, G277C, G280A and C281G SNPs were significantly associated with average daily gain (ADG, P meat quality traits were evaluated. The results showed no significant effect of haplotype on ADG. Meanwhile, no significant association was found between 4 SNPs and other growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits including intramuscular fat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 4 SNPs may results in potential transcription factor binding site changes. Results of this study suggest that TG gene-specific SNPs may be a useful marker for growth traits in marker assisted selection programs in beef cattle.

    6. Sequential extraction and compositional analysis of oil-bearing fluid inclusions in reservoir rocks from Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      2000-01-01

      The free oils, adsorbed oils and oil-bearing fluid inclusions have been extracted separately and analyzed by GC and GC-MS in reservoir rock samples collected from the Kuche Depression. The results demonstrate that the molecular compositions of oil-bearing fluid inclusions are significantly different from those of the free oils (the current oils). Compared with the current oil, the oil-bearing fluid inclusions are characterized by relatively high values of parameters Pr/nC17and Ph/nC18, low values of Pr/Ph, hopanes/steranes, C30-diahopane/C30-hopane and Ts/Tm, low content of C29Ts terpane and high maturities as indicated by C29 steranes 20S/(20R+20S). In addition, the oil-bearing fluid inclusions correlate very well with the oils in northern and central Tarim Basin, which were derived from Cambrian-Ordovician marine source rocks. The adsorbedoils appear to be an intermediate type between free oils and oil-bearing fluid inclusions. The above analytical data indicate that there are at least two oil-charging episodes for these reservoir rock samples. The early charging oils were derived from Cambrian-Ordovician marine source rocks, and the later charging oils, from Triassic-Jurassic terrestrial source rocks. The primary marine oils were overwhelmingly diluted by the following terrestrial oils.

    7. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

      2013-07-01

      The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait.

    8. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils of Thymbra spicata var. intricata

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sarac Nurdan

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available In this study, T. spicata var. intricata , endemic to Turkey, were collected from various localities of Mugla, Turkey. The essential oils were obtained using the hydrodistillation method. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils on micro-organisms, including multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria, were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The essential oils were effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which included multiple antibiotic resistant strains. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Pseudomonas fluorescens MU 87 were resistant to these oils. The essential oils were very effective against Candida albicans . The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils showed some variations depending on the localities from which they were collected. A total 24 components were identified in the essential oil. The main components were characterized as carvacrol (75.74%, γ-terpinene (9.28%, p -cymene (7.17%, myrcene (1.39%, β-caryophyllene (1.13% and thymol (0.15%, respectively.

    9. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zeneida Teixeira Pinto

      Full Text Available Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%. The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva. The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50 of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

    10. Chemical Compositions, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Piper caninum Blume

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hasnah Mohd Sirat

      2011-11-01

      Full Text Available Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the fresh leaves and stems oils of Piper caninum were investigated. A total of forty eight constituents were identified in the leaves (77.9% and stems (87.0% oil which were characterized by high proportions of phenylpropanoid, safrole with 17.1% for leaves and 25.5% for stems oil. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content. Stems oil showed the highest inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation (114.9 ± 0.9%, compared to BHT (95.5 ± 0.5%, while leaves oil showed significant total phenolic content (27.4 ± 0.5 mg GA/g equivalent to gallic acid. However, the essential oils showed weak activity towards DPPH free-radical scavenging. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity revealed that both oils exhibited strong activity against all bacteria strains with MIC values in the range 62.5 to 250 µg/mL, but weak activity against fungal strains. These findings suggest that the essential oils can be used as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for therapeutic, nutraceutical industries and food manufactures.

    11. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Eucalyptus smithii against dermatophytes

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Edilene Bolutari Baptista

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of a commercial sample of essential oil from Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker and its antifungal activity against Microsporum canis ATCC 32903, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 14683, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 9533, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11480, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507. METHODS: Morphological changes in these fungi after treatment with the oil were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The antifungal activity of the oil was determined on the basis of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC values. RESULTS: The compound 1,8-cineole was found to be the predominant component (72.2% of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil ranged from 62.5μg·mL−1 to >1,000μg·mL−1, and the MFC values of the oil ranged from 125μg·mL−1 to >1,000μg·mL−1. SEM analysis showed physical damage and morphological alterations in the fungi exposed to this oil. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the potential of Eucalyptus smithii essential oil as a natural therapeutic agent for the treatment of dermatophytosis.

    12. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of essential oils of Piper septuplinervium and P. subtomentosum (Piperaceae).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ávila Murilloa, Mónica Constanza; Cuca Suareza, Luis Enrique; Cerón Salamanca, Jairo Alonso

      2014-10-01

      Essential oils of Piper subtomentosum (leaves and inflorescences) and Piper septuplinervium (aerial parts) were analyzed by GC-MS; sixty-three compounds were determined, representing 92.0%, 86.9 %, and 91.8 % of the total relative oil composition of the leaves, inflorescences, and aerial parts, respectively. The most abundant component in the aerial parts and inflorescence oils was α-pinene (27.3%, 21.0%, respectively), and δ-cadinene was the main component of the leaf oil. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils were determined on the Spodoptera frugiperda second instar larvae; the essential oil from the aerial parts of P. septuplinervium was the most active against insect pests (LC50= 9.4 μL/L of air). Statistical analysis by direct Pearson correlation showed that the insecticidal activity of the essential oils was primarily due to camphene and α- and β-pinene. The effect of the oils on the insect life cycle was also evaluated, and in some cases, a delay in growth and inhibition of the oviposition in the females were observed.

    13. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Romania.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hăncianu, Monica; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Gille, Elvira; Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Spac, A; Stănescu, Ursula

      2008-01-01

      Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is used in traditional medicine to treat insomnia, anxiety, gastric conditions, psychiatric conditions, migraines, hypertension and bronchial conditions. Natural essential oils (mixtures of fragrant chemical) obtained from various parts of plants are efficient active antimicrobial agents. The widespread use of antimicrobial agents selects resistant bacterial strains, which seriously compromise the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment. The use of herbal medicines might be a precautionary measure to prevent the development of lack of susceptibility to synthetic antibiotics that is associated with therapeutic failures. In this work, the chemical composition and the antimicrobial properties of essential oil from romanian Melissa officinalis were determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity of lemon balm oil by comparison with lavender essential oil, which is also utilised for its antimicrobial properties in folk medicine. The most important identified compounds, well known for their antimicrobial effects were citral (neral and geranial) (16.10%), citronellal (3.76%) and trans-caryophyllene (3.57%).The lemon balm oil sample exhibited a higher degree antibacterial activity than did Lavandula oil against Gram-positive strains. The both oil samples tested has shown a high activity against Candida albicans. The gram-negative bacteria were not affected by the lemon balm oil.

    14. Composition and antimicrobial activities of the leaf essential oil of Machilus zuihoensis from Taiwan

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Chen-Lung Ho

      2012-04-01

      Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition, and antimicrobial and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the essential oil isolated from the leaf of endemic Machilus zuihoensis Hayata, Lauraceae, of Taiwan. The essential oil from the fresh leaves of M. zuihoensis was isolated using hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 104 compounds were identified, representing 100% of the oil. The main components identified were n-dodecanal (23.8% and (E-nerolidol (10.5%. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested by the disc diffusion method and micro-broth dilution method against ten microbial species (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans, respectively. The oil exhibited strong growth suppression against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast with inhibition zones of 35~43 mm to MIC values of 125 µg mL-1, respectively. The anti-wood-decay fungal activity of the oil was also evaluated. Results showed that the oil demonstrated excellent activity against four wood-decay-fungi species (Trametes versicolor, Phaneochaete chrysosporium, Phaeolus schweintizii, and Lenzites sulphureu. For the antimicrobial and anti-wooddecay fungal activities of the oil, the active source compounds were determined to be τ-cadinol, β-eudesmol, and n-dodecanal.

    15. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

      2015-01-01

      Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

    16. Chemical composition of Schinus molle essential oil and its cytotoxic activity on tumour cell lines.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Díaz, Cecilia; Quesada, Silvia; Brenes, Oscar; Aguilar, Gilda; Cicció, José F

      2008-01-01

      The leaf essential oil hydrodistilled from Schinus molle grown in Costa Rica was characterised in terms of its chemical composition, antioxidant activity, ability to induce cytotoxicity and the mechanism of cell death involved in the process. As a result, 42 constituents, accounting for 97.2% of the total oil, were identified. The major constituents of the oil were beta-pinene and alpha-pinene. The antioxidant activity showed an IC(50) of 36.3 microg mL(-1). The essential oil was cytotoxic in several cell lines, showing that it is more effective on breast carcinoma and leukemic cell lines. The LD(50) for cytotoxicity at 48 h in K562 corresponded to 78.7 microg mL(-1), which was very similar to the LD(50) obtained when apoptosis was measured. The essential oil did not induce significant necrosis up to 200 microg mL(-1), which together with the former results indicate that apoptosis is the main mechanism of toxicity induced by S. molle essential oil in this cell line. In conclusion, the essential oil tested was weak antioxidant and induced cytotoxicity in different cell types by a mechanism related to apoptosis. It would be interesting to elucidate the role that different components of the oil play in the effect observed here, since some of them could have potential anti-tumoural effects, either alone or in combination.

    17. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Göthe, Emma; Riis, Tenna; O'Hare, Matthew T

      2016-02-01

      Historically, close attention has been paid to negative impacts associated with nutrient loads to streams and rivers, but today hydromorphological alterations are considered increasingly implicated when lowland streams do not achieve good ecological status. Here, we explore if trait-abundance patterns of aquatic plants change along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and eutrophication in lowland stream sites located in Denmark. Specifically, we hypothesised that: i) changes in trait-abundance patterns occur along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and ii) trait-abundance patterns can serve to disentangle effects of eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation in lowland streams reflecting that the mechanisms behind changes differ. We used monitoring data from a total of 147 stream reaches with combined data on aquatic plant species abundance, catchment land use, hydromorphological alterations (i.e. planform, cross section, weed cutting) and water chemistry parameters. Traits related to life form, dispersal, reproduction and survival together with ecological preference values for nutrients and light (Ellenberg N and L) were allocated to 41 species representing 79% of the total species pool. We found clear evidence that habitat degradation (hydromorphological alterations and eutrophication) mediated selective changes in the trait-abundance patterns of the plant community. Specific traits could distinguish hydromorphological degradation (free-floating, surface; anchored floating leaves; anchored heterophylly) from eutrophication (free-floating, submerged; leaf area). We provide a conceptual framework for interpretation of how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact and how this is reflected in trait-abundance patterns in aquatic plant communities in lowland streams. Our findings support the merit of trait-based approaches in biomonitoring as they shed light on mechanisms controlling structural changes under environmental

    18. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Juniperus thurifera L. essential oils

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      AZZEDDINE ZERAIB

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oils obtained from male and female leaves of Juniperus thurifera L., (growing in Algeria has been investigated for the first time. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation (0.45% from female trees and 0.53% from male trees, v/w dried material and analyzed by gas choromatography (GC and gas choromatography-mass spectrometery (GC-MS. Seventy-seven compounds were identified, representing more than 97% of the oils. The major components were Sabinene, α-pinene and terpinene-4-ol. The concentrations of the oil constituents: α-thujene, α-pinene, α-phellandrene, p-cymene, linalyl acetate, Δ-amorphene, germacrene D-4-ol, and 4-epi-abietal were greater in the oil of the female tree than in the oil of the male tree. Conversely, the concentrations of α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, terpinene-4-ol, elemol, α-epi-cadinol and α-eudesmol were greater in the oil of the male tree than in the oil of the female tree. However, the concentration gradient trends for both female and male trees were similar for sabinene, myrcene, linalool, β-pinene, limonene, cis-sabinene hydrate terpinolene, α-terpineol. The antimicrobial activity of male and female J. thurifera essential oils was evaluated against 14 bacteria. The results showed a variable degree of antibacterial activity depending from the type of the oil (extracted from male or female trees. Essential oils of female trees were most effective.

    19. Development, identification and validation of CAPS marker for SHELL trait which governs dura, pisifera and tenera fruit forms in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Babu, B Kalyana; Mathur, R K; Kumar, P Naveen; Ramajayam, D; Ravichandran, G; Venu, M V B; Babu, S Sparjan

      2017-01-01

      The oil palm fruit forms (dura, pisifera and tenera) governed by the shell thickness gene (Sh) plays a major role in identification of fruit type and also influences palm oil yield. Identification of desired fruit type is a major asset to the breeders and oil palm workers for applications in breeding, seed certification and to reduce time, space and money spent on identification of fruit form. In the present study, we developed Sh gene specific primer pairs and bulk segregant analysis was done using 300 genomic and 8 genic SSR markers. We identified one cleaved amplified polymorphic site (CAPS) marker for differentiation of oil palm fruit type which produced two alleles (280 and 250bp) in dura genotypes, three alleles in tenera genotypes (550, 280, and 250bp) and one allele in pisifera genotypes (550bp). The shell allele sequencing results showed that two SNPs were present, of which SNP2 contributed for variation of fruit forms. The nucleotide 'A' was present in only dura genotypes, where as 'T' was present only in pisifera genotypes, which in turn led to the change of amino acid lysine to aspargine. The identified CAPS marker was validated on 300 dura, 25 pisifera and 80 tenera genotypes, 80 dura/ pisifera cross progenies and 60 lines of tenera/ tenera cross progeny. Association mapping of marker data with phenotypic data of eight oil yield related traits resulted in identification of seven significant QTLs by GLM approach, four by MLM approach at a significant threshold (P) level of 0.001. Significant QTLs were identified for fruit to bunch and oil to bunch traits, which explained R2 of 12.9% and 11.5% respectively. The CAPS marker used in the present study facilitate selection and timely distribution of desirable high yielding tenera sprouts to the farmers instead of waiting for 4-5 years. This saves a lot of land, time and money which will be a major breakthrough to the oil palm community.

    20. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L..

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      Kathryn M Robinson

      Full Text Available We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

    1. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L.).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Robinson, Kathryn M; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Jansson, Stefan; Albrectsen, Benedicte R

      2012-01-01

      We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

    2. Leaf and fruit essential oil compositions of Pimenta guatemalensis (Myrtaceae) from Costa Rica.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chaverri, Carlos; Cicció, José F

      2015-03-01

      Pitnenta is a genus of flowering plants in the Myrtaceae family, which has about 15 species, mostly found in the Caribbean region of the Americas. Commonly used for culinary and medicinal purposes, the best known commercial species are allspice, P. dioica (P. officinalis) and bay rum, P. racemosa, but there is little information concerning P. guatemalensis. The aim of the present study was to identify the chemical composition of the leaf and fruit essential oils ofP. guatemalensis. The extraction of essential oils of P. guatemalensis growing wild in Costa Rica was carried out by the hydrodistillation method at atmospheric pressure, using a modified Clevenger type apparatus. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatographyflame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using the retention indices on DB-5 type capillary column. A total of 103 and 63 compounds were identified in the leaf and fruit oils, respectively, corresponding to 96.8% and 86.1% of the total amount of the oils. The leaf oil consisted mainly of eugenol (72.8%), and mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (18.2%). Among terpenes the major components were beta-caryophyllene (8.2%) and terpinolene (3.0%). The fruit oil also consisted mainly of eugenol (74.7%) and minor amounts of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes (7.3%), mainly caryophyllene oxide (3.3%). This is the first report of the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from this plant species.

    3. The significance of different diacylgycerol synthesis pathways on plant oil composition and bioengineering

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Philip David Bates

      2012-07-01

      Full Text Available The unique properties of vegetable oils from different plants utilized for food, industrial feedstocks, and fuel is dependent on the fatty acid (FA composition of triacylglycerol (TAG. Plants can use two main pathways to produce diacylglycerol (DAG, the immediate precursor molecule to TAG synthesis: 1 De novo DAG synthesis, and 2 conversion of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC to DAG. The FA esterified to PC are also the substrate for FA modification (e.g. desaturation, hydroxylation, etc., such that the FA composition of PC-derived DAG can be substantially different than that of de novo DAG. Since DAG provides two of the three FA in TAG, the relative flux of TAG synthesis from de novo DAG or PC-derived DAG can greatly affect the final oil FA composition. Here we review how the fluxes through these two alternate pathways of DAG/TAG synthesis are determined and present evidence that suggests which pathway is utilized in different plants. Additionally, we present examples of how the endogenous DAG synthesis pathway in a transgenic host plant can produce bottlenecks for engineering of plant oil FA composition, and discuss alternative strategies to overcome these bottlenecks to produce crop plants with designer vegetable oil compositions.

    4. Essential oils from Elaeoselinum asclepium:Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Moufida Bouchekrit; Hocine Laouer; Mohamed Hajji; Moncef Nasri; Serkos Artin Haroutounian; Salah Akkal

      2016-01-01

      Objective: To evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from Elaeoselinum asclepium (L.) Bertol. (E. asclepium), and test the efficiency of the essential oil as an antimicrobial and antioxidant agent. Methods: Essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts of E. asclepium by hydro distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We study for the first time the chemical composition of the essential oil of E. asclepium, followed by the in vitro antimicrobial activities, which were eval-uated by agar diffusion method against six Gram-positive bacteria, five Gram-negative bacteria, and two fungi. In addition, The antioxidant activities were also investigated using assays of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing capacity. Results: The analyzed essential oil of the aerial parts of E. asclepium was rich in a-pinene (43.9%), other compounds detected in appreciable amounts were sabinene (27.9%) and b-pinene (16.0%). The essential oil yields 1.2%, the IC50 values of essential oil in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay in the reducing power assay were 48.26 mg/mL and at 1 mg/mL, respectively. The absorbance value of essential oil at 700 nm was 0.956. The antimicrobial effect was higher on Candida albicans ATCC 1024 strain with the inhibition zone 14.5 mm than bacteria and molds. Conclusions: The essential oil of E. asclepium has antimicrobial and antioxidant ac-tivities. These species may be used as an important source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

    5. Characteristics, composition and oxidative stability of Lannea microcarpa seed and seed oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bazongo, Patrice; Bassolé, Imaël Henri Nestor; Nielsen, Søren; Hilou, Adama; Dicko, Mamoudou Hama; Shukla, Vijai K S

      2014-02-24

      The proximate composition of seeds and main physicochemical properties and thermal stability of oil extracted from Lannea microcarpa seeds were evaluated. The percentage composition of the seeds was: ash (3.11%), crude oil (64.90%), protein (21.14%), total carbohydrate (10.85%) and moisture (3.24%). Physicochemical properties of the oil were: refractive index, 1.473; melting point, 22.60°C; saponification value, 194.23 mg of KOH/g of oil; iodine value, 61.33 g of I2/100 g of oil; acid value, 1.21 mg of KOH/g of oil; peroxide value, 1.48 meq of O2/kg of oil and oxidative stability index, 43.20 h. Oleic (43.45%), palmitic (34.45%), linoleic (11.20%) and stearic (8.35%) acids were the most dominant fatty acids. Triacylglycerols with equivalent carbon number (ECN) 48 and ECN 46 were dominant (46.96% and 37.31%, respectively). The major triacylglycerol constituents were palmitoyl diolein (POO) (21.23%), followed by dipalmitoyl olein (POP) (16.47%), palmitoyl linoleyl olein (PLO) (12.03%), dipalmitoyl linolein (PLP) (10.85%) and dioleoyl linolein (LOO) (9.30%). The total polyphenol and tocopherol contents were 1.39 mg GAE g-1 DW and 578.56 ppm, respectively. γ-Tocopherol was the major tocopherol (437.23 ppm). These analytical results indicated that the L. microcarpa seed oil could be used as a frying oil and in the cosmetic industry.

