WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil changing

  1. Winds of change: corporate strategy, climate change and oil multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Behind pessimistic expectations regarding the future of an international climate treaty, substantial changes can be observed in company positions. Multinationals in the oil and car industries are increasingly moving toward support for the Kyoto Protocol, and take measures to address climate change.

  2. Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be

  3. Unconventional Liquids, Peak Oil and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil is the largest source of primary energy in the world, at 32% of 2014 consumption. Forecasts by the International Energy Agency suggest oil will continue to provide the largest share of global energy through 2040, even with new policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios indicate that between 1.5 and 3.8 trillion barrels of oil will be burnt between 2015 and 2100. Various sources suggest that the world has 5 to 6 trillion barrels of remaining recoverable oil, more than half of which are in low grade deposits. Although oil sands and extra heavy oil are claimed to hold 1.5 trillion barrels, assessments of major deposits in the Canadian oil sands and the Venezuela Orinoco Belt, which hold the bulk of these resources, total less than 500 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Kerogen oil (oil shale), which has never been produced in anything but miniscule volumes, comprises an additional trillion barrels of these estimates. These unconventional deposits are very different from the conventional oil of the past as: - they are rate constrained, as they require massive upfront capital investments and lengthy construction periods, and therefore cannot be scaled up quickly in response to declines in conventional production. - they are expensive, both in terms of cost per barrel and the large energy inputs required for production. The best in situ oil sands deposits may yield an energy return of 3:1 and kerogen oil even less if it ever becomes commercially viable. This compares to 10:1 or more for conventional oil. Shale oil (light tight oil), may yield another 300 billion barrels worldwide, but suffers from high decline rates, expensive wells and limited availability of high quality deposits. The most productive and economically viable portions of these unconventional deposits tend to be exploited first, leaving the less productive, higher cost oil for later. As a result, increasing global oil consumption

  4. THE GEOPOLITICS OF OIL AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BACIU Adrian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the role of oil in today’s world, society, and economy. It is important because anything nowadays is about oil, from economy, and society, to international politics. Since the development of air and road transportation, but especially after World War II, the transfer of wealth from some countries (the consuming countries to another countries (the producing countries is unique in human history; and the influence of the second group of countries in world politics is very high due to this situation.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

  5. Changes in the Composition of Aromatherapeutic Citrus Oils during Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of some commercial Citrus oils, lemon, sweet orange, and tangerine, designated for aromatherapy, was examined before and after partial evaporation in a stream of nitrogen. The intact oils contained the expected mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpenes, with hydrocarbons dominating and lesser amounts of oxygenated analogues making up the remainder. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to follow alterations in the relative amounts of the various components present as evaporation proceeded. Changes were marked, and in particular more volatile components present in the intact oils rapidly disappeared. Thus the balance of content was shifted away from monoterpene hydrocarbons towards the analogous alcohols and carbonyl compounds. The results of this differential evaporation are discussed and possible consequences for aromatherapy use are noted. The case of lemon oil was especially interesting as the relative amount of citral, a known sensitizer, remaining as time elapsed represented an increasing percentage of the total oil.

  6. Oils and fats: changes due to culinary and industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Muniz, F J

    2006-07-01

    Diets of developed countries contain substantial quantities of fat subjected to different processing and heat treatments. Heating in the presence of air produces oxidative and thermal degradations in the unsaturated acyl groups of triacylglycerols and in other unsaturated compounds present in the oils and fats. These changes modify the nutritional properties of culinary fat and lead to the formation of many oxidized and polymerized compounds that present higher polarity than that of the original triacylglycerols. Some aspects of lipid peroxidation that occur in heated and used frying oils will be briefly presented and discussed. This paper will focus on appropriate methodology for the assessment of fat alteration (e.g. chromatography) and the point at which any oil used for frying should be discarded. Polar material (PM) and triacylglycerol oligomer content (TOC) determinations constitute the basis of legislation for oil discarding in some European countries; we will try to open some debate on whether PM or TOC is preferred for oil discarding assessment. Correct frying performance helps to lengthen oil frying-life and to decrease the alteration content in the fried food. Because many factors are present in the culinary and industrial frying, the effect of the process itself and that of the food and the type of oil used will be reviewed. The present report analyses and describes a wide variety of topics related to frying performance, and their nutritional implications with a special focus on the behavior during frying of most consumed oils in Mediterranean countries.

  7. Oil Production, The Price Crash and Uncertainty in Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    World oil production increased to about 74 million barrels per day by January 2005, and was fairly constant until 2011 when it started to increase to 77.8 mb/d in 2014. This spectacular increase of 4 mb/d was almost entirely due to a sharp increase in production in the US from shale formations, called light tight oil (LTO). World oil production minus this increase in US LTO Production has been flat since 2005 at about 74 mb/d. When US production starts to decline, world oil production likely will as well. That surge is forecast to end soon because LTO is expensive to produce, the first year decline rates are extremely high requiring many new wells each year to maintain or increase production and the most productive locations have already been drilled. It is unprofitable for the Exploration and Production (E&P) companies. Full-year free cash flow has been negative for most tight oil E&P companies since 2009. The total negative cash flow for the 19 largest E&P companies totaled 10.5B in 2014. The surge in US LTO production created an imbalance in global supply and demand and resulted in a 50% decrease in the price of oil. The tight-oil producers who were are financially marginal at an oil price greater than 90 per barrel are even more so at the lower price. As a result the surge in US production of LTO is declining, making it unlikely that world oil production will exceed the present value of about 28 Gb/yr (equivalent to 75 mb/d) (175 EJ/yr). Many of the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios) and RCP (IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways) projections (especially RCP 8.5 and 6) require CO2 emissions due to oil consumption in the range of 32 Gb/yr to 57 Gb/yr (200 to 350 EJ/yr). The higher values would require a doubling of world oil production. It is highly uncertain whether the higher CO2 scenarios will be reached. This is an element of uncertainty missing from most considerations of future climate change.

  8. Arctic climate change and oil spill risk analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William B. Samuels; David E. Amstutz; Heather A. Crowley

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to:1) describe the effects of climate change in the Arctic and its impact on circulation,2) describe hindcast data used in the Ocean Energy Management,Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) Oil Spill Risk Analysis (OSRA) model,3)evaluate alternatives such as using forecast results in the OSRA model,and 4) recommend future studies.Effects of climate change on winds,sea ice,ocean circulation and river discharge in the Arctic and impacts on surface circulation can be evaluated only through a series of specially designed numerical experiments using highresolution coupled ice-ocean models to elucidate the sensitivity of the models to various parameterizations or forcings.The results of these experiments will suggest what mechanisms are most important in controlling model response and guide inferences on how OSRA may respond to different climate change scenarios.Climatological change in the Arctic could lead to drastic alterations of wind,sea ice cover and concentration,and surface current fields all of which would influence hypothetical oil spill trajectories.Because of the pace at which conditions are changing,BOEMRE needs to assess whether forecast ice/ocean model results might contain useful information for the purposes of calculating hypothetical oil spill trajectories.

  9. Climate change in the North and the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottem, Svein Vigeland; Moe, Arild

    2007-11-15

    How will climate change affect oil industry operations in the High North? The report analyses impacts in the North that are different from, or come in addition to, the impacts felt globally, from two angles: One outlining climate-related changes in nature and their impacts on oil industry operations, and the second discussing actual and possible policy responses and their impact. Forecasts and scenarios developed by climate scientists indicate that the situation is volatile. The climate and weather will be less predictable. Although the long term tendency is clear, there will be large variations in ice from year to year, with some seasons colder and with more ice than what has been 'normal' in recent years. The industry cannot count on areas remaining ice-free, and when it comes to fixed installations it will have to prepare for a situation in 2030 with maximum ice not much different than today. Climate policies are not likely to have a strong direct impact on the operations of oil companies in the north, but the climate development in the North is likely to impact other political processes, public opinion and consumers. In turn they may affect the conditions for oil industry operations. (author). 49 refs., 7 figs

  10. Breeding the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. for climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rival Alain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. for climate change requires multidisciplinary and collaborative research by nature: indeed – besides genetics and structural and functional genomics – almost all disciplines related to life sciences are involved. Research work also relies on the identification of genetic variation in the strategies of response to stress developed by the plant: this implies the exploration of resources provided by natural variation, germplasm collections, selected genitors from breeding programs together with material of interest collected from smallholders. The phenotyping of selected plant material under biotic/abiotic stress will involve new methods for high-throughput phenotyping and genomic approaches will be followed for the identification of genes underlying the variation of traits which will be used as selection targets. Also, improvements in understanding how climate change may influence chemical and physical processes in soils, how this may affect nutrient availability, and how the plant responds to changed availability of nutrients will also influence oil palm breeding programs. Molecular approaches and tools have great potential to optimize patterns of plant breeding, especially for perennial species. In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in molecular resources and methods aimed at identifying polymorphisms which control the traits of interest and exploring the mechanisms linking these polymorphisms to phenotypes. With genomic resources becoming increasingly available for the oil palm (sequencing, resequencing and chips development the exploration of the genetic basis of complex traits such as oil yield or resistance to disease is now possible. Consequently the availability and sharing of such a large amount of data is currently reshaping most of oil palm breeding strategies.

  11. Divisia Decomposition Method and Its Application to Changes of Net Oil Import Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖华; 徐照祎; 王策

    2014-01-01

    The existing oil import dependence index cannot exactly measure the economic cost or scales, and it is difficult to describe the economical aspect of oil security. To measure the foreign dependence of one country’s econ-omy and reflect its oil economic security, this paper defines the net oil import intensity as the ratio of net oil import cost to GDP. By using Divisia Index Decomposition, the change of net oil import intensity in five industrialized coun-tries and five newly industrialized countries during 1971-2010 is decomposed into five factors:oil price, oil intensity, oil self-sufficiency, domestic price level and exchange rate. The result shows that the dominating factors are oil price and oil intensity;moreover, the newly industrialized countries have higher net oil import intensity than industrialized countries.

  12. MICROBIAL POPULATION CHANGES DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil-spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil + nutrients, and oil + nutrients + an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In-situ microbial community str...

  13. Changes occurring in vegetable oils composition due to microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Mallah, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave heating on three vegetable oils having different lipid compositions was studied. Sunflower, soybean and peanut oils in comparison with oil admixture of soybean and peanut oil (1:1, w/w, were selected for this study. Each oil was heated for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 18 minutes in microwave oven. Peroxide value, free acidity and colour absorbance (at 420 nm were proportionally increasing with the increase of heating period. Colour absorption threw light on the formation of browning products arising from phospholipids during microwave heating. Total tocopherol contents were determined by preparative thin layer chromatography, whereas the fatty acid compositions and formed epoxy acid were analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography. The formed conjugated dienes and trienes were determined by UV spectrophotometry. It was found that the total tocopherols of the microwave heated oils, decreased depending on the type of the predominating tocopherols. Also a relation of peroxide formation, during microwave heating, with changes in total tocopherol composition was discussed. It was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids generally decreased by increasing the heating period. The results obtained from the heated oil admixture helped interpret the results obtained from other heated individual oils.Se estudia el efecto del calentamiento en horno de microondas sobre aceites de diferente composición en ácidos grasos. Aceites de girasol, soja, cacahuete y una mezcla de soja y cacahuete al 50%, se calentaron durante 2, 4, 6, 8 10, 12, 15 y 18 minutos. Los valores de índice de peróxidos, acidez libre y absorbancia a 420 nm fueron proporcionales al tiempo de calentamiento. Otras determinaciones incluyeron el contenido total en tocoferoles mediante cromatografía en capa fina, la composición en ácidos grasos y en epoxiácidos mediante cromatografía gas líquido, y la formación de dienos y trienos conjugados mediante

  14. Breeding the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) for climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Rival Alain

    2017-01-01

    Breeding the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) for climate change requires multidisciplinary and collaborative research by nature: indeed – besides genetics and structural and functional genomics – almost all disciplines related to life sciences are involved. Research work also relies on the identification of genetic variation in the strategies of response to stress developed by the plant: this implies the exploration of resources provided by natural variation, germplasm collections, selecte...

  15. Climate change and the oil industry: Common problem, different strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Skjaerseth, Jon; Skodvin, Tora

    2003-01-01

    Multinational corporations are not merely the problem in environmental concerns, but could also be part of the solution. The oil industry and climate change provide the clearest example of how the two are linked; what is less well-known is how the industry is responding to these concerns. This volume presents a detailed study of the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil. With an innovative analytical approach, the authors explain variations at three decision-making levels: withi...

  16. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Hove, S. [MEDIAN, Passeig Pintor Romero 8, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, Marc [University Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona (Spain); De Bettignies, Henri-Claude [INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors.

  17. Ergonomics in projects of oil platforms in a change context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, Barbara; Duarte, Francisco; Cordeiro, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    The context of oil platform design is changing in order to increase competitiveness and be prepared for difficult operations, mainly in fields more distant from the coast, like pre-salt. The currently preceding context is marked by projects guidelines designed to reduce projects and operation costs, including an important reducing in the number of people on board. The main objective of this research is to verify and discuss if the experience of use in platforms designed in a previous context, in which the people on board is practically twice, can contribute and/or can be transferred to new projects. From the ergonomic intervention in the design of two oil platform, with the work of team on board investigated on previous projects as reference, it was possible analyze if the previous use is still applicable to new projects. As a result, about 90% of the recommendations based on use are applicable to the current context. The restrictions on the transfer or operational experience are mainly related to the time of entry of ergonomics in the design process, the subsequent transformations costs and the advance of the execution phase started with the detailed design.

  18. The Biodiversity Changes in the Microbial Population of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    Crude oil spills resulting from excavation, transportation and downstream processes can cause intensive damage to living organisms and result in changes in the microbial population of that environment. In this study, we used a pyrosequencing analysis to investigate changes in the microbial population of soils contaminated with crude oil. Crude oil contamination in soil resulted in the creation of a more homogenous population of microorganisms dominated by members of the Actinomycetales, Clostridiales and Bacillales (all belonging to Gram-positive bacteria) as well as Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadales (all belonging to Gram-negative bacteria). These changes in the biodiversity decreased the ratios of chemoheterotrophic bacteria at higher concentrations of crude oil contamination, with these being replaced by photoheterotrophic bacteria, mainly Rhodospirillales. Several of the dominant microbial orders in the crude oil contaminated soils are able to degrade crude oil hydrocarbons and therefore are potentially useful for remediation of crude oil in contaminated sites.

  19. Chemical changes in extra virgin argan oil after thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr Eddine; Guillaume, Dom; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters, measured every 6 hours, of extra virgin argan oil heated for 24 h at 180 degrees C were investigated and compared with those of five other edible oils treated in the same thermoxidative condition. Argan oil was found to be particularly stable at high temperature, its level of polar compounds remaining low even after 24 h of heating.

  20. Spatial and temporal changes of density and chemical composition of heavy oils of Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. Polishchuk, I.G. Yashchenko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Paper is devoted to analytical review of regularities of spatial and temporal changes of chemical composition and density of heavy oils of Eurasia, which are envisaged as main reserve of world’s oil production industry for future years. The contents of sulfur, paraffin, resin, asphaltene and light fraction in heavy oils and their density were analysed statistically with use the global database on petrochemistry created by Institute of petroleum chemistry. The database includes above 3,660 samples of heavy oils from 62 principal oil-bearing basins in Eurasia. The basic regularities of regional distribution of heavy oils are considered. It is shown that the heaviest oils of Eurasia are in oil-bearing basins of Southern Europe and Southern Asia. The regularities of heavy oil density changes depending on occurrence depth are given. It is shown oil density decreases with depth growth. Maximum values of density of heavy oils are observed in Cenozoic rocks and their minimum values are in Proterozoic rocks. In average, heavy oils are sulfur, high resin, high asphaltenes ones containing small paraffin and small light fractions.

  1. A technique for evaluating the oil/heavy-oil viscosity changes under ultrasound in a simulated porous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Hossein; Mohammadian, Erfan; Junin, Radzuan; Rafati, Roozbeh; Manan, Mohammad; Azdarpour, Amin; Junid, Mundzir

    2014-02-01

    Theoretically, Ultrasound method is an economical and environmentally friendly or "green" technology, which has been of interest for more than six decades for the purpose of enhancement of oil/heavy-oil production. However, in spite of many studies, questions about the effective mechanisms causing increase in oil recovery still existed. In addition, the majority of the mechanisms mentioned in the previous studies are theoretical or speculative. One of the changes that could be recognized in the fluid properties is viscosity reduction due to radiation of ultrasound waves. In this study, a technique was developed to investigate directly the effect of ultrasonic waves (different frequencies of 25, 40, 68 kHz and powers of 100, 250, 500 W) on viscosity changes of three types of oil (Paraffin oil, Synthetic oil, and Kerosene) and a Brine sample. The viscosity calculations in the smooth capillary tube were based on the mathematical models developed from the Poiseuille's equation. The experiments were carried out for uncontrolled and controlled temperature conditions. It was observed that the viscosity of all the liquids was decreased under ultrasound in all the experiments. This reduction was more significant for uncontrolled temperature condition cases. However, the reduction in viscosity under ultrasound was higher for lighter liquids compare to heavier ones. Pressure difference was diminished by decreasing in the fluid viscosity in all the cases which increases fluid flow ability, which in turn aids to higher oil recovery in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Higher ultrasound power showed higher liquid viscosity reduction in all the cases. Higher ultrasound frequency revealed higher and lower viscosity reduction for uncontrolled and controlled temperature condition experiments, respectively. In other words, the reduction in viscosity was inversely proportional to increasing the frequency in temperature controlled experiments. It was concluded that cavitation

  2. Centrifuges cut oil change costs in half at NYC shopping mall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.J.

    1983-09-01

    This article describes the use of centrifuges in five double turbocharged engines in an energy plant at a New York City shopping mall. The result of the use of the centrifuges has been a marked decrease in the use of lubricating oil. While the mechanics formerly changed oil and filters twice a year, they now only change it when the oil analysis says they should. So far it has been estimated that an oil change is needed only once a year, cutting oil and filter usage in half. An estimated annual saving of $1000 for lubricating oil and $476 for the 28 filters on each engine, which is a direct savings of $7380 per year for all five engines.

  3. Does Climate Change Mitigation Activity Affect Crude Oil Prices? Evidence from Dynamic Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Dike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates how climate change mitigation affects crude oil prices while using carbon intensity as the indicator for climate change mitigation. The relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity is estimated using an Arellano and Bond GMM dynamic panel model. This study undertakes a regional-level analysis because of the geographical similarities among the countries in a region. Regions considered for the study are Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and South America, the EU, the Middle East, and North America. Results show that there is a positive relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity, and a 1% change in carbon intensity is expected to cause about 1.6% change in crude oil prices in the short run and 8.4% change in crude oil prices in the long run while the speed of adjustment is 19%.

  4. North African oil and foreign investment in changing market conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattouh, Bassam [SOAS, University of London (United Kingdom); Darbouche, Hakim [Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Since the 1960s, the experiences of the North African oil producers of Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Sudan within the oil industry have followed separate paths, which have led them into different relations with foreign oil companies. While reflecting broader trends of 'resource nationalism', these relations have also been affected by a number of factors specific to these countries. In tracing the evolution of the oil investment frameworks of these countries, as well as their concomitant relations with IOCs, this paper probes the roles played by these factors and argues that the type and size of remaining reserves as well as the capability of NOCs are likely to determine the most future developments in the region's oil industry. (author)

  5. Analysis of Climate Change Effect on Camellia Oil Content in Fujian Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Hui-kang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fujian Province is one of the main camellia oleifera production areas in China. Camellia oleifera is also an important characteristic varieties of woody oil, which can produce the high quality seed oil. By using of 0.5°(E×0.5°(Nlattice data of China ground temperature and precipitation from 1961 to 2010 which came from National Meteorological Information Center in 2013, this paper extracted the corre-sponding decadal climate data of Fujian Province to carry on statistical and variation analysis, applied climate models of the integrated assess-ment for camellia oil content by using of ArcGIS geographic information technology and probability statistics method to regionalize the oil content of camellia oleifera temporal and spatial distribution from 1961s to 2010s in Fujian Province, analyzed the variation relationship be-tween the oil content and climate essential factor of the monthly decadal mean temperature and precipitation in September at the stage of the key growth period of camellia oil fat accumulation and transformation, evaluated the regional characteristics of camellia oil content variation affected by climate factors in Fujian Province from 1961s to 2010s. The results showed that the decadal mean precipitation in September had a positive significant correlation with oil content change and played a major role of camellia oleifera production in Fujian Province; the signif-icant characteristics of that oil content level in high or low followed the decadal alternate change. There were obviously different oil content level between high oil decadal(1960s, 1980s, 2000sand low oil decadal(1970s, 1990s, and its significant variation period was 20 years. The decadal difference was not significant in temperature coefficient of variation (CvT, which affected the oil content was not obvious either. But there had significant change between precipitation coefficient of variation(CvRand oil content coefficient of variation(Cvf, and their

  6. Examining the impacts of oil price changes on economic indicators: A panel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kah Boon; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-04-01

    The impact of oil price on global economy is evident from many studies and research findings. In this study, we extend the research on examining the impact of oil price changes on economic indicators in terms of economic growth and inflation by comparing different groups of economies (high income versus low income countries and oil importing versus oil exporting countries). Our main objective is to reveal if such impact varies across country income level/ development and oil dependency. In addition, we also seek to compare the impacts of oil price relative to the other factors indicators (money supply, foreign direct investment, exchange rate, government expenditure, inflation and gross domestic product) on economy. For the purpose of this study, the co-integration regression (DOLS and FMOLS) techniques are applied to the panel dataset of four groups of economies which contain 10 countries in each panel dataset. The analysis results show that oil price is not the main determinant although it can have a significant impact on inflation and economic growth across all groups of economies. The three main determinants of economic growth are exchange rate, aggregate demand and government expenditure while the determinants of inflation are aggregate supply and exchange rate. Furthermore, our result also concludes that oil price has a positive impact in oil exporting economies but it shows a negative impact in oil importing economies due to the oil dependency factor.

  7. Using biomass for climate change mitigation and oil use reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, L.; Holmberg, J.; Dornburg, V.; Sathre, R.; Eggers, T.; Mahapatra, K.; Marland, G. [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Oestersund (Sweden)

    2007-11-15

    In this paper, we examine how an increased use of biomass could efficiently meet Swedish energy policy goals of reducing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and oil use. In particular, we examine the trade-offs inherent when biomass use is intended to pursue multiple objectives. We set up four scenarios in which up to 400 PJ/year of additional biomass is prioritised to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, reduce oil use, simultaneously reduce both CO{sub 2} emission and oil use, or to produce ethanol to replace gasoline. Technologies analysed for using the biomass include the production of electricity, heat, and transport fuels, and also as construction materials and other products. We find that optimising biomass use for a single objective (either CO{sub 2} emission reduction or oil use reduction) results in high fulfilment of that single objective (17.4 Tg C/year and 350 PJ oil/year, respectively), at a monetary cost of 130-330 million EUR/year, but with low fulfilment of the other objective. A careful selection of biomass uses for combined benefits results in reductions of 12.6 Tg C/year and 230 PJ oil/year (72% and 67%, respectively, of the reductions achieved in the scenarios with single objectives), with a monetary benefit of 45 million EUR/year. Prioritising for ethanol production gives the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, intermediate oil use reduction, and the highest monetary cost. (author)

  8. Sustainability perspectives : head in the oil sands? Climate change risks in Canada's oil and gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulson, J.; Walker, R.; Ballance, C.; Bonham, J.; Chiloflischi, C.; McCaffrey, J.

    2007-03-15

    This paper evaluated the extent to which Canada's oil and gas companies are now responding to the challenges of climate change. The analysis was published to assist companies and investors in reducing the risks associated with climate change. The study used a methodology that drew on leading sources in the field of corporate responses to climate change in order to build climate risk metrics for the oil and gas industry. The study assessed the management systems, action plans, performance and transparency of 48 Canadian oil and gas companies in order to determine the extent to which the companies are preparing for the future. The study found that the vast majority of Canadian oil and gas companies have failed to take action to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and only 7 companies factored the cost of carbon into capital allocation decisions. Many companies have failed to conduct inventories of GHG emissions. Only 13 of 48 companies disclosed GHG emissions to the public. The study also determined that only 4 of the 50 companies assessed in the study were responding appropriately to risks associated with climate change. Canadian companies included Shell Canada and Suncor. Both companies had established comprehensive management systems, strategies and renewable energy investments, and had high levels of transparency. 19 refs.

  9. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Sikkema, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110609913; Dornburg, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189955007; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2011-01-01

    This study compiles and analyses national-level data on land use change (LUC) and its causes in Indonesia and Malaysia over the past 30 years. The study also explores the role that palm oil has played in past LUC and that projected growth in palm oil production may play in LUC until 2020 and

  10. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; Sikkema, R.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study compiles and analyses national-level data on land use change (LUC) and its causes in Indonesia and Malaysia over the past 30 years. The study also explores the role that palm oil has played in past LUC and that projected growth in palm oil production may play in LUC until 2020 and suggest

  11. Resultant Land Use and Land Cover Change from Oil Spillage using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Omodanisi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spill of oil into the environment threatens the existence of vegetation. This study identified the coastal area of Lagos impacted by oil spill, explosion and fire; using Landsat ETM+2005 and Ikonos 2007 and evaluated the effect. Subsequently, geo-spatial database was created for monitoring of oil pipelines Right of Way (ROW in the area. The biggest land use land cover changes were the high forest and the light forest classes of mangrove vegetation by 22.2 and 15.5% respectively. The control quadrat sampled had the highest species diversity index of 0.6758 compared to the others. The study concluded that oil spill had affected the land use land cover as well as provided oil spill emergency response centres sites as a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS for oil pipeline management.

  12. [Antiradical activity and resistance of flaxseed oil enriched with the antioxidants to oxidative changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Rusina, I F; Ipatova, O M

    2008-01-01

    Using the chemiluminescence technique, the effective concentration of antioxidants (AO) and its reactivity towards peroxyl radicals (constant k7) have been measured for the oil "Ubicato-flax" (biological active supplement) and flaxseed oil, enriched with Aronia melanocarpa extract. Ubicato-flax exhibited the highest antiradical activity but it was less resistant to oxidative changes as compared with flaxseed oil + extract. Ubicato oil produced on basis of natural AO exhibited higher antiradical activity in comparison with Ubicato oil produced on basis of the chemical synthetic AO. Aronia extract added to flaxseed oil caused marked inhibition of the increase in the peroxide value. Ubicato-flax may serve as a source of AO for not more than 6 months.

  13. Dynamics of changes in oil composition at the development of the Usinsk deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinykh, Yu. V.; Chuikina, D. I.

    2016-11-01

    To test new materials used for enhanced oil recovery, methods are needed for determining the effectiveness of their impact on the oil reservoir. Monitoring can be performed by analyzing reservoir fluids with a changed composition of oil. In the Usinsk deposit, a complex injection of surfactant compositions and the gel composition was carried out by the technology developed in the IPC SB RAS. The technology of the use of gel compositions is based on aluminum chloride and urea (GALKA-NT technology), and the technology of the use of surfactants is based on surfactant solutions and urea (IPC-PRO). The study shows that the use of gradient and displacement chromatography could effectively maintain a control over the development of the field where new materials and reagents are used for enhanced oil recovery. The change in the oil composition reflects processes occurring in the reservoir, which allows a purposeful regulation of them.

  14. Probing structural changes of proteins incorporated into water-in-oil emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Lene; van de Weert, Marco; Vermehren, Charlotte;

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of different techniques, that is, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, for probing the structural changes of proteins in the water-in-oil emulsions are investigated using nondefatted bovine...

  15. Natural Gas markets:How Sensitive to Crude Oil Price Changes?

    OpenAIRE

    onour, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates sensitivity of U.S. natural gas price to crude oil price changes, using time-varying coefficient models. Identification of the range of variation of the sensitivity of natural gas price to oil price change allows more accurate assessment of upper and minimum risk levels that can be utilized in pricing natural gas derivatives such as gas futures and option contracts, and gas storage facility contracts.

  16. Bacterial Community Structure and Biochemical Changes Associated With Composting of Lignocellulosic Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Huzairi Mohd Zainudin; Mohd Ali Hassan,; Umi Kalsom Md Shah; Norhani Abdullah; Mitsunori Tokura; Hisashi Yasueda; Yoshihito Shirai; Kenji Sakai; Azhari Samsu Baharuddin

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial community structure and biochemical changes during the composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge were studied by examining the succession of the bacterial community and its association with changes in lignocellulosic components by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the 16S rRNA gene clone library. During composting, a major reduction in cellulose after 10 days from 50% to 19% and the carbon content fro...

  17. Age of oil palm plantations causes a strong change in surface biophysical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabajo, Clifton; le Maire, Guerric; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, Indonesia has experienced dramatic land transformations with an expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests. As vegetation is a modifier of the climate near the ground these large-scale land transformations are expected to have major impacts on the surface biophysical variables i.e. surface temperature, albedo, and vegetation indices, e.g. the NDVI. Remote sensing data are needed to assess such changes at regional scale. We used 2 Landsat images from Jambi Province in Sumatra/Indonesia covering a chronosequence of oil palm plantations to study the 20 - 25 years life cycle of oil palm plantations and its relation with biophysical variables. Our results show large differences between the surface temperature of young oil palm plantations and forest (up to 9.5 ± 1.5 °C) indicating that the surface temperature is raised substantially after the establishment of oil palm plantations following the removal of forests. During the oil palm plantation lifecycle the surface temperature differences gradually decreases and approaches zero around an oil palm plantation age of 10 years. Similarly, NDVI increases and the albedo decreases approaching typical values of forests. Our results show that in order to assess the full climate effects of oil palm expansion biophysical processes play an important role and the full life cycle of oil palm plantations need to be considered.

  18. Processes of inclusion and adverse incorporation: oil palm and agrarian change in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John

    2010-01-01

    Changes in globalised agriculture raise critical questions as rapid agricultural development leads to widespread social and environmental transformation. With increased global demand for vegetable oils and biofuel, in Indonesia the area under oil palm has doubled over the last decade. This paper presents a case study of how micro-processes that are linked to wider dynamics shape oil palm related agrarian change in villages in Sumatra, Indonesia. It pursues related questions regarding the impact of agribusiness-driven agriculture, the fate of smallholders experiencing contemporary agrarian transition, and the impact of increased demand for vegetable oils and biofuels on agrarian structures in Sumatra. It argues that the paths of agrarian change are highly uneven and depend on how changing livelihood strategies are enabled or constrained by economic, social and political relations that vary over time and space. In contrast to simplifying narratives of inclusion/exclusion, it argues that outcomes depend on the terms under which smallholders engage with oil palm. Distinguishing between exogenous processes of agribusiness expansion and endogenous commodity market expansion, it finds each is associated with characteristic processes of change. It concludes that the way successive policy interventions have worked with the specific characteristics of oil palm have cumulatively shaped the space where agrarian change occurs in Sumatra.

  19. Using biomass for climate change mitigation and oil use reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustavsson, L.; Holmberg, J.; Dornburg, V.; Sathre, R.; Eggers, R.; Mahapatra, K.; Marland, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how an increased use of biomass could efficiently meet Swedish energy policy goals of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and oil use. In particular, we examine the trade-offs inherent when biomass use is intended to pursue multiple objectives. We set up four scenarios

  20. Using biomass for climate change mitigation and oil use reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustavsson, L.; Holmberg, J.; Dornburg, V.; Sathre, R.; Eggers, R.; Mahapatra, K.; Marland, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how an increased use of biomass could efficiently meet Swedish energy policy goals of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and oil use. In particular, we examine the trade-offs inherent when biomass use is intended to pursue multiple objectives. We set up four scenarios

  1. Laboratory and field observations of stress-wave induced changes in oil flow behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P. M. (Peter M.); Majer, Ernest Luther; Wooden, W. (William); Daley, T. M. (Thomas M.)

    2001-01-01

    We present recent results of laboratory and field experiments designed to validate and quantify the phenomenon of seismically enhanced oil production in marginal reservoirs. Controlled laboratory experiments were performed where mechanical stress oscillations at 100 Hz or less were applied to sandstone cores while flowing oil and/or brine at constant flow rates. Steady-state flow and simulated flooding experiments indicated that stress stimulation causes significant changes in the ability of one fluid to displace the other and on the preference that the rock has for trapping one fluid over the other. For Berea sandstone, which is highly water wet, stress stimulation caused oil production to be impeded during water floods and caused the bulk fluid pressure drop across the core to increase during steady-state simultaneous flow of oil and brine. A possible explanation of these observations is that stimulation caused the core to become more oil wet. Field stimulation tests on producing reservoirs at Lost Hills, California were performed using a downhole fluid pressure pulsation device. Stimulation was applied in one well for 50 days total during July - November 2000. Two groups of producing wells were monitored for changes in oil cut and oil production during the test. A control group of 26 wells displayed an oil-cut increase of 29% and an oil production increase of 26% which are clearly correlated with the stimulation treatment. A larger group of 60 wells showed 11% oil-cut and 17v0 production increases. Similar increases were observed during the October 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, magnitude 7.1, in the Mojave Desert about 230 miles from Lost Hills. Downhole seismic monitoring of the stimulation wavefield is being used to help quantify the frequency range and energy threshold required for effective production enhancement.

  2. Effect of linseed oil and macadamia oil on metabolic changes induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Helenton C; Schiavon, Fabiana P M; Cararra, Marcia A; Marques, Any de Castro R; Schamber, Christiano R; Curi, Rui; Bazotte, Roberto B

    2014-06-01

    The effects of linseed oil (LO) and macadamia oil (MO) on the metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acid were investigated. For the purpose of this study, the vegetable oil present in the HFD, i.e. soybean oil (SO) was replaced with LO (HFD-LO) or MO (HFD-MO). For comparative purposes, a group was included, which received a normal fat diet (NFD). Male Swiss mice (6-week old) were used. After 14 days under the dietary conditions, the mice were fasted for 18 h, and experiments were then performed. The HFD-SO, HFD-LO and HFD-MO groups showed higher glycaemia (p < 0.05 versus NFD). However, no significant effect was observed on glycaemia, liver gluconeogenesis and liver ketogenesis when SO was replaced by either LO or MO. The body weight and the sum of epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and inguinal fat weights were higher (p < 0.05) in the HFD-SO and HFD-MO groups as compared with the NFD group. However, there was no significant difference in these parameters between the NFD and HFD-LO groups. Thus, the protective role of LO on lipid accumulation induced by an HFD rich in saturated fatty acid is potentially mediated by the high content of ɷ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in LO. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Assessment and Enhancement of {SAR} non-coherent Change Detection Techniques Following Oil Spills

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan; Barnes, Christopher F

    2016-01-01

    In this study the detection of the oil spill using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is considered. Detection of the oil spill is performed using change detection algorithms between imagery acquired at different times. The specific algorithms used are the correlation coefficient change statistic and the intensity ratio change statistic algorithms. Therefore these algorithms and the probabilistic selection of the threshold criteria is reviewed and discussed. A recently offered change detection method which depends on the idea of generating two different final change maps of two images in a sequence, is used. First final change map is obtained by cumulatively adding the sequences of change maps in such a manner that common change areas are excluded and uncommon change areas are included. The second final change map is obtained by comparing the first and the last images in the temporal sequence. This method requires at least three images to be employed and can be generalized to longer temporal image sequenc...

  4. Designer-Wet Micromodels for Studying Potential Changes in Wettability during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. T.; Wildenschild, D.

    2010-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a process where microorganisms are used for tertiary recovery of oil. Some bacteria can facilitate the mobilization of oil through the production of amphiphilic compounds called biosurfactants that reduce the interfacial tension (IFT) between immiscible phases. Additionally, most bacteria have an inclination to colonize surfaces and form biofilm, which can change a reservoir's wetting properties or clog preferential flow paths. Herein, we aim to understand changes in wettability during MEOR under mixed wettability conditions within silicon etched micromodels and to identify the type of oil field (i.e. based on wettability) in which MEOR is likely to be most profitable. To quantify porous media wettability, macro-scale indexes (obtained with techniques such as the Carter or Amott methods) are used regularly. However, these measurements lack the capability for characterization of changes in wettability during MEOR treatment, and only provide macro-scale information. In an effort to understand micro-scale temporal and spatial changes in wettability we measure interfacial curvature from stereo microscope images using level set methods. Curvature, from the perspective of the oil phase, is positive for a concave interface (i.e. water-wet surface) and negative for a convex interface (i.e. oil-wet surface). Thus, shifts in the radius of curvature distribution (i.e. from positive to negative or conversely) are indicative of wettability changes. Both curvature distributions using level-set methods and the Carter method are used to characterize wettability before and after microbial treatment. In preliminary studies aimed at understanding wettability changes due to microbial surface interactions by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, oil droplets were placed on glass slides suspended in growth media and the resulting contact angle was measured over time. Results showed that a water-wet surface will become more water wet as JF-2 accumulated in

  5. PINCH WELD TESTING TO SUPPORT CHANGE IN MANUFACTURING OIL AT THE KCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P; David Maxwell, D

    2008-02-28

    This task supports the change from an oil mixture termed 50:50 oil (an equal parts mixture of Milpro 634 and Pennex N47) to a new oil mixture (Castrol Illocut 334). This change was necessitated by a KCP vendor no longer supplying the Pennex N47 component of the 50-50. In order to continue production of machined parts, a detailed process was followed to ensure that high quality parts could be manufactured and that the cutting oil selected would provide acceptable human performance characteristics, e.g., skin irritability, smell, etc. A prime consideration in changing the oil was that no apparent change in the pinch weldability of the fill stems fabricated using the new oil and process parameters, if any, be observed. A two part approach, as detailed in the plan shown in Appendix B, was used to qualify the effect of the process on pinch weld characteristics. In the first phase, ref. 1., the weld parameter window was defined using fill stems made from 304L, 21-6-9, and 316 stainless steel. These weld conditions were then subsequently used for the Castrol Illocut 334 machined fill stems. The results of this activity are reported in this document. A follow-on task of welding in the facility was requested by one of the design agencies and this will be completed and reported separately.

  6. Effects of Crude Oil Price Changes on Sector Indices of Istanbul Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Toraman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil price is one of the most important economic factors directing the world economy. A small change in oil prices has positive or negative affects on all the economic factors. Aim of this study is to investigate the affects of oil price changes on Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE 100 composite index, services index, industrial index and technology index of ISE. Long-run relationship is tested by Cointegration tests and short-run relationship is tested by Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. According to the results of the study, 32.71 % of the forecasting error variance of industrial index and 16.40% is explained by crude oil prices of the forecasting error variance of ISE 100 index. About the other indices; 12.60 % of the forecasting error variance of services index, 11.82 % of the forecasting error variance of financial index and 5.38 % of the forecasting error variance are explained by crude oil prices. Consequently, investors purposing to invest in ISE Market should consider the oil prices and especially investors of ISE industrial index and ISE 100 index should follow the developments in crude oil prices.

  7. Effects of Crude Oil Price Changes on Sector Indices of Istanbul Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Toraman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil price is one of the most important economic factors directing the world economy. A small change in oil prices has positive or negative affects on all the economic factors. Aim of this study is to investigate the affects of oil price changes on Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE 100 composite index, services index, industrial index and technology index of ISE. Long-run relationship is tested by Cointegration tests and short-run relationship is tested by Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. According to the results of the study, 32.71 % of the forecasting error variance of industrial index and 16.40% is explained by crude oil prices of the forecasting error variance of ISE 100 index. About the other indices; 12.60 % of the forecasting error variance of services index, 11.82 % of the forecasting error variance of financial index and 5.38 % of the forecasting error variance are explained by crude oil prices. Consequently, investors purposing to invest in ISE Market should consider the oil prices and especially investors of ISE industrial index and ISE 100 index should follow the developments in crude oil prices.

  8. Change and recovery of coastal mesozooplankton community structure during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassou, L.; Hernandez, F. J.; Graham, W. M.

    2014-12-01

    The response of mesozooplankton community structure to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico was investigated using data from a long-term plankton survey off the coast of Alabama (USA). Environmental conditions observed in the study area during the oil spill (2010) were compared to historical observations (2005-2009), to support the contention that variations observed in zooplankton assemblage structure may be attributed to the oil spill, as opposed to natural climatic or environmental variations. Zooplankton assemblage structure observed during the oil spill period (May-August) in 2010 was then compared to historical observations from the same period (2005-2009). Significant variations were detected in assemblage structure in May and June 2010, but these changes were no longer significant by July 2010. The density of ostracods, cladocerans and echinoderm larvae were responsible for most of the differences observed, but patterns differed depending on taxa and months. Many taxa had higher densities during the oil spill year, including calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, ostracods, bivalve larvae and cladocerans, among others. Although this result is somewhat surprising, it is possible that increased microbial activity related to the infusion of oil carbon may have stimulated secondary production through microbial-zooplankton trophic linkages. Overall, results suggest that, although changes in zooplankton community composition were observed during the oil spill, variations were weak and recovery was rapid.

  9. Changes in proximate composition and oil characteristics during flaxseed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herchi, W.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization-Mass Spectrometry (APPI-MS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC are the two analytical methods that were used to characterize Triacylglycerols (TAGs during flaxseed development. The HPLC method of the oils showed the presence of 15 TAG species. In contrast to the HPLC chromatograms, the APPI-MS showed 17 peaks of TAG. APPI-MS is more rapid than the HPLC method (11 min. The iodine value of the oils showed a gradual increase, while the oil stability continuously decreased. Proximate composition during flaxseed development revealed that flaxseed is potentially a good source of dietary energy and protein. At full maturity, flaxseed contained 37% oil and 24% protein on a dry-weight basis; albumin was the major storage protein (53% of total storage proteins followed by globulin (33% and glutelin fractions (11%. Prolamins had the lowest percentage with 3%. α-amylase activity was higher in the mature seeds than the young ones.Fotoionización a presión atmosférica-Espectrometría de masas (APPI-MS y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC son dos métodos de análisis que se utilizaron para caracterizar triglicéridos (TAGs durante el desarrollo de semillas de linaza. El método HPLC mostró la presencia de 15 especies de TAG, en contraste, los cromatogramas de APPI-MS mostraron 17 picos de TAG siendo el método APPI-MS más rápido que el de HPLC (11 min. El índice de yodo de los aceites mostró un aumento gradual, mientras que la estabilidad disminuyó continuamente. El estudio de la composición proximal de la linaza durante su desarrollo, mostró que esta semilla es una fuente potencialmente buena de energía y de proteína para la dieta. Al final de la maduración, la linaza contenía 37 % de aceite y 24 % de proteína sobre peso seco; albúmina fue la principal proteína de almacenamiento (53% sobre el total de las proteínas de almacenamiento seguido de la globulina (33 % y glutelina

  10. Multinationals and global climate change: issues for the automotive and oil industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.; Lundan, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the strategic responses by US and European multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the oil and automobile industries to the global climate change issue. We examine and attempt to explain the differences across regions, across industries, and the changes over time. Traditional

  11. Does oilrig activity react to oil price changes? An empirical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringlund, Guro Boernes [Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. P.O. Box 8148 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Skjerpen, Terje [Statistics Norway, Research Department, P.O. Box 8131 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2008-03-15

    In this paper, we analyze how oilrig activity in different non-OPEC regions is affected by the crude oil price. We estimate relationships between oilrig activity and crude oil prices using dynamic regression models augmented with latent components capturing trend and seasonality. The results generally show a positive relationship between oilrig activity and the crude oil price, but the strength of the relationship differs across regions. Overall, there seems to be a clear relationship between the oil industry structure in the region and the oilrig activity's reaction to price changes. On average, the long-run price elasticity for oilrig activity in non-OPEC countries is around unity. (author)

  12. Effects of citrus limon essential oil (Citrus limon L. on cytomorphometric changes of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Prabajati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common fungal infection found in oral cavity is oral candidiasis, largely caused by Candida species, particularly Candida albicans (C. albicans. Candida infection can get worse since it is difficult to be treated and resistant with antifungal drugs. Therefore, new drugs and compounds as well as alternative therapies involving natural sources that have antifungal activities have continually been developed. Limonene, β-pinene, and ɣ-terpinene contained in Citrus limon essential oil have been known to have quite good antifungal activities against C. albicans. Purpose: This research aimed to examine and analyze the effects of Citrus limon essential oil on cytomorphometric changes of C. albicans. Method: The research used post test only control group design. Based on the results of the pre-elementary research on antifungal activities of Citrus limon essential oil against C. albicans, Citrus limon essential oil used in this research was on concentrations of 1.56%, 1.37%, 1.17%, 0.98%, and 0.78%. Citrus limon essential oil by C. albicans inoculum and incubated for 24 hours and 48 hours. After the incubation, those C. albicans cells were fixed, dried, and then observed using a scanning electron microscopy. Result: The most effective concentrations of Citrus limon essential oil triggering cytomorphometric changes of Candida albicans were at 1.37% and 1.56% with the incubation period of 48 hours. Conclusion: C. albicans can undergo necrosis process through cytomorphometric changes after the administration of Citrus limon essential oil at concentrations of 1.56% and 1.37% with the incubation period of 48 hours.

  13. CHOROIDAL THICKNESS CHANGES AFTER VITRECTOMY WITH SILICONE OIL TAMPONADE FOR PROLIFERATIVE VITREORETINOPATHY RETINAL DETACHMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odrobina, Dominik; Gołębiewska, Joanna; Maroszyńska, Iwona

    2016-12-28

    To access the potential effect of vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade on the choroid. Eighteen patients (18 eyes) who had undergone pars plana vitrectomy with 1,000-cSt silicone oil tamponade for proliferative vitreoretinopathy retinal detachment were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent ophthalmologic examinations before treatment and 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months after vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade. Choroidal thickness was measured using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering) in a horizontal and vertical section beneath the fovea. Choroidal thickness statistically significantly decreased till 3 months after pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade: under the center of the fovea (P = 0.014) and in the temporal (P = 0.029), superior (P = 0.046), and inferior areas, determined at 1,500 μm from the center of the fovea (P = 0.030). After 6 months, the desired effect in the form of a decrease in the choroidal thickness was even more prominent, both under the center of the fovea (P tamponade. Silicone oil tamponade may have an impact on the structure and proper functioning of the choroid. The measurements of the choroidal thickness by optical coherence tomography might be a very good tool to detect early changes in choroidal thickness and impact the decision when to remove silicone oil.

  14. Carbon shift : how peak oil and the climate crisis will change Canada (and our lives)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer-Dixon, T. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Balsillie School of International Affairs; Garrison, N. (eds.); Hughes, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Jaccard, M. [Simon Fraser Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Keith, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Marsden, W.; Rubin, J. [CIBC World Markets, Toronto, ON (Canada); Simpson, J. [Globe and Mail, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This book offered 6 distinct point of view from world-class experts about climate change, peak oil and their central role in Canada's future. The author cautioned that cheap oil has undermined economic models, and business as usual is no longer an option as the twin crisis of climate change and peaking oil production converge. The book noted that the 2 problems are really one, notably a carbon problem, because the reliance on carbon energy to fuel our complex economies and societies is contaminating the atmosphere. Solving one of these problems will require solving the other at the same time. The innovative solution lies in clean, low-carbon energy. The book explored the economics, the geology, the politics, and the science of Canada's energy policies. refs., figs.

  15. Changes in the Chemical Components of Light Crude Oil During Simulated Short Term Weathering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To unambiguously identify spilled oils and to link them to the known sources are extremely important in settling questions of environmental impact and legal liability. The fate and behavior of spilled oils in the environment depend on a number of physicochemical and biological factors. This paper presents the results regarding changes in chemical composition of light crude oil during simulated short-term weathering based on natural environmental conditions. The results show that the saturated hydrocarbons of the light crude oil mainly distribute between n-C8 and n-C23 and the most abundant n-alkanes are found in the n-C10 to n-C16. The main chemical components of the light crude oil are n-alkanes and isoprenoids. The aromatic compounds are subordinate chemical components. Under the conditions of the weathering simulation experiment, n-alkanes less than n-C12, toluene and 1,3-dimethyl benzene are lost after 1 d weathering, the n-C13, n-C14, naphthalene and 2-methyl-naphthalene are lost on the fifth day of weathering, and n-C15 alkane components show certain weatherproof capability. The ratios n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane are unaltered and can be used to identify the source of the light crude oil during the first 8 d of weathering. After 21 d, the ratio pristine/phytane can not provide much information on the source of the spilled light crude oil. Triterpanes (m/z 191) as biomarker compounds of light crude oil are more valuable.

  16. Long-term oil contamination causes similar changes in microbial communities of two distinct soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jingqiu; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Dalin; Wang, Michael Cai; Huang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Since total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) are toxic and persistent in environments, studying the impact of oil contamination on microbial communities in different soils is vital to oil production engineering, effective soil management and pollution control. This study analyzed the impact of oil contamination on the structure, activity and function in carbon metabolism of microbial communities of Chernozem soil from Daqing oil field and Cinnamon soil from Huabei oil field through both culture-dependent techniques and a culture-independent technique-pyrosequencing. Results revealed that pristine microbial communities in these two soils presented disparate patterns, where Cinnamon soil showed higher abundance of alkane, (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) PAHs and TPH degraders, number of cultivable microbes, bacterial richness, bacterial biodiversity, and stronger microbial activity and function in carbon metabolism than Chernozem soil. It suggested that complicated properties of microbes and soils resulted in the difference in soil microbial patterns. However, the changes of microbial communities caused by oil contamination were similar in respect of two dominant phenomena. Firstly, the microbial community structures were greatly changed, with higher abundance, higher bacterial biodiversity, occurrence of Candidate_division_BRC1 and TAO6, disappearance of BD1-5 and Candidate_division_OD1, dominance of Streptomyces, higher percentage of hydrocarbon-degrading groups, and lower percentage of nitrogen-transforming groups. Secondly, microbial activity and function in carbon metabolism were significantly enhanced. Based on the characteristics of microbial communities in the two soils, appropriate strategy for in situ bioremediation was provided for each oil field. This research underscored the usefulness of combination of culture-dependent techniques and next-generation sequencing techniques both to unravel the microbial patterns and understand the ecological impact of

  17. The Biomarker Changes of a Heavy Fuel Oil After Different Weathering Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qimin; NI Zhanglin; YU Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of composition changes of heavy fuel oil by simulating weathering in static seawater under natural environmental conditions. The results indicate: n-C10 to n-C15 were lost gradually in 24 weeks and the relative abundance of alkanes with long chains (n-C19) increased markedly. The aromatic compounds with less than two rings (except C4N) were completely lost in 24 weeks and CnP and CnD became the main aromatics in the heavy fuel oil after 24 weeks. The ratios of n-C17/Pristane (Pr) and n-C18/Phytane (Ph) were suitable for identifying lightly weathered (3 weeks) heavy fuel oil. The ratios of n-C17/n-C18 and Pr/Ph were suitable for identifying moderately weathered heavy fuel oil (12 weeks); the ratios of C2D/C2P and C3D/C3P did not change significantly in 24 weeks and were more suitable for identifying moderately weathered heavy fuel oil (24 weeks).

  18. Land cover and land use changes in the oil and gas regions of Northwestern Siberia under changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Epstein, Howard E.; Engstrom, Ryan; Shiklomanov, Nikolay; Strelestskiy, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Northwestern Siberia has been undergoing a range of land cover and land use changes associated with climate change, animal husbandry and development of mineral resources, particularly oil and gas. The changes caused by climate and oil/gas development Southeast of the city of Nadym were investigated using multi-temporal and multi-spatial remotely sensed images. Comparison between high spatial resolution imagery acquired in 1968 and 2006 indicates that 8.9% of the study area experienced an increase in vegetation cover (e.g. establishment of new saplings, extent of vegetated cover) in response to climate warming while 10.8% of the area showed a decrease in vegetation cover due to oil and gas development and logging activities. Waterlogging along linear structures and vehicle tracks was found near the oil and gas development site, while in natural landscapes the drying of thermokarst lakes is evident due to warming caused permafrost degradation. A Landsat time series dataset was used to document the spatial and temporal dynamics of these ecosystems in response to climate change and disturbances. The impacts of land use on surface vegetation, radiative, and hydrological properties were evaluated using Landsat image-derived biophysical indices. The spatial and temporal analyses suggest that the direct impacts associated with infrastructure development were mostly within 100 m distance from the disturbance source. While these impacts are rather localized they persist for decades despite partial recovery of vegetation after the initial disturbance and can have significant implications for changes in permafrost dynamics and surface energy budgets at landscape and regional scales.

  19. Changes of headspace volatile constituents of palm olein and selected oils after frying French fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Muhammad Nor Bin; Nor, Nor Nazuha M; Idris, Nor Aini

    2007-04-01

    Changes of aroma constituents of palm olein and selected oils after frying French fries have been studied. The aroma constituents of used oils were collected using a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) headspace technique with an absorbent of a divinylbenzene/carboxen (DVB/CAR) (50/30 microm) on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre. The extracted volatiles were desorbed from the fibre in the injection port of the gas chromatograph at 250 degrees C and the aroma constituents were identified by GC-MS. Analytical data showed that volatile constituents of palm olein, soybean oil, corn oil and sunflower oil changed while frying continued from 2 to 40 h, respectively. In palm olein, the 2t,4t-decadienal content decreased from 14.7 to 5.5 microg g(-1) (40 h) whilst hexanal increased from 7.9 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 29.2 microg g(-1) (40 h), respectively. Similar result was also obtained from soybean oil after frying French fries. The 2t,4t-decadienal content decreased from 15.9 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 3.2 microg g(-1) after 40 h frying whilst hexanal increased from 10.2 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 34.2 microg g(-1) (40 h). Meanwhile, in corn oil, it was found that 2t,4t-decadienal decreased from 15.6 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 3.2 microg g(-1) (40 h) whilst hexanal increased from 11.3 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 33.8 microg g(-1) when frying time reached 40 h. In sunflower oil, it was found that 2t,4t-decadienal, decreased from 16.8 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 1.2 microg g(-1) (40 h) while hexanal increased from 9.5 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 32.4 microg g(-1) when frying time reached 40 h. It also showed that used oils exhibited off-odour characteristics due to the increasing amount ofhexanal while their freshness characteristics diminished due to the decreasing amount of 2t, 4t-decadienal.

  20. The ongoing changes in the base oil industry and their potential impact on the lubricant industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Holm, Valentina [Nynas AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    During the last years the base oil industry has undergone significant changes, with the rapid growth of Group II and Group III paraffinic base oils and the corresponding decline of Group I supply. The announcements of future instalments show that the increase of Group II and III capacity is indeed a stable trend all over the world. Based on publicly available information, the Group II capacity is expected to grow by 8.6 million tpa, reaching over 22 million tpa, and Group III capacity is expected to double from current 4.1 million tpa up to 8.2 million tpa. As the demand is not expected to grow at the same pace as the increasing supply, it is likely that this new capacity will lead to an oversupply situation in the next five years. Because of their production disadvantages compared to Group II and III and a shrinking demand in automotive applications, it is likely that Group I plants will close down or will operate at reduced throughput to compensate for the new Group II and III capacity. A decline of Group I capacity in favour of Group II and III may pose problems in the formulation of those industrial lubricants where solvency and/or viscosity are needed, such as lubricating greases, metalworking fluids, and several process oils applications. Either alone or in combination with Group II or III oils, naphthenic oils can be used in the formulation of industrial lubricants, as solvency and viscosity poroviders. (orig.)

  1. Flavoromics approach in monitoring changes in volatile compounds of virgin rapeseed oil caused by seed roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracka, Anna; Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Siger, Aleksander; Kaczmarek, Anna

    2016-01-08

    Two varieties of rapeseed (one high oleic - containing 76% of oleic acid, and the other - containing 62% of oleic acid) were used to produce virgin (pressed) oil. The rapeseeds were roasted at different temperature/time combinations (at 140-180°C, and for 5-15min); subsequently, oil was pressed from the roasted seeds. The roasting improved the flavour and contributed to a substantial increase in the amount of a potent antioxidant-canolol. The changes in volatile compounds related to roasting conditions were monitored using comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS), and the key odorants for the non-roasted and roasted seeds oils were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The most important compounds determining the flavour of oils obtained from the roasted seeds were dimethyl sulphide, dimethyltrisulfide, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 2,3-butenedione, octanal, 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine and phenylacetaldehyde. For the oils obtained from the non-roasted seeds, the dominant compounds were dimethylsulfide, hexanal and octanal. Based on GC×GC-ToFMS and principal component analysis (PCA) of the data, several compounds were identified that were associated with roasting at the highest temperatures regardless of the rapeseed variety: these were, among others, methyl ketones (2-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 2-octanone).