    6. Characteristics, Composition and Oxidative Stability of Lannea microcarpa Seed and Seed Oil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Patrice Bazongo

      2014-02-01

      Full Text Available The proximate composition of seeds and main physicochemical properties and thermal stability of oil extracted from Lannea microcarpa seeds were evaluated. The percentage composition of the seeds was: ash (3.11%, crude oil (64.90%, protein (21.14%, total carbohydrate (10.85% and moisture (3.24%. Physicochemical properties of the oil were: refractive index, 1.473; melting point, 22.60°C; saponification value, 194.23 mg of KOH/g of oil; iodine value, 61.33 g of I2/100 g of oil; acid value, 1.21 mg of KOH/g of oil; peroxide value, 1.48 meq of O2/kg of oil and oxidative stability index, 43.20 h. Oleic (43.45%, palmitic (34.45%, linoleic (11.20% and stearic (8.35% acids were the most dominant fatty acids. Triacylglycerols with equivalent carbon number (ECN 48 and ECN 46 were dominant (46.96% and 37.31%, respectively. The major triacylglycerol constituents were palmitoyl diolein (POO (21.23%, followed by dipalmitoyl olein (POP (16.47%, palmitoyl linoleyl olein (PLO (12.03%, dipalmitoyl linolein (PLP (10.85% and dioleoyl linolein (LOO (9.30%. The total polyphenol and tocopherol contents were 1.39 mg GAE g−1 DW and 578.56 ppm, respectively. γ-Tocopherol was the major tocopherol (437.23 ppm. These analytical results indicated that the L. microcarpa seed oil could be used as a frying oil and in the cosmetic industry.

    7. Fatty acid composition of Brunfelsia uniflora (Solanaceae seed oil

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      Guzmán, C. A.

      1995-04-01

      Full Text Available The seeds of Brunfelsia uniflora contained 30.5% of oil. The oil was analysed and components were identified by infrared (IR, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and chemical methods. Linoleic acid predominated (75.5% followed by oleic (11.8% and palmitic (7.25% acids. Ricinoleic acid was present in small quantities (0.52%.Las semillas de Brunfelsia uniflora contuvieron 30.5% de aceite. El aceite fue analizado y los componentes fueron indentificados por espectroscopia de infrarrojo (IR, cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masa (CGEM y métodos químicos. Predominó el ácido linoleico (75.5% seguido por el oleico (11.8% y el palmítico (7.25%. El ácido ricinoleico estuvo presente en pequeñas cantidades (0.52%.

    8. Composition and method for cleaning hydrocarbon oil from hard surfaces

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Blezard, M.; Mcallister, W.H.

      1983-09-28

      Hydrocarbon oils are cleaned from hard, inorganic surfaces by the application of an aqueous solution, such as seawater, containing a mixture of alkoxylated alcohol, carboxylic acid, alkyl phenol, or nonionic phosphate ester, with an alkyl mono- or di-ethanolamide or an ethoxylated or polyethoxylated alkyl mono- or di-ethanolamide. The method is of particular value for cleaning drilling oil from rock cuttings in offshore drilling operations, such as cold North Sea installations. Specific examples are a C10 primary alcohol, which is ethoxylated with 5 moles of ethylene oxide, mixed with a coconut diethanolamide. Typically, the mixture is supplied as a concentrate which is dissolved in, or diluted with, water to provide the cleansing solution at the site of the rig. 21 claims.

    9. Influence of brahman-derivative breeds and Angus on carcass traits, physical composition, and palatability.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bidner, T D; Wyattt, W E; Humes, P E; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

      2002-08-01

      Steers were generated from Angus (A), Beefmaster (BM), Brangus (BA), Gelbray (GB), and Simbrah (SB) sires mated to cows of their breed and to Brahman x Hereford F1 cows (except A) to characterize their carcass traits, composition, and palatability. The 290 steers (48 A, 48 BM, 36 BA, 31 GB, and 46 SB) were slaughtered at an equal fatness end point as determined by real-time ultrasound and visual evaluation. Angus steers had lighter (P < 0.01), more youthful (P < 0.01) carcasses with a higher (P < 0.05) quality grade, more (P < 0.01) fat thickness, and a larger (P < 0.01) longissimus area/100 kg than BM-, BA-, GB-, and SB-sired steers. Angus steers also had a lower (P < 0.01) specific gravity, a higher (P < 0.01) percentage fat and less (P < 0.05) lean in the 9th to 11th rib, and steaks aged for 10 d were more tender (P < 0.01) than steaks from Brahman-derivative sired steers. The BM- and BA-sired steers had lighter (P < 0.01), more youthful (P < 0.05) carcasses, and smaller (P < 0.01) longissimus area than GB- and SB-sired steers. The 9th to 11th rib section from the BM- and BA-sired steers had less lean and more bone (P < 0.01) than GB- and SB-sired steers. The BA-sired steers had more (P < 0.01) marbling and a higher (P < 0.05) quality grade than BM-sired steers. The SB-sired steers had heavier (P < 0.01) carcasses than the GB-sired steers. There were no differences in shear force for steaks aged for 3 d for any of the breed types, but with 10 d of aging, steaks from Angus steers were more tender, possibly indicating that steaks of Brahman-derivative breeds aged at a slower rate than those from Angus.

    10. Chemical composition of volatiles in Sardinian myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) alcoholic extracts and essential oils.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Barra, Andrea; Angioni, Alberto; Sarritzu, Erika; Pirisi, Filippo M

      2006-02-22

      The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) alcoholic extracts and essential oils from leaves and berries collected in different places in Sardinia (Italy) was studied. A simple and rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used to isolate volatile compounds from myrtle alcoholic extracts followed by GC and GC-MS analysis allowing the detection of 24 compounds. The volatile fraction was characterized by the terpenes fraction corresponding to that of the essential oils and by a fatty acid ethyl esters fraction. The variation during extraction of the volatile fraction in alcoholic extracts of berries and leaves was evaluated. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the yields were on average 0.52 +/- 0.03% (v/w dried weight) and 0.02 +/- 0.00% for leaves and berries, respectively. The essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and a total of 27 components were detected, accounting for 90.6-98.7% of the total essential oil composition. Strong chemical variability depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The major compounds in the essential oils were alpha-pinene (30.0 and 28.5%), 1,8-cineole (28.8 and 15.3%), and limonene (17.5 and 24.1%) in leaves and berries, respectively, and were characterized by the lack of myrtenyl acetate.

    11. Chemical compositions of Cinnamomum tamala oil from two different regions of India

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Suresh Kumar

      2012-10-01

      Full Text Available Objective: This study was made to investigate the chemical composition of Cinnamomum tamala, (Buch.-Ham. Nees & Eberm (Tejpat oil (CTO which was taken from two different regions. The plant leaves were collected from two different regions of India (Southern India and Northern India. Methods: The chemical composition of the hydro distilled essential oil of Cinnamomum tamala were analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Results: The GCMS analysis of the oil collected from northern region (Chandigarh Botanical garden, Chandigarh showed 20 constituents of which methyl eugenol (46.65%, eugenol (26.70%, trans-cinnamyl acetate (12.48% and Beta-Caryophyllene (6.26% were found the major components. The GC-MS analysis of the oil collected from southern area showed 31 constituents of which cinnamaldehyde (44.898%, Tans-cinnamyl acetate (25.327% and Ascabin (1 5.249% were found the major components. Conclusions: The oil is used in various preparations in pharmaceutical industries so it should be used after the verifications of quality of the oil. The difference observed in the amount and type of constituents may be due to the geographical origin of the plant.

    12. Chemical composition of essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits of Hortia oreadica

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Danillo L. Santos

      2016-02-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Hortia oreadica Groppo, Kallunki & Pirani, Rutaceae, known as “para-tudo”, “quina”, and “quina-do-campo”, is used in traditional medicine locally to treat stomach pain and fevers. The aims of this study were: analyze the chemical composition of essential oils from leaves, flowers and fruits of H. oreadica and verify the seasonal variation of the chemical components of essential oils from leaves. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in the samples of the essential oils were the amorpha-4,7(11-diene (29.27% – flowers, 20.26% – fruits, 27.66–37.89% – leaves, bicyclogermacrene (23.28% – flowers, 20.64% – fruits, 14.71% to 31.37% – leaves. This work represents the first study of the chemical composition of essential oils from leaves, flowers and fruits and seasonal variation in the essential oils from leaves of H. oreadica.

    13. A Study on Triacylglycerol Composition and the Structure of High-Oleic Rapeseed Oil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mei Guan

      2016-06-01

      Full Text Available The composition of fatty acids in triacylglycerides (TAGs and their position on the glycerol backbone determine the nutritional value of vegetable oil. In this study, gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS were used to analyze the composition and distribution of fatty acids in TAGs of different rapeseed oils. Our results show the content of oleic acid in high-oleic-acid rapeseed oil to be about 80%. In terms of the number of acyl carbon atoms (CN, TAGs with CN52–C54 were most abundant, with a maximum concentration at CN54 (80%. The main type of TAG was oleic-oleic-oleic (OOO, accounting for 71.75%, while oleic-oleic-linoleic (OOL accounted for 7.56%, oleic-oleic-linolenic (OOLn accounted for 4.81%, and stearic-oleic-oleic (SOO accounted for 4.74%. Oleic acid in high-oleic-acid rapeseed oil was distributed in the following order of preference: sn-2 > sn-1/3. In high-erucic-acid rapeseed oil, however, oleic acid was enriched at the sn-1/3. These data show that the content of oleic acid can be as high as about 80% in high-oleic-acid material. This finding suggests that high-oleic-acid rapeseed oil has high nutritional value.

    14. Composition, diagenetic transformation and alkalinity potential of oil shale ash sediments

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Motlep, Riho, E-mail: riho.motlep@ut.ee [Department of Geology, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Sild, Terje, E-mail: terje.sild@maaamet.ee [Estonian Land Board, Mustamaee tee 51, 10621 Tallinn (Estonia); Puura, Erik, E-mail: erik.puura@ut.ee [Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Kirsimaee, Kalle, E-mail: kalle.kirsimae@ut.ee [Department of Geology, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

      2010-12-15

      Oil shale is a primary fuel in the Estonian energy sector. After combustion 45-48% of the oil shale is left over as ash, producing about 5-7 Mt of ash, which is deposited on ash plateaus annually almost without any reuse. This study focuses on oil shale ash plateau sediment mineralogy, its hydration and diagenetic transformations, a study that has not been addressed. Oil shale ash wastes are considered as the biggest pollution sources in Estonia and thus determining the composition and properties of oil shale ash sediment are important to assess its environmental implications and also its possible reusability. A study of fresh ash and drillcore samples from ash plateau sediment was conducted by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The oil shale is highly calcareous, and the ash that remains after combustion is derived from the decomposition of carbonate minerals. It is rich in lime and anhydrite that are unstable phases under hydrous conditions. These processes and the diagenetic alteration of other phases determine the composition of the plateau sediment. Dominant phases in the ash are hydration and associated transformation products: calcite, ettringite, portlandite and hydrocalumite. The prevailing mineral phases (portlandite, ettringite) cause highly alkaline leachates, pH 12-13. Neutralization of these leachates under natural conditions, by rainwater leaching/neutralization and slow transformation (e.g. carbonation) of the aforementioned unstable phases into more stable forms, takes, at best, hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years.

    15. Fatty Acid Composition of Tobacco Seed Oil and Synthesis of Alkyd Resin

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      MUKHTAR,Azam; ULLAH,Habib; MUKHTAR,Hamid

      2007-01-01

      The fatty acid composition of tobacco seed oil revealed that the oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, having linoleic acid (71.63%), oleic acid (13.46%) and palmitic acid (8.72%) as the most abundant unsaturated and saturated fatty acids respectively. So the tobacco oil was characterized as semi-drying type on the basis of fatty acid composition. The synthesis of alkyd resin was carried out by alcoholysis or monoglyceride process using an alkali refined tobacco seed oil, pentaerythritol, cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride along with lithium hydroxide as catalyst.The alkyd resin so prepared was found to be bright and of low color with high gloss. The drying and hardness properties and adhesion of the tobacco seed oil derived alkyd resin were also found a bit superior to those of other alkyd resins of the same oil length. In addition, the water and acid resistance of the said alkyd was also found comparable to the other alkyds.

    16. Fragrant volatile oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium (Pelargonium × fragrans Willd.) from India.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit

      2013-04-01

      Hydrodistilled essential oil of 'Nutmeg Geranium' (Pelargonium × fragrans Willd.), grown in foothills of northern India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC/flame ionisation detector (FID)) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 51 constituents, representing 90.2% of the total oil composition were identified. The oil was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (58.4%), followed by sesquiterpenoids (19.4%), and phenyl propanoids (10.1%). Major constituents of the essential oil were fenchone (10.7%), methyl eugenol (9.9%), α-pinene (9.4%), α-thujene (7.6%), limonene (6.4%), spathulenol (4.7%), sabinene (4.3%), linalool (4.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (4.2%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), β-pinene (2.9%), caryophyllene oxide (2.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (2.1%). This is the first report on essential oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium oil grown in India.

    17. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil of Mentha suaveolens Ehrh.

      Science.gov (United States)

      El-Kashoury, El-Sayeda A; El-Askary, Hesham I; Kandil, Zeinab A; Salem, Mohamed A; Sleem, Amany A

      2012-01-01

      Hydrodistilled oils of the fresh aerial parts of Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. cultivated in Egypt were prepared from samples collected along the four seasons. The percentage yields of these essential oils were 0.50%, 0.52%, 0.60%, and 0.47% of the dry weight for winter, spring, summer, and autumn samples. GC/MS analyses of all samples revealed a qualitative and quantitative variability in the oil composition. The total number of compounds identified was 46 among which 15 were common in all samples. The oxygenated compounds constituted about 45%, 46%, 63%, and 44% of the total composition of the oils for winter, spring, summer, and autumn samples, respectively. Carvone was the major constituent in spring, summer, and autumn samples (about 31%, 56%, and 35%, respectively), while limonene (ca. 26%) was the major constituent of the winter sample followed by carvone (ca. 25%). The essential oil of the highest yield (full-flowering summer sample), with the highest oxygenated constituents and carvone contents, was screened for certain biological activities. It exhibited analgesic and acute anti-inflammatory activities (75% and 82% relative to indomethacin). It also showed a potent in vivo antioxidant activity (96% relative to vitamin E). In addition, it exerted moderate cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, and in vitro antioxidant activities. Moreover, the oil had a potent antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MIC = 4 microg/ml), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC = 5.2 microg/ml), and Aspergillus niger (MIC = 6.8 microg/ml).

    18. Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, Lamiaceae).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lakusić, Dmitar; Ristić, Mihailo; Slavkovska, Violeta; Lakusić, Branislava

      2013-01-01

      Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils obtained from rosemary plants of the same genotype cultivated in Belgrade were determined by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents were camphor (18.2 - 28.1%), 1,8-cineole (6.4-18.0%), alpha-pinene (9.7-13.5%), borneol (4.4-9.5%), camphene (5.1-8.7%), beta-pinene (2.1-8.1%), beta-phellandrene (4.6-6.5%), myrcene (3.4-5.9%) and bornyl acetate (0.2-7.9%). Cluster analysis showed that 16 samples that had been collected each month during the vegetative cycle can be separated into three main clades with different compositions of essential oils. In the shoots with fruits ('fruits' - Clade I) and shoots with developed leaves ('old shoots' - Clade III) camphor is dominant. In shoots with young and incompletely developed leaves ('young shoot' - Clade II) camphor and 1,8-cineole had almost the same concentration. The fact that the same genotype during the growing seasons can synthesize oils that are so different that they can be classified as different chemotypes confirms the opinion that the chemical composition of essential oils sometimes critically depends on the time of collection. Also, for the definition of chemotypes it is not enough to base this on a chemical analysis of an oil from one phenophase only.

    19. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Novak, Johannes

      The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6-34.9%; twigs: 11.0-24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1-27.7; twigs: 29.0-49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0-16.1; twigs: 6.9-20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.

    20. [Rapid quantitative analysis of hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Li, Na; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Hu, Ai-Qin; Liu, Wei; Song, Chun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Yu; Song, Yi-Chang; He, Qi-Jun; Liu, Sha; Xu, Xiao-Xuan

      2014-07-01

      A set of rapid analysis system for hydrocarbon composition of heavy oils was designed using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectrometer and chemometrics to determine the hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils. Sixty two extract oil samples were collected and their saturates and aromatics content data were determined according to the standard NB/SH/T0509-2010, then the total contents of resins plus asphaltenes were calculated by the subtraction method in the percentage of weight. Based on the partial least squares (PLS), calibration models for saturates, aromatics, and resin+asphaltene contents were established using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy, with their SEC, 1.43%, 0.91% and 1.61%, SEP, 1.56%, 1.24% and 1.81%, respectively, meeting the accuracy and repeatability required for the standard. Compared to the present standard method, the efficiency of hydrocarbon composition analysis for furfural extract oils is significantly improved by the new method which is rapid and simple. The system could also be used for other heavy oil analysis, with excellent extension and application foreground.

    1. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Avni Hajdari

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%, β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%, and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%. HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and PCA (Principal Component Analyses were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.

    2. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Novak, Johannes

      2016-01-01

      The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:27579344

    3. Effect of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Oil, Seed Yield and some Agronomic Traits of Safflower under Different Irrigation Regimes

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hamidreza Fanaei

      2017-03-01

      Full Text Available Introduction Safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. is a tolerant plant to water deficit due to long roots and capability for high water absorption from soil deeper parts. Safflower can growth successfully in regions with low soil fertility and temperature. Behdani and Mosavifar (2011 reported that drought stress affect on yield by reducing yield components and agronomic traits. Biofertilizer during a biological process chanced the nutrients from unusable to usable form for plants in soils (Aseretal, 2008. Mirzakhani et al. (2008 found that inoculation of seed with free-living bacterium azotobacter and a symbiotic fungus productive mycorrhiza addition to increasing oil and seed cause increasing resistance against two factors of unfavorable environmental and to improve quality of product. In order to study the effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on oil, seed yield and some of agronomic traits of Safflower under irrigation of different regimes an experimental design was conducted. Materials and methods In order to study the effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on oil, seed yield and some of agronomic traits of safflower under irrigation of different regimes an experiment was carried out split plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in experimental farm of payame-Noor university of Zabol during 2012-2013 growing season. Irrigation regime in three levels include: I1 (control irrigation in all growth stages, I2 stop irrigation from sowing to flowering (irrigation in growth stages flowering, and seed filling, I3 irrigation in growth stages rosset, stem elongation, heading and stop irrigation in flowering, and seed filling were as main plots and fertilizer resources in five levels included: F1 non application chemical fertilizer (control, F2 pure application chemical fertilizer (NPK 99, 44 and 123 kg.ha-1 respectively, F3 Nitroxin application (2 L.ha-1 F4 Azotobacter application (2 L.ha-1 and F5

    4. COMPOSITION OF THE VOLATILE OIL OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE RHIZOMES AND EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL FACTORS ON THE OIL

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Husain Shahnaz S.

      2011-09-01

      Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile oil of ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae rhizomes of Delhi region, has been studied under different physical factors. The volatile oil of the fresh rhizomes is composed mainly of β-germacrene-D (25.4 %, linalool (11.8 %, camphene (9.4%, (Z-β-farnesene (8.4 %, guaia-6,9-diene (8.3 %, limonene oxide (5.9 %, citronellal (3.6 % and α-guaiene (3.5 %. When the volatile oil was heated at 110° C for 24 hours, β-germacrene-D (19.7 %, linalool (13.4 %, camphene (10.1 %, limonene (8.2 %, guaia-6,9-diene (6.5 %, limonene-1,2-epoxide (4.9 % and α-guaiene (3.2 % were the major constituents. Exposure of the volatile oil to sunlight for 48 hours as 15° C showed the presence of β-germacrene-D (21.4 %, linalool (14.5 %, camphene (8.7 %, cis-carveol (6.5 %, neral (5.8 % and α-guaiene (3.2 % as the main components. UV light exposure of the volatile oil for 24 hours at 12° C exhibited the occurrence of β-caryophyllene (23 %, linalool (12.9 %, camphene (9 %, valencene (8.2 %, (Z-β-farnesene (8.1 % and nerol (6.6 % as the prominent constituents. The predominant compounds of the silica gel treated oil for 24 hours at 12° C included β-germacrene-D (22 %, linalool (18.4 %, β-selinene (7.5 %, camphene (8.7 %, δ-cadinene (6.8 %, gamma-cadinene (6.8 %, limonene oxide (6.6 %, citronellal (5.4 % and α-guaiene (3.6 %. Treatment of the volatile oil with alumina neutral for 24 hours at 12° C produced abundantly β-germacrene-D (26.2 %, linalool (14 %, (Z-β-farnesene (11 %, β-selinene (8.3 %, camphene (6.4 %, tagetonol (5.8 %, borneol (3.9 % and α-selinene (3.3 %. Camphene (10.1 – 6.4 % and linalool (14.5 – 11.8 % were the major components present in all the oil samples.