  2. Carbon balance impacts of land use changes related to the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil-derived biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2014-01-01

    to oil palm, in a life cycle perspective.LCA methodology is applied to existing land use change data. The assessment includes the issue of temporary carbon storage in the plantations. Through quantification of emissions from state forest reserve and rubber plantation conversions, the average Malaysian...... palm oil-related land use changes are calculated.The results show that there are high emissions associated with the conversion of Malaysian state forest reserve to oil palm, whereas the conversion of rubber leaves a less significant carbon debt when indirect land use change is not included. Looking......The area of oil palm plantations in Malaysia is expanding by approximately 0.14 million hectare per year, and with the increasing demand for palm oil worldwide, there is no sign of the expansions slowing down. This study aims to identify the greenhouse gas emissions associated with land conversion...

  3. Investigation on Changes in Physical and Chemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil During Hydrogenation

    OpenAIRE

    KARABULUT, İhsan

    1998-01-01

    Palm kernel oil was hydrogenated discontinuously for a period of 100 min at 165°C and 2,5 atm in the presence of nickel catalyst (%0,18). The changes in iodine number, fatty acid composition, trans fatty acid content and solid fat content during the hydrogenation were investigated for samples taken at 10 min intervals. According to the findings, while iodine number was gradually decreased during the reaction, trans fatty acid content increased significantly. Reaction conditions had increased...

  4. Post harvest physiconutritional changes in Kagzi limes (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) treated with selected oil emulsions and diphenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, P; Dashora, L K

    2000-01-01

    Influence of oil emulsions and diphenyl on post-harvest physiconutritional changes in Kagzi limes (Citrus aurantifolia) was studied. During twelve days of storage, physiological loss in weight (PLW) and rotting were at a minimum in fruits treated with Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) oil plus diphenyl; juice content was at a maximum in mustard oil + diphenyl treated fruits. With the advancement of storage period, total soluble solids were increased while ascorbic acid and acidity of fruits decreased. Mustard oil plus diphenyl supported maximum ascorbic acid (25.60 mg/100 ml juice) and minimum total soluble solids (9.03%).

  5. Effects of olive oil and its minor phenolic constituents on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Katiucha KHR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive oil and its minor constituents have been recommended as important dietary therapeutic interventions in preventive medicine. However, a question remains to be addressed: what are the effects of olive oil and its phenolic compounds on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes? Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups (n = 24/group: (C receiving standard-chow; (Ob receiving hypercaloric-chow. After 21 days C and Ob groups were divided into four subgroups (n = 6/group:(C standard-chow and saline; (C-Olivestandard-chow and olive-oil (3.0 g/kg.day; (C-Oleuropeinstandard-chow and oleuropein (0.023 mg/kg/day; (C-Cafeic standard-chow and cafeic-acid (2.66 mg/kg/day; (Obreceiving hypercaloric-chow and saline;(Ob-Olive hypercaloric-chow and olive-oil;(Ob-Oleuropein hypercaloric-chow and oleuropein;(Ob-Cafeic hypercaloric-chow and cafeic-acid. Treatments were given twice a week during 21 days. Results After 42 days, obesity was evidenced in Ob rats from enhanced body-weight, surface-area, and body-mass-index. Energy-expenditure, oxygen consumption(VO2 and fat-oxidation were lower in Ob-group than in C. Despite no morphometric changes, Ob-Olive, Ob-Oleuropein and Ob-Cafeic groups had higher VO2, fat-oxidation, myocardial beta-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase and lower respiratory-quotient than Ob. Citrate-synthase was highest in Ob-Olive group. Myocardial lipid-hydroperoxide(LH and antioxidant enzymes were unaffected by olive-oil and its compounds in obesity condition, whereas LH was lower and total-antioxidant-substances were higher in C-Olive and C-Oleuropein than in C. Conclusions The present study demonstrated for the first time that olive-oil, oleuropein and cafeic-acid enhanced fat-oxidation and optimized cardiac energy metabolism in obesity conditions. Olive oil and its phenolic compounds improved myocardial oxidative stress in standard-fed conditions.

  6. Avocado oil supplementation modifies cardiovascular risk profile markers in a rat model of sucrose-induced metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  7. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet, a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  8. A novel approach in monitoring land-cover change in the tropics: oil palm cultivation in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro, Stanley U.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for palm oil and bioenergy has promoted the expansion of tropical farmland covered with oil palms (Elaeis guineensis, resulting in increased competition with food production as well as environmental degradation. Moreover, oil palm cultivation may have increased greenhouse gas (GHG emissions through deforestation. The overall impact estimation of oil palm related land-use change requires spatiotemporal land-use maps. So far, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO has not established guidelines on how to measure and evaluate oil palm related land-cover change. While remote sensing methods are suitable in general, the use of Landsat images in the tropics for the monitoring and modeling of land-cover changes has been restricted due to the influence of cloud cover. This study presents a novel approach for mapping tropical land-cover change ­using the Google Earth Engine (GEE cloud-based platform and the System for Automated Geoscientific Analysis (SAGA GIS. Spatiotemporal land-use and land-cover changes in relation to oil palm cultivation are assessed using a median pixel composite mosaic of Landsat 5, 7 and 8 image scenes for the time periods 1999-2005 and 2009-2015. The proposed approach yields an overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 70.33 % and 0.62 for the first image composite period, and 84.5 % and 0.80 for the second image composite period respectively.

  9. From frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana: the impact of regulatory change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Min Cheong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of whether adaptations to past disasters can impede adaptation to new disasters of a different type or intensity will be analyzed by examining the transition from frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana. In particular, the effects of changed regulatory structures from the Stafford Act to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are investigated. The article describes how the federal, state, and local governments adjust. In addition, it illustrates the shifting focus on the environment with the activation of the Oil Pollution Act and the Clean Water Act. It wraps up with a discussion of the uncertainty that is pervasive in the case of the oil spill derived from changed regulations and the novelty of the disaster.

  10. Changing Pattern of Saudi Arabia's Oil Exports and Broad Prospects for China and Saudi Arabia Cooperation in Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2012-01-01

    Changing pattern of Saudi Arabia's oil exports Saudi Arabia (hereinafter referred to as Saudi) long time ranks No. one of world oil production and lost the title only in 2009 and 2010 due to cutting output which is slightly lower than the Russian output. It is predicted that global annual oil output in the next 10 years will be more than 4 billion tons, during which Saudi annual oil output will be up to 540-550 million tons, accounting for about 14 percent of global annual oil output. Saudi's 2005 oil exports of about 360 million tons accounted for 17.78 percent of the global oil exports, and 42.66% of the Middle East. Over the next 10 years, it is expected Saudi oil exports will reach 380-400 tons. Saudi plenty of spare oil production capacity and enhanced oil recovery will increase its remaining recoverable oil reserve,

  11. Influence of a local change of depth on the behavior of bouncing oil drops

    CERN Document Server

    Carmigniani, Remi; Symon, Sean; McKeon, Beverley J

    2013-01-01

    The work of Couder \\textit{et al} (see also Bush \\textit{et al}) inspired consideration of the impact of a submerged obstacle, providing a local change of depth, on the behavior of oil drops in the bouncing regime. In the linked videos, we recreate some of their results for a drop bouncing on a uniform depth bath of the same liquid undergoing vertical oscillations just below the conditions for Faraday instability, and show a range of new behaviors associated with change of depth. This article accompanies a fluid dynamics video entered into the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics.

  12. Algorithm to determine electrical submersible pump performance considering temperature changes for viscous crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valderrama, A. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Distrito Socialista Tecnologico (Venezuela); Valencia, F. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Instituto de Tecnologia Venezolana para el Petroleo (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) are used to transfer energy to fluids through stages made up of one impeller and one diffuser. Since liquid temperature increases through the different stages, viscosity might change between the inlet and outlet of the pump, thus affecting performance. The aim of this research was to create an algorithm to determine ESPs' performance curves considering temperature changes through the stages. A computational algorithm was developed and then compared with data collected in a laboratory with a CG2900 ESP. Results confirmed that when the fluid's viscosity is affected by the temperature changes, the stages of multistage pump systems do not have the same performance. Thus the developed algorithm could help production engineers to take viscosity changes into account and optimize the ESP design. This study developed an algorithm to take into account the fluid viscosity changes through pump stages.

  13. Changes in microbial populations and enzyme activities during the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Tieheng; Li, Peijun; Zhou, Qixing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaojun

    2009-10-01

    In the process of bioremediation in the soil contaminated by different oil concentrations, the changes in the microbial numbers (bacteria and fungi) and the enzyme (catalase (CAT), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lipase) activities were evaluated over a 2-year period. The results showed that the microbial numbers after 2-year bioremediation were one to ten times higher than those in the initial. The changes in the bacterial and the fungal populations were different during the bioremediation, and the highest microbial numbers for bacteria and fungi were 5.51 x 10(9) CFU g(-1) dry soil in treatment 3 (10,000 mg kg(-1)) in the initial and 5.54 x 10(5) CFU g(-1) dry soil in treatment 5 (50,000 mg kg(-1)) after the 2-year bioremediation period, respectively. The CAT and PPO activities in the contaminated soil decreased with increasing oil concentration, while the lipase activity increased. The activities of CAT and PPO improved after the bioremediation, but lipase activity was on the contrary. The CAT activity was more sensible to the oil than others, and could be alternative to monitor the bioremediation process.

  14. Reserve and Pressure Change of Paleo-oil Reservoir in Puguang Area,Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yuanchun; Zou Huayao; Wang Cunwu; Li Pingping

    2008-01-01

    The Puguang (普光) gas field is the largest gas field found in marine carbonates in China.The Feixiangnan (飞仙关) and Changxing (长兴) reservoirs are two such reservoirs that had been buried to a depth of about 7 000 m and experienced maximum temperature of up to 220 ℃ before uplift to the present-day depth of 5 000-5 500 m,with present-day thermal maturity between 2.0% and 3.0% equivalent vitrinite reflectance (Ro).Bitumen staining is ubiquitous throughout the Feixianguan and Changxing formations,with the greatest concentrations in zones with the highest porosity and permeability,suggesting that the solid bitumen is the result of in-situ cracking of oil.According to the distribution of bitumen in the core,the paleo-oil boundary can be approximately determined.The paleo-oil resource is calculated to be about (0.61-0.92)×109 t (average 0.76×109 t),and the cracked gas volume is about (380.80-595.80)×109 m3 (average 488.30×109 m3); at least 58.74% of cracked gas is preserved in Puguang gas field.The study area experienced not only the cracking of oil but also thermochemical sulfate reduction,resulting in large quantities of nonhydrocarbon gas,with about 15.2% H2S and 8.3% CO2,together with the structural reconfiguration.During the whole process,the great change of volume and pressure compels the PVTsim modeling software to simulate various factors,such as the cracking of oil,the thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) and the tectonic uplift in both isolated and open geological conditions,respectively.The results show that although any one of these factors may induce greater pressure changes in an isolated system than in a closed system,the oil cracking and C3+involving TSR lead to overpressure during the early stage of gas reservoir.Therefore,the tectonic uplift and the methane-dominated TSR,as well as the semi-open system contribute to the reducing pressure resulting in the current normal formation pressure.

  15. Soft-deodorization of virgin olive oil: Study of the changes of quality and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Romero, Inmaculada; García-González, Diego L; Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio, Ramón

    2017-04-01

    The potential adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with soft-deodorized virgin olive oil (VOO) has raised the interest of researchers in investigating this fraud in recent years. The objective of this study was to determine chemical changes occurring after a soft-deodorization process in terms of volatiles, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and pyropheophytins (PPPs) concentrations in VOOs. After testing several conditions (80, 100 and 130°C, for 30 and 60min), the parameters of 100°C and 60min were considered as the optima. These conditions allowed removing volatiles responsible for sensory defects with low losses of total phenols (14%-32%), and values of PPPs (11.83%) and FAEEs (34.53mg/kg) lower than the limits of standard regulations. The experiments show that soft-deodorized VOOs could be added up to 50% to EVOOs and current standard methods would not detect this kind of adulteration.

  16. Changes in the Essential Oil Components during the Development of Fennel Plants from Somatic Embryoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y; Ogawa, K; Fukui, H; Tabata, M

    1987-02-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes of essential oils during the development of clonal plants of fennel propagated through somatic embryogenesis were investigated. Although no essential oil could be detected either in cultured cells or in somatic embryoids, monoter-penes such as alpha-phellandrene and alpha-pinene were found in radical leaves of regenerated plantlets cultured on a hormone-free agar medium. The regenerated plants cultivated in the field for about one month accumulated phenylpropanoids such as estragole, anethole, and fenchone in addition to the two monoterpenes described above in radical leaves. Rich accumulations of phenylpropanoids and monoterpenes were observed in the fruits; especially the contents of estragole and anethole were much higher than in radical leaves.

  17. Bacterial Community Structure and Biochemical Changes Associated With Composting of Lignocellulosic Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Huzairi Mohd Zainudin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial community structure and biochemical changes during the composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty bunch (EFB and palm oil mill effluent (POME anaerobic sludge were studied by examining the succession of the bacterial community and its association with changes in lignocellulosic components by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and the 16S rRNA gene clone library. During composting, a major reduction in cellulose after 10 days from 50% to 19% and the carbon content from 44% to 27% towards the end of the 40-day composting period were observed. The C/N ratio also decreased. A drastic change in the bacterial community structure and diversity throughout the composting process was clearly observed using PCR-DGGE banding patterns. The bacterial community drastically shifted between the thermophilic and maturing stages. 16s rRNA clones belonging to the genera Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Desemzia, and Planococcus were the dominant groups throughout composting. The species closely related to Solibacillus silvestris were found to be major contributors to changes in the lignocellulosic component. Clones identified as Thermobacillus xylanilyticus, Brachybacterium faecium, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Cellulomonas sp., and Thermobifida fusca, which are known to be lignocellulosic-degrading bacteria, were also detected and are believed to support the lignocellulose degradation.

  18. Revision of the Oil Change Standard for SJ Gasoline Engine Oil%SJ汽油机油换油标准的修订

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 杨慧青

    2012-01-01

    文章主要对国内汽油机油换油标准进行了介绍,指出已有的国标GB/T 8028-1994已不能满足国内高档润滑油产品换油需求。根据SJ汽油机油在不同车型上的试验结果和国内汽车使用的实际情况对SJ汽油机油的换油指标进行了确认和修订。相比GB/T 8028-1994,新标准GB/T 8028-2010增加了闭口闪点、燃油稀释、碱值、铜元素和硅元素等控制项目,删除了开口闪点控制项目。%The oil change standard for the domestic gasoline engine oil was described in this paper. It was pointed out that the current GB/T 8028 - 1994 could not meet the oil change requirements for high - grade lubricants. Based on the experi- mental results of SJ gasoline engine oil on different types of vehicles and the practical utilization situation of domestic vehi- cles, the oil change standard of SJ gasoline engine oil was confirmed and revised. Compared with GB/T 8028 - 1994, closed flash point, fuel dilution, base number, copper element and silicon element etc. were added and the open cup flash point was deleted in the new GB/T 8028 -2010.

  19. An in-depth survey of the oil spill literature since 1968: Long term trends and changes since Deepwater Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David; Gemmell, Brad; Vaccari, Liana; Li, Cheng; Bacosa, Hernando; Evans, Meredith; Gemmell, Colbi; Harvey, Tracy; Jalali, Maryam; Niepa, Tagbo H R

    2016-12-15

    In order to characterize the state of oil spill research and describe how the field has changed since its inception in the 1960s and since the Deepwater Horizon spill in 2010, we examined approximately 10% of oil spill literature (1255 of over 11,000 publications) published from 1968 to 2015. We find that, despite its episodic nature, oil spill research is a rapidly expanding field with a growth rate faster than that of science as a whole. There is a massive post-Deepwater Horizon shift of research attention to the Gulf of Mexico, from 2% of studies in 2004-2008 to 61% in 2014-2015, thus ranking Deepwater Horizon as the most studied oil spill. There is, however, a longstanding gap in research in that only 1% of studies deal with the effects of oil spills on human health. These results provide a better understanding of the current trends and gaps within the field.

  20. Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway I: changes in porewater chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq eSiddique

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dispersed clay particles in mine tailings and soft sediments remain suspended for decades, hindering consolidation and challenging effective management of these aqueous slurries. Current geotechnical engineering models of self-weight consolidation of tailings do not consider microbial contribution to sediment behavior, however, here we show that microorganisms indigenous to oil sands tailings change the porewater chemistry and accelerate consolidation of oil sands tailings. A companion paper describes the role of microbes in alteration of clay chemistry in tailings. Microbial metabolism in mature fine tailings (MFT amended with an organic substrate (hydrolyzed canola meal produced methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2. Dissolution of biogenic CO2 lowered the pH of amended MFT to pH 6.4 versus unamended MFT (pH 7.7. About 12% more porewater was recovered from amended than unamended MFT during 2 months of active microbial metabolism, concomitant with consolidation of tailings. The lower pH in amended MFT dissolved carbonate minerals, thereby releasing divalent cations including calcium (Ca2+ and magnesium (Mg2+ and increasing bicarbonate (HCO3- in porewater. The higher concentrations increased the ionic strength of the porewater, in turn reducing the thickness of the diffuse double layer (DDL of clay particles by reducing the surface charge potential (repulsive forces of the clay particles. The combination of these processes accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. In addition, ebullition of biogenic gases created transient physical channels for release of porewater. In contrast, saturating the MFT with non-biogenic CO2 had little effect on consolidation. These results have significant implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds and broad importance in anaerobic environments such as contaminated harbors and estuaries containing soft sediments rich in clays and organics.

  1. Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway I: changes in porewater chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Tariq; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Arkell, Nicholas; Young, Rozlyn; Li, Carmen; Guigard, Selma; Underwood, Eleisha; Foght, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Dispersed clay particles in mine tailings and soft sediments remain suspended for decades, hindering consolidation and challenging effective management of these aqueous slurries. Current geotechnical engineering models of self-weight consolidation of tailings do not consider microbial contribution to sediment behavior, however, here we show that microorganisms indigenous to oil sands tailings change the porewater chemistry and accelerate consolidation of oil sands tailings. A companion paper describes the role of microbes in alteration of clay chemistry in tailings. Microbial metabolism in mature fine tailings (MFT) amended with an organic substrate (hydrolyzed canola meal) produced methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Dissolution of biogenic CO2 lowered the pH of amended MFT to pH 6.4 vs. unamended MFT (pH 7.7). About 12% more porewater was recovered from amended than unamended MFT during 2 months of active microbial metabolism, concomitant with consolidation of tailings. The lower pH in amended MFT dissolved carbonate minerals, thereby releasing divalent cations including calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) and increasing bicarbonate (HCO(-) 3) in porewater. The higher concentrations increased the ionic strength of the porewater, in turn reducing the thickness of the diffuse double layer (DDL) of clay particles by reducing the surface charge potential (repulsive forces) of the clay particles. The combination of these processes accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. In addition, ebullition of biogenic gases created transient physical channels for release of porewater. In contrast, saturating the MFT with non-biogenic CO2 had little effect on consolidation. These results have significant implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds and broad importance in anaerobic environments such as contaminated harbors and estuaries containing soft sediments rich in clays and organics.

  2. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found si...... significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013)....

  3. Effects of roasting conditions on the changes of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13 C) in sesame oil and usefulness of δ13 c to differentiate blended sesame oil from corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Nam Gyu; Jang, Eun Yeong; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, Jaehwan

    2012-12-01

    Differentiating blended sesame oils from authentic sesame oil (SO) is a critical step in protecting consumer rights. Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13) C), color, fluorescence intensity, and fatty acid profiles were analyzed in SO prepared from sesame seeds with different roasting conditions and in corn oil blended with SO. Sesame seeds were roasted at 175, 200, 225, or 250 °C for 15 or 30 min at each temperature. SO was mixed with corn oil at varying ratios. Roasting conditions ranging from175 to 250 °C at the 30 min time point did not result in significant changes in δ(13) C (P > 0.05). Values of δ(13) C in corn oil and SO from sesame seeds roasted at 250 °C for 15 min were -17.55 and -32.13 ‰, respectively. Fatty acid ratios, including (O + L)/(P × Ln) and (L × L)/O, where O, L, P, and Ln were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and linolenic acids, respectively, showed good discriminating abilities among the SO blended with corn oil. Therefore, using different combinations of stable carbon isotope ratios and some fatty acid ratios can allow successful differentiation of authentic SO from SO blended with corn oil. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Using high intensity ultrasound as a tool to change the functional properties of interesterified soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yubin; Wagh, Ashwini; Martini, Silvana

    2011-10-12

    High intensity ultrasound (HIU) was used to change the crystallization behavior, generate small crystals, and improve the texture of a low saturated shortening (interesterified soybean oil). Samples were crystallized at different temperatures (26, 28, 30, and 32 °C) without and with the application of HIU. Different acoustic power levels (110, 72, 61, 54, and 44 W) were used. Results show that higher acoustic powers had a greater effect on crystal size reduction, induced crystallization, and generated harder, more elastic and viscous materials. These effects were more significant when HIU was applied in the presence of crystals and when the sample was crystallized at 32 °C.

  5. Physicochemical property changes of oil palm mesocarp fibers treated with high-pressure steam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Seribainun Hidayah Md Yunos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure steam treatment (HPST is a potential alternative method for the modification of lignocellulosic materials. The effect of HPST on oil palm mesocarp fibers (OPMF was successfully investigated with treatment conditions of 170 ºC/ 0.82 MPa, 190 ºC/ 1.32 MPa, 210 ºC/ 2.03 MPa, and 230 ºC/ 3.00 MPa for 2 min. treatment time. Significant changes in the colour, smell, and mechanical properties of the samples were observed after the treatment. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images revealed changes in the surface morphology of the OPMF after the pretreatment. The degradation of hemicelluloses and changes in the functional groups of the lignocellulosic components were identified using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and Thermogravimetric (TG analysis. These results suggest that HPST is a promising method for the pretreatment of OPMF.

  6. 油粒子体积对扩散的影响及油膜粒子化改进%Impact of Size of Oil-particle on Oil Film and Improved Method of Changing Oil Slick into Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红; 王珂; 胡松; 林军; 韩众; 解满俊

    2011-01-01

    In the application of oil-particle method to simulate the oil spill, there are a lot of options for the size of characteristic oil-particle and the method of changing oil slick into particles. Effects by different sizes of characteristic oilparticle were analyzed and compared. Results showed that under the same total volume of oil spills, the simulated area of oil spill increased by 14%~25% as the size of the characteristic oil-particle decreased by 50% and simulated area of oil spill increased by 31%~43% as the size of the characteristic oil-particle decreased by 10 times. Two-stage method was proposed to improve the oil-particle method which has a shortage in calculating oil spill area, however, the two-stage method evenly distributed the changing oil slick into particles in space, while the oil film should be normal distributed in space. The method of changing oil slick into particles has been improved, and results show that the two methods are not much different in calculating the oil spill area, but the method improves the calculation of the slickness of oil film calculation according to the actual instance.%在应用油粒子法模拟溢油运动时,特征油粒子在体积和油膜粒子化方法上可以有多种选择,文章就不同特征体积的油粒子对溢油面积的影响进行了分析和比较,结果显示,溢油量相同时,特征油粒子的体积每减小一倍,溢油扩散面积增加14%-25%,减小10倍时,达到31%-43%.针对溢油扩散面积计算不足的情况,已有学者提出用"两阶段"法进行改进.但"两阶段"法在油膜粒子化时采用的是平均分布,而此时的油膜应为正态分布,即中间厚,向四周逐渐减少.因此,文章应用正态分布法对油膜粒子化进行改进,得到自己的油膜粒子化方法.结果显示,两方法在计算溢油面积时并无太大的差别,但在油膜厚度计算方面,文章方法更接近实际情况.

  7. Flavour changes due to effect of different packaging materials on storing of cottonseed oil, hydrogenated oil and margarine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Bleached cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated palm oil and margarine were packed in metal cans and white plastic bottles and stored for seven months at room temperature on side bench. Assessment of the stability of the oils towards flavour deterioration was reported. The deterioration of flavour developed from bleached cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated palm oil and margarine was observed due to increase amount of aldehydes and ketones which play an important role in deterioration of the oils. From the results we found metal can offered suitable and better protection against deterioration than plastic package for cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated palm oil. While plastic container was better for storing margarine and this is due to the presence of water and salt in margarine where they compose about 16% and 2% respectively.

    Aceite de semilla de algodón decolorado, aceite de palma parcialmente hidrogenado y margarina fueron envasados en latas metálicas y botellas de plástico blancas y almacenados durante siete meses a temperatura ambiente en estantes. Se relacionó la evaluación de la estabilidad de los aceites con la deterioración del flavor. La deterioración del flavor producida en aceite de semilla de algodón decolorado, aceite de palma parcialmente hidrogenado y margarina fue observada debido al aumento en la cantidad de aldehídos y cotonas que juegan un importante papel en la deterioración de los aceites. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se encontró que las latas metálicas ofrecieron una adecuada y mejor protección frente a la deterioración que los envases de plásticos para aceite de semilla de algodón y aceite de palma parcialmente hidrogenado. Por otra parte, los recipientes de plástico fueron mejores para el almacenamiento de margarina y esto es debido a la presencia de agua y sales en ella en una proporción del 16% y 2% respectivamente.

  8. Chemical and optical aspects of appearance changes in oil paintings from the 19th and early 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimazu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    One of the causes leading to appearance changes of oil paintings is saponification of basic pigments due to a decrease of reflected light. This thesis contributes to a deeper understanding of appearance changes due to saponification of white pigments. Furthermore, effects on painting appearance, esp

  9. Chemical and optical aspects of appearance changes in oil paintings from the 19th and early 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimazu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    One of the causes leading to appearance changes of oil paintings is saponification of basic pigments due to a decrease of reflected light. This thesis contributes to a deeper understanding of appearance changes due to saponification of white pigments. Furthermore, effects on painting appearance,

  10. Chemical and optical aspects of appearance changes in oil paintings from the 19th and early 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimazu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    One of the causes leading to appearance changes of oil paintings is saponification of basic pigments due to a decrease of reflected light. This thesis contributes to a deeper understanding of appearance changes due to saponification of white pigments. Furthermore, effects on painting appearance, esp

  11. Unraveling the interactive effects of climate change and oil contamination on laboratory-simulated estuarine benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Cleary, Daniel F R; Rocha, Rui J M; Calado, Ricardo; Castanheira, José M; Rocha, Sílvia M; Silva, Artur M S; Simões, Mário M Q; Oliveira, Vanessa; Lillebø, Ana I; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela; Lopes, Isabel; Ribeiro, Rui; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Marques, Catarina R; Costa, Rodrigo; Pereira, Ruth; Gomes, Newton C M

    2015-05-01

    There is growing concern that modifications to the global environment such as ocean acidification and increased ultraviolet radiation may interact with anthropogenic pollutants to adversely affect the future marine environment. Despite this, little is known about the nature of the potential risks posed by such interactions. Here, we performed a multifactorial microcosm experiment to assess the impact of ocean acidification, ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation and oil hydrocarbon contamination on sediment chemistry, the microbial community (composition and function) and biochemical marker response of selected indicator species. We found that increased ocean acidification and oil contamination in the absence of UV-B will significantly alter bacterial composition by, among other things, greatly reducing the relative abundance of Desulfobacterales, known to be important oil hydrocarbon degraders. Along with changes in bacterial composition, we identified concomitant shifts in the composition of oil hydrocarbons in the sediment and an increase in oxidative stress effects on our indicator species. Interestingly, our study identifies UV-B as a critical component in the interaction between these factors, as its presence alleviates harmful effects caused by the combination of reduced pH and oil pollution. The model system used here shows that the interactive effect of reduced pH and oil contamination can adversely affect the structure and functioning of sediment benthic communities, with the potential to exacerbate the toxicity of oil hydrocarbons in marine ecosystems.

  12. Changes in composition and quality of sunflower oils during extraction and degumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapiste, G. H.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different stages of processing on composition and quality of crude sunflower oil was studied through the determination of fatty acids, metal and phosphorus contents, free fatty acids, peroxide and anisidine values, tocopherols, polar compounds, waxes and oxidative stability. No significant changes in the content of individual fatty acids and tocopherols were observed during processing. The composition of some minor constituents as metals, waxes and phospholipids was strongly affected by the extraction and water degumming processes. Sunflower oils obtained by hexane extraction presented a higher initial deterioration but also a higher oxidative stability than oils obtained by pressing.Se estudió la influencia de las distintas etapas del procesamiento sobre la composición y calidad de aceite crudo de girasol a través de la determinación de la composición de ácidos grasos, contenido de fósforo y metales, índice de acidez, índice de peróxido, valor de p-anisidina, tocoferoles, compuestos polares, ceras y estabilidad oxidativa. No se apreció durante el procesamiento ningún cambio significativo en la composición de ácidos grasos y tocoferoles. Los contenidos de algunos compuestos minoritarios como metales, ceras y fosfolípidos resultaron apreciablemente afectados con los procesos de extracción y desgomado con agua. Los aceites de girasol obtenidos por extracción con hexano presentaron un grado de deterioro inicial superior y una mayor estabilidad oxidativa con respecto a los aceites obtenidos por prensado.

  13. 油膜刚度变化对转子刚度的影响%Oil Loyer Stiffness Change Affect On Rotale Stiffness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶荣学; 孙伟

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,analyzed oil layer thick change affect oil layer stiffness,oil layer stiffness change affect rotate stiffness,relate stiffness change affect vibpation amplitude.%分析了油膜厚度变化对油膜刚度的影响、油膜刚度变化对转子刚度的影响、转子刚度变化对振幅的影响.

  14. The changes of oil palm roots cell wall lipids during pathogenesis of Ganoderma boninense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, A.; Dayou, J.; Abdullah, S.; Chong, K. P.

    2017-07-01

    One of the first physical defences of plants against fungal infection is their cell wall. Interaction between combinations of metabolism enzymes known as the “weapons” of pathogen and the host cell wall probably determines the fate of possible invasion of the pathogen in the host. The present work aims to study the biochemical changes of cell wall lipids of oil palm roots and to determine novel information on root cell wall composition during pathogenesis of Ganoderma boninense by using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Based on Total Ion Chromatogram analysis, 67 compounds were found more abundant in the roots infected with G. boninense compared to the healthy roots (60 compounds). Interestingly, nine new compounds were identified from the cell wall lipids of roots infected with G. boninense. These includes Cyclohexane, 1,2-dimethyl-, Methyl 2-hydroxy 16-methyl-heptadecanoate, 2-Propenoic acid, methyl ester, Methyl 9-oxohexacosanoate, 5-[(3,7,11,15-Tetramethylhexadecyl)oxy]thiophene-2carboxylic acid, Ergosta-5,7,22,24(28)-tetraen-3beta-ol, 7-Hydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan, Glycine and (S)-4'-Hydroxy-4-methoxydalbergione, this may involve as response to pathogen invasion. This paper provides an original comparative lipidomic analysis of oil palm roots cell wall lipids in plant defence during pathogenesis of G. boninense.

  15. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: oxidation linked to changes in protein composition at the oil-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit M; Baron, Caroline P; Let, Mette B; Brüggemann, Dagmar A; Pedersen, Lise R L; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-03-07

    Fish oil was incorporated into milk under different homogenization temperatures (50 and 72 degrees C) and pressures (5, 15, and 22.5 MPa). Subsequently, the oxidative stability of the milk and changes in the protein composition of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were examined. Results showed that high pressure and high temperature (72 degrees C and 22.5 MPa) resulted in less lipid oxidation, whereas low pressure and low temperature (50 degrees C and 5 MPa) resulted in faster lipid oxidation. Analysis of protein oxidation indicated that especially casein was prone to oxidation. The level of free thiol groups was increased by high temperature (72 degrees C) and with increasing pressure. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) indicated that high temperature resulted in an increase in beta-lactoglobulin adsorbed at the oil-water interface. This was even more pronounced with higher pressure. Less casein seemed to be present at the oil-water interface with increasing pressure. Overall, the results indicated that a combination of more beta-lactoglobulin and less casein at the oil-water interface gave the most stable emulsions with respect to lipid oxidation.

  16. Detecting Anthropogenic and Climate Change Induced Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Vicinity of an Oil/gas Facility in Northwestern Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Engstrom, R.; Epstein, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are changing dramatically due to changes in climate, vegetation and human activities. Northwestern Siberia is one of the regions which has been undergoing various land cover and land use changes associated primarily with animal husbandry and oil/gas development. These changes have been exacerbated by warming climatic conditions over the last fifty years. In this study, we investigated land cover and land use changes associated with oil and gas development southeast of the city of Nadym within the context of climate change based on multi-source and multi-temporal remote sensing imagery. The impacts of land use on surface vegetation, radiation, and hydrological properties were evaluated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), albedo and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The results from a comparison between high spatial resolution imagery acquired in1968 and 2006 indicate that the vegetation cover was reduced in areas disturbed by oil and gas development. Vegetation cover increased in natural landscapes over the same period,. Water logging was found along the linear structures near the oil/gas development, while in natural landscapes the drying of thermokarst lakes is evident due to permafrost degradation. Derived indices suggest that the direct impacts associated with infrastructure development are mostly within 100 m distance from the disturbance source. While these impacts are rather localized they persist for decades despite partial recovery of vegetation after the initial disturbance.

  17. Sectoral Structure Change Modeling of European Oil and Gas Producing Country’S Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepelkin Viacheslav Alexandrovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider identifying features of sectoral structuring within the national economy that has definite foreign trade product specialization. Examination of the sector-specific division methodology enabled identification of its strong association with certain sector dominance in the economy. It is against this background that we offer an explanation for the delay in transferring from the post-Soviet to the applicable international classification of economic structure elements in Russia and Belarus. We perform analysis of the three-component P-S-T model (primary, secondary, tertiary sector using statistical and econometric methods and define properties of the sectoral shares dynamics in national economies of oil and gas producing countries. Analysis of the Russian and Norwegian economies’ intersectoral changes suggests that it is necessary for the government to develop and implement selective structural policy to overcome the existing structural disproportions.

  18. Climate Change Disclosures: An Examination of Canadian Oil and Gas Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Berthelot

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine: (1 to what extent Canadian oil and gas firms have adhered to the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountant proposed guidelines respecting climate change disclosures in their annual reports, and (2 whether the disclosures of these firms can be influenced by their media visibility, the presence and operating characteristics of an environmental committee within the board of directors, their ownership structure, their audit firms, their political exposure and media visibility. The results show that the level of disclosure is very low; however, when the board of directors has an environment committee, the level of disclosure is higher. This is also the case for firms having significant political exposure and strong media visibility, and for those with a widely held ownership structure. Whether or not the audit firm is one of the Big Four, does not make any difference in the level of disclosure.

  19. High pressure changes of the castor oil viscosity by ultrasonic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostocki, A. J.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Kielczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.

    2008-07-01

    The pressure change of viscosity of castor oil have been measured by ultrasonic method within the range of pressure up to 0.9 GPa. For the measurement, the authors have applied a new ultrasonic method based on Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) waves. For the lower pressures (up to 0.3 GPa) the results have been compared with earlier results obtained by falling body method, whereas for the higher pressure range results were compared with those obtained by the flow type viscometer. The measurements have shown: 1. Exponential rise of viscosity with pressure up to 0.4 GPa according to the Barus formula. 2. Extraordinary increment of viscosity at constant pressure during phase transition. 3. The decomposition of the high pressure phase during the decompression process have shown very large hysteresis of viscosity on pressure. 4. After the decompression process the viscosity lasts higher then a initial value for several hours.

  20. Changes Germination, Growth and Anatomy Vicia ervilia in Response to Light Crude Oil Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Lorestani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thepetroleum concentrations are contaminant important sources in the environment. Hydrocarbon’s contaminants depend on their type and concentration can cause variable toxicity in soils, on the other hand, different kinds of plants also response concentration of contaminant differently, because of the diversity of physiological and morphological characteristics. In this study the effect of different concentrations of light crude oil was investigated on stem length, germination and anatomical of Vicia ervilia. A factorial experiment was used with a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. The results showed that the germination and stem lengths decreased significantly (p≤ 0.05 with increasing concentrations of petroleum. Anatomical studies the changes of parenchyma, vascular bundles, epidermal and increase crack showed.

  1. High pressure changes of the castor oil viscosity by ultrasonic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostocki, A J; Siegoczynski, R M [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, PL (Poland); Kielczynski, P; Szalewski, M [Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Science, Swietokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warsaw, PL (Poland)], E-mail: arostock@if.pw.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The pressure change of viscosity of castor oil have been measured by ultrasonic method within the range of pressure up to 0.9 GPa. For the measurement, the authors have applied a new ultrasonic method based on Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) waves. For the lower pressures (up to 0.3 GPa) the results have been compared with earlier results obtained by falling body method, whereas for the higher pressure range results were compared with those obtained by the flow type viscometer. The measurements have shown: 1. Exponential rise of viscosity with pressure up to 0.4 GPa according to the Barus formula. 2. Extraordinary increment of viscosity at constant pressure during phase transition. 3. The decomposition of the high pressure phase during the decompression process have shown very large hysteresis of viscosity on pressure. 4. After the decompression process the viscosity lasts higher then a initial value for several hours.

  2. Effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity as manifested by fractal dimension changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity by fractal analysis. Fractal dimension (FD values of the parietal electrocortical activity were calculated before and after intra-peritoneal administration of camphor essential oil (450-675 μl/kg in anesthetized rats. Camphor oil induced seizure-like activity with single and multiple spiking of high amplitudes in the parietal electrocorticogram and occasional clonic limb convulsions. The FD values of cortical activity after camphor oil administration increased on the average. Only FD values of cortical ECoG sequences were lower than those before camphor oil administration.

  3. Changes in Texture and Retorting Yield in Oil Shale During Its Bioleaching by Bacillus Mucilaginosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-qing; REN He-jun; LIU Na; ZHANG Lan-ying; ZHOU Rui

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching of oil shale by Bacillus mucilaginosus was carried out in a reaction column for 13 d.The pH value of the leaching liquor decreased steadily from 7.5 to 5.5 and the free silicon dioxide concentration reached approximately 200 mg/L in it.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) observations revealed that a mass of small particles separated from the matrix of oil shale.Energy dispersive spectrometry(EDS) analysis implied that the total content of Si,O,A1 was decreased in the particle area of the matrix.These facts indicate that the silicate was removed,leading to the structural transformation of oil shale.Comparison of the shale oil yields before and after bioleaching illustrated that approximately 10% extra shale oil was obtained.This finding suggests that the demineralisation of the oil shale by silicate bacteria improves shale oil yield.

  4. Heat transfer characteristics of coconut oil as phase change material to room cooling application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Harmen

    2017-03-01

    Thermal comfort in a room is one of human needs in the workplace and dwellings, so that the use of air conditioning system in tropical countries is inevitable. This equipment has an impact on the increase of energy consumption. One method of minimizing the energy use is by using the phase change material (PCM) as thermal energy storage. This material utilizes the temperature difference between day and night for the storage and release of thermal energy. PCM development on application as a material for air cooling inlet, partitioning and interior needs to be supported by the study of heat transfer characteristics when PCM absorbs heat from ambient temperature. This study was conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics on coconut oil as a phase change material. There are three models of experiments performed in this research. Firstly, an experiment was conducted to analyze the time that was needed by material to phase change by varying the temperature. The second experiment analyzed the heat transfer characteristics of air to PCM naturally convection. The third experiment analyzed the forced convection heat transfer on the surface of the PCM container by varying the air velocity. The data of experimental showed that, increasing ambient air temperature resulted in shorter time for phase change. At temperatures of 30°C, the time for phase change of PCM with the thickness of 8 cm was 1700 min, and it was stable at temperatures of 27°C. Increasing air temperature accelerated the phase change in the material. While for the forced convection heat transfer, PCM could reduce the air temperature in the range of 30 to 35°C at about 1 to 2°C, with a velocity of 1-3 m/s.

  5. Determination of the antioxidant activity based on the content changes in fatty acid methyl esters in vegetable oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Housam Haj Hamdo; Zaid Al-Assaf; Warid Khayata

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals,which are generated in several biochemical reactions in the body,have been implicated as mediators of many diseases,including cancer,atherosclerosis and heart diseases.Although the endogenous antioxidants can scavenge these free radicals,they are often insufficient to maintain the in vivo redox balance.The antioxidant activity (AOA) was examined by addition of each tested antioxidants [alpha-tocopherol (a-T),beta-tocopherol (β-T),gamma-tocopherol (γ-T),delta-tocopherol (δ-T),butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA),2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT),and ascorbyle palmitate (AP)] to four types of different vegetable oils (sunflower oil,soybean oil,corn oil and olive oil).Moreover,content changes in fatty acids were then investigated every 3 months during the storage period.The results showed that the AOA was different among the tested antioxidants.The AOA for BHA was the most for different types of oil compared with other antioxidants,whereas the δ-T possessed the lowest AOA.

  6. Changes in Acylglycerols Composition, Quality Characteristics and In vivo Effects of Dietary Pumpkin Seed Oil upon Thermal Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Zeb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics, and protective role of dietary pumpkin seed oil (PSO in rabbits. PSO was thermally oxidized and analyzed for quality characteristics and acylglycerols composition using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. Oxidized and un-oxidized oil samples were fed to the rabbits in different doses for 2 weeks. The changes in the serum biochemistry, hematology, and liver histology were studied. The levels of quality parameters such peroxide value (PV, anisidine value (AV, total phenolic contents (TPC, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, conjugated dienes (CD and conjugated trienes (CT significantly increased with thermal treatment. HPLC analyses revealed 10 individual triacylglycerols (TAGs, total di-acylglycerols (DAGs, mono-acylglycerols (MAGs, and total oxidized TAGs. Trilinolein (LLL, 1-oleoyl-2,3-dilinolinoyl glycerol (OLL, triolein (OOO and 1,2-distearoyl-3-palmitoyl glycerol (SSP were present in higher amounts and decreased with thermal treatment. Animal's studies showed that oxidized oils decreased the whole body weight, which was ameliorated by the co-administration of un-oxidized oils. The levels of serum biochemical parameters were improved by co-administration of pumpkin seed oils. There were no significant effects of both oxidized and un-oxidized PSO on the hematological and histological parameters of rabbits. In conclusion, nutritionally important triacylglycerols were present in PSO with protective role against the toxicity of its corresponding oxidized oils.

  7. Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB’s cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively.

  8. Structural changes of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isroi; Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Millati, Ria; Syamsiah, Siti; Cahyanto, Muhammad N; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2012-12-17

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI) of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB's cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively.

  9. Making the case for cumulative impacts assessment : modelling the potential impacts of climate change, harvesting, oil and gas, and fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, S.H.; Duchesneau, R.; Doyon, F. [Inst. quebecois d' Amenagement de la Foret feuillue, Ripon, PQ (Canada); Russell, J.S. [Millar Western Forest Products Ltd., Whitecourt, AB (Canada); Gooding, T. [Forestry Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Oil and gas activities and wildfires are altering the composition, age-class structure, and spatial configuration of Alberta's forests. Climate change may also be modifying forest dynamics which will lead to important changes in the future. This paper presented a landscape model designed to simulate the long-term cumulative effects of forestry, oil and gas activities, climate change, wildlife, and demographic change for the Whitecourt forest management area. Various landscape scenarios were presented for the forest, and key indicators for biodiversity and forest productivity were evaluated. Multiple disturbance agents were simulated in order to detect potential interactions among disturbance agents. Results of the study showed that climate and demographic changes will intensify the impacts of fires on timber supplies. It was concluded that cumulative impacts assessments and spatial and temporal stochastic modelling should be included in forest management practices. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 22 figs.

  10. Modelling Chemical Kinetics of Soybean Oil Transesterification Process for Biodiesel Production: An Analysis of Molar Ratio between Alcohol and Soybean Oil Temperature Changes on the Process Conversion Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Tait

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model describing chemical kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production has been developed. The model is based on the reverse mechanism of transesterification reactions and describes dynamics concentration changes of triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, biodiesel, and glycerol production. Reaction rate constants were written in the Arrhenius form. An analysis of key process variables such as temperature and molar ratio soybean oil- alcohol using response surface analysis was performed to achieve the maximum soybean conversion rate to biodiesel. The predictive power of the developed model was checked for the very wide range of operational conditions and parameters values by fitting different experimental results for homogeneous catalytic and non-catalytic processes published in the literature. A very good correlation between model simulations and experimental data was observed.

  11. Using Imaging Spectroscopy to Map Changing Distributions of Dominant Species in Oil-Contaminated Salt Marshes of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, M. C.; Roberts, D. A.; Peterson, S.; Biggs, T. W.; Kokaly, R. F.; Piazza, S.; Roth, K. L.; Khanna, S.; Ustin, S.

    2016-12-01

    The April 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest coastal spill in U.S. history. Monitoring subsequent change in marsh plant community distributions is critical to assess ecosystem impacts and to establish future coastal management priorities. Strategically deployed airborne imaging spectrometers, like the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), offer the spectral and spatial resolution needed to differentiate plant species. However, obtaining satisfactory and consistent classification accuracies over time is a major challenge, particularly in dynamic intertidal landscapes. Here, we develop and evaluate an image classification system for a time series of AVIRIS data for mapping dominant species in a heavily oiled salt marsh ecosystem. Using field-referenced image endmembers and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA), we classified 21 AVIRIS images acquired during the fall of 2010, 2011 and 2012. Classification results were evaluated using ground surveys that were conducted contemporaneously to AVIRIS collection dates. We analyzed changes in dominant species cover from 2010-2012 for oiled and non-oiled shorelines. CDA discriminated dominant species with a high level of accuracy (overall accuracy = 82%, kappa = 0.78) and consistency over three imaging dates (overall2010 = 82%, overall2011 = 82%, overall2012 = 88%). Marshes dominated by Spartina alterniflora were the most spatially abundant in shoreline zones (≤ 28m from shore) for all three dates (2010 = 79%, 2011 = 61%, 2012 = 63%), followed by Juncus roemerianus (2010 = 11%, 2011 = 19%, 2012 = 17%) and Distichlis spicata (2010 = 4%, 2011 = 10%, 2012 = 7%). Marshes that were heavily contaminated with oil exhibited variable responses from 2010-2012. Marsh vegetation classes converted to a subtidal, open water class along oiled and non-oiled shorelines that were similarly situated in the landscape. However, marsh loss along oil-contaminated shorelines doubled that of non-oiled

  12. Ameliorative effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on immunohistochemical and ultrastuctural changes of cerebellum of albino rats induced by aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Gallaly, Sanaa Rida

    2014-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on aspartame (ASP) which resulted in cerebellar changes. The rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1: (control group): served as control animals. Group 2: control P. anisum oil received .5 mL/kg/d/b wt. once daily. Group 3 (ASP group): received daily 250 mg/kg/b wt. of ASP dissolved in distilled water and given orally to the animals by intra-gastric tube for 2 months. Group 4: received .5 mL/kg/b wt. of prophylactic P. anisum oil once daily, followed by ASP after 2 h for 2 months. The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity.

  13. Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  14. Changes in bacterial diversity associated with bioremediation of used lubricating oil in tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeboon, Naruemon; Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Kaewsuwan, Sireewan; Maneerat, Suppasil; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2017-08-01

    Used lubricating oil (ULO) is a widespread contaminant, particularly throughout tropical regions, and may be a candidate for bioremediation. However, little is known about the biodegradation potential or basic microbial ecology of ULO-contaminated soils. This study aims to determine the effects of used ULO on bacterial community structure and diversity. Using a combination of culture-based (agar plate counts) and molecular techniques (16S rRNA gene sequencing and DGGE), we investigated changes in soil bacterial communities from three different ULO-contaminated soils collected from motorcycle mechanical workshops (soil A, B, and C). We further explored the relationship between bacterial community structure, physiochemical soil parameters, and ULO composition in three ULO-contaminated soils. Results indicated that the three investigated soils had different community structures, which may be a result of the different ULO characteristics and physiochemical soil parameters of each site. Soil C had the highest ULO concentration and also the greatest diversity and richness of bacteria, which may be a result of higher nutrient retention, organic matter and cation exchange capacity, as well as freshness of oil compared to the other soils. In soils A and B, Proteobacteria (esp. Gammaproteobacteria) dominated the bacterial community, and in soil C, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes dominated. The genus Enterobacter, a member of the class Gammaproteobacteria, is known to include ULO-degraders, and this genus was the only one found in all three soils, suggesting that it could play a key role in the in situ degradation of ULO-contaminated tropical Thai soils. This study provides insights into our understanding of soil microbial richness, diversity, composition, and structure in tropical ULO-contaminated soils, and may be useful for the development of strategies to improve bioremediation.

  15. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  16. Reconciling Oil Palm Expansion and Climate Change Mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kemen G Austin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Dean L. Urban; Fred Stolle; Jeffrey Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation while doubling production of several major agricultural commodities, exemplifies this challenge. Here we focus on palm oil, the world's most abundant vegetable oil and a commodity that has contributed significantly to Indonesia's economy. Most oil palm...

  17. Characteristics of Chang 21 Low Permeability Sandstone Reservoir in Shunning Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-min; YU Liu-ying

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of Chang 21 low permeability sandstone reservoir of Shunning oil field are analyzed and evaluated based on the data of well logging and experiment. The result shows that 1) the Chang 21 low permeability reservoir belongs to the classification of middle-to-fine sized feldspar sandstone, with its components being low in maturity, deposited in distributary rivers in the front of the delta; 2) the reservoir is obviously dominated by a low or a very low permeability with a linear variation tendency different from that of the ultra-low permeability reservoir; 3) the spatial variation in lithology and physical properties of the reservoir are controlled by the sedimentary facies zones, and 4)the physical property of the reservoir is significantly influenced by clastic constituents and their structure, and the constituent of cement materials and their content. The result also shows that the diagenesis action of the reservoir is quite strong in which dissolution greatly modified the reservoir In addition, the inter-granular dissolved pores are the mainly developed ones and the micro-structure is dominated by the combination of middle-to-large sized pores with fine-to-coarse throats. Finally, the radius of the throats is in good exponential correlation with permeability and the seepage capacity comes from those large sized throats.

  18. Effects of insecticidal essential oil fumigations on physiological changes in cut Dendrobium Sonia orchid flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarongsak Pumnuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated essential oil (EO formulas with high insecticidal properties, but low physiological impacts on cut Dendrobium Sonia orchid flower. Fumigation toxicities of EOs from 18 medicinal plants at 2.0 and 3.0 µl/L air were examined against adults of thrips (Frankliniella schultzei and larvae of mealybug (Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi. The effective EO mixtures, optimal concentrations fumigation and air circulation periods were investigated. Then, field experiments were conducted, and changes in L*, a* and b* values, percentages of weight loss and anthocyanin contents of the EOfumigated flower were observed and compared to the methyl bromide and control fumigations. The results showed that clove and cinnamon demonstrated high insecticidal properties against the insects (>85% mortality and low physiological changes in the flower. In particular, fumigations with 2.0 µl/L air of a mixture between clove and cinnamon EOs (1:3 for 3 hr with 15- min air circulation demonstrated the highest thrips and mealybug mortalities (92.2 and 74.6%, respectively. The EO fumigation formula presented less impact on color change and anthocyanin content than methyl bromide fumigation which showed higher reduction of anthocyanin content (22.9 mg/100g FW when compared to the control (13.6 mg/100g FW. The percentages of weight loss in the flower fumigated with EO, control and methyl bromide were about 10.4, 7.9 and 14.8%, respectively. In general, applications of EO at higher concentrations resulted in higher insect mortalities and more impacts on physiological changes which involved anthocyanin degradation and higher percentages of weight loss. Further studies might consider applications of clove and cinnamon EO formulas via other methods. In addition, revisions of the EO mixture can also be examined in order to obtain the most effective and environment friendly insect management approach.

  19. The tug-of-war between resource depletion and technological change in the global oil industry 1981-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholt, Lars

    2013-01-15

    We perform an empirical analysis of the extent to which ongoing technological change through RandD activity has offset the effect of ongoing depletion on the cost of finding additional reserves of oil in eight global regions. We introduce a finding cost function that among other factors depends on the cumulative number of past RandD expenses and cumulative past production, measuring technological change and depletion, respectively. For all our regions we find significant effects of both depletion and technological change on oil finding costs from 1981 to 2009, barring cyclical variations in finding costs that could come from changes in factor prices. For almost all regions technology more than mitigated depletion until around the mid-nineties. However, we find that depletion outweighed technological progress over the last decade.(author)

  20. Ontogenetic changes in the chemistry and morphology of oil glands in Hermannia convexa (Acari: Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspotnig, Günther; Krisper, Günther; Schuster, Reinhart

    2005-01-01

    As a first example for the chemistry of oil gland secretions in the Hermannioidea (one of the three superfamilies of desmonomatan Oribatida), the oil gland secretion of Hermannia convexa was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hexane extracts of all juvenile stages showed a multicomponent chromatographic pattern, mainly consisting of well-known oil gland secretion components such as neral, geranial, gamma-acaridial and the unsaturated C17-hydrocarbons, 6,9-heptadecadiene and 8-heptadecene. The secretion profiles of juveniles varied slightly between samples of two different collections, namely in the presence of gamma-acaridial and 8-heptadecene. Furthermore, a minor component, identified as 1,8-cineole (= eucalyptol) and hitherto not known from oil gland secretions of other species, was recorded in both juvenile and adult extracts. In adult profiles, 1,8-cineole, in low amounts, represented the only detectable component; thus, their profiles fundamentally differed from those of juveniles. A subsequent histological investigation revealed well developed oil glands in all juvenile stages, but degenerated oil glands in adults, consistent with the chemical data. So far, apart from H. convexa, degeneration of oil glands in the course of ontogenetic development is only known from a brachypylid species; on the other hand, chemical oil gland-polymorphism between juveniles and adults may occur in closely related Nothridae while it does not occur in oil glands of early- and middle-derivative Oribatida (Parhyposomata, Mixonomata, trhypochthoniid Desmonomata), nor in astigmatid mites.

  1. Spontaneous changes in contact angle of water and oil on novel flip-flop-type hydrophobic multilayer coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Go; Ema, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hisatoshi; Wei, Xing; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-04-01

    Multilayer structures composed of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and Nafion were fabricated on glass substrates by layer-by-layer assembly. Some of the multilayers demonstrated spontaneous changes in contact angle of water and oil due to flip-flop movements of free sulfo groups in the Nafion layer, and the multilayers eventually possessed water repellency in air and oil repellency in water. The repellencies were enhanced by applying primer layers that were formed using SiO2 fine particles to increase surface roughness. Compared to typical hydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces, the multilayers showed practical levels for a use as soil release coatings.

  2. A Note on Forecasting the Rate of Change of the Price of Oil: Asymmetric Loss and Forecast Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pierdzioch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We study whether forecasts of the rate of change of the price of oil are rational. To this end, we consider a model that allows the shape of forecasters’ loss function to be studied. The shape of forecasters’ loss function may be consistent with a symmetric or an asymmetric loss function. We find that an asymmetric loss function often (but not always makes forecasts look rational, and we also report that forecast rationality may have changed over time.

  3. Changes in the Essential Oil Composition in the Needles of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Under Anthropogenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Judzentiene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF, a cement factory (CF, and an oil refinery (OR. Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005. Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles.

  4. Changing Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sa, Eurico J; Overton, Edward B; Lohrenz, Steven E; Maiti, Kanchan; Turner, R Eugene; Freeman, Angelina

    2016-05-17

    The characteristics of fluorescent components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were examined using excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy combined with parallel-factor analysis (PARAFAC) for seawater samples obtained from the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) before, during, and after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill. An EEMs PARAFAC modeling of samples collected within 16 km of the wellhead during the oil spill in May 2010, which included one typical subsurface sample with a PAH concentration of 1.09 μg/L, identified two humic-like and two previously reported oil-like components. Compared to prespill levels, however, there were order-of-magnitude higher fluorescence intensities associated with these components that are consistent with an oil-spill source. The spectral decomposition of the EEMs data using individual and combined data sets from coastal and offshore waters impacted by the DwH spill further revealed the changing nature of fluorescent DOM composition. Although the PAHs concentrations were at prespill conditions after the spill in 2012 and 2013 near the DwH site, the variable and anomalous levels of fluorescence intensities and DOC concentrations three years after the spill suggest the potential long-term persistence of the oil in the DOC pool in the NGoM.