    5. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL in sheep. III. QTL for carcass composition traits derived from CT scans and aligned with a meta-assembly for sheep and cattle carcass QTL

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Thomson Peter C

      2010-09-01

      Full Text Available Abstract An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 165 male offspring was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL for body composition traits on a framework map of 189 microsatellite loci across all autosomes. Two cohorts were created from the experimental progeny to represent alternative maturity classes for body composition assessment. Animals were raised under paddock conditions prior to entering the feedlot for a 90-day fattening phase. Body composition traits were derived in vivo at the end of the experiment prior to slaughter at 2 (cohort 1 and 3.5 (cohort 2 years of age, using computed tomography. Image analysis was used to gain accurate predictions for 13 traits describing major fat depots, lean muscle, bone, body proportions and body weight which were used for single- and two-QTL mapping analysis. Using a maximum-likelihood approach, three highly significant (LOD ≥ 3, 15 significant (LOD ≥ 2, and 11 suggestive QTL (1.7 ≤ LOD P P A meta-assembly of ovine QTL for carcass traits from this study and public domain sources was performed and compared with a corresponding bovine meta-assembly. The assembly demonstrated QTL with effects on carcass composition in homologous regions on OAR1, 2, 6 and 21.

    6. Composition of plasma and atheromatous plaque among coronary artery disease subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Rajesh, P C; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nair, Shiv K; Vasudevan, D M

      2012-12-01

      Coconut oil, which is rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids, is the principal cooking medium of the people of Kerala, India. Replacement of saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat is effective in reducing serum cholesterol levels. However, the effect of substituting coconut oil with sunflower oil on the fatty acid composition of plaque has not been thoroughly investigated. We therefore evaluated and compared the fatty acid composition of plasma and plaque among subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium. Endarterectomy samples and plasma samples were obtained from subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafts (n = 71). The subjects were grouped based on the type of oil they were using as their cooking medium (coconut oil or sunflower oil). The fatty acid composition in the plaques and the plasma was determined by HPLC and the data were analyzed statistically. Sunflower oil consumers had elevated concentrations of linoleic acid (p = 0.001) in plasma, while coconut oil users had higher myristic acid levels (p = 0.011) in plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids did not differ significantly between the two groups in the plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids were detected in the plaques in both groups of subjects. In contrast to previous reports, long-chain saturated fatty acids dominated the lipid content of plaque in this population, and the fatty acid composition of plaque was not significantly different between the two groups. No correlation between fatty acids of plasma and plaque was observed in either group. A change in cooking medium, although it altered the plasma fatty acid composition, was not reflected in the plaque composition.

    7. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essence oil of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L

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      Z Izadi

      2009-10-01

      Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Peppermint (Mentha piperita L. is a perennial herbaceous essence oil bearing plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family. This plant is a valuable and important herb which has many therapeutic properties. Recent investigations have shown its excellent anti-irritable bowel syndrome effects. Other properties of this plant are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, promote menstrual flow, antipyretic, antiseptic and anti-rheumatoid effects. This investigation was conducted to study the antibacterial properties of peppermint essence oil, as well as determining the content and composition of essential oil. Materials & Methods: In order to study the effect of the antibacterial activity of the essence oil of peppermint, this experimental study was conducted in 2009 at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. The aerial parts of the peppermint were harvested in summer when it was in the full blooming stage of the plant. The collected aerial parts were then dried in the shade. The essence oil of the aerial parts was extracted by hydro-distillation technique using Clevenger apparatus and was analyzed by the capillary GC and GC/MS method. Anti bacterial properties of the essence oil on four pathogenic bacteria were determined by using broth dilution and well diffusion agar methods. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS version 11.5 software, using the independent t-test. Results: The essence oil of peppermint showed the maximum anti bacterial effect on E. coli and the minimum effect on S. aureus and P. aeuroginosa. The essence oil content of aerial parts was 0.69% (w/w based on dry weight. The amount of menthol which is the main constituent of the oil and as an antiseptic component was 47.9%. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that the essential oil of peppermint is rich in menthol and can be considered as an anti-bacterial agent in drug and food industries.

    8. Fatty acid composition and biological activities of seed oil from rubber (Hevea brasiliensis cultivar RRIM 600

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      K Kittigowittana

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available Summary. The oils from seeds of Hevea brasiliensis (Muëll. Arg. cultivar RRIM 600 cultivated in Thailand (from two different sources, Chiang Rai and Surin provinces, were subjected to the evaluation of fatty acid composition, antioxidant activities, antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicity. The seed oils were extracted using n-hexane as a solvent and the major fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids. The seed oils from two different sources similarly exhibited high capability in inhibiting scavenging DPPH radicals (95%, 87% inhibition, from Chiang Rai and Surin provinces respectively, reducing power (1.588±0.016, 1.832±0.009 mg of AAE/mL. However, moderate lipid peroxidation inhibition activity of these two seed oils were observed (24%, 28% inhibition. The cytotoxicity effect of oil was determined on human dermal fibroblast. It showed that the H. brasiliensis seed oil was not cytotoxic to human skin at >1000 μg/mL. Based on these results, it was suggested that the H. brasiliensis seed oil may be considered as a potential antioxidant candidate for topical cosmetic applications. Industrial relevance. Natural origin raw materials have gained increasing attention for cosmetics because of their effectiveness and safety as compared to the synthetics. H. brasiliensis seed oil from this research has shown itself as a highly promising natural raw material source for cosmetic industry. It composed of skin health benefit fatty acids and has been found to exhibit high capability in inhibiting scavenging DPPH radicals. Moreover, from the cytotoxicity result, it indicated that the H. brasiliensis seed oil can safely be applied to human skin.   Keywords. Hevea brasiliensis; seed oil; fatty acids; biological activities

    9. Composition and properties of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Baer, R J; Ryali, J; Schingoethe, D J; Kasperson, K M; Donovan, D C; Hippen, A R; Franklin, S T

      2001-02-01

      A control diet and a fish oil diet were fed to 12 multiparous Holstein cows to determine how the incorporation of Menhaden fish oil in the diet would influence the fatty acid composition, especially the conjugated linoleic acid and transvaccenic acid, contents of milk and butter. The control diet consisted of a 50:50 ratio of forage to concentrate, and the fish oil diet consisted of the control diet with 2% (on a dry matter basis) added fish oil. Milk from cows fed the control diet contained higher average concentrations of milk fat (3.37%) compared with milk from cows fed the fish oil diet (2.29%). Milk from cows fed fish oil contained higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and total unsaturated fatty acids (0.68 and 2.51; 1.42 and 6.28; and 30.47 and 41.71 g/100 g of fat, respectively). Butter made from the fish oil diet milk also had higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and unsaturated fatty acids. Penetrometer readings indicated fish oil diet butters were softer at 4 and 20 degrees C than the control diet butters. Acid degree values were similar in the fish oil butters compared with the control butters. No significant difference was found in the flavor characteristics of milk and butter from cows fed the control and fish oil diets. Production of milk and butter with increased amounts of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and other beneficial fatty acids may have a desirable impact on the health of consumers and lead to increased sales.

    10. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from Ferulago angulata.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Izadi, Arezo; Malek Poor, Fatemeh; Hamedi, Behzad

      2016-11-01

      Ferulago angulata Boiss. (Apiaceae), a perennial aromatic herb, grows wild in Iran. The aerial parts of F. angulata are used as a flavouring in foods, especially dairy foods by indigenous people in western and southwestern Iran. This study investigates variation in chemical compositions, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oils from F. angulata collected from natural habitats in the alpine regions of southwestern Iran. The antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) of the essential oils were evaluated against four bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium). Antioxidant activity of the oils was determined by DPPH assay. The essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS, which 49 volatile components were identified. There were significant differences between the various populations for oil yield and some main compounds. The major constituents of the essential oils from F. angulata were α-pinene, and cis-β-ocimene. The MICs of the essential oils were within concentration ranges from 62 to 250 μg/mL and the respective MBCs were 125 to > 500 μg/mL. Generally, the oils from F. angulata indicated weak to moderate inhibitory activities against bacteria, especially against Listeria monocytogenes. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained from the oil of the Kallar population (IC50 value = 488 μg/mL) and BHT as positive control (IC50  value = 321 μg/mL). The essential oil of F. angulata could be serving as a potential source of α-pinene and cis-β-ocimene for use in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

    11. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud

      2015-07-01

      Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%, 1,8-cineol (12.2%, eugenol (6.6%, methyl cinnamate (6.2%, α-cubebene (5.7%, caryophyllene (2.5%, β-ocimene (2.1% and α-farnesene (2.0%.The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

    12. Chemical composition and allelopathic potential of essential oils obtained from Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Cultivated in Tunisia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

      2015-04-01

      Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (Fabaceae), synonym Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. L.Wendl., native to West Australia and naturalized in North Africa and South Europe, was introduced in Tunisia for rangeland rehabilitation, particularly in the semiarid zones. In addition, this evergreen tree represents a potential forage resource, particularly during periods of drought. A. cyanophylla is abundant in Tunisia and some other Mediterranean countries. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different plant parts, viz., roots, stems, phyllodes, flowers, and pods (fully mature fruits without seeds), was characterized for the first time here. According to GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, the principal compound in the phyllode and flower oils was dodecanoic acid (4), representing 22.8 and 66.5% of the total oil, respectively. Phenylethyl salicylate (8; 34.9%), heptyl valerate (3; 17.3%), and nonadecane (36%) were the main compounds in the root, stem, and pod oils, respectively. The phyllode and flower oils were very similar, containing almost the same compounds. Nevertheless, the phyllode oil differed from the flower oil for its higher contents of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (6), linalool (1), pentadecanal, α-terpineol, and benzyl benzoate (5) and its lower content of 4. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into four groups, each characterized by its main constituents. Furthermore, the allelopathic activity of each oil was evaluated using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as a plant model. The phyllode, flower, and pod oils exhibited a strong allelopathic activity against lettuce. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

    13. Fluctuations in population composition dampen the impact of phenotypic plasticity on trait dynamics in superb fairy-wrens.

      Science.gov (United States)

      van de Pol, Martijn; Osmond, Helen L; Cockburn, Andrew

      2012-03-01

      1. In structured populations, phenotypic change can result from changes throughout an individual's lifetime (phenotypic plasticity, age-related changes), selection and changes in population composition (environment- or density-driven fluctuations in age-structure). 2. The contribution of population dynamics to phenotypic change has often been ignored. However, for understanding trait dynamics, it is important to identify both the individual- and population-level mechanisms responsible for trait change, because they potentially reinforce or counteract each other. 3. We use 22 years of field data to investigate the dynamics of a sexually selected phenological trait, the timing of nuptial moult in superb fairy-wrens Malurus cyaneus. 4. We show that trait expression is both climate- and age-dependent, but that phenotypic plasticity in response to climate variability also varies with age. Old males can acquire nuptial plumage very early after high rainfall, but 1- to 2-year-olds cannot. However, males of all ages that defer moult to later in the year acquire nuptial plumage earlier when conditions are warmer. 5. The underlying mechanism appears to be that old males may risk moulting in the most challenging period of the year: in autumn, when drought restricts food abundance and during the cold winter. By contrast, young males always moult during the spring transition to benign - warmer and generally wetter - conditions. Temperature changes dominate this transition that heralds the breeding season, thereby causing both young and late-moulting older birds to be temperature sensitive. 6. Climate and age also affect trait dynamics via a population dynamical pathway. The same high rainfall that triggers early moulting in old males concurrently increases offspring recruitment and thereby reduces the average age of males in the population. Consequently, effects of rainfall on trait dynamics through phenotypic plasticity of old males are dampened by synchronous rejuvenation of

    14. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of peppermint (Mentha piperita L. Essential oil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mohaddese Mahboubi

      2014-02-01

      Full Text Available Peppermint with antiseptic and known healing properties is a plant from the Labiatae family. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of essential oil from the flowering aerial part of peppermint by GC and GC/MS. Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated against bacteria, fungi and yeast by micro broth dilution assay. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC and FIC Index (FICI and related isobologram curve were determined by check board micro titer assay. The results exhibited that the MIC, MLC value of peppermint oil against different kinds of microorganisms were in the range of 0.125-2 and 0.125- >64 µl/ml, respectively. Candida albicans was the most sensitive microorganism and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the less sensitive ones. The oil showed synergistic activities with vancomycin, gentamycin, and amphotericin B with the FICI less of 0.5. This oil could be used as natural antibiotics and may decrease the effective dose of antibiotics.

    15. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM CURCUMA AMADA ROXB.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vishnupriya.M

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil of Curcuma amada Roxb. The GC- MS analysis of the oil resulted in the identification of 12 compounds. β-myrcene (63.85% and α-asarone (30.27% were the two major components identified. The sample was subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, ABTS radical, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-Carotene bleaching assay. Results showed that the essential oil possessed a strong degree of antioxidant activity in terms of β-Carotene bleaching capacity followed by ABTS radical, ferric reducing power and a moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity. This study concludes that the essential oil from Curcuma amada Roxb could serve as an important bioresource of antioxidants for using in food and pharmaceutical industry.

    16. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Pyrrosia tonkinensis (Giesenhagen) Ching.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Xin, Xiaowei; Liu, Qingshen; Zhang, Yingying; Gao, Demin

      2016-01-01

      The present study aimed to analyse the chemical components of the essential oil from Pyrrosia tonkinensis by GC-MS and evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. Twenty-eight compounds, representing 88.1% of the total essential oil, were identified and the major volatile components were trans-2-hexenal (22.1%), followed by nonanal (12.8%), limonene (9.6%), phytol (8.4%), 1-hexanol (3.8%), 2-furancarboxaldehyde (3.5%) and heptanal (3.1%). The antibacterial assays showed that the essential oil of P. tonkinensis had good antibacterial activities against all the tested microorganisms. This paper first reported the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from P. tonkinensis.

    17. Toxic Activity and Chemical Composition of Lithuanian Wormwood (Artemisiaabsinthium L. Essential Oils

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Asta Judzentiene

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available Toxicity tests of wild wormwood essential oils were performed using the brine shrimp (Artemia sp. test. N auplii lethality (LC 50 ranged 15.7-31.9 µg/mL, depending on oil composition. The most toxic A. absinthium oils were found to be those containing appreciable amount of trans-sabinyl acetate (45.2% and (cis+trans thujones (12.3%, while other samples with equivalent amounts of sabinyl acetate, but without thujones were determined to be notably less toxic. Herb material for the tests was collected in Lithuania, the volatile oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from different plant organs (inflorescences and leaves and analysed by GC-MS.

    18. Thermodynamic analysis of oil and gas platforms over various production profiles and feed compositions

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

      2017-01-01

      Oil and gas platforms present similar structural designs but process fluids with different thermo-physical and chemical properties. In addition, the field properties, such as the gas-to-oil and water-to-oil ratios, change significantly over time. It is therefore not possible to suggest a standard...... of energy and exergy. Feed compositions and production profiles, which correspond to data from actual fields, are used for calibrating the simulations. In a second step, the minimum energy and exergy losses of the platform are assessed by performing thermodynamic analyses, assuming an ideal scenario...... in which all processes are run at their design points. This approach proves to be useful for evaluating consistently different options for oil and gas production, and for determining, in a further step, the most promising solutions for minimising the energy use over a field lifetime....

    19. A novel composite coating mesh film for oil-water separation

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Futao QIN; Zhijia YU; Xinhui FANG; Xinghua LIU; Xiangyu SUN

      2009-01-01

      Polytetrafluoroethylene-polyphenylene sulfide composite coating mesh film was successfully prepared by a simple layered transitional spray-plasticizing method on a stainless steel mesh. It shows super-hydrophobic and super-oleophilic properties. The contact angle of this mesh film is 156.3° for water, and close to 0° for diesel oil and kerosene. The contact angle hysteresis of water on the mesh film is 4.3°. The adhesive force between the film and substrate is grade 0, the flexibility is 1 mm and the pencil hardness is 4H. An oil-water separation test was car-fled out for oil-contaminated water in a six-stage super-hydrophobic film separator. The oil removal rate can reach about 99%.

    20. Influence of viral infection on essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nagai, Alice; Duarte, Ligia M L; Santos, Déborah Y A C

      2011-08-01

      Ocimum basilicum L., popularly known as sweet basil, is a Lamiaceae species whose essential oil is mainly composed of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids. The contents of these compounds can be affected by abiotic and biotic factors such as infections caused by viruses. The main goal of this research was an investigation of the effects of viral infection on the essential oil profile of common basil. Seeds of O. basilicum L. cv. Genovese were sowed and kept in a greenhouse. Plants presenting two pairs of leaves above the cotyledons were inoculated with an unidentified virus isolated from a field plant showing chlorotic yellow spots and foliar deformation. Essential oils of healthy and infected plants were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS. Changes in essential oil composition due to viral infection were observed. Methyleugenol and p-cresol,2,6-di-tert-butyl were the main constituents. However, methyleugenol contents were significantly decreased in infected plants.

    1. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Peumus boldus leaves.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vila, R; Valenzuela, L; Bello, H; Cañigueral, S; Montes, M; Adzet, T

      1999-03-01

      The composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Peumus boldus is investigated. Analyses of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation were carried out by GC and GC-MS using columns of two different stationary phases. Fractionation of the essential oil by column chromatography on silica gel was performed to improve identification of some constituents. More than 90% of the total oil (46 components) was identified, major constituents being monoterpenes (90.5%), among which limonene (17.0%), p-cymene (13.6%), 1.8-cineole (11.8%), and beta-phellandrene (8.4%) reached the highest percentages. Determination of the minimal bactericidal or fungicidal concentration against several microorganisms showed interesting activities towards Streptococcus pyogenes, Micrococcus sp., and Candida sp.

    2. Chemical composition of sage (Salvia officinalis L. essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      A. Porte

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil from fresh leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L. from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, for international trade. The oil was isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed through a combination of GC-FID and GC-MS. The yield was 2.3 % on dry basis. Forty-seven constituents were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra, corresponding to 94.90 % of the compounds present. The major constituents of the oil were α-thujone (40.90 %, camphor (26.12 %, α-pinene (5.85 % and β-thujone (5.62 %. The essential oil studied was similar to those found in several European countries and can be a valuable product for the small farmers from the Petrópolis region in Rio de Janeiro State.

    3. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of cumin oil (Cuminum cyminum, Apiaceae).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wanner, Juergen; Bail, Stefanie; Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Schmidt, Erich; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tanya; Atanasova, Teodora; Stoyanova, Albena

      2010-09-01

      Cumin oil samples (Cuminum cyminum L.) from four different geographical origins were analyzed using GC-MS and GC-FID for their qualitative and quantitative composition. The major compounds in all cumin oils were the monoterpenes beta-pinene, p-cymene and gamma-terpinene and the terpenoid aldehydes cuminic aldehyde and the isomeric menthadien carboxaldehydes. All essential oils, and cuminic aldehyde, were tested, using agar diffusion and serial dilution methods, against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different sources of food (pork fillet, minced meat and sausages) and clinical isolates, as well as three different Candida albicans isolates. All cumin oils and cuminic aldehyde exhibited a considerable inhibitory effect against all the organisms tested, except Pseudomonas spp.

    4. Essential oil composition of two myrtus communis L. varieties grown in North Tunisia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Mhamdi, Baya; Marzouk, Brahim

      2007-06-01

      Two Myrtus communis varieties (var. italica and baetica) were studied in order to investigate their essential oil yield and composition. Essential oil yield varied in leaves, fruits and stems. So, in leaves, it was 0.5% for italica and 0.3% for baetica and was higher than in fruits and stems with respectively 0.1% and 0.04% for italica and 0.07% and 0.03% for baetica. The essential oil analysis performed by GC and GC/MS showed a composition characterized by a high percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons in leaves, largely due to alpha-pinene with 51.3% for italica and 27.7% for baetica; 1,8-cineole, the alone compound of ether class, was predominant in fruits and stems with respectively 31.6% and 34.7% for italica and 19.8% and 25.8% for baetica.

    5. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Turgut Kılıç

      2007-05-01

      Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

    6. The Effect of Mechanical Wounding on the Composition of Essential Oil from Ocimum Minimum L. Leaves

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      S. Grant Wyllie

      2001-01-01

      Full Text Available The effect of mechanical damage on the composition of the essential oil obtained from eugenol-rich Ocimum minimum leaves was determined over 48 hours. Changes in the levels of five oil-constituents were detected in the first post-wounding day but only one of those components (camphor exhibited the same behaviour the day after. The levels of eugenol (-4.8% and linalool (+2.5% were affected the most by the wounding process. Principal component analysis (PCA showed the post-wounding response to be independent from the pre-wounding levels of the particular compounds expressing the response and from the overall leaf oil-composition.

    7. Identifying quantitative trait loci and determining closely related stalk traits for rind penetrometer resistance in a high-oil maize population.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hu, Haixiao; Meng, Yujie; Wang, Hongwu; Liu, Hai; Chen, Shaojiang

      2012-05-01

      Stalk lodging in maize causes annual yield losses between 5 and 20% worldwide. Many studies have indicated that maize stalk strength significantly negatively correlates with lodging observed in the field. Rind penetrometer resistance (RPR) measurements can be used to effectively evaluate maize stalk strength, but little is known about the genetic basis of this parameter. The objective of this study was to explore a genetic model and detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) of RPR and determine relationships between RPR and other stalk traits, especially cell wall chemical components. RPR is quantitative trait in nature, and both additive and non-additive effects may be important to consider for the improvement of RPR. Nine additive-effect QTLs covering nine chromosomes, except chromosome 5, and one pair of epistatic QTLs were detected for RPR. CeSA11 involved in cellulose synthesis and colorless2 involved in lignin synthesis were identified as possible candidate genes for RPR. Internode diameter (InD), fresh weight of internode (FreW), dry weight of internode (DryW), fresh weight and dry weight as well as cell wall components per unit volume significantly positively correlated with RPR. The internode water content (InW) significantly negatively correlated with RPR. Notably, these traits significantly correlated with RPR, and the QTLs of these traits co-localized with those of RPR. The corresponding results obtained from correlation analysis and QTL mapping suggested the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes and indicated that these different approaches may be used for cross authentication of relationships between different traits.

    8. Electrolyte composition of retro-oil fluid and silicone oil-related visual loss

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Scheerlinck, Laura M E; Kuiper, Jonas J W; Liem, Albert T A; Schellekens, Peter A W J F; van Leeuwen, Redmer

      2016-01-01

      PURPOSE: Up to one-third of patients with intra-ocular silicone oil (SO) tamponade for complex macula-on retinal detachment may experience an unexplained visual loss during or after SO tamponade. Although the underlying mechanism is unknown, previous studies suggested that accumulation of retinal po

    9. Electrolyte composition of retro-oil fluid and silicone oil-related visual loss

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Scheerlinck, Laura M E; Kuiper, Jonas J W; Liem, Albert T A; Schellekens, Peter A W J F; van Leeuwen, Redmer

      2016-01-01

      PURPOSE: Up to one-third of patients with intra-ocular silicone oil (SO) tamponade for complex macula-on retinal detachment may experience an unexplained visual loss during or after SO tamponade. Although the underlying mechanism is unknown, previous studies suggested that accumulation of retinal

    10. Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and lipid profiles in ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... and triglycerides as well as accumulation of saturated fatty acids in the liver of the experimental rats.

    11. The integrated effect on properties and composition of high-paraffin oil sludge

      OpenAIRE

      Anufriev, R. V.; G. I. Volkova; A. A. Vasilyeva; Petukhova, A. V.; Usheva, Nataliya Viktorovna

      2015-01-01

      The study is devoted to the integrated effect of acoustic treatment and addition of an inhibitor on viscosity-temperature properties and n-alkane composition in high-paraffin oil sludge. Ultrasonic treatment for 1 minute and addition of the inhibitor at the concentration of 0.05% wt. decrease viscosity by 10 times and pour point by 8 °С.

    12. Fabrication of Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites Based on Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yong Cui

      2016-11-01

      Full Text Available In this study, bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was added by the mass of phenol to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF resins, which were used to fabricate glass fiber (GF reinforced BPF resin (GF/BPF composites. The properties of the BPF resin and the GF/BPF composites prepared were tested. The functional groups and thermal property of BPF resin were thoroughly investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra and dynamic thermomechanical analysis (DMA. Results indicated that the addition of 20% bio-oil exhibited favorable adaptability for enhancing the stiffness and heat resistance of phenol formaldehyde (PF resin. Besides, high-performance GF/BPF composites could be successfully prepared with the BPF resin based on hand lay-up process. The interface characteristics of GF/BPF composites were determined by the analysis of dynamic wettability (DW and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It exhibited that GF could be well wetted and embedded in the BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20%.

    13. Shape Controlled Hierarchical Porous Hydrophobic/Oleophilic Metal-Organic Nanofibrous Gel Composites for Oil Adsorption.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jayaramulu, Kolleboyina; Geyer, Florian; Petr, Martin; Zboril, Radek; Vollmer, Doris; Fischer, Roland A

      2017-03-01

      A versatile and facile synthetic route toward a ultralight hierarchical poroushybrid composed of metal-organic gels and fluorinated graphene oxide is reported. The composite gels show excellent absorbency of oil and various organic solvents due to their prominent meso/macropores, notable hydrophobicity, and superoleophilicity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

    14. Eupatorium Capillifolium Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity, and Insecticidal Activity

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-01-01

      3251–3255. [5] Schmidt GJ, Schilling EE. (2000) Phylogeny and biogeography of Eupatorium (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) based on nuclear ITS sequence data...Gomez ME, Gomez PA, Villarreal AN, Rombold C. (1971) Physical data on the essential oils of five Composite plants. Planta Medica, 19, 52-54. [21

    15. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Soković, Marina D; Vukojević, Jelena; Marin, Petar D; Brkić, Dejan D; Vajs, Vlatka; van Griensven, Leo J L D

      2009-01-07

      The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC's and MFC's of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9%) and p-cymene (19.0%) were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%), a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%), cis-myrtanol (11.2%) and thymol (10.4%) were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%), menthyl acetate (17.4%) and menthone (12.7%) were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5%) and menthone (21.9%). Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.

    16. Effects of microwave roasting on the yield and composition of cold pressed orange seed oils

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      B. Aydeniz Güneşer

      2017-03-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study was to valorize orange (Citrus sinensis seeds, which are generated as waste. This study presents data about raw orange seed, the meal gained after cold pressing, and characterization data of the cold pressed seed oils. Furthermore, the effects of microwave roasting of the seds compared to regular roasting (control were determined. The oil yield of orange seed cold pressing was around 52.93–62.99%. After cold pressing, 13.57–17.97% oil remained in the meal together with 20.68–25.61% protein. Hence, pressed meals could be valorized for different purposes. Except for turbidity, the color b* value, free acidity, the p-anisidine value and antioxidant capacity, there was no significant difference between the two oil samples for the measured physicochemical properties. Six different fatty acids were quantified and the major fatty acids were linoleic, palmitic and oleic acids. The fatty acid composition of the orange seed oil can be accepted as nutritionally balanced. Among the fifteen sterols quantified, ß-sitosterol was dominant (around 77–78%. Likewise, the α-tocopherol content of the samples was not significantly different. The thermal onset and peak temperatures, and enthalpies for crystallization and melting were also reported. This study showed that good quality orange seed oils can be produced by cold pressing, and the oils could be used in food and non-food applications.

    17. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigii (L. leaves

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mini Priya Rajendran

      2014-05-01

      Full Text Available Objective: This study is designed to extract and examine chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the hydro-distillated essential oil of Murraya koenigii leaves from the south region of Tamilnadu, India. Matherials and Methods: Gas Chromatography (GC and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of the essential oil result was indicates the 33 different compounds representing 97.56 % of the total oil. Results: Major compounds detected in the oil were Linalool (32.83%, Elemol (7.44%, Geranyl acetate (6.18%, Myrcene (6.12%, Allo-Ocimene (5.02, α-Terpinene (4.9%, and (E-β-Ocimene (3.68% and Neryl acetate (3.45%. From the identified compounds, they were classified into four groups that are oxygenated monoterpenes (72.15%, monoterpene hydrocarbons (11.81%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (10.48% and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (03.12%. The antibacterial activity of essential oil has pronounced by Disc Diffusion Method against various pathogenic microbes. Conclusion: The oil has a maximum zone of inhibition ability against Corynebacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes. The antioxidant profile of the sample was determined by different test systems. In all the systems, essential oil showed a strongest activity profile within the concentration range.

    18. Chemical Composition, Larvicidal and Cytotoxic Activities of the Essential Oils from two Bauhinia Species

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Leôncio M. de Sousa

      2016-05-01

      Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by hydrodistilation from leaves of Bauhinia pulchella Benth. and Bauhinia ungulata L. were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components of B. pulchella essential oil were identified as a -pinene (23.9%, caryophyllene oxide (22.4% and b -pinene (12.2%, while in the B. ungulata essential oil were caryophyllene oxide (23.0%, (E-caryophyllene (14.5% and a -copaene (7.2%. The essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their larvicidal and cytotoxic activities. Larval bioassay against Aedes aegypti of B. pulchella and B. ungulata essential oils showed LC 50 values of 105.9 ± 1.5 and 75.1 ± 2.8 m g/mL, respectively. The essential oils were evaluated against four human cancer cells lines: HL-60 (pro-myelocytic leukemia, MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma, NCI-H292 (lung carcinoma and HEP-2 ( cervical adenocarcinoma, showing IC 50 values in the range of 9.9 to 53.1 m g/mL. This is the first report on chemical composition of essential from leaves of B. pulchella and on larvicidal and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils.

    19. Composition and Cytotoxic Activity of Essential Oils fromCroton matourensis and Croton micans from Venezuela

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Reinaldo S. Compagnone

      2010-04-01

      Full Text Available The chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of the essential oils extracted from leaves of Croton matourensis and flowers and leaves of Croton micans were investigated. GC-FID and GC-MS analysis revealed that forty six compounds comprised 95.5 % of C. matourensis essential oil, with the main components being fenchyl acetate (19.5%, methyleugenol (14.2%, isoelemicine (11.3%, elemicine (7.6%, spathulenol (6.9% and valencene (5.8%. In the analysis of C. micans oils, 63 compounds that comprised 98.9% were identified from the flower oil, the principal being fenchyl acetate (41.6%, α-caryophyllene (12.6%, β-cubebene (5.0%, β-caryophyllene (5.5%, α-cubebene (5.3%, β-elemene (4.7% and valencene (4.6%. The oil from leaves gave fenchyl acetate (25.3% α-caryophyllene (20.7%, α-selinene (12.8% and β-bourbene (9.3% as major constituents. The cytoxicity of these oils was screened by the MTT method against three human tumour cell lines and primary culture of human dermis fibroblasts (normal control cells. The results indicate that the oils have a moderate cytotoxicity against LoVo (colon carcinoma, X-17 (colon carcinoma, HeLa (cervical cancer, and control cells.

    20. Coriandrum sativum and Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Activity on Central Nervous System.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Caputo, Lucia; Souza, Lucéia Fátima; Alloisio, Susanna; Cornara, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

      2016-11-30

      The aims of this study are to determine the chemical composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Coriandrum sativum L. essential oils, to evaluate their cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, to investigate whether an alteration of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) and of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression can take part in the molecular mechanisms of the essential oils, and to study their possible neuronal electrophysiological effects. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and studied by GC and GC-MS. In the oils from L. angustifolia and C. sativum, linalool was the main component (33.1% and 67.8%, respectively). SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with different concentrations of essential oils and of linalool. Cell viability and effects on ADCY1 and ERK expression were analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT and Western blotting, respectively. Variation in cellular electrophysiology was studied in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons with a multi-electrode array (MEA)-based approach. The essential oils and linalool revealed different cytotoxic activities. Linalool inhibited ADCY1 and ERK expression. Neuronal networks subjected to L. angustifolia and C. sativum essential oils showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous electrical activity.

    1. Size segregated PM and its chemical composition emitted from heated corn oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Amouei Torkmahalleh, Mehdi; Gorjinezhad, Soudabeh; Keles, Melek; Ozturk, Fatma; Hopke, Philip K

      2017-04-01

      Characterization of the airborne particulate matter (PM) emitted from cooking components including cooking oil, and additives like salt has not been carefully investigated. This study provides new data on the concentration, composition, and emission rates/fluxes of PM (less than 3.3µm) generated during heating corn oil and corn oil with added table salt. The concept of emission flux was employed to estimate the emission rates in this study. A statistically significant reduction of 47.6% (Poil (5.15×10(1)mgmin(-1)) compared to the pure oil (9.83×10(1)mgmin(-1)). The OC emission rate decreased 61.3% (Poil (2.35×10(1)mgmin(-1)) compared to the pure corn oil (5.83×10(1)mgmin(-1)). With the salt, the total EC emission rate was 6.99×10(-1)mgmin(-1), a 62.7% reduction in EC emission compared to pure corn oil (1.88mgmin(-1)). These results suggest that table salt can be added to the corn oil prior to frying to reduce exposure to cooking generated PM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    2. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Huang, Bo; Wang, Youwei

      2011-02-28

      The essential oil extracted from the fruits of Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak was tested in vitro and in vivo against four foodborne fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, and Alternaria alternata. Forty-five different components accounting for 98.4% of the total oil composition were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components were γ-terpinene (40.92%), p-cymene (27.93%), and cumin aldehyde (21.20%). Antifungal activity was tested by the poisoned food technique against the four fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentration against the fungi was 5 μL/mL and percentage inhibition of mycelial growth was determined at day 9. The essential oil had a strong inhibitory effect on spore production and germination in all tested fungi proportional to concentration. The oil exhibited noticeable inhibition on dry mycelium weight and synthesis of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by A. flavus, completely inhibiting AFB(1) production at 4 μL/mL. The effect of the essential oil on inhibition of decay development in cherry tomatoes was tested in vivo by exposing inoculated and control fruit to essential oil vapor at a concentration of 200 μL/mL. Results indicated that the essential oil from C. virosa var. latisecta (CVEO) has potential as a preservative to control food spoilage.

    3. Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zhi Wei Deng

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%, estragole (8.55%, and eugenol (7.54%, followed by thymol (3.62%, pulegone (2.56%, limonene (2.49% and caryophyllene (2.38%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 μg/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 μg/mL and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 μg/mL exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 μg/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.

    4. Chemical Composition and Antipathogenic Activity of Artemisia annua Essential Oil from Romania.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Marinas, Ioana C; Oprea, Eliza; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Buleandra, Mihaela; Lazar, Veronica

      2015-10-01

      The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from Romanian Artemisia annua aerial parts was characterized by GC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of 94.64% of the total oil composition. The main components were camphor (17.74%), α-pinene (9.66%), germacrene D (7.55%), 1,8-cineole (7.24%), trans-β-caryophyllene (7.02%), and artemisia ketone (6.26%). The antimicrobial activity of this essential oil was evaluated by determining the following parameters: minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). Moreover, the soluble virulence factors were quantified with different biochemical substrates incorporated in the culture media. The reference and resistant, clinical strains proved to be susceptible to the A. annua oil, with MICs ranging from 0.51 to 16.33 mg/ml. The tested essential oil also showed good antibiofilm activity, inhibiting both the initial stage of the microbial cell adhesion to the inert substratum and the preformed mature biofilm. When used at subinhibitory concentrations, the essential oil proved to inhibit the phenotypic expression of five soluble virulence factors (hemolysins, gelatinase, DNase, lipases, and lecithinases). Briefly, the present results showed that the A. annua essential oil contained antimicrobial compounds with selective activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains as well as on yeast strains and which also interfere with the expression of cell-associated and soluble virulence factors.

    5. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the edible aromatic plant Aristolochia delavayi.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Li, Zhi-Jian; Njateng, Guy S S; He, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Gu, Jian-Long; Chen, Shan-Na; Du, Zhi-Zhi

      2013-11-01

      The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Aristolochia delavayi Franch. (Aristolochiaceae), a unique edible aromatic plant consumed by the Nakhi (Naxi) people in Yunnan, China, was investigated using GC/MS analysis. In total, 95 components, representing more than 95% of the oil composition, were identified, and the main constituents found were (E)-dec-2-enal (52.0%), (E)-dodec-2-enal (6.8%), dodecanal (3.35%), heptanal (2.88%), and decanal (2.63%). The essential oil showed strong inhibitory activity (96% reduction) of the production of bacterial volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by Klebsiella pneumoniae, an effect that was comparable with that of the reference compound citral (91% reduction). Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and the isolated major compound against eight bacterial and six fungal strains were evaluated. The essential oil showed significant antibacterial activity against Providencia stuartii and Escherichia coli, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 3.9 to 62.5 μg/ml. The oil also showed strong inhibitory activity against the fungal strains Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values ranging from 3.9 to 31.25 μg/ml, while (E)-dec-2-enal presented a lower antifungal activity than the essential oil.

    6. Effects of dietary sesame oil on growth performance, chemical composition, lipid oxidation, and sensory characteristics of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hematzadeh, Azar; Jalali Sayed, Mohamad Ali

      2017-09-28

      The present study, the effects of dietary sesame oil (SO) on growth performance and fillet composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. Twenty-five fish were randomly allocated in three groups by three replication, in mean initial weight 53.3 g in each tank. Experimental diets consisted of fish oil (FO), sesame oil (SO) and 1:1 blends of two oils, fish oil and sesame oil (FOSO). Dietary sesame oil had no significant effect on growth rate or feed conversion ratio. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between dietary treatments for ash content in fillet of fish. The fillet lipid content was lower in fish fed by sesame oil, but the moisture and the protein were higher. Furthermore, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test was changed in different groups and it was lower in SO. The organoleptic indices were affected by dietary oils and FO group had more fishy flavour.

    7. Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L. cultivated in Turkey: characterization of the seed oil and essential oil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Chalchat, Jean Claude

      2007-12-01

      Full Text Available Chemical composition and physical properties were established in carrot (Daucus carota L. seeds from Konya, Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, HCl-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were determined in the seed oil. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were petroselinic (59.35%, linoleic (11,82%, palmitic (10.01% and stearic (2.41% acids. Mineral contents (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se, Sr, V and Zn of seeds were also determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The seeds were found to be rich in protein, fiber and ash. The essential oil and edible oil compositions of carrot seeds from Konya were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The oil yields of essential and edible oil from carrot seeds were established as 0.83% and 7.84%, respectively. The major constituents of seed essential oil were carotol (66.78%, daucene (8.74%, (Z,Z--farnesene (5.86%, germacrene D (2.34%, trans--bergamotene (2.41% and -selinene (2.20%. Whereas, carotol (30.55%, daucol (12.60% and copaenol (0.62% were the important components of edible carrot seed oil. However, the dominant component of both oils was carotol.Se determinó la composición química y las propiedades físicas de las semillas de zanahoria (Daucus carota L. obtenidas en Konya, Turquía, con objeto de investigar usos potenciales de las mismas. Se determinó la humedad, el peso, el contenido proteico, en aceite, en fibra, en ceniza, en ceniza insoluble en ácido clorhídrico, los carbohidratos totales, y el rendimiento de la obtención de aceite esencial a partir de 1000 semillas maduras. Asimismo se determinó la densidad relativa, el índice de refracci

    8. Effect of Blended Feedstock on Pyrolysis Oil Composition

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Smith, Kristin M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gaston, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

      2017-09-28

      Current techno-economic analysis results indicate biomass feedstock cost represents 27% of the overall minimum fuel selling price for biofuels produced from fast pyrolysis followed by hydrotreating (hydro-deoxygenation, HDO). As a result, blended feedstocks have been proposed as a way to both reduce cost as well as tailor key chemistry for improved fuel quality. For this study, two feedstocks were provided by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Both were pyrolyzed and collected under the same conditions in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU). The resulting oil properties were then analyzed and characterized for statistical differences.

    9. VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.

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      Mittal Abhilasha

      2011-02-01

      Full Text Available The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 % and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %. The major monoterpenes characterized included α- pinene (38.6 %, β -.pinene (25.7%, sabinene (19.6% and α-thujene (11.9%. Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydrocarbons (2.3 % and four aliphatic alcohols (1.4 %. Myrcene and all aliphatic constituents were present in trace amounts.