  5. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oil treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Peleggi, Francesco

    2016-12-24

    Essential oils have recognized antimicrobial and antifungal properties which allow their utilization in agriculture like an alternative to pesticides, but their utilization requires the knowledge of all the potential structural changes and damages produced by the interaction with the vegetal organisms. In this paper, we investigated the effects of two essential oils, the tea tree oil (TTO) and the mixture of clove and rosemary oils (C + R), on the molecular structure of Vicia faba roots by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Fourier near infrared transform (FTNIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy showed structural modifications of the absorption bands related to DNA (1100 and 1050 cm(-1), carbohydrate backbones, and nucleotide bands within 900 and 850 cm(-1)), proteins (1700 and 1600 cm(-1) amide I band, 1580 and 1520 cm(-1) amide II band), and lipids (methylene group of aliphatic chains between 2950 and 2800 cm(-1)). The changes in the secondary structures of proteins consisted of a denaturation depending on increased presence of random coil structures. In addition, in the samples treated with TTO oils, we observed the presence of protein oxidation, an effect negligible instead for the C + R-treated samples. The modified shapes of the infrared methyl bands of aliphatic chains suggested an increased lipid disorder which could also determine lipid peroxidation. The changes observed for the DNA structures at the highest concentration of the above essential oils can be related to the genotoxic effect of eugenol, an important constituent of both TTO and C + R mixture oils. FTNIR spectroscopy showed the modified shape of the second overtone bands belonging to methyl and methylene groups, between 8500 and 8000 cm(-1). This confirmed the increased lipid disorders already observed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results obtained on the probe organism V. faba show that FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy can become a useful support to the conventional cytogenetic tests used

  6. Structure Changes of Macrobenthic Community on Rocky Shores After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hwan Jung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, more than 300 oil spill accidents occur every year. Despite the frequency, only a small pool of data is available on the initial effect of oil spill on macrobenthic fauna inhabiting rocky shores. The aim of this study was to analyze the variation of macrobenthic fauna composition and community structure on rocky shores, and understand the impact of oil on rocky shore organisms after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Field surveys were carried out in five regions dose to the wreck site in January, April and September 2008. Polluted sites after the Hebei Spirit oil spill showed that biological index consistently decreased for 9 months limited to breeding and recruitment of organisms by spilled oil. Macrobenthic community was subdivided into 3 groups by species elimination and differences between density of major dominant species: enriched biota community under a relatively stable environment, the second with relatively low ecological index and the last with poor community. In this study, species number did not clearly reflect the effect of oil on the rare and mobile species. However, mean density, biomass and community structure showed the effect of oil by considering breeding activity, decline in recruitment and variation pattern with time.

  7. Telecoupled governance of land use change: Sustainable palm oil conservation benefits limited by preferential certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmayr, R.; Carlson, K. M.; Gibbs, H.; Noojipady, P.; Burns, D.; Morton, D. C.; Walker, N.; Paoli, G.; Kremen, C.

    2016-12-01

    Dozens of trans-national corporations have made public commitments to purchase only zero-deforestation palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Eco-certification is a basic requirement of most such forest-related procurement policies, and >20% of palm oil was certified in 2015.While the impact of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations has never been tested, such evaluation is critical to inform improvements of voluntary sustainability initiatives. Here, we use a new, comprehensive data set of Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) certified and non-certified oil palm plantation boundaries (191,561 km2) in Indonesia, the leading global producer of palm oil to generate robust spatio-temporal estimates of certification's impact on deforestation and fires from 2000-2014. We find that certification reduced forest cover loss embodied in RSPO certified palm oil through two mechanisms. Certification had a significant protective effect, which lowered plantation deforestation rates by 29%.However, due to preferential certification of plantations developed before 2000, little forest was available for protection; forest area conserved totaled 56±4.9 km2. Our models suggest that increased adoption of RSPO certification may reduce the ability of palm oil companies to selectively certify previously cleared regions, and consequently strengthen the role of certification in protecting the tropical forests at greatest risk from agricultural encroachment. We reflect upon the complex interactions between traditional government policies, and emerging market-based governance structures in this telecoupled system.

  8. A new approach to model strain change of gelled waxy crude oil under constant stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Lei; Song, Changyu; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deformation of gelled waxy crude oil with loaded stress is worthy of research for the flow assurance of pipelining system. A dispersion parameter was introduced to characterize the disruption degree of wax crystal structure in crude oil with shear action. Based on fractional calculus theory, a rh...

  9. Land use change effects of oil palm expansion on ecosystem services in Tapi river basin, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Hein, L.G.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, Warit

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have shown a strong increase in oil palm production in Thailand. This is increasingly leading to land conversion including loss of forest habitat. However the specific direct and indirect land use effects of oil palm expansion in Thailand are as yet insufficiently understood. We sel

  10. Changes in oxidative stability, antioxidant capacity and phytochemical composition of Pistacia terebinthus oil with roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Gökhan; Gökmen, Vural

    2011-09-15

    The effect of roasting on oxidative stability, antioxidant capacity and the content of antioxidant phytochemicals in Pistacia terebinthus oil was investigated. Oils were extracted from P. terebinthus fruits roasted at 180°C for 0-40min. Roasting was found to cause an increase in the passage of phenolic compounds to the oil whereas the level of tocopherols, lutein and β-carotene was decreased. Antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of P. terebinthus oil increased with roasting. As an indicator of the presence of Maillard reaction products in oil, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) level and colour intensity was measured and found to increase with increasing roasting time. Fatty acid composition was not affected significantly by roasting.

  11. Reconciling oil palm expansion and climate change mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Urban, Dean L; Stolle, Fred; Vincent, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation while doubling production of several major agricultural commodities, exemplifies this challenge. Here we focus on palm oil, the world's most abundant vegetable oil and a commodity that has contributed significantly to Indonesia's economy. Most oil palm expansion in the country has occurred at the expense of forests, resulting in significant GHG emissions. We examine the extent to which land management policies can resolve the apparently conflicting goals of oil palm expansion and GHG mitigation in Kalimantan, a major oil palm growing region of Indonesia. Using a logistic regression model to predict the locations of new oil palm between 2010 and 2020 we evaluate the impacts of six alternative policy scenarios on future emissions. We estimate net emissions of 128.4-211.4 MtCO2 yr(-1) under business as usual expansion of oil palm plantations. The impact of diverting new plantations to low carbon stock land depends on the design of the policy. We estimate that emissions can be reduced by 9-10% by extending the current moratorium on new concessions in primary forests and peat lands, 35% by limiting expansion on all peat and forestlands, 46% by limiting expansion to areas with moderate carbon stocks, and 55-60% by limiting expansion to areas with low carbon stocks. Our results suggest that these policies would reduce oil palm profits only moderately but would vary greatly in terms of cost-effectiveness of emissions reductions. We conclude that a carefully designed and implemented oil palm expansion plan can contribute significantly towards Indonesia's national emissions mitigation goal, while allowing oil palm area to double.

  12. Reconciling oil palm expansion and climate change mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemen G Austin

    Full Text Available Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from deforestation while doubling production of several major agricultural commodities, exemplifies this challenge. Here we focus on palm oil, the world's most abundant vegetable oil and a commodity that has contributed significantly to Indonesia's economy. Most oil palm expansion in the country has occurred at the expense of forests, resulting in significant GHG emissions. We examine the extent to which land management policies can resolve the apparently conflicting goals of oil palm expansion and GHG mitigation in Kalimantan, a major oil palm growing region of Indonesia. Using a logistic regression model to predict the locations of new oil palm between 2010 and 2020 we evaluate the impacts of six alternative policy scenarios on future emissions. We estimate net emissions of 128.4-211.4 MtCO2 yr(-1 under business as usual expansion of oil palm plantations. The impact of diverting new plantations to low carbon stock land depends on the design of the policy. We estimate that emissions can be reduced by 9-10% by extending the current moratorium on new concessions in primary forests and peat lands, 35% by limiting expansion on all peat and forestlands, 46% by limiting expansion to areas with moderate carbon stocks, and 55-60% by limiting expansion to areas with low carbon stocks. Our results suggest that these policies would reduce oil palm profits only moderately but would vary greatly in terms of cost-effectiveness of emissions reductions. We conclude that a carefully designed and implemented oil palm expansion plan can contribute significantly towards Indonesia's national emissions mitigation goal, while allowing oil palm area to double.

  13. Characterizing commercial oil palm expansion in Latin America: land use change and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumo, Paul Richard; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2017-02-01

    Commodity crop expansion has increased with the globalization of production systems and consumer demand, linking distant socio-ecological systems. Oil palm plantations are expanding in the tropics to satisfy growing oilseed and biofuel markets, and much of this expansion has caused extensive deforestation, especially in Asia. In Latin America, palm oil output has doubled since 2001, and the majority of expansion seems to be occurring on non-forested lands. We used MODIS satellite imagery (250 m resolution) to map current oil palm plantations in Latin America and determined prior land use and land cover (LULC) using high-resolution images in Google Earth. In addition, we compiled trade data to determine where Latin American palm oil flows, in order to better understand the underlying drivers of expansion in the region. Based on a sample of 342 032 ha of oil palm plantations across Latin America, we found that 79% replaced previously intervened lands (e.g. pastures, croplands, bananas), primarily cattle pastures (56%). The remaining 21% came from areas that were classified as woody vegetation (e.g. forests), most notably in the Amazon and the Petén region in northern Guatemala. Latin America is a net exporter of palm oil but the majority of palm oil exports (70%) stayed within the region, with Mexico importing about half. Growth of the oil palm sector may be driven by global factors, but environmental and economic outcomes vary between regions (i.e. Asia and Latin America), within regions (i.e. Colombia and Peru), and within single countries (i.e. Guatemala), suggesting that local conditions are influential. The present trend of oil palm expanding onto previously cleared lands, guided by roundtable certifications programs, provides an opportunity for more sustainable development of the oil palm sector in Latin America.

  14. Crude Oil-polluted Soil Induces Ultrastructural and Enzyme Activity Changes in the Shoot of Lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Minai-Tehrani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are always under threat due to various biotic and abiotic stresses. They respond to such threats by an efficient antioxidative enzyme system such as catalase. The presence of petroleum in soil is a stressful environmental factor for plants. In this study, cellular and biochemical changes were investigated in the shoot of lentil grown in the crude oil-polluted soil. Transmission electron microscope micrographs showed various injuries in the level of subcellular content including nucleus, chloroplast and mitochondria. In the treated samples, catalase activity and its kinetics factors (Vmax and Km were different from the control. In the treated, Km of the enzyme was lower than that of the control. Temperature and pH profiles of the enzyme were different in the control and treated samples. Catalase purification in both treated and control samples showed that two catalase isoforms were expressed in the treated sample in comparison to the control, in which only one type of catalase was detected.

  15. Changes in Composition and Function of Human Intestinal Microbiota Exposed to Chlorpyrifos in Oil as Assessed by the SHIME® Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Reygner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pesticide residues in food is a public health problem. Exposure to these substances in daily life could have serious effects on the intestine—the first organ to come into contact with food contaminants. The present study investigated the impact of a low dose (1 mg/day in oil of the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF on the community structure, diversity and metabolic response of the human gut microbiota using the SHIME® model (six reactors, representing the different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. The last three reactors (representing the colon were inoculated with a mixture of feces from human adults. Three time points were studied: immediately before the first dose of CPF, and then after 15 and 30 days of CPF-oil administration. By using conventional bacterial culture and molecular biology methods, we showed that CPF in oil can affect the gut microbiota. It had the greatest effects on counts of culturable bacteria (with an increase in Enterobacteria, Bacteroides spp. and clostridia counts, and a decrease in bifidobacterial counts and fermentative activity, which were colon-segment-dependent. Our results suggest that: (i CPF in oil treatment affects the gut microbiota (although there was some discordance between the culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses; (ii the changes are “SHIME®-compartment” specific; and (iii the changes are associated with minor alterations in the production of short-chain fatty acids and lactate.

  16. The Changes of Retinal Saturation after Long-Term Tamponade with Silicone Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingsheng Lou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effects of long-term tamponade with silicone oil on retinal saturation. Methods. A total of 49 eyes that received tamponade with silicone oil were included. The patients were divided into 3 groups (3–6 months, 6–9 months, and >9 months according to the duration of silicone oil tamponade. Retinal oximetry was performed using the Oxymap system before and 2 months after silicone oil removal. Results. The mean retinal oxygen saturation before silicone oil removal was 107% ± 12% in the arterioles and 60% ± 10% in the venules, with an overall arteriovenous difference (AVD of 47% ± 14%. The AVD in the >9-month group was significantly higher than that in the 3–6-month group (54% ± 16% versus 44% ± 11%, P=0.042. After silicone oil removal, the AVD in the >9-month group was significantly decreased (45% ± 9% versus 54% ± 16%, P=0.009; additionally, the arterioles were significantly wider than before surgery (10.8 ± 0.7 pixels versus 10.4 ± 0.9 pixels, P=0.015. Conclusions. The tamponade with silicone oil for more than 9 months will cause the alterations of retinal saturation and the narrowing of retinal arterioles, which may further interfere with the oxygen metabolism in the retina.

  17. The Changes of Retinal Saturation after Long-Term Tamponade with Silicone Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Bingsheng; Yuan, Zhaohui; He, Liwen; Lin, Lixia; Gao, Qianying; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects of long-term tamponade with silicone oil on retinal saturation. Methods. A total of 49 eyes that received tamponade with silicone oil were included. The patients were divided into 3 groups (3–6 months, 6–9 months, and >9 months) according to the duration of silicone oil tamponade. Retinal oximetry was performed using the Oxymap system before and 2 months after silicone oil removal. Results. The mean retinal oxygen saturation before silicone oil removal was 107% ± 12% in the arterioles and 60% ± 10% in the venules, with an overall arteriovenous difference (AVD) of 47% ± 14%. The AVD in the >9-month group was significantly higher than that in the 3–6-month group (54% ± 16% versus 44% ± 11%, P = 0.042). After silicone oil removal, the AVD in the >9-month group was significantly decreased (45% ± 9% versus 54% ± 16%, P = 0.009); additionally, the arterioles were significantly wider than before surgery (10.8 ± 0.7 pixels versus 10.4 ± 0.9 pixels, P = 0.015). Conclusions. The tamponade with silicone oil for more than 9 months will cause the alterations of retinal saturation and the narrowing of retinal arterioles, which may further interfere with the oxygen metabolism in the retina. PMID:26557694

  18. Palaeolimnological assessment of lake acidification and environmental change in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi PLA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of the Athabasca Oil Sands has expanded hugely over the last 40 years. Regional emissions of oxidised sulphur and nitrogen compounds increased rapidly over this period and similar emissions have been linked to lake acidification in other parts of North America and Europe. To determine whether lakes in the region have undergone acidification, 12 lakes within the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and the Caribou Mountains were selected to cover chemical and spatial gradients and sediment cores were obtained for palaeolimnological analyses including radiometric dating, diatom analysis, isotopic analysis of bulk sediment 13C and 15N, and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs. All lake sediment cores show evidence of industrial contamination based on SCPs, but there is no clear industrial signal in stable isotopes. Most lakes showed changes in diatom assemblages and sediment C:N ratios consistent with nutrient enrichment over various timescales, with potential drivers including climatic change, forest fires and anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Only one of the 12 lakes investigated showed strong evidence of acidification with a decline in diatom-inferred pH from 6.3 to 5.6 since 1970 linked to increasing relative abundances of the acidophilous diatom species Actinella punctata, Asterionella ralfsii and Fragilariforma polygonata. Analysis of mercury (Hg in the acidified lake showed increasing sediment fluxes over the last 20 years, a possible indication of industrial contamination. The acidified lake is the smallest of those studied with the shortest residence time, suggesting a limited capacity for neutralisation of acid inputs in catchment soils or by inlake processes.

  19. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: oxidation linked to changes in protein composition at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit M.; Baron, Caroline P.; Let, Mette B.

    2007-01-01

    Fish oil was incorporated into milk under different homogenization temperatures (50 and 72 °C) and pressures (5, 15, and 22.5 MPa). Subsequently, the oxidative stability of the milk and changes in the protein composition of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were examined. Results showed that h...... casein seemed to be present at the oil−water interface with increasing pressure. Overall, the results indicated that a combination of more β-lactoglobulin and less casein at the oil−water interface gave the most stable emulsions with respect to lipid oxidation....... was increased by high temperature (72 °C) and with increasing pressure. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) indicated that high temperature resulted in an increase in β-lactoglobulin adsorbed at the oil−water interface. This was even more pronounced with higher pressure. Less......Fish oil was incorporated into milk under different homogenization temperatures (50 and 72 °C) and pressures (5, 15, and 22.5 MPa). Subsequently, the oxidative stability of the milk and changes in the protein composition of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were examined. Results showed...

  20. A mesocosm study of the changes in marine flagellate and ciliate communities in a crude oil bioremediation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Christoph; Näther, Daniela J; Gerdts, Gunnar; Malpass, Mark C; Golyshin, Peter N

    2010-07-01

    Protozoan grazers play an important role in controlling the density of crude-oil degrading marine communities as has been evidenced in a number of microcosm experiments. However, small bioreactors contain a low initial titre of protozoa and the growth of hydrocarbon-depleting bacteria is accompanied by the fast depletion of mineral nutrients and oxygen, which makes microcosms rather unsuitable for simulating the sequence of events after the oil spill in natural seawater environment. In the present study, the population dynamics of marine protozoan community have been analysed in a 500 l mesocosm experiment involving bioaugmented oil booms that contained oil sorbents and slow-release fertilisers. A significant increase in numbers of marine flagellates and ciliates on biofilms of oil-degrading microbes was microscopically observed as early as 8 days after the start of the experiment, when protozoa exhibited a population density peak making up to 3,000 cells ml(-1). Further, the protozoan density varied throughout the experiment, but never dropped below 80 cells ml(-1). An 18S rRNA gene-based fingerprinting analysis revealed several changes within the eukaryotic community over the whole course of the experiment. Initial growth of flagellates and small ciliates was followed by a predominance of larger protozoa. According to microscopic observations and SSU rRNA molecular analyses, most predominant were the ciliates belonging to Euplotidae and Scuticociliatia. This is the first study to characterise the eukaryotic communities specifically in a large-scale oil bioremediation trial using both microscopy-based and several molecular techniques.

  1. Estimation of Physical Property Changes by Oil Saturation in Carbonates and Sandstone Using Computational Rock Physics Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Keehm, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Carbonate Reservoirs are drawing a great attention as global energy demands and consumption increase rapidly, since more than 60% of oil and 40% of gas of world reserves are in carbonate rocks. However, most of them are hard to develop mainly due to their complexity and heterogeneity, especially at the pore scale. In this study, we perform computational rock physics modeling (numerical simulations on pore microstructures of carbonate rocks) and compare the results with those from sandstone. The brief procedure of the method is (1) to obtain high-resolution pore microstructure with a spatial resolution of 1-2 micron by X-ray microtomography technique, (2) to perform two-phase lattice-Boltzmann (LB) flow simulation to obtain various oil and water saturations, then (3) to calculate physical properties, such as P-wave velocity and electrical conductivity through pore-scale property simulation techniques. For the carbonate rock, we identified much more isolated pores than sandstone by investigating pore microstructures. Thus permeability and electrical conductivity were much smaller than those of sandstone. The electrical conductivity versus oil saturation curve of the carbonate rock showed sharper decrease at low oil saturation, but similar slope at higher oil saturation. We think that higher complexity of pore connectivity is responsible for this effect. The P-wave velocity of the carbonate rock was much higher than sandstone and the it did not show any significant changes during the change of oil saturation. Therefore, we think that fluid discrimination by seismic data with P-wave velocity alone would pose a greate challenge in most carbonate reservoirs. In addition, the S-wave velocity seems not to be sensitive either, which suggest that the AVO-type analysis would also be difficult, though requires more researches. On the other hand, our computational rock physics approach can be useful in preliminary analysis of carbonate reservoirs since it can determine the

  2. Alkylthiophenes as sensitive indicators of palaeoenvironmental changes : a study of a Cretaceous oil shale from Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen samples of the immature, Cretaceous Jurf ed Darawish oil shade (Jordan) were analysed quantitatively for aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkylthiophenes in the bitumens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after isolation of appropriate fractions.

  3. Changes in sensory properties of Galician chorizo sausage preserved by freezing, oil-immersion and vacuum-packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, E; Romero-Rodríguez, M A; Vázquez-Odériz, M L

    2005-06-01

    Galician chorizo sausage, a dry-cured meat product from northwest Spain, was conserved by different methods with the aim of increasing its useful life. We studied changes in the sensory properties of this dry-cured meat product conserved by freezing, vacuum-packing and a traditional method involving immersion in sunflower oil. The reasons for the elimination of the samples conserved in sunflower oil at sampling 13 (week 23) was an increase in rancid flavor, acid flavor and external odor intensity. In sampling 18 (week 41) the samples conserved by vacuum-packing were eliminated because of increases in acid flavor, external and internal odor intensity, flavor intensity and after-taste persistence. In the frozen sausages the changes in sensory properties happened very slowly during storage.

  4. I want to change my fate now : the role of oil palm in Indonesia's rural development

    OpenAIRE

    Rist, L.; Levang, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    The rapid expansion of biofuel cultivation in the tropics, particularly of oil palm, has led to growing concern over impacts on natural habitats, biodiversity and the global climate. Alarm has also been raised over the implications for national and global food security, but the broader social and livelihood implications of biofuel cultivation remain uncertain. In Indonesia human rights organisations have criticised the oil palm industry for negative livelihood outcomes and human rights abuses...

  5. The Magic of Energy: Oil Surely Changed the Way that Humans Value Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the price of gasoline seems to keep going up and up with seemingly no limit in sight. Accordingly, the price of a barrel of oil is in excess of sixty dollars today, when just a few years ago it was around twelve to fifteen dollars a barrel. There are many intertwined answers as to why the price of oil and gasoline are increasing.…

  6. Quality changes of Moringa oleífera, variety Mbololo of Kenya, seed oil during frying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaknis, John

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The frying performance of Moringa oleífera variety Mbololo of Kenya seed oil (produced by cold pressure, extraction with n-hexane and a mixture of chloroform-methanol was studied especially as regards repeated frying operations. The oils were used for intermittent frying of potato slices and cod filets at a temperature of 175 ± 5°C for 5 consecutive days. Under such conditions thermal and oxidative decomposition of the oils takes place. The chemical changes occurring in the oils were evaluated. Free fatty acid content, peroxide value, specific extinction at 232 nm, polar compounds, colour and viscosity of the oils all increased, whereas the iodine values, smoke points, polyunsaturated fatty acid content, induction period and tocopherol concentration decreased. The effect of the oils on the organoleptic quality of these fried foods was also determined. The analytical and sensory data showed that the lowest deterioration occurred in cold pressure produced oil and the highest in n-hexane extracted oil.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento frente a la fritura, especialmente en el caso de frituras repetidas de aceite de semilla Moringa oleífera variedad Mbololo de Kenya (producido por presión en frío, extracción con n-hexano y una mezcla de cloroformo-metanol. Los aceites se usaron para la fritura intermitente de rodajas de patatas y filetes de bacalao a temperatura de 175 ± 5°C durante 5 días consecutivos. Bajo estas condiciones tuvo lugar la descomposición térmica y oxidativa de los aceites. Se evaluaron los cambios químicos ocurridos en los aceites. El contenido en ácidos grasos libres, índice de peróxido, extinción específica a 232 nm, compuestos polares, color y viscosidad de los aceites aumentaron, en tanto que el índice de iodo, punto de humo, contenido en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, período de inducción y concentración en tocoferol disminuyeron. También se determinó el efecto de los aceites sobre

  7. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Bourgou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium, lemon (Citrus limon, orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis, and mandarin (Citrus reticulate and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95% and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72% were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%, β-pinene (0.63–31.49%, γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%, and p-cymene (0.23–9.84% were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%, 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%, and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%. However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43% during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.

  8. Relating subsurface temperature changes to microbial activity at a crude oil-contaminated site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ean; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2015-11-01

    Crude oil at a spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for over 30 years, creating a 150-200 m plume of primary and secondary contaminants. Microbial degradation generates heat that should be measurable under the right conditions. To measure this heat, thermistors were installed in wells in the saturated zone and in water-filled monitoring tubes in the unsaturated zone. In the saturated zone, a thermal groundwater plume originates near the residual oil body with temperatures ranging from 2.9 °C above background near the oil to 1.2 °C down gradient. Temperatures in the unsaturated zone above the oil body were up to 2.7 °C more than background temperatures. Previous work at this site has shown that methane produced from biodegradation of the oil migrates upward and is oxidized in a methanotrophic zone midway between the water table and the surface. Enthalpy calculations and observations demonstrate that the temperature increases primarily result from aerobic methane oxidation in the unsaturated zone above the oil. Methane oxidation rates at the site independently estimated from surface CO2 efflux data are comparable to rates estimated from the observed temperature increases. The results indicate that temperature may be useful as a low-cost measure of activity but care is required to account for the correct heat-generating reactions, other heat sources and the effects of focused recharge.

  9. Carbon neutral? No change in mineral soil carbon stock under oil palm plantations derived from forest or non-forest in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khasanah, N.; Noordwijk, van M.; Ningsih, H.; Rahayu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability criteria for palm oil production guide new planting toward non-forest land cover on mineral soil, avoiding carbon debts caused by forest and peat conversion. Effects on soil carbon stock (soil Cstock) of land use change trajectories from forest and non-forest to oil palm on mineral so

  10. 大豆油在储存过程中的变化%Change of soybean oil during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左青; 申晓刚; 陈元平

    2012-01-01

    The acid value and peroxide value of the crude soybean oil in oil tank were determined and the change law of the crude oil during storage was analyzed. The results showed that the change law of the acid value and peroxide value of crude soybean oil was the same, the acid value increased with the increase of the storage time and 0. 2 -0.4 mg/g was increased every year, but the peroxide value slowly increased as the storage time increased, and changed more by environment temperature change. The peroxide value increased rapidly when the temperature and oxygen concentration increased suddenly, but when the peroxide value reached a certain degree, it would decreased.%收集储备大豆原油在储存过程中酸值和过氧化值的数据,分析其在储存过程中的变化规律.结果表明:大豆原油的酸值和过氧化值变化规律相同,酸值随着储存时间的延长呈缓慢线性增长,年变化值在0.2~0.4 mg/g,过氧化值随着储存时间延长呈平稳慢慢上升趋势,其变化值受环境温度影响较大,在外部温度和氧气突然增加时过氧化值迅速上升,当达到一定值后分解下降.

  11. Quantification of changes in oil sands mining infrastructure land based on RapidEye and SPOT5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Lantz, Nicholas; Guindon, Bert; Shipman, Todd; Chao, Dennis; Raymond, Don

    2013-10-01

    Natural resources development, spanning exploration, production and transportation activities, alters local land surface at various spatial scales. Quantification of these anthropogenic changes, both permanent and reversible, is needed for compliance assessment and for development of effective sustainable management strategies. Multi-spectral high resolution imagery data from SPOT5 and RapidEye were used for extraction and quantification of the anthropogenic and natural changes for a case study of Alberta bitumen (oil sands) mining located near Fort McMurray, Canada. Two test sites representative of the major Alberta bitumen production extraction processes, open pit and in-situ extraction, were selected. A hybrid change detection approach, combining pixel- and object-based target detection and extraction, is proposed based on Change Vector Analysis (CVA). The extraction results indicate that the changed infrastructure landscapes of these two sites have different footprints linked with their differing oil sands production processes. Pixeland object-based accuracy assessments have been applied for validation of the change detection results. For manmade disturbances, other than fine linear features such as the seismic lines, accuracies of about 80% have been achieved at the pixel level while, at the object level, these rise to 90-95%. Since many disturbance features are transient, the land surface changes by re-growth of vegetation and the capability for natural restoration on the mining sites have been assessed.

  12. Long-term changes in rocky intertidal macrobenthos during the five years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Hwan; Park, Henug-Sik; Yoon, Kon-Tak; Kim, Hyung-June; Shim, Won-Joon

    2017-02-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill reached the west coast of Taean County, Korea, on December 7, 2007. At that time, this was the largest oil spill that had occurred in the country. The incident devastated local marine ecosystems. In this study, we examined changes in these ecosystems and the recovery pattern on impacted rocky shores. Macrobenthos monitoring of polluted and control sites was performed seasonally from January 2008 through October 2013. At polluted sites, ecological indices increased gradually from 2009, thereby providing evidence of recovery. However, the mean density of macrobenthos was still less than 50% of the level at the control site, indicating that the ecological status of the polluted sites has still not recovered to that which prevailed before the oil spill. Although densities of the most dominant species were higher in the control site than in polluted sites, the densities of Lottia spp. and Odostomia aomori were higher in polluted sites. These two taxa were found in lower numbers at the control site, where they were out-competed by Chthamalus challengeri. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination divided the macrobenthic community structure into three clusters according to differences in the abundance of dominant species over the 6 years after the oil spill. An ANOSIM test detected significant differences between the polluted and control sites. Consistent long-term differences indicate that complete recovery had not occurred during the duration of our study.

  13. Morphological and transcript changes in the biosynthesis of lignin in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) during Ganoderma boninense infections in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Goh Kar; Dickinson, Matthew; Supramaniam, Christina V

    2017-09-20

    Lignification of the plant cell wall could serve as the first line of defence against pathogen attack, but the molecular mechanisms of virulence and disease between oil palm and Ganoderma boninense is poorly understood. This study presents the biochemical, histochemical, enzymology and gene expression evidences of enhanced lignin biosynthesis in young oil palm as a response to G. boninense (GBLS strain). Comparative studies with control (T1), wounded (T2) and infected (T3) oil palm plantlets showed significant accumulation of total lignin content and monolignol derivatives (syringaldehyde and vanillin). These derivatives were deposited on the epidermal cell wall of infected plants. Moreover, substantial differences were detected in the activities of enzyme and relative expressions of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.24), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11), caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.68) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195). These enzymes are key intermediates dedicated to the biosynthesis of lignin monomers, the guaicyl (G), syringyl (S) and ρ-hydroxyphenyl (H) subunits. Results confirmed an early, biphasic and transient positive induction of all gene intermediates, except for CAD enzyme activities. These differences were visualised by anatomical and metabolic changes in the profile of lignin in the oil palm plantlets such as low G lignin, indicating a potential mechanism for enhanced susceptibility towards G. boninense infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in productivity in the virgin olive oil sector: An application to Protected Designations of Origin in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aparicio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil is a key ingredient of the renowned Mediterranean diet. In this context, the main objective of this study was to estimate and decompose productivity change for Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs in the Spanish virgin olive oil sector for the period 2008-2013. To this end, we introduced a Luenberger-type indicator based on a specific weighted additive model in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, which, in contrast to previous studies, captured all sources of inefficiency and avoided infeasibilities. Regarding the results, we found a reduction in productivity, in average terms, in the first periods analyzed (-0.12 and -1.65, followed by an improvement (0.79 and 0.54, that in the last period analyzed (2012-2013, however, returned to adverse figures (-0.47. In Spain, where foreign competition is weak, the most productive PDOs were those with an important number of oil mills and packaging/marketing companies such as “Montes de Toledo” and “Siurana”; productivity changes were mainly the consequence of downwards and upwards of the frontier of the technology over time. These changes were explained, to a certain extent, by the evolution of the economic crisis; and the productivity of the sector declined, in general, from 2008 to 2010, improving thereafter except for the last registered period, 2012-2013, where expectations for market recovery exceeded actual sales.

  15. Changes in productivity in the virgin olive oil sector: An application to Protected Designations of Origin in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, J.; Monge, J.F; Ortiz, L.; Pastor, J.T.

    2016-11-01

    Virgin olive oil is a key ingredient of the renowned Mediterranean diet. In this context, the main objective of this study was to estimate and decompose productivity change for Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs) in the Spanish virgin olive oil sector for the period 2008-2013. To this end, we introduced a Luenberger-type indicator based on a specific weighted additive model in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which, in contrast to previous studies, captured all sources of inefficiency and avoided infeasibilities. Regarding the results, we found a reduction in productivity, in average terms, in the first periods analyzed (-0.12 and -1.65), followed by an improvement (0.79 and 0.54), that in the last period analyzed (2012-2013), however, returned to adverse figures (-0.47). In Spain, where foreign competition is weak, the most productive PDOs were those with an important number of oil mills and packaging/marketing companies such as “Montes de Toledo” and “Siurana”; productivity changes were mainly the consequence of downwards and upwards of the frontier of the technology over time. These changes were explained, to a certain extent, by the evolution of the economic crisis; and the productivity of the sector declined, in general, from 2008 to 2010, improving thereafter except for the last registered period, 2012-2013, where expectations for market recovery exceeded actual sales. (Author)

  16. Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Silicone Oil Injection in Phakic and Pseudophakic Eyes; Corneal Endothelial Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoun Farrahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of silicone oil (SO on the corneal endothelium in SO filled phakic and pseudophakic vitrectomizied eyes. Methods: This prospective comparative consecutive case-control study evaluated the corneal endothelial characteristics of 64 SO filled vitrectomizied eyes (case group as compared to 46 vitrectomizied eyes without SO injection (control group. Endothelial cell densities (ECD, coefficient of variation (CV, and percentage of hexagonal cells (hexagonality at the corneal center were evaluated preoperatively, 1 month and 6 months after surgery using noncontact specular microscopy and were compared between the two groups. Exclusion criteria were previous vitreoretinal surgery, aphakia, any degree of anterior chamber inflammation, SO bubbles in the anterior chamber and increased intraocular pressure in the postoperative period. Results: Six months after SO injection, mean ECD was 2,438.2±327.6 cell/mm 2 in the case group and 2,462.6±361.7 cell/mm 2 in the control group (P = 0.714 and mean hexagonality was 49.6 ± 6.8 and 54.6 ± 8.9, in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.004. Six months after operation, CV in the case group was 39.3 ± 5.6 and that in the control group was 35.7 ± 6.4 (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Although the presence of SO in the vitreous cavity of phakic and pseudophakic eyes causes slight reduction in the number of endothelial cells, however it leads to significant changes in endothelial cell morphology. Thus, removal of SO after reaching the desired tamponade effect is recommended.

  17. Changes in blood profile in sheep receiving raw garlic, garlic oil or monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anassori, E; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Pirmohammadi, R; Hadian, M

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing a basal diet (CTR) with raw garlic (GAR) or garlic oil (GAO) on blood profile in sheep. Monensin (MON, 33 mg/kg DM) was used as positive control. Four ruminally fistulated rams were used in three experiments each arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-day periods. Experiments 1 and 2 differed in the dose of GAR (75 vs. 100 g/kg DM) and GAO (500 vs. 750 mg/kg DM), while experiment 3 was designed to compare the two doses of each additive (GAR and GAO). The animals were fed a basal diet as TMR consisting of 77.83% forage (alfalfa hay and corn silage) and 22.17% concentrate, providing 10.50 MJ/kg DM (metabolizable energy) and 16.5% crude protein to cover maintenance energy and protein requirements. Supplementation of monensin decreased (P < 0.05) β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in the blood compared with other treatments. There was no significant effect of additives on serum concentration of glucose, total triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Although the serum insulin concentration was elevated in sheep receiving MON and GAO (P < 0.01), no change was observed in blood glucose concentration. No significant effect of GAO and GAR was observed in key energy and protein-related blood metabolites. However, administration of monensin had a positive influence on energy indices. In conclusion, whereas parameters characterizing the energy balance did not show a significant effect of GAR supplementation, a higher insulin concentration in GAO-treated animals was observed.

  18. Changes in phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of virgin olive oil during frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Fregapane, Giuseppe; Salvador, M Desamparados; Gordon, Michael H

    2003-01-29

    The concentration of hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA) and its secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEA-EA) in virgin olive oil decreased rapidly when the oil was repeatedly used for preparing french fries in deep-fat frying operations. At the end of the first frying process (10 min at 180 degrees C), the concentration of the dihydroxyphenol components was reduced to 50-60% of the original value, and after six frying operations only about 10% of the initial components remained. However, tyrosol (p-HPEA) and its derivatives (p-HPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EA) in the oil were much more stable during 12 frying operations. The reduction in their original concentration was much smaller than that for hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives and showed a roughly linear relationship with the number of frying operations. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic extract measured using the DPPH test rapidly diminished during the first six frying processes, from a total antioxidant activity higher than 740 micromol of Trolox/kg down to less than 250 micromol/kg. On the other hand, the concentration of polar compounds, oxidized triacylglycerol monomers (oxTGs), dimeric TGs, and polymerized TGs rapidly increased from the sixth frying operation onward, when the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extract was very low, and as a consequence the oil was much more susceptible to oxidation. The loss of antioxidant activity in the phenolic fraction due to deep-fat frying was confirmed by the storage oil and oil-in-water emulsions containing added extracts from olive oil used for 12 frying operations.

  19. Chemical, Colour and Strength Changes of Eco-friendly Hot Oil Treatment on 15 Year-old Cultivated Acacia Hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razak Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical, colour and strength properties of thermally modified cultivated 15-year-old Acacia hybrid were investigated. Logs of A. hybrid were harvested and cut at the bottom, middle and top sections. The wood later underwent hot oilthermal modification using palm oil at temperatures 180°C, 200°C and 220°C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Untreated wood was used as control. The hot oil thermal modification process caused some features changed in the chemical composition, colour appearances and strength properties of A. hybrid wood. Parameters such as temperatures and treatment time were closely monitored as they influence the chemical, colour and strength changes in the treated wood. Temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C, and treatment time of 1 hr, 2 hrs. and 3 hrs. were used in the study. The degradation in holocellulose, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents was recognized when acacia woods were exposed to oil thermally modified process. Holocellulose and celulose degraded with the increasing of treatment temperature and duration of heating exposure, while lignin showed the increment in content through this treatment. The colour changes in the sapwood and heartwood were measured using the Minolta Chroma-meter CR-310 and the results are presented according to the CIE L*a*b* colour co-ordinates system. The results show that temperature at certain treatment time enhanced and darkened the treated wood. The colour of the treated sapwood can be enhanced to match the colour of the natural A. hybrid heartwood. The strength properties of the oil heat treated A. hybrid wood decreases in values of both MOR and MOE throughout thetreatment process. The decreases in values were influenced by temperature and duration of the treatment.

  20. Changes in the sterol compositions of milk thistle oil (Silybium marianum L.) during seed maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrabi, S.; Curtis, S.; Hayet, F.; Mayer, P.M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the total lipid content and sterol compositions were determined during the development of milk thistle seeds. The oil content increased to a maximum value of 36±1.7% and then declined to reach a value of 30.5±0.9% at full maturity. The sterol content of milk thistle seeds was affected by the ripening degree of the seeds. At the early stages of seed maturation, Δ7 -stigmastenol was the most abundant sterol followed by β-sitosterol. However, at full maturity, β-sitosterol was the most predominant sterol (46.50±0.8%). As the seed developed, campesterol and stigmasterol amounts increased, while Δ7 -avenasterol content decreased. It can be concluded that milk thistle seed oil has a characteristic sterol pattern comparable to the ones elucidated for olive oil and corn oil. The extracted oil from milk thistle seeds is rich in phytosterols and could be used in foodpreparation and human nutrition. (Author)

  1. Will Forests Remain in the Face of Oil Palm Expansion? Simulating Change in Malinau, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Sandker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The severe tensions between conservation and development are illustrated by events in Malinau Dstrict (Kalimantan, Indonesia. Conservationists decry proposed plans for logging and conversion of pristine tropical forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis. Although the local government is willing to declare the district a "conservation district," at the same time, it shows interest in oil palm conversion. This article explores the impact of the potential conversion of 500 000 ha of forest to oil palm on forest cover, in-migration, and the local economy in Malinau. The simulation model was developed using STELLA® software, and relies on a combination of empirical data, data from the literature, and stakeholder perceptions. If a company were to clear the forest for timber without planting oil palm (as commonly happens, poverty levels are likely to rise rather than decline over the long term. If large-scale oil palm plantations were to be established, they could yield significant benefits to local authorities. However, such development would induce massive employment-driven migration, with wide-ranging consequences for the current inhabitants of the region. By visualizing and quantifying these trade-offs between conservation and development, the model stimulates debate and information exchange among conservationists, development actors, and district authorities so that well-informed choices can be made.

  2. Changes in the essential oil content and terpene composition of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. by using plant biostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir FOROUTAN NIA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant biostimulants can stimulate the increase of growth, metabolism and the biosynthesis of metabolites in plants. This study investigated the changes of rosemary essential oil and its components composition under use of biostimulants for the possible reduction in use of chemical fertilizers. Treatments included biostimulants based on amino acids in four formulations, Aminolforte, Kadostim, Humiforte, and Fosnutren (each of them at 0.75 and 1.5 L ha-1, and application of N.P.K fertilizer as a control treatment (by applied complete fertilizer at 100 kg per hectar with proportion of 15:8:15 percentage of N:P:K in the fertilizer. Results showed that the essential oil content and its components were significantly affected by biostimulants application. The maximum content of essential oil was obtained at 1.5 L ha-1 Humiforte and both concentrations of Aminolforte. While, the highest content of α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and camphor as major components of rosemary essential oil were obtained at 1.5 L ha-1 Fosnutren. In addition, the maximum content of linalool, z-pinocamphone, bornyl acetate, and caryophyllene oxide were observed at 1.5 L ha-1 Fosnutren.Although, the highest content of myrcene and verbenone was obtained in the treatment with N.P.K fertilizer, but the maximum contents of β-pinene, camphene, borneol, and α-terpineol were related to the both concentrations of Aminolforte.We can conclude that biostimulants based on amino acids can be an effective alternative in reducing the use of chemical fertilizer and increasing the quantity and quality of rosemary essential oil.

  3. Evaluation of protein structural changes and water mobility in chicken liver paste batters prepared with plant oil substituting pork back-fat combined with pre-emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guoyuan; Han, Minyi; Kang, Zhuangli; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Xinglian; Zhu, Yingying

    2016-04-01

    Protein structural changes and water mobility properties in chicken liver paste batters prepared with plant oil (sunflower and canola oil combinations) substituting 0-40% pork back-fat combined with pre-emulsification were studied by Raman spectroscopy and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Results showed that pre-emulsifying back-fat and plant oil, including substituting higher than 20% back-fat with plant oil increased the water- and fat-binding (pproperties, formed more even and fine microstructures, and gradually decreased the NMR relaxation times (T21a, T21b and T22), which was related to the lower fluid losses in chicken liver paste batters. Raman spectroscopy revealed that compared with a control, there was a decrease (poil combined with pre-emulsification. Pre-emulsification and plant oil substitution changed tryptophan and tyrosine doublet hydrophobic residues in chicken liver paste batters.

  4. Changes in composition and pore space of sand rocks in the oil water contact zone (section YU1 3-4, Klyuchevskaya area, Tomsk region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedolivko, N.; Perevertailo, T.; Pavlovec, T.

    2016-09-01

    The article provides an analysis of specific features in changes of rocks in the oil water contact zone. The object of study is the formation YU1 3-4 (J3o1) of Klyuchevskaya oil deposit (West Siberian oil-gas province, Tomsk region). The research data allow the authors to determine vertical zoning of the surface structure and identify the following zones: oil saturation (weak alteration), bitumen-content dissolution, non-bitumen-content dissolution, cementation, including rocks not affected by hydrocarbon deposit. The rocks under investigation are characterized by different changes in composition, pore space, as well as reservoir filtration and volumetric parameters. Detection of irregularity in distribution of void- pore space in oil-water contact zones is of great practical importance. It helps to avoid the errors in differential pressure drawdown and explain the origin of low-resistivity collectors.

  5. Changes in oxidation indices and minor components of low free fatty acid and freshly extracted crude palm oils under two different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choon-Hui; Ariffin, Abdul A; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Tan, Chin-Ping; Kuntom, Ainie; Choo, Adrian Cheng-Yong

    2017-06-01

    This article reports on the changes of oxidation indices and minor components of low free fatty acid (FFA) and freshly extracted crude palm oils after storage at ambient (28 ± 1 C) and 60 C for 77 days. The changes in peroxide value (PV), FFA, extinction coefficient at 233 and 269 nm (K233 and K269), bleachability index (DOBI), carotene and vitamin E contents were monitored. PV, FFA, K233 and K269 of both oil samples increased as storage progressed while the values of carotene and vitamin E contents decreased. At the end of storage period at 60 °C, the carotene content of low FFA crude palm oil was 4.24 ppm. The storage conditions used led to the loss of entire vitamin E fractions of both oil samples as well as a reduction in DOBI values except for freshly extracted crude palm oil stored at ambient temperature.

  6. The Effect of Changes in World Crude Oil Prices on U.S. Automobile Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Belenkiy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an export model where consumers differentiate between different types of automobiles by the distance they can travel on one dollar’s worth of fuel. The model predicts that the overall demand for vehicles falls as crude oil prices rise, and that the demand for less fuel-efficient vehicles falls relatively more. In particular, we estimate that between 2007 and 2008, when the crude oil prices increased by 32 percent, the export demand for the SUVs manufactured in the United States declined by over $700 million. This implies that the relatively less fuel-efficient U.S.-model vehicles will tend to suffer a competitive disadvantage worldwide when crude oil prices are high. We discuss the potential role of the proposed CAFÉ standards in improving fuel-efficiency and growing exports of the U.S. vehicle fleet.

  7. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  8. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Kaufmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the American Dream, which holds that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it, women entered the workforce, income was transferred from saving to consumption, the US economy changed from a net creditor to a net debtor, and debt held by families and the Federal government increased. Despite efforts to hide the income effects, the end of cheap oil also is responsible for increasing income inequality. In the FSU, the end of abundant energy supplies meant that allocating the energy surplus among the domestic economy, subsidized exports to Eastern Europe, and hard currency sales to the West became a zero sum game. This contributed to the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA alliance and the FSU. If the US is able to extricate itself from personal and governmental debt, solving the social and political concerns about inequality is the next formidable challenge posed by the end of cheap oil.

  9. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: A review with Indonesian palm oil as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Verstegen, Judith; Faaij, André; Junginger, Martin

    2016-12-15

    Numerous analyses have been performed to quantitatively link carbon stock change caused by land-use change (CSC-LUC) to consumption of agricultural products, but results differ significantly, even for studies focussing on the same region or product. This is due to the different focuses and interpretations of the links between direct drivers and underlying causes of CSC-LUC, which can be translated into differences in key functions, i.e. specific methods, algorithms and parameters embedded in the analysis. Using the example of Indonesian palm oil production (often associated with CSC-LUC), this paper carries out a meta-analysis of 12 existing studies, determines the different settings for the key functions embedded in consumption-based CSC-LUC studies and discussed their implications for policymaking. It identifies the underlying reasons of adopting different settings within the eight key functions and their advantages and trade-offs. Examples are the way of determining how deforestation is linked to oil palm, and the inclusion of non-agriculture and non-productive drivers in the accounting to weight their roles in CSC-LUC in comparison to palm oil consumption. Following that, the quantitative results from the selected studies were processed and harmonised in terms of unit, allocation mechanism, allocation key and amortisation period. This resulting in ranges of 0.1-3.8 and -0.1-15.7 tCO2/t crude palm oil for historical and projection studies, respectively. It was observed that CSC-LUC allocated to palm oil is typically lower when propagating effects and non-agricultural or non-productive drivers were accounted for. Values also greatly differ when marginal and average allocation mechanisms were employed. Conclusively, individual analyses only answer part of the question about CSC-LUC drivers and have their own strengths and weaknesses. Since the context can be very different, using quantitative results from a single study for accounting purposes in policymaking is

  10. Changes in the essential oil composition in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under anthropogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzentiene, Asta; Stikliene, Aida; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija

    2007-03-21

    Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005). Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles. Along the CF transect for current-year needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the pine bark (r = -0.582; p us to distinguish the most contrasting stands according to the concentration of air pollutants. Current-year needles were more effective as indicators of the effects of pollution than 1-year-old needles in the case of the NFF and the OR transects, and both-aged needles were equally valuable in the case of the CF transect. The changes detected in the proportions of components of the essential oils in the needles of the trees affected by the industrial emissions may play a significant role in modifying the susceptibility of the pine stands to the biotic factors, and also may alter emissions of terpenes from the stands to the atmosphere.

  11. Archaeal Community Changes Associated with Cultivation of Amazon Forest Soil with Oil Palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupinambá, Daiva Domenech; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Costa, Ohana Yonara Assis; Bergmann, Jessica Carvalho; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique; Kyaw, Cynthia Maria; Barreto, Cristine Chaves; Quirino, Betania Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    This study compared soil archaeal communities of the Amazon forest with that of an adjacent area under oil palm cultivation by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest soil than in the oil palm-cultivated area, and 130 OTUs (13.7%) were shared between these areas. Among the classified sequences, Thaumarchaeota were predominant in the native forest, whereas Euryarchaeota were predominant in the oil palm-cultivated area. Archaeal species diversity was 1.7 times higher in the native forest soil, according to the Simpson diversity index, and the Chao1 index showed that richness was five times higher in the native forest soil. A phylogenetic tree of unclassified Thaumarchaeota sequences showed that most of the OTUs belong to Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group. Several archaeal genera involved in nutrient cycling (e.g., methanogens and ammonia oxidizers) were identified in both areas, but significant differences were found in the relative abundances of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and unclassified Soil Crenarchaeotic Group (prevalent in the native forest) and Candidatus Nitrosotalea and unclassified Terrestrial Group (prevalent in the oil palm-cultivated area). More studies are needed to culture some of these Archaea in the laboratory so that their metabolism and physiology can be studied.

  12. Archaeal Community Changes Associated with Cultivation of Amazon Forest Soil with Oil Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Domenech Tupinambá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared soil archaeal communities of the Amazon forest with that of an adjacent area under oil palm cultivation by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest soil than in the oil palm-cultivated area, and 130 OTUs (13.7% were shared between these areas. Among the classified sequences, Thaumarchaeota were predominant in the native forest, whereas Euryarchaeota were predominant in the oil palm-cultivated area. Archaeal species diversity was 1.7 times higher in the native forest soil, according to the Simpson diversity index, and the Chao1 index showed that richness was five times higher in the native forest soil. A phylogenetic tree of unclassified Thaumarchaeota sequences showed that most of the OTUs belong to Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group. Several archaeal genera involved in nutrient cycling (e.g., methanogens and ammonia oxidizers were identified in both areas, but significant differences were found in the relative abundances of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and unclassified Soil Crenarchaeotic Group (prevalent in the native forest and Candidatus Nitrosotalea and unclassified Terrestrial Group (prevalent in the oil palm-cultivated area. More studies are needed to culture some of these Archaea in the laboratory so that their metabolism and physiology can be studied.

  13. Tar sands showdown : Canada and the new politics of oil in an age of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, T. [Polaris Institute, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This book outlined the social and environmental issues facing the oil sands industry in Canada, including economic sovereignty, energy security, water rights and free trade. The tar sands have become vital to the Canadian economy, as they have the potential to increase Canada's foreign oil output by 4 to 5 times in the next 15 years. The author discussed the ecological and social impact of the Alberta tar sands and the real cost of development to Albertans and Canadians. Tar sands oil production generates more than 3 times the amount of greenhouse gas emissions than conventional oil production. The industry is also becoming a prime example of the abuse of water sources. The author emphasized the need to build an alternative energy future in an age of global warming. The main objective of this book was to help stimulate a nation-wide public debate about the tar sands and the critical issues at stake regarding Canada's energy future and an environmental strategy for more sustainable development. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Changes in Concentration and Distribution of Biomarkers in Biodegraded Oils from Dongying Depression, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhonghong; Wang, T-G; Yan, Detian

    2015-10-01

    The alkane fraction of 11 biodegraded oils and five non-biodegraded oils from the Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to investigate the biomarker alteration caused by biodegradation. Results indicated that the concentration of 25-norhopanes was correlated with increased biodegradation. The oil samples showed an increase in the C31 and C32 hopane 22S/(22S + 22R), C29 sterane C2920S/(20S + 20R), and C29ββ/(ββ + αα) thermal maturity parameters in the heavily biodegraded oils. Oleanane was preferentially biodegraded compared with C3017α-hopane, which was preferentially biodegraded compared with C2917α, 21β-norhopane, C30 moretane, and C29 25-norhopane. The selective depletion of C27-C29 steranes followed the order ααα 20R > ααα 20S + αββ 20R > αββ 20S and C27 > C29 > C28, and the diasteranes and C20-C21 steranes were much more resistant to biodegradation than regular C27-C29 steranes. The steranes were generally preferentially biodegraded compared with the hopanes in this study.

  15. Modeling the changes in the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons from an oil-coated gravel column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kang, Hyun-Joong; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; An, Joon Geon; Shim, Won Joon; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a lab-scale flow-through exposure system designed for the evaluation of ecotoxicity due to oil spills was evaluated. The system simulates a spill event using an oil-coated gravel column through which filtered seawater is passed and flows into an aquarium containing fish embryos of olive flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and spotted sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculates). The dissolved concentrations of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the column effluent were monitored and compared with theoretical solubilities predicted by Raoult's law. The effluent concentrations after 24 and 48 h were close to the theoretical predictions for the higher molecular weight PAHs, whereas the measured values for the lower molecular weight PAHs were lower than predicted. The ratios of the concentration of PAHs in flounder embryos to that in seawater were close to the lipid-water partition coefficients for the less hydrophobic PAHs, showing that equilibrium was attained between embryos and water. On the other hand, 48 h were insufficient to attain phase equilibrium for the more hydrophobic PAHs, indicating that the concentration in fish embryos may be lower than expected by equilibrium assumption. The results indicate that the equilibrium approach may be suitable for less hydrophobic PAHs, whereas it might overestimate the effects of more hydrophobic PAHs after oil spills because phase equilibrium in an oil-seawater-biota system is unlikely to be achieved. The ecotoxicological endpoints that were affected within a few days are likely to be influenced mainly by moderately hydrophobic components such as 3-ring PAHs.

  16. Changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine and cortisol plasma levels in menopausal women after inhalation of clary sage oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Bok; Cho, Eun; Kang, Young-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antidepressant-like effects of clary sage oil on human beings by comparing the neurotransmitter level change in plasma. The voluntary participants were 22 menopausal women in 50's. Subjects were classified into normal and depression tendency groups using each of Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory-I (KBDI-I), KBDI-II, and Korean version of Self-rating Depression Scale. Then, the changes in neurotransmitter concentrations were compared between two groups. After inhalation of clary sage oil, cortisol levels were significantly decreased while 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration was significantly increased. Thyroid stimulating hormone was also reduced in all groups but not statistically significantly. The different change rate of 5-HT concentration between normal and depression tendency groups was variable according to the depression measurement inventory. When using KBDI-I and KBDI-II, 5-HT increased by 341% and 828% for the normal group and 484% and 257% for the depression tendency group, respectively. The change rate of cortisol was greater in depression tendency groups compared with normal groups, and this difference was statistically significant when using KBDI-II (31% vs. 16% reduction) and Self-rating Depression Scale inventory (36% vs. 8.3% reduction). Among three inventories, only KBDI-II differentiated normal and depression tendency groups with significantly different cortisol level. Finally, clary sage oil has antidepressant-like effect, and KBDI-II inventory may be the most sensitive and valid tool in screening for depression status or severity.

  17. Borehole geophysical monitoring of amendment emplacement and geochemical changes during vegetable oil biostimulation, Anoka County Riverfront Park, Fridley, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jr., John W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.; Kochiss, Christopher S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a series of geophysical investigations to monitor a field-scale biostimulation pilot project at the Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), downgradient from the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. The pilot project was undertaken by the U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division, for the purpose of evaluating biostimulation using emulsified vegetable oil to treat ground water contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Vegetable oil was introduced to the subsurface to serve as substrate for naturally occurring microbes, which ultimately break down chlorinated hydrocarbons into chloride, carbon dioxide, and water through oxidation-reduction reactions. In support of this effort, the USGS collected cross-borehole radar data and conventional borehole geophysical data in five site visits over 1.5 years to evaluate the effectiveness of geophysical methods for monitoring emplacement of the vegetable oil emulsion and for tracking changes in water chemistry. Radar zero-offset profile (ZOP) data, radar traveltime tomograms, electromagnetic (EM) induction logs, natural gamma logs, neutron porosity logs, and magnetic susceptibility logs were collected and analyzed.

  18. Exporting climate change and environmental degradation. How Dutch public money is used to finance the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.; Stockman, L.; Muttitt, G.; Horta, K.; Kochladze, M.; Lisitsyn, D.; Barannikova, N.