    10. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oils from cumin and ajowan

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      SAHADEO D. PATIL

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Abstract. Patil SD, Maknikar PP, Wankhade SJ, Ukesh CS, Rai MK. 2016. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oils from cumin and ajowan. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 60-65. Plant essential oils have gained importance as alternative remedies for treatment of many infectious diseases and food preservatives. In the present study, we have determined the chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs from two Indian spices Cuminum cyminum (cumin and Trachyspermum ammi (ajowan of family Apiaceae by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Moreover, the antimicrobial potential of these oils was evaluated against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. A Total of 20 major chemical components were analyzed by GC-MS studies and were found to be cuminaldehyde (36.67% and caren-10-al (21.34% in case of cumin essential oil while p-cymene (15.54% and thymol (15.48% were found to be present in ajowan essential oil. Both the EOs exhibited potent antibacterial effect against most of the tested pathogens. Furthermore, cumin and ajowan EOs demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi with an inhibition zone diameter of 54 and 60 mm respectively with identical MIC value of 12.5 µl/ml. Ajowan EO was found to exhibit wide spectrum activity against both the Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms when compared with cumin. Both the essential oils were more potent than standard antibiotic chloramphenicol except cumin against Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. Antioxidant activity of cumin was weaker (12.36% and ajowan was stronger (71.68% than standard ascorbic acid (20.24% at 1000 µg/ml concentration when assessed by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Our study suggests that, spice essential oils have significant potential in controlling the human and foodborne pathogens.

    11. The use of thyme and orange essential oils blend to improve quality traits of marinated chicken meat.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rimini, Simone; Petracci, Massimiliano; Smith, Douglas P

      2014-08-01

      Poultry meat contains large quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which lead to oxidative deterioration. Plant essential oils (EO) and natural compounds, with antioxidant properties, may be used to alleviate this problem. Two replications were conducted to evaluate the effects of a mixture (1:1) of thyme and orange oils (EO) on the quality characteristics and the oxidative stability of chicken meat (breast and wing). For each replication, 24 fresh breast fillets and 24 wings were procured from a local grocery store. The EO were added to marinade solution to achieve a final concentration of 0.55% sodium chloride, 0.28% polyphosphate, and 0.05% wt/vol of EO blend. Breasts and wings were split in 2 different groups with homogenous pH and lightness and vacuum tumbled in 2 treatments, a 0.5% EO and a control (CON, no EO). Each group was tested for pH, Commission Internationale d'Eclairage color (lightness, L*; redness, a*; yellowness, b*), moisture content, marinade uptake, purge loss, cook yield, and shear force. Susceptibility to lipid oxidation was determined on fresh and frozen meat by TBA reactive substance analysis (induced oxidation from 0 to 150 min at 37°C). The EO breasts had lower purge loss compared with CON meat. Breast did not show any color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, shear force, or moisture differences due to treatment, although cooked EO breast was slightly less red than CON. The EO wings presented higher a* and b* values after marination and lower purge loss and shear force than CON. No differences were detected on wings for color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, or moisture between EO and CON wings. Both fresh and frozen EO breasts and EO wings were less susceptible to the lipid oxidation during all induced oxidation times compared with CON breasts and wings. In conclusion, EO had a positive effect on broiler breast and wing lipid oxidation without negatively affecting meat quality traits. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

    12. A Review of Structural Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber in Polymer Composites

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Reza Mahjoub

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available According to environmental concerns and financial problems, natural fibers have become interesting and fascinating nowadays to be used as an industrial material and structural material for rehabilitating of structures. Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPF is a natural fiber which is found a lot in tropical areas. Scientists have used OPF fiber with many types of resins such as epoxy, polypropylene, polyester, and phenol formaldehyde. Therefore, this paper focused on the properties of OPF fiber and gathered mechanical properties of OPF composites (OPF as reinforcement of polymer reported by other researchers in terms of tensile and flexural properties. Furthermore, the chemical surface modification methods to solve the interfacial bonding of fiber and polymer were mentioned. In addition, the results of hybrid composites of OPF were also discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, the results of composites were compared to pure resin properties and also the stress-strain diagram and internal strain energy of composites were considered. Besides, the effects of adding OPF to other composites to make a new hybrid composite were indicated. Finally, it is clear that the use of oil palm fiber composites for structural elements for bearing loads is not recommended but the usage of OPF composites for secondary structural elements may be recommended due to future researches.

    13. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hamzeh Amiri

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%, carvacrol (7.6–52.3%, and γ-terpinene (3–11.4%. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas has most antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1±0.1 μg/mL and 96.1±0.8% inhibition rate, resp..

    14. Whole-genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci associated with milk protein composition in 3 French dairy cattle breeds.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sanchez, M P; Govignon-Gion, A; Ferrand, M; Gelé, M; Pourchet, D; Amigues, Y; Fritz, S; Boussaha, M; Capitan, A; Rocha, D; Miranda, G; Martin, P; Brochard, M; Boichard, D

      2016-10-01

      In the context of the PhénoFinLait project, a genome-wide analysis was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect milk protein composition estimated using mid-infrared spectrometry in the Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO), and Holstein (HO) French dairy cattle breeds. The 6 main milk proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and αS1-, αS2-, β-, and κ-caseins) expressed as grams per 100g of milk (% of milk) or as grams per 100g of protein (% of protein) were estimated in 848,068 test-day milk samples from 156,660 cows. Genotyping was performed for 2,773 MO, 2,673 NO, and 2,208 HO cows using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Individual test-day records were adjusted for environmental effects and then averaged per cow to define the phenotypes analyzed. Quantitative trait loci detection was performed within each breed using a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis approach. A total of 39 genomic regions distributed on 20 of the 29 Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) were significantly associated with milk protein composition at a genome-wide level of significance in at least 1 of the 3 breeds. The 9 most significant QTL were located on BTA2 (133 Mbp), BTA6 (38, 47, and 87 Mbp), BTA11 (103 Mbp), BTA14 (1.8 Mbp), BTA20 (32 and 58 Mbp), and BTA29 (8 Mbp). The BTA6 (87 Mbp), BTA11, and BTA20 (58 Mbp) QTL were found in all 3 breeds, and they had highly significant effects on κ-casein, β-lactoglobulin, and α-lactalbumin, expressed as a percentage of protein, respectively. Each of these QTL explained between 13% (BTA14) and 51% (BTA11) of the genetic variance of the trait. Many other QTL regions were also identified in at least one breed. They were located on 14 additional chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, and 27), and they explained 2 to 8% of the genetic variance of 1 or more protein composition traits. Concordance analyses, performed between QTL status and sequence-derived polymorphisms from

    15. Soil disturbance as a grassland restoration measure-effects on plant species composition and plant functional traits.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tim Schnoor

      Full Text Available Soil disturbance is recognized as an important driver of biodiversity in dry grasslands, and can therefore be implemented as a restoration measure. However, because community re-assembly following disturbance includes stochastic processes, a focus only on species richness or establishment success of particular species will not inform on how plant communities respond ecologically to disturbance. We therefore evaluated vegetation development following disturbance by quantifying species richness, species composition and functional trait composition. Degraded calcareous sandy grassland was subjected to experimental disturbance treatments (ploughing or rotavation, and the vegetation was surveyed during four subsequent years of succession. Treated plots were compared with control plots representing untreated grassland, as well as nearby plots characterized by plant communities representing the restoration target. Species richness and functional diversity both increased in response to soil disturbance, and rotavation, but not ploughing, had a persistent positive effect on the occurrence of specialist species of calcareous sandy grassland. However, no type of soil disturbance caused the plant species composition to develop towards the target vegetation. The disturbance had an immediate and large impact on the vegetation, but the vegetation developed rapidly back towards the control sites. Plant functional composition analysis indicated that the treatments created habitats different both from control sites and target sites. Community-weighted mean Ellenberg indicator values suggested that the observed plant community response was at least partially due to an increase in nitrogen and water availability following disturbance. This study shows that a mild type of disturbance, such as rotavation, may be most successful in promoting specialist species in calcareous sandy grassland, but that further treatments are needed to reduce nutrient availability. We

    16. Soil disturbance as a grassland restoration measure-effects on plant species composition and plant functional traits.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schnoor, Tim; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Olsson, Pål Axel

      2015-01-01

      Soil disturbance is recognized as an important driver of biodiversity in dry grasslands, and can therefore be implemented as a restoration measure. However, because community re-assembly following disturbance includes stochastic processes, a focus only on species richness or establishment success of particular species will not inform on how plant communities respond ecologically to disturbance. We therefore evaluated vegetation development following disturbance by quantifying species richness, species composition and functional trait composition. Degraded calcareous sandy grassland was subjected to experimental disturbance treatments (ploughing or rotavation), and the vegetation was surveyed during four subsequent years of succession. Treated plots were compared with control plots representing untreated grassland, as well as nearby plots characterized by plant communities representing the restoration target. Species richness and functional diversity both increased in response to soil disturbance, and rotavation, but not ploughing, had a persistent positive effect on the occurrence of specialist species of calcareous sandy grassland. However, no type of soil disturbance caused the plant species composition to develop towards the target vegetation. The disturbance had an immediate and large impact on the vegetation, but the vegetation developed rapidly back towards the control sites. Plant functional composition analysis indicated that the treatments created habitats different both from control sites and target sites. Community-weighted mean Ellenberg indicator values suggested that the observed plant community response was at least partially due to an increase in nitrogen and water availability following disturbance. This study shows that a mild type of disturbance, such as rotavation, may be most successful in promoting specialist species in calcareous sandy grassland, but that further treatments are needed to reduce nutrient availability. We conclude that a

    17. Agronomic and kernel compositional traits of blue maize landraces from the southwestern United States

      Science.gov (United States)

      Multiple races of maize have been cultivated for centuries in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico. These landraces, used primarily for human food consumption, display considerable genetic variation for traits such as kernel color and texture. Traditional cultivation of these landraces has decli...

    18. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under Different Growth Conditions

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Enrica De Falco

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows. This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

    19. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different growth conditions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      De Falco, Enrica; Mancini, Emilia; Roscigno, Graziana; Mignola, Enrico; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Senatore, Felice

      2013-12-04

      This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L.) under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows). This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

    20. Determination and comparison of seed oil triacylglycerol composition of various soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kim, Won Woo; Rho, Ho Sik; Hong, Yong Deog; Yeom, Myung Hun; Shin, Song Seok; Yi, Jun Gon; Lee, Min-Seuk; Park, Hye Yoon; Cho, Dong Ha

      2013-11-21

      Seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of 32 soybean varieties were determined and compared using ¹H-NMR. The contents of linolenic (Ln), linoleic (L), and oleic (O) ranged from 10.7% to 19.3%, 37.4%-50.1%, and 15.7%-34.1%, respectively. As is evident, linoleic acid was the major fatty acid of soybean oil. Compositional differences among the varieties were observed. Natural oils containing unsaturated groups have been regarded as important nutrient and cosmetic ingredients because of their various biological activities. The TAG profiles of the soy bean oils could be useful for distinguishing the origin of seeds and controlling the quality of soybean oils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the TAG composition of various soybean oils has been analyzed using the ¹H-NMR method.

    1. Seasonal and geographical influences on the chemical composition of Juniperus phoenicea L. essential oil leaves from the Northern Tunisia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Medini, Hanene; Elaissi, Ameur; Farhat, Farhat; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Chemli, Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fathia

      2009-09-01

      The essential-oil composition of 60 individual trees of Juniperus phoenicea L. from four Tunisian populations in three different periods were investigated by GC and GC/MS analyses. 59 Compounds were identified in the oils, and a relatively high variation in their contents was found. All the oils were dominated by the terpenic hydrocarbon fraction, and the main component was alpha-pinene (20.28-40.86%). The results of the oil compositions were processed by hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) allowing establishing four groups of essential-oils differentiated by one compound or more. Pattern of geographic variation in essential-oil composition indicated that individuals from the continental site (Makthar) were clearly distinguished from those from littoral localities (Tabarka, Hawaria, and Rimel).

    2. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Demirci, Betül; Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Agramonte, Natasha M; Alqasoumi, Saleh I; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Yusufoglu, Hasan S; Demirci, Fatih; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Khan, Ikhlas A; Tabanca, Nurhayat

      2013-12-01

      Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dactylifera was obtained by hydrodistillation from the spathe, a specialized leaf structure that surrounds the pollinating organs of the palm. The oil was subsequently analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The oil showed promising repellent activity against yellow fever mosquito - Aedes aegypti. Sixteen components were characterized, constituting 99% of the oil. The main components were 3,4-dimethoxytoluene (73.5%), 2,4-dimethoxytoluene (9.5%), β-caryophyllene (5.5%), p-cresyl methyl ether (3.8%), and caryophyllene oxide (2.4%). The minimum effective dosage (MED) for repellency for the P. dactylifera oil was 0.051mg/cm(2), which had moderately lower potency compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET (0.018mg/cm(2)) in the "cloth patch assay". The five major compounds were individually assayed for repellency to determine to what extent each is responsible for repellency from the oil. 3,4-Dimethoxytoluene and 2,4-dimethoxytoluene showed the best repellent activity with the same MED value of 0.063mg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicate that these two constituents which comprise a large proportion of the P. dactylifera oil (83%) are likely responsible for the observed repellent activity. In this aspect, the P. dactylifera spathe oil is a sustainable, promising new source of natural repellents.

    3. Chemical composition and efficacy of some selected plant oils against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yones, Doaa A; Bakir, Hanaa Y; Bayoumi, Soad A L

      2016-08-01

      Natural compounds have been suggested as alternative sources for pediculosis capitis control. We aimed to investigate the chemical composition and evaluate the pediculicidal activity of spearmint, clove, cassia, thyme, eucalyptus, and anise essential oils in addition to sesame oil against human head lice in vitro. A filter paper contact bioassay method was used by applying 0.25 and 0.5 mg/cm(2) of each tested oil to filter paper in Petri dishes with 15 females head lice and another with ten nits. The lice mortalities were reported every 5 min for 180 min. The percentage of inhibition of hatch (PIH) was used to calculate ovicidal activity by daily microscopic inspections 5 days after the hatching of controls. Comparison with the widely used pediculicide (malathion) was performed. The most effective essential oil was spearmint followed by cassia and clove with KT50 values of 4.06, 7.62, and 12.12 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 8.84, 11.38, and 19.73 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Thyme, eucalyptus, and anise were also effective adulticides with KT50 values of 18.61, 32.65, and 37.34 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 29.92, 43.16, and 45.37 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Essential oils were also successful in inhibiting nymph emergence. Spearmint oil was the most effective, with a complete inhibition of emergence at 0.5 mg/cm(2). Sesame fixed oil did not show any adulticidal or ovicidal activity against head lice in vitro. The observed insecticidal activity was comparable to malathion. The results herein described the effectiveness of these essential oils as potential pediculicides for head lice control. Incorporation of essential oils in pediculicide formulations needs proper formulation and clinical trials.

    4. Growth Stage and Drying Methods Affect Essential Oil Content and Composition of Pickling Herb (Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Arif ŞANLI

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available The present research was conducted during 2012 in order to determine the essential oil content and composition of Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin. Plants were collected during rosette, vegetative growth, full flowering and fruit-ripening stages. Oil was extracted using Clavenger hydro-distillation apparatus from either fresh, shade dried or sun dried samples. Oil composition was determined with a GC/MS. Oil content of samples showed significant variation during the vegetative stages of development. Oil contents of fresh samples were found to be 0.76% at seedling stage whereas oil content has risen to 1.06% at seed set. The shade-dried samples had higher oil contents than the fresh and sun dried samples. The oil composition of pickling herb changed with drying method and growth stage. Throughout the growth stage of the plant, the oil was composed of 21 components and the main components were found to be α- phellandrene (47.43 - 66.39% and methyl eugenol (21.29 – 38.72%. While methyl eugenol content decreased during vegetation period for both fresh and dried samples, α-phellandrene level increased. Attention should be given to the collection time and drying method of pickling herb for different uses since vegetative stage and drying method influence oil content and composition.

    5. Investigating Asphaltenes Composition in Crude Oil Samples using ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      MBI

      2015-12-22

      Dec 22, 2015 ... asphaltene recovered by precipitation is analogous to Iatroscan analysis carried out prior to ... tagged 8676 was observed to comparatively have higher asphaltene composition (1125 mg, 11.22 %) than its ... increase in molecular weight, density, viscosity, .... developed in another mobile phase made up of.

    6. Chemical composition of the essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae

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      Jelačić Slavica Ć.

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available In Serbia basil has been grown traditionally as a decorative, medicinal, seasoning and ritual herb, and there is a variety of different populations of basil. Basil is considered to have been brought to Serbia in the 12th century by monks returning from their pilgrimages. Essential oils isolated from herb of ten basil populations traditionally grown on the territory of the Republic of Serbia have been analyzed. The selected populations have been designated under codes from T-1 to T-10 and deposited in the Plant Genes Bank at Serbia and at the Institute for Crop Sciences of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade. Essential oils of all tested basil populations were light yellow and had a specific aromatic scent. The composition of essential oil in the dry herb of the tested populations ranged from 0.87 to 1.84%. The results of gas chromatographic analysis of essential oils in tested basil populations pointed to their complex chemical composition and to the fact that they belong to the most appreciated European chemotype. In total thirty three components have been identified in the essential oils. The most common fraction of components in all tested oils was terpenoides. The predominant component in all essential oils is monoterpen linalol, ranging from 51.52 to 74.73%. Phenylpropranoid methylchavicol ranged from 2.49 to 18.97%. Essential oils of populations T-6, T-7, T-8 and T-10 were characterized by elevated 1.8-cineol (4.44, 3.70, 4.01 and 3.43%, respectively. Populations T-3 and T-4 in essential oil contained higher percent of geraniol (4.27 and 3.31%, respectively. In all ten essential oils sesquiterpen fraction consisted of greater number of components, with germacrene having special significance as it was found in high percentage in all populations. The highest content of germacrene was registered in population T-9 (4.30%, T-10 (4.18%, while in others it ranged from 2.17 to 3.69%. Basil populations traditionally grown in Serbia have

    7. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

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      Hafiz Majid Rasheed

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester, santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K+ (80 mM than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K+ induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases.

    8. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Xanthium spinosum L., an Invasive Species of Corsica.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Andreani, Stéphane; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

      2017-01-01

      Xanthium spinosum L. is a highly invasive plant originated from South America throughout the world as well as in Corsica Island. The chemical composition of X. spinosum essential oils from 25 Corsican locations was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Seventy-four components, which accounted for 96.2% of the total amount, were reported for the first time in the essential oil from aerial parts. The main compounds were eudesma-4(14),7-dien-1β-ol (61; 21.3%), germacrene D (36; 8.8%) and cadalene (60; 8.7%). Comparison with the literature highlighted the originality of the Corsican essential oil and eudesma-4(14),7-dien-1β-ol could be used as taxonomical marker to the systematics of the Xanthium genus. The essential oils obtained from separate organs and during the plant vegetative cycle were also studied to gain more knowledge about the correlations between the volatile production and the phenological states of this weed. The production of oxygenated sesquiterpenes was predominant during the plant-flowering process. The study focuses on direct correlation between the chemical composition of individual 25 oil samples and the morphological differences of the plant. Our results have gained more knowledge about the secondary metabolite production that occurs during the plant life, they could be interesting in order to manage the dispersal of X. spinosum.

    9. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

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      Ana Carolina B. Sodré

      2012-02-01

      Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

    10. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare essential oil from Iran

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      M. Vazirian

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are very complex mixture of components and their composition may vary in different species or varieties or even within the same variety. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare is one of the most distributed subspecies within the genus Origanum and has been found to be a poor-oil, categorized in cymyl, bornane or sabinyl chemotypes with higher proportion of sesquiterpenes. In this experiment, the Iranian sample was studied for the chemical composition of the oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. Methods: Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC/MS for determination of components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by radical scavenging ability (DPPH method and reducing power (FRAP assay. Results: The sample belonged to “thymol” chemotype with the main components as thymol (37.13%, gama-terpinene (9.67%, carvacrol (9.57%, carvacrol methyl ether (6.88, cis-alpha-bisabolene (6.80%, eucalyptol (3.82%, p-cymene (3.58% and elemol (2.04%. The oil of plant showed very strong antioxidant activity (IC50=2.5 µg/mL in DPPH method, which was stronger than the standard antioxidants (Vit E and BHA, p

    11. Essential oil composition of the coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. herb depending on the development stage

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      Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available The herbal material of Coriandrum sativum is the fruit. Fresh herb is also used as an aromatic spice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content and chemical composition of coriander herb obtained at different plant growth stages. Coriander plants were grown in a glasshouse, the herb was harvested at the initial stage of flowering and from regrowing shoots. Essential oil extraction from the herb was performed by the hydrodistillation method, whereas the assessment of the chemical composition – using GC-MS method. The examined material contained 0.17–0.29 ml × 100g-1 of essential oil, depending on the stage of plant development when the harvest was done. 61 (generative phase and 65 (vegetative phase compounds were found in the examined coriander oil. The essential oil from the coriander herb contained the highest amount of aliphatic aldehydes, among which was decanal, E-2-dodecanol and E-2-decenol had the highest percentages. The contents of most aliphatic aldehydes decreased with each subsequent harvest of the herb. In addition to the above-mentioned aliphatic aldehydes, the presence of linalool, phytol, and oleic acid was found in the essential oil extracted from the coriander herb.