    2005-06-15

    According to this report Dutch public money is being used to support oil production in developing countries through Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) such as the World Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and other International Financial Institutions (IFIs) such as Atradius (the Dutch Export Credit Agency) and the European Investment Bank (EIB). The Dutch government contributes to MDBs in two ways: through financial contributions using public money and by voting on the boards of the banks. This report demonstrates the need for far greater parliamentary oversight over the Dutch role in MDBs to keep the use of Dutch public money in line with Dutch government policy. Three case studies illustrate that recent oil projects financed and supported by MDBs and other Dutch government departments are failing the poor and undermining national and international targets on development and climate change: the Cameroon Pipeline in West Africa; the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan pipeline system in the South Caucasus and the Sakhalin-II Oil and Gas Project in far eastern Russia.

  19. Effect of Coconut Oil Administration on Some Hemostatic Changes Associated with Obesity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Ahmed Mohamed, Nehal Mohammad Bahgat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, coconut oil was claimed to have some beneficial health effects, attributed mainly to its medium chain triglycerides. It was, thus, intriguing to investigate the potential benefit of coconut oil in alleviating the prothrombotic tendency often encountered in obese individuals. The present study was carried out on 44 rats, of both sexes, aged 10 days at the start of the study. 31 out of 44 rats were offered high caloric diet (the cafeteria diet for induction of obesity. Rats were allocated into the following groups: Group1: Control rats (C (n=13 rats, comprising rats fed on the standard chow diet all-over the study period (24 weeks. Group2: Cafeteria diet-fed rats (Caf (n=16 rats, comprising rats fed on cafeteria diet until the end of the study period and Group3: Cafeteria diet/coconut oil-fed rats (Caf/Coco (n=15 rats, comprising rats fed on cafeteria diet with coconut oil starting from the 16th week till the end of the study period. At the end of the study, the BMI was assessed in the 3 studied groups and blood samples were collected for determination of platelet count and aggregation, prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, fibrin degradation products (FDPs, and plasma lipid profile. The encountered results revealed that the mean BMI of the cafeteria diet-fed rats was significantly higher than the BMI of control rats, and that the mean BMI of rats receiving cafeteria/coconut oil diet for 9 weeks was significantly decreased compared to their matched caf group. The PT, APTT and platelet count were all non significantly different in the three studied groups. Platelet aggregation, on the other hand, was significantly increased in the caf group compared to the control group, and significantly decreased in the caf/coco group compared to both the caf group and the control group. The plasma FDPs levels were not significantly different in the 3 studied groups. The lipid profile was insignificantly

  20. Understanding the oil palm change in Nong Khai Province: the farmers perspectives and the policy processes of the oil palm plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Sethaputra, Kampree

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005, the Thai government has, as a matter of policy, been seeking to increase production of biodiesel from oil palms. As a result, the number of oil palm plantations in the Northeast region has been growing, particularly in Nong Khai province. Nong Khai is a relatively remote, predominantly agricultural area and is the field site for this research. However, oil palm production is a complex and hotly contested issue both globally and in Thailand and it has ardent critics and supporters....

  1. Repressing sulfate-reducing bacteria growth in the affusion system of oil field by changing ecological factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Dan; MA Fang; WANG Chen; WEI Li; GUO Jing-bo

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at the corrosion issue of oil extraction equipments caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) reproducing in oil field affusion system, we studied the dominant strains in the SRB community and the impact of four ecological factors on the growth of the dominant strains: temperature, pH, mineralization degree and concen-tration of PAM (Polyacrylamine). The feasibility of repressing the growth of SRB by changing ecological factors was also discussed. The results indicate that Desulfobacter (one genus of SRB) is the preponderant strains of the system, and the order of the effect of four ecological factors is pH>temperature>the concentrations of PAM>mineralization degree. The optimal pH for the highest growth rate of SRB is 8.0. No growth of SRB was observed when pH 12. The optimal temperature for the growth of SRB is 40 ℃ and the ecological amplitude is 20-50 ℃. The appropriate concentration values of PAM is 400 -800 mg/L, beyond of which the multiplication rate and growth quantity of cell decrease obviously. The effect of mineralization degree of SO42- ,HCO3- and Na+ on the growth of SRB has reached an extremely remarkable level, and the change of three ions' oncentration in water obviously effects SRB. The optimum values on the main ions in the system are Cl- of 200 mg/L, HCO3- of 900 mg/L,SO42- of 400 mg/L, Mg2+ of 60 mg/L and Na+ of 900 mg/L. Our results indicate that it is possible to repress the growth of SRB by changing the ecological factors in oil field affusion system.

  2. Effect of Change in Land Use due to Oil Palm Cultivation for Biodiesel Production in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth; Instituto de Biotecnología, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales; Rincón Pérez, Luis Eduardo; Instituto de Biotecnología, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales; Cardona Alzate, Carlos Ariel; Instituto de Biotecnología, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales

    2014-01-01

    The bioenergy (especially biofuels) production and usehas been worldly encouraged as a possible solution for theenergy crisis caused by fossil fuel extraction and burnt.However, some intrinsic features of the biofuels supplychain generate notable uncertainties. The land use changecan be considered a key issue of the feedstock productionstage. In this work, the carbon replacement time wascalculated for the cases of the oil palm growing in soils forforest, degraded lands and marginal lands. Mos...

  3. Keratopathy and pachymetric changes after photorefractive keratectomy and vitrectomy with silicone oil injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, H; Vesti Nielsen, N

    2000-01-01

    We present a man who, after bilateral excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for high myopia in the right eye, had repeated retinal detachment surgery with lensectomy and injection of silicone oil. Visual acuity fluctuated in accordance with significant central corneal thickness diurnal...... variation. The case illustrates the possibility of PRK as a predisposing factor for keratopathy after retinal detachment surgery with silicone injection in an aphakic eye....

  4. Long-term fish oil supplementation induces cardiac electrical remodeling by changing channel protein expression in the rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulin Xu

    Full Text Available Clinical trials and epidemiological studies have suggested that dietary fish oil (FO supplementation can provide an anti-arrhythmic benefit in some patient populations. The underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We wanted to understand how FO supplementation (for 4 weeks affected the action potential configuration/duration of ventricular myocytes, and the ionic mechanism(s/molecular basis for these effects. The experiments were conducted on adult rabbits, a widely used animal model for cardiac electrophysiology and pathophysiology. We used gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to confirm that FO feeding produced a marked increase in the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipids of rabbit hearts. Left ventricular myocytes were used in current and voltage clamp experiments to monitor action potentials and ionic currents, respectively. Action potentials of myocytes from FO-fed rabbits exhibited much more positive plateau voltages and prolonged durations. These changes could be explained by an increase in the L-type Ca current (I(CaL and a decrease in the transient outward current (I(to in these myocytes. FO feeding did not change the delayed rectifier or inward rectifier current. Immunoblot experiments showed that the FO-feeding induced changes in I(CaL and I(to were associated with corresponding changes in the protein levels of major pore-forming subunits of these channels: increase in Cav1.2 and decrease in Kv4.2 and Kv1.4. There was no change in other channel subunits (Cav1.1, Kv4.3, KChIP2, and ERG1. We conclude that long-term fish oil supplementation can impact on cardiac electrical activity at least partially by changing channel subunit expression in cardiac myocytes.

  5. Quantification of anthropogenic and natural changes in oil sands mining infrastructure land based on RapidEye and SPOT5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Lantz, Nicholas; Shipman, Todd; Chao, Dennis; Raymond, Don

    2014-06-01

    Natural resources development, spanning exploration, production and transportation activities, alters local land surface at various spatial scales. Quantification of these anthropogenic changes, both permanent and reversible, is needed for compliance assessment and for development of effective sustainable management strategies. Multi-spectral high resolution imagery data from SPOT5 and RapidEye were used for extraction and quantification of the anthropogenic and natural changes for a case study of Alberta bitumen (oil sands) mining located in the Western Boreal Plains near Fort McMurray, Canada. Two test sites representative of the major Alberta bitumen production extraction processes, open pit and in situ extraction, were selected. A hybrid change detection approach, combining pixel- and object-based target detection and extraction, is proposed based on Change Vector Analysis (CVA). The extraction results indicate that the changed infrastructure landscapes of these two sites have different footprints linked with their differing oil sands production processes. Pixel- and object-based accuracy assessments have been applied for validation of the change detection results. For manmade disturbances, except for those fine linear features such as the seismic lines, accuracies of about 80% have been achieved at the pixel level while, at the object level, these rise to 90-95%. Since many disturbance features are transient, a new landscape index, entitled the Re-growth Index, has been formulated at single object level specifically to monitor restoration of these features to their natural state. It is found that the temporal behaviour of the Re-growth Index in an individual patch varies depending on the type of natural land cover. In addition, the Re-growth Index is also useful for assessing the detectability of disturbed sites.

  6. Changes in the sterol compositions of milk thistle oil (Silybium marianum L. during seed maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrabi, S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the total lipid content and sterol compositions were determined during the development of milk thistle seeds. The oil content increased to a maximum value of 36±1.7% and then declined to reach a value of 30.5±0.9% at full maturity. The sterol content of milk thistle seeds was affected by the ripening degree of the seeds. At the early stages of seed maturation, Δ7-stigmastenol was the most abundant sterol followed by β-sitosterol. However, at full maturity, β-sitosterol was the most predominant sterol (46.50±0.8%. As the seed developed, campesterol and stigmasterol amounts increased, while Δ7-avenasterol content decreased. It can be concluded that milk thistle seed oil has a characteristic sterol pattern comparable to the ones elucidated for olive oil and corn oil. The extracted oil from milk thistle seeds is rich in phytosterols and could be used in food preparation and human nutrition.En este estudio se determinaron la composición de lípidos totales y esteroles durante el desarrollo de semillas de cardo mariano. El contenido de aceite incrementó a un valor máximo de 36±1,7% y posteriormente disminuyó hasta alcanzar un valor de 30,5±0,9% cuando la maduración fue completa. El contenido de esteroles de las semillas de cardo mariano se ve afectado por el grado de maduración de las semillas. En las primeras etapas de la maduración de las semillas el Δ7-estigmastenol fué el esterol más abundante, seguido de β-sitosterol. Sin embargo en plena madurez, β-sitosterol fue el esterol predominante (46,50±0,8%. A medida que las semillas se desarrollan las cantidades de campesterol y estigmasterol aumentan, mientras que el contenido Δ7-avenasterol disminuye. Se puede concluir que el aceite de semillas de cardo mariano tiene un patrón característico de esteroles en comparación con lo especificado para los aceites de oliva y de maíz. El aceite extraído de las semillas del cardo mariano es rica en fitoesteroles y podr

  7. Assessment of Anterior Segment Changes in Pseudophakic Eyes, Using Ultrasonic Biomicroscopic Imaging, after Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Silicone Oil or Gas Tamponade

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Ünsal; Kadir Eltutar; Belma Karini; Osman Kızılay

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the morphological changes of the anterior segment using ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM) imaging in pseudophakic patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with silicone oil or gas (C3F8) internal tamponade agent injection. Method. This prospective study included pseudophakic patients with planned PPV, divided into two groups according to internal tamponade agent: those in which silicone oil was used (n = 27, Group 1) and those in which gas (C3F8) was used (n = 24...

  8. Multiple spectroscopic studies of the structural conformational changes of human serum albumin—Essential oil based nanoemulsions conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekar, Gajalakshmi; Sugumar, Saranya; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan, E-mail: nchandra40@hotmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Nanoemulsions have numerous biomedical applications. For the first time, we have investigated the effects of orange and eucalyptus essential oil based nanoemulsions towards the structural aspect of human serum albumin (HSA). Quenching effect of nanoemulsion against the intrinsic fluorescence potential of tryptophan and tyrosine residues were evidenced from the fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Static quenching mechanism was found to lead the binding of HSA–nanoemulsion systems. Synchronous and three dimensional spectroscopic studies have revealed the possible changes to the aromatic environment of HSA by the nanoemulsion. UV–Visible spectroscopic studies have confirmed the existence of the ground state complex formation between HSA and the surface of nanoemulsions by exhibiting the hyper-chromic effect in a concentration dependant manner. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the slight alteration in the Amide I, II and III bands of HSA after interaction. FT-Raman spectroscopy showed the decrease in the Raman intensity of the aromatic amino acid residues and shift in the amide bands of HSA upon binding with the nanoemulsion. Dichoric band obtained from the far UV-CD spectra at 208 and 222 nm of HSA showed the corresponding decrease in the alpha-helical contents upon interaction with nanoemulsions. Near UV-CD spectra also showed the prominent changes in the aromatic positions of the amino acid residues of HSA on binding with nanoemulsions. The above study has extrapolated the side effect analysis of the nanoemulsions in pharmaceutical applications in vitro in reference to their interaction with serum proteins. - Highlights: • Orange and eucalyptus oil based nanoemulsions were formulated and characterized. • UV–Visible spectroscopy confirmed the ground state complex formation. • Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the molecular conformational changes. • FTIR spectroscopy deep-rooted the alteration in the amide bands of HSA. • FT-Raman spectroscopy established

  9. Quantifying changes in land-surface height in bioenergy palm oil plantations (Sumatra) using InSAR time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Waldron, Susan; Li, Zhenhong

    2013-04-01

    Tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia cover ~ 439,238 km sq. and represent ~77 % of global tropical peatland carbon stores and ~11 % of global peatland area. These landscapes are substantial C stores accounting for ~17-19 % of the global peat C pool (Page et al., 2010). Within southeast Asia, Indonesian peatlands hold most C (57.4 Pg, 65 %), followed by Malaysia (9.1 Pg, 10 %). In recent decades the drive to use these soils for agriculture and often the palm oil biogenergy crop, has driven fire-clearing, deforestation and drainage of these carbon landscapes. The drainage can lead to respiration of the soil carbon store and subsidence of the peatland (Hooijer et al., 2012), reducing their strength as a current C store and their capacity for future soil C storage. Using field-based surveying to monitor changes in the past peatland surface height, and over the large areas typical of commercial agricultural palm oil plantations, is challenging such that measurements are more likely to describe a small area and be only a snapshot in time. Upscaling and understanding the rate of change in surface height through time may be overcome using remote sensing approaches. Here we present data on the change in peatland surface height in Indonesia palm oil plantations, detected using the Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Small BAseline Set (SBAS) approach (Berardino et al., 2002). Using data from July 2007 to January 2011, we have generated a map of the rate of change of mean height, and time series of change in surface height for several plantation areas. To do this we used two independent ALOS L-band tracks SAR images, as there is a lack of ground data for validation, coherence in output provides confidence the results are representative. Our analysis to date shows that in drained and planted palm oil areas: 1) the rate of change in surface height (decrease) can vary; 2) the decrease in surface height can be up to 5 cm/year; 3) the largest decrease in surface height

  10. The Process and Reason of the Change of Oil-Water Contact of Shahejie Formation in BZ25-1 Oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, F.; Liu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the influence of Neo-tectonic movement, the Shahejie reservoirs in Bohai Bay Basin has undergone late-stage transformation and adjustment, causing the oil-water contact to change. Through studying the changing history of oil-water contact, we can better restore petroleum accumulation process and analyze oil distribution pattern. Based on reservoir geochemistry theory and drilling and logging data, grains with oil inclusion was analyzed, and oil-bearing property, organic extracts and biomarkers was used to determine the present and paleo-oil water contact of Shahejie formation in BZ25-1 oilfield. It suggested that the paleo and present oil-water contact in Shahejie formation locates in different depth, and that Shahejie formation has gone through three petroleum charging stages and has also undergone reservoir adjustment. The POWC(paleo-oil-water contact) of E2S2 reservoirs in BZ25-1-5 well and E2S2 reservoirs in BZ25-1-3 well is lower than OWC(present oil-water contact) at least for 9m and at most for 400m, but the POWC of E2S3 reservoirs in BZ25-1-5 well is higher than OWC at least for 20m and at most for 27.5m. The petroleum accumulation process and the reason for oil-water contact adjustment were studied based on burial history, petroleum generation history, fault re-activation rate and petroleum charging history. It suggested that the three petroleum charging stages are Mid-Miocene(11.5Ma), Late Miocene-Pliocene(6.5-3.5Ma) and Quaternary(2.5Ma-present), among which the second~third charging episode is seen as the major petroleum accumulation stage. The re-activeted faults in several different periods not only served as preferential path for petroleum vertical migration, but also caused petroleum leakage through faults. The petroleum leakage mainly occurred in Neo-tectonic movement period(after 3.5Ma), during which petroleum vertically leaked through re-activated faults and migrated to shallow reservoirs or spilled over surface, meanwhile due to constant

  11. Changes in baseflow patterns in water-limited shale oil and gas regions: the Eagle Ford play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, S.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying and analyzing the contribution of groundwater from shallow aquifers to rivers as baseflow is very important for water supply and riverine ecosystem health, especially in water-limited catchments. Baseflow depends on the water available (precipitation), vegetation (land use, water use), aquifer properties and water-table depth. In this context, human activities such as groundwater abstraction for multiple purposes can alter the relationship between aquifer storage and baseflow. In this study, we analyzed observed changes in baseflow patterns of 40 catchments located across the Eagle Ford shale gas/oil play (Texas) during the period 1986-2015. The Eagle Ford sedimentary formation is actually the largest shale oil producing region in the US with large production in shale gas. Intensive unconventional resources extraction in the Eagle Ford play started in 2009 and gas/oil production increased faster than in other plays, accompanied by a rise in groundwater consumption for HF purposes. Spatial and temporal impacts on baseflow at the Eagle Ford play derived from HF were assessed by means of different patterns such as baseflow hydrograph separation, flow-duration curves, empirical storage-discharge relationships and streamflow recession curve analysis. A comparison during different periods of water use for HF activities was performed: pre-development period (1986-2000); moderate period (2001-2008); and intensive period (2009-2015). The pre-development period was considered as a baseline and catchments located inside and outside the play area were separately analyzed. The results show negative changes on baseflow patterns during the intensive HF period that were not observed during the moderate period, especially in catchments located inside the play. These changes were also characterized by a decline on mean annual baseflow volume and shorter hydrograph recession times, that led to a shift in the streamflow regime in some catchments from perennial to

  12. Changes in LDL fatty acid composition as a response to olive oil treatment are inversely related to lipid oxidative damage: The EUROLIVE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Nascetti, Simona; López-Sabater, Maria C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the changes in the fatty acid composition of low density lipoproteins (LDL) after sustained consumption of olive oil at real-life doses (25 mL/day) and their relationship with lipid oxidative damage.......The aim of our study was to assess the changes in the fatty acid composition of low density lipoproteins (LDL) after sustained consumption of olive oil at real-life doses (25 mL/day) and their relationship with lipid oxidative damage....

  13. Changes in relative economics among different power sources resulting from slumping crude oil prices. [1986 to 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Yuasa, T.; Iguchi, T.

    1986-09-01

    This paper reviews relative economics among different power sources by taking into account changes in relative prices of energies destined for power generation. Describes the estimation method. Presents prices scenarios for the following fuels; oil, coal, LNG and nuclear fuel. Construction costs of model plants were obtained by picking up from power plant plans actual and planned values over three years before and after 1986, which were corrected by commodity price and the number of plants to strike the standard construction unit cost for fiscal 1986. Other preconditions, such as service life, are the same as in the previous estimation and are summarized. Presents estimation results for power plants on stream in fiscal 1986, power plants on stream in fiscal 2000, effects of fluctuations in capacity factors, and the trends of nuclear fuel cycle costs.

  14. Changes in seed oil and protein contents of maize cultivars at different positions on the ear in response to water limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out as split-split plot in 2014 to assess the effects of four irrigation treatments (irrigations after 60, 80, 100 and 120 mm evaporation, respectively on oil and protein changes of maize cultivars (SC704, NS640 and DC303: Late, mid and early maturing cultivars, respectively at different seed positions on the ear (upper, middle and lower positions on the ear. Overall, the highest seed yield was obtained from SC704, followed by NS640 and DC303 cultivars. Seed yield of all cultivars was higher at lower seed position on ear than at middle and upper parts of the ear under different irrigation treatments. The highest oil and protein yields were also recorded for seeds at lower position on the ear. Seed yield of all maize cultivars at various seed positions decreased with increasing irrigation intervals. Oil percentage decreased, but protein percentage increased with decreasing water availability. Water limitation decreased oil and protein yields of maize cultivars. Changes in protein and oil yields of maize cultivars at different seed positions and irrigation treatments were attributed to changes in seed yield.

  15. Short-term changes in the composition of active marine bacterial assemblages in response to diesel oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Bosch, Rafael; Nogales, Balbina

    2010-09-01

    The changes caused by diesel oil pollution in the metabolically active bacterioplankton from an oligotrophic coastal location were analysed in laboratory microcosms (44 l) using 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) as molecular marker. The aim was to simulate typical hydrocarbon pollution events in a coastal area exploited for seasonal touristic activities. The experiment consisted in addition of low amounts of diesel oil without nutrients to seawater collected at different times (winter and summer). Bacterial diversity was analysed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiling of 16S rRNAs after reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and by generation of 16S rRNA clone libraries in control and diesel-polluted microcosms. Diesel addition caused a twofold increase in prokaryotic numbers in comparison with controls at the end of the experiment, both in winter and summer microcosms. Bacterioplankton composition, determined by 16S rRNA T-RFLP data, changed rapidly (within 17 h) in response to treatment. The resulting communities were different in microcosms with water collected in summer and winter. A reduction in diversity (Shannon index, calculated on the basis of T-RFLP data) was observed only in summer microcosms. This was due to the rapid increase of phylotypes affiliated to the Oceanospirillaceae, not observed in winter microcosms. After diesel treatment there was a reduction in the number of phylotypes related to SAR11, SAR86 and picocyanobacteria, while phylotypes of the Roseobacter clade, and the OMG group seemed to be favoured. Our results show that diesel pollution alone caused profound effects on the bacterioplankton of oligotrophic seawater, and explained many of the differences in diversity reported previously in pristine and polluted sites in this coastal area.

  16. Political economy of Maghribi oil: Change and development in Algeria and Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandewalle, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the wake of rapidly growing oil and natural gas revenues, Algeria and Libya during the 1970s adopted a state capitalist strategy in order to minimize the dislocations caused by continued reliance on the international economy and, in the long run, to move toward more self-reliant local economies. International political economy theories until now have paid relatively little attention to the impact of the state in the development process, assuming that state formation and bureaucratic development go hand in hand. But in Libya and Algeria they remained disjointed. This was further exacerbated by the rentier nature of their economies which allowed for the distribution of assets without real political participation. In Algeria a techno-bureaucratic elite, to which the state quickly lost control during the 1970s, was put in charge of development. By 1976 the inefficiencies of the public sector and the alignment of the techno-bureaucratic elite with an expanding private sector led Algeria back toward a more market-oriented development strategy. In Libya a much smaller population and larger revenues have allowed the Qadhdhafi government to prolong the state capitalists experiment without paying serious attention to either economic or political development.

  17. Olive oil abrogates acrylamide induced nephrotoxicity by modulating biochemical and histological changes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Elwej, Awatef; Fendri, Nesrine; Mnif, Héla; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahia; Grati Kamoun, Naziha; Zeghal, Najiba

    2017-11-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is one of the most important contaminants occurring in foods heated at high temperatures. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective efficacy of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), a main component of the Mediterranean diet, against nephrotoxicity induced by ACR. Rats have received by gavage during 21 days either ACR (40 mg/kg body weight) or ACR-associated with EVOO (300 μl) or only EVOO (300 μl). Acrylamide induced nephrotoxicity as evidenced by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), protein carbonyls (PCOs) and a decrease in glutathione, non-protein thiols (NPSHs), and vitamin C levels. Activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also decreased. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, creatinine, urea, and uric acid, urinary volume and creatinine clearance levels were modified. EVOO supplementation improved all the parameters indicated above. Kidney histoarchitecture confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of EVOO. EVOO, when added to the diet, may have a beneficial role against kidney injury by scavenging free radicals and by its potent antioxidant power.

  18. Monitoring changes in acid value, total polar material, and antioxidant capacity of oils used for frying chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, JuHee; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Young-Jun; Lee, JaeHwan

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation products and tocol homologues were monitored in oils during chicken frying to determine the discarding point of highly used frying oils. Oils were heated without chicken for 170h while chicken frying was performed 130 cycles at 180°C. As heating time and frying cycles increased, all oxidation parameters including acid value, total polar materials (TPM), conjugated dienoic acid (CDA), and p-anisidine values (p-AV) increased significantly (poils during heating or frying processes compared to other tocol homologues. TPM values over 24% were obtained after about 109h for heated oil and 100 cycles for oils used to fry chicken. A decrease of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in isooctane and methanol was highly correlated with the formation of TPM in oils during the frying process. Both DPPH loss and TPM values could be applied to determine the discarding points of highly used frying oils.

  19. Characterization of successional changes in bacterial community composition during bioremediation of used motor oil-contaminated soil in a boreal climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lijuan; Sinkko, Hanna; Penttinen, Petri; Lindström, Kristina

    2016-01-15

    The widespread use of motor oil makes it a notable risk factor to cause scattered contamination in soil. The monitoring of microbial community dynamics can serve as a comprehensive tool to assess the ecological impact of contaminants and their disappearance in the ecosystem. Hence, a field study was conducted to monitor the ecological impact of used motor oil under different perennial cropping systems (fodder galega, brome grass, galega-brome grass mixture and bare fallow) in a boreal climate zone. Length heterogeneity PCR characterized a successional pattern in bacterial community following oil contamination over a four-year bioremediation period. Soil pH and electrical conductivity were associated with the shifts in bacterial community composition. Crops had no detectable effect on bacterial community composition or complexity. However, the legume fodder galega increased soil microbial biomass, expressed as soil total DNA. Oil contamination induced an abrupt change in bacterial community composition at the early stage, yet the effect did not last as long as the oil in soil. The successional variation in bacterial community composition can serve as a sensitive ecological indicator of oil contamination and remediation in situ.

  20. Gene expression changes in mononuclear cells in patients with metabolic syndrome after acute intake of phenol-rich virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Miranda Jose

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that acute intake of high-phenol virgin olive oil reduces pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-thrombotic markers compared with low phenols virgin olive oil, but it still remains unclear whether effects attributed to its phenolic fraction are exerted at transcriptional level in vivo. To achieve this goal, we aimed at identifying expression changes in genes which could be mediated by virgin olive oil phenol compounds in the human. Results Postprandial gene expression microarray analysis was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells during postprandial period. Two virgin olive oil-based breakfasts with high (398 ppm and low (70 ppm content of phenolic compounds were administered to 20 patients suffering from metabolic syndrome following a double-blinded, randomized, crossover design. To eliminate the potential effect that might exist in their usual dietary habits, all subjects followed a similar low-fat, carbohydrate rich diet during the study period. Microarray analysis identified 98 differentially expressed genes (79 underexpressed and 19 overexpressed when comparing the intake of phenol-rich olive oil with low-phenol olive oil. Many of these genes seem linked to obesity, dyslipemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among these, several genes seem involved in inflammatory processes mediated by transcription factor NF-κB, activator protein-1 transcription factor complex AP-1, cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinases MAPKs or arachidonic acid pathways. Conclusion This study shows that intake of virgin olive oil based breakfast, which is rich in phenol compounds is able to repress in vivo expression of several pro-inflammatory genes, thereby switching activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to a less deleterious inflammatory profile. These results provide at least a partial molecular basis for reduced risk of cardiovascular disease observed in Mediterranean countries, where virgin olive

  1. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CHANGES AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS ENHANCEMENT OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES TREATED WITH SUPERHEATED STEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezyana Kamal Bahrin,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of superheated steam treatment on oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB was investigated in terms of physicochemical property changes and enzymatic hydrolysis enhancement. The experimental treatment was carried out at different temperatures (140-210°C and durations (20-90 min. Results showed that as the superheated steam temperature and time increased, the size distribution also changed, resulting in more small particles. Analysis on the surface texture, color, and mechanical properties of the treated OPEFB also showed that significant changes resulted due to the superheated steam treatment. In support to this, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG analyses showed that solubilization and removal of the hemicelluloses component also took place. As a result of this phenomenon, higher total sugar and glucose yield was achieved once the treated OPEFB was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. This suggests that superheated steam treatment could enhance OPEFB structure degradation for the preparation of a suitable substrate in order to produce a higher glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis process.

  2. ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN Schistosoma mansoni MALE WORMS AFTER in vitro INCUBATION WITH THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Mentha x villosa Huds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago José MATOS-ROCHA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The essential oil Mentha x villosa (MVEO has a wide range of actions, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and schistosomicidal actions. The present study aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes of MVEO on the tegument of adult Schistosoma mansoni. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of MVEO were tested on S. mansoni adult worms in vitro. Ultrastructural changes on the tegument of these adult worms were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Results: The MVEO caused the death of all worms at 500 μg mL-1 after 24 h. After 24h of 500 μg mL-1 MVEO treatment, bubble lesions were observed over the entire body of worms and they presented loss of tubercles in some regions of the ventral portion. In the evaluation by TEM, S. mansoni adult worms treated with MVEO, 500 μg mL-1, presented changes in the tegument and vacuoles in the syncytial matrix region. Glycogen granules close to the muscle fibers were visible. Conclusion: The ability of MVEO to cause extensive ultrastructural damage to S. mansoni adult worms correlates with its schistosomicidal effects and confirms earlier findings with S. mansoni.

  3. Dietary ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid but not soybean oil reverses central interleukin-1-induced changes in behavior, corticosterone and immune response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cai; Leonard, Brian E; Horrobin, David F

    2004-03-01

    Omega (n)-3 and n-6 fatty acids are important membrane components of neurons and immune cells, and related to psychiatric and inflammatory diseases. Increased ratio of n-6/n-3 in the blood has been reported in depressed patients and in students following stress exposure. The n-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (ethyl-EPA) suppresses inflammation and has antidepressant properties. Interleukin (IL)-1beta can stimulate corticosterone secretion, induce anxiety and stress-like behavior and inflammatory responses. This study was to evaluate the effect of diets enriched with coconut oil, ethyl-EPA and soybean oil on central IL-1beta induced stress and anxiety-like behavior, induced changes in the concentration of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and corticosterone and the release of IL-10. Groups of rats were fed with either 5% coconut oil (as control diet), 0.2% EPA with 4.8% coconut oil or 1% EPA with 4% coconut oil and 5% soybean oil for 7 weeks. The central administration of IL-1beta induced sickness, stress and anxiety-like behavior as indicated by a reduction in body weight, decreased time spent, and the number of entries, into the open arms of the elevated plus maze and decreased exploration and entry into the central zone of the "open field" apparatus. IL-1beta also increased PGE2 and corticosterone concentrations and decreased the release of IL-10 from leucocytes. Food enriched with ethyl-EPA but not soybean oil, significantly attenuated most of these changes. These results demonstrate that ethyl-EPA has anti-inflammatory, anti-stress and anti-anxiety effects in rats.

  4. Small intestinal cannabinoid receptor changes following a single colonic insult with oil of mustard in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S Kimball

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids are known to be clinically beneficial for control of appetite disorders and nausea/vomiting, with emerging data that they can impact other GI disorders, such as inflammation. Post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS is a condition of perturbed intestinal function that occurs subsequent to earlier periods of intestinal inflammation. Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R and CB2R alterations in GI inflammation have been demonstrated in both animal models and clinically, but their continuing role in the post-inflammatory period has only been implicated to date. Therefore, to provide direct evidence for CBR involvement in altered GI functions in the absence of overt inflammation, we used a model of enhanced upper GI transit that persists for up to 4 weeks after a single insult by intracolonic 0.5% oil of mustard (OM in mice. In mice administered OM, CB1R immunostaining in the myenteric plexus was reduced at day 7, when colonic inflammation is subsiding, and then increased at 28 days, compared to tissue from age-matched vehicle-treated mice. In the lamina propria CB2R immunostaining density was also increased at day 28. In mice tested 28 day after OM, either a CB1R-selective agonist, ACEA (1 and 3 mg/kg, s.c. or a CB2R-selective agonist, JWH-133 (3 and 10 mg/kg, s.c. reduced the enhanced small intestinal transit in a dose-related manner. Doses of ACEA and JWH-133 (1 mg/kg, alone or combined, reduced small intestinal transit of OM-treated mice to a greater extent than control mice. Thus, in this post-colonic inflammation model, both CBR subtypes are up-regulated and there is increased efficacy of both CB1R and CB2R agonists. We conclude that CBR remodeling occurs not only during GI inflammation but continues during the recovery phase. Thus, either CB1R- or CB2-selective agonists could be efficacious for modulating GI motility in individuals experiencing diarrhea-predominant PI-IBS.

  5. Conformational changes to deamidated wheat gliadins and b-casein upon adsorption to oil-water emulsion interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Benjamin T.; Zhai, Jiali; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2012-01-01

    The conformation of deamidated gliadins and b-casein in solution and adsorbed at the interface of oil-inwater emulsions was studied using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) and front-facefluorescence spectroscopy. Deamidation led to partial unfolding of gliadins in solution. The a....... In contrast, b-casein adopted a more ordered structure upon adsorption to these two oil/water interfaces, the a-helix content increased from 5.5% (in solution) to 20% and 22.5% respectively after adsorption to tricaprin/water and hexadecane/water interfaces. Both deamidated gliadins and b-casein have...... to oil/water interfaces. The hydrophobicity of the oil phase also has an impact on the conformation of each protein upon adsorption to the oil/water interfaces e systematic trends were observed between oil phase polarity from: i) tryptophan fluorescence emission maxima, and ii) the ahelix content...

  6. Changes in spherical aberration after lens refilling with a silicone oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Kwok-Hoi; Koopmans, Steven A.; Terwee, Thom; Kooijman, Aart C.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE. It may be possible to restore accommodation to presbyopic human eyes by refilling the lens capsular bag with a soft polymer. In the present study, optical changes were measured that occurred in a pig eye model after the refilling of the capsular bag. METHODS. The optical power and spherical

  7. Authority in Arctic governance: changing spheres of authority in Greenlandic offshore oil and gas developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, C.C.A.; Tatenhove, van J.; Leeuwen, van J.

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic has rapidly transformed from a ‘‘frozen desert’’ into a theater for high-level politics. Climate change and socioeconomic interdependencies bring the World more and more to the Arctic and vice versa. Increased geological knowledge, new technologies, and high-energy prices make it possible

  8. Bisulfite pretreatment changes the structure and properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch to improve enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Sun, Wan; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2015-06-01

    Bisulfite pretreatment is a proven effective method for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm for bioethanol production. In this study, we set out to determine the changes that occur in the structure and properties of EFB materials and fractions of hemicellulose and lignin during the bisulfite pretreatment process. The results showed that the crystallinity of cellulose in EFB increased after bisulfite pretreatment, whereas the EFB surface was damaged to various degrees. The orderly structure of EFB, which was maintained by hydrogen bonds, was destroyed by bisulfite pretreatment. Bisulfite pretreatment also hydrolyzed the glycosidic bonds of the xylan backbone of hemicellulose, thereby decreasing the molecular weight and shortening the xylan chains. The lignin fractions obtained from EFB and pretreated EFB were typically G-S lignin, and with low content of H units. Meanwhile, de-etherification occurred at the β-O-4 linkage, which was accompanied by polymerization and demethoxylation as a result of bisulfite pretreatment. The adsorption ability of cellulase differed for the various lignin fractions, and the water-soluble lignin fractions had higher adsorption capacity on cellulase than the milled wood lignin. In general, the changes in the structure and properties of EFB provided insight into the benefits of bisulfite pretreatment.

  9. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management.

  10. Understanding the drivers of land use changes : the case of oil palm managements in Sumatra (Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin, Margot; Bessou, Cécile; Wohlfahrt, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes are primarily designed by farming practices. Farmers chosse their farming practices in a balance between strengths and constaints, from local and wider scale as well as from biophysical and human context, following different land use strategies. These different strategies shape the landscapes and drive land use changes with consequent impacts onto the environment (e.g., on biodiversity conservation, soil erosion, water quality). In the last decades, land cover and land...

  11. Studies on changes in patterns of fatty acids, sterols and tocopherols of oil during seed maturation of oil crops. Part I. Sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The variation of lipid constituents in maturing sunflower oil seeds has been investigated with the aim of determination of the proper harvesting time as well as the oil quality. Marked variations in fatty acid, sterol and tocopherol constituents of the oil were observed. Capillary gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used in the analysis which enabled the determination of major as well as minor constituents in the oil. In addition, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used to confirm the structure of cycloartenol sterol. Postulations on the key compounds of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols were proposed in the frame of the main biosynthetic pathways. The proper harvesting time was found to be 118 days after plantation since the oil content was high and the constituents of the oil were balanced.

    Se ha investigado la variación de los constituyentes lipídicos en aceites de semillas de girasol en distintos estados de maduración, con el objetivo de determinar el tiempo de recolección apropiado así como la calidad del aceite. Se observaron variaciones apreciables en los ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles del aceite. La cromatografía gaseosa capilar y la cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia se usó en el análisis que permitió la determinación tanto de los componentes mayoritarios como minoritarios en el aceite. Además, se utilizó la cromatografía gaseosa acoplada a la espectrometría de masas para confirmar la estructura del esterol cicloartenol. Se han propuesto en el marco de la ruta biosintética principal postulados sobre los compuestos clave de ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles. Se encontró como tiempo de recolección apropiado el de 118 días después de la plantación, ya que el contenido de aceite fue elevado y los constituyentes fueron equilibrados.

  12. [Changes in the content of plasma lipoproteins in persons subjected to diets prepared with sunflower oil alone or mixed with palm olein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacopini de Z, María Isabel; Alonso, Hilda V; Sánchez, Josefina; García, Ninoska; Veliz, Lilia; Golfetto, Iván; Bosch, Virgilio

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed in 31 subjects, regular guests of the University food service of the Central University of Venezuela (UCVFS), in Caracas, the effects of replacing sunflower oil, commonly used in the preparation of meals, by a mix of sunflower oil and palm olein 70/30 (v/v) respectively. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low and very low density lipoproteins were not changed after 40 days of the substitution. On the contrary, concentrations of high density lipoprotein and total triglycerides increased. The resistance to the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins increased considerably (p palm olein, mixed with other oils with a high ratio linoleic/palmitic (sunflower, corn, soya an the likes), can be used as a healthy alternative in human nutrition.

  13. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg;

    2015-01-01

    content and quality were significantly reduced, except in the scenario with elevated [CO2] alone. Of the six analyzed fatty acids five - oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3, omega-3), palmitic (C16:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1) - showed reductions, the only exception being...... stearic acid, C 18:0. For example we found that in the two factor treatment, where elevated [CO2] and temperature were combined, the essential fatty acid omega-3, C18:3, decreased by 45% and oil content declined 10%.Total losses in fatty acid and oil yields would be even larger, when also considering...... fatty acids was changed for the worse. Facing this outlook, breeding for climate tolerant cultivars seems essential for oil yield and quality. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V...

  14. Punctuated Entropy as Culture-Induced Change:The Case of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher LDyer(Author); ZHANG Yongchun(Translators); LIU Yuan(Translators); YANG Gongwei(Translators)

    2013-01-01

    This article grew out of the obser-vation that as disaster events increase in frequency and severity , recovery from certain kinds , or com-binations of , disasters becomes increasingly diffi-cult, if not impossible.This phenomenon is not new.Throughout history , civilizations have faced ecological and cultural collapse resulting from drought , disease , or earthquake .It is made more cogent, however, by the rapidity of modern culture change , and the increased risk associated with hu-man-induced catastrophes , also known as techno-logical disasters .

  15. Changing surface hydro- and oleophobicity with resorcinarene multilayers-a simple water/oil proofing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frank; Frary, Elaine; Stirling, Charles J M

    2004-10-12

    Resorcinarenes (resorcinol-aldehyde tetramers) of appropriate structures have been shown to change the hydro- and oleophilicities of a variety of surfaces. The phenomenon results from attachment of the rim of the bowl-like molecules to hydrophilic surfaces. Hydrophobic (alkyl) and oleophobic (perfluoro alkyl) "legs" attached to the bowls then determine the immediate surface property. Amounts required to modify surfaces are only between 2 and 10 mg m(-2) treated, and there is evidence of multilayer formation. Penetration of surfaces by a variety of liquids has been studied and cannot easily be understood as a function of density, viscosity, or surface tension.

  16. Observations of the smoke plume from the December 2005 explosions and prolonged oil fire at Buncefield oil depot, southern UK and associated atmospheric changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T. A.; Harrison, R. G.; Tsanev, V. I.; Pyle, D. M.; Karumudi, M. L.; Bennett, A. J.; Sawyer, G. M.; Highwood, E. J.

    2006-12-01

    The explosions and subsequent fire at the Buncefield oil depot in December 2005 afforded a rare opportunity to study the atmospheric consequences of a major oil fire at close range, using ground-based remote sensing instruments. The fire burned 5.6 × 107kg of refined fuel (unleaded petrol, aviation fuel and diesel) over 3 days and produced a plume of smoke that extended over much of southern England. Near-source measurements suggest that plume particles were ~50% black carbon (BC) with refractive index 1.73-0.42i, effective radius (Reff) 0.45-0.85μm and mass loading ~2000μg.m-3. About 50km downwind, particles were ~60-75% BC with refractive index between 1.80-0.52i and 1.89-0.69i, Reff ~1.0μm and mass loadings 320-780μg.m-3. Number distributions were almost all monomodal with peak at rgas concentrations of SO2 (70ppb), NO2 (140ppb), HONO (20ppb), HCHO (160ppb) and CS2 (40ppb). We estimate that the Buncefield event emitted totals of ~6.3, 7.2 and 5.5Mg of SO2, HCHO and CS2 respectively; along with ~5500Mg of BC. Our measurements are consistent with others of the Buncefield plume, and with studies of the 1991 Kuwaiti oil-fire plumes; differences from the latter reflecting in part a contrast in source composition (refined fuels vs. crude oils) leading to important potential differences in atmospheric impacts. Measurements made as the plume passed overhead ~50km downwind showed a reduced solar flux reaching the surface but little effect on the atmospheric potential gradient. The wind speed data from the day of the explosion hints at a possible explosion signature.

  17. Protective effect of fish oil on changes in the activities of membrane-bound ATPases and mineral status in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala; Kalaiselvi, Palaniswamy

    2010-12-01

    The present study evaluated the protective effect of fish oil in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. The results of the present study indicate that the IPH administration decreases the activities of membrane-bound ATPases compared to control animals. Fish oil pretreatment brought about significant increase in the activity of these membrane-bound ATPases in IPH (isoproterenol hydrochloride)-treated animals. Significant increase in serum potassium level with concomitant decrease in the values of sodium, magnesium, and calcium were observed in IPH-treated rats compared to control rats, fish oil pretreatment reversed these changes to near normal. Significant elevation of sodium and calcium levels with concomitant decrease in the levels of potassium and magnesium were observed in the myocardial tissue of IPH-administered rats compared to control rats, fish oil pretreatment followed by IPH administration brought these levels to near normal. The levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in both serum and tissue were increased in IPH-treated rats compared with control rats, whereas pretreatment with fish oil in IPH-treated rats maintained near-normal LPO levels. The results of the present study reveals that the pretreatment of fish maintains the activities of membrane-bound ATPases and the mineral levels at near normal by the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  18. Studies on interfacial behavior and wettability change phenomena by ionic and nonionic surfactants in presence of alkalis and salt for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Mandal, Ajay

    2016-05-01

    Surfactant flooding is one of the most promising method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) used after the conventional water flooding. The addition of alkali improves the performance of surfactant flooding due to synergistic effect between alkali and surfactant on reduction of interfacial tension (IFT), wettability alteration and emulsification. In the present study the interfacial tension, contact angle, emulsification and emulsion properties of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) surfactants against crude oil have been investigated in presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) and alkalis viz. sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), sodium metaborate (SMB) and diethanolamine (DEA). All three surfactants significantly reduce the IFT values, which are further reduced to ultra-low value (∼10-4 mN/m) by addition of alkalis and salt. It has been found experimentally that alkali-surfactant systems change the wettability of an intermediate-wet quartz rock to water-wet. Emulsification of crude oil by surfactant and alkali has also been investigated in terms of the phase volume and stability of emulsion. A comparative FTIR analysis of crude oil and different emulsions were performed to investigate the interactions between crude oil and displacing water in presence of surfactant and alkali.

  19. DIETARY FISH OIL-INDUCED CHANGES IN INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTEROL TRANSPORT AND BILE-ACID SYNTHESIS IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, MJ; TEMMERMAN, AM; WOLTERS, H; KUIPERS, F; BEYNEN, AC; VONK, RJ

    Hepatic cholesterol metabolism was studied in rats fed purified diets supplemented (9% wt/wt) with either fish oil (FO) (n-3 fatty acids) or corn oil (CO) (n-6 fatty acids) for 4 wk. Rats were equipped with permanent catheters in heart, bile duct, and duodenum to allow studies under normal feeding

  20. Changes of membrane fatty acids and proteins of Shewanella putrefaciens treated with cinnamon oil and gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Fei; Gao, Fei; Wei, Qianqian; Liu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In order to detect the antimicrobial mechanism of combined treatment of cinnamon oil and gamma irradiation (GI), the membrane fatty acids and proteins characteristics of Shewanella putrefaciens (S. putrefaciens) treated with cinnamon oil and GI, and the distribution of cinnamon oil in S. putrefaciens were observed in this study. The membrane lipid profile of S. putrefaciens was notably damaged by treatments of cinnamon oil and the combination of cinnamon oil and GI, with significantly fatty acids decrease in C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:1, C18:1 (p putrefaciens obviously. It was transformed into cinnamyl alcohol in the nutrient broth with the action of S. putrefaciens. This indicated that the antimicrobial action of cinnamon oil mainly happened on the membrane of S. putrefaciens. Cinnamon oil could act on the membrane of S. putrefaciens with the damage of fatty acids and proteins, and GI would increase the destructive capability of cinnamon oil on the membrane fatty acids and proteins of S. putrefaciens.

  1. Effects of oil palm expansion through direct and indirect land use change in Tapi river basin, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Hein, Lars; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit

    2016-01-01

    The Thai government has ambitious plan to further promote the use of biodiesel. However, there has been insufficient consideration on the environmental effects of oil palm expansion in Thailand. This paper focuses on the effects of oil palm expansion on land use. We analysed the direct land use c

  2. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  3. Model building for Chang-8 low permeability sandstone reservoir in the Yanchang formation of the Xifeng oil field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Fan; HOU Jia-gen; SU Ni-na

    2009-01-01

    In order to build a model for the Chang-8 low permeability sandstone reservoir in the Yanchang formation of the Xifeng oil field, we studied sedlimentation and diagenesis of sandstone and analyzed major factors controlling this low permeability reser-voir. By doing so, we have made clear that the spatial distribution of reservoir attribute parameters is controlled by the spatial dis-tribution of various kinds of sandstone bodies. By taking advantage of many coring wells and high quality logging data, we used regression analysis for a single well with geological conditions as constraints, to build the interpretation model for logging data and to calculate attribute parameters for a single well, which ensured accuracy of the 1-D vertical model. On this basis, we built a litho-facies model to replace the sedimentary facies model. In addition, we also built a porosity model by using a sequential Gaussian simulation with the lithofacies model as the constraint. In the end, we built a permeability model by using Markov-Bayes simula-tion, with the porosity attribute as the covariate. The results show that the permeability model reflects very well the relative differ-ences between low permeability values, which is of great importance for locating high permeability zones and forecasting zones favorable for exploration and exploitation.

  4. Pulmonary changes induced by trans,trans-2,4-decadienal, a component of cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C-K; Chang, L W; Chang, H; Yang, C-H; Tsai, M-H; Tsai, H-T; Lin, P

    2010-03-01

    Cooking oil fumes (COF) are known to be associated with respiratory diseases and risk of lung cancer. Involvement of trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (tt-DDE), a major component in COF, is suspected. Male CD-1(R) (ICR) mice were intratracheally instilled with either 8 or 24 mg.kg(-1) tt-DDE weekly for 8 weeks. Total numbers and types of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as pathological changes, and inflammatory gene modulations in the lung tissues were assessed. We demonstrated that the number of alveolar macrophages in the BALF was significantly increased in tt-DDE-exposed animals. Histologically, there was a dose-correlated increase in epithelial hyperplasia and granulomatous nodules at the bronchioloalveolar junctions (BAJ). Although both Clara and alveolar type II cells were present in the BAJ lesion, only Clara cells were actively proliferative. However, only alveolar type II cells were found in the BAJ granulomatous nodules. Enhanced accumulation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3), a known pro-carcinogenic factor, was also detected in many alveolar type II cells at the BAJ lesions. As both BAJ hyperplasia and enhanced pSTAT3 accumulation are known risk factors associated with increased lung adenocarcinoma development, these findings suggest that tt-DDE may pose a risk in lung carcinogenesis.

  5. Change on storage quality of edible oil in different specification of tank%不同规格罐体内食用植物油储存品质变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽琼; 朱启思; 吴秋婷; 曾彩虹; 邓常继

    2015-01-01

    The related indicators of edible oil quality during storage were monitored to compare the change of the oil quality,including peanut oil,soybean oil,rapeseed oil,stored in non -standard oil tank with standard oil tank.The results showed that the quality of peanut oil stored in non -standard tank was bet-ter than stored in standard tank.With stored in non -standard tank,the quality of soybean oil and rape-seed oil,was better than peanut oil.%监测食用油储存期间相关指标,对存放在标准油罐与非标油罐花生油的品质变化进行研究,非标罐中花生油、大豆油、油菜籽油的品质变化进行比较。结果表明非标准油罐存放的花生油品质好于标准罐存放;同是非标油罐存放,大豆油和油菜籽油储存品质优于花生油储存品质。

  6. Changes in Structure and Functioning of Protist (Testate Amoebae) Communities Due to Conversion of Lowland Rainforest into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashevska, Valentyna; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Large areas of tropical rainforest are being converted to agricultural and plantation land uses, but little is known of biodiversity and ecological functioning under these replacement land uses. We investigated the effects of conversion of rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations on testate amoebae, diverse and functionally important protists in litter and soil. Living testate amoebae species richness, density and biomass were all lower in replacement land uses than in rainforest, with the impact being more pronounced in litter than in soil. Similar abundances of species of high and low trophic level in rainforest suggest that trophic interactions are more balanced, with a high number of functionally redundant species, than in rubber and oil palm. In contrast, plantations had a low density of high trophic level species indicating losses of functions. This was particularly so in oil palm plantations. In addition, the relative density of species with siliceous shells was >50% lower in the litter layer of oil palm and rubber compared to rainforest and jungle rubber. This difference suggests that rainforest conversion changes biogenic silicon pools and increases silicon losses. Overall, the lower species richness, density and biomass in plantations than in rainforest, and the changes in the functional composition of the testate amoebae community, indicate detrimental effects of rainforest conversion on the structure and functioning of microbial food webs.

  7. Changes in Structure and Functioning of Protist (Testate Amoebae) Communities Due to Conversion of Lowland Rainforest into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashevska, Valentyna; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Large areas of tropical rainforest are being converted to agricultural and plantation land uses, but little is known of biodiversity and ecological functioning under these replacement land uses. We investigated the effects of conversion of rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations on testate amoebae, diverse and functionally important protists in litter and soil. Living testate amoebae species richness, density and biomass were all lower in replacement land uses than in rainforest, with the impact being more pronounced in litter than in soil. Similar abundances of species of high and low trophic level in rainforest suggest that trophic interactions are more balanced, with a high number of functionally redundant species, than in rubber and oil palm. In contrast, plantations had a low density of high trophic level species indicating losses of functions. This was particularly so in oil palm plantations. In addition, the relative density of species with siliceous shells was >50% lower in the litter layer of oil palm and rubber compared to rainforest and jungle rubber. This difference suggests that rainforest conversion changes biogenic silicon pools and increases silicon losses. Overall, the lower species richness, density and biomass in plantations than in rainforest, and the changes in the functional composition of the testate amoebae community, indicate detrimental effects of rainforest conversion on the structure and functioning of microbial food webs. PMID:27463805

  8. The Vapex process: non-thermal recovery of bitumen and heavy oil for improved economics and climate change advantage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhning, R.W. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada); Luhning, C.P. [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The Vapex process, the injection of a combination of vaporized solvents into heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs for in situ recovery of the oil is discussed. In the process, the oil is diluted with the solvent, causing the oil's viscosity to be reduced thus enabling the oil to drain into the horizontal production well. The process is non-thermal, i.e. it does not require the reservoir to be heated, hence it has the potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, a necessary feature of thermal processes used to enhance the recovery of oil sands and heavy oils. The economic advantages of the Vapex process are demonstrated on the basis of experimental results from three reservoirs and field scale numerical simulation. An overview of the integrated physical model, numerical simulation, facilities design, well specifications and production/transportation/marketing work that underlie the economic calculations is provided. A substantial experimental field pilot plant to validate the preliminary results and to test the assumptions about the Vapex process is under consideration. 15 refs., 6 tabs, 13 figs.

  9. Quantative and qualative changes of essential oil of Salvia bracteata Bank et Sol. in different growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri H

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvia bracteata is a permanent herb which belongs to Lamiaceae family and grows wildely in the west of Iran. In this study the composition of the essential oils of aerial parts of Salvia bracteata in different growth stages were analysed and compared. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The oils had high amounts of monoterpene compounds, with α-pinene, limonene, myrecene and β-pinene as major components in different growth stages.

  10. The impact of industrial oil development on a protected area landscape: A case study on human population growth and landscape level change in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Congalton, Russell G.; Palace, Michael W.; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2016-04-01

    Protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are sanctuaries for rich biodiversity and are important economic engines for African nations, but they are becoming increasingly threatened by discoveries of mineral deposits within and nearby their boundaries. In 2006, viable oil reserves were discovered in Murchison Falls Conservation Area (MFCA) in northern Uganda. Exploratory and appraisal activities concluded in 2014, and production is expected to begin in 2016. The oil development is associated with a substantial increase in human population outside MFCA, with people seeking jobs, land, and economic opportunity. Concomitant with this change is increased truck traffic, a sprawling and denser road network, and infrastructure within the park, which could have large impacts on both the flora and fauna. We examined the broader protected area landscape and the potential feedbacks from resource development on the ecosystem and local livelihoods. Our analysis combines a land cover analysis using Object Based Image Analysis of Landsat data (2002 and 2014), migration patterns and population change (1959-2014), and qualitative interview data. Our results suggest that most of the larger-scale impacts on the landscape and people are occurring in the western and northern sections, both inside and outside of the park. Additionally, oil development is not the only factor in the region influencing population growth and landscape change. Post conflict regrowth in the north, sugarcane production in the south, and migration to this region from conflict-ridden neighboring countries are also playing a vital role in human migration shaping the MFCA Landscape. Understanding the social and environmental changes and impacts in the MFCA and its surrounding areas will add to limited literature on the impacts of resource extraction on local, subsistence communities and landscape level change, which will be important as access and pressure for oil and minerals within protected areas continues to rise.

  11. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  12. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  13. Phytobenthos and phytoplankton community changes upon exposure to a sunflower oil spill in a South African protected freshwater wetland

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available . At the intracellular level, phytoplankton chlorophyll a and b concentrations as physiological variables were more sensitive indicators of the adverse effects of sunflower oil than the 72 h Selenastrum capricornutum algal bioassay conducted....

  14. Sterane distribution of solid bitumen pyrolyzates. Changes with biodegradation of crude oil in the Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiale, J.A.; Harrison, W.E.; Smith, G.

    1983-01-01

    Solid bitumens (grahamite and impsonite) of southeastern Oklahoma have been shown to originate from near-surface alteration of crude oil (Curiale, 1981; Curiale and Harrison, 1981). Pyrolysis of these solids has been employed to compare the sterane distribution of geographically proximate oils to that of the bitumens. The ratio of rearranged to regular steranes is higher in the pyrolyzates than in the oils, a finding consistent with a bitumen origin due to biodegradation of oil. The remaining presence of steranes, particularly regular steranes, in the bitumens suggests that sterane occlusion may have occurred prior to or during the alteration process, thus removing tetracyclic compounds from the influence of microbial attack. These data suggest that pyrolysis- GC MS offers a viable approach to correlation problems involving solid bitumens. ?? 1983.

  15. Review and Outlook of China's Oil Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jinshuang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Major features of China's oil market in 2005 China's oil market is changing under the influence of domestic economy and the international oil market, witnessing different characteristics from time to time.