    12. Chemical composition of essential oils from plantago lanceolata L. leaves extracted by hydrodistillation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bajer, Tomáš; Janda, Václav; Bajerová, Petra; Kremr, Daniel; Eisner, Aleš; Ventura, Karel

      2016-03-01

      Extensive traditional use of medical plants leads to research dealing with chemical composition of essential oils. The aim of this work was evaluation of quality of the essential oil and extending of the knowledge about chemical composition of essential oil from ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) and proportional representation of compounds. Extractions of essential oils from samples of ribwort were performed by hydrodistillation. GC-MS and GC-FID techniques were used for investigation of the qualitative and semi-quantitative content of aromatic compounds in the essential oils, respectively. Major aroma constituents of ribwort leaves were groups of fatty acids 28.0-52.1 % (the most abundant palmitic acid 15.3-32.0 %), oxidated monoterpenes 4.3-13.2 % (linalool 2.7-3.5 %), aldehydes and ketones 6.9-10.0 % (pentyl vinyl ketone 2.0-3.4 %) and alcohols 3.8-9.2 % (1-octen-3-ol 2.4-8.2 %). In relative high amount were identified apocarotenoids (1.5-2.3 %) which are important constituents because of their intense fragrant. The importance is in potential manufacture control of feedstocks before producing of food supplements.

    13. Effect of dietary argan oil on fatty acid composition, proliferation, and phospholipase D activity of rat thymocytes.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Benzaria, Amal; Meskini, Nadia; Dubois, Madeleine; Croset, Martine; Némoz, Georges; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France

      2006-06-01

      Argan oil is receiving increasing attention due to its potential health benefits in the prevention of cardiovascular risk, but no information to date is available about its possible effect on immune cells and functions. To address this issue male rats were fed one of five diets that contained fish oil, argan oil, olive oil, coconut oil, or sunflower oil for 4 wk. The fatty acid composition of plasma and thymocyte lipids was then analyzed in relation to the mitogen-induced proliferation and phospholipase D (PLD) activity of thymocytes. The 18:2omega-6 proportion in thymocyte phospholipids from rats fed argan oil was significantly lower than that observed in phospholipids from rats fed sunflower oil and fish oil but higher than that found in the olive oil and coconut oil groups. Further, a significant positive linear relation was found between thymocyte proliferation and the 18:2omega-6 proportion in thymocyte phospholipids, whatever the diet. The proliferation response of thymocytes to mitogenic activation was also inversely correlated to PLD activity measured in intact thymocytes. Subsequent western blotting experiments indicated that the diet-induced variations in PLD activity mainly reflected variations in the expression of PLD2 protein. On the whole, the present study shows that the effects of argan oil on immune cells are very similar to those of olive oil, and that, as a consequence, argan oil can be used as a balanced dietary supply without marked adverse effects on immune cell function.

    14. Effects of Agronomic Practices on Volatile Composition of Hyssopus officinalis L. Essential Oils

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      Armando Moro

      2011-05-01

      Full Text Available The chemical composition of Hyssopus officinalis (Lamiaceae essential oil grown in southeastern Spain was analyzed by GC-MS. Due to the high relevance of this species in the world market, the study is focused on chemical heterogeneity of different oil batches and their extraction yield, cultivated under irrigation and non-irrigation conditions and with different harvesting dates. All essential oil samples have two main terpene compounds which are pinocamphone and iso-pinocamphone, accounting for approximately 35–40% of the total oil content. Other relevant compounds were identified, with β-pinene, which accounted for 10–17% contribution to the total composition, standing out. Significant differences between their volatile composition have been observed between treatments, being limonene, (E-β-ocimene, pinocarveol, α-pinene and β-phellandrene the compounds that contributed most to the discrimination. It was also observed that the irrigation period is the most favourable for the cultivation of hyssop in this region, specially for batch 7 which gives the highest extraction yield and the best EO quality.

    15. Chemical Composition, Physicochemical Characteristics, and Nutritional Value of Lannea kerstingii Seeds and Seed Oil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Judicaël Thomas Ouilly

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available The chemical composition, main physicochemical properties, and nutritional value of seed flour and seed oil of Lannea kerstingii were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 3.61% moisture, 57.85% fat, 26.39% protein, 10.07% carbohydrates, and 2.08% ash. Potassium was the predominant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The essential amino acids were at higher levels than the estimated amino acid requirements of FAO/WHO/UNU except for lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids. Physicochemical properties of the seed oil were melting point, 19.67°C; refractive index (25°C, 1.47; iodine value, 60.72/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 0.99 meq. O2/kg of oil; p-anisidine value, 0.08; total oxidation (TOTOX value, 2.06; oxidative stability index (120°C, 52.53 h; free fatty acids, 0.39%; acid value, 0.64 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 189.73. Total amount of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols was 578.60, 4.60, and 929.50 mg/kg of oil, respectively. γ-Tocopherol (82%, lutein (80%, and β-sitosterol (93% were the most abundant forms of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols, respectively. Seeds of L. kerstingii constitute an alternative source of stable vegetable oil and protein for nutritional and industrial applications.

    16. Compositional analysis and insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus (family: Myrtaceae) essential oil against housefly (Musca domestica).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

      2012-05-01

      The essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) was evaluated for its chemical composition and insecticidal activity against the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Chemical composition of E. globulus oil revealed 1,8-cineole (33.6%), α-pinene (14.2%) and d-limonene (10.1%) as major constituents, while vapour profile of E. globulus oil determined through solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis showed 1,8-cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (16.9%), d-limonene (5.5%) and linalool acetate (3.4%) as principal components. Vapour phase of the oil showed increase in the contents of oxygenated monoterpenes. Insecticidal activity of E. globulus oil was assessed against larvae and pupae of housefly, through two different bioassays: contact toxicity and fumigation. Contact toxicity assay with larva showed lethal concentration, LC(50), between 2.73 and 0.60μl/cm(2) for different observation days while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 6.0 and 1.7 days. In fumigant assay for housefly larvae, LC(50) values of 66.1 and 50.1μl/l were obtained in 24h and 48h, respectively. Oil treated larvae showed surface shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Pupicidal effectivity was measured in terms of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) which was 36.0-93.0% for contact toxicity and 67.9-100% for fumigation toxicity assay. Considerable activity of E. globulus oil against larvae and pupae of housefly demonstrates its potentiality as a viable option for the development of eco-friendly product for housefly control.

    17. Chemical Composition, Physicochemical Characteristics, and Nutritional Value of Lannea kerstingii Seeds and Seed Oil

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ouilly, Judicaël Thomas; Bazongo, Patrice; Bougma, Adjima; Kaboré, Nèbpawindé; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ouédraogo, Amadé

      2017-01-01

      The chemical composition, main physicochemical properties, and nutritional value of seed flour and seed oil of Lannea kerstingii were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 3.61% moisture, 57.85% fat, 26.39% protein, 10.07% carbohydrates, and 2.08% ash. Potassium was the predominant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The essential amino acids were at higher levels than the estimated amino acid requirements of FAO/WHO/UNU except for lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids. Physicochemical properties of the seed oil were melting point, 19.67°C; refractive index (25°C), 1.47; iodine value, 60.72/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 0.99 meq. O2/kg of oil; p-anisidine value, 0.08; total oxidation (TOTOX) value, 2.06; oxidative stability index (120°C), 52.53 h; free fatty acids, 0.39%; acid value, 0.64 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 189.73. Total amount of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols was 578.60, 4.60, and 929.50 mg/kg of oil, respectively. γ-Tocopherol (82%), lutein (80%), and β-sitosterol (93%) were the most abundant forms of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols, respectively. Seeds of L. kerstingii constitute an alternative source of stable vegetable oil and protein for nutritional and industrial applications. PMID:28255501

    18. Liners of thermoplastic composites in oil field tubulars

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Melve, B. [Statoil Research Centre, Trondheim (Norway); Grini, K. [Univ. of Trondheim, Trondheim (Norway)

      1997-12-31

      The buckling resistance of thermoplastic composite liners in steel production tubing has been studied by theoretical models, numeric models and practical collapse tests. The materials studied were hoop wound glass fibre/polypropylene with and without a pure polypropylene inner layer. The numerical results show that a large increase in buckling resistance is achieved when the liner is partially supported by the steel tube in comparison with a free liner. The test results for the unsupported liner were in agreement with standard theories. The combined laminate did not perform as well as predicted because the polypropylene layer delaminated and buckled away from the composite layer. Thermoforming of the ends to suit the threaded end connectors was also shown to be possible. (au)

    19. Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L. Jack

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jasim Uddin Chowdhury

      2008-06-01

      Full Text Available The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and M. paniculata (L. Jack from Bangladesh was studied by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. M. koenigii oil contained 39 compounds of which the major is 3-carene (54.2% followed by caryophyllene (9.5%. Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds of which the major are caryophyllene oxide (16.6%, b-caryophyllene (11.8%, spathulenol (10.2%, b-elemene (8.9%, germacrene D (6.9% and cyclooctene, 4-methylene-6-(1-propenylidene (6.4%. The compositions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.

    20. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of Ruta montana L. essential oil from Algeria.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kambouche, N; Merah, B; Bellahouel, S; Bouayed, J; Dicko, A; Derdour, A; Younos, C; Soulimani, R

      2008-09-01

      The essential oil of aerial parts of Ruta montana L. growing in the Oran region in the west of Algeria was obtained by hydrodistillation with a 1.63% yield on a dry weight basis. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were carried out to identify the chemical composition of R. montana essential oil. Moreover, spectrophotometric analyses were employed to highlight the scavenger capacity of this oil using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Twenty compounds were identified by GC and CG/MS analyses, and the bulk of the compounds of the oil were undecan-2-one (32.8%), nonan-2-one (29.5%), nonanol-2-acetate (18.2%), and psoralen (3.5%). The results obtained using the DPPH test show that R. montana essential oil possesses antiradical activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, a linear correlation (correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.971, P < .001) was found between the reduction of DPPH stable free radical and the concentration of R. montana essential oil.

    1. Compositional Characters and Antimicrobial Potential of Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. Essential Oil

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      N Manika

      2015-08-01

      Full Text Available Chemical and biological investigations were carried out to evaluate the composition and anti-microbial potential of a rare Artemisia species viz. Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. essential oil for the first time. GC and GC/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 27 compounds, which constituted 93.2% volatile constituents of the oil. The major constituents were capillene (41.6%, spathulenol (14.6% and β-caryophyllene (13.4%. The oil was also assayed to determine its antimicrobial potential against eight bacterial and six fungal strains. The oil exhibited both antifungal and antibacterial activities. Among bacteria, the oil was most effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC 0.625 mg/mL followed by Staphylococcu. Aureus (MIC 1.25 mg/mL . While among fungi, the oil was most effective against Aspergillus flavus followed by Aspergillus niger and Sporothrix schenckii with MIC as low as 0.625 mg/mL.

    2. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oil from Pulicaria undulata from Yemen.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Sharopov, Farukh S; Alhaj, Mehdi; Hill, Gabrielle M; Porzel, Andrea; Arnold, Norbert; Setzer, William N; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wessjohann, Ludger

      2012-02-01

      The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Pulicaria undulata Gamal Ed Din (syn P. orientalis sensu Schwartz and P. jaubertii Gamal Ed Din) was analyzed by GC-MS. Major compounds of P. undulata oil were the oxygenated monoterpenenes, carvotanacetone (91.4%) and 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (2.6.%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against six microorganisms, Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans, using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The oil showed the strongest bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, as well as Candida albicans. The essential oil showed moderate cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast tumor cells, with an IC50 of 64.6 +/- 13.7 microg/mL. Bioautographic assays were used to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect as well as antifungal activity of the oil against Cladosporium cucumerinum.

    3. Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Antileishmanial and Antituberculosis Activities of Essential Oils of Piper Species

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Karine Zanoli Bernuci

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available Essential oils from fresh Piperaceae leaves were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS, and a total of 68 components were identified. Principal components analysis results showed a chemical variability between species, with sesquiterpene compounds predominating in the majority of species analyzed. The composition of the essential oil of Piper mosenii was described for the first time. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils was evaluated in peritoneal macrophages and the oils of P. rivinoides, P. arboretum, and P. aduncum exhibited the highest values, with cytotoxic concentration at 50% (CC50 > 200 µg/mL. Both P. diospyrifolium and P. aduncum displayed activity against Leishmania amazonensis, and were more selective for the parasite than for the macrophages, with a selectivity index (SI of 2.35 and >5.52, respectively. These SI values were greater than the 1 for the standard drug pentamidine. The antileishmanial activity of the essential oils of P. diospyrifolium and P. aduncum was described for the first time. P. rivinoides, P. cernuum, and P. diospyrifolium displayed moderate activity against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv bacillus, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 125 µg/mL. These results are relevant and suggests their potential for therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, further studies are required to explain the exact mechanism of action of these essential oils.

    4. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

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      Soumaya Bourgou

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium, lemon (Citrus limon, orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis, and mandarin (Citrus reticulate and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95% and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72% were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%, β-pinene (0.63–31.49%, γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%, and p-cymene (0.23–9.84% were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%, 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%, and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%. However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43% during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.

    5. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components

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      Patricia Escobar

      2010-03-01

      Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 μg/mL and 12.2 μg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 μg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 ± 2.2 μg/mL, two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

    6. Volatile Composition of Essential Oils from Different Aromatic Herbs Grown in Mediterranean Regions of Spain

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      Hussein El-Zaeddi

      2016-05-01

      Full Text Available Volatile composition of essential oils from dill, parsley, coriander, and mint were investigated at different harvest dates to determine the most suitable harvest time for each these herbs. Hydrodistillation (HD, using a Deryng system, was used for isolating the essential oils. Isolation and identification of the volatile compounds were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS instrument. The results of gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID analysis (quantification showed that the main components in the essential oil of dill shoots were α-phellandrene, dill ether, and β-phellandrene, and the optimal harvest date was D2 (second harvest, fourth week of February 2015. For parsley shoots, the main compounds were 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, β-phellandrene, and P1 (first harvest, third week of November 2014 was the sample with the highest essential oil. For coriander, the main compounds were E-2-dodecenal, dodecanal, and octane and the highest contents were found at C2 (second harvest, 5 February 2015; while, the main two components of mint essential oil were carvone and limonene, and the highest contents were found at M1 (first harvest, second week of December 2014. The present study was the first one reporting data on descriptive sensory analysis of aromatic herbs at this optimal harvest date according to the content of volatile compounds of their essential oils.

    7. Physical, morphological and chemical characteristics, oil recovery and fatty acid composition of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernels.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E L

      2002-01-01

      Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernels were chemically, physically and morphologically characterized. Crude oil (49.0%) and crude protein (32.4%) were the two major constituents of the kernels. Phytic acid content was relatively high compared to other legumes. In contrast, antitryptic activities of the kernel flours were very low. Sapogenin contents of the full fat, defatted and testa flours were 1.5, 2.7 and 3.0%, respectively. The hardness of the kernel was found to be about 10.4 x 10(5) N/m2, which was somewhat high. The morphological structure of the kernel using a scanning electron microscope revealed that the protein matrix was embedded in a lake of oil droplets. Oil recovery, as a function of pressing time, pressure, temperature and particle size was investigated. With increasing temperature up to 70 degrees C at 400 bar, for 120 min, an oil recovery of 79.4% was obtained. Using an expeller at 115 degrees C, about 85% of the kernel oil was recovered. The reduction of particle size had a negative effect on oil recovery under the same conditions. The fatty acid composition was not affected by the pressing temperature up to 115 degrees C. The total amount of the unsaturated fatty acids was found to be up to 74.8% (50 degrees C) and 75.1% (115 degrees C) of the total fatty acids content.

    8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of different parts of Seseli rigidum.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Marcetić, Mirjana; Bozić, Dragana; Milenković, Marina; Lakusić, Branislava; Kovacević, Nada

      2012-08-01

      The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the Balkan endemic species Seseli rigidum Waldst. & Kit. (Apiaceae) was investigated. The monoterpene alpha-pinene was predominant in the volatile oil from aerial parts (57.4%) and fruit (23.3%). In the essential oil of the aerial parts limonene (6.7%), camphene (5.8%) and sabinene (5.5%) were also present in high amounts, and in the fruit oil, beta-phellandrene (17.4%) and sabinene (12.9%). On the contrary, the root essential oil was composed almost entirely of the polyacetylene falcarinol (88.8%). The antimicrobial activity of the root essential oil was significant against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis (MICs 6.25-25.00 microg/mL). Volatile constituents from the root strongly inhibited the growth of methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus (MICs 6.25-50.00 microg/mL). Anti-staphylococcal activity can be attributed to the main volatile constituent ofS. rigidum root, falcarinol.

    9. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Leaves from South Africa.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso; Ashafa, Anofi

      2014-01-01

      The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus and its antibacterial activity were analyzed by GC-MS and microbroth dilution assay respectively. The essential oil extracted from this plant was predominantly composed of monoterpenes (69.62%) and sesquiterpenes (22.73%). The antibacterial assay showed that the oil had significant inhibitory effects against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolates. The MIC of Gram-positive strains ranged between 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL while those of Gram-negative bacteria ranged between 0.31 and 0.63 mg/mL. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil than the Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the major components of this oil in other plants have been reported for antimicrobial activities. The antibacterial activity can be attributed to effects of the combination of several components of the oil. The results indicate that the C. bipinnatus might be exploited as natural antibacterial agent and have application in the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these bacteria. Since this species is endemic to the eastern Free State, the plant could be collected during its bloom and used efficiently in the management of bacterial infections in South Africa.

    10. Chemical composition and phagocyte immunomodulatory activity of Ferula iliensis essential oils.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Özek, Gulmira; Schepetkin, Igor A; Utegenova, Gulzhakhan A; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Andrei, Spencer R; Özek, Temel; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Abidkulova, Karime T; Kushnarenko, Svetlana V; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Damron, Derek S; Quinn, Mark T

      2017-06-01

      Essential oil extracts from Ferula iliensis have been used traditionally in Kazakhstan for treatment of inflammation and other illnesses. Because little is known about the biologic activity of these essential oils that contributes to their therapeutic properties, we analyzed their chemical composition and evaluated their phagocyte immunomodulatory activity. The main components of the extracted essential oils were (E)-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (15.7-39.4%) and (Z)-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (23.4-45.0%). Ferula essential oils stimulated [Ca(2+)]i mobilization in human neutrophils and activated ROS production in human neutrophils and murine bone marrow phagocytes. Activation of human neutrophil [Ca(2+)]i flux by Ferula essential oils was dose-dependently inhibited by capsazepine, a TRPV1 channel antagonist, indicating that TRPV1 channels mediate this response. Furthermore, Ferula essential oils stimulated Ca(2+) influx in TRPV1 channel-transfected HEK293 cells and desensitized the capsaicin-induced response in these cells. Additional molecular modeling with known TRPV1 channel agonists suggested that the active component is likely to be (Z)-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide. Our results provide a cellular and molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic properties of FEOs. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

    11. Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Antileishmanial and Antituberculosis Activities of Essential Oils of Piper Species.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bernuci, Karine Zanoli; Iwanaga, Camila Cristina; Fernandez-Andrade, Carla Maria Mariano; Lorenzetti, Fabiana Brusco; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio; Faiões, Viviane Dos Santos; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; do Amaral, Wanderlei; Deschamps, Cícero; Scodro, Regiane Bertin de Lima; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Baldin, Vanessa Pietrowski; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

      2016-12-12

      Essential oils from fresh Piperaceae leaves were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and a total of 68 components were identified. Principal components analysis results showed a chemical variability between species, with sesquiterpene compounds predominating in the majority of species analyzed. The composition of the essential oil of Piper mosenii was described for the first time. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils was evaluated in peritoneal macrophages and the oils of P. rivinoides, P. arboretum, and P. aduncum exhibited the highest values, with cytotoxic concentration at 50% (CC50) > 200 µg/mL. Both P. diospyrifolium and P. aduncum displayed activity against Leishmania amazonensis, and were more selective for the parasite than for the macrophages, with a selectivity index (SI) of 2.35 and >5.52, respectively. These SI values were greater than the 1 for the standard drug pentamidine. The antileishmanial activity of the essential oils of P. diospyrifolium and P. aduncum was described for the first time. P. rivinoides, P. cernuum, and P. diospyrifolium displayed moderate activity against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv bacillus, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 µg/mL. These results are relevant and suggests their potential for therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, further studies are required to explain the exact mechanism of action of these essential oils.