  16. Changes in olive oil volatile organic compounds induced by water status and light environment in canopies of Olea europaea L. trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Caruso, Giovanni; Giunti, Giulia; Cuzzola, Angela; Saba, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Andrea; Gucci, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Light and water are major factors in fruit development and quality. In this study, the effect of water and light in Olea europaea trees on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in olive oil was studied over 2 years. Mature fruits were harvested from three zones of the canopy with different light exposure (64%, 42% and 30% of incident light) of trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. VOCs were determined by SPME GC-MS and analysed by principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to partition treatment effects. Fruit fresh weight and mesocarp oil content decreased in zones where intercepted light was less. Low light levels significantly slowed down fruit maturation, whereas conditions of water deficit accelerated the maturation process. The presence of cyclosativene and α-muurulene was associated with water deficit, nonanal, valencene with full irrigation; α-muurulene, (E)-2-hexanal were related to low light conditions, while trans-β-ocimene, α-copaene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, hexanal and nonanal to well exposed zones. The year strongly affected the VOC profile of olive oil. This is the first report on qualitative changes in VOCs induced by light environment and/or water status. This information is valuable to better understand the role of environmental factors on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Changes in the biological activity of heavy metal- and oil-polluted soils in urban recreation territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, T. A.; Zabelina, O. N.

    2017-04-01

    Urban recreation areas of different sizes were investigated in the city of Vladimir. The degree of their contamination with heavy metals and oil products was revealed. The content of heavy metals exceeded their maximum permissible concentrations by more than 2.5 times. The total content of heavy metals decreased in the sequence: Zn > Pb > Co > Mn > Cr > Ni. The mass fraction of oil products in the studied soils varied within the range of 0.016-0.28 mg/g. The reaction of soils in public gardens and a boulevard was neutral or close to neutral; in some soil samples, it was weakly alkaline. The top layer of all the soils significantly differed from the lower one by the higher alkalinity promoting the deposition of heavy metals there. As the content of Ni, Co, and Mn increased and exceeded the background concentrations, but did not reach the three-fold value of the maximum permissible concentrations, the activity of catalase was intensified. The stimulating effect of nickel on the catalase activity was mostly pronounced at the neutral soil reaction. The urease activity increased when heavy metals and oil products were present together in the concentrations above the background ones, but not higher than the three-fold maximal permissible concentrations for heavy metals and 0.3 mg/g for the content of oil products. The nitrifying activity was inhibited by oil hydrocarbons that were recorded in the soils in different amounts.

  18. Phytoremediation potential and ecological and phenological changes of native pioneer plants from weathered oil spill-impacted sites at tropical wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Cruz, Felipe de J; Pérez-Vargas, Josefina; Rivera Casado, Noemí Araceli; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio; Calva-Calva, Graciano

    2016-08-01

    Pioneer native plant species from weathered oil spill-affected sites were selected to study their potential for phytoremediation on the basis of their ecological and phenological changes during the phytoremediation process. Experiments were conducted in field and in greenhouse. In field, native plants from aged oil spill-impacted sites with up 400 g of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons per kilogram soil were selected. In the impacted sites, the principal dominant plant species with potential for hydrocarbons removal were Cyperus laxus, Cyperus esculentus, and Ludwigia peploides. In greenhouse, the phenology of the selected plant species was drastically affected by the hydrocarbons level above 325 g total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) per kilogram soil after 2 years of phytoremediation of soils from the aged oil spill-impacted sites. From the phytoremediation treatments, a mix-culture of C. laxus, C. esculentus, and L. peploides in soil containing 325 g TPH/kg soil, from which 20.3 % were polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 34.2 % were asphaltenes (ASF), was able to remove up 93 % of the TPH, while in unvegetated soil the TPH removal was 12.6 %. Furthermore, evaluation of the biodiversity and life forms of plant species in the impacted sites showed that phytoremediation with C. esculentus, alone or in a mix-culture with C. laxus and L. peploides, reduces the TPH to such extent that the native plant community was progressively reestablished by replacing the cultivated species resulting in the ecological recovery of the affected soil. These results demonstrate that native Cyperus species from weathered oil spill-affected sites, specifically C. esculentus and C. laxus, alone or in a mix-culture, have particular potential for phytoremediation of soils from tropical wetlands contaminated with weathered oil hydrocarbons.

  19. Predicted changes in fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk following replacement of trans fatty acid-containing soybean oil with application-appropriate alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)--containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recalls for 1999-2002, we selected 25 food categories, accounting for 86 % of soybean oil (SBO) and 79 % of TFA intake for replacement modeling. Before modeling, those in the middle quintile had a mean PHSBO TFA intake of 1.2 % of energy. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring thermal stability by either low-linolenic acid SBO or mid-oleic, low-linolenic acid SBO decreased TFA intake by 0.3 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 0.7-0.8 %. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring functional properties with palm-based oils reduced TFA intake by 0.8 % of energy, increased palmitic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and reduced predicted CVD risk by 0.4 %, whereas replacement with fully hydrogenated interesterified SBO reduced TFA intake by 0.7 % of energy, increased stearic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and decreased predicted CVD risk by 1.2 %. PHSBO replacement in both thermal and functional applications reduced TFA intake by 1.0 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 1.5 %. Based solely on changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins, all PHSBO replacement models reduced estimated CVD risk, albeit less than previously reported using simpler replacement models.

  20. Changes in milk fatty acid profile and animal performance in response to fish oil supplementation, alone or in combination with sunflower oil, in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G; Gómez-Cortés, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2010-04-01

    Ruminant diet supplementation with sunflower oil (SO) and fish oil (FO) has been reported as a good strategy for enhancing some milk fat compounds such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dairy cows, but no information is available regarding dairy sheep. In this work, ewe diet was supplemented with FO, alone or in combination with SO, with the aim of improving milk nutritional value and evaluating its effect on animal performance. Sixty-four Assaf ewes in mid lactation, fed a high-concentrate diet, were distributed in 8 lots of 8 animals each and assigned to 4 treatments (2 lots/treatment): no lipid supplementation (control) or supplementation with 20 g of SO/kg (SO), 10 g of FO/kg (FO), or 20 g of SO plus 10 g of FO/kg (SOFO). Milk production and composition, including a complete fatty acid profile, were analyzed on d 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatments. Supplementation with FO tended to reduce dry matter intake compared with the control treatment (-15%), and its use in combination with SO (SOFO) resulted in a significant decrease in milk yield as well (-13%). All lipid supplements reduced milk protein content, and FO also reduced milk fat content by up to 21% alone (FO) and 27% in combination with SO (SOFO). Although the mechanisms involved in FO-induced milk fat depression are not yet well established, the observed increase in some milk trans-FA that are putative inhibitors of milk fat synthesis, such as trans-9,cis-11 CLA, and the 63% decrease in C18:0 (consistent with the theory of reduced milk fat fluidity) may be involved. When compared with the control, lipid supplementation remarkably improved the milk content of rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA; up to 4-fold increases with SO and SOFO diets), whereas FO-containing diets also increased milk n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly docosahexaenoic acid (with mean contents of 0.29 and 0.38% of total fatty acids for SOFO and FO, respectively), and reduced the n-6:n-3 FA

  1. Clinical experimental study of Arnebia root oil promoting histological change and up-regulating bFGF expression in the wound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the molecular biological mechanism of Arnebia root oil promoting wound surface healing by observing histological change and bFGF expression in wound surface tissue as well as wound surface healing rate. Methods: Raw surface in patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Experimental group was treated by Arnebia root oil and control group was treated by petrolatum gauze, then the tissular structure of raw surface was observed by histology, histochemistry, electron microscope and raw surface healing rates was compared either. bFGF expression in wound surface tissue was also evaluated by Western-blot. Results: Raw surface healing rate of experimental group and control group had obvious difference(P<0.05). Raw surface of experimental group had more fibroblast, collagen and blood capillary. bFGF was expressed in both groups, and the level of bFGF expression in experimental group was higher than that in control group in every period. There were significant differences between 2 groups in gray-density value (P<0.05). Being as an internal control, no significant change was found for β-actin expression, although it occured in various phases. Conclusion: Arnebia root oil plays an important regulative role in the course of healing of wound and it can promote skin raw surface repair and accelerate wound surface healing, which are caused by enhancing bFGF in the wound tissue.

  2. The changing Arctic and its effects on the development of Norway and Russia's offshore oil-spill prevention policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Two very different nations are joined with a northern border and have worked together for decades to manage shared Arctic affairs, yet have very disparate approaches to policy development. Increased access to the Arctic and the push to develop its resources has also created a requirement for developing national policies to address the possibilities of oil spill response and remediation. Norway and Russia are the significant regional powers, with a shared arctic boundary, yet substantially differing approaches to policy development and implementation. We are exploring the variations in their approaches to Arctic offshore oil-spill policy development, in the context of policy informed by economic, social, and physical sciences.

  3. Preparation of PVDF/SiO2 composite membrane for salty oil emulsion separation: Physicochemical properties changes and its impact on fouling propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngang, H. P.; Ahmad, A. L.; Low, S. C.; Ooi, B. S.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/silica (SiO2) composite membranes were prepared by diffusion induced phase separation through direct blending method. The roles of SiO2 particles concentration on membrane physicochemical properties were evaluated through oil emulsion separation under high ionic strength environment whereby hydrophobic interaction is prevalent. Membranes were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurement, membrane porosity and pore size distribution. It was expected that by adding the monodispersed SiO2, it will render the membrane with hydrophilic characteristic. However, it is concomitantly changing the physical properties of the membrane. Addition of SiO2 caused the changes to the physicochemical properties of the composite membrane and its effects on the fouling propensity were evaluated. It was found that the mean pore size of the membranes increased with the increase of SiO2 concentration. The addition of hydrophilic SiO2 had accelerated the precipitation of the membrane dope solution resulting in changes of membrane cross section morphology. FESEM images showed the membrane cross-section morphology of PVDF/SiO2 composite membrane had gradually changed from finger-like to macrovoid-like structure with the increased of SiO2 concentration. The hydrophilicity of the PVDF/SiO2 composite membrane was enhanced which is a desired property for water purification. However, the changes in physical properties (pore size, porosity, and surface roughness) had played more dominant role in the oil emulsion fouling behaviour rather than hydrophilicity enhancement. Due to the salting out effect under high ionic strength environment, hydrophobic interaction played an important role in the oil adsorption. The increment in membrane pore size, porosity, and surface roughness after incorporation of SiO2 particles had encountered more serious relative flux reduction and

  4. Quality change of crude Jatropha oil during storage%小桐子毛油储藏中品质变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭萍梅; 黄凤洪; 李秀兰; 郑畅; 杨湄; 李文林

    2014-01-01

    将水分为0.1%、0.5%、1.0%的小桐子毛油,以棕色塑料瓶、白色塑料瓶和透明玻璃瓶密封包装后在20、30、40℃的条件下储藏160 d,每20 d测定1次酸值和过氧化值,研究小桐子毛油在不同储藏条件下品质变化情况。结果表明:随着储藏温度的升高、小桐子毛油水分的增加以及储藏时间的延长,小桐子毛油的酸值和过氧化值均增加。采用正交实验得到小桐子毛油适宜的储藏条件为:棕色塑料瓶密封包装,水分0.1%,储藏温度15℃;在此条件下,小桐子毛油储藏180 d后,其过氧化值上升,酸值未发生明显变化。%The crude Jatropha oils with different moisture contents of 0 . 1%, 0 . 5% and 1 . 0% respec-tively sealed in brown plastic bottle, white plastic bottle and transparent glass bottle were stored at 20, 30℃ and 40℃ for 160 d, and the acid values and peroxide values of the crude Jatropha oils were meas-ured every twenty day to study the quality change of crude Jatropha oil under different storage conditions. The results showed that the acid value and peroxide value of crude Jatropha oil increased with the increas-ing of storage temperature and moisture content and the extension of storage time. The optimal storage con-ditions of crude Jatropha oil were obtained by orthogonal experiment as follows:brown plastic bottle sealed packaging, moisture content 0. 1%, storage temperature 15℃. Under the optimal conditions, after storing for 180 d,the acid value of crude Jatropha oil did not change significantly, while peroxide value increased.

  5. Changes in olive oils used as covering in preserves of eggplants (Solanum Melongena in relation to the time and the condition of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Felice, M.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of the extra virgin olive oil as covering in food preserves presents some problems and still today object of study. With this research it was investigate the changes of some analytical parameters that occur during the storage in the olive oils used as covering in eggplant preserves. It was ascertained that in the oils in presence of the eggplants a drastic decrease of the total phenols was verified immediately after the thermal treatment affecting the oxidative processes. Besides it was observed that in all the oils stored under light the values of the K270. ΔK, the total chlorophylls and the 1,2-DG36/1,3-DG36 ratio were significantly changed.El uso de aceite de oliva virgen extra como cobertura en conservas alimentarias presenta una serie de problemas que son todavía hoy objeto de estudio. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los cambios de algunos parámetros analíticos producidos durante el almacenamiento en aceite de oliva usado como cobertura en la conservación de berenjenas. Se encontró que el aceite que ha estado en contacto con las berenjenas, sufrió una disminución de los fenoles totales inmediatamente después del tratamiento térmico, afectando a los procesos oxidativos. Se observó asimismo, que en todos los aceites almacenados a la luz variaron significativamente los valores del K270, del ΔK, de la clorofila y de la proporción de 1,2-DG36/1,3- DG36.

  6. Effect of Replacement of Marine Ingredients with Vegetable Oil and Protein on Oxidative Changes during Ice Storage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Eymard, Sylvie; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    . The oil source was either fish oil, linseed oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil or grapeseed oil. Rainbow trout was stored on ice for up to 14 days. In both studies, the effect of the feeding regime on the fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation in the fish fillet was determined. In the first study......Recently, fish meal and fish oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have only been investigated to a limited extent. This presentation...... will discuss results from two recent studies from our laboratory on this topic. In the first study, rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in the ratio between marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Rapeseed oil was used as the oil source and the vegetable proteins were...

  7. Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersikorn, Blair D., E-mail: blair.hersikorn@usask.c [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Smits, Judit E.G., E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.c [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young ({<=}7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

  8. Changes in growth, hormones levels and essential oil content of Ammi visnaga L. plants treated with some bioregulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Iman M; Khattab, Hemmat I; Ahmed, Aisha M

    2014-09-01

    The effects of foliar application of different concentrations of amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) and phenolic acids (trans-cinnamic acid, benzoic acid and salicylic acid) on growth, pigment content, hormones levels and essential oil content of Ammi visnaga L were carried out during two successive seasons. It is clear that foliar application of either amino acids or phenolics significantly promoted the growth parameters in terms of shoot height, fresh and dry biomass, number of branches and number of umbels per plant. The increment of growth parameter was associated with elevated levels of growth promoters (IAA, GA3, total cytokinins) and low level of ABA. The greatest increase in the previously mentioned parameters was measured in plants exposed to different concentrations of phenols particularly in benzoic acid-treated plants. Such effect was concentration dependent. All treatments led to significant increments in yield seeds and oil content. Moreover, gas liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that the main identified components of essential oil were 2,2-dimethyl butanoic acid, isobutyl isobutyrate, α-isophorone, thymol, fenchyl acetate and linalool. Phenolics and amino acid treatments resulted in qualitative differences in these components of essential oil.

  9. Supplementation with fish oil and coconut fat prevents prenatal stress-induced changes in early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe C; Suchecki, Deborah; Calil, Helena Maria; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2011-08-01

    Adequate development of the central nervous system depends on prenatal and postnatal factors. On one hand, prenatal stress (PNS) has been implicated in impaired development of the offspring. On other hand, nutritional factors during pregnancy and lactation can influence fetal and postnatal growth. This study assessed the postnatal development of rat offspring exposed to PNS, which consisted of restraint and bright lights, 3 times/day, from days 14 to 20 of pregnancy, whose mothers were fed different diets during pregnancy and lactation: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control (CTL) or PNS groups. At birth, PNS males and females weighed less than those in the group CTL. At 21 days of age, this alteration was no longer observed with fish oil and coconut fat groups. PNS and coconut fat diet induced increased locomotor activity in 13 day old male and female pups, and this effect was prevented by fish oil supplementation only in females. In conclusion, postnatal development from birth to weaning was influenced by PNS and diet and some of those alterations were prevented by coconut fat and fish oil.

  10. Changes in Marsh Vegetation, Stability and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Barataria Bay Marshes Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J. M.; Aiken, G.; Kokaly, R. F.; Heckman, D.; Butler, K.; Mills, C. T.; Hoefen, T. M.; Piazza, S.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal wetlands in Southern Louisiana were contaminated by the release of record volumes of oil between April and July 2010. Barataria Bay was extensively impacted, resulting in the oiling and dieback of marsh grasses along a discontinuous margin up to 30m into the marshes. Shoreline stability and biogeochemistry have been monitored over three site visits between between July 10 and August 25, 2010. Initial observations in early July were that grasses, dominantly shape Spartina alterniflora and shape Juncus roemerianus, were bent over under the weight of a thick oil coating. The bent-over grasses were broken off along some reaches, leaving a stubbled shoreline more susceptible to erosion. Repeated site visits in mid and late August found visible erosion along some of the effected shorelines. Water samples were collected from the shoreline marsh remnants and from visibly unaffected marshes to characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). In spite of visible oil sheens in unfiltered water from contaminated shorelines and no visible sign of impact on vegetation in the “control” sites with no visible oil on vegetation, DOC concentrations were similar in impacted and visibly unimpacted sites in Barataria Bay. Subsequent samples in mid- and late-August had increased DOC concentrations relative to previous sample events regardless of whether the site was visibly impacted. There was a general increase in specific UV absorbance (SUVA), an index of aromaticity, with increasing DOC concentrations, either due to seasonal effects or continued dissolution of petroleum compounds. Further chemical characterization using fluorescence and gas chromatography will be used to confirm the presence of petroleum compounds. The ratio of DOC to TDN also increased over time, which may have implications for vegetation regrowth and plant community structure, including the shift of grass species dominating effected marshes. These initial findings suggest

  11. Land use changes and GHG emissions from tropical forest conversion by oil palm plantations in Riau Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Fatwa; Hino, Masateru

    2013-01-01

    Increasing prices and demand for biofuel and cooking oil from importer countries have caused a remarkable expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia. In this paper, we attempt to monitor the expansion of oil palm plantations on peat land and in tropical forests. We measure the GHG emissions from the land conversion activities at provincial scale. Using Landsat images from three different periods (1990s, 2000s and 2012), we classified LULC of the Riau Province, which is the largest oil palm producing region in Indonesia. A hybrid method of integration, generated by combining automatic processing and manual analysis, yields the best results. We found that the tropical rainforest cover decreased from ∼63% in the 1990s to ∼37% in the 2000s. By 2012, the remaining tropical rainforest cover was only ∼22%. From the 1990s to the 2000s, conversion of forests and peat lands was the primary source of emissions, total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼26.6 million tCO2.y(-1), with 40.62% and 59.38% of the emissions from conversion of peat lands and forests, respectively. Between 2000 and 2012, the total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼5.2 million tCO2. y(-1), with 69.94% and 27.62% of the emissions from converted peat lands and converted forests, respectively. The results show that in the Riau Province, the oil palm industry boomed in the period from 1990 to 2000, with transformation of tropical forest and peat land as the primary source of emissions. The decrease of CO2 emissions in the period from 2000 to 2012 is possibly due to the enforcement of a moratorium on deforestation.

  12. Changes in milk and plasma fatty acid profile in response to fish and soybean oil supplementation in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Zervas, George

    2013-05-01

    An effective strategy for enhancing the bioactive fatty acids (FA) in sheep milk could be dietary supplementation with a moderate level of a combination of soybean oil with fish oil (SFO) without negative effects on milk yield and its chemical composition. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a moderate forage diet supplementation with SFO on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA. Twelve dairy sheep were assigned to two homogenous sub-groups. Treatments involved a control diet without added oil, and a diet supplemented with 23.6 g soybean oil and 4.7 g fish oil per kg dry matter (DM) of the total ration. The results showed that SFO diet had no effect on milk yield and chemical composition. In blood plasma the concentrations of trans-11 C(18:2) (VA), C(18:2n-6), C(20:5n-3) (EPA) and C(22:6n-3) (DHA) were significantly higher while those of C(14:0), C(16:0) and C(18:0) were lower in sheep fed with SFO diet compared with control. The SFO supplementation of sheep diet increased the concentrations of VA, cis-9, trans-11 C(18:2) CLA, trans-10, cis-12, C(18:2) CLA, EPA, DHA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyusaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-3 FA and decreased those of short chain FA (SCFA), medium chain FA (MCFA), the saturated/unsaturated ratio and the atherogenicity index value in milk compared with the control. In conclussion, the SFO supplementation at the above levels in a sheep diet, with moderate forage to concentrate ratio, improved the milk FA profile from human health standpoint without negative effects on its chemical composition.

  13. Land use changes and GHG emissions from tropical forest conversion by oil palm plantations in Riau Province, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Ramdani

    Full Text Available Increasing prices and demand for biofuel and cooking oil from importer countries have caused a remarkable expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia. In this paper, we attempt to monitor the expansion of oil palm plantations on peat land and in tropical forests. We measure the GHG emissions from the land conversion activities at provincial scale. Using Landsat images from three different periods (1990s, 2000s and 2012, we classified LULC of the Riau Province, which is the largest oil palm producing region in Indonesia. A hybrid method of integration, generated by combining automatic processing and manual analysis, yields the best results. We found that the tropical rainforest cover decreased from ∼63% in the 1990s to ∼37% in the 2000s. By 2012, the remaining tropical rainforest cover was only ∼22%. From the 1990s to the 2000s, conversion of forests and peat lands was the primary source of emissions, total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼26.6 million tCO2.y(-1, with 40.62% and 59.38% of the emissions from conversion of peat lands and forests, respectively. Between 2000 and 2012, the total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼5.2 million tCO2. y(-1, with 69.94% and 27.62% of the emissions from converted peat lands and converted forests, respectively. The results show that in the Riau Province, the oil palm industry boomed in the period from 1990 to 2000, with transformation of tropical forest and peat land as the primary source of emissions. The decrease of CO2 emissions in the period from 2000 to 2012 is possibly due to the enforcement of a moratorium on deforestation.

  14. Corneal Endothelial Cell Changes Due to Combined Phacoemulsification-Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation and Transpupillary Silicone Oil Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Alp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined phacoemulsification-posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL implantation and removal of transpupillary silicone oil on the corneal endothelial cell layer. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included seven eyes of 7 patients who had intravitreal hemorrhage resulting from retinal detachment or tractional retinal detachment due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy and who underwent pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection. Complicated cataract developed, and phacoemulsification-PC-IOL implantation combined with transpupillary silicon oil removal were performed. Preoperative and postoperative corneal endothelial cell count values were taken by Topcon SP-2000P automatic non-contact specular microscopy and were assessed by IMAGEnet 2000 Endothelial Cell Analysis. The results were compared with the findings in the literature. Results: The mean endothelial cell density (ECD was 2461 cell/mm2 preoperatively. The silicone oil removal was performed after an average of 10±3.5 months (range 5-14 months, and then endothelial cells were counted after a mean of 17±21.2 months (range 1-49 months of the combined surgery. The mean ECD was determined as 1906 cell/mm2 postoperatively. While mean endothelial cell loss was found to be 32% in two patients with diabetes mellitus, five non-diabetic patients had 19% cell loss. Corneal decompensation was not observed in any patient during the follow-up period. Conclusion: After combined phacoemulsification-PC-IOL implantation and transpupillary silicone oil removal, significant reduction in endothelial cells was observed. We detected that this reduction was greater in diabetics. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 424-7

  15. Sedimentary facies and depositional model of shallow water delta dominated by fluvial for Chang 8 oil-bearing group of Yanchang Formation in southwestern Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林; 陆永潮; 吴吉元; 邢凤存; 刘璐; 马义权; 饶丹; 彭丽

    2015-01-01

    A systematic analysis of southwestern Ordos Basin’s sedimentary characteristics, internal architectural element association styles and depositional model was illustrated through core statistics, well logging data and outcrop observations in Chang 8 oil-bearing group. This analysis indicates that shallow water delta sediments dominated by a fluvial system is the primary sedimentary system of the Chang 8 oil-bearing group of the Yanchang Formation in southwestern Ordos Basin. Four microfacies with fine grain sizes are identified: distributary channels, sheet sandstone, mouth bar and interdistributary fines. According to the sandbody’s spatial distribution and internal architecture, two types of sandbody architectural element associations are identified: amalgamated distributary channels and thin-layer lobate sandstone. In this sedimentary system, net-like distributary channels at the delta with a narrow ribbon shape compose the skeleton of the sandbody that extends further into the delta front and shades into contiguous lobate distribution sheet sandstone in the distal delta front. The mouth bar is largely absent in this system. By analyzing the palaeogeomorphology, the palaeostructure background, sedimentary characteristics, sedimentary facies types and spatial distribution of sedimentary facies during the Chang 8 period, a distinctive depositional model of the Chang 8 shallow water fluvial-dominated delta was established, which primarily consists of straight multi-phase amalgamated distributary channels in the delta plain, net-like distributary channels frequently diverting and converging in the proximal delta front, sheet sandstones with dispersing contiguous lobate shapes in the distal delta front, and prodelta or shallow lake mudstones.

  16. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  17. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  18. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  19. Relationship between changes in peroxide value and conjugated dienes during oxidation of sunflower oils with different degree of unsaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxide value and the determination of conjugated dienes by UV absorption at 232 nm are normally applied alternatively for the evaluation of primary oxidation compounds. The objective of this study was to define the relationship between both indexes during oil oxidation in sunflower oils with different degree of unsaturation. The oils studied were conventional sunflower oil (SO and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO. For comparative purposes, methyl linoleate, whose hydroperoxides are conjugated diene hydroperoxides, was also studied. Samples were oxidized at 40 °C in the dark. In order to accelerate oxidation at 40 °C, the natural antioxidants present in the oils were removed, and a high surface to oil volume ratio (0.8 cm-1 was applied to guarantee total air availability. Linear regressions with high correlation coefficients between peroxide values and conjugated dienes were found for the three lipid systems studied (0.9988, 0.9991 and 0.9977 for methyl linoleate, SO and HOSO, respectively. Significant differences in the slopes of the lines were found (0.0974, 0.0854 and 0.0503 for methyl linoleate, SO and HOSO, respectively, indicating the formation of non-conjugated hydroperoxides from oleic acid in the oils, even in the oxidation of SO with a high degree of unsaturation. Consequently, only peroxide value would be reliable for the evaluation of primary oxidation compounds in oils of different degree of unsaturation, unless adequate calibration lines (peroxide value versus conjugated dienes are applied.

    El índice de peróxidos y la medida de dienos conjugados mediante la extinción específica a 232 nm se utilizan alternativamente para la evaluación de compuestos primarios de oxidación en estudios de oxidación de aceites y grasas. El objetivo de este estudio fue definir las relaciones entre ambas medidas en aceites de girasol con diferente grado de in-saturación. Los aceites estudiados fueron aceite de girasol

  20. Land use change emissions from oil palm expansion in Pará, Brazil depend on proper policy enforcement on deforested lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Sahoko; Yeh, Sonia

    2013-12-01

    Brazil aims to increase palm oil production to meet the growing national and global demand for edible oil and biodiesel while preserving environmentally and culturally significant areas. As land use change (LUC) is the result of complex interactions between socio-economic and biophysical drivers operating at multiple temporal and spatial scales, the type and location of LUC depend on drivers such as neighboring land use, conversion elasticity, access to infrastructure, distance to markets, and land suitability. The purpose of this study is to develop scenarios to measure the impact of land conversion under three different enforcement scenarios (none, some, and strict enforcement). We found that converting 22.5 million hectares of land can produce approximately 29 billion gallons (110 billion liters) of biodiesel a year. Of that, 22-71% of the area can come from forest land, conservation units, wetland and indigenous areas, emitting 14-84 gCO2e MJ-1. This direct land use emission alone can be higher than the carbon intensity of diesel that it intends to displace for lowering greenhouse gas emissions. This letter focuses narrowly on GHG emissions and does not address socio-economic-ecological prospects for these degraded lands for palm oil or for other purposes. Future studies should carefully evaluate these tradeoffs.

  1. Induction of stress volatiles and changes in essential oil content and composition upon microwave exposure in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Ildikó; Soran, Maria-Loredana; Opriş, Ocsana; Truşcă, Mihail Radu Cătălin; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to sustained low intensity microwaves can constitute a stress for the plants, but its effects on plant secondary chemistry are poorly known. We studied the influence of GSM and WLAN-frequency microwaves on emissions of volatile organic compounds and content of essential oil in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum L. hypothesizing that microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles and overall greater investment in secondary compounds. Compared to the control plants, microwave irradiation led to decreased emissions of β-pinene, α-phellandrene, bornyl acetate, β-myrcene, α-caryophyllene and benzaldehyde, but increased emissions of eucalyptol, estragole, caryophyllene oxide, and α-bergamotene. The highest increase in emission, 21 times greater compared to control, was observed for caryophyllene oxide. The irradiation resulted in increases in the essential oil content, except for the content of phytol which decreased by 41% in the case of GSM-frequency, and 82% in the case of WLAN-frequency microwave irradiation. The strongest increase in response to WLAN irradiation, >17 times greater, was observed for hexadecane and octane contents. Comparisons of volatile compositions by multivariate analyses demonstrated a clear separation of different irradiance treatments, and according to the changes in the volatile emissions, the WLAN-frequency irradiation represented a more severe stress than the GSM-frequency irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrating important modifications in the emission rates, essential oil content and composition indicate that microwave irradiation influences the quality of herbage of this economically important spice plant.

  2. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg;

    2015-01-01

    significantly reduced, except in the scenario with elevated [CO2] alone. Of the six analyzed fatty acids five - oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3, omega-3), palmitic (C16:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1) - showed reductions, the only exception being stearic acid, C18:0. For example we...... found that in the two- factor treatment, where elevated [CO2] and temperature were combined, the essential fatty acid omega-3, C18:3, decreased by 45% and oil content declined 10%.Total losses in fatty acid and oil yields would be even larger, when also considering reported reductions in seed biomass...... in the future scenarios (2,3): We estimate that when [CO2] and temperature are elevated simultaneously, the oil yield per hectare will drop 58% and the production of omega-3 (C18:3) will be reduced by 77%/hectare. Also the proportion between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was changed for the worse...

  3. Oil: Economics and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, A. (Laval Univ., PQ (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs.

  4. Land use change from rainforests to oil palm plantations and food gardens in Papua New Guinea: Effects on soil properties and S fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Alepa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in soil sulfur (S fractions were assessed in oil palm and food garden land use systems developed on forest vegetation in humid tropical areas of Popondetta in northern Province. The study tested a hypothesis that S in food gardens are limiting nutrient factor and are significantly lower than in plantations and forests. Subsistence food gardens are under long-term slash and burn practice of cropping and such practice is expected to accelerate loss of biomass S from the ecosystem. From each land use, surface soil (0–15 cm samples were characterised and further pseudocomplete fractionated for S. Conversion of forest to oil palm production decreased (p<0.001 soil pH and electrical conductivity values. The reserve S fraction in soil increased significantly (p<0.05 due to oil palm production (∼ 28 % and food gardening activity (∼ 54 %. However, plant available SO_4^(2--S was below 15 mg kg^(−1 in the food garden soils and foliar samples of sweet potato crop indicating deficiency of plant available S. Soil organic carbon content (OC was positively and significantly correlated to total S content (r=0.533; p<0.001 among the land use systems. Thus, crop management practices that affect OC status of the soils would potentially affect the S availability in soils. The possible changes in the chemical nature of mineralisable organic S compounds leading to enhanced mineralisation and leaching losses could be the reasons for the deficiency of S in the food garden soils. The results of this study conclude that long-term subsistence food gardening activity enriched top soils with reserve S or total S content at the expense of soluble S fraction. The subsistence cropping practices such as biomass burning in food gardens and reduced fallow periods are apparently threatening food security of oil palm households. Improved soil OC management strategies such as avoiding burning of fallow vegetation, improved fallows, mulching with fallow biomass, use of

  5. Feeding healthy beagles medium-chain triglycerides, fish oil, and carnitine offsets age-related changes in serum fatty acids and carnitine metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if feeding dogs medium-chain triglycerides (MCT, fish oil, and L-carnitine enriched foods offsets age-associated changes in serum fatty acids (FA and carnitine metabolites. Forty-one healthy Beagles, mean age 9.9 years (range 3.1 to 14.8, were fed control or one of two treatment foods for 6 months. All foods were complete and balanced and met the nutrient requirements for adult dogs, and had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approx. 7.4%, 14.0%, and 18.1%, respectively. The treatment diets both contained added L-carnitine (300 mg/kg and 0.6% (treatment food 1 or 1.5% (treatment food 2 added fish oil. Treatment food 2 also had increased MCT from coconut oil, added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Composition of serum FA was determined by gas chromatography of FA methyl esters. Metabolomic profiles of serum samples were determined from extracted supernatants that were split and run on GC/MS and LC/MS/MS platforms, for identification and relative quantification of small metabolites. Body composition was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Among dog groups, there was no change in total-lean-body weight, or in serum total protein and serum albumin concentrations, based on time or dietary treatment. Serum concentrations of carnitine metabolites were decreased in geriatric (>7 years vs. mature adult (≤ 7 years dogs, and supplementation with L-carnitine attenuated the effects of aging. The ratio of PUFA to SFA was significantly greater in mature dogs at baseline (P ≤ 0.05. Serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic FA increased in a dose-dependent manner. Dogs consuming treatment food 2 also had increased serum concentrations of lauric and myristic FA, and decreased concentrations of SFA, MUFA, and arachidonate (all P ≤ 0.05 and their PUFA to SFA ratio increased. In summary, dietary MCT, fish oil, and L-carnitine counterbalanced the effects of aging on

  6. Vegetable oil spills on salt marsh sediments; comparison between sunflower and linseed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M; Latchford, John

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a simulated spill of sunflower oil in salt marsh sediments were compared with an experiment with linseed oil. Sunflower and linseed oil penetrated the sediments at the same rates but different adsorption of the oils onto sediment particles resulted in the establishment of anaerobic conditions at shallower depths in sediments contaminated with linseed oil than with sunflower oil. The total lipid content of sunflower oil contaminated sediments remained almost stable for 6 months, whilst only 40% of linseed oil remained in the sediment after 2 months. Numbers of culturable heterotrophic bacteria and aerobic oil degrading bacteria in muddy sediment increased rapidly in response to the presence of the oils but bacterial numbers in sandy sediments increased more slowly for sunflower oil. Changes in fatty acid composition indicate similar degradation pathways for both oils but sunflower oil degraded more slowly than linseed oil and thus has the potential for longer lasting effects in marine environments.

  7. Spontaneous change in trajectory patterns of a self-propelled oil droplet at the air-surfactant solution interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinpei; Sogabe, Yoshimi; Nakata, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    Trajectory-pattern formation of a self-propelled oil droplet floating on the surface of a surfactant solution in a circular dish is studied both experimentally and by simulation. The Marangoni effect induced by the dissolution of oil in the solution drives the droplet's motion. The trajectories spontaneously organize into several patterns including circular, knot-forming, back-and-forth, and irregular ones. They are either global patterns, whose center corresponds to the dish center, or other local patterns. Our simple model consisting of three forces, the driving force, the viscous resistance, and the repulsion from the boundary, successfully reproduces the global trajectory patterns including the power spectrum of the droplet speed.

  8. Simulation of permafrost changes due to technogenic influences of different ingeneering constructions used in nothern oil and gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, M. Yu; Vaganova, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    Significant amount of oil and gas is producted in Russian Federation on the territories with permafrost soils. Ice-saturated rocks thawing due to global warming or effects of various human activity will be accompanied by termocarst and others dangerous geological processes in permafrost. Design and construction of well pads in permafrost zones have some special features. The main objective is to minimize the influence of different heat sources (engineering objects) inserted into permafrost and accounting long-term forecast of development of permafrost degradation due to different factors in particular generated by human activity. In this work on the basis a mathematical model and numerical algorithms approved on 11 northern oil and gas fields some effects obtained by carrying out numerical simulations for various engineering systems are discussed.

  9. The relationship between leaf area index and microclimate in tropical forest and oil palm plantation: Forest disturbance drives changes in microclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Stephen R; Toumi, Ralf; Pfeifer, Marion; Turner, Edgar C; Nilus, Reuben; Ewers, Robert M

    2015-02-15

    Land use change is a major threat to biodiversity. One mechanism by which land use change influences biodiversity and ecological processes is through changes in the local climate. Here, the relationships between leaf area index and five climate variables - air temperature, relative humidity, vapour pressure deficit, specific humidity and soil temperature - are investigated across a range of land use types in Borneo, including primary tropical forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation. Strong correlations with the leaf area index are found for the mean daily maximum air and soil temperatures, the mean daily maximum vapour pressure deficit and the mean daily minimum relative humidity. Air beneath canopies with high leaf area index is cooler and has higher relative humidity during the day. Forest microclimate is also found to be less variable for sites with higher leaf area indices. Primary forest is found to be up to 2.5 °C cooler than logged forest and up to 6.5 °C cooler than oil palm plantations. Our results indicate that leaf area index is a useful parameter for predicting the effects of vegetation upon microclimate, which could be used to make small scale climate predictions based on remotely sensed data.

  10. OIL EXPLOITATION REGULATIONAL FRAMEWORK AND EFFECTS IN THE SECTOR AND ITS RELATION TO THE WHOLE ECONOMY: THE CASE OF BRAZIL’S 1997 CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Emmanuel Santana Borges

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The world lives a context of energetic pre-crisis, and Brazil has discovered new big reserves of the “black gold”, which led to changing the regulation framework of its exploitation in the country. This paper focuses on the last change in that framework, in 1997, and tries to evaluate its effects in the production and its links to the rest of Brazilian economy. Using data derived from the I-O matrix in the supply side, and Balance of Payments data, we try to see if there were meaningful changes in the period 1998-2007 from the period 1990-1997 in terms of the oil sector linkage to the rest of the economy, technological modernization, its relation to employment and average earnings , and its impacts in the external insertion of the country (exports and dividends balance.

  11. Comparative study of two techniques for assessing fat intake in a Mediterranean diet. The influence of culinary oils changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roso, B; Cuesta, I; Varela-Moreiras, G; Carmena, R; Pérez-Olleros, L

    2000-07-01

    The diet usually consumed by a community of 18 normolipemic monks was studied. It included olive oil as cooking fat (basal period BP). This diet was modified by substituting olive oil for sunflower oil during a 21-day period (experimental period EP). The precise individual weighing technique was utilised for the determination of intake, and by means of the food composition tables (FCTs) the energy and nutrient of the diet were calculated. By chemical analysis of the duplicate sample (CA) of the cooked dishes the lipid intake was also determined. Total serum cholesterol HDL and LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, AI and B-100 apolipoproteins and Lp(a) were also analysed. Similarly the absolute and relative values for SFA, MUFA and PUFA obtained by both techniques were also different and these were maintained when the (PUFA + MUFA)/SFA ratio was calculated by both techniques and in the two periods. The correction of the lipid intake by means of the CA technique did not improve either the correlation between the intake or the plasma lipid concentration or the cholesterolemia prediction (r = 0.83 for FCT and CA).

  12. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  13. A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities - applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U Martin; Henders, Sabine; Cederberg, Christel

    2014-11-01

    The world's agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints, however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land-use change and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here, we propose a new methodology for calculating land-use change carbon footprints for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate land-use change carbon footprints in 2010 to be 66 tCO2 /t meat (carcass weight) for Brazilian beef, 0.89 tCO2 /t for Brazilian soybeans, and 7.5 tCO2 /t for Indonesian palm oil, using a 10 year amortization period. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of footprints for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and subnational footprints; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of land-use change. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land-use change, the proposed carbon footprint methodology could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land-use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluate the effect of the soluble fraction of crude oil on changes of symbiotic Zooxanthellae clades with two species of reef-building corals in vitro and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Faghidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil pollution is one of the factors affecting symbiotic Zooxanthellae with coral stone. It seems that one of the causes of coral bleaching is soluble fraction of crude oil and its effect on their symbiotic algae physiology, which can lead to the loss of Zooxanthellae clades or change in the type of their clades. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the soluble fraction of crude oil on changes of symbiotic Zooxanthellae clades with two species of reef-building corals in vitro and molecular methods. Method: In this study, two species corals of Faviapallidae and Psammocoracontigua were sampled on the Larak Island. Corals were stored for two weeks in three treatments, 50% and 30% and 10% of the soluble fraction of crude oil. After leaving slime Zooxanthellae of coral tissues by air pump and extraction of their DNA, using PCR and target gene was evaluated (ITS2 Internal Transcribed spacer in the presence of different clouds using specific primers. Results: in samples of 50% of the soluble fraction of crude oil, after 9 days, bleaching was observed, and after two weeks, all samples were bleached. Also in the molecular study showed that, pallidaeFavia coral specie in three treatment by soluble fraction of crude oil have clade D and sub-clade D1a and not changed, and Psammocoracontigua coral have clade D and sub-clade D1a and C1 D1a and not changed.

  15. Linseed Oil Supplementation of Lambs’ Diet in Early Life Leads to Persistent Changes in Rumen Microbiome Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Tamsin; Boland, Tommy; Storey, Sean; Doyle, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a significant impact on microbial community composition in the rumen and could potentially be used to manipulate rumen microbiome structure to achieve specific outcomes. There is some evidence that a window may exist in early life, while the microbiome is being established, where manipulation through diet could lead to long-lasting results. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation in early life will have an effect on rumen microbial composition that will persist even once supplementation is ceased. Twenty-seven new-born lambs were allocated to one of three dietary treatments; a control group receiving standard lamb meal, a group receiving lamb meal supplemented with 40 g kg-1 DM of linseed oil and a group receiving the supplement pre-weaning and standard lamb meal post-weaning. The supplement had no effect on average daily feed intake or average daily weight gain of lambs. Bacterial and archaeal community composition was significantly (p = 0.033 and 0.005, respectively) different in lambs fed linseed oil throughout the study compared to lambs on the control diet. Succinivibrionaceae, succinate producers, and Veillonellaceae, propionate producers, were in a higher relative abundance in the lambs fed linseed oil while Ruminococcaceae, a family linked with high CH4 emitters, were in a higher relative abundance in the control group. The relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter was reduced in the lambs receiving linseed compared to those that didn’t. In contrast, the relative abundance of Methanosphaera was significantly higher in the animals receiving the supplement compared to animals receiving no supplement (40.82 and 26.67%, respectively). Furthermore, lambs fed linseed oil only in the pre-weaning period had a bacterial community composition significantly (p = 0.015) different to that of the control group, though archaeal diversity and community structure did not differ. Again, Succinivibrionaceae

  16. Linseed Oil Supplementation of Lambs' Diet in Early Life Leads to Persistent Changes in Rumen Microbiome Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Tamsin; Boland, Tommy; Storey, Sean; Doyle, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a significant impact on microbial community composition in the rumen and could potentially be used to manipulate rumen microbiome structure to achieve specific outcomes. There is some evidence that a window may exist in early life, while the microbiome is being established, where manipulation through diet could lead to long-lasting results. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation in early life will have an effect on rumen microbial composition that will persist even once supplementation is ceased. Twenty-seven new-born lambs were allocated to one of three dietary treatments; a control group receiving standard lamb meal, a group receiving lamb meal supplemented with 40 g kg(-1) DM of linseed oil and a group receiving the supplement pre-weaning and standard lamb meal post-weaning. The supplement had no effect on average daily feed intake or average daily weight gain of lambs. Bacterial and archaeal community composition was significantly (p = 0.033 and 0.005, respectively) different in lambs fed linseed oil throughout the study compared to lambs on the control diet. Succinivibrionaceae, succinate producers, and Veillonellaceae, propionate producers, were in a higher relative abundance in the lambs fed linseed oil while Ruminococcaceae, a family linked with high CH4 emitters, were in a higher relative abundance in the control group. The relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter was reduced in the lambs receiving linseed compared to those that didn't. In contrast, the relative abundance of Methanosphaera was significantly higher in the animals receiving the supplement compared to animals receiving no supplement (40.82 and 26.67%, respectively). Furthermore, lambs fed linseed oil only in the pre-weaning period had a bacterial community composition significantly (p = 0.015) different to that of the control group, though archaeal diversity and community structure did not differ. Again, Succinivibrionaceae

  17. Fatty acid composition and bacterial community changes in the rumen fluid of lactating sheep fed sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Belenguer, A; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2012-02-01

    Supplementation of ruminant diets with plant oils and marine lipids is an effective strategy for lowering saturated fatty acid (FA) content and increasing the concentration of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 FA in ruminant milk. However, changes in populations of ruminal microorganisms associated with altered biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA are not well characterized. Twenty-five lactating Assaf ewes were allocated at random to 1 of 5 treatments composed of dehydrated alfalfa hay and concentrates containing no additional lipid (control), or supplemented with 25 g of sunflower oil and 0 (SO), 8 (SOMA(1)), 16 (SOMA(2)), or 24 (SOMA(3)) g of marine algae/kg of diet dry matter. On d 28 on diet, samples of rumen fluid were collected for lipid analysis and microbial DNA extraction. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of FA methyl esters. Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis, and real-time PCR was used to quantify the known Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce trans-11 18:1 or 18:0. Dietary supplements of sunflower oil alone or in combination with marine algae altered the FA profile of rumen fluid, which was associated with changes in populations of specific bacteria. Inclusion of marine algae in diets containing sunflower oil resulted in the accumulation of trans 18:1 and 10-O-18:0 and a marked decrease in 18:0 concentrations in rumen fluid. At the highest levels of supplementation (SOMA(2) and SOMA(3)), marine algae also promoted a shift in ruminal biohydrogenation pathways toward the formation of trans-10 18:1 at the expense of trans-11 18:1. Changes in the concentration of biohydrogenation intermediates were not accompanied by significant variations in the abundance of known cultivated ruminal bacteria capable of hydrogenating unsaturated FA. However, certain

  18. Assessment of Anterior Segment Changes in Pseudophakic Eyes, Using Ultrasonic Biomicroscopic Imaging, after Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Silicone Oil or Gas Tamponade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünsal, Erkan; Eltutar, Kadir; Karini, Belma; Kızılay, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the morphological changes of the anterior segment using ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM) imaging in pseudophakic patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with silicone oil or gas (C3F8) internal tamponade agent injection. Method. This prospective study included pseudophakic patients with planned PPV, divided into two groups according to internal tamponade agent: those in which silicone oil was used (n = 27, Group 1) and those in which gas (C3F8) was used (n = 24, Group 2). UBM measurements were performed in the supine position before and one week after surgery. Results. In patients of Group 1, postoperative trabecular meshwork-ciliary process distance (T-CPD) and iris-ciliary process distance (I-CPD), according to preoperative values, were found to be statistically significantly reduced, and postoperative mean value of scleral thickness (ST) and intraocular pressure (IOP), according to preoperative value, was found to be statistically significantly increased. In patients of Group 2, postoperative mean values of anterior chamber depth (ACD), ciliary body thickness (CBT), T-CPD, I-CPD, and IOP, according to preoperative values, were found to be statistically significantly reduced. Preoperatively, in Group 2 patients, according to Group 1 patients, TIA and IOP were found to be statistically significantly increased. Preoperative and postoperative IOP between the measured parameters with UBM showed no statistically significant correlation. Conclusions. Gases cause more morphological changes in the anterior segment structures. It is thought that complications such as increased intraocular pressure can be seen more frequently for this reason.

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis of oil palm leaves infected with Ganoderma boninense revealed changes in proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and immunity and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery Daim, Leona Daniela; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Ithnin, Nalisha; Mohd Yusof, Hirzun; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2015-08-01

    The basidiomycete fungal pathogen Ganoderma boninense is the causative agent for the incurable basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm. This disease causes significant annual crop losses in the oil palm industry. Currently, there is no effective method for disease control and elimination, nor is any molecular marker for early detection of the disease available. An understanding of how BSR affects protein expression in plants may help identify and/or assist in the development of an early detection protocol. Although the mode of infection of BSR disease is primarily via the root system, defense-related genes have been shown to be expressed in both the root and leafs. Thus, to provide an insight into the changes in the global protein expression profile in infected plants, comparative 2DE was performed on leaf tissues sampled from palms with and without artificial inoculation of the Ganoderma fungus. Comparative 2DE revealed that 54 protein spots changed in abundance. A total of 51 protein spots were successfully identified by LC-QTOF MS/MS. The majority of these proteins were those involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism as well as immunity and defense.

  20. Relationship between Mood Change, Odour and Its Physiological Effects in Humans While Inhaling the Fragrances of Essential Oils as well as Linalool and Its Enantiomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Matumura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans can detect and discriminate a vast number of odours. The number perceived as distinguishable is estimated to be more than ten thousand. Humans are capable of distinguishing even slight alterations in the structure of an odorous molecule. A pair of enantiomers of an odorant, which possess the same molecular structures except for the chiral position, can trigger profoundly different odour perceptions. How precisely can humans and their olfactory system detect and discriminate such a great variety of odours and such subtle differences in the molecular structures? In a series of studies, we have attempted to examine the relationship between mood change, odour and its physiological effects, by focusing on the possible verbal and non-verbal changes in humans induced by smelling the fragrances of essential oils as well as linalool and its enantiometric isomers. In this article, we provide an overview of our recent verbal and non-verbal studies. We then discuss how our findings may contribute to the assessment of psychophysiological responses of essential oils as well as how our research can contribute to the study of human chemoreception science, by shedding light on the sophistication of the olfactory system in its ability to detect and discriminate odors.

  1. 不同油脂熬制的火锅底料熬煮过程中的油脂质量变化%Quality changes of oils in different kinds of hot pot soup stocks during boiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽珠; 唐洁; 卢靖; 车振明

    2014-01-01

    Four kinds of hot pot soup stocks were made by mixed oils of palm olein and rapeseed oil(vol-ume ratio of palm olein of 5 degrees to palm olein of 8 degrees to rapeseed oil 3: 2: 3), mixed oils of palm stearin and butter(volume ratio of palm stearin to butter 1: 2), rapeseed oil and butter respectively, and the quality changes of oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks during boiling were studied. The results showed that peroxide value, acid value and malondialdehyde content of oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks increased during boiling, and the quality of base oil of hot pot soup stock affected the quality of oil in hot pot soup stock directly during boiling;with the boiling time prolonging, the contents of unsat-urated fatty acids of the oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks all decreased;the relative contents of trans fatty acids of oil in hot pot soup stocks made by rapeseed oil and mixed oils of palm olein and rape-seed oil increased significantly after boiling for 16 h.%对棕榈液油菜籽油复合油脂(5度棕榈液油、8度棕榈液油、菜籽油体积比3:2:3)、棕榈硬脂牛油复合油脂(棕榈硬脂与牛油体积比1:2)、菜籽油以及牛油熬制的火锅底料在熬煮过程中的油脂质量变化进行研究。结果表明:4种火锅底料在熬煮过程中油脂过氧化值、酸值和丙二醛含量均出现增长的趋势,火锅底料基础油脂质量直接影响火锅底料熬煮过程中的油脂质量;随着熬煮时间的延长,4种火锅底料中油脂不饱和脂肪酸含量均降低,棕榈液油菜籽油复合火锅底料、菜籽油火锅底料经熬煮16 h 后,其油脂中反式脂肪酸含量明显升高。

  2. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis-an application to oil prices in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Møller, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport......This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk...... averse, security of supply can also be viewed as a matter of avoiding oscillations in consumption originating from volatile prices of for instance oil. When the government makes transport-related choices on behalf of the consumers, the effect on oscillations in general consumption should be included...

  3. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  4. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  5. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  6. Characterization of water-in-crude oil emulsions in oil spill response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The formation of water-in-crude oil emulsions occurs when crude oils are spilled into sea. The water-in-crude oil emulsionssignificantly change the properties of the spilled crude oils and in turn influence the choices made relating to oil spill countermeasures. Thewater-in-crude oil emulsions were characterized using various techniques in this study. The environmental scanning electron microscopyobservation of water droplets in the emulsions is also presented. It is a powerful tool in emulsion observations.

  7. Changes in chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of chick low- and high-density lipoproteins induced by supplementation of coconut oil to the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, E M; Zafra, M F; Gil-Villarino, A; Pérez, M I; Alvarez-Pez, J M; García-Peregrín, E

    1997-06-01

    Supplementation of coconut oil to the diet for 1-2 weeks produced a significant hypercholesterolemia in 14-day-old chicks. Changes in plasma fatty acid composition correlated positively with those of diets. In this study, we have shown a different response of low- and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) fractions to dietary saturated fat (coconut oil) rich in lauric and myristic acids. Although all the components of these particles seemed to increase, the percentages of increases found in total (TC), free (FC) and esterified cholesterol (EC) were higher in LDL than in HDL. TC/phospholipid (PL) ratio, considered as an inverse index of membrane fluidity, also increased with the dietary regimen in LDL, while no significant differences were found in HDL. These results suggest that supplementation of coconut oil to the diet decreased the fluidity of LDL. The EC/triglycerides (TG) ratio was also significantly increased in LDL, corroborating the main atherogenic function of this lipoprotein fraction in response to lauric and myristic acids. We have also estimated the lipidic order parameter, S, from the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH)-labelled low- and high-density lipoproteins. In LDL, temperature dependence of S shows two different behaviour zones at about 20 degrees C. In HDL, the plot of S values versus T is linear. DPH anisotropy and S increased in both LDL and HDL from treated chicks. This increase becomes more evident as temperature rises and also with dietary treatment.

  8. Quality Change of Three Kinds of Edible Oil during Frying Process%3种食用油在薯条煎炸过程中的品质变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕鸿雁; 郑琦

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical changes of soybean oil, sunflower oil, and palm oil when used to fry potato chips for consecutively 4 h/d a day in 5 consecutive days were evaluated in this study. The color of the three kinds of edible oil became dark and an increase in their viscosity was observed with increasing frying time. Moreover, the acid value (AV) showed an obvious increase but did not exceed the national standard, whereas increasing frying time resulted in gradually reduced iodine value (IV). All these edible oils revealed an initial increase followed by a decrease in peroxide value (POV), and soybean oil and sunflower oil showed fluctuant variations. Soybean oil and sunflower oil revealed a carbonyl value (CV) exceeding or very close to 50 meq O2/kg of the national standard as a result of repeated use for 3 days. On the fourth day, the content of total polar materials (TPM) in both oils exceeded the national standard. In contrast, CV and TPM of palm oil remained lower than those of soybean oil and sunflower oil during the whole frying process.%以大豆油、葵花籽油、棕桐油为研究对象,探讨在(180±5)℃条件下煎炸薯条,每天连续煎炸4h,共煎炸5d后各食用油理化指标的变化。结果表明:随着煎炸时问延长,3种食用油的色泽加深、黏度增加;酸价(AV)显著增加,但未超过国家标准;碘价(IV)N随着煎炸过程进行而逐步降低;过氧化值(POV)在煎炸过程中均先上升后下降,其中大豆油和葵花籽油的POV呈波动性;煎炸3d后,大豆油、葵花籽油的羰基值(CV)超过或非常接近国家标准50meq O2/kg,煎炸4d后,两种油的极性化合物(TPM)含量超过国家标准;整个煎炸过程中棕榈油的CV和TPM含量均低于大豆油和葵花籽油。

  9. Rheology of waxy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicke, Alexandra A.; Marchesini, Flavio H.; Mendes, Paulo R. de Souza [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: fhmo@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that below the crystallization temperature the rheology of waxy oils changes from Newtonian to an extremely complex non-Newtonian behavior, which is shear-rate and temperature-history dependent. Along the last decades a lot of effort has been put into obtaining reliable rheological measurements from different oils so as to understand the yielding of waxy oils as well as the effects of shear and temperature histories on rheological properties, such as viscosity, yield stress, storage and loss moduli. In this paper we examine in detail the related literature, discussing the main reasons for some disagreements concerning the history effects on the flow properties of waxy oils. In addition, we performed temperature ramps and stress-amplitude-sweep tests and compared the results obtained with the main trends observed, highlighting the effects of cooling and shear on the microstructure and consequently on the rheological properties of these oils. (author)

  10. Changes in 13C/12C of oil palm leaves to understand carbon use during their passage from heterotrophy to autotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamade, Emmanuelle; Setiyo, Indra Eko; Girard, Sébastien; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2009-08-30

    The carbon isotope composition of leaf bulk organic matter was determined on the tropical tree Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (oil palm) in North Sumatra (Indonesia) to get a better understanding of the changes in carbon metabolism during the passage from heterotrophy to autotrophy of the leaves. Leaf soluble sugar (sucrose, glucose and fructose) contents, stomatal conductance and dark respiration, as well as leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen contents, were also investigated. Different growing stages were sampled from leaf rank -6 to rank 57. The mean values for the delta(13)C of bulk organic matter were -29.01 +/- 0.9 per thousand for the leaflets during the autotrophic stage, -27.87 +/- 1.08 per thousand for the petioles and -28.17 +/- 1.09 per thousand for the rachises, which are in the range of expected values for a C(3) plant. The differences in delta(13)C among leaf ranks clearly revealed the changes in the origin of the carbon source used for leaf growth. Leaves were (13)C-enriched at ranks below zero (around -27 per thousand). During this period, the 'spear' leaves were completely heterotrophic and reserves from storage organs were mobilised for the growth of these young emerging leaves. (13)C-depletion was then observed when the leaf was expanding at rank 1, and there was a continuous decrease during the progressive passage from heterotrophy until reaching full autotrophy. Thereafter, the delta(13)C remained more or less constant at around -29.5 per thousand. Changes in sugar content and in delta(13)C related to leaf ranks showed an interesting similarity of the passage from heterotrophy to autotrophy of oil palm leaves to the budburst of some temperate trees or seed germination reported in the literature. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Changes in iso- and n-alkane distribution during biodegradation of crude oil under nitrate and sulphate reducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasinger, Marion; Scherr, Kerstin E; Lundaa, Tserennyam; Bräuer, Leopold; Zach, Clemens; Loibner, Andreas Paul

    2012-02-20

    Crude oil consists of a large number of hydrocarbons with different susceptibility to microbial degradation. The influence of hydrocarbon structure and molecular weight on hydrocarbon biodegradation under anaerobic conditions is not fully explored. In this study oxygen, nitrate and sulphate served as terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) for the microbial degradation of a paraffin-rich crude oil in a freshly contaminated soil. During 185 days of incubation, alkanes from n-C11 to n-C39, three n- to iso-alkane ratios commonly used as weathering indicators and the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) were quantified and statistically analyzed. The use of different TEAs for hydrocarbon degradation resulted in dissimilar degradative patterns for n- and iso-alkanes. While n-alkane biodegradation followed well-established patterns under aerobic conditions, lower molecular weight alkanes were found to be more recalcitrant than mid- to high-molecular weight alkanes under nitrate-reducing conditions. Biodegradation with sulphate as the TEA was most pronounced for long-chain (n-C32 to n-C39) alkanes. The observation of increasing ratios of n-C17 to pristane and of n-C18 to phytane provides first evidence of the preferential degradation of branched over normal alkanes under sulphate reducing conditions. The formation of distinctly different n- and iso-alkane biodegradation fingerprints under different electron accepting conditions may be used to assess the occurrence of specific degradation processes at a contaminated site. The use of n- to iso-alkane ratios for this purpose may require adjustment if applied for anaerobic sites.