    12. The effect of 60Co-gamma radio-sterilization on Boswellia carterii essential oil composition

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      P. Badr

      2016-10-01

      Full Text Available Background and objectives:Gamma-irradiation is used vastly for both decontamination and sterilization of natural products; but these high-energy rays can affect heat-sensitive essential oils. Methods: The oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia carterii (Burseraceae was sterilized by γ-irradiation at dose 30 KGy. The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of non-irradiated Boswellia (NIB and irradiated Boswellia (IB were analyzed by GC/MS and the changes were compared. The structure of octyl acetate as the major component and marker of B. carterii was confirmed by MS/MS. Results: Twenty-five compounds comprising 99.55% of NIB oil and nineteen compounds comprising 98.61% of IB oil were identified. Major constituents which were common for both oils were octyl acetate (52.67 % in NIB, 76.51 % in IB, 1-octanol (6.37 % in NIB, 5.19 % in IB, duva-4, 8, 13-triene-1,3α diol (5.52 % in NIB, 3.94 % in IB, verticiol (13.63 % in NIB and verticillane type diterpene (5.4 % in IB they made up 78.19% and 91.04% of NIB and IB, respectively. Conclusion: Gamma irradiation was an efficient method for sterilization of Boswellia carterii oleo-gum resin, but it resulted in change in the essential oil composition particularly octyl acetate changed from 52.67% to 76.51%.

    13. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Escobar, Patricia; Milena Leal, Sandra; Herrera, Laura Viviana; Martinez, Jairo Rene; Stashenko, Elena

      2010-03-01

      The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, gamma-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 microg/mL and 12.2 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 microg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 +/- 0.4 microg/mL) and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 +/- 2.2 microg/mL), two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

    14. Biological Assays and Chemical Composition of Volatile Oils of Bupleurum fruticosum L. (Apiaceae

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      Andrea Maxia

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available The composition of supercritical CO 2 extracts and essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Bupleurum fruticosum L., growing spontaneously in Italy and Portugal, and its antifungal activity is reported. The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus.

    15. Chemical Composition and Antigerminative Activity of the Essential Oils from Five Salvia Species

      OpenAIRE

      Vincenzo De Feo; Enrica De Falco; Emilia Mancini; Graziana Roscigno; Laura De Martino

      2010-01-01

      The chemical composition of the essential oils of Salvia africana L., Salvia elegans Vahl, Salvia greggii A. Gray, Salvia mellifera Green and Salvia munzii Epling, cultivated in Eboli (Salerno, Southern Italy), was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analyses. In all, 88 compounds were identified, 54 for S. africana, accounting for 95.4% of the total oil, 55 for S. elegans (92.9%), 50 for S. greggii (96.9%), 54 for S. mellifera (90.4%) and 47 for S. munzii (97.5%), respectively. In S. africana,t...

    16. Essential oil composition, antioxidant assay and antifungal activity of essential oil and various extracts of Alpinia allughas (Retz. Roscoe leaves

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      Sonali Sethi

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available The present study describes chemical composition, antifungal activities, antioxidant assays and total phenolic content of essential oil and different extracts from leaves of Alpinia allughas. Fifty-seven components were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with eucalyptol (17.4% and humulene epoxide II (14.1% as the main component. The essential oil was found to be remarkable fungicide according to its inhibition action against tested pathogens like Colletotricum falcatum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotium and Sclerotium rolfsii followed by different extracts obtained in hexane, dichloromethane and methanol, respectively, with their minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 31.25 to 500 µg/ml. The essential oil showed higher phenolic contents (82.36 µg/ml than the extracts. The antioxidant assay evaluated in essential oil and extracts by different methods revealed good-to-moderate antioxidant potential with different IC50 values viz. (174.72–244.04 µg/ml in Fe3+ reducing power, (124.63–135.41 µg/ml in Fe2+ metal-chelating ability, (84.60–138.72 µg/ml in DPPH, (87.06–187.44 µg/ml in OH radical, (78.90–171.65 µg/ml, in NO radical and (97.31–143.24 µg/ml in superoxide anion scavenging activities, respectively, in comparison to the standard antioxidants. Based on obtained results, the herb A. allughas can be a good source to develop a safe and sustainable natural antioxidant.

    17. Electron beam processing of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers - polypropylene composites

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Khairul Zaman, Hj. Mohd Dahlan [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Manarpaac, Gloria A.; Jalaluddin, Harun [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Forestry, Selangor (Malaysia)

      2002-03-01

      Researches on oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers and thermoplastic composites have been carried out by many workers in the last decade. The main focus was to enhance the properties of the resultant composites in view of the incompatibility of the two components. Thus, efforts have been made to enhance their properties by using coupling agents, treating the fibers and modifying the matrices. In this study, the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation and some reactive additives (RAs) on the mechanical properties of EFB-PP (polypropylene) composites were evaluated. Different modes of irradiation were investigated. Mono, di and tri functional of monomers of RAs were used. Irradiating PP alone, compared to irradiating the EFB fibers or irradiating both components, gave optimum properties for EFB-PP composites. Further improvements of the properties of the composites were achieved with the addition of RAs with TMPTA (trimethylol propane triacrylate) giving the optimum results. (author)

    18. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of ansu apricot oil growing wild in north Xinjiang, China.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping

      2011-07-01

      Ansu apricots growing wild in north Xinjiang are recognised as being one of the major wild-plant resources in China. In order to improve the level of comprehensive utilisation and the number of cultivated apricot varieties, the chemical composition of ansu apricot oil was analysed by capillary GC-MS and elucidated based on the standard mass spectral data; the antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Seven components of ansu apricots oil were identified, and the total unsaturated fatty acid (FA) (TUFA) and total essential FA (TEFA) contents of the ansu apricot oil were found to be 90.35 g/100 g and 48.93 g/100 g, respectively. The scavenging capacity of the ansu apricots oil in the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system performed better than in the DPPH radical system. The IC₅₀ values of the ansu apricot oil for the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system were 0.15 mg mL⁻¹ and 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, respectively: stronger than that of the control (ascorbic acid). In the DPPH system, the IC₅₀ value of the ansu apricot oil was 0.50 mg mL⁻¹, and the IC₅₀ value of ascorbic acid was 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, but within the selected dosage, the highest scavenging capacity of ansu apricot oil was higher than the control. The results obtained in this study clearly suggest that ansu apricot oil is a natural source of antioxidants and could serve as a functional food ingredient with potential application in food products and thus provide related health benefits.

    19. Chemical compositions and biological activities of the essential oils of Beilschmiedia madang Blume (Lauraceae).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng

      2015-04-01

      The present study aimed to examine the chemical compositions of the essential oils of Beilschmiedia madang and their antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities. The major constituents of the essential oils of leaf and bark of B. madang were δ-cadinene (17.0 and 20.5 %), β-caryophyllene (10.3 and 6.7 %), α-cubebene (11.3 and 15.6 %), and α-cadinol (5.8 and 10.6 %). The essential oils were screened for their antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, and total phenolic content. The bark oil showed the highest β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching (90.3 % ± 0.2) and DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 212.0 µg/mL), while the highest phenolic content was exhibited by the leaf oil (94.5 % ± 0.3 mg GA/g). The antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated by the disc diffusion and micro dilution method. The leaf and bark oils showed moderate activity towards Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value 125 µg/mL. For antifungal assay, the bark oil showed strong activity towards Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus with MIC value 62.5 µg/mL. Anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities were evaluated against Ellman method and mushroom tyrosinase, respectively. The results showed that leaf oil gave significant percentage inhibition (I%: acetylcholinesterase 55.2 %, butyrylcholinesterase 60.4 %, tyrosinase 53.1 %).

    20. Chemical Composition and Bioactivities of the Essential Oil from Etlingera yunnanensis against Two Stored Product Insects.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Liang, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Lei, Ning

      2015-08-28

      The chemical composition of the essential oil of Etlingera yunnanensis rhizomes and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel) were investigated. The essential oil obtained from E. yunnanensis rhizomes with hydrodistillation was performed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be estragole (65.2%), β-caryophyllene (6.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), limonene (5.2%), and α-pinene (2.4%). It was found that the essential oil of E. yunnanensis rhizomes possessed contact toxicity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila (LD50 = 23.33 μg/adult and LD50 = 47.38 μg/cm², respectively). Estragole, 1,8-cineole, and limonene exhibited stronger contact toxicity (LD50 values of 20.41, 18.86, and 13.40 μg/adult, respectively) than β-caryophyllene (LD50 = 41.72 μg/adult) against T. castaneum adults. Estragole possessed stronger contact toxicity (LD50 = 30.22 µg/cm²) than β-caryophyllene, 1,8-cineole, and limonene (LD50 values of 74.11, 321.20, and 239.62 μg/adult, respectively) against L. bostrychophila adults. Repellency of the crude oil was also evaluated. The essential oil and constituents possessed strong repellent activity against T. castaneum adults. The four individual constituents showed weaker repellent activity than the essential oil against L. bostrychophila adults. The results indicated that the essential oil of E. yunnanensis rhizomes and the individual constituents had the potential to be developed as a natural insecticide and repellent for the control of T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila.

    1. Inflorescence and leaves essential oil composition of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      MOHAMMAD BAGHER HASSANPOURAGHDAM

      2010-10-01

      Full Text Available In order to characterize the essential oils of leaves and inflorescences, water distilled volatile oils of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L. were analyzed by GC/EI-MS. Fifty components were identified in the inflorescence and leaf essential oils of the basil plants, accounting for 98.8 and 99.9 % of the total quantified components respectively. Phenylpropanoids (37.7 % for the inflorescence vs. 58.3 % for the leaves were the predominant class of oil constituents, followed by sesquiterpenes (33.3 vs. 19.4 % and monoterpenes (27.7 vs. 22.1 %. Of the monoterpenoid compounds, oxygenated monoterpenes (25.2 vs. 18.9 % were the main subclass. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (25 vs. 15.9 % were the main subclass of sesquiterpenoidal compounds. Methyl chavicol, a phenylpropane derivative, (37.2 vs. 56.7 % was the principle component of both organ oils, with up to 38 and 57 % of the total identified components of the inflorescence and leaf essential oils, respectively. Linalool (21.1 vs. 13.1 % was the second common major component followed by α-cadinol (6.1 vs. 3 %, germacrene D (6.1 vs. 2.7 % and 1,8-cineole (2.4 vs. 3.5 %. There were significant quantitative but very small qualitative differences between the two oils. In total, considering the previous reports, it seems that essential oil composition of hydroponically grown O. basilicum L. had volatile constituents comparable with field grown counterparts, probably with potential applicability in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

    2. Chemical composition of oils from wild almond (Prunus scoparia and wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jafari Mohammadi, S. A.

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerol compositions as well as the amount of tocopherols, total phenols and pigments wild almond and cold pressed wild pistachio oils. Triacylglycerols, tocopherols and pigments were analyzed with HPLC, fatty acids and sterols with gas chromatography, and total phenols photometrically. The main fatty acids in both samples were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. The most predominant TAG species are SLL + PLO (21.83% in wild pistachio oil and OOO (47.27% in wild almond oil. Pheophytin a was the major pigment in wild pistachio oil. There were no pigments detected in wild almond oil. Total phenols were 57.6 mg kg-1 oil for wild pistachio and 45.3 mg kg-1 oil for wild almond oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición en ácidos grasos, esteroles, triglicéridos, así como tocoferoles, fenoles totales y pigmentos de aceites de almendras y pistachos silvestres prensados en frío. Triglicéridos (TAG, tocoferoles y pigmentos se analizaron mediante HPLC, los ácidos grasos y esteroles mediante cromatografía de gases, y los fenoles totales espectrofotométricamente. Los principales ácidos grasos de ambas especies fueron los ácidos oleico, linoleico y palmítico. Las especies de TAG predominantes son SLL + OLP (21,83% en el pistacho silvestre y OOO (47,27% en almendras silvestre. Feofitina a es un pigmento importante en los aceites de pistacho silvestre. No se detectó pigmentos en los aceites de almendras silvestres. Los fenoles totales fueron 57,6 mg kg-1 y 45,3 mg kg-1 en los aceites de pistacho silvestre y de almendra silvestre respectivamente.

    3. Seasonal Variation in Essential oil Composition of Artemisianilagirica var. septentrionalis from Foot Hills of Western Himalaya

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rajendra Chandra Padalia

      2014-05-01

      Full Text Available Essential oils composition of the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke Pamp. var. septentrionalis Pamp. in different seasons viz. spring, summer, rainy, autumn and winter seasons under foot hills agroclimatic conditions of western Himalaya were analyzed and compared by GC–FID and GC–MS. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpenoids (59.0%-77.3% and sesquiterpenoids (15.7%-31.6%. The major constituents identified were artemisia ketone (38.3%-61.2%, chrysanthenone (1.5%-7.7%, germacrene D (3.1%-6.8%, β-caryophyllene (1.9%-6.8%, germacra-4,5,10-trien-1-α-ol (1.9%-4.9% and artemisia alcohol (1.4%-3.6%. Compositional analysis showed significant variations in the terpenoid compositions due to seasonal variations. Further, this is for the first time the seasonal variations in essential oil compositions of artemisia ketone rich chemotype of A. nilagirica var. septentrionalis is being reported from India.

    4. Chemical composition, olfactory evaluation and antioxidant effects of essential oil from Mentha x piperita.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schmidt, Erich; Bail, Stefanie; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Stoilova, Ivanka; Atanasova, Teodora; Stoyanova, Albena; Krastanov, Albert; Jirovetz, Leopold

      2009-08-01

      The chemical composition of the essential oil from peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) was analyzed by GC/FID and GC-MS. The main constituents were menthol (40.7%) and menthone (23.4%). Further components were (+/-)-menthyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, limonene, beta-pinene and beta-caryophyllene. Peppermint oil possessed antiradical activity with respect to DPPH (diphenyl picryl hydrazyl) and hydroxyl (OH*) radicals, exercising stronger antioxidant impact on the OH* radical. The concentrations required for 50% inhibition of the respective radical (IC50) were 860 microg/mL for DPPH and 0.26 microg/mL for OH*. Peppermint essential oil demonstrated antioxidant activity in a model linoleic acid emulsion system in terms of inhibiting conjugated dienes formation by 52.4% and linoleic acid secondary oxidized products generation by 76.9% (at 0.1% concentration).

    5. Investigation of morphology, structure and composition of biomass-oil soot particles

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Xianguo; Liu, Tianxia; Liu, Yiming; Song, Ruhong; Chen, Yazhou

      2013-04-01

      Biomass-oil soot (BS) particles were characterized by a range of analytical techniques. A comparative analysis with commercial carbon black (CB), a surrogate for diesel soot particles, was carried out. The experimental results showed that the morphologies of BS and CB particles were both spherical, with average diameters of 50 and 40 nm, respectively. There were only a few differences between the elemental composition of BS and CB. The groups (Cdbnd O, Osbnd Csbnd O and Csbnd Osbnd C) were presented on the surfaces of CB and BS. Moreover, it was also found that Csbnd OH group was appeared on the surface of BS. BS contained more acidic and basic sites than CB, which was ascribed to the complex mixtures of biomass oil. Both BS and CB had virtually indistinguishable perturbed graphitic or turbostratic internal structures. Thus, CB can be a potential alternative to evaluate the aggregation and tribological behavior of BS in lubricating oils.

    6. Essential Oils Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Six Conifers Harvested in Lebanon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fahed, Layal; Khoury, Madona; Stien, Didier; Ouaini, Naïm; Eparvier, Véronique; El Beyrouthy, Marc

      2017-02-01

      The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils (EOs) of six conifers harvested in Lebanon, Abies cilicica, Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus oxycedrus, Cedrus libani and Cupressus macrocarpa gold crest, were investigated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. A principal components analysis based on Pearson correlation between essential oils chemical analyses was also conducted. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these essentials oils were determined against a range of bacteria and fungi responsible for cutaneous infections in human, using the broth microdilution technique. The EOs showed the most interesting bioactivity on the dermatophytes species (MIC values 32 - 64 μg/ml). Each of the major compounds of C. macrocarpa as well as an artificial reconstructed EO were tested on Trichophyton rubrum showing a contribution of the minor components to the overall activity.

    7. Chemical composition and antigerminative activity of the essential oils from five Salvia species.

      Science.gov (United States)

      De Martino, Laura; Roscigno, Graziana; Mancini, Emilia; De Falco, Enrica; De Feo, Vincenzo

      2010-02-01

      The chemical composition of the essential oils of Salvia africana L., Salvia elegans Vahl, Salvia greggii A. Gray, Salvia mellifera Green and Salvia munzii Epling, cultivated in Eboli (Salerno, Southern Italy), was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analyses. In all, 88 compounds were identified, 54 for S. africana, accounting for 95.4% of the total oil, 55 for S. elegans (92.9%), 50 for S. greggii (96.9%), 54 for S. mellifera (90.4%) and 47 for S. munzii (97.5%), respectively. In S. africana,the amount of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids is very similar. For other species, the monoterpenoid percentage is greater than the amount of sesquiterpenoids. The oils of S. elegans, S. greggii and S. munzii were active inhibitors of germination and radical elongation of Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L.

    8. Chemical Composition and Antigerminative Activity of the Essential Oils from Five Salvia Species

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vincenzo De Feo

      2010-02-01

      Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils of Salvia africana L., Salvia elegans Vahl, Salvia greggii A. Gray, Salvia mellifera Green and Salvia munzii Epling, cultivated in Eboli (Salerno, Southern Italy, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analyses. In all, 88 compounds were identified, 54 for S. africana, accounting for 95.4% of the total oil, 55 for S. elegans (92.9%, 50 for S. greggii (96.9%, 54 for S. mellifera (90.4% and 47 for S. munzii (97.5%, respectively. In S. africana,the amount of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids is very similar. For other species, the monoterpenoid percentage is greater than the amount of sesquiterpenoids. The oils of S. elegans, S. greggii and S. munzii were active inhibitors of germination and radical elongation of Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L.

    9. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

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      Nilufar Z. Mamadalieva

      2017-02-01

      Full Text Available Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation. Extensive studies of the chemical components of these plants have led to the identification of many compounds, as well as essentials oils, with medicinal and other commercial values. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of the literature surrounding the traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oils composition of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, from the Uzbek flora.

    10. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from the Peel of Chinese Torreya grandis Fort

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      Tao Feng

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available The composition of the peel essential oil of Torreya grandis fort obtained by cold pressing and steam distillation was determined by GC and GC/MS. 62 constituents accounting for 99.6% of the total pressed oil were identified while 59 compounds accounting for 99.4% of the steam distilled oil were identified. Limonene (35.6–37.1%, α-pinene (20.1–24.1%, and δ-carene (3.3–3.9 were the major constituents. Others include γ-carene (3.8-3.9%, germacrene D (2.5–2.9%, and β-farnesene (2.7-2.8%.

    11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of different basil essential oils chemotypes from Togo

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      Koffi Koba

      2009-06-01

      Full Text Available The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; t-anethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol and methyleugenol/t-anethole chemotypes were active against tested fungi and bacteria. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranged from 80 to 150 µl.l-1 and from 200 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. Likewise, on tested bacteria the MIC varied from 200 µl.l-1 to 400 µl.l-1 and from 250 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. These findings are supportive of the potential of both basil oil chemotypes for use as active ingredients in natural antibiotic drugs.