  12. Changes in swelling properties and moisture uptake rate of oil-heat-treated poplar (Populus x euramericana cv. Pannónia wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Bak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of oil heat treatment (OHT on the swelling properties and changes in the rate of moisture uptake of poplar wood (Populus × euramericana cv. Pannónia were investigated. Eighteen different treatments (combinations of three vegetable oils, two temperatures, and three durations were studied. The results showed that OHT decreases the equilibrium moisture content (EMC and the swelling of poplar wood. The degree of swelling and the EMC are influenced by both the duration and temperature of treatment. With an increase in duration and temperature, the EMC decreased. Consequently, the anti-swelling efficiency (ASE increased. OHT wood adsorbs less moisture than natural wood, but it reaches a maximum – EMC at the momentary climate – at the same time under all the investigated treatments. The moisture uptake is fastest in the beginning and thereafter it slows significantly. Decreasing the moisture uptake by OHT wood is due to the decreasing of its water storage capacity.

  13. Quality changes of cold-pressed sesame oil during frying%冷榨芝麻油在煎炸过程中的品质变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雅新; 汪学德; 郑永战

    2016-01-01

    In order to judge the quality of cold–pressed sesame oil during frying,changes of the absorbance value,acid value,peroxide value,carbonyl value,polar component,benzo(a)pyrene, lignans,FFA of cold–pressed sesame oil were studied. It proved that during frying process the saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid contents of cold pressed sesame oil increased, after 24 h frying the total content of trans fatty acids increased to 1.16%,absorbance value,acid value and carbonyl value of cold-pressed sesame oil rose constantly,but the benzo(a)pyrene content was relatively stable during frying. After 18 h frying,carbonyl value increased to 59.01 meq/kg,and after 17 h,the total lignans content decrease quickly,at 24 h the loss ratio of the total lignans content was 33.9%,polar component content rose to 32% from 4.2%. Because after 17 h frying,the total lignans content decreased quickly and at 18 h,carbonyl value of cold-pressed sesame oil was beyond the national standard limit(≤50 meq/kg),the frying life of cold-pressed sesame oil was about 17 hours.%根据冷榨芝麻油在煎炸过程中的色泽、酸价、过氧化值、羰基价、极性组分、苯并芘含量、木酚素含量以及脂肪酸组成等指标来判断冷榨芝麻油煎炸过程中的品质变化。煎炸试验表明:煎炸过程中冷榨芝麻油中饱和脂肪酸与单不饱和脂肪酸含量升高,多不饱和脂肪酸含量降低,煎炸24 h 反式脂肪酸的含量增大至1.16%,冷榨芝麻油吸光度、酸价、羰基价均不断升高,冷榨芝麻油苯并芘含量基本不变;煎炸18 h 时羰基价达到了59.01 meq/kg;17 h 后木酚素损失急剧加快,24 h时损失率为33.9%,极性组分由最初的4.2%上升到32%。由于17 h 后,总木酚素含量降低较快,且在煎炸18 h 时羰基价超过国标限制(≤50 meq/kg),因此,冷榨芝麻油的煎炸寿命约为17 h。

  14. Fish oil prevents changes induced by a high-fat diet on metabolism and adipokine secretion in mice subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Roberta D C da Cunha; Crisma, Amanda R; Cruz, Maysa M; Martins, Amanda R; Masi, Laureane N; do Amaral, Catia L; Curi, R; Alonso-Vale, Maria I C

    2016-11-01

    Fish oil (FO), rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, has beneficial effects on changes induced by obesity and partially prevents associated comorbidities. The effects of FO on adipocytes from different adipose tissue depots in high-fat (HF) diet induced obese mice have not been uninvestigated. This is the first study to examine the effects of FO on changes in metabolism and adipokine production in adipocytes from s.c. (inguinal; ING) or visceral (retroperitoneal; RP) white adipose depots in a HF diet-induced obese mice. Unlike most studies performed previously, FO supplementation was initiated 4 weeks before the induction of obesity. HF diet caused marked changes in ING (glucose uptake and secretion of adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in ING) and RP (lipolysis, de novo lipogenesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines) adipose depots. Previous and concomitant FO administration prevented the changes in ING and RP adipocytes induced by the HF diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) on metabolism and adipokine production by adipocytes from s.c. (inguinal; ING) and visceral (retroperitoneal; RP) white adipose depots in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. Mice were divided into CO (control diet), CO+FO, HF and HF+FO groups. The HF group presented higher body weight, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, higher plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and greater weights of ING and RP adipose depots accompanied by hypertrophy of the adipocytes. FO exerted anti-obesogenic effects associated with beneficial effects on dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance in mice fed a HF diet (HF+FO group). HF raised RP adipocyte lipolysis and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids, whereas, in ING adipocytes, it decreased glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion but did not change lipolysis. Therefore, the adipose depots play different roles in

  15. Oil price shocks and stock market activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadorsky, P. [Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Results from a vector autoregression show that oil prices and oil price volatility both play important roles in affecting real stock returns. There is evidence that oil price dynamics have changed. After 1986, oil price movements explain a larger fraction of the forecast error variance in real stock returns than do interest rates. There is also evidence that oil price volatility shocks have asymmetric effects on the economy. 29 refs.

  16. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  17. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  18. Changes in hydrocarbon groups, soil ecotoxicity and microbiology along horizontal and vertical contamination gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Hakala, Kati P; Lappi, Kaisa; Kondo, Elina; Vaalama, Anu; Suominen, Leena

    2012-03-01

    Horizontal and vertical contaminant gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste were characterised with the aim to assess parallel changes in hydrocarbon groups and general, microbiological and ecotoxicological soil characteristics. In the surface soil polar compounds were the most prevalent fraction of heptane-extractable hydrocarbons, superseding GC-FID-resolvable and high-molar-mass aliphatics and aromatics, but there was no indication of their relatively higher mobility or toxicity. The size of the polar fraction correlated poorly with soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties, which were better explained by the total heptane-extractable and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Deleterious effects on soil microbiology in situ were observed at surprisingly low TPH concentrations (0.3%). Due to the accumulation of polar and complexed degradation products, TPH seems an insufficient measure to assess the quality and monitor the remediation of soil with weathered hydrocarbon contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  20. Assessment of Anterior Segment Changes in Pseudophakic Eyes, Using Ultrasonic Biomicroscopic Imaging, after Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Silicone Oil or Gas Tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ünsal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the morphological changes of the anterior segment using ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM imaging in pseudophakic patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with silicone oil or gas (C3F8 internal tamponade agent injection. Method. This prospective study included pseudophakic patients with planned PPV, divided into two groups according to internal tamponade agent: those in which silicone oil was used (n=27, Group 1 and those in which gas (C3F8 was used (n=24, Group 2. UBM measurements were performed in the supine position before and one week after surgery. Results. In patients of Group 1, postoperative trabecular meshwork-ciliary process distance (T-CPD and iris-ciliary process distance (I-CPD, according to preoperative values, were found to be statistically significantly reduced, and postoperative mean value of scleral thickness (ST and intraocular pressure (IOP, according to preoperative value, was found to be statistically significantly increased. In patients of Group 2, postoperative mean values of anterior chamber depth (ACD, ciliary body thickness (CBT, T-CPD, I-CPD, and IOP, according to preoperative values, were found to be statistically significantly reduced. Preoperatively, in Group 2 patients, according to Group 1 patients, TIA and IOP were found to be statistically significantly increased. Preoperative and postoperative IOP between the measured parameters with UBM showed no statistically significant correlation. Conclusions. Gases cause more morphological changes in the anterior segment structures. It is thought that complications such as increased intraocular pressure can be seen more frequently for this reason.

  1. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: A review with Indonesian palm oil as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Verstegen, Judith; Faaij, André; Junginger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous analyses have been performed to quantitatively link carbon stock change caused by land-use change (CSC-LUC) to consumption of agricultural products, but results differ significantly, even for studies focussing on the same region or product. This is due to the different focuses and interpret

  2. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  3. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  4. Oil prices and long-run risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Robert Clayton

    I show that relative levels of aggregate consumption and personal oil consumption provide an excellent proxy for oil prices, and that high oil prices predict low future aggregate consumption growth. Motivated by these facts, I add an oil consumption good to the long-run risk model of Bansal and Yaron [2004] to study the asset pricing implications of observed changes in the dynamic interaction of consumption and oil prices. Empirically I observe that, compared to the first half of my 1987--2010 sample, oil consumption growth in the last 10 years is unresponsive to levels of oil prices, creating an decrease in the mean-reversion of oil prices, and an increase in the persistence of oil price shocks. The model implies that the change in the dynamics of oil consumption generates increased systematic risk from oil price shocks due to their increased persistence. However, persistent oil prices also act as a counterweight for shocks to expected consumption growth, with high expected growth creating high expectations of future oil prices which in turn slow down growth. The combined effect is to reduce overall consumption risk and lower the equity premium. The model also predicts that these changes affect the riskiness of of oil futures contracts, and combine to create a hump shaped term structure of oil futures, consistent with recent data.

  5. Spatial and temporal changes in benthic communities of the Galician continental shelf after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Alberto [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain)]. E-mail aserrano@st.ieo.es; Sanchez, Francisco [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain); Preciado, Izaskun [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain); Parra, Santiago [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 130, 15080 La Coruna (Spain); Frutos, Inmaculada [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 130, 15080 La Coruna (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Two years after the Prestige oil spill (POS) an assessment of the effects on benthic fauna was carried out using the data obtained in five multidisciplinary surveys. Otter trawl, beam trawl, suprabenthic sled and box corer were used to study the main benthic compartments, along eight transects perpendicular to the coastline. Beam trawl was also employed to quantify the amount of tar aggregates on the continental shelf. No significant correlations between tar aggregates and species richness, biomass and diversity of benthic communities were found. This result was corroborated when the role of depth, season, latitude and sediment characteristics was examined by canonical ordination, in which POS-related variables had low influence on spatial distribution patterns. Depth and sediment grain diameter profoundly influence epibenthic communities. Sediment organic content is a third key variable for the infaunal, suprabenthic and lower-sized epibenthic communities, but not for the larger epibenthic communities. Nevertheless, a decrease in the densities of several epibenthic indicators was detected the first year after spill, followed by a noteworthy recovery in 2004. Non-macroscopic toxicity and some oceanographic agents are suggested as possible causes of these shifts.

  6. Colour Determination and Change of Sensory Properties of Mayonnaise with Different Contents of Oil Depending on Length of Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja M. SIKIMIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the stability of three types of mayonnaise (with 75 %, 50 % and 30 % of edible refined sunflower oil and other additives by measuring colour on photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter “MOM-colour 100“, showing the results in CIE (Y(%, l (nm and Č (% and CIE L ´ a ´ b system immediately after preparation, after 90 and 180 days of warehousing, at temperature of +5°C. In parallel, sensory analysis was conducted by means of the analytical point system when a group of experienced tasters evaluated the appearance, colour, fragrance and taste, during the storage lasting up to 180 days. It was established that average estimates for the appearance, colour and both, statistically do not depend significantly on the contents of mayonnaise and statistically very much depend on the time of storage. The interaction of contents of mayonnaise and time of storage statistically significantly influences the average estimate of the appearance and to all sensory properties.

  7. The Changes in Rats with Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Supplemented with Evening Primrose Oil: Behavioural, Morphologic, and Morphometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Ramli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve crush injuries are commonly used models for axonotmesis to examine peripheral nerve regeneration. As evening primrose oil (EPO is rich in omega-6 essential fatty acid component and gamma-linolenic acid, studies have shown the potential role of EPO in myelination. Seventy-two healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into three groups: normal group, control group, and experimental group. The result indicates that there was significant difference in toe-spreading reflex between the normal and the control groups (1.9±0.031, p<0.05 and the normal and the EPO groups (0.4±0.031, p<0.05 and significant difference between EPO and the control groups (1.5±0.031, p<0.05. Regeneration of axons and myelin in nerve fibre in the EPO-treated group developed better and faster than in the control group. In the control group, the shape of the axon was irregular with a thinner myelin sheath. In the experimental group, the shape of the axons, the thickness of the myelin sheath, and the diameter of the axons were almost the same as in the normal group. In conclusion, EPO supplementation may be beneficial as a therapeutic option for disturbances of nerve interaction.

  8. CHANGING LAW OF 4-CLASS RAPE OIL STORED IN OIL TANK AT CONVENTIONAL SEALED CONDITION%常规密闭储存条件下罐存四级菜籽油品质变化规律初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛文秀

    2012-01-01

    选择同一时期入库、入库质量均符合国家四级以上质量标准规定、在同一地理位置采用常规密闭储藏的罐存四级菜籽油,在近两年的储存期间,对其定期抽样测定酸值及过氧化值变化情况.结果表明,经过近两年的密闭储存,酸值、过氧化值均有不同程度的上升,但酸值上升的幅度非常小,过氧化值虽有明显升高,但上升幅度也不大.%4-class rape oil stored at the same time and the same place was chosen in this test. Its acid value and peroxide value were taken the regular measurement during 2 years storage. The results showed that both acid value and peroxide acid had increased in varying degrees, but acid value had a little rise, while peroxide acid had obviously rise, but the tendency of change kept stable.

  9. 4种煎炸油在薯条煎炸过程中的品质变化%Quality Changes of Four Kinds of Frying Oils during French Fries Frying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昭; 李小琪

    2016-01-01

    [Objective] In order to compare the frying characteristics of four kinds of frying oils,and to choose the most suitable frying oil from the four new frying oils. [ Method] With four kinds of frying oils as the research objects,and commercially available French fries as frying materi-als,we measured the color,acid value,carbonyl value and peroxide value changes of frying oil in the heating processing. [Result] The color,acid value,carbonyl value of frying oil increased as frying time prolonged,peroxide value firstly increased and then decreased. [ Conclusion] After comparing the four kinds of oils synthetically,Fuzhiquan edible oil is the most suitable for frying.%[目的]比较4种煎炸油的煎炸特性,选出4种新款煎炸油中的最适煎炸油。[方法]以海皇调和油、海皇浓香花生调和油、海皇棉子调和油、福之泉食用调和油4种煎炸油为研究对象,以市售薯条为煎炸原料,测定4款煎炸油在加热过程中的色值、酸价、过氧化值和羰基价的变化。[结果]试验表明,4种煎炸油的色值、酸价和羰基价均随时间的延长而增大,过氧化值随煎炸时间的延长先增大后减小。[结论]综合比较4款油后,福之泉食用调和油最适合煎炸。

  10. HOW PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE OILS ARE IMPROVED BY ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA AMARIEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to find out whether the addition of essential oils determines better oxidation stability and positive change of sensory and hedonic perception of edible oils. The oxidation stability of sunflower, corn and grape seed oils was analyzed in the presence of antioxidants in essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and basil (Ocimum basilicum during storage, under conditions of accelerated oxidative processes (4 days, at 60 °C. The total phenolic compounds of these essential oils were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of basil, rosemary and thyme essential oils in comparison with known synthetic antioxidant L(+-ascorbic acid. The addition of essential oils to edible oils, the amounts proposed in analyses, determines a favorable influence on their oxidation stability as well as their taste. The influence of addition of essential oils on the taste of edible oils was studied in two products consumed mainly at breakfast, bread and spinach leaves. The results recommend the use of these plant extracts as additives in edible oils rather than synthetic antioxidants.

  11. 3-dimensional Oil Drift Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettre, C.; Reistad, M.; Hjøllo, B.Å.

    Simulation of oil drift has been an ongoing activity at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute since the 1970's. The Marine Forecasting Centre provides a 24-hour service for the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority and the oil companies operating in the Norwegian sector. The response time is 30 minutes. From 2002 the service is extended to simulation of oil drift from oil spills in deep water, using the DeepBlow model developed by SINTEF Applied Chemistry. The oil drift model can be applied both for instantaneous and continuous releases. The changes in the mass of oil and emulsion as a result of evaporation and emulsion are computed. For oil spill at deep water, hydrate formation and gas dissolution are taken into account. The properties of the oil depend on the oil type, and in the present version 64 different types of oil can be simulated. For accurate oil drift simulations it is important to have the best possible data on the atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The oil drift simulations at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute are always based on the most updated data from numerical models of the atmosphere and the ocean. The drift of the surface oil is computed from the vectorial sum of the surface current from the ocean model and the wave induced Stokes drift computed from wave energy spectra from the wave prediction model. In the new model the current distribution with depth is taken into account when calculating the drift of the dispersed oil droplets. Salinity and temperature profiles from the ocean model are needed in the DeepBlow model. The result of the oil drift simulations can be plotted on sea charts used for navigation, either as trajectory plots or particle plots showing the situation at a given time. The results can also be sent as data files to be included in the user's own GIS system.

  12. 菜籽油在常温储存过程中品质变化的研究%THE QUALITY CHANGE OF RAPESEED OIL DURING CONVENTIONAL STORAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟静; 金宁; 李浩杰

    2012-01-01

    对不同产地的菜籽油在常温储存条件下的水分及挥发物含量、酸值、过氧化值、色泽及脂肪酸组成变化进行了研究.结果表明:在常温储存的100 d内,水分及挥发物含量、色泽随储存时间的延长几乎没有发生变化,亚麻酸含量有微量的减小;酸值随储存时间的延长增长幅度很小,增长率仅为6.3%;而过氧化值随储存时间的延长增长很明显,平均增长率为27.2%,过氧化值是表征菜籽油在储存过程中品质变化的一个最敏感指标.%Six qualities of the rapeseed oil from different localities were investigated and analyzed during conven-tional storage, including the moisture, volatile content, the acid value, the peroxide value, the color and the fatty acid composition. The results showed that the moisture and volatile content, the color almost had no change as the storage time passing by, and the linolenic acid content of trace decreased in the 100 days; the acid value slightly increased with the increase rate of 6.3% respectively; and the peroxide value increased greatly at the average increasing rates of 27.2% as the storage time passing by. Therefore, the peroxide value was one of the most sensitive indexes for characterizing the storage quality of rapeseed oil.

  13. Performance of classic oils and lubricating oils in froth flotation of Ukraine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim Sonmez; Yakup Cebeci [Cumhuriyet University, Sivas (Turkey). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty

    2006-09-15

    In this study, the appropriate collector and collector amount for Ukraine coal in froth flotation was determined. For this purpose, the performance of classic oils (kerosene, diesel-oil and fuel-oil) and lubricating oils (spindle oil, bright stock and heavy neutral) was evaluated by combustible recovery, ash rejection and efficiency index. It was found that the combustible recovery and ash rejection changed, depending on the type and concentration of oil. The maximum combustible recovery was obtained by using bright stock. It was determined that bright stock, fuel-oil and kerosene were suitable for the flotation of Ukraine coal. On considering the flotation efficiency index values, the best results were obtained with bright stock and diesel-oil. Consequently, it was shown that bright stock and spindle oil could be used as alternative oils instead of classic oils for cleaning of Ukraine coal by the froth flotation. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. 77 FR 57037 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... expected to benefit producers, handlers, and consumers. DATES: Comments must be received by November 16... timely manner. The proposed changes are expected to benefit producers, handlers, and consumers of... annual crop and do not have the luxury of having other crops to cushion seasons with poor spearmint...

  15. Changes of the content of oil products in the oil-polluted peat soil of a high-moor bog in a field experiment with application of lime and fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkenova, M. I.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Aptikaev, R. S.; Lazarev, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    A field model experiment on stimulating the activity of native oil microorganisms-decomposers was performed on an oil-polluted area in a high-moor bog under its total flooding in the northern taiga (Western Siberia). For two summer months, the doses of lime and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers applied have caused a decrease in the oil products (OP) content by 54% relative to their initial amount. The decrease of the OP content in the soil profiles was nonuniform, and at the depth of 30-50 cm it was accompanied by the acidification of peat. The stimulation of the activity of aboriginal microorganisms by applying lime and mineral fertilizers led to the development of migration processes with the participation of oil and products of its transformation. These processes differed from those in the soil without application of lime and fertilizers. An original technology of applying lime and fertilizers providing minimal disturbances the upper 50-cm peat layer is suggested.

  16. 柴油污染土的含水量计算方法与界限含水量变化规律%Calculation method for water content of diesel oil contaminated soils and changing laws in Atterberg limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾玲玲; 周梦学; 王钢; 刘松玉; 洪振舜

    2016-01-01

    By taking two natural clays and two clay minerals of calcium bentonite and sodium ben-tonite as the source of soil,the diesel oil contaminated soils with different contents of diesel oil and different water contents were prepared.The tests for the water contents and the Atterberg limits of the diesel oil contaminated soils were performed.A new concept was proposed for describing the ini-tially volatile contents of the diesel oil contaminated soils,and a new calculation method for the wa-ter contents of the diesel oil contaminated soils was described by considering both the volatility of diesel oil and the adsorption of diesel oil by clay particles.The results that show the liquid limits and the plastic limits of the diesel oil contaminated soils prepared with original natural clays increase first-ly and then decrease with the increase of the content of diesel oil.The liquid limits of the diesel oil contaminated soils prepared with two clay minerals of calcium bentonite and sodium bentonite de-crease monotonously with the increase of the content of diesel oil,but contrary trends are found for the plastic limits.The influence of diesel oil on the plastic limits is obviously greater than that on the liquid limits.In addition,the plasticity indices of the diesel oil contaminated soils prepared with two clay minerals of calcium bentonite and sodium bentonite decrease monotonously with the increase of the content of diesel oil,but contrary changing laws are found for the diesel oil contaminated soils prepared with natural clays.%以2种天然沉积土和钙基膨润土、钠基膨润土为源土,配置具有不同柴油含量及不同目标含水量的柴油污染土,进行柴油污染土的含水量测定及界限含水量试验研究。提出了柴油污染土的起始可挥发含油量的概念,建立了能够同时考虑柴油挥发性和黏土矿物对柴油吸附作用的含水量计算方法。结果表明,以天然沉积土为源土的含油污染土的

  17. Changes in the n-alkane composition of avocado pulp oil ( Persea americana, Mill. during fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuffrè, A. M.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The n-alkane composition of Avocado pulp oil (cv. Hass was investigated during fruit ripening. Three samples of fruit were harvested on March 3, 2003, March 18, 2003 and April 2, 2003. Glass gravity column chromatography was employed to separate n-alkanes from other minor components contained in the unsaponifiable fraction. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the eluate. Fourteen compounds were detected ranging from n -C21 to n -C34; mainly n -C24, followed by n -C25 and then by n -C23. Quantities of n -C21, n -C22, n -C23, n -C27 and n -C28 progressively increased during ripening, whereas n -C24, n -C25, n -C26, n -C29, n -C30 and n -C34 decreased from the first harvest date to the third harvest date. While odd-numbered carbon n-alkanes increased (52.38 %, 52.85 % and 53.06 % for the three samples respectively, even-numbered carbon n-alkanes decreased as the fruit ripened (47.62 %, 47.15 % and 46.94 %. The total n-alkane content decreased during ripening, from 25.20 mg/Kg (first harvest date to 16.77 mg/Kg (third harvest date. In order to minimize.Se ha analizado la composición en hidrocarburos lineales saturados del aceite de la pulpa de aguacate (variedad Hass. Tres muestras fueron recolectadas: el 3 de marzo 2003, el 18 de marzo 2003 y el 2 de abril 2003. La separación de los hidrocarburos lineales saturados se realizó mediante fraccionamiento del insaponificable por cromatografía gravimétrica de adsorción en columna y la determinación de los mismos hidrocarburos por cromatografía gaseosa. 14 compuestos fueron detectados del n- C21 al n- C34. El n- C24 fue el mayoritario, seguido del n- C25 y el n- C23. El porcentaje de n- C21, n- C22, n- C23, n- C27 y n- C28, aumentó durante la maduración, mientras que el porcentaje de n- C24, n- C25, n- C26, n- C29, n- C30 y C34 disminuyó desde el 3 de marzo 2003 hasta el 2 de abril 2003. Los hidrocarburos lineales saturados con número impar de átomos de carbono aumentaron (52.38 %, 52

  18. 玻璃体切割硅油填塞术后眼压变化分析%Changes of intraocular pressure following silicone oil tamponade for vitrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建敏; 张士胜; 张琼; 周颖明; 朱彩红; 葛健; 王玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察玻璃体切割硅油填塞术后的眼压变化,并探讨其可能原因.方法 对45例(45眼)玻璃体切割硅油填塞术后患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,高眼压标准为术后眼压≥24 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa).结果 22例(48.9%)患者出现高眼压,以术后早期(术后2周内)为多(17/22,77.3%).所有患者经降眼压药物治疗及调整激素用量或停用激素处理后,眼压均控制在正常范围.高眼压组与非高眼压组性别、年龄、病程、屈光度及硅油填充量比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.∞).结论 高眼压是玻璃体切割硅油填充术后常见的并发症,术后眼内组织水肿、葡萄膜炎反应和频繁使用激素类滴眼液等可能是引起高眼压的主要原因.%Objective To observe the changes of intraocular pressure (IOP) following silicone oil tamponade for vitrectomy, and explore the possible causes. Methods The clinical data of 45 patients (45 eyes) undergoing silicone oil tamponade for vitrectomy were retrospectively analysed, and I0P elevation was defined as I0P of 24 mmHg ( 1 mmHg =0. 133 kPa) or higher. Results Postoperative IOP elevation occurred in 22 patients ( 48.9% ), especially in the early period after operation (2 weeks after operation) ( 17/22, 77.3% ). After using lOP-lowering drugs and adjusting or cessation of glucocorticoid eyedrops, the elevated lOP in all patients was controlled within normal limits. There was no significant difference in gender, age, course of disease, refractive diopters and volume of silicone oil tamponade between patients with and without elevated lOP ( P > 0.05 for all). Conclusion IOP elevation is a common complication following silicone oil tamponade for vitrectomy, and postoperative intraocular tissue edema, uveitis reaction and frequent use of glucocorticoid eyedrops may be the main causes.

  19. The AirWaterGas Teacher Professional Development Program: Lessons Learned by Pairing Scientists and Teachers to Develop Curriculum on Global Climate Change and Regional Unconventional Oil and Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Hatheway, B.; Rogers, J. D.; Casey, J. G.; Lackey, G.; Birdsell, D.; Brown, K.; Polmear, M.; Capps, S.; Rosenblum, J.; Sitterley, K.; Hafich, K. A.; Hannigan, M.; Knight, D.

    2015-12-01

    The AirWaterGas Teacher Professional Development Program, run by the UCAR Center for Science Education, brought together scientists and secondary science teachers in a yearlong program culminating in the development of curriculum related to the impacts of unconventional oil and gas development. Graduate students and research scientists taught about their research area and its relationship to oil and gas throughout three online courses during the 2015-16 school year, during which teachers and scientists engaged in active online discussions. Topics covered included climate change, oil and gas infrastructure, air quality, water quality, public health, and practices and policies relating to oil and gas development. Building upon their initial online interactions and a face-to-face meeting in March, teachers were paired with appropriate AirWaterGas team members as science advisors during a month-long residency in Boulder, Colorado. During the residency, graduate student scientists provided resources and feedback as teachers developed curriculum projects in collaboration with each other and UCAR science educators. Additionally, teachers and AirWaterGas researchers shared experiences on an oil and gas well site tour, and a short course on drilling methods with a drilling rig simulator. Here, we share lessons learned from both sides of the aisle, including initial results from program assessment conducted with the participating teachers.

  20. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  1. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X; Brogaard, Nicholas L; Rigét, Frank F; Kristensen, Paneeraq; Jomaas, Grunde; Boertmann, David M; Wegeberg, Susse; Gustavson, Kim

    2016-08-15

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified. To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil.

  2. Effects of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil and nisin alone and in combination on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis in a food model and bacterial ultrastructural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajohi, Mohamad Reza; Tajik, Hossein; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Hadian, Mojtaba

    2011-02-01

    In the face of emerging new pathogens and ever-growing health-conscious customers, food preservation technology remains on the top agenda of food industry. This study was aimed at determining the effects of the essential oil of Mentha longifolia L., alone and in combination with nisin, on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis at 8°C and 25°C in a food model (commercial barley soup) during 15 days. The essential oil alone at 8°C inhibited bacterial growth significantly compared with the control (p < 0.05). However, at 25°C, none of the concentrations of the essential oil alone showed inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. At 8°C, the combination effect of the essential oil and nisin on bacteria was noted at 0.25 μg mL(-1) for nisin and 0.05 μL mL(-1) for the essential oil (p < 0.05). The combination of nisin and the essential oil demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on the vegetative forms of bacteria at 25°C, although it was comparable to that of nisin alone at the same concentrations. Electron microscopy studies revealed a great deal of damage to B. cereus treated with a combination of nisin and the essential oil. However, the combination of nisin with the essential oil led to a complete destruction of cell wall and cytoplasm of vegetative cells of B. subtilis.

  3. Fish oil-supplementation from 9 to 12 months of age affects infant attention in a free-play test and is related to change in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbild, Helle Liliegren; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram; Christensen, J. H.;

    2013-01-01

    This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval.......This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval....

  4. Oil tankers: some basic economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, F.E.

    1987-06-01

    A non-technical introduction to the economics of transporting crude oil by sea notes the large number of brokers and frequent changes in freight rates make it a risky enterprise. Most of the crude oil that enters into international trade is carried in ships owned by oil companies, although some oil-producing countries want to build their own fleets. Basic freight rates for selected voyages are available from the monthly published Average Freight Rate Assessment, which shows rates as a percentage of the Worldscale Index. The author explains how tanker size, speed, availability, and other factors influence the economics of the tanker industry. 7 references, 2 tables.

  5. A review of oil, dispersed oil and sediment interactions in the aquatic environment: influence on the fate, transport and remediation of oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiao; Cai, Zhengqing; O'Reilly, S E; Hao, Xiaodi; Zhao, Dongye

    2014-02-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill has spurred significant amounts of researches on fate, transport, and environmental impacts of oil and oil dispersants. This review critically summarizes what is understood to date about the interactions between oil, oil dispersants and sediments, their roles in developing oil spill countermeasures, and how these interactions may change in deepwater environments. Effects of controlling parameters, such as sediment particle size and concentration, organic matter content, oil properties, and salinity on oil-sediment interactions are described in detail. Special attention is placed to the application and effects of oil dispersants on the rate and extent of the interactions between oil and sediment or suspended particulate materials. Various analytical methods are discussed for characterization of oil-sediment interactions. Current knowledge gaps are identified and further research needs are proposed to facilitate sounder assessment of fate and impacts of oil spills in the marine environment.

  6. Opting for oil: the political economy of technological change in the West German chemical industry, 1945-1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, R.G. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The general theme of the book is in support of the claim that it was, in part, the transition from a traditional coal-based industry to a modern petroleum-based industry that allowed West Germany to compete in world markets. The transition helped the country to achieve the economic miracle of the 1950s that brought success during the 1960s and later. After several background chapters covering the years 1860 to 1945, the author introduces his analysis of technological change and transfer and provides case studies of representative companies to show the alternative paths taken towards prosperity. Amongst the new technologies developed during the 1920 and 1930, the author mentions the Fischer-Tropsch process implemented by the Nazis to manufacture liquid fuels from coal. By the 1960s coal had mainly been replaced by petroleum as a feedstock, although one small company, Bergkamen, continued to use the Fischer Tropsch process for some time.

  7. Effects of changes in chemical and structural characteristic of ammonia fibre expansion (AFEX) pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre on enzymatic saccharification and fermentability for biohydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Peer Mohamed; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Harun, Shuhaida; Markom, Masturah; Lutpi, Nabilah Aminah; Hassan, Osman; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Mohd Nor, Mohd Tusirin

    2016-07-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre is widely available in Southeast Asian countries and found to have 60% (w/w) sugar components. OPEFB was pretreated using the ammonia fibre expansion (AFEX) method and characterised physically by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that there were significant structural changes in OPEFB after the pretreatment step, and the sugar yield after enzymatic hydrolysis using a cocktail of Cellic Ctec2® and Cellic Htec2® increased from 0.15gg(-1) of OPEFB in the raw untreated OPEFB sample to 0.53gg(-1) of OPEFB in AFEX-pretreated OPEFB (i.e. almost a fourfold increase in sugar conversion), which enhances the economic value of OPEFB. A biohydrogen fermentability test of this hydrolysate was carried out using a locally isolated bacterium, Enterobacter sp. KBH6958. The biohydrogen yield after 72h of fermentation was 1.68mol H2 per mol sugar. Butyrate, ethanol, and acetate were the major metabolites.

  8. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  9. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immune system. Despite coconut oil's high calorie and saturated fat content, some people use it by mouth to ... Coconut oil is high in a saturated fat called medium chain triglycerides. These fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. However, research on the effects ...

  10. Maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation changes body fat, inflammatory markers and glucose homeostasis in the adult progeny: role of gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda, Deysla Sabino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Carvalho, Janaíne Cavalcanti; Reis, Adelina Martha Dos; Soares, Patricia Novaes; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation on body composition, lipid profile, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation in male and female progeny at adulthood. Lactating rats were divided into the following: control 7% soybean oil (C), hyper 19% soybean oil (HS) and hyper 17% flaxseed oil+2% soybean oil (HF). Weaned pups received a standard diet. Offspring were killed in PN180. Male HF presented higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and triacylglycerol, and female HF showed insulin resistance. Both male and female HF had hyperleptinemia, and only male HF had hyperprolactinemia. In VAT, male HF presented lower PPAR-γ expressions and higher TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10 expressions; in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), they presented lower PPAR-γ and TNF-α expressions. Female HF presented higher leptin, as well as lower adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β expressions in VAT and lower TNF-α in SAT. Flaxseed oil during lactation leads to gender-specific effects with more adiposity and dyslipidemia in male and insulin resistance in female. Higher prolactin and inflammatory cytokines in male could play a role in these gender differences. We suggest that the use of flaxseed oil during lactation increases metabolic syndrome risk in the adult progeny.

  11. When Oil Prices Encounter the Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2008-01-01

    @@ The oil market is just like the sea; it is never quiet for a single moment. Facing the sea to observe the tide, we must behave calm in order to act correctly. The oil in the country is like the blood of the economy, and the oil prices in the economy is like a barometer. Under the mysterious veil, there are oil supply changes, the pattern of political restructuring...

  12. 5种精制食用油在煎炸薯条过程中的品质变化%Quality changes of five kinds of refined oils during potato chips frying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋晓菲; 杨叶波; 金青哲; 王兴国

    2014-01-01

    Changes of physicochemical indexes of soybean oil, rapeseed oil, palm olein, cottonseed oil and frying oil during potato chips frying were analyzed to reflect the quality changes of five kinds of re-fined oils during frying. The results showed that color could be used as a visual indicator to reflect the level of frying. Acid value could not be used as a good index to evaluate the quality changes of frying oils due to its lag and variability. Peroxide value did not fully reflect the level of frying and could only be used as a reference index. Carbonyl value had a positive correlation with frying time and could be used as a sensitive indicator to reflect the degree of oil deterioration during frying. Oxidative stability indexes of re-fined oils decreased immediately after frying,and the correlation between oxidative stability index and the degree of frying was poor, which could not be used as a reliable indicator to reflect the frying quality of oils. The polar component was a reliable indicator to evaluate the level of thermal deterioration during oil frying. Overall,the palm olein had the best frying stability comparing with other four kinds of edible oils.%以大豆油、菜籽油、棕榈液油、棉籽油和煎炸调和油为研究对象,以薯条为煎炸原料,通过研究5种精制食用油在高温煎炸过程中理化指标的变化,从而反映出不同精制食用油在煎炸过程中品质的变化。结果表明:色泽可以作为一个最直观的指标反映食用油的煎炸程度;用酸值来评价煎炸油的品质具有滞后性和多变性;过氧化值的高低并不能完全反映油脂的煎炸程度,仅可作为判断食用油煎炸品质的参考指标;羰基值随着煎炸时间的延长整体呈线性正相关趋势,说明羰基值是一个判断煎炸油热劣变程度的灵敏指标;5种精制食用油一旦经过煎炸,氧化诱导时间迅速缩短,与油脂的煎炸程度没有很好的相关性,因此氧化

  13. Striking Oil: Another Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Driesprong (Gerben); B. Jacobsen (Ben); B. Maat (Benjamin)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe find that changes in oil prices strongly predict future stock market returns in many countries in the world. In our thirty year sample of monthly data for developed stock markets, we find statistically significant predictability in 12 out of the 18 countries and in a world market inde

  14. Preventing Rancidity in sunflower Oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used in turn to extract the polar flavonoids, while chilled acetone and petroleum ether ... sunflower oil was measured using changes in peroxide values and the UV absorbances (Conjugated diene) .... metal ions and metalloprotein catalysts.

  15. Self-Propelled Oil Droplets and Their Morphological Change to Giant Vesicles Induced by a Surfactant Solution at Low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Taisuke; Tanaka, Yuki; Asakura, Kouichi; Toyota, Taro

    2016-09-20

    Unique dynamics using inanimate molecular assemblies based on soft matter have drawn much attention for demonstrating far-from-equilibrium chemical systems. However, there are no soft matter systems that exhibit a possible pathway linking the self-propelled oil droplets to formation of giant vesicles stimulated by low pH. In this study, we conceived an experimental oil-in-water emulsion system in which flocculated particles composed of a imine-containing oil transformed to spherical oil droplets that self-propelled and, after coming to rest, formed membranous figures. Finally, these figures became giant vesicles. From NMR, pH curves, and surface tension measurements, we determined that this far-from-equilibrium phenomenon was due to the acidic hydrolysis of the oil, which produced a benzaldehyde derivative as an oil component and a primary amine as a surfactant precursor, and the dynamic behavior of the hydrolytic products in the emulsion system. These findings afforded us a potential linkage between mobile droplet-based protocells and vesicle-based protocells stimulated by low pH.

  16. Time course of changes in the expression of insulin sensitivity-related genes after an acute load of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidou, Valentini; Khymenets, Olha; Covas, Maria-Isabel; de la Torre, Rafael; Muñoz-Aguayo, Daniel; Anglada, Roger; Farré, Magi; Fito, Montserrat

    2009-10-01

    Our aim was to examine whether an acute fat load could induce changes in the expression of insulin sensitivity-related genes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Selection of candidate genes was based on previous studies with sustained virgin olive oil (VOO) consumption and biological plausibility in relation to insulin sensitivity. Eleven healthy volunteers ingested raw VOO (50 mL). Blood samples were collected at 0, 1 and 6 h. Plasma glucose, insulin and hydroxytyrosol increased at 1 h and decreased at 6 h. Lipid oxidative damage increased at 6 h (p < 0.05). Gene expression changes were characterized based on quantification of the samples relative to a reference sample [i.e., relative quantification (RQ) method]. A 1 h downregulation was observed in O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT, RQ: 0.62 +/- 0.32) and arachidonate-5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP, RQ: 0.64 +/- 0.31) genes (p < 0.005). OGT was upregulated at 6 h (RQ: 1.88 +/- 0.28, p < 0.05). CD36 (thrombospondin receptor) was upregulated at 1 h (RQ: 1.6 +/- 0.8, p < 0.05) returning to the basal values at 6 h. Lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor binding protein (PPARBP), a disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17), and adrenergic beta-2-receptor (ADRB2) genes were upregulated at 6 h (range for the mean RQ: 1.33-1.56) following an increasing linear trend (p < 0.05) from baseline to 6 h. ALOX5AP and OGT genes inversely correlated with insulin and glucose levels at 1 h. ADAM17 and ADRB2 inversely correlated with oxLDL at 6 h (p < 0.05). Taken together, these observations may inform the future clinical nutrigenomics study designs and indicate that a single dose of VOO can elicit quantifiable and rapid changes in gene expression in targets that are mechanistically relevant for insulin sensitivity and the metabolic syndrome.

  17. EPDM基吸油树脂型相变储能材料的制备与性能%Preparation and Property of Oil-absorbing Resin Based on EPDM as Phase Change Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓明

    2012-01-01

    The oil-absorbing resin based on EPDM rubber was used as a carrier for adsorption of phase change material such as paraffin to prepare solid-solid phase change materials (PCM). Suspension polymerization was adopted to develop a high oil-absorbing resin of EPDM series. SEM was used to observe the morphology before and after absorbing paraffin oil; DSC was employed to measure the phase change temperature and enthalpy after adsorbing phase change material paraffin. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of paraffin on oil-absorbing resin could up to 4.9 g/g, and the phase transition enthalpy was 124. 5 J/g. It can be considered as promising PCMs.%以三元乙丙橡胶( EPDM)基吸油树脂作为载体,通过吸附石蜡作为相变物质,制备了高分子固-固相变 储能材料.采用悬浮聚合法,探讨了EPDM基高吸油树脂的合成工艺对树脂吸附石蜡性能的影响;用扫描电子显微镜观察了吸油树脂吸附石蜡前后的微观形态变化;利用差示扫描量热仪(DSC)测定了吸附相变材料后,吸油树脂的相变温度和相变焓.结果表明:EPDM基吸油树脂对石蜡的最大吸附量可达4.9 g/g,其相变焓为124.5 J/g,具有较高的应用潜力.

  18. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deepwater Horizon well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. See a map showing the largest oil spills ... Hurricane Season Meet the New CAMEO Chemicals Mobile App Revised: Sep 25, 2017 10:35pm | Site Map | ...

  19. Ultrastructural changes in the ovary cells of engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus female ticks treated with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Arnosti, André; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo

    2012-05-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a widely distributed tick species that has adapted to the urban environment, and the dog is its main host. This species is also known as a vector and reservoir of diseases caused by bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Currently, acaricides of synthetic chemical origin have been widely and indiscriminately used, leading to the development of resistance to these products by ticks and causing damage to the environment. Thus, these issues have made it necessary to seek other forms of controlling these ectoparasites. R. sanguineus was artificially infested in host New Zealand White rabbits, which were divided into four treatment groups: control (CG1 and CG2) and treatment (TG1 and TG2) groups. TG1 and TG2 hosts were provided with feed supplemented with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil at a concentration of 5 g/kg of feed for 7 and 15 days. Afterward, the ovaries of the female ticks were removed for analysis by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed ultrastructural changes in the somatic and germ cells of ovaries from TG1 and TG2 females, particularly with respect to chorion deposition, a protective membrane of the oocyte, as well as in the transport process of vitellogenic materials via the hemolymph and pedicel cells. Moreover, the mitochondria were less electron-dense and had cristae that were more disorganized than the mitochondria from CG1 and CG2 individuals. Thus, this study demonstrated the action of esters on the ovaries of R. sanguineus, signaling the prospect of a way to control this ectoparasite without affecting nontarget organisms or the environment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Analysis of Peanut Oil Adulterated with Other Edible Oils by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Rui; WANG Xing-hua; ZHAO Tian-qi; YU Wen-zhi; FENG Xu-dong; ZHANG Han-qi; YU Ai-min

    2012-01-01

    Since peanut oil(PO) is more expensive than other seed oils,some PO is adulterated with other cheap seed oils,such as soybean oil,palm olein,cottonseed oil,corn oil and rapeseed oil.The conventional method for determining whether PO was adulterated is to detect the freezing point of oils.The proposed method for the determination of adulterants in PO was based on monitoring the change of absorbance when the sample was refrigerated.A special spectrophotometer was developed.A total of 10 kinds of POs from different suppliers were chosen and adulterated with other seed oils at the volume fraction levels ranging from 5% to 30%.A total of 150 samples were analyzed by the proposed method and the results were satisfactory.

  1. Interaction of phosphatidylcholine and α-tocopherol on the oxidation of sunflower oil and content changes of phosphatidylcholine and tocopherol in the emulsion under singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoosung; Choe, Eunok

    2011-04-01

    Interaction of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and α-tocopherol (α-Toc) on the oxidation of oil in the emulsion consisting of sunflower oil and water under singlet oxygen at 25 °C was studied by determining peroxide value (PV) and conjugated dienoic acid (CDA) contents. Singlet oxygen was produced by chlorophyll b under 1700 lux. Single addition of PC or α-Toc decreased the values of peroxides and CDAs of oil in the emulsion via singlet oxygen quenching. PC and α-Toc showed simply additive interaction in decreasing the singlet oxygen oxidation of oil in the emulsion. α-Toc was a physical quencher of singlet oxygen in the emulsion, but PC involved chemical quenching in the antioxidant action. Chlorophyll and PC contents were decreased in the emulsion under singlet oxygen, while α-Toc was not. α-Toc protected chlorophyll and PC from degradation, and was a more important component than PC in the oil oxidation under singlet oxygen in the emulsion.

  2. 一起罕见的汽轮机油变绿原因分析%Reason Analysis on One Rare Event of Steam Turbine Oil Changing Green

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万涛; 李臻; 周舟; 何铁祥; 冯兵; 龚尚昆

    2015-01-01

    In allusion to problems of steam turbine oil discoloring and its abnormality in practical production,this paper ana-lyzes various performance index of steam turbine oil and considers that colored substances could not affect usability of the oil while antioxidant may cause the oil discolor. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer(GC-MS)and ultraviolet spectrum anal-ysis was conducted for extracted green substances and it was discovered reason for oil discoloring was partially using alkylated diphenylamines antioxidant. Meanwhile,it was pointed out that XDHX-1 typed high-effective adsorbent had good desorp-tion effect for colored substances.%针对生产实际中汽轮机油变色、不正常的问题,分析了汽轮机油各项性能指标,认为发色物质并未影响油品使用性能,可能为抗氧化剂造成变色。将萃取的绿色物质进行气质联用和紫外光谱分析,发现油品变色应为部分使用了烷基化二苯胺新型抗氧化剂所致,并指出 XDHX-1型高效吸附剂对发色物质具有良好的脱除效果。

  3. Fatty acids changes of edible oil in high temperature heating%高温条件下食用油脂脂肪酸的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽莉; 李昌模; 若文靓; 郑广奇

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different heating time and heating temperature on the composition of fatty acids and its indexes of edible oil were researched. The formation of trans - fatty acids and the changes of the content of various fatty acids after heating treatment were quantified by gas chromatography. The carbonyl value was determined by using 2,4 - dinitrophenylhydrazine. The results showed that when the heating temperature and time increased, the content of unsaturated fatty acids decreased slowly, while the content of saturated fatty acids increased. The content of C16:0 through 3 h heating treatment at 210 °C increased 0.572 9 g/L, while the content of C18= 2 decreased 2.084 9 g/L. The content of trans - fatty acids and the carbonyl value grew up. Trans - C18:1 and trans - 18= 2 after 3 h heating treatment at 210^ increased 0.074 3 g/L and 0.071 6 g/L,respectively. Carbonyl value after 3 h heating treatment at 2101 increased to 52.81 meq/kg, and with the increase of temperature,the trend was more intense. Especially above 150 tl ,the quality of oil began to decline rapidly. Therefore,during the daily cooking process,the temperature should be controlled below 150X1.%研究不同加热时间和加热温度对食用油中脂肪酸各组分及其指标的影响.利用气相色谱检测了加热后油脂的反式脂肪酸生成量和各个脂肪酸含量变化,利用2,4-二硝基苯肼对羰基值进行了检测.结果表明,随着加热温度和加热时间的增加,不饱和脂肪酸的含量缓慢下降,饱和脂肪酸的含量上升,其中C16:0经过210℃3h后含量增加了0.572 9 g/L,与此相反,C18:2则下降了2.084 9 g/L.反式脂肪酸的含量和羰基值都呈上升趋势,反式C18:1和反式18:2含量经过210℃3h后分别增加了0.074 3 g/L和0.071 6g/L,经过210℃3h加热后羰基值为52.81 meq/kg,并且这种趋势随着温度的升高,变化更加剧烈,尤其在150℃后油脂的品质开始下降迅速,这样不利于人体健康.因此,建议

  4. 九4区齐古组稠油油藏开发中原油物性变化规律%Tile Crude Oil Property Change in Process of Development of Qigu Heavy Oil Reservoir in District No. 9(4) in Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群

    2012-01-01

    The Qigu reservoir of District No. 9(4) is characterized by high viscosity, high acid value, high colloid content, low wax, low freezing point, low sulfur, low asphahene content and sensitive viscosity-temperature relationship. With the continuous extension of areas of the heavy oil reservoir development and the deepening of degree of development in District No. 9 (1-5), the property of in-situ crude oil has changed to a greater degree in different recovery stages. For instance, the oil viscosity, density, freezing point, colloid and asphaltene relative contents are all higher, and solution gas-oil ratio is lower. These could directly influence the percolation nature of in-situ muhiphase flows, hence finally impact the recovery percent of the heavy oil reservoir in this area.%克拉玛依油田九。区齐古组油藏的原油性质具有黏度高、酸值高、胶质含量高、含蜡量低、凝固点低、含硫量低、沥青质含量低、黏温敏感等特点。随着九,一九,区稠油油藏开发程度的不断加深,在不同开采阶段,油藏地下原油性质发生了较大程度的变化,如密度增大、凝固点升高、胶质和沥青质相对含量增大、完全脱气(溶解气油比降低)、黏度增大等等,这些都直接影响地下流体多相流动的渗流规律,从而最终影响稠油油藏的采出程度。

  5. Substantial changes in hemocyte parameters of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun-Ki; Donaghy, Ludovic; Kang, Chang-Keun; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Lee, Hee-Jung; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2016-07-15

    Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred off the west coast of Korea, we determined sub-lethal effects of the spilled oil on hemocyte parameters of Ruditapes philippinarum in the damaged areas. Clams in the spilled sites displayed unusually high proportion of granulocytes, which may result in higher phagocytosis capacity and reactive oxygen species production. Hemocytes in clams from the polluted sites also displayed less DNA damage and mortality than in the control site, possibly due to a faster phagocytosis of the impaired cells. Glycogen, the major energetic reserve, was depleted in clams from the spilled sites, potentially due to energetic consumption for maintenance of a large pool of granulocytes, detoxification processes and oxidative stress. Modified hemocyte parameters in clams in the spilled area, may reflect sub-lethal physiological stresses caused by the residual oils in the sediment, in conjunction with environmental modifications such as food availability and pathogens pattern.

  6. Novel Application of the Flotation Technique To Measure the Wettability Changes by Ionically Modified Water for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohal, Muhammad Adeel Nassar; Thyne, Geoffrey; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2016-01-01

    imbibition tests take months, and chromatographic separation is feasible only for core flooding in sulfate free carbonates at low temperature. A novel application of the well-established technique known as flotation was used in this study to measure the oil-wet and water-wet percent of pure biogenic chalk (Dan...... Chalk from Denmark). It is an accurate, fast, and most reliable method to quantitatively measure the water-wet and oil-wet fractions of a reservoir rock. It determines the potential of advanced water to improve wettability within days, instead of measurements that can take months and require expensive...... alteration and the amount of oil attached to the water-wet percent of rock was also determined....

  7. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiumin Zhang; Demin He; Jun Guan [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale was investigated by using Yilan oil shale, Longkou oil shale, Huolinhe lignite, Taiji gas coal and Ruqigou anthracite as raw materia1s. A fixed-bed pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of these coal and oil shale were investigated. The results indicated that synergetic effect existed with the oil yield increased, water yield decreased, and the synergetic effect varied with the mass percentage of coal differed. The co-pyrolysis oil yield of Yilan oil shale and Ruqigou anthracite is a little higher than the linear sum of their oil yield in the pyrolysis process. But for the co-pyrolysis of Taiji gas coal and Yilan oil shale, no significant change of the oil yield was found. Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale were chosen as the material for the solid heat carrier experiment. Synergetic effect analyses of both the fixed-bed pyrolysis and the retorting process with solid heat carrier were given. Huolinhe lignite is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high volatile and low ash, its oil content is 8.55%. Longkou oil shale is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high oil content of 14.38%. The optimum co-pyrolysis temperature for Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale is 510{sup o}C. Synergetic effect was found with the oil increased 9% and water decreased 36%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Fuel oil quality task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V. [R.W. Beckett Corp., Elyria, OH (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  9. 稠油在水蒸汽作用下组成变化研究%STUDY ON COMPOSITION CHANGES OF HEAVY OILS UNDER STEAM TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范洪富; 刘永建; 赵晓非

    2001-01-01

    The aquathermolysis reaction of heavy oils obtained from Liaohe oil fields in China is studied at 240?℃.The results show that Liaohe heavy oils have been undergone visbreaking during the process. After treatment with steam, the viscosity of the heavy oil is reduced by 28%~42% and the amount of the saturate and aroomatic hydrocarbons is increased. The gas partition chromatography (GPC) results indicate that after reaction the accumulated amount of carbon numbers less than C25 is 50.97% in comparison with 17.93% before reaction. The results provided the basis data for recovery heavy oil by in-situ catalytic method in production heavy oil in oilfields.%报道了在水蒸汽作用下辽河油田稠油发生的化学变化。研究结果表明,稠油在水蒸汽作用下,其组成中饱和烃、芳香烃含量增加,胶质沥青质含量减少,粘度下降28%以上。气相色谱分析结果表明,稠油经水蒸汽作用后,其累积碳原子数少于C25的已经达到50.97%,远远超过处理前的17.93%。这为进一步实现稠油井下催化降粘开采提供了依据。

  10. Biochemical changes in terpenoids, essential oil content and yield in peppermint (Mentha piperita L. under bacterial and fungal treatments under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahmoudzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on essential oil content, yield and composition of shoots in peppermint (Mentha piperita L., based on completely randomized design with three replications, in the Research Greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, in 2010. Inoculation with three species of PGPR (Azotobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas and three species of AMF (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and Glomus fasciculatum and control (no bacterial or mycorrhizal inoculation were the experimental treatments. Results revealed that the highest essential oil content (2.77% and yield (0.259 ml per pot was obtained in Glomus fasciculatum and Pseudomonas treatment, respectively. Chemical analysis of the essential oil showed that in all the treatments, the main components of the oil were menthol, menthone, isomenthone, 1,8- cineole, pulegone and menthofuran. The highest values of menthol (42.27%, menthone (19.33%, isomenthone (16.77%, 1,8- cineole (10.16%, pulegone (7.34% and menthofuran (6.61% were obtained in control, Glomus mosseae, Bacillus, Azotobacter, Glomus intraradices and Pseudomonas, respectively. Comparison of terpenoids content indicated that the amount of oxygenate monoterpene increased with application of Glomus mosseae, Glomus fasciculatum, Bacillus and Pseudomonas and hydrocarbonate monoterpene with Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus intraradices and Azotobacter. Total amount of monoterpene and hydrocarbonate sesquiterpene increased in all the treatments. In general, the results showed that different bacterial and fungal treatments have different effects on chemical composition of the essential oil of peppermint. Therefore, to achieve the needs of different industries for specific chemical profile of peppermint essential oil, it can be suggested that this plant be inoculated with bacterial and fungal treatments to get the desired

  11. Offshore Oil Development versus Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Offshore petroleum development is an expensive and high-risk operation that applies advanced science and technology. The Bohai Bay oil spill has resulted in calls for changes in the relationship between China and the foreign oil companies that enable the search for resources. Amid the criticism heaped on ConocoPhillips Co. - the United States-based energy conglomerate whose operations spilled more than 700 barrels of oil into the waters of China's Bohai Bay in June, the nation's industrial experts are clamoring for a review of the policies for oil and gas exploration with foreign oil companies in China.

  12. Microfluidic Assessment of Frying Oil Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Xie, Shaorong; Ge, Ji; Xu, Zhensong; Wu, Zhizheng; Ru, Changhai; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring the quality of frying oil is important for the health of consumers. This paper reports a microfluidic technique for rapidly quantifying the degradation of frying oil. The microfluidic device generates monodispersed water-in-oil droplets and exploits viscosity and interfacial tension changes of frying oil samples over their frying/degradation process. The measured parameters were correlated to the total polar material percentage that is widely used in the food industry. The results reveal that the steady-state length of droplets can be used for unambiguously assessing frying oil quality degradation.

  13. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  14. All About Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats. Oils from plant sources (vegetable and nut oils) ... oil, and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to ...

  15. Impact of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on the Changes in the Seasonal Average Concentrations of Nickel, Vanadium, and Lead in Bottom Sediment Retrieved from the Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffy, D. A.; Nichols, A.; Morgan, J.; Gibbs, R.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment samples were collected during the fall of 2010 and 2011from across the Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf (OCS). A Tukey range test was used to compare samples between the relict sand deposits of the northern Gulf OCS to the relict carbonate sediments off of western Florida OCS. Tests indicate that nickel, vanadium, and lead are significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the seasonal average concentrations in the relict sand deposits closer to the Deepwater Horizon Well. These metals also significantly decreased (p < 0.05) from 2010 to 2011 in each region. These changes can be explained by the presence of a new source for these metals in the crude oil released from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill during the spring of 2010. Chromium and thallium did not vary seasonally or between the two areas of the OCS being investigated.

  16. Study on the Dynamic Change Law of Essential Oil Components in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium from the Same Plant%源于同一植株陈皮挥发油成分动态变化规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坚; 韦正; 陈鸿平; 银玲; 刘荣; 刘友平

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究源于同一植株不同生长期陈皮挥发油成分的变化规律.方法采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,GC-MS测定;GC-MS数据分析与AMDIS软件进行解析.结果:4批陈皮共定性、定量72个化合物,总含量分别为95.542%,92.138%,98.655%,96.201%.含量最高的2个化合物是柠檬烯与芳樟醇,分别占43.78 ~ 68.432%,9.258 ~ 15.724%.结论:4批次陈皮挥发油几乎含有相同的物质成分,各成分在含量上有一定差异.一些物质的量变规律对于揭示陈皮挥发油类成分的动态变化规律具有重要意义.%Objective: To investigate the qualitative and quantitative change law of essential oil components in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (CRP) harvested in different time from the same plant. Method: The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The overlapped peaks were resolved by the programs of GC-MS data analysis and AMDIS. Result: A total of 72 compounds in the essential oils of four batches CRP were identified, which represented 95.542% , 92. 138% , 98.655% , and 96.201% of the total relative content, respectively. The two compounds that have the highest content are limonene and linalool, accounting for 43.78-68.432% and 9.258-15. 724% respectively. Quantitative changes of some compounds present regularity. Conclusion: The essential oil of each batch CRP has almost the same chemical constituents, whereas the relative content of each constituent shows some difference. The quantitative change law of some components may have important meaning to explore the dynamic change law of volatile oil components in CRP. The combined utilization of programs of GC-MS data analysis and AMDIS can efficiently solve the difficulty in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of overlapped peaks.

  17. The effect of oil pulling with rice bran oil, sesame oil, and chlorhexidine mouth rinsing on halitosis among pregnant women: A comparative interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Rice bran oil when used in oil pulling was effective in reducing halitosis. It performed comparably and marginally superior to other agents tested in the study when change in halitosis postintervention was considered.

  18. Comparison between jojoba oil and other vegetable oils as a substitute to petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kinawy, O. [National Research centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-06-15

    Jojoba oil and other vegetable oils, such as soybean, sunflower and castor oils, were evaluated to be used as lubricants. Three standard mineral lubricating oils were considered in this study as reference. The essential parameters tested for comparison were the oil viscosity, viscosity index, and viscosity--temperature and shear rate--shear stress relationships. The effect of excessive heating on the vegetable oils' stability was studied and the corresponding parameters were also measured. Jojoba oil was found to be the best among all tested oils, whereas it gave the minimum change in viscosity gradient and hence the highest viscosity index. There was a linear relation between shear rate and shear stress of all oils before and after heat deterioration. Therefore, these oils were considered as Newtonion liquids. However, the oil viscosity, as well as the rate of viscosity variation with temperature, ({delta}{sup '}{eta}/{delta}{tau}) were affected by heat deterioration being lowered in value, in case of jojoba oil, and higher value, in case of castor oil. Jojoba oil was examined for other important properties for its use as a lubricant, such as refractive index, acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, iodine value, flash, fire and pour points. (author)

  19. Changes in chemical quality indices during long-term storage of palm-olein oil under heated storage and transport-type conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, GH

    2004-01-15

    Full Text Available -term storage trial of 52 weeks at 50degreesC of palm-olein, a monounsaturated oil. Three concentrations of copper (0.035, 0.17 and 0.69 mg kg (-1)) were added. FFA values for all the sample treatments increased slightly over the storage period but remained...

  20. WHEN IMPORTERS TURN TO EXPORTING OIL AND GAS — THE SHALE GAS HYPE AND CERTAIN GEOPOLITICAL CHANGES LIE AHEAD IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kneissl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East, the world’s only major source of low-cost oil, will remain at the core of the long-term prospects of the world oil market. The IEA went too far referring to the “shale hydrocarbon revolution born in the USA”. For the time being, the global energy landscape has not been turned upside down. It is China’s soaring energy consumption rather than the US’ rising production that will fundamentally shift the world energy order. Some analysts claim that the Sino-Russian relationship will truly shift global energy boundaries: pipelines are turning east. Global oil prices may fall if and when significant volumes of additional Iranian oil return to the market. A new petroleum frontier in the Eastern Mediterranean complicates the manifold conflicts, but opens up new chances for cooperation. There are huge opportunities created by the discovery of gas in the Eastern Mediterranean — not least for countries that are short of both money and energy. Developing these opportunities will require cooperation, and could be both a lucrative and politically rewarding confidence-building measure. 

  1. Gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with metabolic syndrome after acute intake of phenol-rich virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some studies have shown that acute intake of high-phenol virgin olive oil reduces pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-thrombotic states, but it remains unclear if the effects attributed to its phenolic fraction are exerted at the transcriptional level in vivo. Gene expression microarray analysis w...

  2. The Changing Pattern in International Trade and Capital Flows of the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries in Comparison with other Oil-Exporting Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga PEETERS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview of the pattern of the gross capital flows of the current and capital accounts of the balance of payments of the group of six Gulf Cooperation Council countries during the last decade that includes the global crisis years. As a comprehensive overview is lacking in the literature, while this country group has gained in importance in the global economy in particular in the years before the global crisis, this study tries to fill this gap. It benchmarks the GCC countries with the other oil-exporting OPEC countries that have a comparable size of natural resources. The GCC countries’ high investments in the world economy financed by their abundant income from oil revenues, showed their remarkably high degree of trade and financial integration in the world economy. Thanks to policies geared towards opening up borders, the GCC countries have imparted a significant stimulus to the world economy, to a much greater extent than other oil exporting countries in similar conditions. Aspects of globalization, trade and financial integration,such as the dependence on oil, “Dutch disease”, regional integration, foreign direct investment and cross-border assets and loans are addressed. The results show that the impact of the crisis has reverted international capital flows of the GCC, in particular cross-border bank loans, deposits and foreign direct investment. Current and future global policymaking needs however moretimely and consistent statistical information.

  3. Quality of cold-pressed organic oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skwarek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the traditional cold-pressed oils made from organic materials in a small farm. Scope of the study included evaluation of canola, flax, camelina and poppy oil immediately after manufacture and during storage under various conditions (light, temperature. Fatty acid composition, oxidability rate, an acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value and colour values in CIE L*a*b* were marked. It has been shown that immediately after the production all oils were characterised by a high quality and fatty acid composition suitable for each type of oil. Among the examined oils, the highest content of saturated fatty acids characterised flax oil, the lowest canola oil. Oils: camelina, poppy and flax compared with canola oil, contained approximately twice the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fastest rate of oxidative changes, both in the room temperature conditions and cooling, showed poppy oil. Among the oils stored in room temperature, canola oil was the most oxidatively stable.

  4. Alberta petroleum industry activity and oil economics. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    This report, largely in graphic form, presents the following information on current petroleum industry activity in Alberta: number of oil and gas parcels requested for public tender and their average price, number of drilling rigs, capital raised by oil and gas companies in Canada, changes in federal and provincial oil/gas fiscal systems since 1985, Alberta crude oil producer netbacks, maps showing major oil play economics and intensive oil and gas activity, heavy oil and in-situ bitumen production, and project costs. 10 figs.

  5. Quality control of mixtures consisting of engine oil and rapeseed oil by means of online oil sensors; Qualitaetsueberwachung von Motoroel-Rapsoelmischungen mit Online-Oelsensoren. Labortests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuneke, Klaus; Schreiber, Katja [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    It was the goal of the work to investigate interactions between motor oils and rapeseed oil fuel and to test oil sensors for monitoring the quality of aged mixtures of motor oil and rapeseed oil. At first oil samples were aged in the laboratory, whereby motor oil type, share of rapeseed oil and aeration was varied. Depending on type of engine oil different ageing effects were noticed. Higher shares of rapeseed and aeration stimulate increase of viscosity and acid value. In a further step online oil sensors were tested in both, a model of a lubrication system and a test engine. The signals of the sensors plausibly described the oil ageing process by the indicators dynamic or acoustic viscosity, permittivity number, specific electric conductivity. In particular viscosity and permittivity are suitable for showing changes in different motor oil rapeseed oil mixtures during oil ageing. However, for a reliable control system detecting critical rapeseed oil enrichment in the motor oil onboard, further work has to be done. (orig.)

  6. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  7. Dietary sunflower oil modulates milk fatty acid composition without major changes in adipose and mammary tissue fatty acid profile or related gene mRNA abundance in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Carrera, T; Frutos, P; Leroux, C; Chilliard, Y; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Bernard, L; Toral, P G

    2015-04-01

    There are very few studies in ruminants characterizing mammary and adipose tissue (AT) expression of genes and gene networks for diets causing variations in milk fatty acid (FA) composition without altering milk fat secretion, and even less complementing this information with data on tissue FA profiles. This work was conducted in sheep in order to investigate the response of the mammary gland and the subcutaneous and perirenal AT, in terms of FA profile and mRNA abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism, to a diet known to modify milk FA composition. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were randomly assigned to two treatments consisting of a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (60 : 40) supplemented with 0 (control diet) or 25 (SO diet) g of sunflower oil/kg of diet dry matter for 7 weeks. Milk composition, including FA profile, was analysed after 48 days on treatments. On day 49, the animals were euthanized and tissue samples were collected to analyse FA and mRNA abundance of 16 candidate genes. Feeding SO did not affect animal performance but modified milk FA composition. Major changes included decreases in the concentration of FA derived from de novo synthesis (e.g. 12:0, 14:0 and 16:0) and increases in that of long-chain FA (e.g. 18:0, c9-18:1, trans-18:1 isomers and c9,t11-CLA); however, they were not accompanied by significant variations in the mRNA abundance of the studied lipogenic genes (i.e. ACACA, FASN, LPL, CD36, FABP3, SCD1 and SCD5) and transcription factors (SREBF1 and PPARG), or in the constituent FA of mammary tissue. Regarding the FA composition of AT, the little influence of SO did not appear to be linked to changes in gene mRNA abundance (decreases of GPAM and SREBF1 in both tissues, and of PPARG in the subcutaneous depot). Similarly, the great variation between AT (higher contents of saturated FA and trans-18:1 isomers in the perirenal, and of cis-18:1, c9,t11-CLA and n-3 PUFA in the subcutaneous AT) could not be related to

  8. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could also be ..... during the domestic deep-frying and pan- frying of potatoes. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 53, ... commercial edible vegetable oils. JAOCS. 84, 31-36.

  9. Economics effects of lower oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, S.; Horton, G.; Vernon, K.

    1985-01-01

    The economic effects, both for the world, and for the UK, of lower oil prices are examined, and the impact of a sustained fall in oil prices is considered. The results of some simulations on both the Treasury's World Economic Prospects model and its model of the UK economy are used to give an estimate of the possible effects on the world and UK economies of a sustained fall of 10 per cent in the world oil price. A number of studies of the relationship between oil price changes and exchange rate changes are summarised. (author).

  10. Study on Oil/gas Boiling Inclusion Group of Chang-8 Oil-bearing Bed in Zhiluo Oilfield, the Southern of Ordos Basin%鄂尔多斯盆地南部直罗油田长8油层油气沸腾包裹体群研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志辉; 黄伟

    2011-01-01

    运用激光拉曼光谱、包裹体充填度测定等方法对鄂尔多斯盆地直罗油田富南3井、6井长8油层裂缝岩芯充填物中包裹体群进行分析,发现富南3井、6井与英旺油田英16井长8油层中油气沸腾包裹体群完全相同,密集分布的气泡不停晃动,证实油气沸腾包裹体群不是孤立的、偶然的地质现象.富南3井、6井和英16井长8油层裂缝岩芯的原始裂缝性质为滑动-剪切裂缝和剪切裂缝,在区域构造的作用下,反复发生拉张-挤压交替活动;在拉张发生的瞬间,与裂缝沟通的油层里的原油发生减压沸腾,原油中的轻质馏分和其他流体进入裂缝空间;在随后的挤压发生时,裂缝基本封闭,一部分流体返回原来的油层,一部分被挤到别的裂隙空间形成新的油藏;残留在裂缝里的碳酸钙,在较高的地层压力下逐渐结晶,并把残留的轻质馏分包裹,形成油气包裹体;这些油气包裹体形成压力较高,又包裹着成分类似液化气的轻质馏分,在常温常压下就处于沸腾状态;这样的过程反复进行,在裂缝充填物中形成了沿着晶体生长线以及成片、成带分布的油气沸腾包裹体群.上述油气沸腾包裹体群的形成过程就是油气的地震泵运移机制,丰富了油气运移地震泵地质模型.%By the means of laser Raman spectroscopy and filling degree of inclusion) the inclusion groups of fillings of Chang-8 oil-bearing beds from wells Funan3 and Funan6 in Zhiluo Oilfield, the southern of Ordos Basin were studied. The results showed that the oil/gas boiling inclusion groups of Chang-8 oil-bearing beds from wells Funan3 and Funan6 were exactly the same to that from well Yingl6 in Yingwang Oilfield, and a lot of bubbles moved constantly; the geological phenomenon for oil/gas boiling inclusion groups were not isolated and occasional. The characteristics of incipient fracture core of Chang-8 oil-bearing beds from wells Funan3, Funan6

  11. 国际油轮运价影响因素动态变化研究%Study on Dynamic Change of Influence Factors of International Oil Tanker Freight Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王思远; 潘静静; 余思勤

    2015-01-01

    通过向量自回归模型,运用脉冲响应函数、方差分解以及格兰杰因果检验等方法,对比分析了不同时期波罗的海油轮运价指数波动与原油价格和世界经济状况的关联性。研究发现金融危机前后波罗的海油轮运价指数的日收益率变动最初主要受到自身影响,原油价格和世界经济变化分别在危机前后对油轮运价产生相对明显的冲击。%In this paper, using the vector auto-regression model and such methods as the impulse response function, variance decomposition and Granger causality test, etc., we analyzed comparatively the correlation of the fluctuation of the BDTI with the crude oil price and world economic situation at different periods and found that the variation of the daily return rate of the BDTI was under its own influence at the earliest stage during the financial crisis and the crude oil price and the world economic change had significant impact on the freight rate of the oil tankers before and after the financial crisis respectively.

  12. Oil Price Fluctuation Reflects International Power Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇燕; 管清友

    2008-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the oil economy,economists have yet to build a perfect analytical framework for the oil market.Over a period of time,oil price fluctuates according to the supply and demand of the international market.In the long run,however,given the political nature of oil,oil price fluctuation is also dependent on the power balance between oil consumer and producer countries.History has proven that the world energy landscape is constantly in a process of change and evolution,which underlies the increasing oil price uncertainty in the long run.From the perspective of the world energy landscape and its evolution,this article applies international political-economic methodology in addressing the energy security issues facing China,with the purpose of offering recommendations for further areas of energy research.

  13. Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and cubeb oil as an alternative attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanula, James L; Sullivan, Brian T; Wakarchuk, David

    2013-04-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees]. Xyleborus glabratus is attracted to manuka oil lures, which are commercially available, and phoebe oil. Variable efficacy of manuka oil lures and insufficient availability of phoebe oil prompted us to investigate the reasons behind changes in manuka oil lure efficacy and to test cubeb oil, a readily available essential oil from Piper cubeba L. seeds, as an alternative attractant. Attraction, release rates and durations, and volatile composition of manuka oil lures manufactured in 2008 were compared with manuka oil lures manufactured in 2012, and to whole and a distilled fraction of cubeb oil. Manuka oil lures from 2008 were more attractive to X. glabratus than controls for 8 wk, whereas lures from 2012 were attractive for only 2 wk. Cubeb oil and the distilled fraction of it were as attractive as or more attractive than manuka oil in three trials. In gravimetric studies, manuka oil lures from 2008 and cubeb oil lures continued to release volatiles for 57 d, whereas lures from 2012 stopped after 16 d. The chemical composition of volatiles released from new manuka oil lures from 2008 was similar to 2012; however, a preservative (butylated hydroxytoluene) was detected in the 2008 lures. Cubeb oil was an effective attractant for X. glabratus that lasted 8-9 wk when released from bubble lures.

  14. Rheological properties of crude oils in Yaregskoye and Yaraktinskoye oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzhai, V. N.; Le Grand Monkam Monkam, Clovis; Terre, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Rotary viscometer tests of crude oil with a high content of resins and asphaltenes (Yaregskoye oil field) and crude oil with high paraffin content (Yaraktinskoye oil field) have been conducted. The typical flow curves for these oil types have been plotted. It has been detected that these oils are non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity of which is dependent on shear rate. Based on Arrhenius-Eyring equation, calculations of viscous flow activation energy and complex structural unit (CSU) sizes have been performed. It has been stated that there is a tenfold reduction in CSU size in asphaltic crude oil with the increase in shear rate in a rotary viscometer, while particle size in paraffinic crude oil does not essentially change under the same hydrodynamic conditions.

  15. Factors affecting the forensic examination of automotive lubricating oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Ryan; Goodpaster, John V; Evans, Michelle R

    2011-05-01

    Lubricating oil comparisons impact a variety of forensic investigations, including cases where oil was transferred from a suspect vehicle to the crime scene or victim. In this study, high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to examine the influence of oil mixtures and oil changes over time on the comparison of known and questioned lubricating oils. Varying concentrations of oil mixtures were prepared and showed the potential for identifying individual components. Motor oils from 18 automobiles monitored over a 2-month period did not demonstrate significant changes in the chromatographic data. Chemometric analysis of motor oil mass spectral data provided little information regarding differentiation of, or changes in, the samples. Power steering fluid (PSF) from a naturally occurring leak collected from several locations was consistent with the PSF in the automobile's reservoir, and the PSF composition did not change over time.

  16. Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    that uses the Granger causality test and generalized variance decomposition analysis ... observed between the Nigerian stock market and crude oil prices and the ... changing oil prices on stock prices and exchange rates an important guide to.

  17. 玻璃体切割硅油填充术后眼压变化的分析及护理%Analysis of changes of intraocular pressure and nursing for vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古丽鲜·英克尤瓦

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨玻璃体切割联合硅油填充术后患者眼压变化及护理措施.方法 对52例(52眼)玻璃体切割硅油填塞术后患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,总结护理措施.结果 24例(46.2%)患者出现高眼压,其中19例发生在术后2周内(79.2%).高眼压组与眼压正常组性别、年龄,病程、屈光度及硅油填充量比较早发现,早处理差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 玻璃体切割联合硅油填充术后早期高眼压临床较常见,应加强患者的病情观察,防止术后并发症.%Objective To explore the changes of intraocular pressure and nursing for vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade technique.Methods Clinical data of 52 patients (52 eyes) with silicone oil tamponade after vitrectomy were retrospectively analyzed and made a summary of nursing care.Results There were 24 patients (46.2%) with high intraocular pressure,and there were 19 patients high intraocular pressure occurrence within 2 weeks.There were no significant differences in sex,age,duration,the amount of refraction and silicone oil tamponade between high and normal intraocular pressure groups (P > 0.05).Conclusion The early high intraocular pressure is common after vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade technique.Patient 's condition observation should be strengthened and prevent from post-operation complications.

  18. 芽孢杆菌在石蜡油降解过程中的形态变化%Observation of Morphological Changes of Bacillus During the Biodegradation of Paraffin Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余瑛; 卫泽峰; 郭志龙; 黄伟九; 陈波水

    2012-01-01

    The study observed the changes of morphology and cell growth of Bacillus during the degra- dation of paraffin oil. The Bacillus was cultured with paraffin oil as the sole carbon source. The growth of Bacillus was found retardation in the initial stage, which suggested that the genes about deg- radation of paraffin oil in Bacillus were inducible. In the medium with paraffin oil as the sole carbon source, few spores produced in 0.5 days, but almost all the vegetative cell converted into spores after 3 days, then some spores germinated to produce the vegetative cells after 5 days.%以石蜡油为唯一碳源进行芽孢杆菌的培养。观察石蜡油降解过程中芽孢杆菌的形态变化和生长情况。研究发现,芽孢杆菌在起始阶段存在生长迟滞现象,表明芽孢杆菌中与石蜡油降解相关的基因表达属于诱导型。在以石蜡油为唯一碳源的培养过程中,芽孢杆菌于0.5d开始形成芽孢,3d后营养体完全转化为芽孢,5d后部分芽孢开始重新萌发,产生新的营养体。

  19. 用固定化Oil-56黄杆菌修复地表水菌体形态变化%Morphological changes of immobilized Flavobacterium sp. Oil-56 during surface water remediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海波; 李培军; 张轶; 鞠京丽; 孙铁珩

    2006-01-01

    利用聚乙烯醇-海藻酸钠(PVA-Na·Alg)联合包埋固定化一株黄杆菌Oil-56,进行污染地表水修复实验研究,结果表明固定化细菌的修复效果明显好于游离细菌.同时利用扫描电子显微镜观察了固定化颗粒内部细菌形态的变化,解释了由于Na·Alg溶解导致水体CODCr升高的原因,并分析了固定化颗粒传质扩散性能的缺陷,指出PVA-Na·Alg固定化工艺尚需改进.

  20. COMPARISON OF THE QUALITY OF VEGETABLE OILS DESIGNED FOR THE FRYING FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research was to investigate the quality of vegetable oils for cooking food. The analysis used two types of oils - oil Fritol and Promienna. Both oils were purchased commercially. Oil changes were observed at frying French fries. At the same changes were observed oil stored at room temperature and the temperature in the refrigerator. The determined parameters included the measurement of polar materials in oil with electronic device Testo 265 for measuring the quality of cooking oil. Determination of change in the texture of oil during the oil deterioration by device Texturometer TA.XT Plus and determination the peroxide value by STN EN ISO 3960:2007. The work is also evaluating the results of the studied parameters. In all compared cases based on the content of the TPM showed higher heat resistance oil Fritol and sample of oil stored in the refrigerator.doi:10.5219/210

  1. Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of Human Erythrocyte Membranes after Hybrid Palm and Extra Virgin Olive Oil Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, D; Gagliardi, R; Balzano, M; Frega, N G; Ojeda, M L; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Lucci, P

    2016-07-13

    This work aims to evaluate and compare, for the first time, the effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and hybrid palm oil (HPO) supplementation on the fatty acid profile and phospholipid (PL) molecular species composition of human erythrocyte membranes. Results supported the effectiveness of both HPO and EVOO supplementation (3 months, 25 mL/day) in decreasing the lipophilic index of erythrocytes with no significant differences between HPO and EVOO groups at month 3. On the other hand, the novel and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used for PL analysis reveals an increase in the levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species esterified with polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work demonstrates the ability of both EVOO and HPO to increase the degree of unsaturation of erythrocyte membrane lipids with an improvement in membrane fluidity that could be associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Sorption kinetics and mechanism of various oils into kapok assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; Wang, Fumei; Xu, Guangbiao

    2015-02-15

    Sorption rates of kapok fibers on different oils, such as diesel, cooking oil, used motor oil, and motor oil, were quantitatively evaluated by using a wicking method. Kapok fibers absorbing different oils exhibited large differences in terms sorption coefficients. Microscopic observations of oil wetting on a single kapok showed that the four oils had varying wettability and adhesiveness to kapok, but that all of them penetrated into kapok lumens quickly because of the fiber's low surface energy, which was 40.64 mN/m, and extreme hydrophobicity, with a water contact angle up to 151°. After treatment with chloroform, there were slight changes in oil absorbencies to kapok, but the sorption coefficients for the four oils increased markedly. SEM demonstrated that chloroform treatments caused the smooth surface of the kapok fibers to become highly roughened, with densely vertical grooves that provided more available surface and a larger driving force for oil sorption through the fiber assembly.

  3. PREDICATION OF THE ORE RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF CHANG 8 AND CHANG 9 OIL GROUP OF YANCHANG FORMATION IN PINGBEI EXPLORATION AREA%坪北探区延长组长8、长9油层组资源潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金良; 郭爱华; 李浩; 张慧元

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,along with the exploration change of Yanchang formation in strategy, Pingbei exploration area achieved new discovery in Chang 8 and Chang 9 oil group of Yanchang formation. Based on the massive core data,with SEM observations microscopic-analysis, casting thin sections and conventional Hg injection techniques, the results showed Chang 9 oil group is shallow lake deposition and sediments are fine. Chang 8 oil group locates in Ansai delta front, underwater distributary channel and debouch bar sandbodies whose storage space are big developed. Reservoir space is made up of original residual pore between grains. There is one set of premium hydrocarbon source rock on the top of Chang 9 oil group,about 5~14 m thick,which generate hydrocarbons strongly. There are three types of reservoir assemblage in this area, self-generation and self-accumulation ones, lowe generation and high accumulation ones, high generation and low accumulation ones. According to oil-test results of Chang 8 and Chang 9 oil group, self-generation and self-accumulation ones, low generation and high accumulation ones in Pingbei exploration area present good oil exploration prospect. Oil-bearing area can be increased by progressive exploration,it's also the replacement resources of next exploitation.%以大量的岩心和测井资料为基础,利用铸体薄片、扫描电镜及压汞等测试分析方法,对坪北探区延长组长8和长9油层组的沉积环境、储层特征以及生储盖的组合关系进行了研究,结果表明长9期属浅湖相沉积,沉积物普遍较细,其顶部发育一套优质烃源岩,厚度5~14 m,具有良好的供烃能力;长8期位于安塞三角洲沉积前缘,主要发育三角洲前缘水下分流河道和河口坝砂体,具有良好的储集空间,以原生残余粒间孔隙为主;区域内发育自生自储式、下生上储式、上生下储式3种成藏组合类型.根据坪北探区延长组长8、长9层试油成果,综合评价认为

  4. Le pétrole et son prix : Le problème des échanges Oil and Its Cost. the Exchange Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desprairies P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir brièvement rappelé les événements de l'automne 1973 - embargos et hausse des prix du pétrole - l'auteur traite plus spécialement du problème des prix. Les causes économiques (inflation, érosion monétaire, déséquilibre entre l'offre et la demande lui paraissent avoir joué dans les origines de la crise un rôle fondamental et n'avoir pas pour l'essentiel disparu. Les inégalités de situation du côté des pays producteurs et des pays consommateurs sont fondamentales. L'importance du rôle des États-Unis et de l'Arabie Séoudite pour résoudre le problème l'emporte sur tous les autres. Les hausses sont loin d'avoir été absorbées dans les pays consommateurs, et leur pression inflationniste est déà considérable. Les pays consommateurs riches ne peuvent que se lancer dans des programmes de production d'énergie de diversification, mais la situation des pays consommateurs du Tiers Monde non producteurs de pétrole risque de devenir dramatique. II paraît difficile de recycler les avoirs excédentaires des pays producteurs non peuplés sans organiser un équilibre triangulaire des échanges passant par des prêts des pays producteurs les plus riches aux pays les plus pauvres, dans un cadre qui pourrait être de solidarité arabe ou islamique, et qui pourrait constituer une sorte de « Plan Marshall du pétrole ». Mais de telles initiatives ne peuvent venir en définitive que des pays producteurs eux-mêmes. After briefly reviewing the events thot occurred in the autumn of 1973 - embargoes and ail price hikes - this article pays special attention to price problems. The economic causes (inflation, monetary erosion, unbalance between supply and demand appear to have played a fundamental role in the arigins of the crisis, and for the most part these causes have not gone away. Inequalities in the situations of producing and consuming countries are of basic importance. The significance of the rote played by the United

  5. X油藏产量变化特征分析%Analysis of Production Change Characteristics on the X Oil Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹茜; 张昕焜

    2013-01-01

    X油藏自投入开发以来,经历了几个开发调整阶段,总体平均含水率比较低,并且取得了较好的开发效果.但是有的外围两相区总体含水上升较快.针对该问题结合油藏地质资料,以生产动态数据为基础,运用油藏工程的方法,对油藏不同区域内生产井的单井产量进行分析研究并分类.同时计算了油藏两相区内生产井计的合理临界产量,并分析其影响因素.与实际情况进行了对比,结果表明当单井的实际产液量能够控制在初始临界产量以下或附近时,能够有效防止底水锥进,达到控水稳油的目的.%Since the X oil reservoir was developed, it gone through several stages of development adjustment, the overall average water cut in lift is low, but the date of the oil-water phase region around rose more quickly, towards this problem, a research on producting wells' output in different zones using the reservoir engineering method is done, integrated with X oil reservoir' s geology material, on the basis of Production dynamic data. While calculating the reasonable critical output of oil production wells in two-phase region, the influence factors and contrast with the current are analysed, Studied suggests when the liquid production of single well can be controlled under or near the intial critical production. Water coning and reach the porpose of stable oil in water control can be effectively prevened.

  6. Turbine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eminov, E.A.; Bogdanov, Sh.K.; Dovgopolyi, E.E.; Gryaznov, B.V.; Ivanov, V.S.; Ivanova, Z.M.; Kozlova, E.K.; Nikolaeva, N.M.; Rozhdestvenskaya, A.A.

    1981-03-10

    In the known turbine oil (TO), for the purpose of improving the anticorrosion and demulsifying properties, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether, ethylenediamine or propylene glycol or an alkylphenol are additionally introduced, where the C/sub 8/-C/sub 12/ alkyl has a molecular weight of 2000-10,000. The proportions of the components are: 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol 0.2-1.0%, quinizarin 0.01-0.05%, an acid ester of an alkenylsuccinic acid 0.02-0.1%, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether 0.02-0.2%, polymethylsiloxane 0.003-0.005%, and petroleum oil the remainder. The TO is prepared by mixing the petroleum oil with the additives in any sequence at a temperature of 60-80/sup 0/ by mechanical stirring. On the five TO samples the antioxidative, demulsifying, and anticorrosion properties by comparison with the prototype were investigated. It was shown that the obtained TO possesses improved anticorrosion properties (time until the appearance of Kr (staining.), up to 60 h as against 35 on the prototype) and demulsifying properties (quantity of water separating on breaking the emulsion 10 mg/L as against 65 mg/L on the prototype) for an antioxidative stability equal to that of the analog. The TO is designated for use in various turbo-units, in the first place in marine steam turbine units, where there is the probability of contact of the TO with seawater. Use of the TO makes it possible to increase the service life of the mechanisms, to reduce the amount of oil mixable in the form of an emulsion (by a factor of 1.5 to 2), and to lower the operating expenses.

  7. Chemistry of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.

    1974-01-01

    A review with several references covers the formation, distribution, and mining of oil shales of Fu-Shun colliery; retorting furnaces for oil shale; refining of crude shale oils; and components of oil from Fu-Shun oil shales including pyrolle, matrine, fatty acid anilides, 2,4,5-trimethylpyrrole, and middle-layer bases.

  8. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  9. 从美军汽轮机油标准变化看舰船汽轮机油发展趋势%Analysis on the Impending Trend of Turbine Oils in Vessels Through the Changes in Turbine Oils Standards for American Military Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建华; 张博

    2015-01-01

    The contents of three versions of turbine oil standards for U. S. Military PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION LU-BRICATING OIL, STEAM TURBINE AND GEAR, MODERATE SERVICE(MIL-PRF-17331) published in the past three dec-ades are compared, and the change and impending trend are evaluated and predicated. Physical and chemical properties, test methods, the specific indicators and requirement for the development of turbine oils are particularly analyzed and the re-flections for Chinese side are made. The research result shows that the increase or decrease of the items in the content of turbine oil standards for U. S military is in close correlation with the technique of equipment mechanics and turbine oil, and the physical and chemical properties are to meet the requirement from the military use, thus, the universality and environ-mental protection are highly addressed.%文章通过对30年内不同时期发行3个版本的美军汽轮机油标准《汽轮机和齿轮润滑油性能规范》(MIL-PRF-17331)内容的解读,对比研究了美军舰船汽轮机油标准内容演变与发展趋势,具体分析了理化性能及试验方法、特定指标、汽轮机油发展要求等三个方面的内容,提出了对我国汽轮机油发展变化的启示。研究结果表明,美军汽轮机油标准的项目增减是与装备机械技术与油品技术水平紧密相关的,对理化性能的要求与军用特点紧密结合,对通用性与环保要求提出了更高的要求。

  10. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Nieman, David C.; Knab, Amy M.; Shanely, R. Andrew; Meaney, Mary Pat; Jin, Fuxia; Sha, Wei; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG) from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid) would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40–70 years) were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F2-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268), F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273), and cytokines (p > 0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001). Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women. PMID:27187447

  11. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40–70 years were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP, F2-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA. Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268, F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273, and cytokines (p > 0.05. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001. Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women.

  12. Polyphasic approach for assessing changes in an autochthonous marine bacterial community in the presence of Prestige fuel oil and its biodegradation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Guiu-Aragonés, Cèlia; Bayona, Josep M; Albaigés, Joan; Solanas, Anna M

    2011-08-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to identify key hydrocarbon degraders from a marine oil spill sample (Prestige fuel oil), to ascertain their role in the degradation of different hydrocarbons, and to assess their biodegradation potential for this complex heavy oil. After a 17-month enrichment in weathered fuel, the bacterial community, initially consisting mainly of Methylophaga species, underwent a major selective pressure in favor of obligate hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, such as Alcanivorax and Marinobacter spp. and other hydrocarbon-degrading taxa (Thalassospira and Alcaligenes), and showed strong biodegradation potential. This ranged from >99% for all low- and medium-molecular-weight alkanes (C(15)-C(27)) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (C(0)- to C(2)- naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and carbazole), to 75-98% for higher molecular-weight alkanes (C(28)-C(40)) and to 55-80% for the C(3) derivatives of tricyclic and tetracyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (e.g., C(3)-chrysenes), in 60 days. The numbers of total heterotrophs and of n-alkane-, aliphatic-, and PAH degraders, as well as the structures of these populations, were monitored throughout the biodegradation process. The salinity of the counting medium affects the counts of PAH degraders, while the carbon source (n-hexadecane vs. a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a key factor when counting aliphatic degraders. These limitations notwithstanding, some bacterial genera associated with hydrocarbon degradation (mainly belonging to α- and γ-Proteobacteria, including the hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax and Marinobacter) were identified. We conclude that Thalassospira and Roseobacter contribute to the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons, whereas Mesorhizobium and Muricauda participate in the degradation of PAHs.

  13. Polyphasic approach for assessing changes in an autochthonous marine bacterial community in the presence of Prestige fuel oil and its biodegradation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Nuria [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Vinas, Marc [GIRO Technological Centre, Mollet del Valles (Spain); Guiu-Aragones, Celia; Solanas, Anna M. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; Bayona, Josep M.; Albaiges, Joan [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2011-08-15

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to identify key hydrocarbon degraders from a marine oil spill sample (Prestige fuel oil), to ascertain their role in the degradation of different hydrocarbons, and to assess their biodegradation potential for this complex heavy oil. After a 17-month enrichment in weathered fuel, the bacterial community, initially consisting mainly of Methylophaga species, underwent a major selective pressure in favor of obligate hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, such as Alcanivorax and Marinobacter spp. and other hydrocarbon-degrading taxa (Thalassospira and Alcaligenes), and showed strong biodegradation potential. This ranged from >99% for all low- and medium-molecular-weight alkanes (C{sub 15}-C{sub 27}) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (C{sub 0-} to C{sub 2-} naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and carbazole), to 75-98% for higher molecular-weight alkanes (C{sub 28}-C{sub 40}) and to 55-80% for the C{sub 3} derivatives of tricyclic and tetracyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (e.g., C{sub 3}-chrysenes), in 60 days. The numbers of total heterotrophs and of n-alkane-, aliphatic-, and PAH degraders, as well as the structures of these populations, were monitored throughout the biodegradation process. The salinity of the counting medium affects the counts of PAH degraders, while the carbon source (n-hexadecane vs. a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a key factor when counting aliphatic degraders. These limitations notwithstanding, some bacterial genera associated with hydrocarbon degradation (mainly belonging to {alpha}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, including the hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax and Marinobacter) were identified. We conclude that Thalassospira and Roseobacter contribute to the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons, whereas Mesorhizobium and Muricauda participate in the degradation of PAHs. (orig.)

  14. Dose-related Increased Binding of Nickel to Chromatin Proteins; and Changes to DNA Concentration in the Liver of Guinea Pigs Treated with Nigerian Light Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauretta Idabor

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The alteration in nuclear DNA concentration and the concomitant binding of xenobiotics (alkylating agents, heavy metals, etc. to chromatin constituents may adversely affect gene structure and/or function, and thus initiate carcinogenesis. Binding of nickel to chromatin DNA has been reported to cause DNA damage (cross-links, single-strand breaks, and although many soluble nickel compounds and complexes have been shown to bind to chromatin, porphyrin-complexed nickel (PCN in crude oils has not been studied. We have determined the doserelated increases in total and chromatin DNA concentrations, and the differential distribution (binding of PCN (crude oil nickel-CON to chromatin constituents in livers of adult male guinea pigs treated with 1.25, 2.50 and 5.0 ml/kg bw Nigerian Bonny light crude oil (BLCO by intraperitoneal injection. The results showed large BLCO-induced increases in total DNA concentrations of 424%, 632% and 436% at 1.25, 2.50 and 5.0 ml/kg bw BLCO respectively over the untreated controls; while it induced equally large increases in chromatin DNA concentrations of 585% and 200% at 2.50 and 5.0 ml/kg bw respectively. In both cases, maximum increases occurred at 2.50 ml/kg bw BLCO. The distribution of PCN in BLCO between chromatin DNA and chromatin proteins (histones and non-histones showed that at 2.50 and 5.0 ml/kg bw BLCO, nickel content in chromatin DNA reduced by 25% and 12.5% respectively over the controls; while its content in chromatin proteins also reduced by 26%; but increased by 166% at 2.50 and 5.0 ml/kg bw BLCO, respectively over the untreated controls. However, in intra-chromatin comparison, 38.8% more PCN bound to chromatin DNA than to chromatin proteins at 2.50 ml/kg bw; but at 5.0 ml/kg bw BLCO, 90.4% more PCN bound to chromatin proteins than to chromatin DNA. These results show a greater affinity of PCN in BLCO for chromatin proteins over chromatin DNA which may have played a role in the increased DNA concentrations

  15. Experimental study on spectral responses of offshore oil slick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU YingCheng; TIAN QingJiu; WANG JingJing; WANG XiangCheng; QI XiaoPing

    2008-01-01

    Using the seawater taken from Liaodong Bay and crude oil taken from Liaohe Oilfield, a laboratory experiment was designed to study the change of reflectance spectrum of artificial offshore oil slick with its thickness and to identify the spectrum ranges suitable for quantifying the thickness of the oil slick.During the experiment, crude oil was continuously dropped into the seawater to generate artificial oil slick with different thicknesses. After every drop of crude oil was added, reflectance spectrum of the oil slick was measured with a high resolution spectroradiometer (ASD FieldSpec Pro FR). The influence of oil slick thickness on its reflectance spectrum was explored through statistical analysis. The results show that the reflectance of oil slick changes marginally with oil slick thickness and higher than that of seawater in infrared band from 1150 to 2500 nm. This spectrum range can be practically used to distinguish oil slick from seawater. In the spectrum range from 400 to 1150 nm, the reflectance of oil slick decreases with its thickness. The negative power function is the best-fit function expressing the relationship between the reflectance and thickness. The spectral characteristics of oil slick are very distinct at 550 and 645 nm. They are the best wavelengths for monitoring the existence of offshore oil slick and estimating its thickness.

  16. Exploring Oil Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  17. Rheology of Structured Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbaliev, G. I.; Rasulov, S. R.; Rzaev, A. G.; Mustafaeva, G. R.

    2017-07-01

    Rheological models of structured oils are proposed and compared with available experimental data on oils from different deposits. It is shown that structured oils can possess properties of Bingham and power-law non-Newtonian fluids.

  18. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  19. OIL AND NATURAL GAS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao

    1997-01-01

    @@ Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the petroleum industry has witnessed great achievements. In 1978, the national crude oil production exceeded 2 million barrels per day,which made China one of the major oil producers in the world. All these incredible changes took place in less than 30 years.

  20. Changes in adipocyte cell size, gene expression of lipid metabolism markers, and lipolytic responses induced by dietary fish oil replacement in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garcia, Lourdes; Sánchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Bouraoui, Lamia; Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by 66% vegetable oils in a diet with already 75% vegetable protein (66VO) on adipose tissue lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream were analysed after a 14-month feeding trial. In the last 3 months of the experiment, a FO diet was administrated to a 66VO group (group 66VO/FO) as a finishing diet. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity was measured in adipose tissue and adipocyte size, and HSL, lipoprotein lipase and liver X receptor gene expression in isolated adipocytes, on which lipolysis and glucose uptake experiments were also performed. Lipolysis was measured after incubation with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), linoleic acid, and two conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Glucose uptake was analysed after TNFα or insulin administration. Our results show that FO replacement increased lipolytic activity and adipocyte cell size. The higher proportion of large cells observed in the 66VO group could be involved in their observed lower response to fatty acid treatments and lower insulin sensitivity. The 66VO/FO group showed a moderate return to the FO conditions. Therefore, FO replacement can affect the morphology and metabolism of gilthead sea bream adipocytes which could potentially affect other organs such as the liver.

  1. Micro-mechanisms of residual oil mobilization by viscoelastic fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lijuan; Yue Xiang'an; Guo Fenqiao

    2008-01-01

    Four typical types of residual oil, residual oil trapped in dead ends, oil ganglia in pore throats,oil at pore comers and oil film adhered to pore walls, were studied. According to main pore structure characteristics and the fundamental morphological features of residual oil, four displacement models for residual oil were proposed, in which pore-scale flow behavior of viscoelastic fluid was analyzed by a numerical method and micro-mechanisms for mobilization of residual oil were discussed. Calculated results indicate that the viscoelastic effect enhances micro displacement efficiency and increases swept volume. For residual oil trapped in dead ends, the flow field of viscoelastic fluid is developed in dead ends more deeply, resulting in more contact with oil by the displacing fluid, and consequently increasing swept volume. In addition, intense viscoelastic vortex has great stress, under which residual oil becomes small oil ganglia, and finally be carried into main channels. For residual oil at pore throats, its displacement mechanisms are similar to the oil trapped in dead ends. Vortices are developed in the depths of the throats and oil ganglia become smaller. Besides, viscoelastic fluid causes higher pressure drop on oil ganglia, as a driving force, which can overcome capillary force, consequently, flow direction can be changed and the displacing fluid enter smaller throats. For oil at pore comers, viscoelastic fluid can enhance displacement efficiency as a result of greater velocity and stress near the comers. For residual oil adhered to pore wall,viscoelastic fluid can provide a greater displacing force on the interface between viscoelastic fluid and oil,thus, making it easier to exceed the minimum interfacial tension for mobilizing the oil film.

  2. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    How much oil will the world consume in 2011? What role will OPEC play in global oil production? Will biofuels become an important part of the oil market? The International Energy Agencys (IEA) Medium-Term Oil Market Report tackles these questions, adopting a perspective that goes beyond the traditional short-term market analysis provided in the IEAs monthly Oil Market Report. Drawing on current futures curves and the investment threshold for upstream projects, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report analyses how global demand and supply balances may develop in the next five years. The forecasts look in detail at product demand and the supply potential from all the firmly planned individual upstream and downstream projects around the world. The results provide invaluable insights on vital issues such as surplus production capacity and product supply. The rapid pace of change in the oil market means that forecasts can become outdated very quickly. This interim update provides the opportunity to rebase the data and forecasts in the annual Medium-Term Oil Market Report and to discuss and analyse new issues affecting the oil industry. Policymakers, market analysts, energy experts and anyone interested in understanding and following trends in the oil market should find this report extremely useful.

  3. FTIR and DSC studies of the thermal and photochemical stability of Balanites aegyptiaca oil (Toogga oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardette, Jean-Luc; Baba, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The oil extracted from the bean of Balanites aegyptiaca was characterized, and its photochemical and thermal stabilization were evaluated. The chemical composition was determined using gas chromatography (GC), revealing that the oil is very rich in unsaturated fatty acids (72% omega-6 and omega-9). The photochemical stability was assessed by subjecting it to artificially accelerated photo-aging and then examining the changes using infrared spectroscopy. The thermal stability was studied at six different temperatures ranging from 130 to 200°C and monitored in situ by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The kinetic parameters (EA and k) describing the thermal degradation of this oil were calculated. It has been shown that the antioxidants present in the oil delay the oxidation process (induction period). The degradation of the Toogga oil was compared with that of oleic and linoleic fatty acids. In addition, the degradation of the Toogga oil extracted with hexane was compared to that of the neat oil.

  4. Spectroscopic analysis of automotive engine oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Rachid; Gupta, Neelam

    2002-02-01

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology were combined to develop a portable spectrophotometer for use in engine oil analysis to identify and quantify oil contaminants and residue products, Preliminary measurements were taken with a field-portable AOTF-based spectrometer (2 to 4.5 micrometers ) and an FTIR spectrometer (2 to 25 micrometers ) for comparison. Absorption spectra of used and unused oil samples were measured and compared to determine absorption changes between the various samples resulting from oil degradation and any chemical reactions that might have taken place during high- temperature engine lubrication. These preliminary results indicate that IR spectroscopy can be used for oil quality monitoring in automotive engines, which will help predict and prevent engine failure and degradation. This work can be extended to other remote sensing applications, such as the monitoring of environmental oil spills.

  5. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzherbert, Emily B; Struebig, Matthew J; Morel, Alexandra; Danielsen, Finn; Brühl, Carsten A; Donald, Paul F; Phalan, Ben

    2008-10-01

    Oil palm is one of the world's most rapidly increasing crops. We assess its contribution to tropical deforestation and review its biodiversity value. Oil palm has replaced large areas of forest in Southeast Asia, but land-cover change statistics alone do not allow an assessment of where it has driven forest clearance and where it has simply followed it. Oil palm plantations support much fewer species than do forests and often also fewer than other tree crops. Further negative impacts include habitat fragmentation and pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions. With rising demand for vegetable oils and biofuels, and strong overlap between areas suitable for oil palm and those of most importance for biodiversity, substantial biodiversity losses will only be averted if future oil palm expansion is managed to avoid deforestation.

  6. Analysis of chemical composition of high viscous oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Germanovna Yashchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of viscous oils which are considered as an important reserve for oil-production in future were studied on base of information from global database on oil physical and chemical properties. Changes in chemical composition of viscous oils in different basins and continents were analyzed as well. It is shown, on average, viscous oils are sulfur-bearing, low paraffin, highly resinous oils with an average content of asphaltenes and low content of the fraction boiling at 200 C. Study results of viscous oils peculiarities of Canada, Russia and Venezuela are given. The analysis results can be used to determine the optimal layouts and conditions of oil transportation, to improve the search methods of geochemical exploration, and to solve other problems in the oil chemistry.

  7. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...... on the bare surfaces, surfaces with an adsorbed oil layer, and surfaces after being exposed to aqueous salt solutions. This showed that the silica surface became more hydrophobic after oil adsorption, while the wettability of the calcium carbonate surface was not significantly changed by adsorption of an oil...... layer. A surface energy component analysis based on the acid base theory showed that oil adsorption on the surfaces depends upon apolar, acidic, and basic oil components of the crude oil and that the adsorbed oil components differ for adsorption to silica and calcium carbonate. Desorption of the crude...

  8. Particles at Oil-Air Surfaces: Powdered Oil, Liquid Oil Marbles, and Oil Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Johnston, Shaun K; Sekine, Tomoko; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2015-07-08

    The type of material stabilized by four kinds of fluorinated particles (sericite and bentonite platelet clays and spherical zinc oxide) in air-oil mixtures has been investigated. It depends on the particle wettability and the degree of shear. Upon vigorous agitation, oil dispersions are formed in all the oils containing relatively large bentonite particles and in oils of relatively low surface tension (γla cyclomethicone containing the other fluorinated particles. Particle-stabilized oil foams were obtained in oils having γla > 26 mN m(-1) where the advancing air-oil-solid contact angle θ lies between ca. 90° and 120°. Gentle shaking, however, gives oil-in-air liquid marbles with all the oil-particle systems except for cases where θ is 24 mN m(-1) with omniphobic zinc oxide and sericite particles for which advancing θ ≥ 90°, dry oil powders consisting of oil drops in air which do not leak oil could be made upon gentle agitation up to a critical oil:particle ratio (COPR). Above the COPR, catastrophic phase inversion of the dry oil powders to air-in-oil foams was observed. When sheared on a substrate, the dry oil powders containing at least 60 wt % of oil release the encapsulated oil, making these materials attractive formulations in the cosmetic and food industries.

  9. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  10. Effect of frying conditions on the physico-chemical properties of rice bran oil and its blended oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, H K

    2014-06-01

    The changes occurring in rice bran oil and its blend with sunflower oil during repeated frying cycles of dried and moist potato chips were monitored. The parameters assessed were: Colour, Refractive Index, SpecificGravity, Oryzanol Value, Free fatty acid, Iodine Value, Peroxide value, anisidine value, Saponification Value, trans fats and fatty acid composition. No significant changes (p≤0.05) were observed in the refractive index and specific gravity of rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blend. The colour of blended oil was lesser than RBO and the intensity of color increased after each frying cycle during the deep fat frying of moistened and dried potato chips. The oryzanol content and iodine value decreased with the frying cycles. The decrease in oryzanol value during the frying operation was more prominent in rice bran oil as compared to the blended oils. The increase in p-anisidine value was more in rice bran oil as compared to blended oil. No significant changes (Poil and blended oils samples. The amount of unsaturated fatty acid decreased gradually during repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the oils. The trans fat increased with repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran and blended oils, when used to fry moistened and dried potato chips. Both the oil samples showed greater formation of trans fatty acids when the moistened potato chips were used during frying.

  11. Changes in breaded chicken and oil degradation during discontinuous frying with cottonseed oil Alterações em frango empanado e degradação do óleo durante a fritura descontínua em óleo de algodão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Cristina Osawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Discontinuous frying of breaded chicken in cottonseed oil was evaluated. Three 400 g batches of foodstuff were fried daily in a 28 L fryer at 182 °C for 4.5 minutes for 7-8 days, and the experiment was repeated three times. The total polar compounds in the oil were determined by the conventional method. Changes in the oil were determined by the quick tests Testo 265, Viscofrit and Fri-check based on physical constants, and the results were compared with those of total polar compounds obtained by the conventional method. The free fatty acids, conjugated dienes, Lovibond color, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition, and polymeric compounds were also determined. During frying, the oil samples presented 6.0-39.2% total polar compounds, 0.0-12.9% polymerized triacylglycerols, 1.3-14.5% oxidized triacylglycerols, 2.8-11.0% diacylglycerols, and 1.6-2.6% fatty acids and unsaponifiable polar compounds. The breaded chicken samples lost moisture, absorbed oil up to approximately 6%, and there were small changes in the fatty acid composition and low formation of trans-isomers. The best method for monitoring and discarding the oil was that used for the determination of total polar compounds.Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a fritura descontínua de frango empanado em óleo de algodão. Três bateladas de 400 g de alimentos foram fritas diariamente em uma fritadeira de 28 L a 182 °C por 4,5 minutos durante 7-8 dias. O experimento foi executado três vezes. Foram realizadas determinações de compostos polares totais no óleo pelo método convencional. As alterações do óleo, baseadas em constantes físicas, foram determinadas por meio dos testes rápidos Testo 265, Viscofrit e Fri-check e seus resultados foram comparados com os resultados de compostos polares totais obtidos pelo método convencional. Foram determinados, também, ácidos graxos livres, dienos conjugados, cor Lovibond, estabilidade oxidativa, composição em ácidos graxos e compostos

  12. Antidiarrhoeic effect of Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae) leaf essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galheigo, Maria Raquel Unterkircher; Prado, Ligia Carolina da Silva; Mundin, Angélica Martins Moreira; Gomes, Dayane Olímpia; Chang, Roberto; Lima, Anna Monteiro Correia; Canabrava, Hudson Armando Nunes; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz Borges

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from Eugenia dysenterica leaves was able to inhibit both the diarrhoea and enteropooling induced by castor oil; however, the distance travelled by charcoal meal in the intestine was not change. These data suggest that the antidiarrhoeic effect of the essential oil from E. dysenterica leaves is related to its ability to inhibit intestinal secretion and/or to increase intestinal absorption.

  13. Metal soaps in oil paint : Structure, mechanisms and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, oil paintings are not stable objects. Visually, changes in the appearance of an oil painting might be very slow, but over the course of centuries, chemical reactions and physical processes do affect the colour, texture and integrity of oil paint layers. This thesis aim

  14. Metal soaps in oil paint : Structure, mechanisms and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, oil paintings are not stable objects. Visually, changes in the appearance of an oil painting might be very slow, but over the course of centuries, chemical reactions and physical processes do affect the colour, texture and integrity of oil paint layers. This thesis

  15. Subsurface ecosystems - Oil triggered life: Opportunities for the petroleum industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kraan, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Areas of research - Petroleum microbiology: Determination of the microbial diversity of oil reservoirs and oil associated ecosystems (wellhead samples and oil field core samples). This research is performed to investigate if microbes can serve as indicators for changing conditions in subsurface

  16. A systematic review of high-oleic vegetable oil substitutions for other fats and oils on cardiovascular disease risk factors: implications for novel high-oleic soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    High-oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)(6) risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ≥70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n-6 PUFAs for ≥3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: -5.7%, -9.2%, -7.3%, -11.7%, -12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P oils high in n-6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n-6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on plasma lipid risk factors and overall CHD risk.

  17. Monitoring automotive oil degradation: analytical tools and onboard sensing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L

    2012-09-01

    Engine oil experiences a number of thermal and oxidative phases that yield acidic products in the matrix consequently leading to degradation of the base oil. Generally, oil oxidation is a complex process and difficult to elucidate; however, the degradation pathways can be defined for almost every type of oil because they mainly depend on the mechanical status and operating conditions. The exact time of oil change is nonetheless difficult to predict, but it is of great interest from an economic and ecological point of view. In order to make a quick and accurate decision about oil changes, onboard assessment of oil quality is highly desirable. For this purpose, a variety of physical and chemical sensors have been proposed along with spectroscopic strategies. We present a critical review of all these approaches and of recent developments to analyze the exact lifetime of automotive engine oil. Apart from their potential for degradation monitoring, their limitations and future perspectives have also been investigated.