    12. Chemical composition and antifungal properties of essential oils of three Pistacia species.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Duru, M E; Cakir, A; Kordali, S; Zengin, H; Harmandar, M; Izumi, S; Hirata, T

      2003-02-01

      The chemical composition of essential oils obtained from the leaves of Pistacia vera, Pistacia terebinthus, Pistacia lentiscus and the resin of Pistacia lentiscus were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. alpha-Pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol were found to be the major components. The antifungal activities of the above oils and P. lentiscus resin (total, acidic and neutral fractions) against the growth of three agricultural pathogens, Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium sambucinum were evaluated. Some doses of P. terebinthus, P. vera and P. lentiscus leaf oils and total and neutral fraction of P. lentiscus resin significantly inhibited the growth of R. solani. However, all samples did not show antifungal activity against P. ultimum and F. sambucinum, but increased the growth of F. sambucinum.

    13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Cupressus atlantica.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Arjouni, My Youssef; Bahri, Fouad; Romane, Abderrahmane; El Fels, M Ahmed El Alaoui

      2011-10-01

      Cupressus atlantica Gaussen, an endemic species from Morocco, is used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the leaves was investigated by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and also evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity. Sixty-one components, representing 98.1% of the total, were detected of which fifty-seven were identified. Germacrene D (34.8%), alpha-pinene (13.6%), delta-cadinene (6.1%), alpha-phellandrene (5.5%), gamma-cadinene (5.0%), beta-caryophyllene (4.8%) and alpha-humulene (4.4%) were the predominant compounds. The oil was characterized by a relatively high amount of oxygenated monoterpenes (66.5%). The oil, screened for antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, showed pronounced activity against all the microbes tested, except Pseudomonas, which showed resistance.

    14. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Potential, and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil Cones of Tunisian Cupressus sempervirens

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      Aicha Ben Nouri

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available The extraction yield of the essential oil (EO extracted by hydrodistillation from the cones of Tunisian Cupressus sempervirens L. was of 0.518%. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. Results showed that this essential oil was mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (65% with α-pinene as the major constituent (47.51%. Its antioxidant activity was ascertained by evaluating the total antioxidant capacity and also by evaluating its inhibitory effect against DPPH and ABTS radicals. In addition, it showed a strong antioxidant power against the DPPH (IC50 = 151 µg/mL and ABTS (IC50 = 176.454 µg/mL radicals scavenging. Moreover, its antibacterial activity was tested against different species of pathogenic bacteria (three Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria. The bacterial strains susceptible to the evaluated oil were Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Morganella morganii, Shigella, and Vibrio cholerae.

    15. Antibacterial activity chemical composition relationship of the essential oils from cultivated plants from Serbia

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      Stanković Nemanja S.

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available The antibacterial effects of essential oils from Serbian cultivated plants, Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiace and Lavandula angustifolia L. (Lamiace on different bacteria were investigated, with an emphasis on an antibacterial activity-chemical composition relationship. Essential oil was obtained from airdried aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation for 3 h using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The essential oil analyses were performed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS systems. The main constituents of thyme oil were thymol (59.95% and p-cymene (18.34%. Linalyl acetate (38.23% and linalool (35.01% were main compounds in lavender oil. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils samples was tested towards 5 different bacteria: laboratory control strain obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and clinical isolates from different pathogenic media. Gram negative bacteria were represented by Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 43895 and Salmonella enteretidis ATCC 9027 while researched Gram positive strains were Bacillus cereus ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. Essential oils from thyme have been found to have antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested, with a range of MIC values from 0.025 to 0.10 l/ml and MBC values from 0.05 to 0.78 l/ml. Lavender oils demonstrated MIC values from 0.025 to 0.20 l/ml and MBC values from 0.05 and 0.78 l/ml. Reference antibiotic tetracycline was active in concentrations between 0.025 and 0.05 l/ml. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oil of thyme, while Gram-negative bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oil of lavender. Essential oils from thyme and lavender may be used at low concentrations for prevention and treatment of

    16. Fatty acid composition of commercial vegetable oils from the French market analysed using a long highly polar column

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vingering Nathalie

      2010-05-01

      Full Text Available The increasing concern for consumed fat by western populations has raised the question of the level and the quality of fat intake, especially the composition of fatty acids (FA and their impact on human health. As a consequence, consumers and nutritionists have requested updated publications on FA composition of food containing fat. In the present study, fourteen different kinds of edible oils (rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, argan, groundnut, grape seed, sesame, sunflower, walnut and organic walnut, avocado, wheat germ, and two combined oils were analysed for FA determination using a BPX-70 60 m highly polar GC column. Oils were classified according to the classification of Dubois et al. (2007, 2008. Monounsaturated FA (MUFA group oils, including rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, and avocado oils, contained mainly oleic acid (OA. Groundnut and argan oils, also rich in MUFA, showed in addition high linoleic acid (LA contents. In the polyunsaturated (PUFA group, grape seed oil presented the highest LA content while sunflower, sesame, and wheat germ oils showed noticeable MUFA amounts in addition to high PUFA contents. Walnut oils, also rich in LA, showed the highest linolenic acid (ALA content. The n-6/n-3 ratio of each oil was calculated. Trans-FA (TFA was also detected and quantified. Results were compared with the data published during the past decade, and the slight discrepancies were attributed to differences in origin and variety of seed-cultivars, and in seed and oil processes.

    17. Characterization of vegetable oils: detailed compositional fingerprints derived from electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wu, Zhigang; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

      2004-08-25

      Adulteration of vegetable oil is of concern for both commercial and health reasons. Compositional based fingerprints can potentially reveal both the oil source and its possible adulteration. Here, electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) resolves and identifies literally thousands of distinct chemical components of commercial canola, olive, and soybean oils, without extraction or other wet chemical separation pretreatment. In negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the acidic components of soybean oil are easily distinguished from those of canola and olive oil based on relative abundances of C(18) fatty acids, whereas olive oil differs from canola and soybean oil based on relative abundances of tocopherols. In positive-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the three oils are readily distinguished according to the relative abundances of di- and triacylglycerols with various numbers of double bonds in the fatty acid chains. We demonstrate the detection of soybean oil as an adulterant of olive oil, based on relative abundances of members of each of several chemical families. We suggest that the detailed chemical compositions of vegetable oils can be used to characterize them and to detect and identify adulterants.

    18. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Laserpitium latifolium L. and L. ochridanum Micevski (Apiaceae).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Popović, Višnja B; Petrović, Silvana D; Milenković, Marina T; Drobac, Milica M; Couladis, Maria A; Niketić, Marjan S

      2015-01-01

      The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Laserpitium latifolium and L. ochridanum were investigated. The essential oils were isolated by steam distillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. All essential oils were distinguished by high contents of monoterpenes, and α-pinene was the most abundant compound in the essential oils of L. latifolium underground parts and fruits (contents of 44.4 and 44.0%, resp.). The fruit essential oil was also rich in sabinene (26.8%). Regarding the L. ochridanum essential oils, the main constituents were limonene in the fruit oil (57.7%) and sabinene in the herb oil (25.9%). The antimicrobial activity of these essential oils as well as that of L. ochridanum underground parts, whose composition was reported previously, was tested by the broth-microdilution method against four Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and two Candida albicans strains. Except the L. latifolium underground-parts essential oil, the other investigated oils showed a high antimicrobial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, or Candida albicans (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 13.0-73.0 μg/ml), comparable to or even higher than that of thymol, which was used as reference compound. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

    19. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf, Ripe and Unripe Peel of Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium Essential Oils

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      Fatemeh Azhdarzadeh

      2016-02-01

      Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium leaf, ripe and unripe peel essential oils, cultivated in southwest of Iran, were investigated. Materials and Methods: The analysis of chemical composition of hydro-distilled essential oils was carried out by GC-MS. The disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution were used to assay the antimicrobial effect of achieved essential oils. Results: According to the GC-MS analysis, 34, 39 and 21 components were determined in the leaf, ripe and unripe peel, respectively. The results revealed that the main components of all essential oils were linalool and limonene. The oxygenated monoterpene and hydrocarbonated monoterpene were the main chemical groups of leaf and peel essential oils, respectively. Although all of the examined essential oils had antimicrobial potential, the leaf and unripe peel essential oils with MIC of 4.67 mg/ml were the most effective against the bacteria and yeast species, respectively, and the ripe peel essential oil was the weakest one. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was controlled in the treated orange juices. The antifungal activity of essential oils was increased by rising up in their concentration and decreased by passing time. Unripe and ripe essential oils showed the strongest and weakest anti yeast potential, respectively. Conclusions: The essential oils of leaves and ripe and unripe peels of bitter orange could be used as natural preservatives in food industry.

    20. Chemical composition and biological activities of Eruca vesicaria subsp. longirostris essential oils.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Omri Hichri, Amel; Mosbah, Habib; Majouli, Kaouther; Besbes Hlila, Malek; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Flamini, Guido; Aouni, Mahjoub; Selmi, Boulbaba

      2016-10-01

      Context To date, there are no reports to validate the Tunisian traditional and folklore claims of Eruca vesicaria (L) Cav. subsp. longirostris (Brassicaceae) for the treatment of disease. Objective Investigation of the chemical composition antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oils from Eruca longirostris leaves, stems, roots and fruits. Materials and methods The essential oils of E. longirostris from leaves, stems, roots and fruits were obtained after 4 h of hydrodistillation. Chemical compositions were determined using a combination of GC/FID and GC/MS. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the volatile constituents of E. longirostris was performed in sterile 96-well microplates against three Gram-positive, four Gram-negative bacteria and one strain as yeast. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration values were reported. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. Results The main compound for fruits, stems and roots was the erucin (96.6%, 85.3% and 83.7%, respectively), while β-elemene (35.7%), hexahydrofarnesylacetone (23.9%), (E)-β-damascone (15.4%), erucin (10.6%) and α-longipinene (9.6%) constituted the major compounds in the essential oil of the leaves. The experimental results showed that in all tests, essential oil of fruits showed the better antioxidant activity than the others. On the other hand, the oils of stems, fruits and roots showed significant antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.125 to 0.31 mg/mL against Candida species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, mainly Salmonella enterica. Conclusions The present results indicate that essential oils of E. longirostris can be used as a source of erucin.

    1. Oil and reservoir core extracts compositional variations in the Kerkennah Ouest fields, Tunisia

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Ghenma, R. [ETAP, Belvedere (Tunisia); LaFargue, E. [IFP, Malmaison (France)

      1995-08-01

      A suite of oils and reservoir core extracts from the Kerkennah oil fields in Tunisia has been analyzed by various geochemical techniques to elucidate the geological processes which cause variations in oil and extracts composition and their resulting fingerprinting in the different reservoirs of the field. The results obtained greatly helped in the understanding of filling directions which is valuable for future exploration of satellite fields. The oil pools studied are parts of a large geologic province ({open_quotes}the pelagienne plateforme{close_quotes}) where the main oil fields are limited by NW-SE major faults. The two main reservoirs we encountered in the carbonate series of Turonian and Eocene ages and the best reservoir qualities are found in the packstone and grainstone Nummulites facies. Numerous fractures we observed through the fields and we could demonstrate their influence on the filling history of the different fields as well as on the present oil production. Detailed analysis of the light hydrocarbons (C{sub 20-}) as well as the complete study of the C{sub 15+} hydrocarbons indicate compositional variations between the hydrocarbons stored in the Eocene and Turonian reservoirs. The core extracts from the two reservoirs also shows some variations with in particular maturity differences. Apparently the only possible source rock in the area is represented by the Bahloul formation of Turonian age. Within this scenario, we proposed the hypothesis of different behaviours of the main faults over geological time: a first period where the faults acted as conduits for hydrocarbon migration towards both Turonian and Eocene reservoirs and a second period where the faults became impervious to the hydrocarbons moving towards the Eocene reservoirs thus resulting in the storage of more mature hydrocarbons in the Turonian reservoirs only. Also of interest is the observation of different levels of homogenization in the Turonian reservoirs from one field to another.

    2. Manufacturing of vegetable oils-based epoxy and composites for structural applications

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wang, Rongpeng

      Epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) is one of the largest industrial applications of vegetable oils (VOs) and is widely used as a plasticizer and as a synthetic intermediate for polyol or unsaturated polyester. However, the utility of EVO as monomer for high performance epoxy thermoset polymer is limited by its reactivity and by the resulting physical properties. Herein, VO-based epoxy monomers, i.e., glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS) or linseed oil (EGL), have been synthesized and were benchmarked against commercial available diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and also epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) controls. EGS and EGL possessed higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than ESO or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO), provided better compatibility with DGEBA as a reactive diluent, and yielded thermally and mechanically stronger polymers than polymers obtained using ESO. Glass transition temperatures (T g) of the VO-based epoxy thermoset polymers were mostly a function of monomer oxirane content with some added structural influences of epoxy reactivity, and presence of a pendant chain. Organo-modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and long glass fiber reinforced composites (FRC) were efficiently manufactured using anhydride cured EGS as matrices. The OMMT nanocomposites showed higher mechanical and thermal strength than the neat polymers but were also dependent on the dispersion techniques and the clay concentration. Surprisingly, the neat EGS-anhydride matrix FRC showed comparable properties, such as flexural and impact strengths and slightly lower Tg, versus DGEBA based counterparts. These high performance monomers, polymers, and composites have potential to replace petroleum-based epoxy as value-added products from VOs compared to EVOs.

    3. Chemical composition and oxidative evolution of Sacha Inchi (Plukentia volubilis L. oil from Xishuangbanna (China

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      Liu, Q.

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available Sacha Inchi oil was studied for its physicochemical characteristics, chemical composition, radical scavenging activity and storage stability. The fatty acid composition was studied by gas chromatography–flame ionization (GC–FID and the analysis showed that the oil is highly enriched in α–linolenic (43.5% and linoleic (39.6% acids. The tocopherol content in the oil analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet– visible detector (HPLC/UV–VIS was also high (161.87 mg.100 g-1. Both DPPH and ABTS assays detected relatively high radical scavenging activity. After twelve months of storage, the oil showed relatively good storage stability. The results will help guide further investigation of the health benefits of Sacha Inchi oil for the population and the development of better edible oil products and nutraceuticals.Se ha estudiado las características físico-químicas, la actividad de captación de radicales y la estabilidad durante el almacenamiento de aceites de sacha inchi. La composición en ácidos grasos se estudió mediante cromatografía de gases (GC-FID y mostró que el aceite es altamente rico en α-linolénico (43,5% y linoleico (39,6%. El contenido de tocoferoles analizado mediante cromatografía líquida y detección mediante ultravioleta-visible (HPLC/UV-VIS fue alto (161,87 mg.100 g-1. Los ensayos de DPPH y ABTS detectaron actividad captadora de radicales relativamente alta. Tras doce meses de almacenamiento los aceites mostraron una relativamente buena estabilidad. Los resultados ayudarán a orientar investigación adicional sobre los beneficios para la salud del aceite de Sacha Inchi para la población y al desarrollo de mejores productos de aceites comestibles y nutracéuticos.

    4. Composition, diagenetic transformation and alkalinity potential of oil shale ash sediments.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mõtlep, Riho; Sild, Terje; Puura, Erik; Kirsimäe, Kalle

      2010-12-15

      Oil shale is a primary fuel in the Estonian energy sector. After combustion 45-48% of the oil shale is left over as ash, producing about 5-7 Mt of ash, which is deposited on ash plateaus annually almost without any reuse. This study focuses on oil shale ash plateau sediment mineralogy, its hydration and diagenetic transformations, a study that has not been addressed. Oil shale ash wastes are considered as the biggest pollution sources in Estonia and thus determining the composition and properties of oil shale ash sediment are important to assess its environmental implications and also its possible reusability. A study of fresh ash and drillcore samples from ash plateau sediment was conducted by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The oil shale is highly calcareous, and the ash that remains after combustion is derived from the decomposition of carbonate minerals. It is rich in lime and anhydrite that are unstable phases under hydrous conditions. These processes and the diagenetic alteration of other phases determine the composition of the plateau sediment. Dominant phases in the ash are hydration and associated transformation products: calcite, ettringite, portlandite and hydrocalumite. The prevailing mineral phases (portlandite, ettringite) cause highly alkaline leachates, pH 12-13. Neutralization of these leachates under natural conditions, by rainwater leaching/neutralization and slow transformation (e.g. carbonation) of the aforementioned unstable phases into more stable forms, takes, at best, hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    5. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

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      Ryan J Newton

      Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls. Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise

    6. Effect of accelerated environmental aging on tensile properties of oil palm/jute hybrid composites

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jawaid, M.; Saba, N.; Alothman, O.; Paridah, M. T.

      2016-11-01

      Recently natural fibre based hybrid composites are receiving growing consideration due to environmental and biodegradability properties. In order to look behaviour of hybrid composites in outdoor applications, its environmental degradation properties such as UV accelerated weathering properties need to analyze. In this study oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and jute fibres reinforced hybrid composites, pure EFB, pure jute and epoxy composites were fabricated through hand lay-up techniques. Hybrid composites with different layering pattern (EFB/jute/EFB and Jute/EFB/jute) while maintaining 40 wt. % total fibre loading were fabricates to compared with EFB and jute composites. Effect of UV accelerated environmental aging on tensile properties of epoxy, pure EFB, pure jute, and hybrid composites were assessed and evaluate under UV exposure. Tensile samples of all composites were subjected to accelerated weathering for 100h, at temperature (75°C), relative humidity (35%), Light (125 W/m2), and water spray off. Obtained results indicated that there is reduction in tensile strength, modulus and elongation at break values of hybrid and pure composites due to degradation of lignin and fibre-matrix interfacial bonding.

    7. Variability in the content and composition of essential oil from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivated in Poland.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Patora, Jolanta; Majda, Teresa; Góra, Józef; Klimek, Barbara

      2003-01-01

      Essential oil from a few different population of M. officinalis cultivated in Poland has been investigated. The percentage of essential oil ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 ml/100 g in the leaves and from 0.06 to 0.167 ml/100 g in the herb and was higher in the plant material from experimental patch than that from commercial cultivations. Comparative determinations of the essential oil in fresh and dried material showed slightly higher content of the oil in the fresh one. The analysis of the oil composition has been performed by GC and GC/MS. Great differences in the contents of citral, citronellal, linalool, nerol, geraniol beta-caryophyllene and beta-caryophyllene oxide among the populations has been found. Effect of the harvest time, drying and storage on the composition of lemon balm oil has also been studied.

    8. Combining chromatography and chemometrics for the characterization and authentication of fats and oils from triacylglycerol compositional data--a review.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bosque-Sendra, Juan M; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis; Ruiz-Samblás, Cristina; de la Mata, A Paulina

      2012-04-29

      The characterization and authentication of fats and oils is a subject of great importance for market and health aspects. Identification and quantification of triacylglycerols in fats and oils can be excellent tools for detecting changes in their composition due to the mixtures of these products. Most of the triacylglycerol species present in either fats or oils could be analyzed and identified by chromatographic methods. However, the natural variability of these samples and the possible presence of adulterants require the application of chemometric pattern recognition methods to facilitate the interpretation of the obtained data. In view of the growing interest in this topic, this paper reviews the literature of the application of exploratory and unsupervised/supervised chemometric methods on chromatographic data, using triacylglycerol composition for the characterization and authentication of several foodstuffs such as olive oil, vegetable oils, animal fats, fish oils, milk and dairy products, cocoa and coffee.

    9. Essential oil composition, phytotoxic and antifungal activities of Ruta chalepensis L. leaves from High Atlas Mountains (Morocco).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bouajaj, Sana; Romane, Abderrahmane; Benyamna, Abdennaji; Amri, Ismail; Hanana, Mohsen; Hamrouni, Lamia; Romdhane, Mehrez

      2014-01-01

      This study aimed at the determination of chemical composition of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, and to evaluate their phytotoxic and antifungal activities. Leaves of Ruta chalepensis L. were collected from the region of Tensift Al Haouz (High Atlas Mountains) Marrakech, Morocco. The essential oil (oil yield is 0.56%) was analysed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Twenty-two compounds we