  18. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibragimov Abdulla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011, to encourage more downstream investments and production of refined palm oil products. Under the revised export duty structure, crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil are cheaper for downstream activities in Indonesia. The new structure is expected to reduce Malaysia’s competitiveness in the world market as its export duty is relatively higher. A high export duty results in high price of crude palm oil which is the raw material for processed palm oil. The research questions are: (i What are the likely future trends of crude palm oil exports under the new crude palm oil export duties? Will it increase, reduce or stabilize? (ii What are the likely future trends of processed palm oil exports? Will it increase exponentially, stabilize or reduce? To answer these questions, a system dynamics model was developed for the Malaysian palm oil. Application of the system dynamics model provides a framework to understand the feedback structure and how changes in variables impact the behavior of the palm oil industry. This research suggests that with low crude palm oil export duties crude palm oil domestic price, profitability of plantation owners, immature crop, mature crop, total planted area, production and exports of crude palm oil increase, however exports of processed palm oil decrease.

  19. Novel Application of the Flotation Technique To Measure the Wettability Changes by Ionically Modified Water for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohal, Muhammad Adeel Nassar; Thyne, Geoffrey; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2016-01-01

    , then there is no need for ionically modified water. A number of methods have been devised to identify the wetting conditions including contact angle measurements, spontaneous imbibition, and chromatographic separation, etc. But contact angle measurement requires surfaces that lack natural surface roughness, spontaneous...... equipment. Using this technique we were able to quantify the wettability alteration caused by low salinity and potential determining anions (PDAs) such as SO42−, BO33−, and PO43−. The wettability data show maximum oil recovery by dilution is coincident with maximum wettability alteration. The experiments...... also show that the presence of sulfate or borate enhances wettability alteration by dilution. Moreover, the combined and individual effect of potential scale forming ions (Ba2+ and Sr2+) on wettability restoration was identified. The effect of interfacial tension (IFT) on the measured wettability...

  20. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  1. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  2. Experimental Study on DC Inverter Compressor lubricant oil Changes under Harsh Conditions%恶劣条件下直流变频压缩机润滑油位变化的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁小波; 程德威

    2014-01-01

    针对直流变频自由拖5 HP外机进行实验,以四台低静压风管机室内机为实验对象,在各种恶劣工况条件下研究润滑油变化时,系统应采取何种相应控制手段,并从系统控制方面进行精细的设计,确保直流变频压缩机润滑油的可靠性。%The experiment aimed at the DC inverter free drag 5HP outdoor machine, with four sets of low static pressure air duct machine indoor machine as the experimental objects, in various bad working conditions, to make a research on lubricating oil changes, study the corresponding control methods adopted by the system, have fine design from the aspect of system control in order to ensure the reliability of DC inverter compressor lubricating oil.

  3. Experimental oil release on Haltenbanken 1982. Drifting and spreading of oil. [Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerstroem, S.E.; Johansen, Oe; Celius, K.K.; Audunson, T.; Steinbakke, P.

    1984-03-29

    In the experiment, 100 m/sup 3/ of Statfjord crude oil was released at Haltenbanken. The oil was followed for 7 days and projects concerning drifting and spreading of oil, microbiological decay and ecological effects, ecological studies of the impact on fish, zooplancton, fish eggs and larvae, training with equipment and control functions and experiment leading and coordination were carried out. In this project ''drifting and spreading of oil'' information on physical environment, decay of oil, mixing of oil in water, oil spill surveillance, warning and simulation and numerical modelling are collected. The results of these areas were compared to the mathematical simulation and warning models Oilsim and Sliktrak. New methods for in situ measurements for relative values of oil in water were used. It was found that most of the physical and chemical changes of oil spills occur during the first 24 hours. The drifting and alterations of the oil was recorded and a new simulation model for three-dimentional spreading of oil in water was made. 49 tables, 130 drawings, 32 references.

  4. Ultrasonic assessment of oil quality during frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, Jose; Mulet, Antonio; Velasco, J; Dobarganes, M Carmen

    2002-07-31

    In this paper, changes in ultrasonic properties during thermoxidation of virgin olive oil were studied. Samples of virgin olive oil were heated over different periods of time from 2 to 16 h at 200 degrees C. Oil degradation was characterized by means of physical and chemical changes, i.e., viscosity, color, polar compounds, polymers, and polar fatty acids. Ultrasonic measurements were carried out while the oil sample was cooled from 35 to 25 degrees C. It was found that velocity and attenuation measurements were related to viscosity measurements through a classical equation for viscous liquids. The ultrasonic measurements were also related to the percentages of polar compounds and polymers, which shows the feasibility of using ultrasonic properties to monitor oil quality. Nevertheless, as long as the ultrasonic measurements are temperature dependent, this variable must be controlled in order to obtain repetitive and reliable measurements.

  5. Modelling the world oil market: Assessment of a quarterly econometric model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Stephane [European Central Bank, Kaiserstrasse 29, 60311 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: stephane.dees@ecb.int; Karadeloglou, Pavlos [European Central Bank, Kaiserstrasse 29, 60311 Frankfurt-am-Main (Germany); Kaufmann, Robert K. [Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Boston University (United States); Sanchez, Marcelo [European Central Bank, Kaiserstrasse 29, 60311 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    This paper describes a structural econometric model of the world oil market that can be used to analyse oil market developments and risks. Oil demand depends on domestic economic activity and the real price of oil. Oil supply for non-OPEC producers, based on competitive behaviours, is constrained by geological and institutional conditions. Oil prices are determined by a 'price rule' that includes market conditions and OPEC behaviour. Policy simulations indicate that oil demand and non-OPEC supply are rather inelastic to changes in price, while OPEC decisions about quota and capacity utilisation have a significant, immediate impact on oil prices.

  6. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  7. Middle-Skilled Workforce Needs in a Changing Oil and Gas Industry: the Role of Flexibility. As the Oil Industry continues to shed jobs due to the global downturn in oil prices, one of the most vulnerable sectors to job loss are the middle-skilled workers such as the technicians and drill operators. We present options and ideas to mitigate the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.

    2015-12-01

    Middle-skilled workers are those whose jobs require considerable skill but not an advanced degree. Nationwide, one-third of the projected job growth for 2010-2020 will require middle-skilled workers. The educational paths to these jobs include career and technical education (CTE), certificates and associate's degrees from community colleges, apprenticeship programs, and training provided by employers. In the oil industry, the demand is expected to about 150,000 jobs. In environmental restoration and monitoring, there will be a need for at least 15,000 middle-skilled workers. Examples of the types of jobs include geological and petroleum technicians, derrick and drill operators, and pump system and refinery operators for the oil and gas sector. For the environmental restoration and monitoring sector, the types of jobs include environmental science technicians, and forest (and coastal) conservation technicians and workers. However, all of these numbers will be influenced by the growth and contraction of the regional or national economy that is not uncommon in the private sector. Over the past year, for example, the oil and gas industry has shed approximately 75,000 jobs (out of a workforce of 600,000) here in the United States, due almost exclusively to the drop of oil prices globally. A disproportionate number of the lost jobs were among the middle-skilled workforce. Meanwhile, the recent settlements stemming from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are expected to create a surge of environmental restoration activity in the Gulf of Mexico region that has the potential to create thousands of new jobs over the next decade and beyond. Consequently, there is a need to develop education, training and apprenticeship programs that will help develop flexibility and complementary skill sets among middle-skilled workers that could help reduce the impacts of economic downturns and meet the needs of newly expanding sectors such as the environmental restoration field. This

  8. Effects of experimental releases of oil and dispersed oil on Arctic nearshore macrobenthos. 1. Infauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, W.E.; Thomson, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental subsurface release of chemically dispersed oil at Cape Hatt, northern Baffin Island, resulted in short-term, relatively high oil concentrations in the waters of two adjacent bays, whereas untreated oil released onto the surface of a third bay could not be detected in the water below a depth of 1 m. Observations revealed no apparent short-term effects of untreated oil on shallow water infauna, whereas market acute effects on infauna, including emergence from the substrate and narcosis, were apparent in the dipsersed oil bays within 24 h of the release. Analysis of systematic samples at depths of 3 and 7 m showed that most affected animals recovered. Neither type of oil release caused any large-scale mortality of benthic infauna. Multivariate analyses showed no significant change in infaunal community structure, and effects attributable to oil were found in only 3 of 72 univariate analyses of density, biomass or size data for individual taxa. A progressive decrease in the condition of the filter-feeding bivalve Serripes groenlandicus in the reference bay was apparently the result of exposure to dilute dispersed oil for several days. A similar effect on condition in the surface deposit-feeding bivalve Mocoma calcarea was apparently caused by relatively low oil concentrations in the sediments of the dispersed and surface oil release bays. There were no apparent effects on recruitment in bivalve species with plantonic larvae, but density changes in the polychaete Spio indicated that oil in the sediments of the surface oil release and dispersed oil release bays affected reproductive processes. Effects on the condition of the bivalves were still evident two years post-spill in 1983, the last year of sampling. 75 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. CONTAGIOUS EFFECTS OF OIL PRICES ON ASIAN STOCK MARKETS’ BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jok-Tong Wan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the stock markets’ shock due to the effect of the price of oil in the East Asia Region. Particularly, this study examines if there is stock market interdependence during global oil price shocks (sudden changes for a sample of five total oil importers (the Philippines, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan, four net oil importers (Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, and China, and one net oil exporter (Malaysia between 1999 and 2014. From the result, an oil price change is collectively found to have a small but significant positive impact on the stock markets, in particular where a sudden decrease in oil prices tends to cause a stock market downturn and volatility. The world economy’s spending, financial investments in oil futures and foreign investment by oil rich nations are some underlying motives for inducing this oil-stock positive relation. The same direction of time-varying conditional correlations is found across East Asian stock markets during negative oil price shocks. The integration among East Asian stock markets is inducing the oil shock contagion to be transmitted from direct oil-affected countries (South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore to non-direct oil affected countries’ (Japan and Taiwan stock markets. In spite of a long practiced ASEAN+3 macroeconomics surveillance process and Early Warning System (EWS which can be customized for stock markets to prevent or detect the oil risk, hedging against initial oil-affected stock markets and a stronger influence by the East Asian countries in the global world of oil and capital investment are strongly suggested.

  10. Reserve growth of the world's giant oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of estimated total recoverable oil volume (field size) of 186 well-known giant oil fields of the world (>0.5 billion bbl of oil, discovered prior to 1981), exclusive of the United States and Canada, demonstrates general increases in field sizes through time. Field sizes were analyzed as a group and within subgroups of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and non-OPEC countries. From 1981 through 1996, the estimated volume of oil in the 186 fields for which adequate data were available increased from 617 billion to 777 billion bbl of oil (26%). Processes other than new field discoveries added an estimated 160 billion bbl of oil to known reserves in this subset of the world's oil fields. Although methods for estimating field sizes vary among countries, estimated sizes of the giant oil fields of the world increased, probably for many of the same reasons that estimated sizes of oil fields in the United States increased over the same time period. Estimated volumes in OPEC fields increased from a total of 550 billion to 668 billion bbl of oil and volumes in non-OPEC fields increased from 67 billion to 109 billion bbl of oil. In terms of percent change, non-OPEC field sizes increased more than OPEC field sizes (63% versus 22%). The changes in estimated total recoverable oil volumes that occurred within three 5-year increments between 1981 and 1996 were all positive. Between 1981 and 1986, the increase in estimated total recoverable oil volume within the 186 giant oil fields was 11 billion bbl of oil; between 1986 and 1991, the increase was 120 billion bbl of oil; and between 1991 and 1996, the increase was 29 billion bbl of oil. Fields in both OPEC and non-OPEC countries followed trends of substantial reserve growth.

  11. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  12. Oil migration in 2-component confectionery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Winston L; McCarthy, Michael J; McCarthy, Kathryn L

    2010-01-01

    Oil migration from high oil content centers into chocolate coatings results in product quality changes. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in 2-layer systems of increasing phase complexity. Three 2-layer systems were prepared: peanut oil/cocoa butter; peanut butter paste/cocoa butter; and peanut butter paste/chocolate. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure liquid oil signal as a function of position over a storage time of 193 days at 25 degrees C. The 3 types of samples exhibited appreciably different patterns of oil migration. The peanut oil/cocoa butter samples had mass transfer typical of oil being absorbed into a liquid/solid region. The peanut butter paste/cocoa butter magnetic resonance profiles were characterized by mass transfer with a partition coefficient greater than unity. The peanut butter paste/chocolate samples exhibited a time-dependent peanut oil concentration at the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste. The spatial and temporal experimental data of the peanut butter paste/chocolate samples were modeled using a Fickian diffusion model, fitting for the effective diffusivity. Values of the diffusivity for the 6 chocolate formulations ranged from 1.10 to 2.01 x 10(-13) m(2)/s, with no statistically significant differences.

  13. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  14. Oil spill contingency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kip, S.H. (Sarawak Shell Bhd/Saban Shell Petroleum Co. Ltd. (MY))

    1988-01-01

    Oil spill contingency planning is an essential feature required in present day activities involving oil and gas exploration, production and transportation. A well through out continency plan will not only eliminate or minimize the sense of panic, normally associated with oil spill emergency, but also can minimize damage and cost involved. Oil spill contingency planning is a process of predetermining a response to an oil spill emergency. The process of preparing a contingency plan is discussed in this paper.

  15. Developments in Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    demonstration (RD&D). The ongoing program will confirm whether an economically significant shale oil volume can be extracted under current operating...Petroleum Trade, [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/pdf/pages/sec1_15.pdf]. 2 Oil sands yield a bitumen substantially heavier most crude oils and shale oil. 3...hydrocarbon products that can be extracted from the shale. The most promising oil shales occur in the Green River formation that underlies 16,000 square

  16. Sector Modeling for the Prediction and Evaluation of Cretan olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migdalas, A.; Baourakis, G.; Kalogeras, N.; Meriem, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Greece is a major international olive oil producer. Olive oil varieties constitute the major crops for Greek farmers growing certain oriental olive oil varieties. Currently, the olive oil sector in Greece is undergoing substantial changes and the response of farmers and consumers to this will be a

  17. Sector Modeling for the Prediction and Evaluation of Cretan olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migdalas, A.; Baourakis, G.; Kalogeras, N.; Meriem, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Greece is a major international olive oil producer. Olive oil varieties constitute the major crops for Greek farmers growing certain oriental olive oil varieties. Currently, the olive oil sector in Greece is undergoing substantial changes and the response of farmers and consumers to this will be a v

  18. Evolution of the Moxizhuang Oil Field, Central Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Huayao; Zhang Yuanchun; Liu Jianzhang; Shi Jiannan

    2008-01-01

    Current oil saturation in the Moxizhuang (莫西庄) Oil Field in central Janggar (准噶尔) basin was evaluated by logging interpretation and measured on core samples, and the paleo-oil saturation in both the pay zones and water zones was investigated by graln-containing-oil inclusion (GOI) analysis.The pay zones in this field have low oil saturation and display low resistivity and small contrast between pay zones and water zones, and are classified as low-porosity, low oil saturation, and low resistivity reservoirs. Both the current low oil-saturation pay zones and the water zones above 4 365 m have high GOI values (up to 38%), suggesting high paleo-oil saturation. The significant difference between current oil saturation from both logging interpretation and core sample measurement and paleo-oil saturation indicated by GOI analysis suggests that this low oil-saturation field evolved from a high oil-saturation pool. Lateral re-migration and spill of formally trapped oil owing to changes in structural configuration since Neogene was the most plausible mechanism for oil loss in the Moxizhuang Oil Field.The combined effects of differential accumulation in the charge phase and the differential re-migration and spill of accumulated oil in Neogene are responsible for the complicated correlation between residual oil saturation and porosity/permeability of the reservoir sandstones and the distribution of low oil-saturation pay zones and paleo-oil zones (current water zones).

  19. Investigation of Fuel Oil/Lube Oil Spray Fires On Board Vessels. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    case, a temporary change to a duplex strainer defeated an original safeguard ( safety pin ) provided by the manufacturer. This eventually led to an oil...strainer elements. In NTSB01, a temporary change to the strainer defeated an original safeguard ( safety pin ) provided by the manufacturer. This eventually...a temporary change to a duplex strainer defeated an original safeguard ( safety pin ) provided by the manufacturer. This eventually led to an oil

  20. Pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) for biogas production: structural changes and digestion improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandari, Fiametta Ayu; Sanjaya, Adhitya Pitara; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2013-01-01

    Pretreatment of OPEFB (oil palm empty fruit bunch) by NMMO (N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide) on its subsequent digestions was investigated. The pretreatments were carried out at 90 and 120 °C for 1, 3, and 5h in three different modes of dissolution (by 85% NMMO solution), ballooning (79% NMMO solution), and swelling (73% NMMO solution). The total solid recovery after the pretreatment was 89-94%. The pretreatment process did not have a major impact on the composition of OPEFB, other than a reduction of ash from 5.4% up to 1.3%. The best improvement in biogas production was achieved by a dissolution mode pretreatment of OPEFB, using conditions of 85% NMMO, 3h, and 120 °C. It resulted in 0.408 Nm(3)/kg VS methane yield and 0.032 Nm(3)CH(4)/kg VS/day initial methane production rate, which correspond in improving by 48% and 167% compared to the untreated OPEFB, respectively.

  1. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra, R.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO: sunflower oil (SnF and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil.

    Se analizaron diversos parámetros físico-químicos para la evaluación de mezclas de aceites en diferentes proporciones que incluyen: aceite de salvado de arroz físícamente refinado (PRBO: aceite de girasol (SNF y las mezclas PRBO: aceite de cártamo (SAF en diferentes proporciones. La cuantificación de la presencia del aceite de salvado de arroz en las mezclas se llevó a cabo por diferentes métodos, como cromatografía de gases (GC, cromatografía líquida (HPLC, ultrasonidos y métodos basados en otros parámetros f

  2. Oil components modulate physical characteristics and function of the natural oil emulsions as drug or gene delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H; Kim, T W; Kwon, M; Kwon, I C; Jeong, S Y

    2001-04-28

    Oil-in-water (o/w) type lipid emulsions were formulated by using 18 different natural oils and egg phosphatidylcholine (egg PC) to investigate how emulsion particle size and stability change with different oils. Cottonseed, linseed and evening primrose oils formed emulsions with very large and unstable particles. Squalene, light mineral oil and jojoba bean oil formed stable emulsions with small particles. The remaining natural oils formed moderately stable emulsions. Emulsions with smaller initial particle size were more stable than those with larger particles. The correlation between emulsion size made with different oils and two physical properties of the oils was also investigated. The o/w interfacial tension and particle size of the emulsion were inversely proportional. The effect of viscosity was less pronounced. To study how the oil component in the emulsion modulates the in vitro release characteristics of lipophilic drugs, three different emulsions loaded with two different drugs were prepared. Squalene, soybean oil and linseed oil emulsions represented the most, medium and the least stable systems, respectively. For the lipophilic drugs, release was the slowest from the most stable squalene emulsion, followed by soybean oil and then by linseed oil emulsions. Cationic emulsions were also prepared with the above three different oils as gene carriers. In vitro transfection activity was the highest for the most stable squalene emulsion followed by soybean oil and then by linseed oil emulsions. Even though the in vitro transfection activity of emulsions were lower than the liposome in the absence of serum, the activity of squalene emulsion, for instance, was ca. 30 times higher than that of liposome in the presence of 80% (v/v) serum. In conclusion, the choice of oil component in o/w emulsion is important in formulating emulsion-based drug or gene delivery systems.

  3. Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Tsz-Tsun; So, Pui-Kin; Zheng, Bo [Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control and State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen (China); Yao, Zhong-Ping, E-mail: zhongping.yao@polyu.edu.hk [Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control and State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen (China)

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • Simplified sample preparation method for direct analysis of edible oils by MALDI-MS. • Establishment of a preliminary MALDI-MS spectral database of edible oils. • Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils. - Abstract: Authentication of edible oils is a long-term issue in food safety, and becomes particularly important with the emergence and wide spread of gutter oils in recent years. Due to the very high analytical demand and diversity of gutter oils, a high throughput analytical method and a versatile strategy for authentication of mixed edible oils and gutter oils are highly desirable. In this study, an improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method has been developed for direct analysis of edible oils. This method involved on-target sample loading, automatic data acquisition and simple data processing. MALDI-MS spectra with high quality and high reproducibility have been obtained using this method, and a preliminary spectral database of edible oils has been set up. The authenticity of an edible oil sample can be determined by comparing its MALDI-MS spectrum and principal component analysis (PCA) results with those of its labeled oil in the database. This method is simple and the whole process only takes several minutes for analysis of one oil sample. We demonstrated that the method was sensitive to change in oil compositions and can be used for measuring compositions of mixed oils. The capability of the method for determining mislabeling enables it for rapid screening of gutter oils since fraudulent mislabeling is a common feature of gutter oils.

  4. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were...... liquid organics yield. In addition, the chemical compositions of the bio-oils and the chars of the investigated feedstocks were also analyzed. The utilization of the pyrolysis oil in static combustion equipments such as boilers and turbine have shown that the suitability of the pyrolysis oil...... to substitute fossil fuel. However, several limitations still arise due to the instability of the pyrolysis oil that may cause problems with transport and storage. Pyrolysis oil contains more than hundred of chemical compounds and has a wide range of volatility (different boiling points). The stability...

  5. Experimental study of oil plume stability: Parametric dependences and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoshuai; Shen, Tiantian; Bao, Mutai

    2016-10-15

    Oil plume is known to interact with density layer in spilled oil. Previous studies mainly focused on tracking oil plumes and predicting their impact on marine environment. Here, simulated experiments are presented that investigated the conditions inducing the formation of oil plume, focusing especially on the effects of oil/water volume ratio, oil/dispersant volume rate, ambient stratification and optimal conditions of oil plume on determining whether a plume will trap or escape. Scenario simulations showed that OWR influences the residence time most, dispersants dosage comes second and salinity least. The optimum residence time starts from 2387s, occurred at approximately condition (OWR, 0.1, DOR, 25.53% and salinity, 32.38). No change in the relative distribution under the more scale tank was observed, indicating these provide the time evolution of the oil plumes.

  6. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of oil shale: oil yield, composition, and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J H; Huss, E B; Ott, L L; Clarkson, J E; Bishop, M O; Taylor, J R; Gregory, L J; Morris, C J

    1982-09-01

    A quartz isothermal fluidized-bed reactor has been used to measure kinetics and oil properties relevant to surface processing of oil shale. The rate of oil formation has been described with two sequential first-order rate equations characterized by two rate constants, k/sub 1/ = 2.18 x 10/sup 10/ exp(-41.6 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/ and k/sub 2/ = 4.4 x 10/sup 6/ exp(-29.7 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/. These rate constants together with an expression for the appropriate weighting coefficients describe approximately 97/sup +/% of the total oil produced. A description is given of the results of different attempts to mathematically describe the data in a manner suitable for modeling applications. Preliminary results are also presented for species-selective kinetics of methane, ethene, ethane and hydrogen, where the latter is clearly distinguished as the product of a distinct intermediate. Oil yields from Western oil shale are approximately 100% Fischer assay. Oil composition is as expected based on previous work and the higher heating rates (temperatures) inherent in fluidized-bed pyrolysis. Neither the oil yield, composition nor the kinetics varied with particle size between 0.2 and 2.0 mm within experimental error. The qualitatively expected change in oil composition due to cracking was observed over the temperature range studied (460 to 540/sup 0/C). Eastern shale exhibited significantly faster kinetics and higher oil yields than did Western shale.

  7. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of oil shale: oil yield, composition, and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J H; Huss, E B; Ott, L L; Clarkson, J E; Bishop, M O; Taylor, J R; Gregory, L J; Morris, C J

    1982-09-01

    A quartz isothermal fluidized-bed reactor has been used to measure kinetics and oil properties relevant to surface processing of oil shale. The rate of oil formation has been described with two sequential first-order rate equations characterized by two rate constants, k/sub 1/ = 2.18 x 10/sup 10/ exp(-41.6 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/ and k/sub 2/ = 4.4 x 10/sup 6/ exp(-29.7 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/. These rate constants together with an expression for the appropriate weighting coefficients describe approximately 97/sup +/% of the total oil produced. A description is given of the results of different attempts to mathematically describe the data in a manner suitable for modeling applications. Preliminary results are also presented for species-selective kinetics of methane, ethene, ethane and hydrogen, where the latter is clearly distinguished as the product of a distinct intermediate. Oil yields from Western oil shale are approximately 100% Fischer assay. Oil composition is as expected based on previous work and the higher heating rates (temperatures) inherent in fluidized-bed pyrolysis. Neither the oil yield, composition nor the kinetics varied with particle size between 0.2 and 2.0 mm within experimental error. The qualitatively expected change in oil composition due to cracking was observed over the temperature range studied (460 to 540/sup 0/C). Eastern shale exhibited significantly faster kinetics and higher oil yields than did Western shale.

  8. Oil and oil dispersant do not cause synergistic toxicity to fish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julie; Sweezey, Michael; Hodson, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) embryos were exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAFs; oil dissolved in water) and chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions (CEWAFs; oil dispersed in water with Corexit 9500A) of Medium South American (MESA) crude oil. The CEWAF was approximately 100-fold more toxic than WAF based on nominal loadings of test solutions (% v/v). In contrast, the ratio of WAF and CEWAF toxicity expressed as measured oil concentrations approximated 1.0, indicating that the higher toxicity of CEWAFs was caused by an increase in exposure to hydrocarbons with chemical dispersion. In a second experiment, the chronic toxicity of Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed heavy fuel oil 7102 (HFO 7102) to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos was compared to chemically dispersed Nujol, a nontoxic mineral oil. Dispersant alone was toxic, but caused different signs of toxicity than HFO 7102. Nujol at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:20 was nontoxic, suggesting that dispersant was sequestered by oil and not present at toxic concentrations. In contrast, the same nominal loadings of dispersed HFO 7102 caused concentration-dependent increases in toxicity. Both experiments suggest that chemically dispersed oil was more toxic to fish embryos than solutions created by mechanical mixing due to the increased exposure of fish to petroleum hydrocarbons and not to changes in hydrocarbon toxicity. The Nujol control discriminated between the toxicity of oil and chemical dispersant and would be a practical addition to programs of dispersant testing.

  9. NaCl stress-induced changes in the essential oil quality and abietane diterpene yield and composition in common sage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taieb Tounekti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how increasing NaCl salinity in the medium can affects the essential oils (EOs composition and phenolic diterpene content and yield in leaves of Salvia officinalis L. The protective role of such compounds against NaCl stress was also argued with regard to some physiological characteristics of the plant (water and ionic relations as well as the leaf gas exchanges. Materials and Methods: Potted plants were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 75 and 100 mM for 4 weeks during July 2012. Replicates from each treatment were harvested after 0, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of adding salt to perform physiological measurements and biochemical analysis. Results: Sage EOs were rich in manool, viridiflorol, camphor, and borneol. Irrigation with a solution containing 100 mM NaCl for 4 weeks increased considerably 1.8-cineole, camphor and beta-thujone concentrations, whereas lower concentrations (50 and 75 mM had no effects. On the contrary, borneol and viridiflorol concentrations decreased significantly under the former treatment, while manool and total fatty acid concentrations were not affected. Leaf extracts contained also several diterpenes such as carnosic acid (CA, carnosol (CAR and 12- and #1054;-methoxy carnosic acid (MCA. The concentrations and total contents of CA and MCA increased after 3 weeks of irrigation with 75 or 100 mM NaCl. The 50 mM NaCl had no effect on these diterpenes. Our results suggest a protective role for CA against salinity stress. Conclusion: This study may provide ways to manipulate the concentration and yield of some phenolic diterpenes and EOs in sage. In fact soil salinity may favour a directional production of particular components of interest. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 208-216

  10. Changes of Petroleum Acid Distribution Characterized by FT-ICR MS in Heavy Acidic Crude Oil after True Boiling Point Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yingrong; Zhang Qundan; Wang Wei; Liu Zelong; Zhu Xinyi; Tian Songbai

    2014-01-01

    The molecular transformations of carboxylic acids in heavy acidic SL crude before and after true boiling point distillation were examined by ultra-high resolution negative-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclo-tron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). The acid class (heteroatom number), type (z numbers) and carbon number distributions were positively characterized. It was found out that the total acid number (TAN) of SL crude decreased after true boiling point distillation, and the abundance of O2 class in mass spectra was also found to be reduced from 67.6%to 34.5%in SL TBP mixed crude as measured by MS spectra, indicating to a potential carboxylic acid decomposition. However, it was interesting that the carboxylic acids type distribution in both oils was almost the same although their relative abundance in SL TBP mixed crude turned to be much lower, suggesting that various petroleum carboxylic acid types have the similar thermal decomposition reaction behavior. Furthermore, for each O2 type of acids in SL TBP mixed crude, the abundance of carboxylic acids with carbon number higher than 35 was reduced greatly, especially for those with carbon number higher than 60, the mass peaks of which were nearly totally removed, indicating that the large carboxylic acid molecules in heavy fractions decomposed more signiifcantly because of longer heating time during the true boiling point distillation process. As a result, the reduction of TAN may be caused by the thermal decomposition of carboxylic acids especially those with high carbon number, suggesting that quick distillation or much lower pressure is required to avoid the thermal decomposition.

  11. Vegetative changes in boreal peatlands along salinity gradients resulting from produced water spills : implications for the environmental assessment and remediation of upstream oil and gas sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, D.; Harris, C.; Meier, M. [AECOM Canada Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In the province of Alberta, there are approximately 8,000 registered oil effluent and produced pipelines that have significant potential for ruptures and spills due to the highly corrosive nature of the emulsions and produced water they transport. Most releases occur in or adjacent to northern boreal wetlands. The first objective in spill response involves assessment and remediation for residuals, which involves handling and disposal of large volumes of salinized water. This presentation reported on a study that addressed the issues regarding the ecological features of semi-terrestrial and semi-aquatic components of boreal wetland environments as a basis for environmental protection at salt release sites. The fate of salt ions in such environments was examined along with the implications for secondary succession and ecological restoration. The study also examined the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in soils or water beyond which there is an inhibition to wetlands plants and bryophyte secondary succession; the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in water beyond which there may be adverse effects on invertebrates, vertebrates and other non-plant taxa; and species sensitivity distributions for floral and faunal assemblages found in boreal wetland habitats. The presentation summarized the 3 phases of a project that examined pipeline ruptures at 9 sites. Field methods and site sampling summaries were presented. It was difficult to locate study sites with residual salt contamination in surface media at concentrations above effects threshold for many species. It was concluded that the departures between surface and subsurface salinity indicates a smaller potential for effects on site vegetation. tabs., figs.

  12. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties.

  13. Do structural oil-market shocks affect stock prices?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, 80 Karaoli and Dimitriou Str, 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Miller, Stephen M. [Department of Economics, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    2009-07-15

    This paper investigates how explicit structural shocks that characterize the endogenous character of oil price changes affect stock-market returns in a sample of eight countries - Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. For each country, the analysis proceeds in two steps. First, modifying the procedure of Kilian [Not All Oil Price Shocks are Alike: Disentangling Demand and Supply Shocks in the Crude Oil Market. American Economic Review.], we employ a vector error-correction or vector autoregressive model to decompose oil-price changes into three components: oil-supply shocks, global aggregate-demand shocks, and global oil-demand shocks. The last component relates to specific idiosyncratic features of the oil market, such as changes in the precautionary demand concerning the uncertainty about the availability of future oil supplies. Second, recovering the oil-supply shocks, global aggregate-demand shocks, and global oil-demand shocks from the first analysis, we then employ a vector autoregressive model to determine the effects of these structural shocks on the stock market returns in our sample of eight countries. We find that international stock market returns do not respond in a large way to oil market shocks. That is, the significant effects that exist prove small in magnitude. (author)

  14. Analysis of Impact of Oil Development on Liaohe Oilfield Wetland Landscape Pattern Change%石油开发对辽河油田湿地景观格局变化的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任雯; 岳勇; 陈梅梅

    2012-01-01

    通过对1989-2009年20年间景观格局的空间分布、变化特征以及变化趋势分析,揭示了造成双台子河自然保护区环境变化的主要驱动力是人类活动和社会经济发展的影响,定量计算了石油开发对研究区域景观格局变化的影响.结果显示:1989-2009年双台河口自然保护区的土地利用类型发生了很大的变化,景观破碎度明显增加,人类活动导致保护区内的土地利用和景观格局也发生了明显变化,但油田开发在总的土地利用变化中的贡献率仅为4.6%.%Through the analyses of the spatial distribution, variation characteristics and variation tendency of the landscape pattern during the past 20 years from 1989 to 2009, this paper reveals that the main driving force causing environmental change of the nature reserve of Shuangtaizi River is the impact of human activities and socio-economic development and it quantitatively calculates the impact of oil development on the landscape pattern change in the study area. The results show that the land use type of Shuangtaihekou nature reserve has undergone a drastic change from 1989 to 2009, the fragmentation degree of landscape has increased significantly, and land use and landscape pattern of the protected areas has also undergone a significant change caused by human activities. However, the contribution rate of the oilfield development in overall land-use change is only 4.6%.

  15. Biodegradable foam plastics based on castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong Juan; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu; Hu, Jing; Chen, Hui Wen; Czigány, Tibor

    2008-02-01

    In this work, a simple but effective approach was proposed for preparing biodegradable plastic foams with a high content of castor oil. First of all, castor oil reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleated castor oil (MACO) without the aid of any catalyst. Then plastic foams were synthesized through free radical initiated copolymerization between MACO and diluent monomer styrene. With changes in MACO/St ratio and species of curing initiator, mechanical properties of MACO foams can be easily adjusted. In this way, biofoams with comparable compressive stress at 25% strain as commercial polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared, while the content of castor oil can be as high as 61 wt %. The soil burial tests further proved that the castor oil based foams kept the biodegradability of renewable resources despite the fact that some petrol-based components were introduced.

  16. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery - Advanced Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    In this project, a generic model has been set up to include the two main mechanisms in the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process; reduction of the interfacial tension (IFT) due to surfactant production, and microscopic fluid diversion as a part of the overall fluid diversion mechanism due......, bacterial growth, substrate consumption, and surfactant production in one dimension. The system comprises oil, water, bacteria, substrate, and surfactant. There are two flowing phases: Water and oil. We introduce the partition of surfactant between these two phases determined by a partitioning constant......, the curve levels off. Partitioning of surfactant between the oil and water phase is a novel effect in the context of microbial enhanced oil recovery. The partitioning coefficient determines the time lag before the surfactant effect can be seen. The surfactant partitioning does not change final recovery...

  17. Peak oil, food systems, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Roni A; Parker, Cindy L; Kirschenmann, Frederick L; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S

    2011-09-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all.

  18. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia. The physical and monetary balance sheets for crude oil and natural gas for the period 2000- 2007 was constructed. The net present value of expected future incomes to reflect the value of resource change was calculated based on a physical extraction and a resource rent scenario. Resource rent is gross operating surplus less the estimated user cost of produced capital in the crude oil and ...

  19. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  20. SUITABILITY OF SOYBEAN SEED OIL AS TRANSFORMER OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Egbuna, S.O.*, Ude, O.C., Ude, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    In search of solution to the harmful ecological problems due to toxicity and non-biodegradability posed by conventional transformer insulation oil (mineral oil), the production of transformer oil from soybean seed oil (vegetable oil) was carried out. The oil was extracted using n-hexane and was refined. The transformer oil was produced by transesterification and was characterized using American Society for Testing Material (ASTM) standard test. The solvent employed gave good yield of oil from...

  1. Blood and tissue fatty acid compositions, lipoprotein levels, performance and meat flavor of broilers fed fish oil: changes in the pre- and post-withdrawal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, N; Safamehr, A; Mehmannavaz, Y; Chekaniazar, S

    2012-12-01

    Administration of fish oil (FO) in broiler diets can elevate α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) levels, which are protective against cardiovascular disease. However, optimization based solely on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enrichment in chicken meat could lead to lower meat quality, unless the withdrawal period (plan) is applied for 1 week. The present study investigated whether the incorporation of FO in the diet for 32 days followed by its withdrawal for 1 week affected blood lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, performance and meat flavor in male broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty birds (1-day-old, Ross 308) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary groups: 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% FO with four replicates. Broilers were fed for 49 days according to a 4-phase feeding program. The experimental phase comprised day 11 to 42, and FO was removed on day 42. Blood samples were collected during the pre- and post-withdrawal period after the recordings before slaughter. The FO groups demonstrated decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased high-density lipoprotein levels on day 42 (P after design withdrawal. Diet supplementation with FO elevated the blood levels of palmitic acid (C16:0) and n-3 PUFAs, especially long-chain (LC) PUFAs (EPA, C20:5n-3 and DHA, C22:6n-3), and caused a decline in the level of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6; P after institution of the withdrawal design. Degradation of total n-3 FAs deposited in tissues occurred after instituting the withdrawal plan diet, but deposited levels of EPA and DHA in tissues could ensure omega-3 enrichment of broiler meat in groups 3 and 4. On the basis of the dissatisfaction of the panelists toward group 4 meats (scored as near to acceptable) and their satisfaction with cooked samples of T3 (scored as good), group 3 meats were selected as good-quality n-3-enriched broiler meat.

  2. Ecosystem functions of oil palm plantations - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C.; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M.; Corre, Marife D.; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in the last decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. Howev-er, research on the impacts of oil palm agriculture is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview ex-ists. Here, we address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosys-tem functions in oil palm plantations. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those ...

  3. Design of the KOSMOS oil-coupled spectrograph camera lenses

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, Thomas P; Martini, Paul; Poczulp, Gary

    2014-01-01

    We present the design details of oil-coupled lens groups used in the KOSMOS spectrograph camera. The oil-coupled groups use silicone rubber O-rings in a unique way to accurately center lens elements with high radial and axial stiffness while also allowing easy assembly. The O-rings robustly seal the oil within the lens gaps to prevent oil migration. The design of an expansion diaphragm to compensate for differential expansion due to temperature changes is described. The issues of lens assembly, lens gap shimming, oil filling and draining, bubble mitigation, material compatibility, mechanical inspection, and optical testing are discussed.

  4. Challenges and Opportunities of China Oil & Gas Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Xingkun

    2015-01-01

    Chinese economy has turned from rapid development into new normal. With economic transition, demand for oil and gas decreases as well. Consumed diesel-gasoline ratio keeps declining, and diesel export increases considerably. Gas demand grows at medium speed, and supply meets demand in general. Alternative energy dominated by gas and electricity will develop faster. As crude oil import right is gradually liberalized, domestic oil market structure will be changed. Oil price drop brings the best opportunity for oil and gas market reform, and environmental protection becomes main force boosting natural gas development.

  5. Changing water quality in the Middle Mahakam Lakes: Water quality trends in a context of rapid deforestation, mining and palm oil plantation development in Indonesia's Middle Mahakam wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E.B.P. de; Ragas, A.M.J.; Nooteboom, G.; Mursidi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of Indonesia's wetlands is continuing at a rapid pace. People living in the Middle Mahakam Lakes (MML) region, part of a major wetland area in Indonesia, have observed various negative changes in their local environment, especially with regard to water quality. We verify these local

  6. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis-an application to oil prices in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Møller, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport...

  7. HEAVY OIL DEVELOPMENT KEY TO CHINA'S OIL PRODUCTION GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ How to raise the heavy oil production rate has long been a difficult research project focused by international oil giants while the super-heavy oil development is particularly a world-class bottleneck for many oil producers. However, China's main oil companies will give priority to heavy oil exploration and production in the next decade to meet China's increasing energy needs.

  8. Status and tasks of oil refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, I.M. [Korea Petroleum Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The oil refinery industry is currently undergoing more difficulties than other industries. Since crude oil is all imported, whose import amount is the biggest as single item, and usance financing that once extended up to one hundred eighty (180) days is not easy to get under the current exchange and financial crisis, there are many hardships in import of crude oil. With this, domestic petroleum products demand shows sudden decline trend while competition gets more intensified due to remarkable regulation relief and liberalization measures in oil refinery industry such as the liberalization of domestic oil prices, etc. It is estimated that it entered the low growth stage as high-growth age of double-digit ends due to several complicated factors and rapid changes of economic environment. Under these crisis situations, domestic oil refinery industry drives super retrenchment management and restructuring for survival, but they are bombarded with piled up tasks while faced with liberalization and outward opening of imminent oil refinery business and domestic petroleum market. Domestic oil refinery industry should provide petroleum energy, which is blood of national economy and industries steadily without interruption overcoming wisely the worst management crisis with collective wisdom based on the accumulated management know-how and experience for the past first generation, and I also firmly believe that they can do that. 21 tabs.

  9. Influence of physical and chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery in formation microflora and properties of crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, A. G.; Altunina, L. K.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Ovsyannikova, V. S.; Filatov, D. A.; Chuikina, D. I.

    2015-10-01

    The results of the analyzes of crude oil and produced water from wells in the areas of pilot testing of new flow deflection and oil-displacing Compounds developed in the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry SB RAS. It was found that changes in the properties and Compound of the oil and water mainly occur in the redistribution of filtration flows and integration in the development of the previously unwashed areas, as well as in washing off the residual heavy oil from the reservoir rock, and in some wells - due to formation biocenosis, contributing to desorption of oil from the rock.

  10. EFFECTS OF FISH OIL, DHA OIL AND LECITHIN IN MICROPARTICULATE DIETS ON STRESS TOLERANCE OF LARVAL GILTHEAD SEABREAM (SPARUS AURATA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘镜恪; 王文琪; 李岿然; 雷霁霖

    2002-01-01

    The effects of natural fish oil, DHA oil and soybean lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were investigated after 15 days feeding trials. The tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stress factors such as exposure to air ( lack of dissolved oxygen), changes in water temperature (low) and salinity ( high) were determined. This study showed that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and soybean lecithin was the most effective for increasing the tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stresses, and that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and palmitic acid (16:0) was more effective than microparticulate diet with DHA oil and soybean lecithin.

  11. Effects of fish oil, DHA oil and lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Ke; Wang, Wen-Qi; Li, Kui-Ran; Lei, Ji-Lin

    2002-12-01

    The effects of natural fish oil, DHA oil and soybean lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata) were investigated after 15 days feeding trials. The tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stress factors such as exposure to air (lack of dissolved oxygen), changes in water temperature (low) and salinity (high) were determined. This study showed that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and soybean lecithin was the most effective for increasing the tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stresses, and that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and palmitic acid (16∶0) was more effective than microparticulate diet with DHA oil and soybean lecithin.

  12. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER CONSUMPTION FOR SOME OIL PIPE-LINE SECTIONS WITH POOR OPERATIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kolesnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of power consumption for technologically completed and non-completed oil pipe-line sections with poor operational stability has been developed on the basis of daily indices concerning oil transportation regimes. The model permits to take into account tendencies in power consumption under various time prediction cycles and ranges of oil freight turnover, changes in the bulk and characteristics of the transported oil, configuration and design parameters of oil pipe-line.

  13. The future of the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Changes are under way that are moving the oil and gas industry in Norway toward the creation of global energy companies in a global energy market. According to the author, three key forces are creating the changes of oil and gas companies comprising a global market for energy, growing demand - ample supply, and the end-user. 5 figs.

  14. Effect of Specific Oil Surface Area on the Thermal Stressing of Rapeseed Oil During Heating in an Electric Frying Pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyliński, Jakub P; Krygier, Krzysztof; Karlovits, György; Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra

    The effect of specific oil surface (SOS) during pan frying of rapeseed oil on its thermal stability and antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated. Rapeseed oils with different oil layer heights (OLH = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm) were heated on an electric frying pan coated with Teflon at 180 ± 10 °C until a selected end point of 25 % total polar compounds (TPC) was reached. The changes of chemical parameters of oil samples such as peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Totox value, free fatty acids, TPC and AC using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay were determined. Irrespective of the applied methods, the highest changes in oil with OLH = 0.5 cm were observed. Heating in low OLH also led to the fastest time of TPC formation in rapeseed oil; the 0.5-cm layer reached 25 % TPC in a relatively short time (71.5 min) compared to the highest OLH = 2.5 cm (t = 315.1 min). The SOS and the rate of change in the heated oils decreased with increasing OLH. Crucial effects of SOS on physicochemical oil changes were observed. The present study demonstrated the protective effect of increasing the OLH on the quality of the heated rapeseed oils.

  15. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    Although food grains are commonly protected by insecticidal application and fumigation, ... (1978) reported that groundnut oil applied to cowpeas has no effect on mortality or .... Effectiveness of vegetable oil fractions in controlling the Mexican.

  16. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Hamidreza

    2011-04-15

    Primary oil recovery by reservoir pressure depletion and secondary oil recovery by waterflooding usually result in poor displacement efficiency. As a consequence there is always some trapped oil remaining in oil reservoirs. Oil entrapment is a result of complex interactions between viscous, gravity and capillary forces. Improving recovery from hydrocarbon fields typically involves altering the relative importance of the viscous and capillary forces. The potential of many EOR methods depends on their influence on fluid/rock interactions related to wettability and fluid/fluid interactions reflected in IFT. If the method has the potential to change the interactions favorably, it may be considered for further investigation, i.e. core flooding experiment, pilot and reservoir implementation. Enzyme-proteins can be introduced as an enhanced oil recovery method to improve waterflood performance by affecting interactions at the oil-water-rock interfaces. An important part of this thesis was to investigate how selected enzymes may influence wettability and capillary forces in a crude oil-brine-rock system, and thus possibly contribute to enhanced oil recovery. To investigate further by which mechanisms selected enzyme-proteins may contribute to enhance oil recovery, groups of enzymes with different properties and catalytic functions, known to be interfacially active, were chosen to cover a wide range of possible effects. These groups include (1) Greenzyme (GZ) which is a commercial EOR enzyme and consists of enzymes and stabilizers (surfactants), (2) The Zonase group consists of two types of pure enzyme, Zonase1 and Zonase2 which are protease enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze (breakdown) peptide bonds, (3) The Novozyme (NZ) group consists of three types of pure enzyme, NZ2, NZ3 and NZ6 which are esterase enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze ester bonds, and (4) Alpha-Lactalbumin ( -La) which is an important whey protein. The effect of

  17. Study on Contribution of Microwave to Changes of Chemical Composition in Extraction of Essential Oils%微波提取对挥发油化学成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹小兵; 陶进转; 夏之宁; 喻彦林; 黄锐; 孔娜

    2011-01-01

    采用无溶剂微波辅助提取与微波水蒸气蒸馏法提取薄荷叶和花椒挥发油,气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析挥发油化学成分,与传统的水蒸气蒸馏对比,考察了微波对挥发油化学成分的影响.结果表明,微波促使薄荷叶挥发油中的薄荷醇氧化,转变为长叶薄荷酮和少量的薄荷呋喃酮.花椒挥发油中的按油素等化合物受质子的催化,在长时间温度较高的提取条件下重排转变为α~-里哪醇.微波提取时间大于50~70min,对该重排有促进作用;微波提取时间小于50min,该重排反应几乎不发生.无溶剂微波辅助提取由于提取速率快、提取时间短(40min),在一定程度上避免了该重排反应,得到较多的桉油素,而水蒸气蒸馏得到较多的重排产物α~-里哪醇,微波水蒸气蒸馏介于二者之间.%Essential oil from mentha hapioealyx briq and zanthoxylum bungeanum maxim was extracted by solvent free microwave extraction(SFME) and microwave assisted hydro-distillation(MAHD), and GC/MS was used for the qualitation and quantification analysis for the chemical composition in the essential oils. Hydro-distillation(HD) was compared to study the contribution of microwave to the composition changes in the extraction process. The experimental results showed that microwave can promote the menthol from the essential oil of mentha hapioealyx briq oxidized into pulegone and slight mint furanone. The eucalyptol from the essential oil of zanthoxylum bungeanum maxim would be transformed to α-linalool through arrangement reaction catalysis by proton in high temperature environment for a lo ng time. When the microwave action time was exceeded 50- 70 min, above arrangement reaction would be promoted. When action time of microwave was less than 50 min, above arrangement reaction almost did not be observed. Microwave can speed up the extraction, especially for SFME. By microwave method, the extraction time is so short(40 min) that above

  18. Sensory attribute preservation in extra virgin olive oil with addition of oregano essential oil as natural antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2012-09-01

    Four commercial varieties of oregano are farmed in Argentina: "Compacto,"Cordobes,"Criollo," y "Mendocino." Oregano essential oil is known for antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the intensities of positive and negative attributes in extra virgin olive oil with addition of essential oil obtained from the 4 Argentinean oregano types. Oregano essential oil was added into olive oil at 0.05% w/w. The samples were stored in darkness and light exposure during 126 d at room temperature. The intensity ratings of fruity, pungency, bitterness, oregano flavor, and rancid flavor were evaluated every 21 d by a trained sensory panel. In general, samples with addition of oregano essential oil in olive oil exhibited higher and lower intensity ratings of positive and negative attributes, respectively, during storage compared with the control samples. The first 2 principal components explained 72.3% of the variability in the olive oil samples. In general, positive attributes of olive oil were highly associated with the addition of oregano essential oil in darkness, whereas rancid flavor was negatively associated with them. Olive oil with oregano "Cordobes" essential oil was oppositely associated with light exposure treatments and negative attribute (rancid flavor) suggesting better performance as natural antioxidant of this essential oil in olive oil. The result of this study showed that the presence of oregano essential oil, specially "Cordobes" type, preserve sensory quality of extra virgin olive oil prolonging the shelf life of this product. Extra virgin olive oil is highly appreciated for its health benefits, taste, and aroma. These properties are an important aspect in this product quality and need to be preserved. The addition of natural additives instead of synthetic ones covers the present trend in food technology. This research showed that the addition of oregano essential oil preserved the intensity ratings of positive attributes

  19. China Aviation Oil Acquires Overseas Oil Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Aviation Oil (Singapore) announced an acquisition of a 20.6 percent stake in Singapore Petroleum Company (SPC) from Satya Capital Inc Ltd, the largest investment the company has ever made in its history. China Aviation Oil (Singapore),which is the largest Chinese enterprise Singapore,will become the second largest shareholder of SPC after the acquisition.

  20. Oil Module Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    in any a^regate sense, or (b) to be "valid" for crude oil production in all countries. Neither, however, is it to provide detailed point... oil production by the oil companies through their regular channels. Such oil is said to be "sold back" by the countries to the coirpanies...a royalty to the producing country government. revenue received by the producing country government as a result of sales of its share of crude

  1. Indonesia's palm oil subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald F.

    1996-01-01

    Debate on Indonesia's palm oil policy was stimulated by a sharp increase in cooking oil prices in 1994-95 and a resulting increase in the export tax rate on crude palm oil. Palm oil has been one of the fastest growing subsectors in Indonesia. Using a quantitative model, the author analyzes the effect of government policies, including the export tax, buffer stock operations by the BULOG (the national logistics agency), and directed sales from public estates. The author acknowledges the export ...

  2. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  3. Cognitive and organizational ergonomics in the transition of the new integrated center of control of an oil refinery: human reliability and administration of changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Lucy M S; Puquirre, Magda S E S; Buso, Sandro A; Ogasawara, Érika L; Marcon Passero, Carolina R; Bianchi, Marcos C

    2012-01-01

    The conception of a product is closely tied to its adaptation level to the users. In this view, designers are increasingly oriented to survey the needs and features of the users. This paper aims at developing a diagnosis of employees working in high-complexity activities in a petrochemical company, in light of the physical and operating changes in the Integrated Center of Control; assessing the reception sensibility to changes; assessing the cognitive pattern of the group; and making suggestions that might eliminate or minimize the difficulties in the transition process of the change, in order to reduce the adaptation period. The field of study comprised 111 production, transfer and storage operators, forming 5 groups of desktop activities. The stages of the study followed the following flow: survey of the prescribed tasks and organizational structure; Concentrated Attention test; application of the Work and Disease Risks Inventory (ITRA, Portuguese acronym); and structured psychological interview. The ITRA results pointed to a serious cognitive cost (3.83) for all five groups, this being the largest intervention focus. The items: division of task contents (3.52), social professional relationships (2.93), quality of the physical environment (2.91), physical cost (3.24), emotional cost (2.71), freedom of expression (3.77), professional fulfillment (3.41); experience and suffering (2.75), lack of recognition (2.18) and physical injuries (2.07) were considered critical. Meanwhile, social damages (1.64) and psychological injuries (1.35) are bearable. As to the Concentrated Attention test, most workers registered average level. In the individual interviews, workers showed that larger involvement in the process of physical, organizational and operational change in the desktops and on field works was required, as well as the follow up of implementations, so as to reduce the adaptation process and prevent rework (furniture, equipment, noise, form of communication with the

  4. Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-08-01

    Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions, and the oil industry itself consumes 3-4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

  5. Differential effects of krill oil and fish oil on the hepatic transcriptome in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eBurri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, specifically the fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3, is known to have beneficial health effects including improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis and modulation of inflammation. To evaluate the efficacy of two different sources of ω-3 PUFAs, we performed gene expression profiling in the liver of mice fed diets supplemented with either fish oil or krill oil. We found that ω-3 PUFA supplements derived from a phospholipid krill fraction (krill oil downregulated the activity of pathways involved in hepatic glucose production as well as lipid and cholesterol synthesis. The data also suggested that krill oil-supplementation increases the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Surprisingly, an equimolar dose of EPA and DHA derived from fish oil modulated fewer pathways than a krill oil-supplemented diet and did not modulate key metabolic pathways regulated by krill oil, including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, fish oil upregulated the cholesterol synthesis pathway, which was the opposite effect of krill supplementation. Neither diet elicited changes in plasma levels of lipids, glucose or insulin, probably because the mice used in this study were young and were fed a low fat diet. Further studies of krill oil supplementation using animal models of metabolic disorders and/or diets with a higher level of fat may be required to observe these effects.

  6. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  7. Natural oils as lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  8. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  9. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  10. Lubricating oil; Junkatsuyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H.

    1999-07-20

    As a reflection of business recession, sales amount of lubricating oils in 1998 in Japan was 2.334 million kl that is 96.1% of that in the previous year. In addition, export amount was 394 thousand kl that also decreased sharply to 81.9% of that in the previous year. In this situation, researches and developments of environment-adaptable lubricating oils such as fuel consumption-saving engine oils, new mechanism-corresponding drive system oils (AFT, CVT), refrigerating machine oils for substitute coolants, biodegradable oils and greases, environment corresponding processing oils (non-chlorine type cutting oils), and so on have been executed actively. In respect to lubricating oils for vehicles, numerous researches and developments of engine oils are executed while putting stress on the improvement of fuel consumption saving for reducing CO{sub 2} exhaust; improvement of adaptability to exhaust treating apparatus for purging harmful components from exhaust gas; and environmental corresponding of long drain for reducing waste oils. In respect to lubricating oils for industry, basic characteristics and utility characteristics of fire-resistant working fluids and biodegradable working fluids; and utility characteristics of new functional fluids and electric viscous fluids are reported in view of their relationship with environmental protection. (NEDO)

  11. Oil Market Forecast and the Analysis of Economic Impact of Oil Price Fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.B. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    In the past two years, we noticed that oil prices have fluctuated with a wide range of $10 per barrel in the international oil markets. Since her annual oil import exceeded 10% of the national gross import, Korea became much concerned with economic impacts of changes in crude oil prices along with the short-term outlook of international crude oil market. In this context, this study is conducted to build a macro-economic model as well as an input-output analysis to deal with such changes in oil prices. The major findings are as follows: In the short-term, oil import price in 2001 is expected to stay at the level of $23.50 per barrel and the price will drop to the level of $20{approx}$22, approximately 10% drop from the previous year. The short-term impacts of these oil prices include: 3.0% increase in GDP; 9.7% decrease in export; 2.8% increase in petroleum product prices; 2.8% increase in demand for petroleum products; 6.1% increase in producer price index (PPI) in 2001. The impacts of 10% drop in oil prices under a scenario of the constant foreign exchange rate against US dollar include: 5.2% increase in GDP; 3.7% increase in import, 1.1% increase in petroleum product prices, 8.1% increase in demand for petroleum; and 3.7% increase in PPI. An input-output analysis reveals that the decrease in petroleum production cost induced by 10% drop in oil import prices amounted to approximately 5{approx}6%. Other sectors which show a big drop in production cost are basic petro-chemical industry, heat suppliers, electricity sector, and city gas suppliers. Among the petroleum products, naphtha shows the biggest drop of 8% in production cost, followed by fuel oils (7%), kerosene and diesel (6%), LPG (6%), and gasoline (3%). (author). 20 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.